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  1. Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Palk Strait separates India (upper left) from Sri Lanka (center). This true-color image from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on May 20, 2002, shows the strait filled with bright sediment, while off the northeast tip of Sri Lanka, a dark stain in the waters could be a phytoplankton bloom. On Sri Lanka, much of the native forests have been cleared, but small pockets remain in preserves, such as that seen in the southeastern portion of the island, where dense green vegetation can be seen.

  2. Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Sri Lanka has an area of 25,332 square miles and the terrain consists of coastal plains, with hills and mountains in the south central area. Population stands at 16.8 million with a growth rate of 1.6% and ethnic groups include Sinhalese 74%, Tamils 18%, Muslims 7%, and other 1%. The religions are Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity. Languages include Sinhala, Tamil and English, and the literacy rate is 87%. 68.9 years is the average life expectancy and the infant mortality rate is 31/1000. The government is a republic with a president, parliament and a court system. The gross national product is $7.2 billion with a 2.7% growth rate and an inflation rate of 14%. Natural resources include limestone, graphite, mineral sands, gems, and phosphate. Agricultural products include tea, rubber, coconuts, rice, and spices. Industry consists of textiles and garments, chemicals and petroleum products, food processing, wood and wood products, basic metal products, paper and paper products. The British ejected the Dutch in 1796 and set up the crown colony of Ceylon. In 1931 the colony was allowed limited self rule, and in 1948 it became independent. It is a less developed country with a annual average per capita income of $430. In 1977 the government undertook reforms and eliminated price and foreign exchange controls, reduced consumer subsidies and promoted private sector development. The results showed a more than 5% growth rate during the decade and tourism and foreign investment increased. Recently the growth has slowed partly because of a communal conflict, a trade imbalance and serious structural imbalances. PMID:12178023

  3. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Nawaratna, Sujeevi S. K.; Weilgama, Danister J.; Wijekoon, Chandana J.; Dissanayake, Manel; Rajapaksha, Kosala

    2007-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an emerging disease in Sri Lanka. Of 116 patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of CL, 86 were confirmed positive for Leishmania donovani. Most patients had single dry lesions, usually on the face. Patients were from 5 of the 7 agroclimatic zones in Sri Lanka.

  4. Sri Lanka Malaria Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Hoek Wim

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a relatively good national case reporting system in Sri Lanka, detailed maps of malaria distribution have not been publicly available. Methods In this study, monthly records over the period 1995 – 2000 of microscopically confirmed malaria parasite positive blood film readings, at sub-district spatial resolution, were used to produce maps of malaria distribution across the island. Also, annual malaria trends at district resolution were displayed for the period 1995 – 2002. Results The maps show that Plasmodium vivax malaria incidence has a marked variation in distribution over the island. The incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria follows a similar spatial pattern but is generally much lower than that of P. vivax. In the north, malaria shows one seasonal peak in the beginning of the year, whereas towards the south a second peak around June is more pronounced. Conclusion This paper provides the first publicly available maps of both P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria incidence distribution on the island of Sri Lanka at sub-district resolution, which may be useful to health professionals, travellers and travel medicine professionals in their assessment of malaria risk in Sri Lanka. As incidence of malaria changes over time, regular updates of these maps are necessary.

  5. Anopheles culicifacies breeding in brackish waters in Sri Lanka and implications for malaria control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendran Sinnathamby N

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles culicifacies is the major vector of both falciparum and vivax malaria in Sri Lanka, while Anopheles subpictus and certain other species function as secondary vectors. In Sri Lanka, An. culicifacies is present as a species complex consisting of species B and E, while An. subpictus exists as a complex of species A-D. The freshwater breeding habit of An. culicifacies is well established. In order to further characterize the breeding sites of the major malaria vectors in Sri Lanka, a limited larval survey was carried out at a site in the Eastern province that was affected by the 2004 Asian tsunami. Methods Anopheline larvae were collected fortnightly for six months from a brackish water body near Batticaloa town using dippers. Collected larvae were reared in the laboratory and the emerged adults were identified using standard keys. Sibling species status was established based on Y-chromosome morphology for An. culicifacies larvae and morphometric characteristics for An. subpictus larvae and adults. Salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH were determined at the larval collection site. Results During a six month study covering dry and wet seasons, a total of 935 anopheline larvae were collected from this site that had salinity levels up to 4 parts per thousand at different times. Among the emerged adult mosquitoes, 661 were identified as An. culicifacies s.l. and 58 as An. subpictus s.l. Metaphase karyotyping of male larvae showed the presence of species E of the Culicifacies complex, and adult morphometric analysis the presence of species B of the Subpictus complex. Both species were able to breed in water with salinity levels up to 4 ppt. Conclusions The study demonstrates the ability of An. culicifacies species E, the major vector of falciparum and vivax malaria in Sri Lanka, to oviposit and breed in brackish water. The sibling species B in the An. subpictus complex, a well-known salt water breeder and a secondary malaria vector in the country, was also detected at the same site. Since global warming and the rise in sea levels will further increase of inland brackish water bodies, the findings have significant implications for the control of malaria in Sri Lanka and elsewhere.

  6. Sri Lanka : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    Sri Lanka has made considerable efforts in aligning its accounting and auditing practices with international standards to establish a high-quality corporate financial reporting system. Corporate accounting and disclosure practices, particularly for publicly traded companies, have improved over the past decade. Among forward-looking actions has been the enactment of the Sri Lanka Accounting...

  7. Tissue bank: Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human degenerative diseases and congenital defects are common throughout the world. Many people suffer also from burns, fractures and nerve damage resulting from traumatic accidents and outbreaks of violence which occur all too frequently, especially in poorer countries. Far too many people are impaired for life because they have no access to treatment or simply cannot afford it. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Division of Nuclear Medicine, to improve facilities at the Sri Lanka Tissue Bank. (IAEA)

  8. REDD+ readiness implications for Sri Lanka in terms of reducing deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Eskil; Persson, U Martin; Ostwald, Madelene; Nissanka, S P

    2012-06-15

    Any system to compensate countries for reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) requires a historical reference level against which future performance can be measured. Here we examine the possibilities Sri Lanka, a small forest country with limited data on forest carbon stocks, has to get ready for REDD+. We construct a historical reference level using available forest inventory data combined with updated 2008 and 2009 in situ carbon density data for Sri Lankan forests. Furthermore, we use a combination of qualitative and quantitative data to attribute the clearing of Sri Lankan forests in the latest years for which national forest inventory data are available, 1992-1996, to various proximate drivers and to estimate the opportunity cost of forest conservation. We estimate that baseline deforestation emissions in Sri Lanka amounted to 17MtCO(2)yr(-1) in the 1992-1996 period, but conclude that it is challenging for Sri Lanka to produce a robust and accurate reference level due to the lack of nationally based inventories. We find that the majority of forest clearing (87%) is due to small-scale, rainfed farming, with the two other major drivers being rice and tea cultivation. Further, Sri Lankan revenues from REDD+ participation could be substantial, but they are sensitive to REDD+ policy transaction cost, highly uncertain timber revenues, and particularly the carbon price paid for emission reductions. The latter needs to be higher than $5-10/tCO(2) if there are to be substantial incentives for Sri Lanka to participate in REDD+. There is, however, a large gap in the knowledge of deforestation drivers that needs to be filled if Sri Lanka is to formulate an effective policy response to forest degradation in REDD+. For successful REDD+ implementation in Sri Lanka to happen, technological assistance, readiness assistance, and continued political momentum are crucial. PMID:22361108

  9. Sri Lanka, Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The topography of the island nation of Sri Lanka is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. For this special view heights below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored red. These low coastal elevations extend 5 to 10 km (3.1 to 6.2 mi) inland on Sri Lanka and are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges, rising sea level, or, as in the aftermath of the earthquake of December 26, 2004, tsunami. These so-called tidal waves have occurred numerous times in history and can be especially destructive, but with the advent of the near-global SRTM elevation data planners can better predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events. Sri Lanka is shaped like a giant teardrop falling from the southern tip of the vast Indian subcontinent. It is separated from India by the 50km (31mi) wide Palk Strait, although there is a series of stepping-stone coral islets known as Adam's Bridge that almost form a land bridge between the two countries. The island is just 350km (217mi) long and only 180km (112mi) wide at its broadest, and is about the same size as Ireland, West Virginia or Tasmania. The southern half of the island is dominated by beautiful and rugged hill country, and includes Mt Pidurutalagala, the islandaE(TM)s highest point at 2524 meters (8281 ft). The entire northern half comprises a large plain extending from the edge of the hill country to the Jaffna peninsula. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C. Location: 8.0 degrees North latitude, 80.7 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 275.6 by 482.4 kilometers (165.4 by 299.0 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  10. Chronic folliculitis in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Kumarasinghe S; Kumarasinghe M

    1996-01-01

    Chronic folliculitis (CF) is a chronic infection of hair follicles leading to atrophy and loss of the affected hairs. This study was done on 51 patients with CF presenting at the Dermatology Clinic at General Hospital Matara, Sri Lanka, to identify specific clinical features and aetiological factors, and to study histopathology. Pus cultures were done on 25 cases. Biopsies were done on 6 patients. CF was commoner in males (59%); 76% were under 34 years, and 39% had occupa...

  11. Sri Lanka : Justice Sector Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2013-01-01

    Improvement of the performance of the judiciary is an important part of a growth agenda for Sri Lanka as it moves to middle income country status. The present government has set ambitious targets to double gross domestic product (GDP) per capita by 2016 and has cited the need for a more efficient judicial sector as a means of reducing poverty. This is consistent with the broad historical e...

  12. eHealth Sri lanka 2010 Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Roshan Hewapathirana

    2010-01-01

    eHealth Sri lanka 2010 - International Conference on eHealth15 & 16 September 2010at Waters Edge – Battaramulla - Sri LankaThe closing date for submission of Abstracts is 31st of July 2010.For more details, visit www.ehealth2010.hissl.org

  13. Rabies in Sri Lanka: Splendid Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    Nanayakkara, Susilakanthi; Smith, Jean S.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2003-01-01

    Rabies virus exists in dogs on Sri Lanka as a single, minimally divergent lineage only distantly related to other rabies virus lineages in Asia. Stable, geographically isolated virus populations are susceptible to local extinction. A fully implemented rabies-control campaign could make Sri Lanka the first Asian country in >30 years to become free of rabies virus.

  14. Radioisotopes and medical imaging in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article deals with the use of X-rays and magnetic resonance imaging in medical diagnosis in its introduction. Then it elaborates on the facilities in the field of medical imaging for diagnosis, in Sri Lanka. The use of Technetium-99m in diagnostic medicine as well as the future of medical imaging in Sri Lanka is also dealt with

  15. Nuclear science training in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two major levels of obtaining radiation or nuclear education and training in Sri Lanka : the University and training courses in nuclear related technology and radiation protection offered by the Atomic Energy Authority of the Ministry of Science and Technology . This paper summarizes the status, some of the activities and problems of radiation education in Sri Lanka. (author)

  16. Leishmania donovani and Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Siriwardana, H. V. Yamuna D.; Noyes, Harry A.; Beeching, Nicholas J; Chance, Michael L.; Karunaweera, Nadira D; Bates, Paul A.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the relationship of cutaneous leishmaniasis isolates from Sri Lanka to known species, we performed DNA sequencing and microsatellite analyses. We identified Leishmania donovani as the agent of Sri Lanka cutaneous leishmaniasis and showed that these parasites are closely related to those causing visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent.

  17. Sri Lanka Country Opinion Survey Report (July 2012 - June 2013)

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    The Country Opinion Survey for FY2012 in Sri Lanka assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in Sri Lanka perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Sri Lanka on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Sri Lanka; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Sri Lanka; 3) overall impression...

  18. Integrated biogas systems. [Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaratunga, M.

    1980-01-01

    Integrated biogas systems as alternatives to fossil fuels in Sri Lanka are considered from standpoints of population growth, land availability, and employment opportunities. Agricultural practices would be improved by use of chemical fertilizers, and health/nutrition problems be alleviated by using biogas systems. Fuel for cooking and rural industries will become more easily available water weeds, such as water hyacinth and salvinia which pose a threat to waterways and rice paddy lands could be used for the production of biogas and fertilizers. A concept of an integrated biogas system comprising photosynthesis and anaerobic degradation processes to produce food and energy is presented.

  19. Sri Lanka drops leading condom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Sri Lanka's Family Planning Association has stopped selling its Preethi Regular condom, the backbone of its social marketing program for nearly a decade. Last year nearly 7 times as many Preethi condoms were sold as all other brands combined. The decision was reported to be caused by budget constraints following the International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) new policy of limiting the number of Preethi Regular condoms supplied to Sri Lanka. IPPF's Asian Regional Officer reported that the Preethi condom is a costly product, and that as many as needed of a US Agency for International Development (USAID) supplied product will be sent to Sri Lanka. The Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) program has devised a new sales strategy, based partly on the introduction of a high-priced condom to fill the gap left by the discontinuation of the Preethi Regular. The new Preethi Gold condom is expected to help the project become more financially self-reliant while taing advantage of Preethi's marketplace popularity. Preethi Gold is manufactured by the Malaysia Rubber Company and costs the project US $4.85/gross. It is sold for US $.14 for 3, about 3 times the price of a Preethi Regular. The project is also pushing the Panther condom, donated to IPPF by USAID. 2 Panther condoms sell for about 3.6U, about the cost of Preethi Regulars. The project also sells Moonbeam, Rough Rider, and Stimula condoms, the latter 2 at full commercial prices. A smooth transfer of demand from Preethi to Panther had been desired, but by the end of 1983 some retailers were hesitating to make the product switch because some Preethi Regulars were still available. Total condom sales in 1983 were down by nearly 590,000 from the approximately 6,860,000 sold in 1982. Total condom sales for the 1st quarter of 1984 were slightly over 1,218,000 pieces, compared to about 1,547,000 for the same quarter in 1983, a decline of 21%. The Family Planning Association is gearing up to reverse the downward trend. Panther sales increased from, 38,000 condoms in the 1st quarter of 1983 to 462,000 in the same period of 1984. The project is intensifying its market coverage by increasing the number of sales divisions from 5 to 7 to help maintain sales momentum for the new product. PMID:12266328

  20. English and Sinhala Bilingualism in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Chitra

    1977-01-01

    The study describes the language situation of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) and examines the factors governing the language choice of Sinhalese bilinguals while attempting to correlate such factors with domains and role relations. (Author/HP)

  1. Livelihoods in post-tsunami Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Harris

    2005-01-01

    Livelihoods in Sri Lanka have been affected not only by the initial devastation of the tsunami but also by the policies and practices of the government and the humanitarian aid community’s post-disaster response.

  2. Suicide in Sri Lanka 1975-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knipe, Duleeka W; Metcalfe, Chris; Fernando, Ravindra; Pearson, Melissa; Konradsen, Flemming; Eddleston, Michael; Gunnell, David

    2014-01-01

    -poisoning deaths. The patterns of suicides are more consistent with a period rather than birth-cohort effect. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiology of suicide in Sri Lanka has changed noticeably in the last 30 years. The introduction of pesticide regulations in Sri Lanka coincides with a reduction in suicide rates, with...... pesticides. We investigate these changes in suicide rates in relation to age, gender, method specific trends and birth-cohort and period effects, with the aim of informing preventative strategies. METHODS: Secular trends of suicide in relation to age, sex, method, birth-cohort and period effects were......BACKGROUND: Sri Lanka has experienced major changes in its suicide rates since the 1970s, and in 1995 it had one of the highest rates in the world. Subsequent reductions in Sri Lanka's suicide rates have been attributed to the introduction of restrictions on the availability of highly toxic...

  3. Chronic folliculitis in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarasinghe S

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic folliculitis (CF is a chronic infection of hair follicles leading to atrophy and loss of the affected hairs. This study was done on 51 patients with CF presenting at the Dermatology Clinic at General Hospital Matara, Sri Lanka, to identify specific clinical features and aetiological factors, and to study histopathology. Pus cultures were done on 25 cases. Biopsies were done on 6 patients. CF was commoner in males (59%; 76% were under 34 years, and 39% had occupational exposure to possible irritants. Thirty five precent admitted of scrubbing legs with rough objects. Ichthyosis vulgaris was evident in 47%. All pus cultures revealed Staphylococcus aureus. Clinical features and histopathological features were similar to those described by Harman (1968. Rough scrubbing, ichthyosis and occupational exposure to irritants may be aetiologically relevant.

  4. Hydrodynamic implications of textural trends in sand deposits of the 2004 tsunami in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, R.A.; Goff, J.R.; Nichol, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    Field observations and sediment samples at a coastal-plain setting in southeastern Sri Lanka were used to document the erosional and depositional impacts of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and to interpret the hydrodynamic processes that produced an extensive sand-sheet deposit. Tsunami deposit thicknesses ranged from 6 to 22??cm with thickness being controlled partly by antecedent topography. The deposit was composed of coarse to medium sand organized into plane-parallel laminae and a few laminasets. Vertical textural trends showed an overall but non-systematic upward fining and upward thinning of depositional units with an upward increase in heavy-mineral laminations at some locations. Repeated patterns in the vertical textural trends (upward fining, upward coarsening, uniform) were used to subdivide and correlate the deposit into five hydro-textural stratigraphic units. The depositional units were linked to hydrodynamic processes and upcurrent conditions, such as rates of sediment supply and composition of the sediment sources. Vertical changes in grain-size distributions recorded the depositional phases associated with flow acceleration, initial unsteady pulsating flow, relatively stable and uniform flow, flow deceleration, slack water, and return flow or flow redirection. Study results suggest that vertical textural trends from multiple cross-shore sections can be used to interpret complex tsunami flow histories, but at the location examined, interpretation of the lateral textural trends did not provide a basis for identifying the correct sediment transport pathways because flow near the landward boundary was multidirectional.

  5. 2013 Budget Initiatives to SMEs and Entrepreneurship in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Dissanayake, D.M.N.S.W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides facts pertaining to Entrepreneurship in Sri Lanka and existing constraints on entrepreneurial initiatives. Perhaps most notably the author trying to suggest that inventions & innovations happen in Sri Lanka and absolutely it requires a certain support to proliferate entrepreneur’s business ideas from authoritative bodies. Finally, the author postulates recent budget proposals to enhance SME performances in Sri Lanka.

  6. Agricultural Adaptation and Water Management in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, E.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Efficient management of freshwater resources is critical as concerns with water security increase due to changes in climate, population, and land use. Effective water management in agricultural systems is especially important for irrigation and water quality. This research explores the implications of tradeoffs between maximization of crop yield and minimization of nitrogen loss to the environment, primarily to surface water and groundwater, in rice production in Sri Lanka. We run the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model under Sri Lankan climate and soil conditions. The model serves as a tool to simulate crop management scenarios with different irrigation and fertilizer practices in two climate regions of the country. Our investigation uses DNDC to compare rice yields, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and nitrogen leaching under different cultivation scenarios. The results will inform best practices for farmers and decision makers in Sri Lanka on the management of water resources and crops.

  7. The Language Planning Situation in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coperahewa, Sandagomi

    2009-01-01

    This monograph examines the language planning situation in Sri Lanka with particular emphasis on the planning of Sinhala as an official language of the country. It explores the historical, social, ideological and political processes, changes in language policy decisions, as well as the complexities of the language policy and planning situation in…

  8. The dawn of the personal genome era in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BJC Perera

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The first Sri Lankan Personal Genome was successfully sequenced by scientists and bioinformaticians from the University of Colombo, Sri Lanka and the Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, New Delhi, India. This project was initiated by the Specialty Board in Biomedical Informatics of the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka.

  9. The dawn of the personal genome era in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    BJC Perera

    2011-01-01

    The first Sri Lankan Personal Genome was successfully sequenced by scientists and bioinformaticians from the University of Colombo, Sri Lanka and the Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, New Delhi, India. This project was initiated by the Specialty Board in Biomedical Informatics of the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka.

  10. Changing demography of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, S

    1986-06-01

    The point to be made in this article about the changing demography of Sri Lanka is that demographic conditions (an older population and growth rate of 1.6) are favorable for economic growth. Planning for economic growth is demonstrated in discussing trends and their relationship to economic development rather than providing a macroeconomic analysis. The 1st demographic characteristic of importance is the age structure of the population, which identifies labor force potential, dependents, and those not economically active in order to calculate required social services. Consumer expenditure patterns are affected, as well as educational costs. The rapid mortality decline of the 1940's and the high fertility up to the 1960's created a broad based age structure that swelled student populations and labor force (unemployment). The 1980's is marked by 39% 15 years in 1981 versus 35% in 1971, and 6.4$ 60 years in 1981 versus 6.6% in 1971. Anticipated trends based on either 2.1, 2.5, or 2.9 children/mother indicate that the population structure would remain the same except for those 0-14 years. This amounts to 20-21.3 million by 2001 and 5.5-6.7 million 15 years. Economic planning is affected by the following age groups: preschoolers, school age children, working population, and old age population. A gradual decline in preschoolers would eventually lead to a 9% population versus a 13% in 2001. 23% of the current population of 5-14 year olds will decrease after 1996 with slow or medium growth to 19-21%. The next 2 decades will experience a swelling of the working age population from 9.56 million to 12.7 million, which was 15 years ago the total population figure. The rate change is from 58.2% to 60-63%. By 2001 the 60 year old population will be 9% (1.8 million) or equal to those 5 years. Attention, thus, needs to be paid to the equitability of distribution of services and improvement in quality rather than expansion. New jobs need to be created to prevent high unemployment, with a demand reaching, by the year 2000, 75,000/year. Transportation, housing, internal movement and overcrowding of cities by migrant workers are other areas to be addressed. With a rising population reaching early retirement of 55 years, many would be dependents without pensions or retirement benefits. More women comprise this group since life expectancy is 70.5 years versus 67.5. More women comprise this group since life expectancy is 70/.5 years versus 67.5. If the output/capital ratio of 0.25 at 1.6 growth rate could be increased with a 20% or greater investment, which means an annual growth rate of per capita product of 3-4%, economic development would be enhanced. PMID:12281615

  11. Smokeless tobacco use in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L C Somatunga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To comprehensively review the issues of smokeless tobacco use in Sri Lanka . This review paper is based on a variety of sources including Medline, WHO documents, Ministry of Health and Nutrition, Colombo and from other sources. Results: The prevalence of smokeless tobacco (SLT use in Sri Lanka has been reported high, especially among rural and disadvantaged groups. Different smokeless tobacco products were not only widely available but also very affordable. An increasing popularity of SLT use among the youth and adolescents is a cause for concern in Sri Lanka. There were evidences of diverse benign, premalignant, and malignant oral diseases due to smokeless tobacco use in the country. The level of awareness about health risks related to the consumption of smokeless tobacco products was low, particularly among the people with low socio-economic status. In Sri Lanka various forms of smokeless tobacco products, some of them imported, are used. At the national level, 15.8% used smokeless tobacco products and its use is three-fold higher among men compared to women. Betel quid is by far the traditional form in which tobacco is a general component. Other manufactured tobacco products include pan parag/pan masala, Mawa, Red tooth powder, Khaini, tobacco powder, and Zarda. Some 8.6% of the youth are current users of smokeless tobacco. There are studies demonstrating the harmful effects of smokeless tobacco use, especially on the oral mucosa, however, the level of awareness of this aspect is low. The highest mean expenditure on betel quid alone in rural areas for those earning Rs. 5,000/month was Rs. 952. The core issue is the easy availability of these products. To combat the smokeless tobacco problem, public health programs need to be intensified and targeted to vulnerable younger age groups. Another vital approach should be to levy higher taxation.

  12. Thalassemia in Sri Lanka: a progress report.

    OpenAIRE

    Premawardhena, A; Silva, S.; Arambepola, M; Olivieri, N; Merson, L; Muraco, J; Allen, A.; C. Fisher; PETO, T; Vichinsky, E.; WEATHERALL, D

    2004-01-01

    The thalassemias pose an increasing burden for health-care services in many Asian countries. In order to conserve rare resources, it is essential to determine the reasons for the remarkable phenotypic heterogeneity and natural history of these disorders so that the most cost-effective methods for their control and management can be established. A long-term observational study of patients with different forms of thalassemia in Sri Lanka suggests that in addition to the well-defined primary, se...

  13. Adaptation Planning in Sri Lanka under Shifting Rainfall Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, D.; Jacobi, J. H.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Long term planning for adaptation by countries requires assessing the adequacy of current and future plans for handling observed and projected climate change. The uncertainties surrounding changes in the monsoons and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation cycle complicate planned adaptation in South Asia. Sri Lanka is a nation that is in the midst of executing a large development program and subject to the climate uncertainties that surround South Asia. Using exploratory principal component analysis and factor analysis, we analyze the spatial patterns of temporal variability and the spatial patterns of rainfall, respectively, for Sri Lanka. Our results show changes in the timings of the monsoons and slight shifts in the spatial rainfall patterns. The spatial changes are unlikely to affect the success of the development plan, but changes in the timing have important implications for water management strategies.

  14. Implications of global warming for regional climate and water resources of tropical islands: Case studies over Sri Lanka and Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawalagedara, R.; Kumar, D.; Oglesby, R. J.; Ganguly, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    The IPCC AR4 identifies small islands as particularly vulnerable to climate change. Here we consider the cases of two tropical islands: Sri Lanka in the Indian Ocean and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean. The islands share a predominantly tropical climate with diverse topography and hence significant spatial variability of regional climate. Seasonal variability in temperatures is relatively small, but spatial variations can be large owing to topography. Precipitation mechanisms and patterns over the two islands are different however. Sri Lanka receives a majority of the annual rainfall from the summer and winter monsoons, with convective rainfall dominating in the inter-monsoon period. Rainfall generating mechanisms over Puerto Rico can range from orographic lifting, disturbances embedded in Easterly waves and synoptic frontal systems. Here we compare the projected changes in the regional and seasonal means and extremes of temperature and precipitation over the two islands during the middle of this century with the present conditions. Two 5-year regional climate model runs for each region, representing the present (2006-2010) and future (2056-2060) conditions, are performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with the lateral boundary conditions provided using the output from CCSM4 RCP8.5 greenhouse gas emissions pathway simulation from the CMIP5 ensemble. The consequences of global warming for water resources and the overall economy are examined. While both economies have substantial contributions from tourism, there are major differences: The agricultural sector is much more important over Sri Lanka compared to Puerto Rico, while the latter exhibits no recent growth in population or in urbanization trends unlike the former. Policy implications for water sustainability and security are discussed, which highlight how despite the differences, certain lessons learned may generalize across the two relatively small tropical islands, which in turn have diverse economic, infrastructural, and societal constraints.

  15. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cats are essential in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally-resistant oocysts in nature. Nothing is known of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Sri Lanka. Serum samples from 86 cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka were tested f...

  16. Recent Isotope Applications in Hydrology and Sedimentology in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Article some of the applications of naturally occuring and artificial isotopes in the study of hydrological problems in Sri Lanka, are discussed. They are the water balance of a small catchment, origin of leakage to the graphite mines at Bogola in Sri Lanka, origin of thermal springs, origin of tropical monsoons and recharge study at Bandarakoswatte are discussed

  17. Integration of mental health into primary care in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Rachel; Mendis, Jayan; Cooray, Sherva; Cooray, Marius

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Sri Lanka has one of the highest suicide rates in the world, with recent protracted conflict and the tsunami aggravating mental health needs. This paper describes a project to establish a systematic “train the trainers” programme to integrate mental health into primary care in Sri Lanka's public health system and private sector.

  18. Sri Lanka Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    The Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes, Accounting and Auditing (ROSC AA) in Sri Lanka aims to assess the progress made on implementation of the policy recommendations of the first ROSC AA in 2004 and supports the Government of Sri Lanka in preparing a country action plan. This will further enhance the quality of corporate financial reporting, and thereby contribute toward the...

  19. Sri Lanka: In Peace or in Pieces? A Critical Approach to Peace Education in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, Mieke T. A. Lopes

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to explore the "two faces of education" through a critical analysis of peace education in Sri Lanka. It aims to contribute to the wider debate on the complex role of education in situations of conflict. The article starts with an overview of what peace education is, or should be. This leads to the conclusion that peace education…

  20. Surface circulation and upwelling patterns around Sri Lanka and formation of the Sri Lanka Dome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattiaratchi, C. B.; Wijeratne, S.; De Vos, A.

    2014-12-01

    Sri Lanka, a relatively large island (length 440 km; width 225 km), occupies a unique location within the equatorial belt in the northern Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea on its western side and the Bay of Bengal on its eastern side and experiences bi-annually reversing monsoon winds. This allows for the Island to interact with the seasonally reversing monsoon currents leading to the the island mass effect and enhanced primary production. We will present elements of the dynamics of the surface circulation and coastal upwelling in the waters around Sri Lanka using satellite imagery and numerical simulations using the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS). The model was run for 4 years to examine the inter-annual, seasonal and shorter term (~10 days) variability. The results confirmed the presence of the reversing current system, between the equator and Sri Lanka, in response to the changing wind field: the eastward flowing Southwest Monsoon Current (SMC) during the Southwest (SW) monsoon transporting 11.5 Sv and the westward flowing Northeast Monsoon Current (NMC) transporting 9.5 Sv during the Northeast (NE) monsoon, respectively. A recirculation feature located to the east of Sri Lanka during the SW monsoon, the Sri Lanka Dome, is shown to result from the interaction between the SMC and the Island of Sri Lanka. Along the eastern and western coasts, during both monsoon periods, flow is southward converging along the south coast (see Figure). During the SW monsoon the Island deflects the eastward flowing SMC southward whilst along the east coast the southward flow results from the Sri Lanka Dome recirculation. The major upwelling region, during both monsoon periods, is located along the south coast resulting from southward flow converging along the south coast and subsequent divergence associated with the offshore transport of water(see Figure). Higher surface chlorophyll concentrations were observed during the SW monsoon. The location of the flow convergence and hence the upwelling centre was dependent on the relative strengths of wind driven flow along the east and west coasts: during the SW (NE) monsoon the flow along the western (eastern) coast was stronger migrating the upwelling centre to the east (west).

  1. Sri Lanka. Political violence and ethnic conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J D; Spencer, J; Uyangoda, J

    1998-07-01

    In recent years, Sri Lanka has experienced 2 violent rebellions in which youths have played a prominent role, 1 in the majority Sinhala community and 1 in the minority Tamil community. The former was crushed, but the latter remains ongoing, with the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, who claim to represent the Tamil minority, battling the Sinhala-dominated government. Prospects for peace in the short- and medium term appear poor. These events have generated an impressive body of interdisciplinary interpretation, but several important topics have received relatively little attention. Most ongoing research is being carried out by anthropologists, historians, and political scientists, but psychological insights would offer important complementary perspectives. PMID:9735059

  2. Recent disasters in Sri Lanka: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, Daya

    2013-09-01

    Sri Lanka has faced several disasters in the recent past, both manmade and natural. The mental health and psychosocial consequences have been felt at the individual, family, and collective levels. Individuals developed normal distress, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, or alcohol abuse. There were changes in family and social processes causing a tearing of the social fabric, lack of social cohesion, disconnection, mistrust, hopelessness, dependency, lack of motivation, powerlessness, and despondency. Because of the widespread nature of mental health needs, a community approach would reach the most number of people. PMID:23954050

  3. OTEC thermal resource report for Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, W. A.

    1979-05-01

    The water surrounding the island of Sri Lanka has a temperature difference resource which is more than adequate for potential OTEC use. The temperature resource was examined between 5--10/sup 0/ North latitude and 78--83/sup 0/ East longitude. This area includes the surrounding waters on all sides of Sri Lanka. There is a large area north and northwest of the island where there is insufficient depth to provide the needed cold water supply. The annual average ..delta..T at 1000 meters is 21.3/sup 0/C. An annual average ..delta..T greater than 20/sup 0/C is available at 800 meters. The temperature is very consistent at depths with little difference between the coldest monthly mean temperature and the warmest. The area has an upper mixed layer the entire year, (deepest in January--February and shallowest in the fall). Winds and storms are not a major problem for this site, although there are occasional tropical storms or hurricanes. Low to moderate sea and swell conditions generally dominate throughout the year. The surface currents are generally moderate throughout the year, changing direction with the shifting monsoons.

  4. The impact of pesticide regulations on suicide in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnell, D; Fernando, R; Hewagama, M; Priyangika, W D D; Konradsen, F; Eddleston, M

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Between 1950 and 1995 suicide rates in Sri Lanka increased 8-fold to a peak of 47 per 100,000 in 1995. By 2005, rates had halved. We investigated whether Sri Lanka's regulatory controls on the import and sale of pesticides that are particularly toxic to humans were responsible for these changes in the incidence of suicide. METHODS: Ecological analysis using graphical and descriptive approaches to identify time trends in suicide and risk factors for suicide in Sri Lanka, 1975-2005. RE...

  5. Non-economic gains of Sri Lanka's FTAs with neighbours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandara, Jayatilleke S.; Yu, Wusheng

    2012-01-01

    literature and uses the idea of non-economic gains from regional trading agreements to explain how Sri Lanka managed to use FTAs to neutralise India and obtain military assistance from Pakistan using its FTAs with two countries during the recently concluded war. Findings – Even though political objectives....... Research limitations/implications – The research approach is basically qualitative. However, there is need to develop a comprehensive theoretical model to capture non-economics gains from FTAs. Originality/value – Although there is a growing body of literature on the underlying political and strategic...

  6. Avifaunal diversity in the peripheral areas of the Maduruoya National Park in Sri Lanka: With conservation and management implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh E. Gabadage

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey was randomly conducted in the marginal areas of Maduruoya National Park, Sri Lanka for a period of > 7 years. These study sites are located within the dry zone and the intermediate zone. The main vegetation type of the area is dry mixed evergreen forest. We recorded 196 bird species belonging to 66 families, and they included 161 breeding residents, 25 purely migrants, nine both resident and migrants, one vagrant, 14 nationally threatened, three globally threatened, and 10 endemic species. We also report the first-ever records of Chestnut-backed Owlet, Red-faced Malkoha, and Spot-winged Thrush from this dry area. However, these precious habitats and its species are threatened because of irresponsible human activities such as forest fires, land filings, hunting, road kills, encroachments, garbage dumping, agrochemicals, granite-rock blasting, logging, and road constructions. Therefore, we recommend that relevant authorities take immediate conservation action to increase the protection of these marginal areas or buffer zone in the near future.

  7. Challenges of collective humanitarian response in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firzan Hashim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Grappling with how to respond to both conflict and tsunami-induced displacement, Sri Lanka is an ideal testing groundfor the principles of humanitarian partnership which areat the heart of the Global Humanitarian Platform (GHP.

  8. Nuclear power generation of electricity in Sri Lanka?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brief description of how nuclear power is used to generate electricity, advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power, and the main factors that should be taken into consideration in dividing to use nuclear power in Sri Lanka

  9. Sri Lanka Ending Poverty and Promoting Shared Prosperity

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    Sri Lanka is in many respects a development success story. With economic growth averaging more than 7 percent a year over the past five years on top of an average growth of 6 percent the preceding five years, Sri Lanka has made notable strides towards the goals of ending extreme poverty and promoting shared prosperity (the ‘twin goals’). The national poverty headcount rate declined from 22...

  10. Risk factors for acute pesticide poisoning in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the characteristics of patients with acute pesticide poisoning in a rural area of Sri Lanka and, for intentional self-poisoning cases, explores the relative importance of the different determinants. Data were collected for 239 acute pesticide-poisoning cases, which were admitted to two rural hospitals in Sri Lanka. Sociodemographic characteristics, negative life events and agricultural practices of the intentional self-poisoning cases were compared with a control group. Mos...

  11. Financial inclusion, regulation, and education in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Kelegama, Saman; Tilakaratna, Ganga

    2014-01-01

    Sri Lanka has achieved a high level of financial inclusion compared to other South Asian countries. Its financial sector comprises a wide range of financial institutions providing financial services such as loans, savings, pawning, leasing and finance, and remittance and money transfer facilities. There is also evidence that a larger share of households in Sri Lanka accesses multiple financial institutions for their credit and savings needs. However, the use of insurance services, ATM facilit...

  12. The Gender impact in Earnings Inequality: Evidence from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thankom Arun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Gender impact in Earnings Inequality: Evidence from Sri LankaAbstract: This paper estimates an earnings function for Sri Lanka, followed by a decomposition analysis of male-female earnings suggest that the gender disparity in earnings largely represents ‘discrimination’ against women. The findings showed that irrespective of their “inferior” labour market attributes, men had average earnings that were considerably higher than the female average and that this could be attributed entirely to discrimination in favour of male earners.

  13. The gender impact in earnings inequality: Evidence from Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Thankom Arun; Borooah, Vani K.

    2011-01-01

    The Gender impact in Earnings Inequality: Evidence from Sri LankaAbstract: This paper estimates an earnings function for Sri Lanka, followed by a decomposition analysis of male-female earnings suggest that the gender disparity in earnings largely represents ‘discrimination’ against women. The findings showed that irrespective of their “inferior” labour market attributes, men had average earnings that were considerably higher than the female average and that this could be attributed entirely t...

  14. Cost of malaria control in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, F; Steele, P; Perera, D; van der Hoek, W; Amerasinghe, P H; Amerasinghe, F P

    1999-01-01

    The study provides estimates of the cost of various malaria control measures in an area of North-Central Province of Sri Lanka where the disease is endemic. We assumed that each measure was equally effective. In these terms, impregnating privately purchased bednets with insecticide was estimated to...... relatively large catchment area (Rs 71 (US$ 1.29) per malaria case treated). Mobile clinics (Rs 153 (US$ 2.78) per malaria case treated) and a village treatment centre (Rs 112 (US$ 2.04)) per malaria case treated) were more expensive options for the government, but were considerably cheaper for households...... than the traditional hospital facilities. This information can guide health planners and government decision-makers in choosing the most appropriate combination of curative and preventive measures to control malaria. However, the option that is cheapest for the government may not be so for the...

  15. Climate change mitigation studies in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Sri Lanka, Climate Change Mitigation Studies have received low priority and have been limited to an ADB-sponsored preliminary study followed by an initial assessment of some mitigation options in the energy and agricultural sectors, with technical assistance from the US Country Studies Program. The major focus was on options of the mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector. Owing to funding constraints, only the potential for reduction of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the various mitigation options were quantified; analysis of monetary costs and benefits or policy/programs for adoption of the options were not undertaken. For the non-energy sector, a very limited study on mitigation of methane emissions from rice fields was carried out. (au)

  16. A Profile of Biomass Stove Use in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kibri H. Everett

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A large body of evidence has confirmed that the indoor air pollution (IAP from biomass fuel use is a major cause of premature deaths, and acute and chronic diseases. Over 78% of Sri Lankans use biomass fuel for cooking, the major source of IAP in developing countries. We conducted a review of the available literature and data sources to profile biomass fuel use in Sri Lanka. We also produced two maps (population density and biomass use; and cooking fuel sources by district to illustrate the problem in a geographical context. The biomass use in Sri Lanka is limited to wood while coal, charcoal, and cow dung are not used. Government data sources indicate poor residents in rural areas are more likely to use biomass fuel. Respiratory diseases, which may have been caused by cooking emissions, are one of the leading causes of hospitalizations and death. The World Health Organization estimated that the number of deaths attributable to IAP in Sri Lanka in 2004 was 4300. Small scale studies have been conducted in-country in an attempt to associate biomass fuel use with cataracts, low birth weight, respiratory diseases and lung cancer. However, the IAP issue has not been broadly researched and is not prominent in Sri Lankan public health policies and programs to date. Our profile of Sri Lanka calls for further analytical studies and new innovative initiatives to inform public health policy, advocacy and program interventions to address the IAP problem of Sri Lanka.

  17. Iron deficiency anaemia in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The commonest cause of nutritional anaemia in the Sri Lankan population is iron deficiency. The diets of the population belonging to the lower socio-economic groups contain little food of animal origin. Thus, their diets are deficient in easily absorbable (haem) iron; and are also heavily cereal-based. Therefore interference in the absorption of dietary iron also occurs. Iron-deficiency anaemia is not restricted to the so-called ''vulnerable groups'' in Sri Lanka, however, their greater demands make the problem not only commoner but also more severe. Among pregnant and lactating women anaemia is often associated with folate deficiency. It must also be noted that the low availability of dietary iron is compounded in large population groups. Malaria, presently raging on an epidemic scale is also a major contributory factor to the incidence of anaemia. The purpose of this study was to examine the iron status of pre-school children and pregnant women; to establish normal levels of biochemical indices at different trimesters; to record the effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy; and to record the bioavailability of iron from weaning foods and common adult diets. 6 figs, 14 tabs

  18. Art Therapy with Child Tsunami Survivors in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcote, Rebekah L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper details art therapy with children affected by the December 2004 tsunami in Sri Lanka. Over 30,000 Sri Lankans lost their lives when the tsunami decimated coastal areas. The child survivors witnessed horrific traumatic events and the loss of loved ones, but had not been given opportunity to express their grief and pain. A 4-week art…

  19. A retrospective analysis of cannabis use in a cohort of mentally ill patients in Sri Lanka and its implications on policy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maithripala Chinthaka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several epidemiological studies have shown that cannabis; the most widely used illegal drug in the world, is associated with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD. Aims To assess the characteristics of cannabis use and its association with SSD in a cohort of psychiatrically ill patients and discuss the implications for policy development Methods This is a retrospective analytical study of a cohort of psychiatric patients who received treatment in the psychiatry unit of the Provincial General Hospital, Ratnapura, Sri Lanka over five years (2000 - 2004. The schizophrenia spectrum disorders defined in this article include schizophrenia and the schizoaffective disorders. Results A total of 3644 patient records were analyzed. The percentage of self reported life time cannabis (LTC use was 2.83% (103, all males. Sixteen percent (576 of the total cohort was diagnosed with SSD by 2009. Male sex and LTC use were significantly associated with SSD (p Conclusions Self reported LTC use was strongly associated with being diagnosed with SSD. However we could not identify a particular subgroup of users that are at increased risk to recommend targeted primary prophylaxis. The policy implications of this observation are discussed.

  20. Living Up to the Ideal of Respectability : Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights Implications for Unmarried Migrant Workers, Single Mothers, and Women in Prostitution in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Jordal, Malin

    2014-01-01

    This thesis aims to gain a deeper understanding of relationships and sexuality of women at risk of social exclusion in Sri Lanka and the risk of violations of their sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) that they might face. Individual qualitative interviews with migrant women workers (n=18) and men (n=18) in the Free Trade Zone (FTZ), women facing single motherhood (n=28) and women formerly involved in prostitution (n=15) were conducted. Conceptual approaches included gender, soci...

  1. Seroepidemiololgy of rickettsioses in Sri Lanka: a patient based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyanapathirana Veranja

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rickettsioses are emerging infections in Sri Lanka as shown by the increase in the number of clinically diagnosed rickettsial patients being reported to the Epidemiology Unit, Sri Lanka. However, mapping the disease for the whole island with laboratory confirmed cases has not been previously carried out. Methods 615 samples received from 23 hospital representing 8 provinces were tested using ELISA or IFA methods and clinical data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Results Rash was found among more spotted fever seropositive patients than scrub typhus seropositive patients while the opposite was true for the presence of eschar. Spotted fever and scrub typhus was found in a geographically restricted manner. Consistent temporal patterns were seen for the presentation of patients with rickettsioses in Kandy and Kurunegala districts for 2009 and 2010. Conclusions This study expanded knowledge on the distribution of rickettsioses in Sri Lanka and their clinical profiles which in turn helps in the clinical diagnosis of these infections.

  2. Yellow Oleander Poisoning and Suicide in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobitha Puvaneswaralingam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Intentional yellow oleander poisoning is a growing problem that is straining the health care services of Sri Lanka as it is a readily available method of suicide. The country remains to have one the highest suicide rates in the world, and the trend of oleander poisoning has been difficult to halt due to the lack of resources to manage the problem. As mental health issues are becoming a serious public health problem in Sri Lanka, it is timely to consider what efforts could be made to manage this unique phenomenon.

  3. Surface circulation and upwelling patterns around Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, A.; Pattiaratchi, C. B.; Wijeratne, E. M. S.

    2014-10-01

    Sri Lanka occupies a unique location within the equatorial belt in the northern Indian Ocean, with the Arabian Sea on its western side and the Bay of Bengal on its eastern side, and experiences bi-annually reversing monsoon winds. Aggregations of blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) have been observed along the southern coast of Sri Lanka during the northeast (NE) monsoon, when satellite imagery indicates lower productivity in the surface waters. This study explored elements of the dynamics of the surface circulation and coastal upwelling in the waters around Sri Lanka using satellite imagery and numerical simulations using the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS). The model was run for 3 years to examine the seasonal and shorter-term (~10 days) variability. The results reproduced correctly the reversing current system, between the Equator and Sri Lanka, in response to the changing wind field: the eastward flowing Southwest Monsoon Current (SMC) during the southwest (SW) monsoon transporting 11.5 Sv (mean over 2010-2012) and the westward flowing Northeast Monsoon Current (NMC) transporting 9.6 Sv during the NE monsoon, respectively. A recirculation feature located to the east of Sri Lanka during the SW monsoon, the Sri Lanka Dome, is shown to result from the interaction between the SMC and the island of Sri Lanka. Along the eastern and western coasts, during both monsoon periods, flow is southward converging along the southern coast. During the SW monsoon, the island deflects the eastward flowing SMC southward, whilst along the eastern coast, the southward flow results from the Sri Lanka Dome recirculation. The major upwelling region, during both monsoon periods, is located along the southern coast, resulting from southward flow converging along the southern coast and subsequent divergence associated with the offshore transport of water. Higher surface chlorophyll concentrations were observed during the SW monsoon. The location of the flow convergence and hence the upwelling centre was dependent on the relative strengths of wind-driven flow along the eastern and western coasts: during the SW (NE) monsoon, the flow along the western (eastern) coast was stronger, migrating the upwelling centre to the east (west).

  4. Computer modelling of multipurpose multireservoir systems of Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As in many other countries, the development of hydro resources in Sri Lanka is associated with multiple purposes, including the generation of electricity. Because of the importance of this resource, it is necessary to optimize the characteristics of the associated reservoirs, not only in terms of installed capacity, but also with regard to the use of water for power generation and the other purposes involved. This paper describes the experience of Sri Lanka in the use of the WASP-III computer program and several computer programs that have been developed in the country for simulating the operation of multipurpose reservoirs. (author). 5 refs, 25 figs

  5. Yellow Oleander Poisoning and Suicide in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Shobitha Puvaneswaralingam

    2012-01-01

    Intentional yellow oleander poisoning is a growing problem that is straining the health care services of Sri Lanka as it is a readily available method of suicide. The country remains to have one the highest suicide rates in the world, and the trend of oleander poisoning has been difficult to halt due to the lack of resources to manage the problem. As mental health issues are becoming a serious public health problem in Sri Lanka, it is timely to consider what efforts could be made to manage th...

  6. Sri Lanka and the Tamil Tigers: Conflict and Legitimacy

    OpenAIRE

    Shlomi Yass

    2014-01-01

    The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) was founded in 1976, demanding the establishment of an independent state for the Tamil ethnic minority in northern and northeastern Sri Lanka. In May 2009, following over three decades of conflict, its leader, Velupillai Prabhakaran was killed and the group was dismantled. The LTTE was established long before other well-known terror groups emerged, and yet it received little attention in comparison. An analysis of the relations between Sri Lankan go...

  7. Establishing a twin register in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumathipala, A; Fernando, D J; Siribaddana, S H; Abeysingha, M R; Jayasekare, R W; Dissanayake, V H; De Silva, N

    2000-12-01

    Nearly all twin registers are based in developed countries and there is no twin register in the developing world. Our objectives were to initiate the process of establishing a nationwide twin register in Sri Lanka by starting a volunteer register first and working towards a population-based register. Regular newspaper advertisements, feature articles, radio talks, and television programmes were used to publicise a competition for twins, their parents/relatives and friends requesting them to participate by sending in details of twins. The competition ran from 28 March 1997 for a period of 3 months. It offered prizes for three winners selected by drawing lots. Advertisements highlighted the objective of the competition as establishing a twin register for future research and emphasised that informed consent would be obtained for individual research projects. Those who registered comprise 4602 twin pairs (same sex: male--1564, female--1885; different sex--1153), 80 sets of triplets (same sex: male--17, female--31; different sex--42) and two sets of quadruplets (different sex). The oldest twins, triplets, quadruplets are 85, 46, and 5 years old, respectively; 88.0% of twins are less than 30 years old. Although others have previously used media publicity to enrol twins in twin registers, we believe this to be the first time that twins have been enrolled through competition. We have more young twins, and our gender and zygosity proportions after applying Weinburg's rule do not match the proportions expected from a volunteer twin sample. Establishing a twin register for research purposes has proved possible in a developing country. PMID:11463139

  8. Writing Strategy Use: AFL Learners in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagoor Gafoordeen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Study on writing strategy used in Arabic as a foreign language is a new emerging concept. Few studies have contracted on essay written in Arabic as a final product and illustrated deficiencies that surfaced. This study investigates the writing strategies employed by 6 learners in Fathih Institute of Sri Lanka (FISL. A Qualitative research was conducted using the think aloud protocol; observation and retrospective interview to provide the facts. Results of a pilot study revealed that a proficient learner employ varieties of writing strategies better than an average learner and less proficient learners on their essay writing tasks. The findings also revealed that there is a lot to be done to improve the Arabic writing skills of Sri Lankan learners. The implications of the results are that, teachers need to rethink about the problems that average and less proficient students encounter and figure out ways to help them achieve proficiency. Also, there is the need to help these learners how to make their place and organize their opinions more reasonably in writing activities.

  9. Improving import-export procedures and processes in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Mel, Deshal De; Jayaratne, Suwendrani; Premaratne, Dharshani

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the trading procedures and processes in detail,for two import and two export products of Sri Lanka- tea, rubber tyres, textiles and motor vehicles. Tea exports to Japan, tyre exports to India, motor vehicle imports from Japan and textile imports from India are mapped through a business process analysis

  10. An American Montessori Teacher's Experience in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Irene

    2006-01-01

    What can Montessorians learn from teaching in a war-torn country, and what can they hope to share with others in the process? These questions were much on the author's mind when she went to Sri Lanka in the summer of 2003. This article contains excerpts from e-mails the author sent home, chronicling her experience teaching two high school English…

  11. Recent isotope applications in hydrology and sedimentology in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the applications of naturally occurring and artificial isotopes in the study of hydrological problems in Sri Lanka are discussed, namely the water balance of a small catchment, origin of leakage to the graphite mines at Bogala, origin of thermal springs, origin of tropical monsoons and recharge study at Bandarakoswatte

  12. Learning Organization Dimensions of the Sri Lanka Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahanayake, Nishada Dhananjaya; Gamlath, Sharmila

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study intends to investigate the extent to which the Sri Lanka Army can be described as a learning organization. Design/methodology/approach: The main tool of analysis used was the Dimensions of the Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) developed by Marsick and Watkins, with the exclusion of the sections on financial and…

  13. Entanglements of Politics and Education in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Birgitte Refslund

    In this article I argue that in Sri Lanka the field of education has been a constant and significant element in the relationship between population and politicians, and it plays an important role in most people's experiences and understandings of politics, just as it affects their own political...

  14. The development of atomic energy in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article was written by the Institution's overseas representative Professor P.P.G.L. Siriwardene, Chairman of the Atomic Energy Authority of Sri Lanka, with the express purpose of conveying to members of the Institution a broad outline of his country's interest in the peaceful uses of atomic energy. (author)

  15. The Labour Market Experience of University Graduates in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasiri, Sunil

    2008-01-01

    Graduate unemployment has been a major socio-politico-economic problem in the small open economy of Sri Lanka for the past 35 years. The nature of the problem, causal factors and policy responses are examined in this paper with a special focus on the role of higher education within a highly competitive and knowledge-based economic environment. The…

  16. Zirconolites from Sri Lanka, South Africa and Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirconolites, CaZrTi2O7, from Sri Lanka and Pala Bora, South Africa, and a calzirtite, CaZr3TiO9, from Jacupiranga, Brazil, were examined using the electron microprobe, x-ray diffraction (annealing study), transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy. The x-ray data indicate that all three zirconolites are metamict. Both Sri Lanka zirconolites are amorphous to the limits of resolution of the electron microscope (approx. 10 A). The Pala Bora zirconolite is largely amorphous but contains isolated domains (50 to 200 A) of crystalline material which may be the result of post-metamict recrystallization and alteration. The only other significant evidence for chemical alteration was the lower ThO2 concentration (1 to 2 weight percent) and slightly lower analytic totals for the rims of the Sri Lanka zirconolites. Upon annealing at 11300C for 5 hours, all three zirconolites recrystallized as microcrystalline aggregates. Refined unit cell parameters and volumes are consistent with published data for synthetic zirconolites. Both Sri Lanka zirconolites contain microvoids, spherical in shape, and 200 Angstroms to 2 microns in size. This porosity may be the result of helium accumulation arising from the decay of U and Th. The calzirtite was highly crystalline, exhibited no porosity, and was unchanged by the annealing treatment

  17. A jurassic-cretaceous dolerite dike from Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dolerite dike from southwestern Sri Lanka gave whole-rock K-Ar ages of 152.6 ± 7.6 Ma and 143.3 ± 7.2 Ma. Many of the other dolerite dikes of Sri Lanka are considered to be of Mesozoic ages judging from the present age data and tectonometamorphic history of Sri Lanka. Petrographic similarities should not be used for age correlations, because dolerites of different age may have the same petrography. Preliminary natural remanent magnetization (NRM) after AF and thermal demagnetization gave a mean inclination of 24.6deg and declination of 67.5deg with ?95=21.7deg. A virtual geomagnetic pole position calculated from the mean NRM was rotated relative to Antarctica so as to fit with that obtained from the Jurassic Ferrar dolerite of Antarctica. This rotation results in the location and attitude of Sri Lanka to attach with Antarctica at Lutzow-Holm Bay as suggested by Barron et al. (1978). (author). 18 refs

  18. Vocational Subjects in the Secondary Grades--Sri Lanka's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijemanna, E. L.

    Sri Lanka made three major attempts to establish vocationalized components within otherwise academic curricula in mainstream secondary schools during the last 30 to 40 years. The first of these was the "Handicrafts in Schools" program that started in the early 1950s. This program attempted to introduce woodworking and metal working for boys and…

  19. Then and Now: English in Sri Lanka’s Public Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaran Rajandran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available English was the official language of Sri Lanka during British colonization but it was replaced by Sinhala and Tamil as independence neared. The public sector was directly affected by this change although English held sway here for some years. Yet, English was made the link language for the Sinhalese and Tamils in 1987 and the state has since taken many steps to promote and improve its use in the public sector. Such change in language policy did not happen in void. It resulted from different perceptions nationalism and nationism had about English. This paper tries to understand the changing fate of English in Sri Lanka’s public sector by placing it in the context of nationalism and nationism. It aims to do two things, namely to explain nationalism and nationism in relation to Sri Lanka and to explore the presence of English in the public sector from independence until today, affected by nationalism and nationism. This investigative approach shows the influence of local ideology on language policy. It is ultimately seen that language policy concerning English in the public sector is responsive to the volatile political and social contexts of Sri Lanka.

  20. Then and Now: English in Sri Lanka’s Public Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaran Rajandran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available English was the official language of Sri Lanka during British colonization but it was replaced by Sinhala and Tamil as independence neared. The public sector was directly affected by this change although English held sway here for some years. Yet, English was made the link language for the Sinhalese and Tamils in 1987 and the state has since taken many steps to promote and improve its use in the public sector. Such change in language policy did not happen in void. It resulted from different perceptions nationalism and nationism had about English. This paper tries to understand the changing fate of English in Sri Lanka’s public sector by placing it in the context of nationalism and nationism. It aims to do two things, namely to explain nationalism and nationism in relation to Sri Lanka and to explore the presence of English in the public sector from independence until today, affected by nationalism and nationism. This investigative approach shows the influence of local ideology on language policy. It is ultimately seen that language policy concerning English in the public sector is responsive to the volatile political and social contexts of Sri Lanka.

  1. Food Crops Breeding in Sri Lanka - Achievements and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since Rice is the staple food in Sri Lanka strong emphasis has been given for the improvement of Rice in Sri Lanka. Over the last three decades 36 high yielding rice varieties have been developed. The present yield potential of Sri Lanka's best varieties have been recorded to be be around 10 mt/ha. At present more than 90% of the total paddy extent is grown with modern high yielding rice varieties and as a result the national paddy production has increased from 1.8 mt/ha to 3.5 mt/ha. Induced mutations is used in plant breeding. Use of radiation to produce haploids and for production of transitory sexuality in apomicts have been done. Under the coarse grains and millet varietal program, maize have recorded increasing attention owing to the fact that is is used for human consumption and as feed grain for poultry. Promising varieties of Soya bean, cowpea, mung bean, black gram and ground nut have been recommended for cultivation. Research attention has also been directed towards Root and Tuber crops which have great potential in providong food for the rapidly increasing population in Sri Lanka. Potato is the most important and popular tuber crop. A number of improved varieties with respect to a number of local fruit crops such as banana, sweet orange, lemonime, avocado, pineapple, rambutan, grapes.have been introduced. New improved varieties of indigenous vegetables such as tomato, brinjal etc. have been produced. Chillies and onions with desirable qualities also have been identified. Mutation breeding provides a novel approach to the plant breeders for raising the productivity of crop plants, thus complementing conventional methods. Any way the use of induced mutations in crop improvement has not been properly exploited in Sri Lanka as yet

  2. The Asian Tsunami and Problem-Based Learning for Postgraduate Students in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardana, A. K. L.; O'Donnell, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The Asian Tsunami struck Sri Lanka on December 26, 2004. Sri Lanka was the second worst affected country after Indonesia, and this natural disaster killed in excess of 35,000 people and displaced over 1 million. The article explores the Tsunami Disaster Management Program developed by one Sri Lankan university: the Postgraduate Institute of…

  3. Where there is no information: IDP vulnerability assessments in Sri Lanka’s borderlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danesh Jayatilaka

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available A third of the estimated 600,000 IDPs in Sri Lanka live in areas controlled by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam (LTTE. Displaced people within these so-called ‘un-cleared’ or ‘liberated areas’ (termsused by the Sri Lankan government and the LTTE respectively are at especial risk. Their situation highlights the difficulties of assessing protection and assistance in the context of conflict.

  4. Sex preference in South Asia: Sri Lanka an outlier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeykoon, A T

    1995-09-01

    At a 1994 symposium on sex preference in Asia, represented countries were grouped as follows: a) rapid fertility decline, strong son preference, and abnormal sex ratio at birth (China, Taiwan, and the Republic of Korea); b) rapid fertility decline, no son preference, and normal sex ratio at birth (Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand); and c) slow fertility decline, strong son preference, and normal sex ratio at birth (Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan). This article reviews the factors responsible for strong son preference in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan and the reasons for the lack of son preference in Sri Lanka. Abnormal sex ratios are attributed to sex-selective abortions. Sex preference in South Asia results in excessive mortality of female children. Mention is made of a higher mortality risk of daughters in Indian households with more older female children. Bairagi is cited for his evidence that in Bangladesh daughters having older sisters have a higher mortality risk. In Pakistan survey results indicate that sons are preferred. Numerous authors are cited for evidence suggesting that fertility might be lower if son preference were reduced. Rajaretnam and Deshpande are cited for findings that contraceptive prevalence in south India would increase by about 12% in high-prevalence areas and about 25% in low-prevalence areas in the absence of sex preference. Bourne and Walker and Das Gupta are identified as authors providing evidence that increased economic opportunities for women, increased women's status, and increased value placed on women's work would reduce the desire for sons. Cain argues for better old-age security and better access to food and medical care. Abeykoon has shown that weakened son preference in Sri Lanka occurred over a 20-year period as improvements were made in women's status. Parents in Sri Lanka give greater value to the small-family norm than to the sex of the child. A slight preference was found in 1975 and 1992. Discrimination in food and medical care in Sri Lanka was apparent only prior to 1962. Sri Lankan women have experienced rapid expansion of literacy and educational attainment, improved life expectancy, and wide economic involvement. Women in Sri Lanka are also less vulnerable to oppression within the family. PMID:12290695

  5. Palaeoclimate change during Glacial Periods: Evidence from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Katupotha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the Earth’s history, there were five major glaciations, namely, Huronian (2,300 Ma,Cryogenianor Sturtian-Varangian(850-635 Ma, Andean-Saharan (460-430 Ma, Karoo (360-260 Ma andthe Quaternary (2.58 Ma to Present that occurred between 2,300 Ma and 0.0114 Ma. It is revealed thatGondwanaland emerged between the Huronian glaciation (2300-2100 Ma in the Paleoproterozoic Eraand the Andean-Saharan glaciation (460-420 Ma in the Early Paleozoic Era. During this time, mostcontinental land masses were clustered in the southern hemisphere, and Sri Lanka was part of theGondwanaland landmass comprising present day Africa, Madagascar, India and Antarctica. Within theOrdovician (485.4-445.2Ma to Permian Periods (299.0-254.2 Ma there were signs of the breaking up ofGondwanaland resulting in the severing of India and Sri Lanka together and subsequently Sri Lanka fromIndia. By end of the Permian Period (260 Ma Karoo Glaciation had ended and the present Mannar Basindeveloped within a deep canyon (about 4-7 km deep on the Precambrian basement.Although the island of Sri Lanka presently lies in the Indian Ocean between 5º 52´N-9º 54´N and79º 30´E-81º 55´E, to the southwest of Bay of Bengal and southeast of Arabian Sea, it was positionedwithin 67ºS-65ºS and 34ºE-43ºE during the Lower and Middle Jurassic Era (201.3-166.1 Ma. Huge rockyblocks (erratic boulders have been transported to different places by continental ice sheets due to climaticchanges in the Permian, Triassic and Jurassic Periods, but erratic pebbles (2 to 8 cm or more in size andstreams fed deposits have been transported by glacifluvial processes. These glaciofluvial processesoccurred on four occasions during the Jurassic Period and Eocene, Miocene and Pliocene Epochs on SriLankan landmass, which fallowed the climatic changes and sea level fluctuations that broke up thesedimentary beds, initiating establishment of the present topography and structural configuration. As aresult, the earlier sedimentary deposits were obliterated from greater part of Sri Lanka. During theQuaternary Period the erosional rate increased and the resultant erratic boulders along withglaciofluvialdeposits can still be found on “Planated Surfaces”of Sri Lanka.

  6. Landmarks of History of Soil Science in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapa, R.

    2012-04-01

    Sri Lanka is a tropical Island in the Southern tip of Indian subcontinent positioned at 50 55' to 90 50' N latitude and 790 42' to 810 53' E longitude surrounded by the Indian Ocean. It is an island 435 km in length and 224 km width consisting of a land are of 6.56 million ha with a population of 20 million. In area wise it is ranked as 118th in the world, where at present ranked as 47 in population wise and ranked 19th in population density. The country was under colonial rule under Portuguese, Dutch and British from 1505 to 1948. The majority of the people in the past and present earn their living from activities based on land, which indicates the important of the soil resource. The objective of this paper is to describe the landmarks of the history of Soil Science to highlight the achievements and failures, which is useful to enrich our present understanding of Sri Lankan soils. The landmarks of the history of Soil Science in Sri Lanka can be divided to three phases namely, the early period (prior to 1956), the middle period (1956 to 1972) and the present period (from 1972 onwards). During the early period, detailed analytical studies of coffee and tea soils were compiled, and these gave mainly information on up-country soils which led to fertilizer recommendations based on field trials. In addition, rice and forest soils were also studied in less detail. The first classification of Sri Lankan soils and a provisional soil map based on parent material was published by Joachim in 1945 which is a major landmark of history of Soil Science in Sri Lanka. In 1959 Ponnamperuma proposed a soil classification system for wetland rice soils. From 1963 to 1968 valuable information on the land resource was collected and documented by aerial resource surveys funded by Canada-Ceylon Colombo plan aid project. This covered 18 major river basins and about 1/4th of Sri Lanka, which resulted in producing excellent soil maps and information of the areas called the Kelani Aruvi Ara and Walawe basins. The provisional soil map was updated by many other workers as Moorman and Panabokke in 1961 and 1972 using this information. The soil map produced by De Alwis and Panabokke in 1972 at a scale of 1:500,000 was the soil maps mostly used during the past years During the present era, the need for classification of Soils of Sri Lanka according to international methods was felt. A major leap forward in Soil Survey, Classification leading to development of a soil data base was initiated in 1995 with the commencement of the "SRICANSOL" project which was a twining project between the Soil Science Societies of Sri Lanka and Canada. This project is now completed with detail soil maps at a scale of 1:250,000 and soil classified according to international methods for the Wet, Intermediate and Dry zones of Sri Lanka. A digital database consisting of soil profile description and physical and chemical data is under preparation for 28, 40 and 51 benchmark sites of the Wet, Intermediate and Dry zones respectively. The emphases on studies on Soil Science in the country at present is more towards environmental conservation related to soil erosion control, reducing of pollution of soil and water bodies from nitrates, pesticide residues and heavy metal accumulation. Key words: Sri Lanka, Provisional soil map

  7. Integration of mental health into primary care in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Rachel; Mendis, Jayan; Cooray, Sherva; Cooray, Marius

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Sri Lanka has one of the highest suicide rates in the world, with recent protracted conflict and the tsunami aggravating mental health needs. This paper describes a project to establish a systematic "train the trainers" programme to integrate mental health into primary care in Sri Lanka's public health system and private sector.Methods A 40 hour training programme was delivered to curriculum and teaching materials were adapted for Sri Lanka, and delivered to 45 psychiatrists, 110 medical officers of mental health and 95 registered medical practitioners, through five courses, each in a different region (Colombo, Kandy, Jaffna, Galle and Batticola). Participants were selected by the senior psychiatrist of each region, on the basis of ability to conduct subsequent roll out of the training. The course was very interactive, with discussions, role plays and small group work, as well as brief theory sessions.Results Qualitative participant feedback was encouraging about the value of the course in improving patient assessments and treatments, and in providing a valuable package for roll out to others. Systematic improvement was achieved between pre- and post-test scores of participants at all training sites. The participants had not had prior experience in such interactive teaching methods, but were able to learn these new techniques relatively quickly.Conclusions The programme has been conducted in collaboration with the Sri Lankan National Institute of Mental Health and the Ministry of Health, and this partnership has helped to ensure that the training is tailored to Sri Lanka and has the chance of long term sustainability. PMID:23277794

  8. Surface circulation and upwelling patterns around Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. de Vos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sri Lanka occupies a unique location within the equatorial belt in the northern Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea on its western side and the Bay of Bengal on its eastern side. The region is characterised by bi-annually reversing monsoon winds resulting from seasonal differential heating and cooling of the continental land mass and the ocean. This study explored elements of the dynamics of the surface circulation and coastal upwelling in the waters around Sri Lanka using satellite imagery and the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS configured to the study region and forced with ECMWF interim data. The model was run for 2 yr to examine the seasonal and shorter term (?10 days variability. The results confirmed the presence of the reversing current system in response to the changing wind field: the eastward flowing Southwest Monsoon Current (SMC during the Southwest (SW monsoon transporting 11.5 Sv and the westward flowing Northeast Monsoon Current (NMC transporting 9.5 Sv during the Northeast (NE monsoon, respectively. A recirculation feature located to the east of Sri Lanka during the SW monsoon, the Sri Lanka Dome, is shown to result from the interaction between the SMC and the Island of Sri Lanka. Along the eastern and western coasts, during both monsoon periods, flow is southward converging along the south coast. During the SW monsoon the Island deflects the eastward flowing SMC southward whilst along the east coast the southward flow results from the Sri Lanka Dome recirculation. The major upwelling region, during both monsoon periods, is located along the south coast and is shown to be due to flow convergence and divergence associated with offshore transport of water. Higher surface chlorophyll concentrations were observed during the SW monsoon. The location of the flow convergence and hence the upwelling centre was dependent on the relative strengths of wind driven flow along the east and west coasts: during the SW (NE monsoon the flow along the western (eastern coast was stronger and hence the upwelling centre was shifted to the east (west. The presence of upwelling along the south coast during both monsoon periods may explain the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus aggregations in this region.

  9. Twelve Years of Rabies Surveillance in Sri Lanka, 1999–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Karunanayake, Dushantha; MATSUMOTO, TAKASHI; Wimalaratne, Omala; Nanayakkara, Susilakanthi; Perera, Devika; Nishizono, Akira; AHMED, Kamruddin

    2014-01-01

    Rabies is a public health concern in Sri Lanka. The incidence of dog rabies remains unchanged, but the incidence of suspect human rabies is decreasing gradually in Sri Lanka. This finding indicates the effects of improved access to postexposure prophylaxis by animal bite victims and increased rabies awareness. As in other rabies-endemic countries, in Sri Lanka, human rabies is transmitted mainly by dogs, although domestic and wild animals have been diagnosed rabid, and can pose a risk of expo...

  10. Caregiving expectations and challenges among elders and their adult children in Southern Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, Melissa H; Perera, Bilesha; Østbye, Truls; Ranabahu, Shyama; Rajapakse, Harshini; Maselko, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    The elderly population in Sri Lanka is growing rapidly. Elders are traditionally cared for in the homes of their adult children, but the shifting socio-economic environment in Sri Lanka challenges this arrangement. This paper describes the dynamics of elder-caregiver relationships in Southern Sri Lanka. Data included 4 focus group discussions and 5 in-depth interviews with elderly, and 10 in-depth interviews with adult children of the elderly. Discussion guide topics included caregiving arran...

  11. Transmission of Global Food Prices to Domestic Prices: Evidence from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivarajasingham Selliah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Food prices have been increasing sharply since 2003. In the globalized world, the transmission of global foodprice increases to domestic market determines the decision of economic agents and policy makers of a domesticeconomy. The recent growth of global food prices affects the welfare of poor consumers and producers. In SriLanka, large segment of the population spends more than 50 percent of their income on food. Thus, this studyinvestigates and assesses how international food price surge affects domestic inflation process in Sri Lanka. Theempirical statistical results are derived by using a battery of parametric and non-parametric econometrictechniques using monthly data of price series for the period from 2003M1 to 2013M12. The co-integrationanalysis results confirm that global food prices, domestic prices are co-integrated. Therefore, Sri Lankangovernment needs to develop a safety net program for the poor and a longer term poverty reduction strategy.Policy attention needs to shift towards efforts to increase food production. The results of this study have variouspolicy implications for monetary policy, food and agricultural policy and trade policy for Sri Lanka.

  12. COMPARISON OF E-LEARNING ACCEPTANCE AMONG POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS IN SRI LANKA AND MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushalya Yatigammana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of innovation attributes on postgraduate students’ e-learning acceptance between Sri Lanka and Malaysia. The Diffusion of Innovation theory identifies five attributes of innovation namely relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialabiltity, observability which impact for the attitude and intention of using e- learning. Sri Lanka and Malaysia are the countries which have more similarities in terms of history, geography and culture. Therefore a comparison between Sri Lanka and Malaysia for the innovation attributes towards the attitude and intention of using e-learning is more relevant as to acquire the knowledge on how economic and technological development have an impact on postgraduate students preferences. A random sample of 400 was drawn from the postgraduate students in locally based universities in Sri Lanka and Malaysia. It was found that Sri Lanka and Malaysia has similar in e-learning acceptance in terms of observability and relative advantage which has a significant impact on attitude and intention of using e-learning and also complexity and trialability was the least significant factors on e-learning acceptance in both Sri Lanka and Malaysia.  This is the first attempt of comparing e-learning acceptance between Sri Lanka and Malaysia and discloses information on how Sri Lanka and Malaysia differ. The findings of this paper can be used by the higher educational institutions in Sri Lanka and Malaysia when implementing e learning solutions.

  13. A Profile of Biomass Stove Use in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Everett, Kibri H.; Thornburg, Vanessa E.; Phillips, Michael J; Elledge, Myles F.; Sumal Nandasena

    2012-01-01

    A large body of evidence has confirmed that the indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass fuel use is a major cause of premature deaths, and acute and chronic diseases. Over 78% of Sri Lankans use biomass fuel for cooking, the major source of IAP in developing countries. We conducted a review of the available literature and data sources to profile biomass fuel use in Sri Lanka. We also produced two maps (population density and biomass use; and cooking fuel sources by district) to illustrate the...

  14. The practice of mindfulness based behaviour therapy in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P de Zoysa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Buddhist practice of cultivating mindfulness has been increasingly influencing psychotherapeutic work. However, in Sri Lanka, the documentation on the use of such practice in psychotherapy is scarce. This paper aims to discuss the influence of Buddhist mindfulness practice on psychotherapy; present a case of mixed anxiety-depressive disorder where mindfulness practice and behaviour therapy were used in its treatment and discuss issues that need to be considered in the use of mindfulness practice in psychotherapy. The combined use of Buddhist mindfulness practice and behaviour therapy yielded a favourable outcome in the case reported. In Sri Lanka, a culturally rooted method such as mindfulness practice, in combination with behaviour therapy, is useful in the treatment of mixed anxietydepressive disorder. The use of mindfulness practice in psychotherapy should be undertaken by those trained in psychological assessments and by those who have their personal mindfulness practice. Future studies on the use of mindfulness practice in other psychological disorders would be useful.

  15. The design of Sri Lanka's Samanalawewa project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, P.A.A.; Westwell, J.R. (Sir Alexander Gibb and Partners, Reading (GB))

    1988-06-01

    Sri Lanka has both a climate and topography favourable to hydroelectricity. The largest river in the country is the Mahaweli Ganga, of which almost all the potential has now been exploited by the Kotmale, Victora, Randenigala and Rantembe (under construction) schemes. The hydro development of Sri Lanka will continue with the construction of projects on other river systems, and the Samanalawewa project on the Walawe Ganga (flowing south from the Central Highlands) is one such project now under construction. This project consists of a 100 m-high embankment dam, a 5 km-long power tunnel, a steel penstock and a surface power station with two 60 MW units. At a later stage it is planned to double the size of the powerplant and tap the flow from a tributary, which passes above the power tunnel near its downstream end. (author).

  16. Sociopolitical Instability and Economic Growth Empirical Evidence from Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Changsheng Xu; Santhirasegaram Selvarathinam; Wen X. Li

    2007-01-01

    Sociopolitical instability severely affects economic growth in short and long run. This study analyzes that sociopolitical instability measured by proxy measure; annual growth rate of tourist arrivals in Sri Lanka during 1960-2005 adversely affects economic growth. Our empirical findings based on ordinary lease square econometric estimation, show that sociopolitical instability negatively and significantly affect economic growth. Reduction of economic growth rate (-0.032) due to the sociopoli...

  17. Women's experiences of local justice: community mediation in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasundere, Ramani; Valters, Craig

    2014-01-01

    This paper is part of the Theories in Practice series arising from the collaboration between JSRP and The Asia Foundation. This is the second paper on Sri Lanka's mediation boards and builds on the conclusion of the previous paper that 'further research on how different forms of social injustice affect mediation boards would be an important conceptual and practical step'. There is a clear need to assess the effect of different forms of social injustice on the process of mediation. This is ...

  18. Mobile Phone–based Infectious Disease Surveillance System, Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Colin; Sawford, Kate; Daniel, Samson L.A.; Trisalyn A. Nelson; Stephen, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Because many infectious diseases are emerging in animals in low-income and middle-income countries, surveillance of animal health in these areas may be needed for forecasting disease risks to humans. We present an overview of a mobile phone–based frontline surveillance system developed and implemented in Sri Lanka. Field veterinarians reported animal health information by using mobile phones. Submissions increased steadily over 9 months, with ?4,000 interactions between field veterinarians an...

  19. Community psychiatry service in Sri Lanka: a successful model

    OpenAIRE

    Pushpa Ranasinghe; Jayan Mendis; Raveen Hanwella

    2011-01-01

    In the current practice of psychiatry there is a shift from hospital to community based care. Different models of community psychiatry have been tried in different countries. Though this concept is based on several core principles, each country has to find what is best suited for its population. In Sri Lanka too, community psychiatry projects have been initiated by psychiatrists. We describe below one such project started in a postal area in the capital, Colombo, by one of the authors. The pr...

  20. Non-economic gains of Sri Lanka's FTAs with neighbours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandara, Jayatilleke S.; Yu, Wusheng

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to answer the question: does a bilateral free trade agreement (FTA) lead to an improvement in the security of a member country and greater peace between two member countries in the developing world? Design/methodology/approach – This paper reviews existing literature and uses the idea of non-economic gains from regional trading agreements to explain how Sri Lanka managed to use FTAs to neutralise India and obtain military assistance from Pakistan using its ...

  1. Sri Lanka Student Assessment : SABER Country Report 2012

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    In 2012, Sri Lanka joined the Russia Education Aid for Development (READ) trust fund program, the goal of which is to help countries improve their capacity to design, carry out, analyze, and use assessments for improved student learning. As part of the READ trust fund program, and in order to gain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of its existing assessment system, Tajikistan ...

  2. The practice of mindfulness based behaviour therapy in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    P de Zoysa

    2010-01-01

    The Buddhist practice of cultivating mindfulness has been increasingly influencing psychotherapeutic work. However, in Sri Lanka, the documentation on the use of such practice in psychotherapy is scarce. This paper aims to discuss the influence of Buddhist mindfulness practice on psychotherapy; present a case of mixed anxiety-depressive disorder where mindfulness practice and behaviour therapy were used in its treatment and discuss issues that need to be considered in the use of mindfulness p...

  3. Interest Rate Pass-through in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Amarasekara, Chandranath

    2005-01-01

    The Central Bank of Sri Lanka has increasingly been relying on interest rates as the instrument for conducting monetary policy. Changes to the key monetary policy variables, the Repo and the Reverse Repo rates, are initially expected to be reflected in the OMO rates and the call money market rates, before being passedthrough to commercial bank retail interest rates. It is important to obtain a good understanding of the speed and magnitude of the interest rate pass-through to make timely monet...

  4. Moore's law, Dabbawalas, and pediatric cardiac care in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Samarasinghe, Duminda

    2015-01-01

    Sri Lanka is an island nation in Indian Ocean that provides free healthcare to all citizens through government healthcare system. It has commendable health indices in the region. Pediatric cardiac services have rapidly progressed over past few years helping to further bring down infant and under-five mortality rates. Lady Ridgeway Hospital for Children (LRH) is the only tertiary care referral center for children with heart disease in the country. Currently it performs approximately 1,000 card...

  5. Young strokes in Sri Lanka: An unsolved problem

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Ranil; Gamage, Ranjani; Wewelwala, Chandika; Gunarathna, Dinusha; Kittner, Steven; Sirisena, Dharshan; Weerasinghe, Anura; Amarasinghe, Pryani

    2009-01-01

    Stroke in young adults is more common in India and Sri Lanka and the reasons for this are not well understood. The current study was conducted to elucidate the risk factors and radiologic features in young people (age < 45 years) with ischemic stroke. Sociodemographic data, stroke risk factor information, and laboratory investigations were recorded in 41 cases with first-ever ischemic stroke. Most common risk factors for stroke in the 15- to 45-year-old age group were: hypertension, 8 (21%); ...

  6. Ranging behavior of the Asian elephant in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando, P; Wikramanayake, E D; Janaka, H K; Jayasinghe, L K A; Gunawardena, M; Kotagama, S W; Weerakoon, D; Pastorini, J

    2008-01-01

    We studied the ranging patterns of 10 elephants in and around the Yala protected area complex, southern Sri Lanka, using VHF radio telemetry. All tracked elephants displayed similar ranging patterns. The observed home ranges were small (mean=115.2±64.0 km2) relative to reported home ranges in India, possibly in response to high habitat productivity and abundant perennial water sources. Elephants showed high fidelity to their ranges. Home ranges had relatively large core areas, suggesting inte...

  7. Models for short term malaria prediction in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Galappaththy Gawrie NL; Gunawardena Dissanayake M; Vounatsou Penelope; Briët Olivier JT; Amerasinghe Priyanie H

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria in Sri Lanka is unstable and fluctuates in intensity both spatially and temporally. Although the case counts are dwindling at present, given the past history of resurgence of outbreaks despite effective control measures, the control programmes have to stay prepared. The availability of long time series of monitored/diagnosed malaria cases allows for the study of forecasting models, with an aim to developing a forecasting system which could assist in the efficient a...

  8. Writing Strategy Use: AFL Learners in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Nagoor Gafoordeen; Kaseh Abu Bakar

    2014-01-01

    Study on writing strategy used in Arabic as a foreign language is a new emerging concept. Few studies have contracted on essay written in Arabic as a final product and illustrated deficiencies that surfaced. This study investigates the writing strategies employed by 6 learners in Fathih Institute of Sri Lanka (FISL). A Qualitative research was conducted using the think aloud protocol; observation and retrospective interview to provide the facts. Results of a pilot study revealed that a profic...

  9. Musculoskeletal Trauma Services in Mozambique and Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Richard C.

    2008-01-01

    There is currently an escalating epidemic of trauma-related injuries due to road traffic accidents and armed conflicts. This trauma occurs predominantly in rural areas where most of the population lives. Major ways to combat this epidemic include prevention programs, improved healthcare facilities, and training of competent providers. Mozambique and Sri Lanka have many common features including size, economic system, and healthcare structure but have significant differences in their medical e...

  10. Diversity of Snakes from the Jaffna Peninsula, Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    S. Abyerami; K. Sivashanthini

    2008-01-01

    A herpetological survey was carried out to study the diversity of snakes from 2002 to 2004. The study revealed eighteen species of terrestrial snakes belonging to five families. Out of which four species were highly venomous species; two were mildly venomous and the rest of the twelve were non poisonous species. Two species were endemic to Sri Lanka and six out of the eighteen documented species were recorded for the first time from Jaffna Peninsula.

  11. GEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FOR PALEO-TSUNAMIS IN SRI LANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayomi Kulasena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available After the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami inundation event, thin sediment films of fining up sequences were located in several topographic depressions of the southern coastal belt of Sri Lanka. The films consisting of silty fine sand with particular microfossil assemblages were located also in closed containers, bottles and kitchen tables. Well preserved microfossils such as foraminifera, radiolarians as well as spicules of sponges were noted in these recent tsunami sediments.Random augur holes were drilled into some selected depressions in the southern coastal villages of Peraliya and Denuwala situated at locations separated by about 50km. In several such holes, at least two fining up sequences were located below the surface in soil horizons separated from each other by 35cm to 1m. These soil profiles were overlying older coral reefs developed on lateritic formations. The microscopic observations on particular size fractions of the soil horizons showed microfossil assemblages with textures, color and organic C contents strikingly comparable to those observed in the recent tsunami sediments of Sri Lanka. Our findings imply the occurrence of at least two paleo- tsunami events of different ages in Sri Lanka originating apparently from a common source.

  12. Prospects for a wind pump industry in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1977 considerable effort has been made in Sri Lanka to develop and disseminate wind pumping systems primarily in the small-scale agricultural sector in the island's dry zone. Through close cooperation with the Consultancy Services Wind Energy Developing Countries (CWD) in the Netherlands this programme has been successful in developing the necessary hardware but the broad objective of promoting wide spread use of wind pumping in Sri Lanka is yet to materialize. In analyzing probable reasons for this, the paper highlights that the basic arguments underlying the origin of the project in 1976, such as foreign exchange savings and local industrial development, became irrelevant to the post 1977 political and economic policies of the new government. Thus, the general economic framework adopted in Sri Lanka since 1977 does not seem to provide the necessary pre-conditions for development of a local industry for wind pumps. Due to this reason and the fact that kerosene oil used in conventional agriculturla pumps is subsidized, the ability of wind pumps to compete in the wind pump market seems highly constrained. It is concluded that under such conditions the prospects for the manufacturing and marketing of wind pumps on an industrial scale are not very favourable

  13. Lighting energy efficiency in office buildings: Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a study conducted in the lighting sector of office buildings as a part of a broader research study aimed at developing building codes for Sri Lanka addressing lighting as well as thermal comfort in order to optimise the use of electricity within these buildings. The study covered different tasks performed in office buildings and the optimum lighting levels required to perform these tasks in the office environment in Sri Lanka. Also, it included assessing the visual performance of people involved in different activities under varying illumination levels in a controlled environment and a comparison of these optimum lighting levels with international standards. It can be seen that the required optimum lighting levels are generally lower in Sri Lanka in comparison to specified standard levels, and this scenario is likely to be similar in other developing countries too. These findings clearly emphasise the need to adopt lighting standards most appropriate to local conditions, in turn helping improve the energy efficiency within buildings

  14. From silence to voice: Examining the empowerment potential of mobile phones to women in Sri Lanka The case of dependent housewives

    OpenAIRE

    Handapangoda, Wasana Sampath; Sisira Kumara, Ajanth

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few decades, at an unprecedented rate, mobile phone has penetrated Sri Lanka, triggering much hype and investment as well as multiple socioeconomic implications. Yet, examining the developmental impact of mobile phones has, however, drawn surprisingly little attention in Sri Lanka with no studies focusing primarily on the impact of mobile phones on the empowerment of women. Therefore, this paper, applying primarily qualitative methodology, attempts an investigatio...

  15. A Tectonic Link Between Sri Lanka and Cuddapah Basin: Geophysical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabaluri, S. M.

    2008-12-01

    The Indian subcontinent is generally believed to be a mosaic of three Protocontinents, namely, Aravalli, Singhbhum and Dharwar. The Dharwar Protocontinent comprises a large portion of the southern peninsular India and Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka is thus presumed to be a midplate platelet and an extension of southern Indian mass. But the available gravity signatures of the south India and Sri Lanka, which differ significantly, do not provide support for such a presumption. While southern India exhibits a large number of lineaments characterizing well-known faults and shear zones, gravity image of Sri Lanka is devoid of any lineaments. Based on the gravity images it is difficult to visualize Sri Lanka as an extension of Southern India. The proterozoic Cuddapah basin occupying an area of over 35,000 sq.km., constitutes one of the most interesting geological features of South India on the east coast. The eastern coast in South India is also occupied by a major greenstone belt, which is characterized by a significant gap in the region east of the Cuddapah basin. In the plate tectonic scenario, if one were to move Sri Lanka into the Cuddapah basin it may be seen that Sri Lanka fits closely into this Proterozoic Cuddapah basin. The "gap" in the green stone belt gets filled up by the green stone belt of Sri Lanka exactly, suggesting that the green stone belts of Sri Lanka and those of India on the east coast once belonged to the same belt. Also, in this position the gravity image of Sri Lanka shows continuity with the rest of the south Indian land mass and merges as a single image. Based on the size, geophysical signatures and geological constraints, it is postulated that the ejection of the landmass constituting Sri Lanka from the Indian plate during early Proterozoic times resulted in the formation of the Cuddapah basin. The basin further evolved to its present stage due to subsequent orogenic and tectonic processes.

  16. Solar photovoltaics in Sri Lanka: a short history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a significant unelectrified rural population, Sri Lanka has followed the evolution of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology in the West very closely since the 1970s as terrestrial applications for photovoltaics were developed. It was not until 1980 that the Sri Lankan government embarked on the promotion of solar photovoltaics for rural domestic use when the Ceylon Electricity Board formed the Energy Unit. In addition, Australian and Sri Lankan government-funded pilot projects have given the local promoters further valuable insight into how and how not to promote solar photovoltaics. The establishment of community-based solar photovoltaic programmes by non-governmental organizations has developed a novel approach to bridge the gap between this state-of-the-art technology and the remotely located end-users. (author)

  17. Using Climate Information for Disaster Risk Identification in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, L.

    2004-12-01

    We have engaged in a concerted attempt to undertake research and apply earth science information for development in Sri Lanka, with a focus on climate sciences. Here, we provide details of an ongoing attempt to harness science for disaster identification as a prelude to informed disaster management. Natural disasters not only result in death and destruction but also undermine decades of development gains as highlighted by recent examples from Sri Lanka. First, in May 2003, flooding and landslides in the South-West led to 260 deaths, damage to 120,000 homes and destruction of schools, infrastructure and agricultural land. Second, on December 26, 2000, a cyclone in the North-Central region left 8 dead, 55,000 displaced, with severe damage to fishing, agriculture, infrastructure and cultural sites. Third, an extended island-wide drought in 2001 and 2002 resulted in a 2% drop in GDP. In the aftermath of these disasters, improved disaster management has been deemed to be urgent by the Government of Sri Lanka. In the past the primary policy response to disasters was to provide emergency relief. It is increasingly recognized that appropriate disaster risk management, including risk assessment, preventive measures to reduce losses and improved preparedness, can help reduce death, destruction and socio-economic disruption. The overwhelming majority of hazards in Sri Lanka - droughts, floods, cyclones and landslides -have hydro-meteorological antecedents. Little systematic advantage has, however, been taken of hydro-meteorological information and advances in climate prediction for disaster management. Disaster risks are created by the interaction between hazard events and vulnerabilities of communities, infrastructure and economically important activities. A comprehensive disaster risk management system encompasses risk identification, risk reduction and risk transfer. We undertook an identification of risks for Sri Lanka at fine scale with the support of the Global Disaster Hotspots project of the Earth Institute at Columbia University. We developed tools that translate meteorological, environmental and socio-economic exposure and vulnerability information into assessments of relevant hazard related disaster risk at appropriate spatial and temporal scales. We also developed high-resolution predictive capabilities for assessing seasonal hazard event. We found that useful hazard risk and vulnerability analysis can be carried out with the type of data that is available in Sri Lanka with sufficiently fine scale as to be useful for national level planning and action. Also, hydro-meteorological information was essential to estimate hazard risks. This analysis brought out a distinct seasonality to drought, floods, landslides and cyclone hazards in Sri Lanka. This work provides a foundation for systematic disaster management that shall manage risks through measures such as hazard warnings, scenario-based relief identification and planning, strategic river basin management, risk mapping and land use zoning, standards for construction and infrastructure. The fostering of research and application capacity in the vulnerable community leads to the appropriate and sustainable use of earth science information. This work contributes to the mitigation of risk of vulnerable communities and provides an example of the harnessing of geosciences for poverty alleviation and improvement of human well-being. Note: The contributions of Vidhura Ralapanawe, Upamala Tennakoon, Ruvini Perera, Maxx Dilley, Bob Chen and the Hotspots team are gratefully acknowledged.

  18. Delineation of Tsunami Risk Zones for Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijetunge, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    The coastal belts of several Indian Ocean countries including Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India and Thailand suffered massive loss of life and damage to property due to the tsunami unleashed by the great earthquake of moment magnitude 9.1-9.3 in the Andaman-Sunda subduction zone on December 26, 2004. In Sri Lanka, 13 of the 14 administrative districts lying along the coastal belt were affected: the death toll was over 35,000 with 20,000 injured and about 100,000 dwellings and other buildings either completely or partially damaged leaving half a million people homeless and causing massive disruption to livelihoods. However, it was clear in the immediate aftermath of the tsunami that the degree of damage along the coastal belt of Sri Lanka was not uniform: some areas suffered more damage, some less, and in certain other areas, often not far away, there was no damage at all. This suggests that the level of risk for coastal communities from future events of tsunami exhibits considerable variation even along a short stretch of the shoreline. The high cost and the scarcity of coastal lands in many areas demand an accurate assessment of the tsunami risk rather than arbitrary conservative zonation. Moreover, information relating to the spatial distribution of tsunami risk is essential in formulating post-tsunami coastal land use plans as well as in planning of evacuation of people during tsunami warnings. However, neither comprehensive probabilistic assessments of the tsunami hazard nor detailed information pertaining to the vulnerability of coastal communities are available at present for the coastal zone of Sri Lanka. Consequently, the methodology adopted in the present paper is to use field observations and numerical simulations of the December 2004 tsunami, which may be considered a worst-case scenario, in order to obtain the variation along the coastline of three parameters that quantify the tsunami impact. These three parameters are the tsunami height, the horizontal inundation distance and the degree of damage to housing as a result of the 2004 tsunami. The tsunami heights at a spatial resolution of 250 m along the coastal belt were computed by employing a numerical model based on shallow-water equations. The inundation distances were obtained from the points of maximum penetration of inundation measured by the author at 200-400 m intervals along the affected coast using a GPS. The percentage of the number of housing units either completely damaged or partially damaged but unusable in each locality was compiled from a large volume of data gathered by the Department of Census and Statistics of the Government of Sri Lanka in the aftermath of the 2004 tsunami. A 'relative risk index' was then computed by factoring the influence of each of these three parameters normalized with the respective mean value for the entire length of the coastal sector concerned. Accordingly, the relative risk index indicates whether the risk is lower or higher at a given location compared to the mean for the respective coastline. Note also that, all three parameters were given the same weight in the present analysis. Two separate curves depicting the spatial variation of the relative risk index at 250 m intervals were compiled in this way for the east and south coasts of Sri Lanka as the geomorphology of these two coastal sectors are essentially different. These curves of the relative risk index shows significant spatial variation with prominent peaks and troughs at several locations thereby indicating likely zones of comparatively higher as well as lower tsunami risk along the east and south coasts of Sri Lanka.

  19. Completed Suicide among Sinhalese in Sri Lanka: A Psychological Autopsy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaraweera, Sudath; Sumathipala, Athula; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sivayogan, S.; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2008-01-01

    Sri Lanka has the one of highest rates of suicide. Important factors associated with suicide were determined via the psychological autopsy approach (which had not been carried out previously in Sri Lanka). Over a 3-month period, in a catchment area, 31 suicides among Sinhalese were identified and 27 were investigated. Males were more likely to…

  20. 77 FR 16670 - Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... FR 4311; 3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 79; 22 U.S.C. 2651a; 22 U.S.C. 287c; E.O. 12918, 59 FR 28205; 3 CFR... Part 126 RIN 1400-AD10 Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Sri Lanka AGENCY... Traffic in Arms Regulations to add another exception to the license denial policy toward Sri Lanka....

  1. The Changing Times: General Education and the Vocational Training System in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedere, Upali M.

    2010-01-01

    Sri Lanka is widening its scope for vocational education sub-sector. The emerging global trends and the aspirations of the emerging Sri Lanka after defeating terrorism demands the preparation of the graduating youth at different stages of the education system for employment. Vocational education faces many challenges. Though there are…

  2. Language Policy, Ethnic Tensions and Linguistic Rights in Post War Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, Sreemali

    2015-01-01

    As in many former colonies, language policy and planning in Sri Lanka has been largely shaped by and continues to be overshadowed by its history of colonial rule. Sri Lanka experienced colonization under three different western powers for over four centuries. This situation was further muddied by the three-decades long ethnic-based civil war which…

  3. Equity in Education: Opportunities and Challenges In A Changing Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedere, Upali M.

    2010-01-01

    Equity is a major concern for all development actors. Although Sri Lanka has successfully addressed equity issues in education sector there are unresolved factors and variables those perpetuate inequity. There are emerging new equity issues those that Sri Lanka needs to address. The changing population dynamics and the huge middle class population…

  4. Losing Ground: A Critical Analysis of Teachers' Agency for Peacebuilding Education in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Cardozo, Mieke T. A.; Hoeks, Celine C. M. Q.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the "agency" of teachers for peacebuilding education in Sri Lanka through a critical multiscalar analysis of the interplay between "context"--education policies and governance--and "agent"--teachers as strategic political actors. It draws on two studies conducted in Sri Lanka in 2006 and…

  5. Meeting the Need for Scientific and Technical Information in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasuriya, Nimala R.

    1986-01-01

    Discussion of main areas and priorities for research and development and the scientific and technological infrastructure in Sri Lanka includes outline of history and main objectives of the Sri Lanka Scientific and Technical Information Center. Issues and problems in providing information are analyzed and possible solutions suggested. Seven sources…

  6. The Role of UK Qualification Suppliers in Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe: A Comparative Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J.; Little, A. W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is based on research on the role of UK qualifications suppliers in providing qualifications and accreditation in Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe in the context of rather different engagements with liberalisation, structural adjustment and globalisation. Sri Lanka's economic liberalisation and growth since the late 1970s has had a "de facto"…

  7. Sri Lanka’s Post-Conflict Strategy: Restorative Justice for Rebels and Rebuilding of Conflict-affected Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iromi Dharmawardhane

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the Sri Lankan Government’s military defeat of the internationally proscribed terrorist organisation, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE in May 2009, Sri Lanka embarked on an essential and long-term twofold post-conflict strategy: (i rehabilitation and reintegration of former LTTE combatants, and (ii the rebuilding of the conflict-affected Tamil communities of the Northern and Eastern Provinces. The rehabilitation program was by many counts a success, with demonstrated cognitive transformation in attitudes and behaviour of most of the (formerly radicalised combatants. Reconciliation initiatives were implemented to fulfill the urgent social, political, and economic needs of the conflict-affected communities of the North and East. These reconciliation efforts continue to be implemented and comprise different measures taken in: (1 resettlement and humanitarian assistance, (2 reconstruction of key transport, economic, health, and social infrastructure for reintegration, (3 political engagement, and (4 various types of peace-building work. Sri Lanka’s post-conflict strategy adopts a holistic approach, seeking the contribution of the public sector, private sector, community organisations, international organisations, NGOs, and private individuals from different segments of society in Sri Lanka. However, despite the many effective state-led and other reconciliation efforts undertaken by Sri Lanka, the author is able to present a number of recommendations to the government of Sri Lanka to overcome shortcomings in the rehabilitation and reconciliation programs adopted, as well as other challenges faced by Sri Lanka, such as the relentless disinformation campaign against the Sri Lankan state pursued by the remnant LTTE cells surviving internationally. To understand the complex nature of the Sri Lankan conflict and the skillful disinformation campaign pursued against the Sri Lankan state by the LTTE’s transnational network, a comprehensive introduction is provided as a part of this article.

  8. Expanding Rural Access to Renewable Energy : Lessons from Sri Lanka’s Energy Services Delivery Project (ESDP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sovacool, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The Energy Services Delivery Project (ESDP) in Sri Lanka was an exemplary renewable energy access programme. Consisting of a Credit Component, a Wind Farm Component and a Capacity Building Component, the $53.8 million ESDP successfully installed 21,000 off-grid Solar Home Systems (SHS), 31 megawatts (MW) of grid-connected mini-hydro capacity, 574 kilowatts (kW) of off-grid village hydroelectric systems serving 2,897 households, and a 3MW grid-connected wind farm from 1997 to 2002. By the end of 2004, two years after the ESDP’s close, the Sri Lankan renewable energy industry boasted more than 40 mini-hydro developers, 10 registered solar companies, 22 registered village hydro developers and 12 village hydro equipment suppliers compared to less than three of each before the ESDP began. This study explores the dynamics of the ESDP, and investigates its structure, benefits, challenges and broader implications.

  9. Haemoglobin E beta thalassaemia in Sri Lanka.

    OpenAIRE

    Premawardhena, A; Fisher, CA; Olivieri, NF; Silva, S.; Arambepola, M; Perera, W; O'Donnell, A; Peto, TE; Viprakasit, V; Merson, L; Muraca, G; Weatherall, DJ

    2005-01-01

    Haemoglobin E beta thalassaemia is the commonest form of severe thalassaemia in many Asian countries, but little is known about its natural history, the reasons for clinical diversity, or its management. We studied 109 Sri Lankan patients with the disorder over 5 years. 25 patients were not receiving transfusion; transfusion was stopped with no deleterious effect in a further 37. We identified several genetic and environmental factors that might contribute to the phenotypic diversity of the d...

  10. 77 FR 48499 - U.S. Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka Chennai and Cochin, India and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka Chennai and Cochin, India and Colombo, Sri Lanka February 3-8, 2013 AGENCY: International Trade Administration... in Sri Lanka, are organizing a Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka from February 3-9,...

  11. BUILD BACK BETTER: LESSONS FROM SRI LANKA’S RECOVERY FROM THE 2004 INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeeka Mannakkara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept “Building Back Better” (BBB was formally introduced following the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, which implies using a collaborative approach to improve the physical, social and economic conditions of a community during post-disaster reconstruction and recovery. This paper introduces eight BBB Principles which contribute towards achieving BBB. The post-tsunami recovery effort in Sri Lanka was examined using the BBB Principles to determine the extent to which BBB has been incorporated in immediate and long-term disaster management practices. Reports, literature, and data collected from a site visit made to Sri Lanka in 2010/2011 were analysed to establish the findings. Although BBB concepts were recognized, failure in execution resulted in a non-BBB recovery. Lessons learnt from shortcomings have been understood and incorporated into current disaster management practices. Good BBB practices currently in effect include: hazard-based land-use planning and risk-based structural regulations; increased awareness; participatory approaches; and stakeholder training. The absence of legislative support to implement BBB initiatives is the only drawback preventing so far. Lessons from Sri Lanka can benefit disaster management practices worldwide.

  12. A case study of the relationship between journalism and politics in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Westerberg, Isabella

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is conducted as a Minor Field Study (MFS) in Colombo, Sri Lanka. The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between journalism and politics from three questions at issue: 1) What is the role of media according to the journalists? 2) How do journalists work with political reporting in the Sri Lankan print media? 3) How does print media and politics correspond to each other in Sri Lanka?. The theoretical framework consists of theories onmedia systems, democracy...

  13. Positioning Muslims in Ethnic Relations, Ethnic Conflict and Peace Process in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Agus Yusoff; Nordin Hussin; Athambawa Sarjoon

    2014-01-01

    Sri Lankan Muslims, the second largest minority ethnic group with 9.4 per cent (2012) of the total population has been victimized in the cause of ethnic politics, ethno-nationalism, and ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka. Like other ethnic groups in Sri Lanka, the Muslims also have a historical origin that follows a set of distinctive ethno-centric cultural and religious practices. They have contributed much to the communal harmony, socio-economic and political development of the country throughout...

  14. After Five Years of Collaboration: The Benefits of University Based Eduaction for Nurses in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Moira M. Cameron

    2001-01-01

    A request from the nurses of Sri Lanka led to the establishment of the country’s first university nursing program. Delivered by distance, the program represented a collaborative, approach among a Sri Lankan university (The Open University of Sri Lanka), a Canadian university (Athabasca University) and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), who funded the project. The challenges facing this undertaking included the lack of available culturally appropriate course materials, the E...

  15. Spatial and temporal variations of thunderstorm activities over Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnadara, Upul

    2015-04-01

    Spatial and temporal variation of frequencies of thunderstorms over Sri Lanka using thunder day data is presented. A thunder day is simply a calendar day in which thunder is heard at least once at a given location. Two sets of data were collected and analyzed: annual totals for 10 climatological stations for a period of 50 years and monthly totals for 20 climatological stations for a period of 20 years. The average annual thunder days over Sri Lanka was found to be 76. Among the climatological stations considered, a high number of annual thunder days was recorded in Ratnapura (150 days/year), followed by Colombo (108 days/year) and Bandarawela (106 days/year). It appears that there are no widespread long-term increasing or decreasing trends in thunderstorm frequencies. However, Colombo, the capital of Sri Lanka which has over two million people shows an increasing trend of 0.8 thunder days per year. Although there is a high variability between stations reporting the number of thunder days, the overall pattern within a year is clear. Thunderstorm frequencies are high during two periods: March-May and September-November, which coincide with the first inter-monsoon and second inter-monsoon periods. Compared to the dry zone, the wet zone, especially the southwestern region, has high thunderstorm activity. There is a clear spatial difference in thunderstorm activities during the southwest and northeast monsoon seasons. During both these seasons, enhanced thunderstorm activities are reported on the leeward side of the mountain range. A slight reduction in the thunderstorm activities was found in the high elevation areas of the hill country compared to the surrounding areas. A lightning ground flash density map derived using annual thunder days is also presented.

  16. Integrated approach for coastal hazards and risks in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Garcin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The devastating impact of the tsunami of 26 December 2004 on the shores of the Indian Ocean recalled the importance of knowledge and the taking into account of coastal hazards. Sri Lanka was one of the countries most affected by this tsunami (e.g. 30 000 dead, 1 million people homeless and 70% of the fishing fleet destroyed. Following this tsunami, as part of the French post-tsunami aid, a project to establish a Geographical Information System (GIS on coastal hazards and risks was funded. This project aims to define, at a pilot site, a methodology for multiple coastal hazards assessment that might be useful for the post-tsunami reconstruction and for development planning. This methodology could be applied to the whole coastline of Sri Lanka.

    The multi-hazard approach deals with very different coastal processes in terms of dynamics as well as in terms of return period. The first elements of this study are presented here. We used a set of tools integrating a GIS, numerical simulations and risk scenario modelling. While this action occurred in response to the crisis caused by the tsunami, it was decided to integrate other coastal hazards into the study. Although less dramatic than the tsunami these remain responsible for loss of life and damage. Furthermore, the establishment of such a system could not ignore the longer-term effects of climate change on coastal hazards in Sri Lanka.

    This GIS integrates the physical and demographic data available in Sri Lanka that is useful for assessing the coastal hazards and risks. In addition, these data have been used in numerical modelling of the waves generated during periods of monsoon as well as for the December 2004 tsunami. Risk scenarios have also been assessed for test areas and validated by field data acquired during the project. The results obtained from the models can be further integrated into the GIS and contribute to its enrichment and to help in better assessment and mitigation of these risks.

    The coastal-hazards-and-risks GIS coupled with modelling thus appears to be a very useful tool that can constitute the skeleton of a coastal zone management system. Decision makers will be able to make informed choices with regards to hazards during reconstruction and urban planning projects.

  17. Malaria in Sri Lanka: one year post-tsunami

    OpenAIRE

    Amerasinghe Priyanie H; Galappaththy Gawrie NL; Briët Olivier JT; Konradsen Flemming

    2006-01-01

    Abstract One year ago, the authors of this article reported in this journal on the malaria situation in Sri Lanka prior to the tsunami that hit on 26 December 2004, and estimated the likelihood of a post-tsunami malaria outbreak to be low. Malaria incidence has decreased in 2005 as compared to 2004 in most districts, including the ones that were hit hardest by the tsunami. The malaria incidence (aggregated for the whole country) in 2005 followed the downward trend that started in 2000. Howeve...

  18. Distribution of Lutra lutra in the Highlands of Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Silva P. K. de

    1991-01-01

    The only otter found in Sri Lanka is Lutra lutra. A survey was carried out in 1989/1990 in the highland region of the island, an area drained by four river systems. Abundant signs of otters were found. Freshwater crabs form the main part of the otters' diet in the study area, where few fish are found. Although at present, otters are plentiful, partly because access to tea plantations is limited, reducing pressure on otters living on them, this may not continue as vegetable farming increases,...

  19. Malaria in Sri Lanka: one year post-tsunami

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briët, Olivier J T; Galappaththy, Gawrie N L; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H; Konradsen, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    One year ago, the authors of this article reported in this journal on the malaria situation in Sri Lanka prior to the tsunami that hit on 26 December 2004, and estimated the likelihood of a post-tsunami malaria outbreak to be low. Malaria incidence has decreased in 2005 as compared to 2004 in most districts, including the ones that were hit hardest by the tsunami. The malaria incidence (aggregated for the whole country) in 2005 followed the downward trend that started in 2000. However, surveilla...

  20. Myonecrosis due to Russell's viper bites in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, S; Ganaikabahu, B; Pushparajan, K; De Silva, C K; Wijesekera, J

    1994-05-01

    Scattered or diffuse myonecrosis is the histopathologic basis for muscle pain and tenderness due to bites by Vipera russelli pulchella in Sri Lanka. These lesions may even occur without any clinical symptoms. Subclinical lesions may form one end of continuous spectrum, with the other being severe pain and muscle tenderness with rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuria. Electromyographic abnormalities, when present, are suggestive of a myopathic pattern, rather than inflammatory muscle disease. A subclinical motor neuropathy may also occur. Hence, there is evidence for subclinical envenomation following bites by Russell's viper. Early antivenom therapy does not prevent the histologic, electromyographic, or nerve conduction abnormalities. PMID:8203709

  1. [Cutaneous diphtheria after a minor injury in Sri Lanka].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, L; Mechlin, A; Schultz, E S

    2016-02-01

    Cutaneous dipththeria is an infectious bacterial disease endemic in tropical regions, but rarely diagnosed in Germany. Following travel in Sri Lanka, a 60-year-old German presented to our dermatological clinic with a skin ulcer and extensive erythematous erosive edema of his left foot. Corynebacterium diphtheriae was isolated from a swab of the lesion. There were no clinical signs of toxic diphtheria. The patient was treated with penicillin G and erythromycin, followed by a slow healing of the lesion. The isolated strain could be identified as toxigenic C. diphtheriae mitis. Due to increased travel activity, dermatologists should have uncommon infections like cutaneous diphtheria in mind. PMID:26525966

  2. Integrated approach for coastal hazards and risks in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcin, M.; Desprats, J. F.; Fontaine, M.; Pedreros, R.; Attanayake, N.; Fernando, S.; Siriwardana, C. H. E. R.; de Silva, U.; Poisson, B.

    2008-06-01

    The devastating impact of the tsunami of 26 December 2004 on the shores of the Indian Ocean recalled the importance of knowledge and the taking into account of coastal hazards. Sri Lanka was one of the countries most affected by this tsunami (e.g. 30 000 dead, 1 million people homeless and 70% of the fishing fleet destroyed). Following this tsunami, as part of the French post-tsunami aid, a project to establish a Geographical Information System (GIS) on coastal hazards and risks was funded. This project aims to define, at a pilot site, a methodology for multiple coastal hazards assessment that might be useful for the post-tsunami reconstruction and for development planning. This methodology could be applied to the whole coastline of Sri Lanka. The multi-hazard approach deals with very different coastal processes in terms of dynamics as well as in terms of return period. The first elements of this study are presented here. We used a set of tools integrating a GIS, numerical simulations and risk scenario modelling. While this action occurred in response to the crisis caused by the tsunami, it was decided to integrate other coastal hazards into the study. Although less dramatic than the tsunami these remain responsible for loss of life and damage. Furthermore, the establishment of such a system could not ignore the longer-term effects of climate change on coastal hazards in Sri Lanka. This GIS integrates the physical and demographic data available in Sri Lanka that is useful for assessing the coastal hazards and risks. In addition, these data have been used in numerical modelling of the waves generated during periods of monsoon as well as for the December 2004 tsunami. Risk scenarios have also been assessed for test areas and validated by field data acquired during the project. The results obtained from the models can be further integrated into the GIS and contribute to its enrichment and to help in better assessment and mitigation of these risks. The coastal-hazards-and-risks GIS coupled with modelling thus appears to be a very useful tool that can constitute the skeleton of a coastal zone management system. Decision makers will be able to make informed choices with regards to hazards during reconstruction and urban planning projects.

  3. Community psychiatry service in Sri Lanka: a successful model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpa Ranasinghe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current practice of psychiatry there is a shift from hospital to community based care. Different models of community psychiatry have been tried in different countries. Though this concept is based on several core principles, each country has to find what is best suited for its population. In Sri Lanka too, community psychiatry projects have been initiated by psychiatrists. We describe below one such project started in a postal area in the capital, Colombo, by one of the authors. The project began in late 2008 and by 2010 was functioning independently and fulfilled the criteria for a community based mental health service.

  4. Integrated approach for coastal hazards and risks in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Garcin, M.; Desprats, J.F.; Fontaine, M; Pedreros, R.; Attanayake, N.; Fernando, S.; Siriwardana, C.H.E.R.; U. De Silva; Poisson, B.

    2008-01-01

    The devastating impact of the tsunami of 26 December 2004 on the shores of the Indian Ocean recalled the importance of knowledge and the taking into account of coastal hazards. Sri Lanka was one of the countries most affected by this tsunami (e.g. 30 000 dead, 1 million people homeless and 70% of the fishing fleet destroyed). Following this tsunami, as part of the French post-tsunami aid, a project to establish a Geographical Information System (GIS) on coastal hazards and risks was funded. T...

  5. Sri Lanka and the Tamil Tigers: Conflict and Legitimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomi Yass

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE was founded in 1976, demanding the establishment of an independent state for the Tamil ethnic minority in northern and northeastern Sri Lanka. In May 2009, following over three decades of conflict, its leader, Velupillai Prabhakaran was killed and the group was dismantled. The LTTE was established long before other well-known terror groups emerged, and yet it received little attention in comparison. An analysis of the relations between Sri Lankan governments and the Tamil Tigers from the onset of the struggle in the 1970s up to the group’s final defeat in May 2009 can provide valuable lessons to other democratic states fighting terrorist organizations, including Israel.

  6. Concomitant leptospirosis-hantavirus co-infection in acute patients hospitalized in Sri Lanka: implications for a potentially worldwide underestimated problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil-Chandra, N P; Clement, J; Maes, P; DE Silva, H J; VAN Esbroeck, M; VAN Ranst, M

    2015-07-01

    Two global (re-)emerging zoonoses, leptospirosis and hantavirus infections, are clinically indistinguishable. Thirty-one patients, hospitalized in Sri Lanka for acute severe leptospirosis, were after exclusion of other potentially involved pathogens, prospectively screened with IgM ELISA for both pathogens. Of these, nine (29·0%) were positive for leptospirosis only, one (3·2%) for hantavirus only, seven (22·5%) for both pathogens concomitantly, whereas 13 (41·9%) remained negative for both. Moreover, in a retrospective study of 23 former patients, serologically confirmed for past leptospirosis, six (26·0%) were also positive in two different IgG ELISA hantavirus formats. Surprisingly, European Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) results were constantly higher, although statistically not significantly different, than Asian Hantaan virus (HTNV), suggesting an unexplained cross-reaction, since PUUV is considered absent throughout Asia. Moreover, RT-PCR on all hantavirus IgM ELISA positives was negative. Concomitant leptospirosis-hantavirus infections are probably heavily underestimated worldwide, compromising epidemiological data, therapeutical decisions, and clinical outcome. PMID:25582980

  7. Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth: Evidence from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirunavukkarasu Velnampy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Various international organizations and foreign advisors suggested that developing countries should focusprimarily on foreign direct investment (FDI as a source of external finance. In this context, the main purpose ofthe study is to find out the impact of foreign direct investment on economic growth in the Sri LankanPerspective. Data on the foreign direct investment and economic growth from the year 1990 to 2011 werecollected for the study purpose. Further, the results revealed that, there is no significant impact of FDI on theeconomic growth, which is in lowest level. Only 4.3 percent of the variance in the dependent variable has beenfound. In contrast, we found that, in the Sri Lankan context, there is a long run equilibrium relationship betweenFDI and economic growth rate. Statistical findings on the basic regression analysis, Co integration test andGranger causality test show the contradiction in terms of the findings. Meantime, scholars in the econometricsstated that, Co integration test generally is applied among time series data. Due to that, Co integration test givethe insights to the findings in terms of long run view. Finally, we have suggested that, the Sri LankanGovernment and Central Bank of Sri Lanka jointly should take the necessary action to focus on theinfrastructure development through the FDI to get the economic growth in the long term view. Meantime, FDIshould be directed to agricultural actives to get the food sufficient aspects in the local and globalized level.

  8. The history of nursing services and education in Sri Lanka and the effects on developing professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekara, Rasika S; McCutcheon, Helen

    2006-10-01

    Understanding the evolution of nursing in a country provides perspective on the origins of current successes and dilemmas and enables the development of strategies and plans for future trends in the profession. This article explores the evolution of nursing services and education in Sri Lanka and the effects on developing professionalism in nursing. Internet database searches, personal communication, and published and unpublished literature and reports were reviewed to obtain historical information on nursing services and education in Sri Lanka. The Sri Lankan health system is reviewed, and the establishment of Western medicine in Sri Lanka and its effects on developing institutionalized nursing education is presented, with a focus on the evolution of nursing education. Major challenges for the nursing profession in Sri Lanka are discussed, and some recommendations are shared. PMID:17058693

  9. Malaria in Sri Lanka: one year post-tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amerasinghe Priyanie H

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One year ago, the authors of this article reported in this journal on the malaria situation in Sri Lanka prior to the tsunami that hit on 26 December 2004, and estimated the likelihood of a post-tsunami malaria outbreak to be low. Malaria incidence has decreased in 2005 as compared to 2004 in most districts, including the ones that were hit hardest by the tsunami. The malaria incidence (aggregated for the whole country in 2005 followed the downward trend that started in 2000. However, surveillance was somewhat affected by the tsunami in some coastal areas and the actual incidence in these areas may have been higher than recorded, although there were no indications of this and it is unlikely to have affected the overall trend significantly. The focus of national and international post tsunami malaria control efforts was supply of antimalarials, distribution of impregnated mosquito nets and increased monitoring in the affected area. Internationally donated antimalarials were either redundant or did not comply with national drug policy, however, few seem to have entered circulation outside government control. Despite distribution of mosquito nets, still a large population is relatively exposed to mosquito bites due to inadequate housing. There were no indications of increased malaria vector abundance. Overall it is concluded that the tsunami has not negatively influenced the malaria situation in Sri Lanka.

  10. Research and development on radiation processing in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on radiation processing of natural polymer such as polysaccharides of chitosan, cellulose, carrageenan has been carried out in Sri Lanka since the year 2004. The research group have been involving in development activities on application of chitin and chitosan for wound dressing, irradiated chitosan on shelf life extension of fruits such as papaya, banana, mangoes, radiation crosslinked super-absorbent hydrogel from sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by radiation processing. Hydrogels prepared with PVA/Carrageenan/Agar has been studied on guinea pigs to determine the wound healing effect. Irradiated chitosan powder and chitosan solution was studied in vitro and found chitosan solution (1%) directly subjected to irradiation dosages even at 5 kGy was highly effective in control of anthracnose causing organism of papaya. In vivo studies with irradiated 1% chitosan solution on Rathana and red lady variety of papaya shows better control of spoilage of papaya to a considerable extent. The government of Sri Lanka (Ministry of Science and Technology and Atomic Energy Authority) is in the process of establishing the first government owned Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility and it will be helpful to transfer the output of R and D in radiation processing. (author)

  11. The prevalence of previous self-harm amongst self-poisoning patients in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Fahim; Perera, Aravinda; Wijayaweera, Kusal; Kularatne, Keerthi; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Eddleston, Michael; Dawson, Andrew; Konradsen, Flemming; Gunnell, David

    2011-01-01

    investigate the prevalence of previous self-harm among a consecutive series of self-harm patients presenting to hospitals in rural Sri Lanka. METHOD: Six hundred and ninety-eight self-poisoning patients presenting to medical wards at two hospitals in Sri Lanka were interviewed about their previous episodes of...... with previous Asian research and is considerably lower than that seen in the West. Explanations for these low levels of repeat self-harm require investigation. Our data indicate that a focus on the aftercare of those who attempt suicide in Sri Lanka may have a smaller impact on suicide incidence than...

  12. The India-Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement and the proposed comprehensive economic partnership agreement: A closer look

    OpenAIRE

    Kelegama, Saman

    2014-01-01

    The India-Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement has been in operation for more than a decade. The paper provides the Sri Lankan perspective of the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) highlighting both the positive outcomes and the negative aspects. The paper shows that the FTA has worked in favor of Sri Lanka but its full potential has not yet been realized due to market access problems in India, and the lack of supply capacity for some products in Sri Lanka. The India-Sri Lanka Comprehensive Economic Partne...

  13. Understanding the explanatory model of the patient on their medically unexplained symptoms and its implication on treatment development research: a Sri Lanka Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumathipala Kethaki

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS are often distressed, disabled and dissatisfied with the care they receive. Illness beliefs held by patients have a major influence on the decision to consult, persistence of symptoms and the degree of disability. Illness perception models consist of frameworks to organise information from multiple sources into distinct but interrelated dimensions: identity (the illness label, cause, consequences, emotional representations perceived control and timeline. Our aim was to elicit the illness perceptions of patients with MUS in Sri Lankan primary care to modify and improve a CBT intervention. Method An intervention study was conducted in a hospital primary care clinic in Colombo, Sri Lanka using CBT for MUS. As a part of the baseline assessment, qualitative data was collected using; the Short Explanatory Model Interview (SEMI, from 68 patients (16–65 years with MUS. We categorised the qualitative data in to key components of the illness perception model, to refine CBT intervention for a subsequent larger trial study. Results The cohort was chronically ill and 87% of the patients were ill for more than six months (range six months to 20 years with 5 or more symptoms and 6 or more visits over preceding six months. A majority were unable to offer an explanation on identity (59% or the cause (56%, but in the consequence domain 95% expressed significant illness worries; 37% believed their symptoms indicated moderately serious illness and 58% very serious illness. Reflecting emotional representation, 33% reported fear of death, 20% fear of paralysis, 13% fear of developing cancer and the rest unspecified incurable illness. Consequence and emotional domains were significant determinants of distress and consultations. Their repeated visits were to seek help to alleviate symptoms. Only a minority expected investigations (8.8 % or diagnosis (8.8%. However, the doctors who had previously treated them allegedly concentrated more on identity than cause. The above information was used to develop simple techniques incorporating analogies to alter their perceptions Conclusion The illness perception model is useful in understanding the continued distress of patients with persistent symptoms without an underlying organic cause. Hence it can make a significant contribution when developing and evaluating culturally sensitive patient friendly interventions.

  14. Content Analysis of Food and Beverages Advertisements Targeting Children and Adults on Television in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathapan, Shamini; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Low, Wah Yun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Food marketing is one of the main factors in the increase in childhood obesity. The objective is to compare the strategies used for promotion of food and beverages advertisements on Sri Lankan television for children and adults. Method Among 16 analog television channels in Sri Lanka, 50% of the channels were selected randomly after stratifying according to language. Recording was during weekdays and weekends. In total, 95 different food and beverages advertisements were analyzed irrespective of the channel. Results Among all food and beverages–related advertisements, 78% were child focused, and among these 74% claimed health benefits. A statistically significant difference was found in terms of implications related to nutrition or health (P < .05). None of the advertisements contained disclaimers. Conclusion and recommendations The Ministry of Health needs to pursue all food and beverages–focused advertisements for policy formulation and implementation. PMID:26658325

  15. Childrens’ clubs: new ways of working with conflict-displaced children in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Hart

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is based upon research conducted earlyin 2002 in the Batticaloa and Ampara Districts ofeastern Sri Lanka, a rural region which has witnessednearly two decades of inter-ethnic conflict.

  16. The Solar Orientation of the Lion Rock Complex in Sri Lanka

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the solar orientation of the archaeological complex of Sigiriya, the Lion Rock, in Sri Lanka. We can see that the axis of this complex is oriented with the sunset of the zenithal sun.

  17. An ICT-Based Real-Time Surveillance System for Controlling Dengue in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Rukshan; Alexander, Miroshan

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a notifiable communicable disease in Sri Lanka since 1996. Dengue fever spread rapidly among people living in most of the districts of Sri Lanka. The present notification system of dengue communicable diseases which is enforced by law is a passive surveillance system carried out by the public health care professionals. The present notification of communicable disease system is manual, slow, inefficient, and repetitive all of these lead to handle the dengue related ...

  18. Distribution pattern of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter (pfcrt) gene haplotypes in Sri Lanka 1996-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jenny J; Senaratne, Tharanga N; Daniels, Rachel; Valim, Clarissa; Alifrangis, Michael; Amerasinghe, Priyanie; Konradsen, Flemming; Rajakaruna, Rupika; Wirth, Dyann F; Karunaweera, Nadira D

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. Widespread antimalarial resistance has been a barrier to malaria elimination efforts in Sri Lanka. Analysis of genetic markers in historic parasites may uncover trends in the spread of resistance. We examined the frequency of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter (pfcrt; codons 72-76) haplotypes in Sri Lanka in 1996-1998 and 2004-2006 using a high-resolution melting assay. Among 59 samples from 1996 to 1998, we detected the SVMNT (86%), CVMNK (10%), and CVIET (2%) haplotypes, w...

  19. Global Observatory for eHealth (GOe) Survey in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Rasika Rampatige; MH Abusayeed; Himan Galappaththi

    2010-01-01

    The Global Observatory for eHealth (GOe), is an important initiative established in 2005 by the World Health Organization (WHO), designed to provide countries with strategic information and guidance on effective, practices, policies and standards in eHealth. The second eHealth survey was conducted in 2009 where Sri Lanka too participated. This short report is based on the findings of the GOe Survey for Sri Lanka. The second GOe survey had seven sections. The survey was completed with contribu...

  20. Planning E-government startup:a case study on E-Sri-Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Davidrajuh, Reggie

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the proposed implementation strategies of e-government in Sri Lanka. First, the vision of e-Sri Lanka – the information and communication technology development roadmap to achieve e-governance – is presented. Second, a literature study on e-government startup is given. Also given in the literature study is an approach for analyzing implementation strategies; this approach is based on the theory of connection. Third, the proposed implementation strategies are presented. Fou...

  1. Impacts of Service Sector Policy Reform:CGE model Analysis based on Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Pallegedara, Asankha

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the macroeconomic effects of services sector reform policies using two computable general equilibrium models of Sri Lankan economy. First model assumes perfect competitive market and second one assumes monopoly supplier economy. Both models have been calibrated using Sri Lanka’s social accounting matrix currently available. Impacts of both services sector production tax reduction and import tariff increase have been simulated. Simulation results imply that reduction of...

  2. Economic development perspectives of post-disaster infrastructure reconstruction: Post-tsunami reconstruction in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Palliyaguru, R. S.; Amaratunga, Dilanthi; Haigh, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Sri Lanka was found to be a disaster prone country in the recent past. The impact is more severe when developing countries are faced to various natural or man-made disasters. Impact appears in many forms; loss of lives and property, economic impact, social impact etc. As a developing country, Sri Lanka is much more concerned with the country’s economic development. Therefore, it is wise to look into post-disaster activities in development perspectives and integrate disaster ris...

  3. Symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescent students; a perspective from Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Wijeratne Thilina; Gurusinghe Jayantha; Welgama Srina; Rodrigo Chaturaka; Jayananda Gamini; Rajapakse Senaka

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Sri Lanka recorded an extraordinary high suicide rate for adolescents aged 15 - 19 in the early 1990s (46.5/100,000). With this in perspective, the Ministry of Health in Sri Lanka recommends school programmes for adolescents by mental health units of local hospitals. Methods We conducted cross sectional surveys to screen for symptoms of anxiety and depression among students aged 14 - 18 during school mental health programmes. Two schools were randomly selected within the R...

  4. Sri Lanka - Public Sector Accounting and Auditing: A Comparison to International Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanian, P. K.; Wickramasinghe, Jiwanka; Points, Ronald; Jacobs, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This assessment of public sector accounting and auditing is generally meant to assist with the implementation o f more effective Public Financial Management (PFM) through better quality accounting and public audit processes in Sri Lanka. Following the introduction, and chapters on public sector accounting and auditing, Annex A explains the methodology used for the study. Annex B provides a summary of accounting and auditing standards referred to in this study. Annex C and D provide Sri Lanka ...

  5. Awareness of breast cancer among adolescent girls in Colombo, Sri Lanka: a school based study

    OpenAIRE

    Ranasinghe, Hasanthika M; Ranasinghe, Nilakshika; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Rohini de A Seneviratne; Rajapakse, Senaka

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the commonest cancer in women worldwide. Although programmes promoting breast cancer awareness are being carried out throughout Sri Lanka, few have targeted school students. We conducted this study to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding breast cancer with reference to screening, services available, breast self-examination, and sources of information, among adolescent schoolgirls in the Colombo District of Sri Lanka. Methods The knowledge, attitu...

  6. Board Leadership Structure, Audit Committee and Audit Quality: Evidence from Manufacturing Companies in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Thirunavukarasu Velnampy; Nadarajah Sivathaasan; Rajalingam Tharanika; Muthulingam Sinthuja

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to analyze whether the corporate governance attributes such as board leadershipstructure, audit committee meetings held, size of independent non-executive directors and size of non-executivedirectors have significant impact on audit quality of manufacturing companies listed on Colombo Stock Exchange,Sri Lanka during 2011 to 2013.Research Design: The study takes 32 manufacturing companies listed in Sri Lanka out of 36 as sample andemploys binary logistic regression met...

  7. The determinants of household poverty in Sri Lanka: 2006/2007

    OpenAIRE

    Ranathunga, Seetha P.B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the Micro-level factors associated with household poverty in Sri Lanka using latest Household Income and Expenditure Surveys (HIES) data in 2006/07 employing OLS, quintile and probit regressions. The results of the probit regression indicate that, the major determinants of household poverty in Sri Lanka are human capital related factors which can be link to the labour market and remittances. Further, qunatile regression shows that education and foreign remittances have sig...

  8. Influencing factors leading to adolescent pregnancy in tea estates in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Wisse, P.

    2008-01-01

    PROBLEM: Adolescent pregnancies are an emerging problem in Sri Lanka and particular among Indian Tamil adolescents (10-19 years) from the tea estates. The risks and consequences for health and socio-economical risks for mother and child such as increased risk for maternal and infant mortality are unacceptable large. THE RESEARCH QUESTION FOR THIS THESIS: what are the influencing factors for adolescents (10-19 years) in Sri Lanka, particularly in tea estates, that lead to pregnancy and STI inc...

  9. A morphologically distinct Phlebotomus argentipes population from active cutaneous leishmaniasis foci in central Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Shalindra Ranasinghe; Rhaiza DC Maingon; Bray, Daniel P; Ward, Richard D; Chandani Udagedara; Manel Dissanayake; Vathsala Jayasuriya; Nissanka K de Silva

    2012-01-01

    Although the reported aetiological agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sri Lanka is Leishmania donovani, the sandfly vector remains unknown. Ninety-five sandflies, 60 females and 35 males, collected in six localities in the district of Matale, central Sri Lanka, close to current active transmission foci of CL were examined for taxonomically relevant characteristics. Eleven diagnostic morphological characters for female sandflies were compared with measurements described for Indian and Sr...

  10. Characterization of imported malaria, the largest threat to sustained malaria elimination from Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmawardena, Priyani; Premaratne, Risintha G; de AW Gunasekera, WM Kumudunayana T; Hewawitarane, Mihirini; Mendis, Kamini; Fernando, Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Sri Lanka has reached zero indigenous malaria cases in November 2012, two years before its targeted deadline for elimination. Currently, the biggest threat to the elimination efforts are the risk of resurgence of malaria due to imported cases. This paper describes two clusters of imported malaria infections reported in 2013 and 2014, one among a group of Pakistani asylum-seekers resident in Sri Lanka, and the other amongst local fishermen who returned from Sierra Leone. The two clusters studi...

  11. An Overview: Vaccination to control fowl typhoid in Commercial layers, Sri Lanka.

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. R. Priyantha

    2009-01-01

    Poultry production and consumption in Sri Lanka, has been dramatically increased during last two decades and Salmonellosis was reported as one of the prevalent diseases in commercial layers. Both S.Gallianrum as well as S.Pullorum is causing severe economical impact to the industry, while S.Typhimurium and S.Enteritidis are also important in the public health aspects. Vaccination against Salmonellosis is widely practiced in several countries in the world to control the infection: In Sri Lanka...

  12. Distribution of Lutra lutra in the Highlands of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva P. K. de

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available The only otter found in Sri Lanka is Lutra lutra. A survey was carried out in 1989/1990 in the highland region of the island, an area drained by four river systems. Abundant signs of otters were found. Freshwater crabs form the main part of the otters' diet in the study area, where few fish are found. Although at present, otters are plentiful, partly because access to tea plantations is limited, reducing pressure on otters living on them, this may not continue as vegetable farming increases, bringing pesticide and fertiliser washoff and soil erosion. Mining is also causing increased water turbidity, and fish farming is leading to otters being destroyed. Peak Wilderness Sanctuary and the Horton Plains National Park help to protect otters and other wildlife, but conservation measures need to be put in place now to protect otters against theses growing threats.

  13. Moore's law, Dabbawalas, and pediatric cardiac care in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarasinghe, Duminda

    2015-01-01

    Sri Lanka is an island nation in Indian Ocean that provides free healthcare to all citizens through government healthcare system. It has commendable health indices in the region. Pediatric cardiac services have rapidly progressed over past few years helping to further bring down infant and under-five mortality rates. Lady Ridgeway Hospital for Children (LRH) is the only tertiary care referral center for children with heart disease in the country. Currently it performs approximately 1,000 cardiac catheterizations and 1,000 cardiac surgeries every year. Target is to double the surgical output to treat all children with heart diseases in a timely and appropriate manner. Being a middle-income country, this is not an easy task. Technology used in diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart diseases is rapidly advancing with its price tag. In such a setting, it is challenging to proceed to achieve this target in a resource-limited environment. PMID:26085764

  14. Malaria in Sri Lanka: one year post-tsunami

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briët, Olivier J T; Galappaththy, Gawrie N L; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H; Konradsen, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    One year ago, the authors of this article reported in this journal on the malaria situation in Sri Lanka prior to the tsunami that hit on 26 December 2004, and estimated the likelihood of a post-tsunami malaria outbreak to be low. Malaria incidence has decreased in 2005 as compared to 2004 in most...... districts, including the ones that were hit hardest by the tsunami. The malaria incidence (aggregated for the whole country) in 2005 followed the downward trend that started in 2000. However, surveillance was somewhat affected by the tsunami in some coastal areas and the actual incidence in these areas may...... have been higher than recorded, although there were no indications of this and it is unlikely to have affected the overall trend significantly. The focus of national and international post tsunami malaria control efforts was supply of antimalarials, distribution of impregnated mosquito nets and...

  15. Post-Tsunami Reconstruction in Sri Lanka: Houses or Housing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazai, B.; Franco, G.; Ingram, J. C.; Rumbaitis del Rio, C.

    2005-12-01

    Reconstruction can be an opportunity to address longer-term livelihood vulnerability within poor communities and households, and to empower the most vulnerable. The post-tsunami reconstruction efforts in Sri Lanka can be seen on two disconnected scales. On a local scale there seems to be a growing recognition by district-level government and NGOs on the importance of households in creating social, human and financial capital, as demonstrated by many programs targeted at rebuilding livelihoods and income-generating activities. On a national scale, however, programs have revealed an emphasis on houses as the physical capital rather than housing as the arena of social and economic life. The aim of national-scale programs is to deliver tangible and quantifiable products, in the form of houses built, often without regard of whether this complements or disrupts livelihoods. One example of such a directive is the implementation of a coastal buffer zone which will ban any new construction within a 100 to 200 meter band from the ocean and allowing only structures that sustained less than 40 percent damage to remain and rebuild. In general these kind of surviving structures along the coast are businesses such as hotels and restaurants. In an island nation such as Sri Lanka, where beach front property is by and large considered low-income housing, typically inhabited by fishermen who rely on the ocean for their livelihoods, the buffer zone constitutes a drastic oversight of local processes shaping these households. The product-oriented solution on the national scale has resulted in building permanent houses for fishery communities in resettlement sites kilometers away from the ocean. The focus of this presentation will be on reconciling the need for immediate shelter needs with a long-term perspective of livelihood rehabilitation using Sri Lanka as a case study. Houses themselves are often not an immediate priority for local people, whose first need is likely to resume income-generating activities. In normal times, building houses is seen as a multi-stage process often fitted around the local economic calendar: annual farming or fishing cycles for example. Disaster victims may choose to stay in makeshift shelters in the short term, hoping to have more time, money or materials for rebuilding later. A major challenge for the tsunami-stricken areas in Sri Lanka is to find ways of widening public participation in what to date has been a governmental framework that operates on two disconnected scales in its reconstruction efforts. There is a general absence of mechanisms for incorporating community participation into the governmental decision-making process. Local governments might have also been expected to play a larger role in recovery decision making, but frequently lack both the resources and the authority to become actively involved. Lack of participation in the construction process, has led on an over-reliance on outsiders, reinforcing an attitude of raised expectations.

  16. Nuclear Knowledge Management Implementation Issues In Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About Knowledge Management: Process of organizing and distributing an Organization’s collective wisdom so the right information gets to the right people at the right time. NKM Implementation Problems in Sri Lanka: • Difficulty of identifying nuclear knowledge holders; • NKM has not been given considerable importance; • Many nuclear science experts are in retirement age; • No proper mechanism is available to replace young personnel for their positions; • Unawareness of general public about his technology. • Capacity building through training and education and transferring knowledge from centers of knowledge to centers of growth are key issues. • Development of new courses related to nuclear science is a key issue to be highly considered. • The tendency towards the training and educations of nuclear personnel in the country is becoming less and less

  17. Fossilized diatoms in meteorites from recent falls in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Wallis, Jamie; Wickramarathne, Keerthi; Samaranayake, Anil; Williams, George; Jerman, Gregory; Wallis, D. H.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    2013-09-01

    On December 29, 2012, a bright yellow and green fireball was observed to disintegrate over the Polonnaruwa District of North Central, Sri Lanka. Many low density, black stones were recovered soon after the observed fall from rice paddy fields near the villages of Aralaganwila and Dimbulagala. These stones were initially studied by optical microscopy methods at the Medical Research Institute in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Soon thereafter, samples were sent to the UK and to the United States. More extensive Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy studies were then carried out at Cardiff University and the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center. The physico-chemical properties, elemental abundances, mineralogy and stable isotope data clearly indicate that these stones are non-terrestrial. Freshly fractured interior surfaces of the black stones have also been observed to contain the remains of fossilized diatom. Many of the diatom frustules are clearly embedded in the meteorite rock matrix and exhibit nitrogen levels below the EDX detection limits. Some of the fossil diatoms are araphid marine pennates and planktonic forms that are inconsistent with conditions associated with rice paddy fields. These observations indicate the fossilized diatoms are indigenous to the meteorites rather than post-arrival biological contaminants. The carbon content and mineralogy suggests that these stones may represent a previously ungrouped clan of carbonaceous meteorites. The extremely low density (~0.6) of the stones and their observed mineralogy was inconsistent with known terrestrial rocks (e.g., pumice, diatomite and fulgurites). The minerals detected suggest that the parent body of the Polonnaruwa stones may have been the nucleus of a comet. These observations are interpreted as supporting the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe Panspermia hypothesis and the hypothesis that diatoms and other microorganisms might be capable of living and growing in water ice and brines in comets.

  18. X-ray fluorescence in IAEA Member States: Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ED-XRF facility was established in the analytical laboratory of the Atomic Energy Authority of Sri Lanka in 2001 under the technical assistance received through a IAEA TC project. The facility comprises of a X ray tube (Rich - Seifert), a sample holder with secondary target assembly and a Si (Li) detector. The laboratory has also got the necessary facilities to analyze water samples by co-precipitating technique using APDC. Our XRF laboratory has already established analytical procedures to use emission transmission methods (AXIl-QAES, P. Kump), back-scatter fundamental parameter method (QXAS-BFP), APDC co-precipitation method and thin and thick sample analysis method. Selected activities carried out by the XRF Laboratory are: Research study on heavy metal concentration levels in crow feathers collected from different environments and in industrial effluents released to a main water body (i.e the Kelani River); Research study on hyper accumulating capacity of flora in Ussangoda area (Serpentine mineral deposited area); Study on the possibility of removing heavy metals in liquid waste by bricks (low cost waste water treatment method); Study on heavy metal contamination in soil collected from Tsunami affected areas; Elemental analysis of air particulate matter to identify pollutants and pollution sources; Provision of analytical services to archaeological studies; Alloy analysis for technical evaluations. In Sri Lanka, there is a rising demand for this analytical service as it can provide the customer relatively fast and reliable results at low cost. AEA has decided to upgrade the existing facility to TXRF through the IAEA technical assistance to meet the demand for the services to analyse water and other liquid samples. In addition, Quality Assurance and Quality control procedures have been implemented for validation of analytical methods and check of accuracy of analytical results obtained

  19. Indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka: production systems and genetic diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production status, farming systems and genetic diversity of indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka were evaluated using six geographically distinct populations. The indigenous cattle population of the country is considered as a nondescript mixture of genotypes, and represents more than half of the total cattle population of 1.2 million heads. Five distinct indigenous populations were investigated for morphological analysis, and four were included in evaluating genetic differences. Farming systems were analysed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. The genetic variation was assessed within and between populations using 15 autosomal and two Y-specific microsatellite markers, and compared with two indigenous populations from the African region. Farming system analysis revealed that indigenous cattle rearing was based on traditional mixed-crop integration practices and operates under limited or no input basis. The contribution of indigenous cattle to total tangible income ranged from zero to 90% reflecting the high variation in the purpose of keeping. Morphometric measurements explained specific phenotypic characteristics arising from geographical isolation and selective breeding. Though varying according to the region, the compact body, narrow face, small horns and humps with shades of brown and black coat colour described the indigenous cattle phenotype in general. Genetic analysis indicated that indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka have high diversity with average number of alleles per locus ranging from 7.9 to 8.5. Average heterozygosity of different regions varied within a narrow range (0.72 ± 0.04 to 0.76 ± 0.03). Genetic distances between regions were low (0.085 and 0.066) suggesting a similar mixture of genotypes across regions. Y-specific analysis indicated a possible introgression of Taurine cattle in one of the cattle populations. (author)

  20. Models for short term malaria prediction in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galappaththy Gawrie NL

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria in Sri Lanka is unstable and fluctuates in intensity both spatially and temporally. Although the case counts are dwindling at present, given the past history of resurgence of outbreaks despite effective control measures, the control programmes have to stay prepared. The availability of long time series of monitored/diagnosed malaria cases allows for the study of forecasting models, with an aim to developing a forecasting system which could assist in the efficient allocation of resources for malaria control. Methods Exponentially weighted moving average models, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models with seasonal components, and seasonal multiplicative autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA models were compared on monthly time series of district malaria cases for their ability to predict the number of malaria cases one to four months ahead. The addition of covariates such as the number of malaria cases in neighbouring districts or rainfall were assessed for their ability to improve prediction of selected (seasonal ARIMA models. Results The best model for forecasting and the forecasting error varied strongly among the districts. The addition of rainfall as a covariate improved prediction of selected (seasonal ARIMA models modestly in some districts but worsened prediction in other districts. Improvement by adding rainfall was more frequent at larger forecasting horizons. Conclusion Heterogeneity of patterns of malaria in Sri Lanka requires regionally specific prediction models. Prediction error was large at a minimum of 22% (for one of the districts for one month ahead predictions. The modest improvement made in short term prediction by adding rainfall as a covariate to these prediction models may not be sufficient to merit investing in a forecasting system for which rainfall data are routinely processed.

  1. Testimony ceremonies in Asia: Integrating spirituality in testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Agger, Inger; Igreja, Victor; Kiehle, Rachel; Polatin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the therapeutic implications of including culturally adapted spiritual ceremonies in the process of testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines. Data were collected through an action research process with Asian mental health and human rights organizations, during which the testimonial method was reconceptualized and modified to include four sessions. In the first two sessions, community workers assist survivors in the writin...

  2. Neurological manifestations of snake bite in Sri Lanka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seneviratne U

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Snake bite is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in certain parts of Sri Lanka. This study was designed to determine the offending snakes, neurological manifestations, disease course, and outcome in neurotoxic envenomation. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Fifty six consecutive patients admitted with neurological manifestations following snake bite were studied prospectively. Data were obtained regarding the offending snakes, neurological symptoms, time taken for onset of symptoms, neurological signs, and time taken for recovery. RESULTS: The offending snake was Russell?s viper in 27(48.2%, common and Sri Lankan krait in 19(33.9%, cobra in 3(5.4%, and unidentified in 7(12.5%. Ptosis was the commonest neurological manifestation seen in 48(85.7% followed by ophthalmoplegia (75%, limb weakness (26.8%, respiratory failure (17.9%, palatal weakness (10.7%, neck muscle weakness (7.1%, and delayed sensory neuropathy (1.8%. Neurological symptoms were experienced usually within 6 hours after the bite. Following administration of antivenom, the signs of recovery became evident within a few hours to several days. The duration for complete recovery ranged from four hours to two weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Complete recovery of neuromuscular weakness was observed in all patients except for one who died with intracerebral haemorrhage shortly after admission.

  3. Sri Lanka’s Post-Conflict Strategy: Restorative Justice for Rebels and Rebuilding of Conflict-affected Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Iromi Dharmawardhane

    2013-01-01

    Following the Sri Lankan Government’s military defeat of the internationally proscribed terrorist organisation, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) in May 2009, Sri Lanka embarked on an essential and long-term twofold post-conflict strategy: (i) rehabilitation and reintegration of former LTTE combatants, and (ii) the rebuilding of the conflict-affected Tamil communities of the Northern and Eastern Provinces. The rehabilitation program was by many counts a success, with demonstra...

  4. The Kingdom of Sri Lanka: high literacy is a good sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, D

    1984-02-01

    This discussion of Sri Lanka focuses on population growth, regions and cities, ethnicity and religion, age distribution of the population, households and families, housing, education, labor force and income, communication, and sources of information. The country's 1981 census recorded 14.8 million people, up from 12.7 million in 1971. The population grew by 17% during the decade between censuses, and its average annual rate of growth is presently 2.2%. If the country continues at its current growth rate and minimal level of immigration, the population will double in 32 years. Sri Lanka is divided into 24 administrative districts, ranging in size from 77,500 persons in the northeastern district of Mullaitivu to almost 1.7 million in the southwestern district of Colombo. 4 districts have a million or more persons each. All municipal, urban, and town council areas make up the urban sector of Sri Lanka. All other areas, including estates, are classified as rural. The major ethnic groups are the Sinhala, Sri Lanka Tamil, Indian Tamil, Sri Lanka Moor, Burgher, and Malays. The largest ethnic group in 1981 was Sinhalese, which accounted for 74% of the population. 70% of all Sri Lankans are Buddhists. In 1981, 35% of Sri Lankans were under age 15 versus 23% of Americans. A falling birthrate is reflected in a slight decline in the proportion of the population under 15, which was 39% in 1971. Just over 4% of the populationwas aged 65 and over both 1971 and 1981. There were 2.7 million households in 1981, with an average size of 5.4 persons/household. 70% of all households were extended beyond the nuclear family with a relative other than spouse or children, and 14% of households contained a nonrelative. Therewere 2.8 million occupied housing units counted in 1981, up 27% since 1971. Housing units increased 10% more than population during the decade. In Sri Lanka there are 3 types of housing: permanent, semipermanent, and improvised. Sri Lanka has one of asia's highest literacy rates, with 86% of the population literate in at least 1 language in 1981. This is an increase over the 78% literacy rate in 1971. Males have a higher literacy rate than females at every age. There are about 5.6 million persons in Sri Lanka's labor force, or 62% of all those aged 15-64. Agriculture employs 46% of all workers. Per capita income in 1981 was Us $302. Newspapers, radio, and television are primarily government controlled. Preliminary results from the 1981 census are available from the Department of Census and Statistics, Ministry of Planning Implementation, P. O. Box 563, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. PMID:12313041

  5. Historical Evolution and Present Status of Family Medicine in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanayake, R. P. J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Sri Lankan health system consists of Allopathic, Ayurvedic, Unani, and several other systems of medicine and allopathic medicine is catering to the majority of the health needs of the people. As in many other countries, Sri Lankan health system consists of both the state and the private sector General practitioners, MOs in OPDs of hospitals and MOs of central dispensaries, provide primary medical care in Sri Lanka. Most of the general practices are solo practices. One does not need postgradua...

  6. Imposing restrictions on pornography: its potential impact and effectiveness in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Ranmali Waduge; Asiri Rodrigo; Upali Peris

    2011-01-01

    The government of Sri Lanka recently introduced many measures to limit the accessibility and availability of pornography in the country including censorship of websites containing sexually explicit material and active prosecution of Sri Lankans who appeared on such websites Available evidence suggests that pornographic consumption among Sri Lankan adolescents is considerable and such exposure may influence sexual attitudes and activity including sexual aggression in youth. However the current...

  7. The Global Financial Crisis Impact on Ethnic Diversity of Sri Lanka Boards

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart Locke; Nirosha Hewa Wellalage; Frank Scrimgeour

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the link between ethnic minority directors and agency conflict in Sri Lankan listed companies during a global financial crisis.  Due to social and economic pressures in recent decades, ethnic minorities now make up a larger proportion of directors on corporate boards in Sri Lanka. In addition, the global financial crisis has increased demand for boards to strengthen their ethnic diversity in workplaces.  This study shows that while Sri Lankan boards increased ...

  8. Present status of nuclear science education and training in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Like others Sri Lankans too have fear of nuclear radiation, probably because of the weak system of proper radiation education. Some National Institutes and few Universities are involved in nuclear science teaching and research. There are two major levels of obtaining radiation or nuclear education and training in Sri Lanka : the University and training courses in nuclear related technology and radiation protection offered by the Atomic Energy Authority of the Ministry of Science and Technology. This paper summarizes the status, some of the activities and problems of radiation education in Sri Lanka. (author)

  9. Five Years On: Tsunami Risk Mitigation and Disaster Management Initiatives in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekera Wijetunge, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004 caused unprecedented loss of lives and damage to property in Sri Lanka with over 35,000 killed, 20,000 injured and about 100,000 dwellings and other buildings destroyed or damaged. This catastrophic event also exposed lack of disaster preparedness at the time in Sri Lanka and underscored the need for pro-active disaster planning and risk mitigation. Given the apparently low probability of recurrence of destructive ocean-wide tsunami similar to that in 2004, Sri Lanka preferred an integrated approach to tsunami risk mitigation consisting primarily of non-structural measures, namely, public education and awareness; early warning and evacuation; hazard and risk mapping; and necessary institutional and legislative initiatives. The Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System currently under development, though by no means foolproof, will help improve Sri Lanka’s tsunami early warning capability and reliability. Yet, the more difficult and challenging task will be the dissemination of such tsunami warnings fast and effectively to the vulnerable communities so as to enable their evacuation to safe locations. The Disaster Management Centre of the Government of Sri Lanka has been coordinating all activities related to disaster risk mitigation in the country. Their efforts have indeed been commendable, particularly in setting up of institutional mechanisms to better coordinate risk mitigation activities and in strengthening, streamlining and directing the capabilities and resources of relevant governmental and non-governmental organizations towards a common goal of disaster risk reduction through a multi-hazard approach. The university system in Sri Lanka also has made many contributions towards disaster mitigation through capacity building initiatives, hazard mapping and research. On the whole, Sri Lanka has taken significant steps towards disaster risk reduction since the tsunami devastation in 2004. The country now has a sound disaster risk management institutional framework underpinned by necessary legislative provisions. A comprehensive and holistic strategy has been formulated to unify, prioritize and coordinate the disaster risk management activities that have been planned to be implemented in the next 5-10 years towards building a safer Sri Lanka. As a result, we in Sri Lanka are expected to face disasters better than what we were five years back, yet there is a long way to go to make ourselves disaster resilient.

  10. Indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka: Production systems and genetic diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The production status, farming systems and genetic diversity of indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka were evaluated using six geographically distinct populations in Sri Lanka, which is a small island located below the southern tip of Indian subcontinent. The indigenous cattle population of the country is considered as a non-descript type mixture of genotypes, and represent more than the half of total cattle population of 1.2 million heads. Six distinct indigenous populations (NE, NC, So, No, TK and Th) were investigated for morphological and genetic differences. The respective farming systems were also evaluated to complete the requirement in developing conservation and utilization strategies. The sampling was carried out based on the non-existence of artificial insemination facilities to assure the target populations are indigenous. The six populations were assumed genetically isolated from each other in the absence of nomadic pattern of rearing and regular cattle migration. The farming systems were analyzed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire by single visits to each location. Single visits were practiced, as there is no variation in farming system according to the period of the year. Morphometric measurements were taken during the visit and the genetic variation was assessed within and between five populations using 15 autosomal and two Y-specific microsatellite markers. The farming system analysis revealed that indigenous cattle are reared as a traditional practice in all the regions of the country under limited or no input situations. Since the low productivity masks its real contribution to the rural livelihood, the level of utilization was confounded within the attributes of respective farming systems. The contribution of indigenous cattle to total tangible income ranged from 0% to 90% in different regions reflecting the high variation in the purpose of keeping indigenous cattle. Integration with crop, especially with paddy was the common feature in systems across the regions. Morphometric measurements identified the specific phenotypic characteristics resulted by geographical isolation and selective breeding. Though vary according to the regional preferences, the compact body, narrow face, small horns and humps with shades of brown and black coat colour described the indigenous cattle phenotype in general. The diversity analysis based on microsatellite genotyping indicated that indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka has a high genetic diversity with average number of alleles per locus ranging from 7.9 to 8.5. Average heterozygosity of different regions varied within a narrow range (0.72 ± 0.04 to 0.76 ± 0.03). The genetic distances (DA) between regions were low (ranged between 0.085 and 0.066) suggesting a similar mixture of genotypes across regions despite the geographical isolation. However, two genetic clusters were visible though no relationship of those clusters with the geographical distribution of different regions could be observed. Introgression of taurine cattle was evidenced in one of the cattle populations (NC) as suggested by the Y-specific microsatellite analysis (author)

  11. Oestrus detection and reproductive performance of cattle in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of oestrus detection in pure Bos taurus and Bos taurus x Bos indicus breeds on two large farms and on smallholdings in the mid-country region of Sri Lanka was studied. Milk samples were collected on the day of insemination (D0), and at 7 days (D7) and 23 days (D23) after insemination for the measurement of progesterone concentrations. Of a total of 228 inseminations performed on large farms, ovulatory oestrus was confirmed by progesterone measurement in only 144 animals, giving a correct oestrus detection rate of 63.2%. Of a total of 1317 inseminations performed on smallholdings, oestrus was correctly detected in 805 animals, giving an accuracy of 61.1%. The number of services per conception on large farms and on smallholdings was found to be 3.2 and 2.9, respectively. Most of the incorrect timings of service were due to inseminations being performed during the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle: 28.9% in large farms and 23.1% under smallholder conditions; and on smallholdings, 15.5% of the services were given to anoestrous cows or to cows which failed to ovulate. The percentage of cows in oestrus served by private inseminators (71.3%) was found to be significantly higher (P<0.025) than that in cows served by government technicians (53.8%). The accuracy of diagnosing pregnancy and non-pregnancy on the basis of progesterone concentrations 23 days after insemination, as confirmed by subsequent rectal examination after eight weeks, was found to be 72.5% and 96.4%, respectively. In post-partum cows, the involution of the uterus was found to be complete within 28 ± 8.0 days in 95% of the animals studied. The calving to first service interval was 155 ± 77 days on smallholder farms. In this study, the major causes for lowered reproductive efficiency in cattle in Sri Lanka were found to be delayed onset of post-partum ovarian activity and incorrect timing of service. (author). 33 refs, 9 tabs

  12. Adolescents perception of reproductive health care services in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agampodi Thilini C

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent health needs, behaviours and expectations are unique and routine health care services are not well geared to provide these services. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived reproductive health problems, health seeking behaviors, knowledge about available services and barriers to reach services among a group of adolescents in Sri Lanka in order to improve reproductive health service delivery. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in a semi urban setting in Sri Lanka. A convenient sample of 32 adolescents between 17–19 years of age participated in four focus group discussions. Participants were selected from four midwife areas. A pre-tested focus group guide was used for data collection. Male and female facilitators conducted discussions separately with young males and females. All tape-recorded data was fully transcribed and thematic analysis was done. Results Psychological distresses due to various reasons and problems regarding menstrual cycle and masturbation were reported as the commonest health problems. Knowledge on existing services was very poor and boys were totally unaware of youth health services available through the public health system. On reproductive Health Matters, girls mainly sought help from friends whereas boys did not want to discuss their problems with anyone. Lack of availability of services was pointed out as the most important barrier in reaching the adolescent needs. Lack of access to reproductive health knowledge was an important reason for poor self-confidence among adolescents to discuss these matters. Lack of confidentiality, youth friendliness and accessibility of available services were other barriers discussed. Adolescents were happy to accept available services through public clinics and other health infrastructure for their services rather than other organizations. A demand was made for separate youth friendly services through medical practitioners. Conclusions and recommendations Adolescent health services are inadequate and available services are not being delivered in an acceptable manner. Proper training of health care providers on youth friendly service provision is essential. A National level integrated health care program is needed for the adolescents.

  13. Sri Lanka : de la lutte contre le terrorisme à la catastrophe humanitaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delon Madavan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available La volonté du gouvernement sri lankais d’en finir militairement avec le LTTE a abouti à une catastrophe humanitaire. L’armée et les Tigres se rendent coupables de crime de guerre et de crime contre l’humanité à l’encontre des civils tamouls, qui sont piégés dans la zone de combat ou enfermés dans des camps de détention. La perception différenciée de l’opération militaire selon les communautés nécessiterait la création d’un Tribunal Pénal International pour Sri Lanka.The will of Sri Lankan government to finish militarily with LTTE has ended with an humanitarian catastrophe. Both the Sri Lankan Army and the Tigers are guilty of international war and humanitarian crimes against Tamil civilians, who are trapped in the war zone or locked in detention camps. The different perceptions of the military operation according to the communities should need the creation of an International Penal Court for Sri Lanka

  14. E-waste issues in Sri Lanka and the Basel Convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraweera, Inoka

    2016-03-01

    E-waste is hazardous, complex and expensive to treat in an environmentally sound manner. The management of e-waste is considered a serious challenge in both developed and developing countries and Sri Lanka is no exception. Due to significant growth in the economy and investments and other reasons the consumption of electronic and electrical equipment in Sri Lanka has increased over the years resulting in significant generation of e-waste. Several initiatives such as introduction of hazardous waste management rules, ratification of the Basel Convention in 1992 and the introduction of a National Corporate E-waste Management Program have been undertaken in Sri Lanka to manage e-waste. Strengthening policy and legislation, introducing methods for upstream reduction of e-waste, building capacity of relevant officers, awareness raising among school children and the general public and development of an e-waste information system are vital. Research on e-waste needs to be developed in Sri Lanka. The health sector could play a leading role in the provision of occupational health and safety for e-waste workers, advocacy, capacity building of relevant staff and raising awareness among the general public about e-waste. Improper e-waste management practices carried out by informal sector workers need to be addressed urgently in Sri Lanka. PMID:26943598

  15. Ethics Review Committee approval and informed consent: an analysis of biomedical publications originating from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriwardhana Chesmal

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International guidelines on research have focused on protecting research participants. Ethical Research Committee (ERC approval and informed consent are the cornerstones. Externally sponsored research requires approval through ethical review in both the host and the sponsoring country. This study aimed to determine to what extent ERC approval and informed consent procedures are documented in locally and internationally published human subject research carried out in Sri Lanka. Methods We obtained ERC approval in Sri Lanka and the United Kingdom. Theses from 1985 to 2005 available at the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine (PGIM library affiliated to the University of Colombo were scrutinised using checklists agreed in consultation with senior research collaborators. A Medline search was carried out with MeSH major and minor heading 'Sri Lanka' as the search term for international publications originating in Sri Lanka during 1999 to 2004. All research publications from CMJ during 1999 to 2005 were also scrutinized. Results Of 291 theses, 34% documented ERC approvals and 61% documented obtaining consent. From the international journal survey, 250 publications originated from Sri Lanka of which only 79 full text original research publications could be accessed electronically. Of these 38% documented ERC approval and 39% documented obtaining consent. In the Ceylon Medical Journal 36% documented ERC approval and 37% documented obtaining consent. Conclusion Only one third of the publications scrutinized recorded ERC approval and procurement of informed consent. However, there is a positive trend in documenting these ethical requirements in local postgraduate research and in the local medical journal.

  16. Chemical variability and leaf damage among lychee varieties, host of the Sri Lanka weevil, Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus Marchall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical Variability and leaf damages among lychee varieties, host of the Sri Lanka weevil Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus Marshall. Jerome Niogret, Nancy Epsky, Paul Kendra, Peter Teal The Sri Lanka weevil Myllocerus undercimpustulatus undatus Marshall is serious economic pest in India and P...

  17. 77 FR 69592 - U.S. Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ..., to facilitate the ability of firms to take the mission into account in their business planning, US... Sri Lanka (Colombo) February 3-8, 2013, published at 77 FR 48499, August 14, 2012 to revise the... Mission to Chennai and Cochin, India and Colombo, Sri Lanka on February 3-8, 2013, published at 77...

  18. The use and abuse of female domestic workers from Sri Lanka in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-habib, L

    1998-03-01

    Women who migrate from Sri Lanka to become domestic workers in Lebanon face gender, class, and race discrimination that often results in abuse, yet the predicament of these women is largely ignored by local and international humanitarian and human rights agencies. Public consciousness about the plight of Asian domestic workers in the Persian Gulf region was raised in 1990 when domestic workers were repatriated in the wake of the Gulf War. In Lebanon, nearly half of the work permits granted to foreigners in 1997 were to women from Sri Lanka. This migration began in the 1970s and is sanctioned by the Sri Lanka government because of the economic benefits accruing from wages sent home by these women. Lebanese families procure domestic positions through an employment agency that arranges transportation and entry for the Sri Lankan women. These women, especially minors, often have to bribe Sri Lankan government agents to falsify travel documents. Upon arrival in Lebanon, the women have no support systems or job security. Most employment contracts last 3 years and pay $100/month with no benefits or protection from local labor laws. Domestic workers are made vulnerable by employers who withhold salaries or travel documents. Upon return to Sri Lanka, former domestic workers face social disapproval and marital problems. To redress this situation, the governments of sending and receiving countries must take action to protect female migrant workers, and nongovernmental organizations must publicize the plight of these women and take action to address the abuses they face. PMID:12321536

  19. Tsunami disaster victim identification in Sri Lanka: legal aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Clifford

    2006-10-01

    Natural hazards amounting to disasters have almost become an endemic phenomenon during past decades throughout the globe, particularly affecting less resourced countries. The capabilities of the affected nations are stretched to the maximum in most of the disasters, thereby exposing deficiencies at various levels of the disaster mitigation mechanisms. A key factor identified through the human experience of all previous disaster scenarios is the requisite of effective and integrated local, national and regional disaster management mechanisms. The national and regional legal framework in this context can supplement disaster management enormously by drafting and implementing practical legislation which can be activated in disaster situations to co-ordinate the relief missions and minimize the damage. Thus, the existing legal systems and legislation at national and regional levels should be modified accordingly to yield proper disaster management policies. However, many less resourced countries are still lacking functional disaster management mechanisms in local legislation and are consequently highly vulnerable to heavy casualties in disasters. Sri Lanka is a typical example of a state which had an ineffective disaster management mechanism, not strengthened by legislation, when the Asian tsunami struck the country in December 2004, despite having frequently been affected by natural and man-made hazards during the past three decades. The net effect was total disarray in disaster victim identification, leading to drastic and irreparable consequences. PMID:17191630

  20. Human body donation programs in Sri Lanka: Buddhist perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasinghe, Sandeepani Kanchana; Jones, D Gareth

    2015-09-01

    Considerable attention is being given to the availability of bodies for anatomical education. This raises the question of the manner in which they are obtained, that is, whether they are unclaimed or donated. With increasing emphasis upon the ethical desirability of using body bequests, the spotlight tends to be focused on those countries with factors that militate against donations. However, little attention has been paid to cultures where donations are readily available. One such country is Sri Lanka where the majority of the Buddhist population follows Theravada Buddhism. Within this context, the expectation is that donations will be given selflessly without expecting anything in return. This is because donation of one's body has blessings for a better outcome now and in the afterlife. The ceremonies to honor donors are outlined, including details of the "Pirith Ceremony." The relevance for other cultures of these features of body donation is discussed paying especial attention to the meaning of altruism and consent, and justification for the anonymization of cadavers. The degree to which anatomy is integrated into the surrounding culture also emerges as significant. Anat Sci Educ 8: 484-489. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:25689145

  1. Managing shallow aquifers in the dry zone of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Aditya; Manthrithilake, Herath; Siddiqui, Salman; Rajah, Ameer; Pathmarajah, S

    2015-07-01

    This study looks at the groundwater issues in the dry zone of Sri Lanka and shows how the use of remote sensing with high-resolution images can help in groundwater management. A new approach is developed for automatic extraction of the location of agro-wells using high-spatial-resolution satellite imageries. As an example, three pilot sites in three different aquifer systems in the country are considered, and their high-resolution images are analyzed over two temporal time periods. The analysis suggests that the well density in all three regions has increased over the last few years, indicating higher levels of groundwater extraction. Using the well inventory developed by this new approach, the water budgeting was prepared for the mainland of Jaffna Peninsula. The analysis shows a wide variation in well density in the Jaffna Peninsula, ranging from (as little as) less than 15 wells per square kilometer to (as high as) more than 200 wells per square kilometer. Calculations made for the maximum allowable water extraction in each administrative division of Jaffna show that less than 3 h of daily extraction per well is possible in some districts. This points to an increasing pressure on groundwater resources in the region and thus highlights the importance of understanding groundwater budgets for sustainable development of the aquifers. PMID:26041062

  2. Types of weather at selected meteorological stations in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolska, Ksenia

    2014-09-01

    The paper aims to present the structure of weather types at two meteorological stations Galle and Nuwara Eliya (Sri Lanka). The weather type is determined as a generalized characteristic of the weather by features and gradation of selected meteorological elements. All available data on daily average, maximum and minimum air temperature, the average daily total cloud amount and the daily precipitation amount come from OGIMET database and have been used to designate weather types. The analysis was performed for the period April 2002 - March 2012. The weather types were designated based on the modified A. Wo? (2010) classification of weather types. The frequency of groups, subgroups, classes, and types of weather were determined. Additionally, determined frequency of sequences of days with the same weather type. The analysis allows to conclude, that the structure of weather types at both stations was poorly differentiated. There were very stable weather conditions. In Galle, the most frequent was very warm, partly cloudy weather, without precipitation (920) and in Nuwara Eliya warm, partly cloudy weather without precipitation (820).

  3. Current status of uranium exploration in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from the few occurrences of Gondwana (Jurassic), Miocene and later sediments, most of Sri Lanka consists of Precambrian rocks of Archaean age. These rocks underwent metamorphism under amphibolite and granulite facies conditions about 200 Ma ago. Nine anomalous areas for uranium mineralization were identified after a preliminary geochemical survey of the whole island, except for the northwestern Miocene belt. Consistent low contents of uranium in stream sediment samples suggested that solution or hydromorphic dispersion of uranium is not a prominent mechanism and that most of the uranium dispersion is rather mechanical in nature in most of the country. Six of the above areas lie either within or close to the boundary between the Highland Series and the Vijayan Complex. The latter mainly consists of granitic gneisses, hornblende biotite gneisses, granitoids and migmatites formed under amphibolite facies conditions. Denser sampling (one sample per 1 km2) in Phase II of the programme in two areas, namely Maha Cya and Mala Oya, indicated that further exploration work would be worthwhile. A number of samples from these areas had uranium values greater than 500 ppm. Further, the composition of the amphiboles and pyroxenes from rocks of the Maha Cya area are comparable to those in rocks from known areas of uranium mineralization such as the Mary Kathleen uranium deposit in Australia. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs

  4. Natural radioactivity in bricks used in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present study was to determine the specific radioactivity concentrations of Ra sup 226, Th sup 232 and K sup 40 in brick samples collected from different areas and compare with the corresponding results for bricks of different countries.Sixteen clay and four cement brick samples were collected from kilns in different areas in Sri Lanka. The gamma ray spectra of the prepared samples were measured using a typical high resolution gamma spectrometer based on a shielded HpGe detector.The spectrometer was calibrated for energy and efficiency over the experimental energy range 186-2700 keV using IAEA reference material RGU-1, RGTH-1 and RGK-1.GANAAS software was used to analyse the photopeaks. The measured average specific radioactivity concentrations of Ra sup 226, Th sup 232, K sup 40 in the clay bricks were 35, 69 and 604 Bq per kg respectively. For cement bricks these values were 17, 42, 525 Bq per kg. The corresponding world average values are 50,50 and 500 Bq per kg for the said radionuclides.All three radionuclides were greater than the world average in clay bricks measured from Mahiyangana. Clay bricks from Ampitiya, Anuradhapura and Nikaweratiya measured values are less than the world average for all three radionuclides. Data on concentrations of natural radionuclides can be used to determine dose rates in relation to building materials

  5. Molecular characterisation and disease severity of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kanchana Kumari, Bandara; Manjula, Weerasekera; Chinthika P, Gunasekara; Nilantha, Ranasinghe; Chamil, Marasinghe; Neluka, Fernando.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease all over the world, important in tropical and subtropical areas. A majority of leptospirosis infected patients present as subclinical or mild disease while 5-10% may develop severe infection requiring hospitalisation and critical care. It is possible t [...] hat several factors, such as the infecting serovar, level of leptospiraemia, host genetic factors and host immune response, may be important in predisposition towards severe disease. Different Leptospira strains circulate in different geographical regions contributing to variable disease severity. Therefore, it is important to investigate the circulating strains at geographical locations during each outbreak for epidemiological studies and to support the clinical management of the patients. In this study immunochromatography, microscopic agglutination test and polymerase chain reaction were used to diagnose leptospirosis. Further restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing methods were used to identify the circulating strains in two selected geographical regions of Sri Lanka. Leptospira interrogans, Leptospira borgpetersenii and Leptospira kirschneri strains were identified to be circulating in western and southern provinces. L. interrogans was the predominant species circulating in western and southern provinces in 2013 and its presence was mainly associated with renal failure.

  6. Molecular characterisation and disease severity of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kanchana Kumari, Bandara; Manjula, Weerasekera; Chinthika P, Gunasekara; Nilantha, Ranasinghe; Chamil, Marasinghe; Neluka, Fernando.

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease all over the world, important in tropical and subtropical areas. A majority of leptospirosis infected patients present as subclinical or mild disease while 5-10% may develop severe infection requiring hospitalisation and critical care. It is possible t [...] hat several factors, such as the infecting serovar, level of leptospiraemia, host genetic factors and host immune response, may be important in predisposition towards severe disease. Different Leptospira strains circulate in different geographical regions contributing to variable disease severity. Therefore, it is important to investigate the circulating strains at geographical locations during each outbreak for epidemiological studies and to support the clinical management of the patients. In this study immunochromatography, microscopic agglutination test and polymerase chain reaction were used to diagnose leptospirosis. Further restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing methods were used to identify the circulating strains in two selected geographical regions of Sri Lanka. Leptospira interrogans, Leptospira borgpetersenii and Leptospira kirschneri strains were identified to be circulating in western and southern provinces. L. interrogans was the predominant species circulating in western and southern provinces in 2013 and its presence was mainly associated with renal failure.

  7. Use of x-ray fluorescence and diffraction techniques in studying ancient ceramics of Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceramics were produced for centuries in Sri Lanka for various purposes. Ancient ceramic articles such as pottery, bricks, tiles, sewer pipes, etc, were made from naturally occurring raw materials. Use of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in characterizing of two ancient ceramic samples from two different archaeological sites in Sri Lanka is presented. The information obtained in this manner is used to figure out the ancient ceramic technology, particularly to learn about the raw materials used, the source of raw materials, processing parameters such as firing temperature or binders used in ceramic production. This information then can be used to explore the archaeometric background such as the nature and extent of cultural and technological interaction between different periods of history in Sri Lanka.

  8. Motivations and Usage Patterns of Social Networking Sites: Exploring Cultural Differences Between United States & Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Wijesundara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cybernetics has experienced a major breakthrough and led to the utilization of computers at nearly all parts of daily life including social networking. Even though Social Networking Sites (SNS is a global phenomenon, it is constrained by local conditions such as culture. Thus, the purpose of the study is to incorporate cultural dimensions to the motivations and usage patterns of the SNS considering SNS as a collection of features. Present study replicates a study made in the United States in Sri Lanka, and identified differences, trace them to cultural reasons. Findings revealed that while patterns of SNS usage do not differ across cultures, some of the motivations behind them do differ. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings, possible cultural reasons for differences and directions for further research are discussed.

  9. The Micro and Macro Dynamics of a Mega-disaster: Rethinking the Sri Lanka Tsunami Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Frerks, G.E.

    2009-01-01

    The direct cause of the tsunami of 26 December 2004 was an earthquake off the coast of North Sumatra with a magnitude of 9.0 on the Richter scale. This earthquake set in motion a huge wave that hit fourteen countries around the Indian Ocean. When the tsunami landed, the waves varied from approximately 30 metres high in Banda Aceh up to ten metres in parts of Sri Lanka. The tsunami hit thirteen out of a total of 25 districts in Sri Lanka and more than two-thirds of its coastline. Loss of life ...

  10. Preliminary report on safety aspects on nuclear power generation in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is intended as background information on nuclear energy to contribute to Sri Lanka's comparative study of alternative sources of energy. This study has considered the safety and environmental effects of nuclear power reactors. Basic concepts of nuclear physics are introduced and providing and appreciation of safety considerations and safety aspects of nuclear power plants and the personnel. Radioactive waste management, storage and disposal are also discussed. Natural radiation levels in Sri Lanka are provided as well as information on biological effects of radiation especially occupational exposure licensing procedures for nuclear power plants are outlined strategy for public awareness of nuclear power is proposed

  11. Malaria vectors in a traditional dry zone village in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amerasinghe, P H; Amerasinghe, F P; Konradsen, F; Fonseka, K T; Wirtz, R A

    1999-01-01

    Malaria transmission by anopheline mosquitoes was studied in a traditional tank-irrigation-based rice-producing village in the malaria-endemic low country dry zone of northcentral Sri Lanka during the period August 1994-February 1997. Adult mosquitoes were collected from human and bovid bait...... in An. culicifacies and An. peditaeniatus. Malaria parasite infections were seen in seven mosquito species, with 75% of the positive mosquitoes containing P. falciparum and 25% P. vivax. Polymorph PV247 was recorded from a vector (i.e., An. varuna) for the first time in Sri Lanka. Computations of...

  12. Distribution pattern of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter (pfcrt) gene haplotypes in Sri Lanka 1996-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jenny J; Senaratne, Tharanga N; Daniels, Rachel; Valim, Clarissa; Alifrangis, Michael; Amerasinghe, Priyanie; Konradsen, Flemming; Rajakaruna, Rupika; Wirth, Dyann F; Karunaweera, Nadira D

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. Widespread antimalarial resistance has been a barrier to malaria elimination efforts in Sri Lanka. Analysis of genetic markers in historic parasites may uncover trends in the spread of resistance. We examined the frequency of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter (pfcrt; codons 72......-76) haplotypes in Sri Lanka in 1996-1998 and 2004-2006 using a high-resolution melting assay. Among 59 samples from 1996 to 1998, we detected the SVMNT (86%), CVMNK (10%), and CVIET (2%) haplotypes, with a positive trend in SVMNT and a negative trend in CVMNK frequency (P = 0.004) over time. Among 24 samples...

  13. Food of larval Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles varuna in a stream habitat in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piyaratne, M K; Amerasinghe, P H; Amerasinghe, F P; Konradsen, F

    2005-01-01

    No previous studies have been conducted on the natural food of larval Anopheles culicifacies s.l. (the major malaria vector) and An. varuna (a secondary vector) in Sri Lanka. The present study analyzed the contents of guts dissected from larvae collected from pools in a natural stream-cum-irrigat......No previous studies have been conducted on the natural food of larval Anopheles culicifacies s.l. (the major malaria vector) and An. varuna (a secondary vector) in Sri Lanka. The present study analyzed the contents of guts dissected from larvae collected from pools in a natural stream...

  14. Corporate Governance Practices and Capital Structure: A Case in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivapalan Achchuthan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to find out the significant mean difference in the capital structure among thecorporate governance practices, and secondary objective of the study is to suggest the listed Manufacturingcompanies in the Sri Lankan context to adopt corporate governance practices towards the capital structure. Inthis view, Twenty eight manufacturing companies listed on Colombo Stock Exchange in Sri Lanka wereselected as sample size for the periods, 2009, 2010 and 2011. The one–way Anova (f-test and independentsample t-test were used to find out the out the significant difference in capital structure among corporategovernance practices. Findings revealed that, Corporate Governance Practices contributes significantly toCapital Structure. Board Committee in the Corporate Governance Practices contributes significantly to CapitalStructure. And also Capital Structure is not contributed significantly by Board composition, Board Size, BoardMeeting, and Leadership Structure in Corporate Governance Practices. Meantime, there is no significantdifference in the capital structure in terms of leverage among corporate governance practices of the listedmanufacturing companies in Sri Lanka. Due to that, further study should focus on the determinants of capitalstructure in the listed manufacturing companies to take cues in the financial leverage of the particular companies.Further, suggestion was made that corporate governance rules should be strictly mandated by the Securities andExchange Commission of Sri Lanka. In addition, political, economic, technological and social & cultural aspectsof the Sri Lanka should be considered in the policy framework of the corporate governance.

  15. Coastal risks in Sri-Lanka - GIS, scenario and modelling approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Garcin, Manuel; Desprats, Jean-François; Pedreros, Rodrigo; Fontaine, Mélanie; Sedan, Olivier; Lenotre, Nicole; Attanayake, Nishantha; De Silva, Udaya; Fernando, Starin; Siriwardana, Cher

    2008-01-01

    The impact of the tsunami of December 26, 2004 in Sri Lanka clearly showed the importance of a thorough knowledge of coastal risks and of taking these into account in order to reduce their impacts. We present here a project funded by French Government (Ministère des Affaires Etrangères) and BRGM Research Division including both Sri Lankan and French institutions. The aims of this project are to implement an effective tool designed to reduce the impact of coastal natural hazards and to anticip...

  16. Introduction of Web based Continuous Professional Development to Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumindu Garuka Kulatunga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Continuous Professional Development (CPD can be described as a continuous process which begins on the day a person start practicing as a doctor. Continuous Medical Education (CME concentrates on improving individual professional knowledge by education and training in areas determined by experts. But in CPD, professionals play an active role in defining the knowledge which they see as relevant to their own professional needs and learning takes place not only at individual level but also at organisational level. CPD is becoming a popular mode of learning worldwide by which doctors keep their practice up to-date. CPD is seen as essential for effective practice and for professional development. Even though the standard format of CPD for many years has been formal, there is no specific method in operation. Over the last decade there has been increasing interest in the use of computers to facilitate collaborative learning between healthcare professionals for CPD. Web-based learning is an attractive methodology for medical education and offers some advantages over traditional methods. There is improved clinical practice and improved clinical decision making as a result of web based learning. Professionals are satisfied with the ?exibility and the convenience offered in Web-based mode of CPD delivery as it saves time and money. Web based CPD programmes will fulfil the educational requirements of health professionals in the peripheral parts of Sri Lanka who have difficulty in attending formal education sessions due to their geographical isolation. Meeting the educational needs of professionals already in practice remains a challenge and web based online CPD can play a major role in proving the high demand.

  17. Parasitic infections in freshwater ornamental fish in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilakaratne, I D S I P; Rajapaksha, G; Hewakopara, A; Rajapakse, R P V J; Faizal, A C M

    2003-03-31

    A total of 1520 ornamental fish of 13 species from 26 export farms in Sri Lanka were collected between October 1999 and March 2000 and examined for parasites. Fish species examined were guppy Poecilia reticulata, goldfish Carassius auratus, platy Xiphophorus maculatus, molly Poecilia sphenops, angel Pterophyllum scalare, swordtail Xiphophorus helleri, tetras Hyphessobrycon species, barbs Capeota and Puntius spp., gourami Colisa sp., carp Cyprinus carpio, fighters Betta spelendens and others (Brachydanio and Astronotus spp.). Nine species of monogenean trematodes (Dactylogyrus extensus, Dactylogyrus cf. extensus, D. vastator, Dactylogyrus cf. vastator Dactylogyrus spp., Gyrodactylus turnbulli, G. katherineri, Gyrodactylus cf. katherineri, Gyrodactylus spp.), 7 protozoan species (Trichodina nigra, Trichodina spp., Tetrahymena corlissi, T. pyriformis, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Ichthyobodo necator, Piscinoodinium spp.), 3 species of copepod arthropods (Lernaea cyprinacea, Ergasilus ceylonensis, Argulus foliaceus), 1 metacercarial stage of a digenean trematode (Centrocestus spp.) and 1 nematode (Capillaria spp.) were identified. Parasites were found in fish from 23 of the 26 farms with an overall prevalence of parasitism in 45.3% of fish. The variation in farm prevalence among different parasites was significant (p Tetrahymena, compared with 13/930 for all other species, which is a statistically significant result (p < 0.01). Similarly, 13/44 and 18/44 carp were infected with Argulus foliaceus and Lernaea cyprinacea, compared with 7/1476 and 15/1476, respectively, for all other species combined (p < 0.01). Capillaria spp. was found only in guppies (4/590) and angel fish (3/92) while Centrocestus spp. was found in goldfish (12/153) only. PMID:12747641

  18. Molecular characterization of cyanobacterial diversity in Lake Gregory, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magana-Arachchi, Dhammika; Wanigatunge, Rasika; Liyanage, Madhushankha

    2011-07-01

    Eutrophication or the process of nutrient enrichment of stagnant waters due to excessive use of fertilizer is becoming a critical issue worldwide. Lake Gregory, an artificial lake situated in Nuwara Eliya, Sri Lanka was once a very attractive landscape feature and recreational area attracting a large number of visitors. Rapid urbanization in surrounding areas and the consequent intensification of agricultural and industrial activities led to eutrophication and siltation in the lake. Present study was conducted to detect cyanobacterial diversity and their ability to produce hepatotoxic microcystins using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. Twenty five water samples (surface and bottom) were collected from the lake and total nitrogen and total carbon were estimated. Cyanobacterial cultures were grown in appropriate media and microscopic observations were used to determine the morphological diversity of cyanobacteria isolated from different sites. Genomic DNA was isolated and purified from cyanobacteria using Boom's method. DNA samples were analyzed by PCR with oligonucleotide primers for 16S rRNA gene and mcyA gene of the operon that encodes a microcystin synthetase. The 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed the presences of cyanobacteria belong to Synechococcus sp., Microcystis aeruginosa, Calothrix sp., Leptolyngbya sp., Limnothrix sp., order Oscillatoriales and order Chroococcales. The sequences obtained from this study were deposited in the database under the accession numbers (GenBank: GU368104-GU368116). PCR amplification of mcyA primers indicated the potential for toxin formation of isolated M. aeruginosa from Lake Gregory. This preliminary study shows that the Lake Gregory is under the potential risk of cyanobacterial toxicity. Clearly more work is needed to extend this finding and clarify if other cyanobacterial isolates have genetic potential to produce microcystin since this lake is utilized for recreational activities.

  19. A cost effectiveness analysis of the preferred antidotes for acute paracetamol poisoning patients in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senarathna S M D K Ganga

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute paracetamol poisoning is a rapidly increasing problem in Sri Lanka. The antidotes are expensive and yet no health economic evaluation has been done on the therapy for acute paracetamol poisoning in the developing world. The aim of this study is to determine the cost effectiveness of using N-acetylcysteine over methionine in the management of acute paracetamol poisoning in Sri Lanka. Methods Economic analysis was applied using public healthcare system payer perspective. Costs were obtained from a series of patients admitted to the National Hospital of Sri Lanka with a history of acute paracetamol overdose. Evidence on effectiveness was obtained from a systematic review of the literature. Death due to hepatotoxicity was used as the primary outcome of interest. Analysis and development of decision tree models was done using Tree Age Pro 2008. Results An affordable treatment threshold of Sri Lankan rupees 1,537,120/death prevented was set from the expected years of productive life gained and the average contribution to GDP. A cost-minimisation analysis was appropriate for patients presenting within 10 hours and methionine was the least costly antidote. For patients presenting 10-24 hours after poisoning, n-acetylcysteine was more effective and the incremental cost effectiveness ratio of Sri Lankan rupees 316,182/life saved was well under the threshold. One-way and multi-way sensitivity analysis also supported methionine for patients treated within 10 hours and n-acetylcysteine for patients treated within 10-24 hours as preferred antidotes. Conclusions Post ingestion time is an important determinant of preferred antidotal therapy for acute paracetamol poisoning patients in Sri Lanka. Using n-acetylcysteine in all patients is not cost effective. On economic grounds, methionine should become the preferred antidote for Sri Lankan patients treated within 10 hours of the acute ingestion and n-acetylcysteine should continue to be given to patients treated within 10-24 hours.

  20. Feasibility of an appliance energy testing and labeling program for Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermayer, Peter; Busch, John; Hakim, Sajid; Turiel, Issac; du Pont, Peter; Stone, Chris

    2000-04-01

    A feasibility study evaluated the costs and benefits of establishing a program for testing, labeling and setting minimum efficiency standards for appliances and lighting in Sri Lanka. The feasibility study included: refrigerators, air-conditioners, flourescent lighting (ballasts & CFls), ceiling fans, motors, and televisions.

  1. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in dogs from Sri Lanka and genetic characterization of the parasite isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in 86 unwanted dogs obtained in two batches (36 in batch 1, 50 in batch 2) from Sri Lanka was determined. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT) and found in 58 (67.4%) of 86 dogs with titers of 1:20 in seven, 1:40 in four, ...

  2. Education Participation in Sri Lanka--Why All Are Not in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunatilake, Nisha

    2006-01-01

    Despite Sri Lanka's 1990 commitment to provide 10-11 years of free education to all, only 93% of children in the 5-14-year-old age group were in school by the year 2000. Moreover, the education participation rates are not equitable across the country, varying by socio-economic groups. This paper examines the determinants of school…

  3. Lest the World Forget: Sri Lanka's Educational Needs after the 2004 Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Timothy G.; Asing-Cashman, Joyce G.

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study strives to provide a greater understanding of the past, current, and future state of education in Sri Lanka after the 2004 tsunami. The researchers' key objectives are to provide additional insight to educators of the far-reaching impact of the tsunami via a website they created. Rather than concentrate on the same sort of…

  4. Grassroots Empowerment of Women: Portraits of Four Villages in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeris, Laurel; Gajanayake, Jaya; Ismail, Jesima; Ebert, Seela; Peris, Amara; Wanasundara, Leelangi; Diyadawagamage, Nalika

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a participatory research (PR) project encompassing a capacity-development programme and advocacy skill-building initiative for rural women. The project actively engaged four prominent women's non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Sri Lanka: Agromart Foundation, Centre for Women's Research (CENWOR), Sarvodaya Women's…

  5. Temporal variation of microbiological and chemical quality of noncarbonated bottled drinking water sold in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, A T; Abayasekara, C L; Chandrajith, Rohana; Adikaram, N K B

    2012-03-01

    Use of bottled water in Sri Lanka has increased over the last decade, while new brands of bottled water are often introduced to the market. However, the manufacturers' adherence to bottled water regulations is questionable, raising concerns regarding the quality of bottled water. The objective of the current study was to investigate the microbiological and chemical quality of bottled water in Sri Lanka. Thirty bottled water brands were sampled and their chemical and microbiological parameters were analyzed. Microbiological analysis was carried out within 1 to 3, 3 to 6, 6 to 9, and 9 to 12 mo after the date of manufacture. The results indicated that 63% of brands tested exceeded the levels permitted by the Sri Lanka Standards Institution (SLSI) for presumptive total coliforms (TC) (bottled drinking water. Throughout their shelf life, the counts of TC, FC, and HPC bacteria decreased. Bacteria identified were Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pasteurella haemolytica, the most frequently being P. aeruginosa. The dominant fungi identified were Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. Inorganic chemical parameters were within permitted levels for all brands except for initial content of ammonia. The results of this study show the need for the bottling industry to be monitored closely by relevant authorities, in order to provide safe bottled drinking water to consumers in Sri Lanka. PMID:22384963

  6. A road map to the end of displacement in Sri Lanka?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevan Thiagarajah

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Consortium of Humanitarian Agencies (CHA is anon-profit agency representing those working in thehumanitarian sector in Sri Lanka. Our work on internaldisplacement, the knowledge we have gained and thecapacity we have developed owe much to collaborationwith Roberta Cohen and her Brookings colleagues.

  7. Dengue Virus Transmission by Blood Stem Cell Donor after Travel to Sri Lanka; Germany, 2013

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-09-22

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Dengue Virus Transmission by Blood Stem Cell Donor after Travel to Sri Lanka; Germany, 2013.  Created: 9/22/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/8/2014.

  8. Air pollution and health in Sri Lanka: a review of epidemiologic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiakumar Nalini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Air pollution is increasingly documented as a threat to public health in most developing countries. Evaluation of current air quality levels, regulatory standards and scientific literature on outdoor and indoor air pollution, and health effects are important to identify the burden, develop and implement interventions and to fill knowledge gaps in Sri Lanka. Methods PUBMED and Medline databases, local journals and conference proceedings were searched for epidemiologic studies pertaining to air pollution and health effects in Sri Lanka. All the studies pertaining to air pollution and health effects were considered. Results Sixteen studies investigated the association between exposure to ambient or indoor air pollution (IAP and various health outcomes ranging from respiratory symptoms, low birth weight and lung cancers. Of the sixteen, three used a case control design. Half of the studies collected exposure data only through questionnaires. There were positive associations between air pollution and adverse health effects in all studies. Methodological limitations in most of the studies resulted in poor quantification of risk estimates. Conclusion A limited number of epidemiological studies in Sri Lanka have investigated the health effects of air pollution. Based on findings of studies and reported air quality levels, air pollution may be considered a neglected public health problem in Sri Lanka.

  9. Self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka: small-area variations in incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manuel, Celie; Gunnell, David J; van der Hoek, Wim; Dawson, Andrew; Wijeratne, Ishika K; Konradsen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    measures in these settings, this study investigates small-area variation in self-poisoning incidence and its association with area-based socioeconomic and agricultural factors. METHODS: Ecological analysis of intentional self-poisoning in a rural area (population 267,613) of Sri Lanka in 2002. The...

  10. Speaking Conflict: Ideological Barriers to Bilingual Policy Implementation in Civil War Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christina P.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a holistic view of ideological barriers to bilingual policy implementation in Sri Lanka, a conflict-ridden postcolonial nation-state. I examine Sinhalese youth and adults' Tamil as a second language (TSL) learning and speaking practices across three contexts: a multilingual school, a program for government servants, and an…

  11. An Analysis of the Competency-Based Secondary Mathematics Curriculum in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egodawatte, Gunawardena

    2014-01-01

    In education, there is a growing interest in the concept of "competency" especially in vocational training and professional development. The concept is strongly associated with the ability to apply knowledge and skills in effective ways in unanticipated situations. In Sri Lanka, a new competency-based mathematics curriculum was…

  12. Greenhouse gas emission mitigation in the Sri Lanka power sector supply side and demand side options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Lanka has had a hydropower dominated electricity generation sector for many years with a gradually decreasing percentage contribution from hydroresources. At the same time, the thermal generation share has been increasing over the years. Therefore, the expected fuel mix in the future in the large scale thermal generation system would be dominated by petroleum products and coal. This will result in a gradual increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) and other environmental emissions in the power sector and, hence, require special attention to possible mitigation measures. This paper analyses both the supply side and demand side (DSM) options available in the Sri Lanka power sector in mitigating emissions in the sector considering the technical feasibility and potential of such options. Further, the paper examines the carbon abatement costs associated with such supply side and DSM interventions using an integrated resource planning model, which is not used in Sri Lanka at present. The sensitivities of the final generation costs and emissions to different input parameters, such as discount rates, fuel prices and capital costs, are also presented in the paper. It is concluded that while some DSM measures are economically attractive as mitigation measures, all the supply side options have a relatively high cost of mitigation, particularly in the context of GHG emission mitigation. Further it is observed that when compared with the projected price of carbon under different global carbon trading scenarios, these supply side options cannot provide economically beneficial CO2 mitigation in countries like Sri Lanka

  13. Duty and Service: Life and Career of a Tamil Teacher of English in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the life and career of a Tamil teacher of English working in the government education system in northern Sri Lanka. Based on data gathered in an extended life history interview, the article explores the teacher's own experiences of schooling, his reasons for entering teaching as a profession, his professional training, and…

  14. Rainfall Distributions in Sri Lanka in Time and Space: An Analysis Based on Daily Rainfall Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Burt

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Daily rainfall totals are analyzed for the main agro-climatic zones of Sri Lanka for the period 1976–2006. The emphasis is on daily rainfall rather than on longer-period totals, in particular the number of daily falls exceeding given threshold totals. For one station (Mapalana, where a complete daily series is available from 1950, a longer-term perspective on changes over half a century is provided. The focus here is particularly on rainfall in March and April, given the sensitivity of agricultural decisions to early southwest monsoon rainfall at the beginning of the Yala cultivation season but other seasons are also considered, in particular the northeast monsoon. Rainfall across Sri Lanka over three decades is investigated in relation to the main atmospheric drivers known to affect climate in the region: sea surface temperatures in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, of which the former are shown to be more important. The strong influence of El Niño and La Niña phases on various aspects of the daily rainfall distribution in Sri Lanka is confirmed: positive correlations with Pacific sea-surface temperatures during the north east monsoon and negative correlations at other times. It is emphasized in the discussion that Sri Lanka must be placed in its regional context and it is important to draw on regional-scale research across the Indian subcontinent and the Bay of Bengal.

  15. Strong association between house characteristics and malaria vectors in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Flemming; Amerasinghe, Priyanie; van der Hoek, Wim; Amerasinghe, Felix; Perera, Devika; Piyaratne, Maldeniya

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether house characteristics could be used to further refine the residual insecticide-spraying program in Sri Lanka. Indoor-resting mosquito densities were estimated in 473 houses based on fortnightly collections over a two-and-a-half-year period. The...

  16. Education Policy Reform in Sri Lanka: The Double-Edged Sword of Political Will

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Angela W.

    2011-01-01

    In 1997, the Government of Sri Lanka launched a comprehensive set of education reforms designed to promote equitable access to basic education and improvements in learning outcomes. The package of reforms arose as a political response to widespread youth unrest in the late 1980s and attracted considerable "political will", a vague but much vaunted…

  17. Mathematics Performance and Principal Effectiveness: A Case Study of Some Coastal Primary Schools in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egodawatte, Gunawardena

    2012-01-01

    This mixed method research study is situated in the school effectiveness research paradigm to examine the correlation between the effectiveness of urban, primary school principals and their students' performance in mathematics. Nine, urban, primary schools from Negombo, a coastal fishing area in Sri Lanka, were selected; their student achievements…

  18. Use of induced mutations for crop improvement programmes in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radiation induced mutations is an effective additional tool for plant breeding work in Sri Lanka. Mutation Breeding could be effectively utilized to create favourable specific changes such as short culms, 90o resistance to pests and diseases, improvement in grain quality etc

  19. Peace Education in Conflict Zones--Experience from Northern Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Simon; Lewer, Nick

    2008-01-01

    In September 2005, adult students from Kilinochchi, located in the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)-controlled Wanni region of northern Sri Lanka, were awarded University of Bradford, UK, validated postgraduate certificates or diplomas in conflict resolution and peace preparedness. The diploma is, we think, a landmark in peace education…

  20. Do cold, low salinity waters pass through the Indo-Sri Lanka Channel during winter?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, R.R.; Girishkumar, M.S.; Ravichandran, M.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Pankajakshan, T.

    During winter, along the east coast of India, the near-surface flow is characterized by the southward-flowing East India Coastal Current (EICC) which bends around Sri Lanka and enters into the south-eastern Arabian Sea (AS). This current carries...

  1. Livestock farming in coconut plantations in Sri Lanka: Constraints and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Samarajeewa, A.D.; Schiere, J.B.; M.N.M. Ibrahim; Viets, T.

    2003-01-01

    A study was carried out to identify biological and socio-economic constraints and opportunities for livestock development in coconut plantations in Sri Lanka. One part of the study focussed on the use of participatory rural appraisal to establish felt needs of different farmer categories in terms of feeding practices. Small coconut land holders ( 6 ha) kept livestock for indirect (secon...

  2. Geographic structure of Plasmodium vivax: microsatellite analysis of parasite populations from Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunawardena, Sharmini; Karunaweera, Nadira D; Ferreira, Marcelo U; Phone-Kyaw, Myatt; Pollack, Richard J; Alifrangis, Michael; Rajakaruna, Rupika S; Konradsen, Flemming; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H; Schousboe, Mette L; Galappaththy, Gawrie N L; Abeyasinghe, Rabindra R; Hartl, Daniel L; Wirth, Dyann F

    2010-01-01

    Genetic diversity and population structure of Plasmodium vivax parasites can predict the origin and spread of novel variants within a population enabling population specific malaria control measures. We analyzed the genetic diversity and population structure of 425 P. vivax isolates from Sri Lanka.......8610 in Sri Lanka. Significant linkage disequilibrium was maintained. Population structure showed two clusters (Asian and African) according to geography and ancestry. Strong clustering of outbreak isolates from Sri Lanka and Ethiopia was observed. Predictive power of ancestry using two-thirds of the...

  3. Analysis of Polymorphisms in the Merozoite Surface Protein-3a Gene and Two Microsatellite Loci in Sri Lankan Plasmodium vivax: Evidence of Population Substructure in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Mette L; Rajakaruna, Rupika S; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H; Konradsen, Flemming; Ord, Rosalynn; Pearce, Richard; Bygbjerg, Ib C; Roper, Cally; Alifrangis, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. The geographical distribution of genetic variation in Plasmodium vivax samples (N = 386) from nine districts across Sri Lanka is described using three markers; the P. vivax merozoite surface protein-3a (Pvmsp-3a) gene, and the two microsatellites m1501 and m3502. At Pvmsp-3a, 11 alleles....... The results show evidence of high genetic diversity and possible population substructure of P. vivax populations in Sri Lanka....

  4. Comparative Assessment of Irrigation Water Quality in Sri Lanka's Tank-Cascade and Mahaweli Irrigation Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunda, T.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Two distinct irrigation systems dominate the landscape in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The tank-cascade system, which originates from third century BC, is a small-scale system that has been the traditional method for communities to meet their farming water needs. The Mahaweli reservoir system, in contrast, is a large-scale irrigation scheme initiated in the 1970s that diverts water across hundreds of kilometers from the headwaters of the Mahaweli River to farmers. Although approximately equal amounts of paddy land are irrigated under these two systems, very little comparative analysis has been conducted on the spatial variation of irrigation water quality in Sri Lanka. An exploratory study was conducted in June 2013 in Anuradhapura district, an area that experiences the highest level of paddy production instability and has had long-standing irrigation water quality issues. A total of 30 water samples from both cascade systems and Mahaweli system H-7 were analyzed for pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, and chromatic dissolved organic matter using field instruments. A subset of these samples was further analyzed for nitrate and ammonia using colorimetric methods. While the sparse data from our study revealed some interesting trends, it is difficult to extrapolate in detail. Therefore, we compare inferences drawn about the Sri Lanka data to a more detailed analysis of chromatic dissolved organic matter in a Tennessee watershed. This comparison will provide insight into possible interpretations relative to the water quality data collected in Sri Lanka. As Sri Lanka continues to develop its irrigation resources, water quality assessments such as this one are critical for identifying factors limiting paddy production in the country.

  5. Assessing sloth bears as surrogates for carnivore conservation in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayeke, Shyamala; Van Manen, Frank T.

    2012-01-01

    Bears are large, charismatic mammals whose presence often garners conservation attention. Because healthy bear populations typically require large, contiguous areas of habitat, land conservation actions often are assumed to benefit co-occurring species, including other mammalian carnivores. However, we are not aware of an empirical test of this assumption. We used remote camera data from 2 national parks in Sri Lanka to test the hypothesis that the frequency of detection of sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) is associated with greater richness of carnivore species. We focused on mammalian carnivores because they play a pivotal role in the stability of ecological communities and are among Sri Lanka's most endangered species. Seven of Sri Lanka's carnivores are listed as endangered, vulnerable, or near threatened, and little empirical information exists on their status and distribution. During 2002–03, we placed camera traps at 152 sites to document carnivore species presence. We used Poisson regression to develop predictive models for 3 categories of dependent variables: species richness of (1) all carnivores, (2) carnivores considered at risk, and (3) carnivores of least conservation concern. For each category, we analyzed 8 a priori models based on combinations of sloth bear detections, sample year, and study area and used Akaike's information criterion (AICc) to test our research hypothesis. We detected sloth bears at 55 camera sites and detected 13 of Sri Lanka's 14 Carnivora species. Species richness of all carnivores showed positive associations with the number of sloth bear detections, regardless of study area. Sloth bear detections were also positively associated with species richness of carnivores at risk across both study years and study areas, but not with species richness of common carnivores. Sloth bears may serve as a valuable surrogate species whose habitat protection would contribute to conservation of other carnivores in Sri Lanka.

  6. Sri Lanka [Population education in countries of the region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, W S

    1982-06-01

    Increases in the educational level and allied factors such as late marriage have led to a decrease in the birth rate to 27.6/1000 in Sri Lanka. The World Fertility Survey in 1975 revealed that the average number of children desired was only 2.4 although the average number per family was 3.9, indicating the need for population education especially at the school level. Population education components were introduced to the junior secondary level, grades 6-9, in stages beginning in 1974 following institution of the Population Education In-School Project at the Curriculum Development Centre of the Ministry of Education. Population components were introduced into language, mathematics, science, health science, and social studies curricula already being taught. The longrange objectives of the program are to prepare future citizens who will be knowledgeable about the impact of population growth on the quality of life, and to promote responsible attitudes and decisions regarding family size. Immediate objectives are to promote understanding of population dynamics and encourage responsible attitudes. The program strives to avoid conflict with sociocultural and socioreligious norms of the various population sectors. Teacher training was provided in residential seminars, and through course guides and reference books. Reorganization of the educational structure led to a brief period of inactivity for the Population Education Unit, but work began again in 1980. The Non-Formal Education Branch of the Ministry of Education is ragarded as a possible area for introduction of population education components in adult education. Most population education programs directed toward adults are conducted by other ministries. The main problems in implementation of the junior secondary level population education program have been initial training of teachers and provision of resource and reference materials; use of the mobile library donated by the UNESCO Population Education Clearinghouse is expected to help alleviate the latter problem. An innovative method of inservice teacher training utilized by the program is the use of a network of master teachers as inservice advisors. PMID:12265649

  7. Adapting the Sniffin' Sticks to diagnose Parkinson's disease in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira-Moriyama, Laura; Sirisena, Dharshana; Gamage, Pasan; Gamage, Ranjanie; de Silva, Rohan; Lees, Andrew J

    2009-06-15

    Tests of odor identification might help differentiate Parkinson's disease (PD) from other causes of tremor, but they are culture and language specific and are not currently available for the population of Sri Lanka. We created a Sinhala adaptation of the 16-item identification test from Sniffin' Sticks (SS-16) and applied it to 89 nondemented Sri Lankan PD patients and 100 controls. Twelve of the SS-16 items were correctly identified by at least 50% of the control subjects and were included in a battery, which we called as Colombo SS-12. We used the diagnosis (PD or control) as outcome variable for a logistic regression using age, gender, smoking status and the SS-12 as covariates, and found only the last two were significant covariates. The Colombo SS-12 specificity was 93.0% with a sensitivity of 91.0%, indicating it could be a helpful tool in the diagnosis of PD in Sri Lanka. PMID:19412948

  8. Sri Lanka : Attaining the Millennium Development Goals in Sri Lanka, How Likely and What Will it Take to Reduce Poverty, Child Mortality and Malnutrition, and to Increase School Enrollment and Completion?

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This report focuses on the attainment of five major human development-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by sub-national units in Sri Lanka relating to poverty, under-five and infant mortality, child malnutrition, schooling enrollment and completion, and gender disparities in schooling. The selection of these MDGs for detailed analysis was based in large part on the availability of reliable sub-national data. The report concludes that of these MDGs, Sri Lanka has already attained the...

  9. Discovery of the Critically Endangered Tarantula Species of the Genus Poecilotheria (Araneae: Theraphosidae, Poecilotheria hanumavilasumica, From Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranil P. Nanayakkara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The arboreal spiders in the genus Poecilotheria is represented by 16 species and restricted to India and Sri Lanka. Each country has eight endemic species. During a survey on mygalomorph spiders in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka, the critically endangered species of Theraphosidae Poecilotheria hanumavilasumica was discovered for the first time outside of its native habitat in India, expanding its range to northern Sri Lanka. The discovery of P. hanumavilasumica is unique, as it used to be a critically endangered and endemic species of the genus Poecilotheria found in India, and it is evident that during the land bridge connection between India and Sri Lanka, when the Pleistocene epoch biotic exchange took place between the two countries, taxa were dispersed through the land connections.

  10. Sri Lanka president lubab sõjalõksus riiki tänapäeva tuua / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2005-01-01

    Presidendivalimistest Sri Lankal. Uus president Mahinda Rajapaksa on valmis kohtuma tamilite mässu juhtidega ning arutama rahu taastamise võimalusi. Presidendi eesmärgid. Lisa: Pommirünnakud poliitikute vastu

  11. Challenging knowledge hierarchies: working toward sustainable development in Sri Lanka's energy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Nieusma

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes sustainable development practices within Sri Lanka’s energy sector. It directs attention to how expertise functions in development decision making in ways that can unintentionally inhibit sustainable development. Understanding expertise as merely specialized knowledge clouds its role as a social activity. In practice, expertise is a combination of knowledge and authority, and expert knowledge exists within a hierarchically ordered authority structure of diverse knowledge domains—what is referred to here as “knowledge hierarchies.” Knowledge hierarchies exclude the participation of some relevant knowledge domains, and thereby preclude the possibility of local sustainable development. The Energy Forum of Sri Lanka, a small renewable energy advocacy organization, strives to enable sustainability by going beyond facile calls for greater inclusion to confront the mechanisms of exclusion. The paper documents three of the Energy Forum’s development interventions intended to level out the knowledge hierarchy that inhibits sustainable energy development in Sri Lanka. Drawing insights from the Energy Forum’s approach, the paper argues that experts who wish to contribute to sustainable development must attend to the knowledge hierarchies in which they operate to ensure that their own authority does not exclude other relevant knowledge domains.

  12. Homegardens as a Multi-functional Land-Use Strategy in Sri Lanka with Focus on Carbon Sequestration

    OpenAIRE

    Mattsson, Eskil; Ostwald, Madelene; Nissanka, S P; Marambe, Buddhi

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of homegardens and their potential functions as strategic elements in land-use planning, and adaptation and mitigation to climate change in Sri Lanka. The ancient and locally adapted agroforestry system of homegardens is presently estimated to occupy nearly 15 % of the land area in Sri Lanka and is described in the scientific literature to offer several ecosystem services to its users; such as climate regulation, protection against natural hazards, enhanced lan...

  13. A morphologically distinct Phlebotomus argentipes population from active cutaneous leishmaniasis foci in central Sri Lanka

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Shalindra, Ranasinghe; Rhaiza DC, Maingon; Daniel P, Bray; Richard D, Ward; Chandani, Udagedara; Manel, Dissanayake; Vathsala, Jayasuriya; Nissanka K de, Silva.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the reported aetiological agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sri Lanka is Leishmania donovani, the sandfly vector remains unknown. Ninety-five sandflies, 60 females and 35 males, collected in six localities in the district of Matale, central Sri Lanka, close to current active transmis [...] sion foci of CL were examined for taxonomically relevant characteristics. Eleven diagnostic morphological characters for female sandflies were compared with measurements described for Indian and Sri Lankan sandflies, including the now recognised Phlebotomus argentipes sensu lato species complex. The mean morphometric measurements of collected female sandflies differed significantly from published values for P. argentipes morphospecies B, now re-identified as Phlebotomus annandalei from Delft Island and northern Sri Lanka, from recently re-identified P. argentipes s.s. sibling species and from Phlebotomus glaucus. Furthermore, analysis of underlying variation in the morphometric data through principal component analysis also illustrated differences between the population described herein and previously recognised members of the P. argentipes species complex. Collectively, these results suggest that a morphologically distinct population, perhaps most closely related to P. glaucus of the P. argentipess. I. species complex, exists in areas of active CL transmission. Thus, research is required to determine the ability of this population of flies to transmit cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  14. EXPLORING GOOD PRACTICE KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER RELATED TO POST TSUNAMI HOUSING (RE-CONSTRUCTION IN SRI LANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingunath Ingirige

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Sri Lanka was badly affected by the tsunami that occurred on 26th December 2004. The tsunami destroyed about two-thirds of the Sri Lankan coastline and affected more than 1,000,000 people. It does not only affected the lives of the community, but also had a devastating effect on their housing and livelihoods. The overall loss of 100,000 or more houses due to the tsunami proved to be a major challenge to the emergency response teams and disaster planners. Although several major disasters of varying magnitudes have occurred in the world, the body of knowledge related to post-disaster housing reconstruction and rehabilitation appears fragmented and poorly integrated. This paper attempts to fill this theoretical gap by focusing on the extent to which good practice knowledge transfer helps in overcoming this problem for more effective and efficient delivery of post-tsunami housing in Sri Lanka. The paper applied knowledge transfer principles within the context of the two housing reconstruction strategies employed in post-tsunami housing reconstruction in Sri Lanka; namely donor-driven housing and owner driven housing. The results of this study reveal that the knowledge transfer within this context cannot be simply copied and inserted from one context without any localisation. Therefore, the paper proposes a high-level abstraction of the core principles of community engagement through participatory techniques associated with appropriate capacity and capability building techniques that will enable the various stakeholders to create a new application to suit the appropriate context of the transfer destination (post-tsunami context in Sri Lanka.

  15. Preliminary investigation of genetic characterization of native and endemic fowl types of Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus gallus) is generally considered to be main ancestor of the domestic fowl (Callus domesticus). However, it is also believed that other wild Callus species might have contributed to the modern genetic make-up of the domestic fowl, one wild species being the Ceylon Jungle Fowl (Gallus lafayetti), endemic to Sri Lanka, which could have contributed to the domestic stock of Sri Lankan native poultry. The present study was conducted in order to investigate the origin of native fowl in Sri Lanka and to establish genetic relationships among them and the Ceylon Jungle Fowl. Morphological characters of endemic, indigenous and exotic fowl types were recorded. These included Ceylon Jungle fowl; eleven types of native chicken from Sri Lanka; and two exotic chicken breeds (Cornish and Rhode Island Red). Blood samples were collected for DNA extraction. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was carried out using sixteen non-specific primers. The results of morphological characterization revealed many variations in plumage and colour pattern. Single and pea comb types were found in both native and exotic types of chicken. A prominent yellow colour marking on a red comb was a unique feature in Ceylon Jungle fowl. The presence of white spots in red earlobes was a distinguishing feature of all native chicken types. Sixteen non-specific primers were used in the study, and produced 22 polymorphic bands ranging from 500 to 1960 bp. Genetic similarity indices ranged from 0.5 to 1.1 in average genetic distance scale, indicating a broad genetic base in the samples studied. Cluster analysis revealed a clear separation of Ceylon Jungle Fowl from all other types studied, indicating that contribution in data analysis, and the Director and staff, National Zoological Gardens, Sri Lanka, for their help in sampling Ceylon Jungle Fowl. (author)

  16. Rediscovery of a long lost endemic damselfly Sinhalestes orientalis (Hagen in Selys, 1862 from Peak Wilderness Sanctuary, Sri Lanka (Zygoptera: Lestidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Sumanapala

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sinhalestes orientalis (Hagen in Selys, 1862 the only representative of its genus, is an endemic and globally critically endangered damselfly in Sri Lanka. It was first collected from Rambodde, Sri Lanka in 1858 and after that no new information on this species has been available. Here, we report on the re-discovery of Sinhalestes orientalis from the Peak Wilderness Sanctuary, Sri Lanka after 154 years from its last and only record.

  17. Good Governance and Conflict Transformation in Sri Lanka : A Political Analysis of People's Perceptions of Institutions at the Local Level and the Challenges of Decentralised Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Bigdon, Christine

    2006-01-01

    This empirical study on good governance and conflict transformation in Sri Lanka is located within the larger scholarly discourse on good governance as a solution to conflict in developing societies. Sri Lanka is one of the oldest post-colonial democratic systems among the states of the South and has experienced various elections and changes of government between 1947 and 2001. This speaks to a certain extent for consolidation of democracy. However, Sri Lanka suffers under one of the most pro...

  18. An investigation into the role of alcohol in self-harm in rural Sri Lanka: a protocol for a multimethod, qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jane Brandt; Rheinländer, Thilde; Sørensen, Birgitte Refslund; Pearson, Melissa; Agambodi, Thilini; Siribaddana, Sisara; Konradsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Sri Lanka has one of the highest suicide and self-harm rates in the world and although alcohol has been found to be a risk factor for self-harm in Sri Lanka, we know little about the connection between the two. This paper comprises a protocol for a qualitative study investigating alcohol’s role in selfharm in rural Sri Lanka at three levels: the individual, community and policy level. The analysis will bring new understanding of the link between alcohol and self-harm in Sri Lanka, ...

  19. "Education Is All about Opportunities, Isn't It?": A Biographical Perspective on Learning and Teaching English in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David

    2010-01-01

    In this article, David Hayes explores the language learning and teaching experiences of a teacher of English in Sri Lanka. He shows how the acquisition of English enabled the teacher to access the social capital available to speakers of English, which holds a divisive place in postcolonial Sri Lankan society. In his reflections on his career, this…

  20. Protecting housing rights for IDPs in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Wassel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The return and relocation of IDPs in the East of Sri Lankaoffer lessons on the critical issues that must be addressed ifthe housing rights of IDPs in the North are to be respected.

  1. Sri Lanka field survey after the December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, James; Liu, Philip L-F.; Higman, Bretwood; Morton, Robert; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Fernando, Haindra; Lynett, Patrick; Fritz, Hermann; Synolakis, Costas; Fernando, Starin

    2006-01-01

    An International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) consisting of scientists from the United States, New Zealand, and Sri Lanka evaluated the impacts of the 26 December 2004 transoceanic tsunami in Sri Lanka two weeks after the event. Tsunami runup height, inundation distance, morphological changes, and sedimentary characteristics of deposits were recorded and analyzed along the southwest and east coasts of the country. Preliminary results show how local topography and bathymetry controlled the limits of inundation and associated damage to the infrastructure. The largest wave height of 8.71?m was recorded at Nonagama, while the greatest inundation distance of 390?m and runup height of 12.50?m was at Yala. At some sites, human alterations to the landscape increased the damage caused by the tsunami; this was particularly evident in areas of coral poaching and of sand dune removal.

  2. Analysis of 8000 hospital admissions for acute poisoning in a rural area of Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    estimate trends in incidence and causes of acute poisoning over time in rural Sri Lanka, and to assess the possible impact of policies that aimed to restrict availability of highly toxic pesticides. METHODS: Time series of incidence of acute poisoning based on retrospective in-patient records of six......BACKGROUND: Acute poisoning, especially deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides, is an emerging global public health problem, but reliable incidence estimates are lacking. Only a few previous studies have assessed the impact of regulatory or other preventive measures. OBJECTIVE: To...... government hospitals in southern Sri Lanka from 1990 to 2002. RESULTS: Data of 8,110 admissions for acute poisoning were available for analysis. Most cases were young adults, who deliberately self-poisoned themselves with pesticides, males outnumbering females. Average incidence rate of acute poisoning over...

  3. A preliminary geochemical study of sedimentary gem deposits of Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geochemical abundances of 22 elements from the < 0.63 ?m fraction of gem-bearing alluvial gravel from the main gem fields of Sri Lanka have been studied. These abundances are compared with those in the probable source rocks. Be and Zr are generally enriched in the gem-bearing sediments compared with most alkali and alkaline earths, which are depleted. When compared to the metal contents of average shales, the < 0.63 ?m fraction of the gem sediments of Sri Lanka is enriched in Be, Zr, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn. The charnockites and the gneisses of the area are rich in most of these elements and in the gem-bearing sediments, they are presumably found in diadochic substitution in minerals, or adsorbed by a variety of clay minerals, secondary Fe and Mn hydroxides and oxides and primary minerals. (author)

  4. Firm Size and Profitability: A Study of Listed Manufacturing Firms ed Manufacturing Firms in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Aloy Niresh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of firm size on profitability of quoted manufacturing firms inSri Lanka. In this study, data of 15 companies which were active in Colombo Stock Exchange (CSE betweenthe years 2008 to 2012 has been used. As indicators of firm profitability, Return on Assets and Net Profit havebeen used whereas Total Assets and Total Sales have been utilized as indicators of firm size. Correlation andregression methods have been used in the empirical analysis. There is no indicative relationship between firmsize and profitability of listed manufacturing firms, the findings reveal. In addition, the results showed that firmsize has no profound impact on profitability of the listed manufacturing firms in Sri Lanka.

  5. Preliminary investigation on genetic characterization of native and endemic fowl types in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Sri Lanka is a tropical island, which shelters a large number and variety of wild as well as domesticated animals. As an oceanic island Sri Lanka has a high percentage of endemic species that have evolved because of the isolation, but they are particularly vulnerable. Its location, astride the sea routes between the east and west throughout the history, has exposed the country to be a recipient of variety of animal species transported throughout the world. This history had made the gene pool of native animals very unique and diverse. In this context native poultry species of Sri Lanka demonstrate an incomparable scenario in evolution of domestic poultry species. According to one of the hypotheses regarding the evolution of poultry, the Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus gallus) is considered as the main ancestor of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus). However, it is also believed that the domestic fowl descent from different ancestral groups, one of which is Ceylon Jungle Fowl. Ceylon Jungle Fowl (Gallus laffeyatti) is endemic to Sri Lanka. Nevertheless, different native fowl types found in Sri Lanka resemble varying characteristics of Asiatic fowl. However, except for the few studies on G. laffeyatti there is hardly any information available on the origin of Sri Lankan native fowl. Also there is only one investigation done so far on the relationship of the Ceylon Jungle Fowl and native fowl population in Sri Lanka. Therefore, the present study was conducted, in order to investigate the origin of native fowl in Sri Lanka and to find out the genetic relationship among them. Observations of morphological characters of endemic, indigenous and exotic fowl types were carried out using Ceylon Jungle fowl, eleven types of native chicken and two exotic chicken breeds (Cornish and Rhode Island Red). Blood samples for DNA extraction were collected from the above three categories of chicken. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis were carried out using sixteen non-specific primers. The results of morphological characterization revealed many variations in plumage color pattern. Single and pea comb types were found in both native and exotic types of chicken. A prominent yellow color marking on red color comb was a unique feature in Ceylon Jungle fowl. In the sample tested only one indigenous chicken type showed feathered shank character. Another distinguishing feature observed was the presence of white spot in red color earlobes of all native chicken types except naked neck type, which is believed to be a cross of exotic and indigenous. Sixteen non-specific primers used in the study produced 22 polymorphic bands ranging from 500 base pair (bp) to 1957.6 bp. There were two monomorphic bands common to all chicken types tested. Genetic similarity coefficient detected according to Noeingen Index ranged from 0.5 to 1.1 indicating a wide genetic base of tested samples of chicken. According to the results of cluster analysis there was a clear separation of Ceylon Jungle fowl from the other chicken types used in the study. This indicates that there was an early separation and divergent evolution of Ceylon Jungle fowl from all the other domestic chicken types tested. It appears that the contribution of Ceylon Jungle Fowl in development of Sri Lankan native chicken is minute or very marginal. However, the present study was carried out with limited sample size and from the present results it can be confirmed that RAPD is an effective method, though the repeatability is low, in genetic characterization of animal populations with wide genetic basis. (author)

  6. An alternative approach for Chemical Restraint of Domesticated Elephants in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Sumanasiri, W.G.C.S.B.; Gamika A. Prathapsinghe

    2009-01-01

    The Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) represents one of the most seriousendangered species. Capturing and domestication of these wild elephantscan be considered as one of the measures of elephant conservation.Domesticated elephants play a major role during festival processions in SriLanka. However, there is always a risk of getting panic and disobeying ofthese animals to the mahout's order. Self-Tranquilizer was invented toovercome the constraint such as difficulty of reaching and targeting th...

  7. Transmission of Global Food Prices to Domestic Prices: Evidence from Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Sivarajasingham Selliah; Shri-Dewi Applanaidu; Sallahuddin Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Food prices have been increasing sharply since 2003. In the globalized world, the transmission of global foodprice increases to domestic market determines the decision of economic agents and policy makers of a domesticeconomy. The recent growth of global food prices affects the welfare of poor consumers and producers. In SriLanka, large segment of the population spends more than 50 percent of their income on food. Thus, this studyinvestigates and assesses how international food price surge af...

  8. Effect of food quality and availability on rainforest rodents of Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    P.B. Ratnaweera; M. R. Wijesinghe

    2009-01-01

    Tropical rodent communities are highly diverse species assemblages, yet remain poorly studied. This investigation was conducted with the objective of examining the responses of rainforest rodents to food quality and availability. These factors were assessed through laboratory and field trials conducted in the Sinharaja and Kanneliya rainforests in Sri Lanka. The effect of food quality on the foraging behavior of rodents was examined through feeding experiments using natural rainforest frui...

  9. Estimates of Dengue Force of Infection in Children in Colombo, Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, CC; Tissera, H; Silva, AM; de Silva, AD; Margolis, HS; Amarasinge, A

    2013-01-01

    Dengue is the most important vector-borne viral disease worldwide and a major cause of childhood fever burden in Sri Lanka, which has experienced a number of large epidemics in the past decade. Despite this, data on the burden and transmission of dengue virus in the Indian Subcontinent are lacking. As part of a longitudinal fever surveillance study, we conducted a dengue seroprevalence survey among children aged

  10. The Political Economy of Desire in Ritual and Activism in SriLanka (abstract)

    OpenAIRE

    Van Daele, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Amidst the complexity of the development-religion nexus, this chapter examines desire and its varying expressions as fundamental concerns of many religions motivating both development and alternatives to development. In Sri Lanka, as people deal with social change, the neoliberal and globalised development is understood and re-interpreted through local idioms and formations of desire. The neoliberal economy cultivates desire and, as such, leads to a perceived increase in the presence of preta...

  11. Financial sector development - futile or fruitful? An examination of the determinants of savings in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Roger; Mavrotas, George

    2003-01-01

    Using dynamic econometric techniques the paper investigates the determinants of private saving in Sri Lanka with a primary focus on the role of financial sector development. Empirical evidence is obtained indicating the existence of the Ricardian equivalence hypothesis, and the significance of credit constraints on private saving. Most significantly, an index of financial sector development variables is constructed, based on measures of the relative size of the financial sector, the absolute ...

  12. Increase in Protectionism and Its Impact on Sri Lanka's Performance in Global Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminski, Bartlomiej; NG, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Sri Lanka's external performance defies global trends on two counts. First, the level of openness as measured by the ratio of trade in goods and services, after a strong increase in 1987-95 and stagnation in 1996-2004, sharply fell in 2005-10 to the levels experienced during the era of import substitution. Second, the share of clothing in manufactured exports has remained largely unchanged...

  13. Information and Communication Technology: A Comparison of Pakistan and Sri-Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Javed Iqbal

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to examine the information and communication technology sector in Pakistan and Sri-Lanka because they are among top five countries in ICT in the South Asian region. The research is helpful for decision makers to channel ICT related resources where they are required the most. ICT oriented data have been collected by International Telecommunication Union but no comparison exists between the countries included in the research. Therefore, the sources of data are ITU ...

  14. Recreationist perspectives, attitudes, and perceptions towards national park management in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Perera, Priyan; Senevirathna, Madusha C.; Richard P. Vlosky

    2015-01-01

    Sri Lanka's National Parks (NPs) are becoming prime destinations for both foreign and domestic tourists. With rising heterogeneous demand for nature-based experiences, NP administrators are facing the challenge of re-crafting policy and nature-based use-models to meet the diverse expectations of visitors while achieving conservation goals. As such, an understanding of NP visitor perspectives is essential in making sound management decisions to effectively accommodate conservation and recreati...

  15. Pattern of pesticide storage before pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Fahim; Manuweera, Gamini; Gunnell, David; Azher, Shifa; Eddleston, Michael; Dawson, Andrew; Konradsen, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides is the commonest means of suicide in rural Asia. It is mostly impulsive and facilitated by easy access to pesticides. The aim of this large observational study was to investigate the immediate source of pesticides used for self-harm to help inform suicide prevention strategies such as reducing domestic access to pesticides. METHODS: The study was conducted in a district hospital serving an agricultural region of Sri Lanka. Patien...

  16. EFFECT OF THE INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI ON GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN COASTAL AQUIFERS IN EASTERN SRI LANKA

    OpenAIRE

    Meththika Vithanage; Villholth, Karen G.; Kushani Mahatantila; Peter Engesgaard; Kartsten H. Jensen

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACTChanges in water quality of a sand aquifer on the east coast of Sri Lanka due to the December 26, 2004 tsunami and subsequent disturbance due to well pumping and flushing by precipitation were investigated. Two closely spaced tsunami affected transects, spanning the ocean and an interior lagoon across a 2 km wide land strip were monitored from October, 2005 to September, 2006. Water samples were collected from 15 dug wells and 20 piezometers, from the disturbed and undisturbed sites r...

  17. Air pollution and health in Sri Lanka: a review of epidemiologic studies

    OpenAIRE

    Sathiakumar Nalini; Wickremasinghe Ananda R; Nandasena Yatagama

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Air pollution is increasingly documented as a threat to public health in most developing countries. Evaluation of current air quality levels, regulatory standards and scientific literature on outdoor and indoor air pollution, and health effects are important to identify the burden, develop and implement interventions and to fill knowledge gaps in Sri Lanka. Methods PUBMED and Medline databases, local journals and conference proceedings were searched for epidemiologic studi...

  18. Symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescent students; a perspective from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijeratne Thilina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sri Lanka recorded an extraordinary high suicide rate for adolescents aged 15 - 19 in the early 1990s (46.5/100,000. With this in perspective, the Ministry of Health in Sri Lanka recommends school programmes for adolescents by mental health units of local hospitals. Methods We conducted cross sectional surveys to screen for symptoms of anxiety and depression among students aged 14 - 18 during school mental health programmes. Two schools were randomly selected within the Ratnapura municipality (urban population of approx. 50,000, Sri Lanka and all students aged 14-18 were assessed with self administered (pre tested, Sinhalese translations questionnaires [Center for epidemiologic studies depression scale, Anxiety screening test of suicide and mental health association international]. Results A total of 445 students were assessed (male-54.4%, female 45.6%. Thirty six percent screened positive for depression (mild depression-17%, severe depression-19% and 28% screened positive for severe anxiety. Females screened positive for depression and anxiety significantly more than the males (p = 0.0001, 0.005 respectively. Students in classes facing barrier examinations at the end of the year had the highest positivity rates. Examination related issues (36% were the most commonly cited problem. Recommendations It is recommended that: 1. School mental health development programmes in Sri Lanka concentrate more on reducing examination related stress, and in particular focus on the female students 2. Policy decisions are made to reduce competition for higher education 3. A nationally coordinated survey on mental health of adolescent students is carried out utilizing the island-wide network of medical officers of mental health.

  19. Conservation Value of Forest Plantations: A Study of Four Timber Species in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Mayuri R Wijesinghe; V. R. de Silva

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses the potential of forest plantations in Sri Lanka consisting of teak, mahoganyand two species of eucalyptus, to facilitate the conservation of biodiversity using two taxonomic groups,the plants and birds. Their diversity in plantations at a harvestable age were compared with that of anatural forest. Enumerations of plants and dbh/height measurements were conducted in quadrates, whileavifauna was recorded along transects. Results show that plantation forests supported a reas...

  20. Epochal changes in the association between malaria epidemics and El Niño in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Amerasinghe Priyanie; Yahiya Zeenas; Chandimala Janaki; Yang Hyemin; Galappaththy Gawrie N; Zubair Lareef; Ward Neil; Connor Stephen J

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background El Niño events were suggested as a potential predictor for malaria epidemics in Sri Lanka based on the coincidence of nine out of 16 epidemics with El Niño events from 1870 to 1945. Here the potential for the use of El Niño predictions to anticipate epidemics was examined using enhanced climatic and epidemiological data from 1870 to 2000. Methods The epidemics start years were identified by the National Malaria Control Programme and verified against epidemiological records...

  1. Characterisation of the Rota Wewa tank cascade system in the vicinity of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Brigitta SCHÜTT; Bebermeier, Wiebke; Meister, Julia; Withanachchi, Chandana Rohana

    2013-01-01

    A complex and sustainable watershed management strategy was implemented in Sri Lanka during the ancient Anuradhapura period, from the 5th century BC to the 11th century AD. Like modern watershed management strategies, it focused on flood prevention, soil erosion control, water quality control and water storage for irrigation. Tank cascade systems were the key element of these ancient watershed management installations. The wewas investigated were constructed in valleys characterised by fl...

  2. Patient held medical record: solution to fragmented health care in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanayake RPJC; Perera DP; De Silva AHW; Sumanasekara RDN

    2013-01-01

    Sri Lanka has an extensive network of health care institutions, but there is no registered population for any particular health care institution. Patients are free to select which doctor to consult and which hospital to get admitted. Also there is no established referral and back referral system in practice. This free movement of patients within and between the primary, secondary and tertiary levels of care by patient's choice has given rise to a situation where each episode of an illness or ...

  3. Factors controlling January-April rainfall over southern India and Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vialard, J. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), CNRS, IRD, Paris (France); National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa (India); Terray, P. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), CNRS, IRD, Paris (France); Duvel, J.P. [CNRS, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Paris (France); Nanjundiah, R.S. [IISc, Center of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Bangalore (India); Shenoi, S.S.C. [Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services, Hyderabad (India); Shankar, D. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa (India)

    2011-08-15

    Most of the annual rainfall over India occurs during the Southwest (June-September) and Northeast (October-December) monsoon periods. In March 2008, however, Southern peninsular India and Sri Lanka received the largest rainfall anomaly on record since 1979, with amplitude comparable to summer-monsoon interannual anomalies. This anomalous rainfall appeared to be modulated at intraseasonal timescale by the Madden Julian Oscillation, and was synchronous with a decaying La Nina event in the Pacific Ocean. Was this a coincidence or indicative of a teleconnection pattern? In this paper, we explore factors controlling rainfall over southern India and Sri Lanka between January and April, i.e. outside of the southwest and northeast monsoons. This period accounts for 20% of annual precipitation over Sri Lanka and 10% over the southern Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Interannual variability is strong (about 40% of the January-April climatology). Intraseasonal rainfall anomalies over southern India and Sri Lanka are significantly associated with equatorial eastward propagation, characteristic of the Madden Julian Oscillation. At the interannual timescale, we find a clear connection with El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO); with El Ninos being associated with decreased rainfall (correlation of -0.46 significant at the 98% level). There is also a significant link with local SST anomalies over the Indian Ocean, and in particular with the inter-hemispheric sea surface temperature (SST) gradient over the Indian Ocean (with colder SST south of the equator being conducive to more rainfall, correlation of 0.55 significant at the 99% level). La Ninas/cold SSTs south of the equator tend to have a larger impact than El Ninos. We discuss two possible mechanisms that could explain these statistical relationships: (1) subsidence over southern India remotely forced by Pacific SST anomalies; (2) impact of ENSO-forced regional Indian Ocean SST anomalies on convection. However, the length of the observational record does not allow distinguishing between these two mechanisms in a statistically significant manner. (orig.)

  4. Livelihoods at risk: coping strategies of war-affected communities in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Korf, Benedikt

    2003-01-01

    Rural societies in war-affected areas can be described as ’distressed livelihoods’: they experience a dramatic increase in risk and uncertainty. How does this affect land use and agricultural coping strategies of small-scale farm households? This was the key research question of a multi-disciplinary, comparative village study carried out in the war-torn areas of Sri Lanka. The study employed the analytical framework of rural livelihoods promoted by DFID. In addition, theoretical models of ris...

  5. Everyday networks, politics, and inequalities in post-tsunami recovery: fisher livelihoods in South Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Mubarak, K. N.; Daley, P. O.; Jeffrey, C.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to explore how livelihoods are recovering in the aftermath of the 2004 tsunami in Sri Lanka through the lens of the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework and the social networks approach—methods of inquiry that have gained considerable impetus in livelihoods research. The study is conducted with reference to two tsunami-affected fisher villages in the Hambantota District, Southern Province. It employs a qualitative ethnographic methodology that examines narratives emergi...

  6. Regional Differences of Leptospirosis in Sri Lanka: Observations from a Flood-Associated Outbreak in 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Agampodi, Suneth B; Dahanayaka, Niroshan J.; Bandaranayaka, Anoma K.; Perera, Manoj; Priyankara, Sumudu; Weerawansa, Prasanna; Matthias, Michael A; VINETZ, JOSEPH M.

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is known to be an important cause of weather disaster-related infectious disease epidemics. In 2011, an outbreak of leptospirosis occurred in the relatively dry district of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka where diagnosis was resisted by local practitioners because leptospirosis was not known in the area and the clinical presentation was considered atypical. To identify the causative Leptospira associated with this outbreak, we carried out a cross-sectional study. Consecutive clinically ...

  7. Emerging scrub typhus infection in the northern region of Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeepan, Jebananthy Anandaselvam; Ketheesan, Natkunam; Murugananthan, Kalamathy

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an increasing trend in rickettsioses or typhus fevers in the island of Sri Lanka. The seroepidemiological mapping previously published did not include the northern region of the island. This study was conducted to demonstrate the presence of scrub typhus (ST) and to characterise the clinical presentation of ST in this region. Findings Serum samples from patients (n = 64) with clinical symptoms suspected of typhus fever following exclusion of other common febrile illnesses ...

  8. Developing tools to link environmental flows science and its practice in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriyagma, N.; Jinapala, K.

    2014-09-01

    The term "Environmental Flows (EF)" may be defined as "the quantity, timing and quality of water flows required to sustain freshwater and estuarine ecosystems and the human livelihoods and well-being that depend on these ecosystems". It may be regarded as "water for nature" or "environmental demand" similar to crop water requirements, industrial or domestic water demand. The practice of EF is still limited to a few developed countries such as Australia, South Africa and the UK. In many developing countries EF is rarely considered in water resources planning and is often deemed "unimportant". Sri Lanka, being a developing country, is no exception to this general rule. Although the country underwent an extensive irrigation/water resources development phase during the 1960s through to the 1980s, the concept of EF was hardly considered. However, as Sri Lanka's water resources are being exploited more and more for human usage, ecologists, water practitioners and policymakers alike have realized the importance of EF in sustaining not only freshwater and estuarine ecosystems, but also their services to humans. Hence estimation of EF has been made mandatory in environmental impact assessments (EIAs) of all large development projects involving river regulation/water abstraction. Considering EF is especially vital under the rapid urbanization and infrastructure development phase that dawned after the end of the war in the North and the East of the country in 2009. This paper details simple tools (including a software package which is under development) and methods that may be used for coarse scale estimation of EF at/near monitored locations on major rivers of Sri Lanka, along with example applications to two locations on River Mahaweli. It is hoped that these tools will help bridge the gap between EF science and its practice in Sri Lanka and other developing countries.

  9. Estimation of N-2 Fixation in four tropical leguminous trees in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiNitrogen-fixing capacity of four species of leguminous trees of Sri Lanka (Abarema bigemina, Adenanthera bicolor, Humboldtia laurifolia and Pericopsis mooniana) by analyzing their xylem sap and by taking acetylene reducyion (AR) measurements of nodulated roots of all species, except A.bicolor which had no nodules. Based on the results of the study on P.mooniana, a method to determine the C2H2/N2 conversion factor by analysing the total NH2 compounds is being developed

  10. A quantitative exploration of the sociocultural context of teenage pregnancy in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Rajapaksa-Hewageegana, Neelamani; Salway, Sarah Maria; Piercy, Hilary; Samarage, Sarath

    2014-01-01

    Background: In common with other countries, teenage pregnancy is attracting policy attention in Sri Lanka because of the risks it poses to maternal and infant health and social and economic well-being. This study aimed to increase understanding of the context of teenage pregnancy, by (1) describing the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of pregnant teenagers and their partners; (2) exploring whether teenage pregnancies are planned and how they are received; and (3) exploring facto...

  11. Demographic Variables of University Teachers and Usage of Electronic Information Resources: A Case in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Nadarajah Sivathaasan; Sivapalan Achchuthan; Rajendran Kajananthan

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of the study is to identify whether there are any significant mean differences amongdemographic variables such as gender, age group, faculty, teaching language and experience of universityteachers employed at the University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka on the usage of electronic information resources (EIR).The study employs independent samples t- test and one-way ANOVA (f-test) to test the operational hypotheses.The survey method used in this study is a questionnaire and a total of 7...

  12. The Size of the Government and Economic Growth: An Empirical Study of Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    HERATH, Shanaka

    2010-01-01

    The new growth theory establishes, among other things, that government expenditure can manipulate economic growth of a country. This study attempts to explain whether government expenditure increases or decreases economic growth in the context of Sri Lanka. Results obtained applying an analytical framework based on time series and second degree polynomial regressions are generally consistent with previous findings: government expenditure and economic growth are positively correlated; ex...

  13. Information communication technologies and distance education in Sri Lanka: a case study of two universities

    OpenAIRE

    Liyanagunawardena, Tharindu R

    2012-01-01

    Sri Lanka's participation rates in higher education are low and have risen only slightly in the last few decades; the number of places for higher education in the state university system only caters for around 3% of the university entrant age cohort. The literature reveals that the highly competitive global knowledge economy increasingly favours workers with high levels of education who are also lifelong learners. This lack of access to higher education for a sizable proportion...

  14. Use of the internet by patients attending specialist clinics in Sri Lanka: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Kommalage Mahinda

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The internet is a relatively new medium of disseminating health information. Studies on Internet usage for health information are mainly done in developed countries and very few studies have been carried out in developing countries. Methods The Internet usage of patients who were attending specialist clinics in Teaching Hospital Karapitiya and Southern Hospital in Galle, Sri Lanka was investigated. The study was carried out on the following specialities; General Medicine, ...

  15. Neighborhood Environment and Self-Rated Health among Adults in Southern Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Truls Østbye; Bilesha Perera; Chandramali Jayawardana

    2009-01-01

    The prevalenceof different neighborhood environmental stressors and associations between the stressors and self-rated health are described in a representative sample of 2,077 individuals, aged 18-85 years, in southern Sri Lanka. Mosquito menace (69.4%), stray dog problems (26.8%), nuisance from neighbors (20.3%), and nuisance from drug users (18.7%) were found to be the most prevalent environmental stressors. None of the stressors investigated were associated with self-rated physical health, ...

  16. Mapping mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, Sri Lanka, India and Lao PDR

    OpenAIRE

    de Menil Victoria; Wood Sarah K; Raja Shoba; Mannarath Saju C

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Limited evidence about mental health finances in low and middle-income countries is a key challenge to mental health care policy initiatives. This study aimed to map mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, India (Kerala state), Sri Lanka and Lao PDR focusing on how much money is available for mental health, how it is spent, and how this impacts mental health services. Methods A researcher in each region reviewed public mental health-related budgets and interviewed key inf...

  17. Factors influencing household nutritional status in relation to increasing food prices in Kandy, Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Hana

    2012-01-01

    The food crisis of 2008 exacerbated the nutritional insecurity of poor people around the world. Still today, unprecedented numbers of people do not have access to food because of insufficient economic potential. Sri Lanka is a low income food deficit country which has, until recently experienced civil war, and has high numbers of malnourished people. The objective of this thesis was to identify factors that influence a households susceptibility to food insecurity and to determine how househo...

  18. The Impact of Monetary Policy on Economic Growth and Inflation in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Amarasekara, Chandranath

    2008-01-01

    Based on a vector autoregressive (VAR) framework and utilising both recursive and structural specifications, this study analyses the effects of interest rate, money growth and the movements in nominal exchange rate on real GDP growth and inflation in Sri Lanka for the period from 1978 to 2005. The results of the recursive VARs are broadly in line with the established empirical findings, especially when the interest rate is considered the monetary policy variable. Following a positive innov...

  19. On the identity of Pettalus cimiciformis and P. brevicauda (Opiliones, Pettalidae) from Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Giribet, Gonzalo

    2008-01-01

    Among the most enigmatic Cyphophthalmi are members of the genus Pettalus, a monophyletic group endemic to Sri Lanka. To date three species have been named, Pettalus cimiciformis (O. Pickard-Cambridge 1875), P. brevicauda Pocock 1897, and P. lampetides Sharma & Giribet 2006. However, the identity of the two XIX Century species remains confusing. Here the identity of the three original Pettalus specimens is revised based on their re-examination and comparison to the original descriptions, which...

  20. Environmental exposures and their genetic or environmental contribution to depression and fatigue: a twin study in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovas Yulia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is very little genetically informative research identifying true environmental risks for psychiatric conditions. These may be best explored in regions with diverse environmental exposures. The current study aimed to explore similarities and differences in such risks contributing to depression and fatigue. Methods Home interviews assessed depression (lifetime-ever, fatigue and environmental exposures in 4,024 randomly selected twins from a population-based register in the Colombo district of Sri Lanka. Results Early school leaving and standard of living showed environmentally-mediated effects on depression, in men. In women, life events were associated with depression partly through genetic pathways (however, the temporal order is consistent with life events being an outcome of depression, as well as the other way around. For fatigue, there were environmentally mediated effects (through early school leaving and life events and strong suggestions of family-environmental influences. Conclusions Compared to previous studies from higher-income countries, novel environmentally-mediated risk factors for depression and fatigue were identified in Sri Lanka. But as seen elsewhere, the association between life events and depression was partially genetically mediated in women. These results have implications for understanding environmental mechanisms around the world.

  1. Testimony ceremonies in Asia: integrating spirituality in testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agger, Inger; Igreja, Victor; Kiehle, Rachel; Polatin, Peter

    2012-07-01

    This study explores the therapeutic implications of including culturally adapted spiritual ceremonies in the process of testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines. Data were collected through an action research process with Asian mental health and human rights organizations, during which the testimonial method was reconceptualized and modified to include four sessions. In the first two sessions, community workers assist survivors in the writing of their testimony, which is their narrative about the human rights violations they have suffered. In the third session, survivors participate in an honour ceremony in which they are presented with their testimony documents. In the fourth session, the community workers meet with the survivors for a reevaluation of their well-being. The honour ceremonies developed during the action research process came to employ different kinds of symbolic language at each site: human rights (India), religious/Catholic (Sri Lanka), religious/Buddhist (Cambodia), and religious/Moslem (Philippines). They all used embodied spirituality in various forms, incorporating singing, dancing, and religious purification rituals in a collective gathering. We suggest that these types of ceremonies may facilitate an individual's capacity to contain and integrate traumatic memories, promote restorative self-awareness, and engage community support. Additional research is needed to determine the method's applicability in other sociopolitical contexts governed by more Western-oriented medical traditions. PMID:22637721

  2. My older brother’s tree: everyday violence and the question of the ordinary in Batticaloa, Eastern Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Batticaloa district on the Eastern coast of Sri Lanka has been one of the most disrupted and devastated areas of the island since civil war began in the early 1980s. Ethnically and culturally diverse, the Eastern province has been under the control of different military actors, the Sri Lankan army, the Indian Peace-Keeping Forces, and the LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam), however, none maintained full control of the Eastern areas until May 2009 when the Sri Lankan Army s...

  3. Ethics of cancer palliative care in Sri Lanka. A cross- cultural perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayasiri MBKC

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of cancer is associated with an unexpected breakdown of the physical, psychological and social well being. In addition to cancer related physical outcomes, cross-cultural issues are known to hasten patients’ clinical deterioration and can impact upon orientation as a healthy human being in society. As members of a developing nation in the second world, to provide patient oriented quality care while maintaining high standards of ethical practice, health care workers in Sri Lanka have to be culturally competent. In Sri Lanka, the cross-cultural ethical issues related to patients with a diagnosis of cancer include, awareness of one’s own cultural identity, gaining knowledge of different cultural issues, verbal and non verbal communication skills, respect for patients’ autonomy, involvement of the family and the relatives, addressing moral and spiritual backgrounds, development of effective communication skills and provision of social support. Therefore in the management of cancer patients in Sri Lanka, cultural issues should be given a high priority to maintain ethical standards and quality in palliative care. Culturally competent Health care workers safeguard the rights of patients, as well as providing optimal medical and surgical care.

  4. Experience of a Korean Disaster Medical Assistance Team in Sri Lanka after the South Asia Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Young Ho; Shin, Sang Do; Kim, Kyu Seok; Kwon, Woon Yong

    2006-01-01

    On 26 December 2004, a huge tsunami struck the coasts of South Asian countries and it resulted in 29,729 deaths and 16,665 injuries in Sri Lanka. This study characterizes the epidemiology, clinical data and time course of the medical problems seen by a Korean disaster medical assistance team (DMAT) during its deployment in Sri Lanka, from 2 to 8 January 2005. The team consisting of 20 surgical and medical personnel began to provide care 7 days after tsunami in the southern part of Sri Lanka, the Matara and Hambantota districts. During this period, a total of 2,807 patients visited our field clinics with 3,186 chief complaints. Using the triage and refer system, we performed 3,231 clinical examinations and made 3,259 diagnoses. The majority of victims had medical problems (82.4%) rather than injuries (17.6%), and most conditions (92.1%) were mild enough to be discharged after simple management. There were also substantial needs of surgical managements even in the second week following the tsunami. Our study also suggests that effective triage system, self-sufficient preparedness, and close collaboration with local authorities may be the critical points for the foreign DMAT activity. PMID:16479081

  5. Liquidity Management and Profitability: A Case Study of Listed Manufacturing Companies in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya,K

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available — Liquidity management and profitability are very important issues in the growth and survival of business and the ability to handle the trade-off between the two a source of concern for financial managers.The study is also aimed at finding the effect of changes in liquidity levels on profitability of manufacturing companies in Sri Lanka. The study covered listed manufacturing companies in Sri Lanka over a period of past 5 years from 2008 to 2012. Correlation and regression analysis were used in the analysis and findings suggest that there is a significant relationship exists between liquidity and profitability among the listed manufacturing companies in Sri Lanka. Suggested that Inventory Sales Period (ISP, Current Ratio (CRand are significantly correlated with Return on Asset (ROA, Operating Cash Flow Ratio (OCFRare significantly correlated with Return on Equity (ROE 5 percent level of significance. At the same time ISP and OCFR also are significantly correlated with ROA, Creditors Payment Period (CPP also is significantly correlated with ROE at 1 percent level of significance.

  6. Information and Communication Technology: A Comparison of Pakistan and Sri-Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Iqbal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to examine the information and communication technology sector in Pakistan and Sri-Lanka because they are among top five countries in ICT in the South Asian region. The research is helpful for decision makers to channel ICT related resources where they are required the most. ICT oriented data have been collected by International Telecommunication Union but no comparison exists between the countries included in the research. Therefore, the sources of data are ITU who has identified twenty three parameters individually; they have been rearranged under three subjects: ICT infrastructure, usage and economic impact on the economies of the countries concerned. It is found that the infrastructure of Sri-Lanka is better than Pakistan while both countries are using their resources equally. However, the economic impacts are less visible in Pakistan than its counterpart. Overall the ICT score of Sri Lanka is better than Pakistan. It suggests that policy makers in both nations have to rethink to deploy their resources to take maximum benefit as par to the international standards.

  7. The economic, demographic, sociocultural and political setting for emigration from Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunatilleke, G

    1995-01-01

    This study of emigration from Sri Lanka is introduced by a brief review of the situation during the colonial period and an overview of recent migration experience. The second section of the paper deals with data collection and sources for labor migration, political migration, and estimates of total net migration. The third section looks at economic and demographic trends in terms of the growth of the economy, population growth and social well-being, the growth of the labor force, unemployment, the structure of the work force, internal migration and access to agricultural lands, and income distribution and poverty. The sociocultural setting is then explored by considering exposure to the international environment, ethnicity and cultural affinity, the formation of information and job placement networks, the supportive role of the family, and the impact of success and failure. Moving on the influence of the political setting, the paper then discusses the government policy of foreign employment promotion as well as the influence of political developments on migration. In conclusion, the paper notes that future demand for domestic service workers will likely increase, and that Sri Lanka will continue to have a surplus of workers to fill this demand until the end of the 1990s, when a tightening domestic labor market and increased real wages will ease the push for migration. Political factors will continue to favor migration, however, unless a liberal democratic regime becomes the governing force in Sri Lanka. PMID:12347013

  8. Climate Change Impacts on Rice Farming Systems in Northwestern Sri Lanka. Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Lareef; Nissanka, Sarath P.; Weerakoon, W. M. W.; Herath, Dumindu I.; Karunaratne, Asha S; Prabodha, A. S. M.; Agalawatte, M. B.; Herath, Rasnayaka; Yahiya, S. Zeenas; Punyawardhene, B. V. R.; Vishwanathan, Janan; Delpitiya, Punya; Wijekoon, A. Erandika N.; Gunaratna, Janaka; Chandrasekara, Sewwandhi S. K.; Wickramagamage, P.; Weerasinghe, K. D. N.; Navaratne, Champa M.; Perera, Ruchika S.; Gunesekara, Asela I.; Kumara, G. M. Pradeep; Wallach, Daniel; Valdivia, Roberto O.; McDermid, Sonali

    2015-01-01

    Sri Lanka has achieved tremendous progress since 1950 in crop production and food availability. Yields grew at an impressive rate until leveling off in the mid-eighties. Sri Lanka's population is anticipated to grow in the coming decades, creating an ever-greater demand for food security on the household, sub-district, regional, and national scales.The agricultural sector in Sri Lanka is vulnerable to climate shocks. An unusual succession of droughts and floods from 2008 to 2014 has led to both booms and busts in agricultural production, which were reflected in food prices. In both instances, the majority of farmers and consumers were adversely affected.At present the rice-farming systems are under stress due to inadequate returns for the farmers and difficulty in coping with shocks due to climate, pests, and diseases, and prices for produce. There are government price-support mechanisms, fertilizer-subsidy schemes, and crop insurance schemes, but the levels of the supports are modest and often do not effectively reach the farmers.

  9. An analysis of consumer demand for fruits in Sri Lanka. 1981-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerahewa, Jeevika; Rajapakse, Chamila; Pushpakumara, Gamini

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiency has become a serious health concern in many countries and Sri Lanka is no exception. Inclusion of vegetables and fruits, which are rich in micronutrients, in the diet is considered as one of the most cost effective measures to alleviate such deficiencies. The purpose of this paper is to analyze consumer demand for fruits in Sri Lanka. The specific objectives are to: (i) describe the patterns of fruit consumption across various households groups (ii) document the changes that have taken place in the local fruit supply for meeting the changes in demand, and (iii) to estimate price and income effects of changes in fruit consumption during 1981-2010. The study was conducted using secondary data which were extracted from government publications. The analysis shows that banana, papaw, mangoes and pineapple are the major fruits consumed and the consumption levels of such fruits have been rising over the years. The urban households and the households in high-income deciles are found to be allocating a relatively higher proportion of their food expenditure on fruits. The country is self sufficient in most of the fruits and only a small portion is traded. The results of econometric estimations reveal large income effects and relatively small price effects. A larger role for income based interventions as opposed to price based interventions to improve fruit consumption in Sri Lanka is evident from the results. PMID:23036284

  10. Resistance Towards the Language of Globalisation - The Case of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punchi, Lakshman

    2001-07-01

    This paper relates the contemporary educational reforms in Sri Lanka to the processes of globalisation. The international monetary organisations such as the IMF and the World Bank and the regional organisations like the Asian Development Bank (ADB) play a dominant role in influencing the debt-receiving countries when it comes to their educational practice. The intensity of the influence of these organisations can vary depending on the existing educational policy of the aid receiving countries. This paper, after a brief introduction on globalisation, examines its effects on the education policy in Sri Lanka with a special emphasis on the current language policy. Equity in education is usually advocated at primary level based on the universal primary education concept so highly upheld by the World Bank. However, the present high human development indicators are undoubtedly due to Sri Lanka's free education policy in native languages. The paper concludes stressing the importance to retain the national education policy as a means of empowerment and liberation of its masses and creating stronger ethnic harmony.

  11. Characterisation of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Matara district, southern Sri Lanka: evidence for case clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariyawasam, K K G D U L; Edirisuriya, C S; Senerath, U; Hensmen, D; Siriwardana, H V Y D; Karunaweera, N D

    2015-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease transmitted by Phlebotomus spp. sand flies. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sri Lanka is caused by Leishmania donovani. Transmission patterns are different in Southern and Northern Sri Lanka. Current study examined the prevalence, risk factors and distribution of CL in Matara District, Southern Sri Lanka. Total of 2260 individuals from four District Secretariat divisions (DSDs) were screened by house to house surveys using an interviewer administered questionnaire. The study population had an age range of 1-90?years (median??=??43??±??17.31), low monthly income (?income and excessive time (>4?hours/day) spent outdoors. However, exposure of limbs while outdoors, unawareness about the disease, type of occupation, common water source as the mode of water supply and presence of animal shelters within 200?m were not associated with the risk of acquiring the disease. Peri-domestic transmission is likely to contribute to the observed case clustering with all age groups at risk of acquiring the infection. Human behavioural habits coinciding with that of the vector, sand fly are likely to enable host-vector contact promoting its spread. Appropriate vector control measures, improvement of housing conditions, public education regarding preventive measures are required to contain the spread of disease. PMID:26345305

  12. Inter-Annual Variability in Blue Whale Distribution off Southern Sri Lanka between 2011 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha de Vos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus movements are often driven by the availability of their prey in space and time. While globally blue whale populations undertake long-range migrations between feeding and breeding grounds, those in the northern Indian Ocean remain in low latitude waters throughout the year with the implication that the productivity of these waters is sufficient to support their energy needs. A part of this population remains around Sri Lanka where they are usually recorded close to the southern coast during the Northeast Monsoon. To investigate inter-annual variability in sighting locations, we conducted systematic Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD and visual surveys between January–March 2011 and January–March 2012. In 2011, there was a notable decrease in inshore sightings compared to 2009 and 2012 (p < 0.001. CTD data revealed that in 2011 there was increased freshwater in the upper water column accompanied by deeper upwelling than in 2012. We hypothesise that anomalous rainfall, along with higher turbidity resulting from river discharge, affected the productivity of the inshore waters and caused a shift in blue whale prey and, consequently, the distribution of the whales themselves. An understanding of how predators and their prey respond to environmental variability is important for predicting how these species will respond to long-term changes. This is especially important given the rapid temperature increases predicted for the semi-enclosed northern Indian Ocean.

  13. Inequalities and externalities of power sector. A case of Broadlands hydropower project in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunawardena, U.A.D. Prasanthi [Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda (Sri Lanka)

    2010-02-15

    The objective of the paper is to estimate environmental externalities related to a run of river project in Sri Lanka and to investigate inequity in distribution of impacts among different social groups. Diversion of the river resulted in loss of water sports (for high-income groups both local and remote), loss of historical monuments (for remote high-income groups) and recreation losses (for local poor). Removal of forest cover leads to loss of non-timber products (for local poor) and carbon storage (for remote high- and low-income groups). Loss of home garden productivity was borne by local poor groups. Benefit of the project, generation of 145 GWh annually, was a gain for the grid connected groups. The impacts were valued using various valuation methods. The base case of the cost benefit analysis resulted in NPV of US$ 11,335,730. When distributional weights are applied for different income groups, both the sign and magnitude of net benefits change. In order to be viable, the project needs diversion of at least 9% of generated electricity to the poorest households in the country. Implications for energy policy towards reducing externality and inequality impacts are also discussed. (author)

  14. Inequalities and externalities of power sector: A case of Broadlands hydropower project in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunawardena, U.A.D. Prasanthi, E-mail: prasanthigunawardena@yahoo.co [Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda (Sri Lanka)

    2010-02-15

    The objective of the paper is to estimate environmental externalities related to a run of river project in Sri Lanka and to investigate inequity in distribution of impacts among different social groups. Diversion of the river resulted in loss of water sports (for high-income groups both local and remote), loss of historical monuments (for remote high-income groups) and recreation losses (for local poor). Removal of forest cover leads to loss of non-timber products (for local poor) and carbon storage (for remote high- and low-income groups). Loss of home garden productivity was borne by local poor groups. Benefit of the project, generation of 145 GWh annually, was a gain for the grid connected groups. The impacts were valued using various valuation methods. The base case of the cost benefit analysis resulted in NPV of US$ 11,335,730. When distributional weights are applied for different income groups, both the sign and magnitude of net benefits change. In order to be viable, the project needs diversion of at least 9% of generated electricity to the poorest households in the country. Implications for energy policy towards reducing externality and inequality impacts are also discussed.

  15. Inequalities and externalities of power sector: A case of Broadlands hydropower project in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the paper is to estimate environmental externalities related to a run of river project in Sri Lanka and to investigate inequity in distribution of impacts among different social groups. Diversion of the river resulted in loss of water sports (for high-income groups both local and remote), loss of historical monuments (for remote high-income groups) and recreation losses (for local poor). Removal of forest cover leads to loss of non-timber products (for local poor) and carbon storage (for remote high- and low-income groups). Loss of home garden productivity was borne by local poor groups. Benefit of the project, generation of 145 GWh annually, was a gain for the grid connected groups. The impacts were valued using various valuation methods. The base case of the cost benefit analysis resulted in NPV of US$ 11,335,730. When distributional weights are applied for different income groups, both the sign and magnitude of net benefits change. In order to be viable, the project needs diversion of at least 9% of generated electricity to the poorest households in the country. Implications for energy policy towards reducing externality and inequality impacts are also discussed.

  16. Development of a Community Based Web-Mobile Platform (CBWMP for diabetes care in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishan Siriwardena

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic disease with no permanent cure. Sri Lanka is placed among the countries with the highest diabetes prevalence rates in the world (ie. 2.8 million Sri Lankans have diabetes or pre-diabetes, and most importantly, a significant proportions of the population is yet to be diagnosed. Patients with diabetes need lifelong care to prevent complications which further impose a significant burden on the country’s expenditure on healthcare. Moreover, patients need to maintain constant contact with the healthcare provider for the optimal management of diabetes. However, such arrangement is often costly and time consuming and therefore it ultimately aggravates the burden to patients, the healthcare system and the economy.With the development of telecommunication technologies, Telemedicine (i.e. the use of Information Communication Technology to provide healthcare at a distance has gained attention. Telemedicine can enhance communication between patient and healthcare provider without needing physical presence in one place. Telemedicine can link healthcare professionals from different corners of the globe to share knowledge and expertise. Moreover, evidence is surfacing to suggest that the telemedicine would be a viable alternative to conventional care.This article showcases a Sri Lankan study which describes the development of a Telemedicine system for Sri Lanka - Community Based Web-Mobile Platform (CBWMP. The concept of the platform is to maintain an electronic Personal Health Record (e-PHR in order to provide communication between different parties to optimise patient health information flow and also to coordinate the continuity of care at minimal cost. The CBWMP - integrated mobile phones and e-PHR - is capable of delivering diabetes education, co-ordinating effective management, and screening diabetes status. To avoid any cultural marginalisation, all the services can be accessed in the user’s preferred native language in Sri Lanka viz. Sinhala, Tamil, and English.

  17. Theorising the practice of language mixing in music: an interdisciplinary (linguistic and musicological) investigation of Sri Lanka’s leading genre of contemporary popular song and its community.

    OpenAIRE

    Ekanayaka, Tanya Nissani Ilangakkone

    2011-01-01

    This thesis represents the first ever study of Sri Lanka’s leading genre of contemporary popular song covering a period of over twelve years, and how its artists and principal audience interpolate ‘global’ and ‘local’ (linguistic and musical) elements in their invention and negotiation of the genre. The central objective is to articulate the collective linguistic identity of the genre’s artists and principal audience. They are shown to constitute a community of over 5.5 million...

  18. Achieving high seroprevalence against polioviruses in Sri Lanka-Results from a serological survey, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, Deepa; Palihawadana, Paba; Mach, Ondrej; Weldon, William C; Oberste, Steven M; Sutter, Roland W

    2015-12-01

    The immunization program in Sri Lanka consistently reaches >90% coverage with oral poliovirus vaccines (OPV), and no polio supplementary vaccination campaigns have been conducted since 2003. We evaluated serological protection against polioviruses in children. A cross-sectional community-based survey was performed in three districts of Sri Lanka (Colombo, Badulla, and Killinochi). Randomly selected children in four age groups (9-11months, 3-4years, 7-9years, and 15years) were tested for poliovirus neutralizing antibodies. All 400 enrolled children completed the study. The proportion of seropositive children for poliovirus Type 1 and Type 2 was >95% for all age groups; for poliovirus Type 3 it was 95%, 90%, 77%, and 75% in the respective age groups. The vaccination coverage in our sample based on vaccination cards or parental recall was >90% in all age groups. Most Sri Lankan children are serologically protected against polioviruses through routine immunization only. This seroprevalence survey provided baseline data prior to the anticipated addition of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) into the Sri Lankan immunization program and the switch from trivalent OPV (tOPV) to bivalent OPV (bOPV). PMID:26166424

  19. Imposing restrictions on pornography: its potential impact and effectiveness in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranmali Waduge

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The government of Sri Lanka recently introduced many measures to limit the accessibility and availability of pornography in the country including censorship of websites containing sexually explicit material and active prosecution of Sri Lankans who appeared on such websites Available evidence suggests that pornographic consumption among Sri Lankan adolescents is considerable and such exposure may influence sexual attitudes and activity including sexual aggression in youth. However the current evidence on the beneficial effects of censorship of pornography is less than convincing. The authors believe that warm, communicative parent-child relationship and open discussion about sexual matters at home and at school could be more effective than restrictive measures such as censorship and punitive legislation.

  20. Staffing Practices in the Private Sector in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Vathsala

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to present and discuss the findings of a study of staffing practices in the Sri Lankan private sector with particular reference to junior level managerial jobs. The scope of staffing practices consisted of six major areas, namely the usage of information from job analysis in staffing, the sources of labour, selection…

  1. International Enterprise Education in Sri Lanka: A Blended Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasturiratne, Dulekha; Lean, Jonathan; Phippen, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how enterprise education was adapted from a UK higher education institution (HEI) setting into an international context through collaboration with two Sri Lankan universities. It demonstrates the value of enterprise education in different cultures, and presents learning from the challenges faced by…

  2. Sri Lankan Expatriate Scientists in Vancouver: Attitudes Towards Returning to Sri Lanka to Rebuild

    OpenAIRE

    Cruikshank, A; Holbrook, J A

    2008-01-01

    After a tsunami in 2004, the Sri Lankan Ministry of Science and Technology sought ways to accelerate their economic development through their burgeoning high tech industries. This paper serves as a recommendation to the Ministry to encourage Sri Lankan scientists working and studying abroad to return to the country to aid in rebuilding efforts. It accounts for the factors that lead many Sri Lankan nationals to move abroad, and provides recommendations to entice their return.

  3. The Pearl of Great Price: Achieving Equitable Access to Primary and Secondary Education and Enhancing Learning in Sri Lanka. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aturupane, Harsha

    2009-01-01

    The experience of public policy in Sri Lanka has had a profound impact on the thinking of the global development community in relation to the role of education in economic development. In particular, the example of Sri Lanka helped to persuade policy makers around the world that governments can successfully develop a general education system to…

  4. Acute meningoencephalitis associated with echovirus 9 infection in Sri Lanka, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danthanarayana, Nayomi; Williams, David T; Williams, Simon Hedley; Thevanesam, Vasanthi; Speers, David J; Fernando, M S S

    2015-12-01

    The aetiology of acute meningoencephalitis in Sri Lankan children and adults is poorly understood. This study was carried out to determine pathogens responsible for meningoencephalitis in Sri Lanka. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was performed using cerebrospinal fluid samples (22 adult and 17 pediatric) collected from August to December 2009 from patients clinically diagnosed with acute meningoencephalitis at two tertiary care hospitals in Sri Lanka. Routine microbiology for bacterial pathogens together with in-house RT-PCR and PCR assays for the detection of dengue viruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, chikungunya virus, enteroviruses, mumps virus, measles virus, herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2, and varicella zoster virus were performed. Bacterial pathogens were not isolated from any patient specimens. However, from nine of the paediatric patients aged 1 month to 10 years (mean age 5.2 years) echovirus 9 (E-9; family Picornaviridae, genus Enterovirus,species Enterovirus B ) was detected by RT-PCR. All nine patients presented with fever, six had headache, and seven had vomiting. Neck stiffness indicating meningitis was present in six of the patients. Phylogenetic analysis of partial VP1 and VP4-VP2 genes showed these E-9 strains to be most closely related to E-9 strains detected in CSF from Korea and France in 2005 and 2006. The remaining patients were negative for all other viruses tested. E-9 was the most common cause of acute meningoencephalitis in the tested paediatric population from Sri Lanka in 2009, which likely reflects circulation of this E-9 strain between Europe and Asia over several years. PMID:25983131

  5. The process and costs of publishing medical journals in Sri Lanka: an economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, P; Perera, Y S; Abeygunasekara, A M

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Medical journals have contributed to the advancement of medicine by helping to disseminate scientific knowledge and providing a forum for medical communities to debate issues in depth. To the authors' knowledge, there are no studies examining the process of medical journal publication in developing Asian countries. The authors analysed the process and costs of publishing medical journals in Sri Lanka, a developing country in South Asia. Methods Data were collected by interviewing the editors and perusing the records at the editorial offices of the respective medical journals. Articles published in 2009 (or 2008 for journals not published in 2009) were analysed by perusing the respective journals. Results A total of 44 medical journals were published in Sri Lanka's history, of which only 28 journals remained in publication after 2007. A majority (54%) of the journals published after 2007 were published once per year. Seventeen journals in publication after 2007 were published in paper version only, and 11 journals were also available online. The mean cost of printing one issue was Sri Lankan Rupees (LKR) 97?720 (US$888) (range LKR 28?000-270?000). The cost of distribution ranged from LKR 2000 to 140?000 (US$18-1273). The mean cost of publishing one article was LKR 6646 (US$60). A total of 456 articles were published in 2009 (/2008). The total number of pages published was 1723. Conclusion The infrastructure for medical journal publishing in Sri Lanka has many good qualities such as free access, minimum charges for authors and potential for online availability. The journals are solely academic (non-profit), but the costs remain high. PMID:22021741

  6. An assessment of CSIRO Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model simulations over Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevakaran, A.; McGregor, J. L.; Katzfey, J.; Hoffmann, P.; Suppiah, R.; Sonnadara, D. U. J.

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we present an assessment of the Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) 50 km simulations forced by the sea surface temperature and sea ice concentration of six global climate models (GCMs) (ACCESS1-0, CCSM4, GFDL-CM3, NorESM, MPI-ESM and CNRM-CM5) from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) over South Asia, centred on Sri Lanka. The model simulations were compared with the data provided by the Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration towards Evaluation of Water Resource (APHRODITE) project and ERA-Interim from the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) over a broad region centred on Sri Lanka. This broad region includes South Asia and northern Indian Ocean. Statistical measures such as pattern correlations, mean biases and root mean square errors were calculated separately for the four seasons. Results based on statistical tests indicate that the current CCAM simulations capture the spatial patterns of 10 m wind speed, mean sea level pressure, temperature and rainfall over a broad region over South Asia fairly well. The annual cycles of temperature and rainfall were also compared against observations over the northern and southern regions of Sri Lanka by taking the field average of each model and the observed data. The characteristics of the observed annual variations of rainfall and temperature over the smaller domains are not very well captured by the CCAM simulations. There are differences in the magnitudes of the temperature and rainfall in the six member CCAM simulations. Comparatively, the two CCAM simulations CNRM-CM5 and GFDL-CM3 show slightly better agreement over the Sri Lankan region.

  7. Viper bites complicate chronic agrochemical nephropathy in rural Sri Lanka

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anjana, Silva; Rivikelum, Samarasinghe; Senaka, Pilapitiya; Niroshana, Dahanayake; Sisira, Siribaddana.

    2014-09-02

    Full Text Available Snakebite is a common occupational health hazard among Sri Lankan agricultural workers, particularly in the North Central Province. Viperine snakes, mainly Russell’s viper envenomation, frequently lead to acute renal failure. During the last two decades, an agrochemical nephropathy, a chronic tubulo [...] interstitial disease has rapidly spread over this area leading to high morbidity and mortality. Most of the epidemiological characteristics of these two conditions overlap, increasing the chances of co-occurrence. Herein, we describe four representative cases of viperine snakebites leading to variable clinical presentations, in patients with chronic agrochemical nephropathy, including two patients presented with acute and delayed anuria. These cases suggest the possibility of unusual manifestations of snakebite in patients with Sri Lankan agrochemical nephropathy, of which the clinicians should be aware. It could be postulated that the existing scenario in the Central America could also lead to similar clinical presentations.

  8. Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth: Evidence from Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Thirunavukkarasu Velnampy; Sivapalan Achchuthan; Rajendran Kajananthan

    2013-01-01

    Various international organizations and foreign advisors suggested that developing countries should focusprimarily on foreign direct investment (FDI) as a source of external finance. In this context, the main purpose ofthe study is to find out the impact of foreign direct investment on economic growth in the Sri LankanPerspective. Data on the foreign direct investment and economic growth from the year 1990 to 2011 werecollected for the study purpose. Further, the results revealed that, there ...

  9. Genetic characterization of Babesia and Theileria parasites in water buffaloes in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Fukushi, Shintaro; Hayashida, Kyoko; Kothalawala, Hemal; Silva, Seekkuge Susil Priyantha; Vimalakumar, Singarayar Caniciyas; Kanagaratnam, Ratnam; Meewewa, Asela Sanjeewa; Suthaharan, Kalpana; Puvirajan, Thamotharampillai; de Silva, Weligodage Kumarawansa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2014-02-24

    Water buffaloes are thought to be the reservoir hosts for several hemoprotozoan parasites that infect cattle. In the present study, we surveyed Sri Lankan bred water buffaloes for infections with Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis using parasite-specific PCR assays. When 320 blood-derived DNA samples from water buffaloes reared in three different districts (Polonnaruwa, Mannar, and Mullaitivu) of Sri Lanka were PCR screened, B. bovis, B. bigemina, and T. orientalis were detected. While T. orientalis was the predominant parasite (82.5%), low PCR-positive rates were observed for B. bovis (1.9%) and B. bigemina (1.6%). Amplicons of the gene sequences of the Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 (RAP-1) of B. bovis, the Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA-1) of B. bigemina, and the Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) of T. orientalis were compared with those characterized previously in Sri Lankan cattle. While the B. bigemina AMA-1 sequences from water buffaloes shared high identity values with those from cattle, B. bovis RAP-1 sequences from water buffaloes diverged genetically from those of cattle. For T. orientalis, none of the MPSP sequence types reported previously in Sri Lankan cattle (types 1, 3, 5, and 7) were detected in the water buffaloes, and the MPSP sequences analyzed in the present study belonged to types N1 or N2. In summary, in addition to reporting the first PCR-based survey of Babesia and Theileria parasites in water buffaloes in Sri Lanka, the present study found that the predominant variants of water buffalo-derived B. bovis RAP-1 and T. orientalis MPSP sequences were different from those previously described from cattle in this country. PMID:24365246

  10. After Five Years of Collaboration: The Benefits of University Based Eduaction for Nurses in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira M. Cameron

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A request from the nurses of Sri Lanka led to the establishment of the country’s first university nursing program. Delivered by distance, the program represented a collaborative, approach among a Sri Lankan university (The Open University of Sri Lanka, a Canadian university (Athabasca University and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA, who funded the project. The challenges facing this undertaking included the lack of available culturally appropriate course materials, the English language proficiency of prospective students, the unavailability of nursing and related literature and the student lack of ready accessibility to communications technology. The lack of nurses qualified to assume university faculty positions was an additional challenge. Seven years after the firsty intake of students, the OUSL BScN remains the country’s nursing degree program. In spite of small number of graduates, evaluation reveals that graduates are making a contribution to improving the nursing care of citizens while re-defining the traditional expectations of nurses. Success bring new challenges; among them is the need for educators and health planners to increase collaboration in order to further raise the levels of health care by continuing to improve the quality of nursing education.

  11. Humanitarian NGOs and Mediations of Political Order in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that international and national humanitarian NGOs have a far more fundamental bearing on the social reconstitution of Sri Lankan society as a political, cultural, and moral entity than is usually acknowledged. Through their interventions, humanitarian agencies affect the power...... relationship between state and non-state actors and between local organizations and the war-affected populations that make up their constituencies. But NGOs also affect the political order by introducing new understandings of the citizen and providing alternative moral arguments to legitimize power and...

  12. Notes on the diet and habitat selection of the Sri Lankan Leopard Panthera pardus kotiya (Mammalia: Felidae in the central highlands of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Kittle

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The endangered Sri Lankan Leopard Panthera pardus kotiya occupies the island’s highly fragmented central hills where data on its feeding ecology and habitat use is largely absent. This study’s objective was to investigate diet and resource selection of leopards here with a focus on the extent of potential interactions with humans in this heavily populated, largely unprotected landscape. Fecal sample analysis was undertaken to investigate diet and sign index counts and selectivity index analysis to determine habitat and landscape features important to fine scale leopard utilization. Results indicated that leopards in the central hills hunt a wide range of prey (at least 10 genera, including larger species where available (e.g., Sambar Rusa unicolor and smaller, more specialized prey (e.g., Porcupine Hystrix indica where necessary. No domestic species were recorded in scat analysis (N=35 despite the availability of dogs Canis familiaris, suggesting such predation may be atypical in Sri Lanka. Leopards use a range of landscapes within the region including established and regenerating forests, plantation lands (e.g., pine, eucalyptus, tea, and areas in close proximity to human settlement. At a fine scale, areas of dense undergrowth including tall grasslands were preferred to more open forest, as well as to Pine Pinus caribaea monocultures. Avoidance of humans may be influencing these patterns. This study has important implications as researchers and managers necessarily expand beyond focusing on protected areas toward integrated, landscape-level conservation strategies.

  13. Using Constitutional Provisions to Advance Environmental Justice – Some Reflections on Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camena Guneratne

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the principle of environmental justice and its potential applicability to developing countries such as Sri Lanka. It first considers the interpretation and application of the principle in its country of origin, the United States, where it is used primarily to address problems of discrimination in the context of pollution. The paper takes the view that while such an interpretation of environmental justice is valid in this particular context, it cannot address issues of environment and development that arise in countries of the global South, which are grappling with development processes. These processes give rise to issues that may be subject to judicial determination, including sustainable development, protection of natural resources, human rights and social equity. The principle must therefore be re-interpreted to encompass all these dimensions. This paper argues that such an expansion and implementation of the principle of environmental justice in a context of environment and development in countries such as Sri Lanka, is most effective within a constitutional framework of human rights. Constitutions provide both the substantive and procedural foundation of rights, which are interpreted, enforced and given validity at the highest level of the judicial process. Even where environmental rights per se are not contained in a constitution, the existing rights can be, and have been, re-formulated to address issues of environment and development and related human rights. This paper analyses constitutional rights in Sri Lanka, which although limited in scope, has nevertheless formed the basis of a wide body of jurisprudence which brings new dimensions to the principle.

  14. Environmental and Socio-Demographic Determinants of Dengue Fever in Colombo City, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipre, Meghan; Luvall, Jeffrey; Haque, Akhlaque; McClure, Leslie; Zaitchik, Ben; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever has increased exponentially in Sri Lanka, from 24.4 cases per 100,000 in 2003 to 165.3 per 100,000 population in 2013. Although early warning systems using predictor models have been previously developed in other settings, it is important to develop such models in each local setting. Further, the ability of these models to be applicable at smaller geographic units will enhance current vector control and disease surveillance measures. The aim of this paper was to identify environmental and socio-economic status (SES) risk factors that may predict dengue fever at the Gram Niladhari Divisions (GND) level (smallest administrative unit) in Colombo city, Sri Lanka. These factors included landcover classes, amount of vegetation, population density, water access and neighborhood SES as determined by roof type. A geographically weighted regression (GWR) was used to develop the prediction model. A total 55 GND units covering an area of 37 sq km were investigated. We found that GND units with decreased vegetation, higher built-up area, higher population density and poor access to tap-water supply were associated with high risk of dengue; the pertinent GND units were concentrated in the center of the city. This is the first study in Sri Lanka to include both environmental and socio-demographic factors in prediction models for dengue fever. The methodology may be useful in enhancing ongoing dengue fever control measures in the country, and to be extended to other countries in the region that have an increasing incidence of dengue fever.

  15. Breastfeeding practices in a public health field practice area in Sri Lanka: a survival analysis

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    Agampodi Thilini C

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exclusive breastfeeding up to the completion of the sixth month of age is the national infant feeding recommendation for Sri Lanka. The objective of the present study was to collect data on exclusive breastfeeding up to six months and to describe the association between exclusive breastfeeding and selected socio-demographic factors. Methods A clinic based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Medical Officer of Health area, Beruwala, Sri Lanka in June 2006. Mothers with infants aged 4 to 12 months, attending the 19 child welfare clinics in the area were included in the study. Infants with specific feeding problems (cleft lip and palate and primary lactose intolerance were excluded. Cluster sampling technique was used and consecutive infants fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled. A total of 219 mothers participated in the study. The statistical tests used were survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional Hazard model. Results All 219 mothers had initiated breastfeeding. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was four months (95% CI 3.75, 4.25. The rates of exclusive breastfeeding at 4 and 6 months were 61.6% (135/219 and 15.5% (24/155 respectively. Bivariate analysis showed that the Muslim ethnicity (p = 0.004, lower levels of parental education (p Conclusion The rate of breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding up to the fourth month is very high in Medical Officer of Health area, Beruwala, Sri Lanka. However exclusive breastfeeding up to six months is still low and the prevalence of inappropriate feeding practices is high.

  16. Sociodemographic factors associated with aggressive driving behaviors of 3-wheeler taxi drivers in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akalanka, Ediriweera Chintana; Fujiwara, Takeo; Desapriya, Ediriweera; Peiris, Dinithi C; Scime, Giulia

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the nature and scope of aggressive driving in developing countries. The objective of this study is to specifically examine the sociodemographic factors associated with aggressive driving behavior among 3-wheeler taxi drivers in Sri Lanka. Convenience samples of 3-wheeler taxi drivers from Rathnapura, Ahaliyagoda, Sri Lanka were surveyed from June to August 2006. Analyses included bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Drivers with less than high school education were 3.5 times more likely to drive aggressively (odds ratio [OR] = 3.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 11.1). Single drivers were 9 times more likely to run red lights (OR = 8.74; 95% CI = 2.18, 35.0), and being single was a major risk factor for drunk driving (OR = 4.80; 95% CI = 1.23, 18.7). Furthermore, high school completers were 4 times more likely to bribe a policeman (OR = 4.27; 95% CI = 1.23, 14.9) when caught violating the road rules. Aggressive driving and risk-taking behavior are amenable to policy initiatives, and preventive programs targeted at key groups could be used to improve road safety in Sri Lanka. This study demonstrates that aggressive driving behavior is associated with sociodemographic factors, including the level of education, marital status, and other socioeconomic factors. Hence, economic factors should be addressed to find solutions to traffic-related issues. It will be the government's and policy makers' responsibility to try and understand the economic factors behind risky road behavior and bribe-taking behavior prior to legislating or enforcing new laws. PMID:20685667

  17. Change in Dengue and Japanese Encephalitis Seroprevalence Rates in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeewandara, Chandima; Gomes, Laksiri; Paranavitane, S. A.; Tantirimudalige, Mihiri; Panapitiya, Sumedha Sandaruwan; Jayewardene, Amitha; Fernando, Samitha; Fernando, R. H.; Prathapan, Shamini

    2015-01-01

    Background Sri Lanka has been affected by epidemics of dengue infections for many decades and the incidence and severity of dengue infections have been rising each year. Therefore, we investigated the age stratified seroprevalence of dengue infections in order to facilitate future dengue vaccine strategies. In addition, since the symptomatic dengue infections have increased during the past few decades, we also investigated the possible association with Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) antibody seropositivity with symptomatic dengue in a community cohort in Sri Lanka. Methods 1689 healthy individuals who were attending a primary health care facility were recruited. Dengue and JEV antibody status was determined in all individuals and JEV vaccination status was recorded. Results 1152/1689 (68.2%) individuals were seropositive for dengue and only 133/1152 (11.5%) of them had been hospitalized to due to dengue. A significant and positive correlation was observed for dengue antibody seropositivity and age in children (Spearmans R = 0.84, p = 0.002) and in adults (Spearmans R = 0.96, p = 0.004). We observed a significant rise in the age stratified seroprevalence rates in children over a period of 12 years. For instance, in year 2003 the annual seroconversion rate was 1.5% per annum, which had risen to 3.79% per annum by 2014. We also found that both adults (pdengue were more likely to be seropositive for JEV antibodies. However, 244 (91.4%) of adults who were seropositive for JEV had not had the JEV vaccine. Conclusions Dengue seroprevalence rates have risen significantly over the last 12 years in Sri Lanka, possibly due to increased transmission. As individuals who were hospitalized due to dengue were more likely to be seropositive for JEV, the possibility of cross-reactive assays and/or of JEV infection on immunity to the DENV and clinical disease severity should be further investigated. PMID:26696417

  18. A malaria risk analysis in an irrigated area in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkenberg, Eveline; van der Hoek, Wim; Amerasinghe, Felix P

    2004-01-01

    Malaria in Sri Lanka is unstable and epidemic, with large spatial and temporal differences in transmission dynamics. The disease is of great public health significance and identification of underlying risk factors is important in order to use the limited resources in a cost-effective way. The International Water Management Institute (IWMI) recently launched a project of GIS-based malaria risk mapping in Sri Lanka, to investigate whether this tool could be used for epidemic forecasting and for the planning of malaria control activities. This paper presents results for the Uda Walawe region in southern Sri Lanka, an irrigated agricultural area where malaria cases were mapped at the smallest administrative level for each month over a 10-year period. Malaria incidence rates were related to land- and water-use patterns, socio-economic features, and data on malaria control interventions in a multivariate analysis. Areas of high malaria risk were characterized by: (i) higher than average rainfall, (ii) greater forest coverage; (iii) slash and burn cultivation as a predominant agricultural activity; (iv) presence of many abandoned irrigation reservoirs; and (v) poor socio-economic status. Irrigated rice cultivation areas had a lower risk of malaria than non-irrigated areas. This difference could be due to socio-economic factors related to irrigation development and/or transmission dynamics related to vector density or species composition. Our findings call for malaria control strategies that are readily adapted to different ecological and epidemiological settings. Malaria risk maps are a convenient tool for discussing targeted and cost-effective interventions with disease control personnel. PMID:14732243

  19. Effect of Tsunami on Shallow Ground Water Quality in Sri Lanka; Field Observations and Geochemical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithanage, M.; Villholth, K.; Mahatantila, K.; Engesgaard, P.; Jensen, K.

    2007-12-01

    On December 26th 2004, the earthquake off the south coast of Sumatra in the Indian Ocean generated tsunami waves, resulting in severe devastation in the coastal regions of Sri Lanka. Changes in water quality of a sand aquifer on the east coast of Sri Lanka due to the tsunami, subsequent disturbance due to well pumping and flushing by precipitation were investigated to observe its "natural cleansing" response by precipitation and the effect of well cleaning and pumping of water for domestic uses. The selected field sites near Batticaloa, located on the east coast of Sri Lanka, are bordered by the sea to the east and a lagoon to the west. The two sites were classified as disturbed and undisturbed, based on groundwater pumping. Daily rainfall was measured at the site and changes in water table were monitored from October, 2005 to October, 2006. Water samples were collected from 15 dug wells and 20 piezometers, from the disturbed and undisturbed sites, respectively to evaluate the temporal and spatial trends in water quality. Observed values of electrical conductivity, alkalinity and concentrations of calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium and sulphate in the disturbed site were slightly higher than that in the undisturbed site during the months of January, March, and October 2006. Furthermore, water quality parameter values in abandoned dug wells in the disturbed site have shown similar results as the undisturbed site. This was also evident from the geochemical inverse modelling using the U.S. Geological Survey code, PHREEQC. These findings support the hypothesis that well cleaning and abstraction of water for general purposes disturb the natural downward movement and the recession of the tsunami impacts and therefore, the imprint of the tsunami may have been prolonged in the disturbed site compared to the undisturbed site.

  20. Quantitative and Public Perception of Landslide Risk in Badulla, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekera, R.; Bandara, R. M. S.; Mallawatantri, A.; Saito, K.

    2009-04-01

    Landslides are often triggered by intense precipitation and are exacerbated by increased urbanisation and human activity. There is a significant risk of large scale landslides in Sri Lanka and when they do occur, they have the potential to cause devastation to property, lives and livelihoods. There are several high landslide risk areas in seven districts (Nuwara Eliya, Badulla, Ratnapura, Kegalle, Kandy, Matale and Kalutara) in Sri Lanka. These are also some of the poorest areas in the country and consequently the recovery process after catastrophic landslides become more problematic. Therefore landslide risk management is an important concern in poverty reduction strategies. We focused on the district of Badulla, Sri Lanka to evaluate the a) quantitative scientific analysis of landslide risk and b) qualitative public perception of landslides in the area. Combining high resolution, hazard and susceptibility data we quantified the risk of landslides in the area. We also evaluated the public perception of landslides in the area using participatory GIS techniques. The evaluation of public perception of landslide risk has been complemented by use of Landscan data. The framework of the methodology for Landscan data is based on using the second order administrative population data from census, each 30 arc-second cell within the administrative units receives a probability coefficient based on slope, proximity to roads and land cover. Provision of this information from these complementary methods to the regional planners help to strengthen the disaster risk reduction options and improving sustainable land use practices through enhanced public participation in the decision making and governance processes.

  1. The Malaysian Orthopaedic Association humanitarian mission to Indonesia and Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, I; Saw, A; Hyzan, Y; Sivananthan, K S

    2005-07-01

    The tsunami which occurred off the west coast of North Sumatra on December 26, 2004 devastated the coastal areas of North Sumatra, South-West Thailand, South-East India and Sri Lanka killing more than a quarter of a million people. The destruction was enormous with many coastal villages destroyed. The other countries affected were Malaysia, Myanmar, Maldives, Bangladesh, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania and the Seychelles. In January 2005, volunteers went in weekly rotation to Banda Aceh in collaboration with Global Peace Mission. These were Dr Hyzan Yusof, Dr Suryasmi Duski, Dr Sharaf Ibrahim, Dr Saw Aik, Dr Kamariah Nor and Dr Nor Azlin. In Banda Aceh, the surgical procedures that we could do were limited to external fixation of open fractures and debriding infected wounds at the Indonesian Red Crescent field hospital. In February, a team comprising Dato Dr K S Sivananthan, Dr T Kumar and Dr S Vasan spent a week in Sri Lanka. In Sri Lanka, Dato Sivananthan and his team were able to perform elective orthopaedic operations in Dr Poonambalam Memorial Hospital. We appealed for national and international aid and received support from local hospitals and the orthopaedic industry. International aid bound for Banda Aceh arrived in Kuala Lumpur from the Philippine Orthopaedic Association, the Chiba Children's Hospital in Japan and the Chinese Orthopaedic Association. The COA donated 1.5 tons of orthopaedic equipments. A special handing over ceremony from the COA to the Indonesian Orthopaedic Association was held in Putrajaya in March. Malaysia Airlines flew in the donated equipment to Kuala Lumpur while the onward flight to Aceh was provided by the Royal Malaysian Air Force. In April, Dr Saw Aik and Dr Yong Su Mei joined the Tsu-Chi International Medical Association for volunteer services on Batam Island, Indonesia. The MOA acknowledges the many individuals and organizations, both governmental and non-governmental, for their contributions in the humanitarian efforts. PMID:16381273

  2. Use of the internet by patients attending specialist clinics in Sri Lanka: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kommalage Mahinda

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The internet is a relatively new medium of disseminating health information. Studies on Internet usage for health information are mainly done in developed countries and very few studies have been carried out in developing countries. Methods The Internet usage of patients who were attending specialist clinics in Teaching Hospital Karapitiya and Southern Hospital in Galle, Sri Lanka was investigated. The study was carried out on the following specialities; General Medicine, Pediatrics, General Surgery and Cardiothoracic surgery. Information was collected using an investigator-administered questionnaire while patients were waiting for a consultation. Results Three hundred and fifty five patients (or guardians in the Pediatric clinic participated in the study. One hundred seventy two (48.3% participants have heard about the Internet. There was a relationship between awareness of the Internet and age, educational level and the clinic attended. There was no difference of awareness depending on the gender or the hospital. Only three participants (0.97% have used the Internet to find information about their disease conditions. Close relatives searched the Internet about the conditions of two participants. Altogether, the Internet was used to search information on the disease condition of five participants (1.4%. Conclusion Very low usage of the Internet for health information retrieval in this study is probably due to low awareness of the Internet and low educational level. This low usage of Internet and the associated reasons shown in this study can be generalized to Sri Lanka and probably to other low-income countries that have lower educational level than Sri Lanka.

  3. Implementation of national radiation safety regulations in Sri Lanka: A beginning to conform to international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) of Sri Lanka was established in 1970 by the legislation Atomic Energy Authority Act No.19 of 1969. Since the act was enacted 03 decades ago, the recent advances and needs were not identified. The AEA was empowered to carry out promotional activities of nuclear technology as well as regulatory activities. Under the provisions made in the act the Atomic Energy Regulations of 1975 were promulgated to regulate the activities related to radiation in the country until year 2000. Having realized that these regulations are not sufficient to meet the current international requirements with the technological advances in the fields 'Ionizing Radiation Protection Regulations' which conforms to the IAEA's Basic Safety Standards-115 were promulgated in year 2000. Even though the new regulations were made under the same act, the AEA could achieve a positive improvement in regulatory activities in use of ionizing radiation in the country by establishing a good system for implementation of a notification, licensing, and inspection programmes to conform to the International requirements. Three codes of practices have been drafted and are under review and few manuals have been printed for distribution among the radiation users. Two regulations on safe transport of radioactive material and radioactive waste management have to be promulgated and steps have been initiated in this regard. Assistance from the IAEA was received to strengthen the regulatory infrastructure in Sri Lanka under the model project in radiation protection. Also IAEA has carried out several missions to assess the regulatory effectiveness in Sri Lanka. These missions state the successful achievement of milestones I and II of the IAEA model project on Strengthening and Harmonization of Radiation Protection. However it is identified that amendment of the act is a timely requirement for the effective independence of the regulatory activities carried out by the AEA. (author)

  4. An alternative approach for Chemical Restraint of Domesticated Elephants in Sri Lanka

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    Sumanasiri, W.G.C.S.B.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Asian elephant (Elephas maximus represents one of the most seriousendangered species. Capturing and domestication of these wild elephantscan be considered as one of the measures of elephant conservation.Domesticated elephants play a major role during festival processions in SriLanka. However, there is always a risk of getting panic and disobeying ofthese animals to the mahout's order. Self-Tranquilizer was invented toovercome the constraint such as difficulty of reaching and targeting theelephant in a crowded area, prolong loading time of the tranquilizer drug etc,experienced when palmer cap-chur gun is used. Current study was mainlybased on data collected through primary survey and experimental form.Target people of the study were, elephant owners and senior officersattached to Wild Life Department of Sri Lanka. Data were collected usingstructural questionnaire which included general information about captiveelephant management. Survey was concluded that approximately 115 oftamed elephants were rared in the Sri Lanka. Objective of this study was todo a feasibility assessment about Self-Tranquilizer as a safe, reliable anduser friendly method to tranquilize elephants during festive processions.Novel device of the “Self- Tranquilizer was experimented by using the deadelephant's skin. Mechanical background of this machine was fullytelephone operated. Major important part of this machine was auto-plunger.The auto-plunger can be used as a proper “Intramuscular drugadministrating” device. This machine was prepared to fix on the neck of theelephant. In any elephant was out of control, the veterinary surgeon cantranquilize the elephants just by dialing the secrete mobile number that isassigned to the particular elephant. “Self- Tranquilizer” found to beimportant to regain and safeguard the public confidence and safety,respectively.

  5. Geomagnetic field variations at the equatorial electrojet station in Sri Lanka, Peredinia

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    R. G. Rastogi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the variations of the horizontal (H, vertical (Z and eastward (Y components of the geomagnetic field at Peredinia (PRD, an electrojet station in Sri Lanka, with the time of the day, season, sudden commencement (SSC and during geomagnetic storms. The daily variation of H showed a large peak around midday. The daily variation of Z appeared to be almost a time gradient curve of the daily variation of H, showing a maximum around 09:00 LT (75° EMT when the H field was increasing fastest and not at noon when Δ H was the maximum. Storm time variation of H resembled the variation of the Dst index but that of Z showed a large minimum about 2-3h before the time of minimum Dst or at the time of maximum time gradient of Dst variation. These features are compared with corresponding variations at the equatorial stations Trivandrum (TRD in India, and remarkable similarity in all observations is noticed at PRD and TRD. It is suggested that the observed abnormal features of Z variations at electrojet stations in India-Sri Lanka are due to (i direct effect of the ionospheric electrojet current (ii the induction effect of the image current by the average spatially extended conductivity region and (iii the induction current in the local subsurface conductor. It is suggested that the conductor responsible for the observed features in Z in India and Sri Lanka has to have extended spatial domain to latitudes well south of India, rather than confined to narrow Palk Strait.

  6. Failing Adolescents: Social Control, Political Economy & Human Development in post-war Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarala Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In post-war societies adolescents occupy liminal spaces – where social, political, economic, spatial and biological boundaries are still fluid and undetermined – and present a particular challenge for post-war communities as well as service providers.  Drawing on a study from two war-affected villages in Sri Lanka, this paper examines the multi-faceted challenges that adolescents face in communities attempting to retain and redefine boundaries, identities, and social and moral regulation in a post-war context. It explores the dynamics of post-war change, especially in the social and moral regulation of sexuality, and its implications for adolescent girls and boys grappling with biological and social transformation—from internalizing gender norms to taking on adult economic roles. A second key concern of this paper is to underline how the post-war political economic context within which their communities are embedded shapes adolescents’ negotiation with personal and social transformation. A third key concern is to highlight the legacies of war in the form of surveillance, silences and complex psychosocial problems that adolescents are confronted in post-war contexts and the risk of cycles of inter-generational violence. Finally, the paper examines the role and relevance of formal services in areas such as education, reproductive health, community mobilization, or psychosocial support in the lives of adolescents.  It also considers the often overlooked but fundamental support from families and communities in bolstering the resilience of adolescents as they go through this challenging life phase in difficult and complex circumstances.

  7. Use of illicit substances among schoolchildren in colombo district, Sri Lanka.

    OpenAIRE

    Liyanage, IK; Wickramasinghe, K; Ratnayake, HE; Palmer, P; MATTHEWS, DR; Katulanda, P

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to understand the usage patterns and correlates of illicit drug use among schoolchildren in Colombo district, Sri Lanka. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among grade 10 and 12 students using a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: From the 6000 students selected, 5353(89.22%) responded. Betel chewing with tobacco was seen in 28.48% males and 10.44% females. Substances such as Barbul, Madana Modaka, and cough syrups that are not established as il...

  8. Report on work done in Sri Lanka [Management of water hyacinth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasooriya, I

    1981-11-15

    The main emphasis of the work in Sri Lanka during the period under review has been on: the collection of available information on the biology of the plant and attempts to gain a more complete understanding of the biology by direct observation and experimentation; the study of the ecology of the plant with special reference to its competition with the other prevalent aquatic weeds in this country, viz Salvinia molesta; the study of the fauna and flora associated with the plant with a view to isolating some organisms that may prove to be suitable agents for its biological control.

  9. Report on work done in Sri Lanka [Management of water hyacinth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main emphasis of the work in Sri Lanka during the period under review has been on: the collection of available information on the biology of the plant and attempts to gain a more complete understanding of the biology by direct observation and experimentation; the study of the ecology of the plant with special reference to its competition with the other prevalent aquatic weeds in this country, viz Salvinia molesta; the study of the fauna and flora associated with the plant with a view to isolating some organisms that may prove to be suitable agents for its biological control

  10. Histopathological diagnosis of myocarditis in a dengue outbreak in Sri Lanka, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Gunatilake Laxman PG; Kodikara Sarachchandra KA; Edussuriya Deepthika H; Kularatne Senanayake AM; Weerakoon Kosala GAD; Pinto Vasanti G; Seneviratne Ashoka B; Gunasena Sunethra

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In 2009, an outbreak of dengue caused high fatality in Sri Lanka. We conducted 5 autopsies of clinically suspected myocarditis cases at the General Hospital, Peradeniya to describe the histopathology of the heart and other organs. Methods The diagnosis of dengue was confirmed with specific IgM and IgG ELISA, HAI and RT-PCR techniques. The histology was done in tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Results Of the 319 cases of dengue fever, 166(52%) had severe ...

  11. Resources and Entrepreneurial Orientation : Empirical findings from the software industry of Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Thunberg, Nils; Eriksson, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Background: There are different types of firms in the world. Those that lead change and those who follow change. In this thesis, the authors have chosen to see if a dynamic industry in a developing nation can be the leaders of change, or if they are stuck as the ones following developments in the west. Sri Lanka is a developing nation with a rapidly growing software industry. Like its neighbour, India, the country and region has been known for its cheap, yet highly skilled labour. This study ...

  12. Desiccated coconut industry of Sri Lanka: opportunities for energy efficiency and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The desiccated coconut (DC) industry is one of the major export oriented food processing industries in Sri Lanka. This paper discusses the production processes, types of fuel used, energy use pattern and the overall specific thermal and electrical energy consumption in the DC sector. An analysis of the energy use highlights the inefficient processes and the key energy loss areas. Options for energy conservation in the DC mills have been discussed, and carbon dioxide emissions from this sector and its mitigation potential are estimated. Other options to improve efficiency and reduce other pollution and policy aspects have been presented

  13. The effects of the 2004 tsunami on a coastal aquifer in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vithanage, Meththika Suharshini; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard; Villholth, Karen G.; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

    2012-01-01

    On December 26, 2004, the earthquake off the southern coast of Sumatra in the Indian Ocean generated far-reaching tsunami waves, resulting in severe disruption of the coastal aquifers in many countries of the region. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of the tsunami on groundwater in coastal areas. Field investigations on the east coast of Sri Lanka were carried out along a transect located perpendicular to the coastline on a 2.4 km wide sand stretch bounded by the sea and a l...

  14. The prevalence of previous self-harm amongst self-poisoning patients in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Fahim; Perera, Aravinda; Wijayaweera, Kusal; Kularatne, Keerthi; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Eddleston, Michael; Dawson, Andrew; Konradsen, Flemming; Gunnell, David

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the most important components of suicide prevention strategies is to target people who repeat self-harm as they are a high risk group. However, there is some evidence that the incidence of repeat self-harm is lower in Asia than in the West. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of previous self-harm among a consecutive series of self-harm patients presenting to hospitals in rural Sri Lanka. METHOD: Six hundred and ninety-eight self-poisoning patients pr...

  15. Violence against women and natural disasters: findings from post-tsunami Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Sarah

    2010-08-01

    This article presents a qualitative study of violence against women in post-tsunami Sri Lanka. It examines the types of violence occurring throughout the disaster's emergency and later phases, and whether overall levels of violence increased. Explanatory factors and responses by different humanitarian actors are analyzed and recommendations made for future disaster management. It is argued that violence against women during natural disasters must be understood within the context of the violence against women that prevails in societies at "normal" times, which is exacerbated by disaster. Response therefore necessitates addressing both the social inequalities underlying women's vulnerability to violence and specific factors that "trigger" violence during disaster. PMID:20679186

  16. ADVANCES OF BASIC MOLECULAR BIOLOGY TECHNIQUES: POTENTIAL TO APPLY IN PLANT VIROID DETECTION IN SRI LANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yapa M.A.M. Wijerathna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Viroids are the smallest pathogens of plants. They are the cause of serious diseases on economic plants worldwide. Prevention and detection of the pathogens are the best method to reduce the economic loss from viroid infection. During last decade, genetics and molecular biology techniques have gained an increasing presence in plant pathology research. The purpose of this review is to highlight the most upgrade molecular biology techniques that have been used and studied recently. Most relevant published reports and hand skilled techniques have presented here with emphasis on suitable Viroid detection technique should be used for Sri Lanka.

  17. An investigation into the role of alcohol in self-harm in rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jane Brandt; Rheinländer, Thilde; Sørensen, Birgitte Refslund; Pearson, Melissa; Agampodi, Thilini; Siribaddana, Sisira; Konradsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    policy makers with vital information for developing strategies to address alcohol-related problems as they relate to self-harm. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: To capture the complexity of the link between alcohol and self-harm in the Anuradhapura district in the North Central Province in Sri Lanka, qualitative...... and families; six focus group discussions with community members; and key-informant interviews with 15-25 stakeholders who have a stake in alcohol distribution, marketing, policies, prevention and treatment as they relate to self-harm. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has received ethical approval...

  18. Mental health legislation in Sri Lanka: the time for change is now

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv Weerasundera

    2011-01-01

    Despite a history of being subjected to mental health legislation for over a hundred years, Sri Lanka relies on these archaic laws to implement its present day services when most other countries in the region which have enacted recent reforms. This has resulted in discrepancies in service delivery and a less than optimum level of care. With the expansion of the country’s mental health services and other social changes, the need for immediate reforms, drafted a decade ago but not yet legislate...

  19. Mental health legislation in Sri Lanka: the time for change is now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Weerasundera

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite a history of being subjected to mental health legislation for over a hundred years, Sri Lanka relies on these archaic laws to implement its present day services when most other countries in the region which have enacted recent reforms. This has resulted in discrepancies in service delivery and a less than optimum level of care. With the expansion of the country’s mental health services and other social changes, the need for immediate reforms, drafted a decade ago but not yet legislated, is convincing.

  20. A village treatment center for malaria: community response in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, F; Amerasinghe, P H; Perera, D; Hoek, Wim van der; Amerasinghe, F P

    2000-01-01

    locally recruited staff of the village treatment center. The treatment center significantly reduced the stress and discomfort experienced by the elderly and handicapped segment of the community. The study indicated that the effective catchment area of a village treatment center will be influenced by the...... degree of initial support from key individuals in the communities, the selection procedure and training of assistants, and the history of the relationships between different villages to be served by the center. The government health services and communities across the dry zone of Sri Lanka could benefit...

  1. Farmers Characteristics and Its Influencing on Loans Resettlement Decision in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Thayaparan Aruppillai; Paulina Mary Godwin Phillip

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of socio-economic characteristics of the farmers and its impact on their loans resettlement behavior in the People’s Bank, Puttalam branch in Sri Lanka. Secondary data were collected from the bank officials and the data were analyzed with 100 applicants who are cultivating paddy as a major crop and other field crops during the Maha and Yala season 2011/2012. This study was analyzed using descriptive statistics, Tobit model and in addition to that elasticity ...

  2. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Sri Lanka 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Sri Lanka carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  3. Patterns of hospital transfer for self-poisoned patients in rural Sri Lanka: implications for estimating the incidence of self-poisoning in the developing world / Modalités d'hospitalisation des cas d'autoempoisonnement délibéré en milieu rural au Sri Lanka: ce qu'elles impliquent pour l'estimation de l'incidence des autoempoisonnements dans le monde en développement / Perfil de traslados interhospitalarios de pacientes autointoxicados en una zona rural de Sri Lanka: implicaciones para la estimación de la incidencia de autointoxicaciones en el mundo en desarrollo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Michael, Eddleston; K, Sudarshan; M, Senthilkumaran; K, Reginald; Lakshman, Karalliedde; Lalith, Senarathna; Dhammika de, Silva; MH, Rezvi Sheriff; Nick A, Buckley; David, Gunnell.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: La mayoría de los datos sobre autointoxicaciones en las zonas rurales de Asia proceden de hospitales secundarios. Nuestros objetivos fueron los siguientes: evaluar cómo influyen los traslados de hospitales primarios a hospitales secundarios en las estimaciones de la tasa de letalidad; det [...] erminar si había algún sesgo de derivación según el sexo o el tipo de intoxicación; y estimar la incidencia anual de todos los tipos de autointoxicación, así como de las autointoxicaciones mortales, en un entorno rural del mundo en desarrollo. MÉTODOS: Entre el 1 de julio y el 31 de diciembre de 2002 se examinó en el momento del ingreso a los autointoxicados llegados al Hospital General de Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. Revisamos además las notas médicas correspondientes a los pacientes autointoxicados ingresados en 17 de los 34 hospitales periféricos de los alrededores durante el mismo periodo. RESULTADOS: En total fueron ingresadas en el hospital secundario 742 víctimas de autointoxicaciones, de las cuales fallecieron 81 (tasa de letalidad: 10,9%). Un total de 483 pacientes fueron ingresados en 17 hospitales periféricos de los alrededores. Seis pacientes (1,2%) murieron en esos hospitales, 249 fueron dados de alta, y 228 fueron trasladados al hospital secundario. No se observó ningún efecto del sexo o la edad sobre la probabilidad de traslado; sin embargo, los pacientes que habían ingerido adelfa o paraquat tenían más probabilidades de ser trasladados que los que habían tomado plaguicidas organofosforados u otros productos tóxicos. La incidencia anual estimada de autointoxicaciones y de autointoxicaciones mortales fue de 363 y 27 por 100 000 habitantes, respectivamente, con una tasa de letalidad global del 7,4% (intervalo de confianza del 95%: 6,0-9,0). CONCLUSIÓN: Un 50% de los pacientes ingresados en hospitales periféricos fueron dados de alta, lo que demuestra que las tasas de letalidad basadas en los datos de hospitales secundarios están infladas. No obstante, si bien la incidencia de autointoxicaciones es semejante a la de Inglaterra, en Sri Lanka las autointoxicaciones mortales son tres veces más frecuentes que las autolesiones mortales por cualquier método registradas en Inglaterra. Los datos basados en la población son esenciales para realizar comparaciones internacionales de la letalidad y la incidencia y para evaluar las intervenciones de salud pública. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: Most data on self-poisoning in rural Asia have come from secondary hospitals. We aimed to: assess how transfers from primary to secondary hospitals affected estimates of case-fatality ratio (CFR); determine whether there was referral bias according to gender or poison; and estimate the a [...] nnual incidence of all self-poisoning, and of fatal self-poisoning, in a rural developing-world setting. METHODS: Self-poisoning patients admitted to Anuradhapura General Hospital, Sri Lanka, were reviewed on admission from 1 July to 31 December 2002. We audited medical notes of self-poisoning patients admitted to 17 of the 34 surrounding peripheral hospitals for the same period. FINDINGS: A total of 742 patients were admitted with self-poisoning to the secondary hospital; 81 died (CFR 10.9%). 483 patients were admitted to 17 surrounding peripheral hospitals. Six patients (1.2%) died in peripheral hospitals, 249 were discharged home, and 228 were transferred to the secondary hospital. There was no effect of gender or age on likelihood of transfer; however, patients who had ingested oleander or paraquat were more likely to be transferred than were patients who had taken organophosphorus pesticides or other poisons. Estimated annual incidences of self-poisoning and fatal self-poisoning were 363 and 27 per 100 000 population, respectively, with an overall CFR of 7.4% (95% confidence interval 6.0-9.0). CONCLUSION: Fifty per cent of patients admitted to peripheral hospitals were discharged home, showing that CFRs based on secondary hospital data are inflated. However, while incidence of self-poisonin

  4. International contract migration and the reintegration of return migrants: the experience of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athukorala, P

    1990-01-01

    "This article attempts to shed light on the issue of how far the labor exporting countries can monitor the process of reinsertion of return migrants in the domestic economy, with a view to maximizing net gains from international labor migration, drawing upon the experience of Sri Lanka. It begins with an examination of the socioeconomic characteristics of migrant workers with special emphasis on their post-migration activity status and the pattern of remittance utilization. Then it proceeds to evaluate critically the self-employment scheme that has been introduced by the Sri Lankan labor administration to advise and train return migrants in establishing themselves in business. The findings point to the danger of expecting too much from policy initiatives in this sphere." PMID:12283037

  5. A geochemical reconnaissance survey of Sri Lanka using panned mineral concentrates of stream sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirteen elements (Au, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn, Th, U and Zn) were determined in 120 heavy mineral concentrates from Sri Lankan stream sediments of the Highland Group of rocks in central Sri Lanka. The data indicate sporadic occurrences of gold, notably in the north of the region where this metal had not previously been found. The possibility of the existence of a previously unknown area of ultramafic rocks near Balangoda close to the plate boundary with the Vijayan Complex was indicated by high levels of chromium and nickel in the sediments. Background levels of uranium (8 ?g/g) were relatively high and three anomalies (>35 ?g/g) were detected in stream sediment concentrates. The project has pinpointed several areas where localized intensive exploration for specific minerals should be undertaken. Background levels have also been established for thirteen elements in stream sediment concentrates derived from the Highland Group of rocks. (orig.)

  6. Reaching for the bottle of pesticide--a cry for help. Self-inflicted poisonings in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Flemming; Hoek, Wim van der; Peiris, Pushpalatha

    2005-01-01

    This long-term study in Sri Lanka explored the complexities behind self-inflicted pesticide poisonings by 166 Sri Lankans. Using or threatening to use pesticides for self-harm has become a response to stressful events and a powerful message towards a specific individual, or to the outside world in general, conveying misgiving, anger, sadness, hopelessness, frustration, or simply a way to manipulate a situation to one's own advantage. The effects of alcohol misuse are especially important in unde...

  7. Malathion resistance and prevalence of the malathion carboxylesterase mechanism in populations of mosquito vectors of disease in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Karunaratne S.H.P.P.; Hemingway J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels of malathion resistance and prevalence of the malathion carboxylesterase mechanism among mosquitoes in Sri Lanka. METHODS: Bioassays were carried out using WHO-recommended methods on samples of the following Sri Lankan mosquito vectors: Culex quinquefasciatus, C. tritaeniorhynchus, C. gelidus; Anopheles culicifacies B, A. subpictus; Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. FINDINGS: Malathion-specific carboxylesterase mechanisms were found in A. culicifacies and A. ...

  8. Impacts of the 2004 tsunami on groundwater resources in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illangasekare, T.; Tyler, S.W.; Clement, T.P.; Villholth, K.G.; Perera, A.P.G.R.L.; Obeysekera, J.; Gunatilaka, A.; Panabokke, C.R.; Hyndman, D.W.; Cunningham, K.J.; Kaluarachchi, J.J.; Yeh, W.W.-G.; Van Genuchten, M. T.; Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    The 26 December 2004 tsunami caused widespread destruction and contamination of coastal aquifers across southern Asia. Seawater filled domestic open dug wells and also entered the aquifers via direct infiltration during the first flooding waves and later as ponded seawater infiltrated through the permeable sands that are typical of coastal aquifers. In Sri Lanka alone, it is estimated that over 40,000 drinking water wells were either destroyed or contaminated. From February through September 2005, a team of United States, Sri Lankan, and Danish water resource scientists and engineers surveyed the coastal groundwater resources of Sri Lanka to develop an understanding of the impacts of the tsunami and to provide recommendations for the future of coastal water resources in south Asia. In the tsunami-affected areas, seawater was found to have infiltrated and mixed with fresh groundwater lenses as indicated by the elevated groundwater salinity levels. Seawater infiltrated through the shallow vadose zone as well as entered aquifers directly through flooded open wells. Our preliminary transport analysis demonstrates that the intruded seawater has vertically mixed in the aquifers because of both forced and free convection. Widespread pumping of wells to remove seawater was effective in some areas, but overpumping has led to upconing of the saltwater interface and rising salinity. We estimate that groundwater recharge from several monsoon seasons will reduce salinity of many sandy Sri Lankan coastal aquifers. However, the continued sustainability of these small and fragile aquifers for potable water will be difficult because of the rapid growth of human activities that results in more intensive groundwater pumping and increased pollution. Long-term sustainability of coastal aquifers is also impacted by the decrease in sand replenishment of the beaches due to sand mining and erosion. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Seasonal variability of seasurface chlorophyll-a of waters around Sri Lanka

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kanthi K A S Yapa

    2000-12-01

    Remotely sensed data on ocean colour of waters surrounding Sri Lanka received from the Coastal Zone Colour Scanner (CZCS) are processed and analyzed. Raw data of 1 km resolution on relatively cloud free days during 1978-1986 are processed to produce sea surface chlorophyll maps within latitudes 4.5N-11N and longitudes 78E-85E, a region in the Indian Ocean surrounding Sri Lanka. The processed data include about 110 single day maps and composite averages for each month and season. The months of July, August and September are omitted in the calculation of averages due to insufficient data. The waters in the Gulf of Mannar and Palk Bay areas show high chlorophyll-a concentrations throughout the year. However, these high values may represent other suspended particles and dissolved organic matter besides chlorophyll-a as this region is shallow (< 100 m). Regions with high chlorophyll concentrations (>0:5 mg m-3) along the coast and western ocean region can be seen in the months of October and November, after the southwest monsoon period. As high surface chlorophyll concentrations may indicate high productivity, these regions need extensive measurements of primary production and also continuous monitoring of fish catches, during and after the southwest monsoon. Studies of particle composition in shallow water areas, in particular waters in Palk Bay and Gulf of Mannar, should be carried out in order to elucidate the effect of non-phytogenic.

  10. Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology in Sri Lanka: is cadmium a likely cause?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiris-John Roshini J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD and subsequent end stage renal failure necessitating renal replacement therapy has profound consequences for affected individuals and health care resources. This community based study was conducted to identify potential predictors of microalbuminuria in a randomly selected sample of adults from the North Central Province (NCP of Sri Lanka, where the burden of CKD is pronounced and the underlying cause still unknown. Methods Exposures to possible risk factors were determined in randomly recruited subjects (425 females and 461 males from selected areas of the NCP of Sri Lanka using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Sulphosalicylic acid and the Light Dependent Resister microalbumin gel filtration method was used for initial screening for microalbuminuria and reconfirmed by the Micral strip test. Results Microalbumnuria was detected in 6.1% of the females and 8.5% of the males. Smoking (p Conclusions Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, UTI, and smoking are known risk factors for microalbuminuria. The association between microalbuminuria and consumption of well water suggests an environmental aetiology to CKD in NCP. The causative agent is yet to be identified. Investigations for cadmium as a potential causative agent needs to be initiated.

  11. Physics of the environment: possible Sumatra Tsunami warning times for large animals in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, David G.; Scheifele, Peter M.; Vonwinkle, William A.

    2005-04-01

    There has previously been significant anecdotal evidence that animals can anticipate or sense seismic events. It is known that large animals, specifically elephants, sense and utilize low frequency sound. The object of this paper is to estimate the possible warning times that large animals in Sri Lanka could have had of the Sumatra Tsunami, assuming they could sense low frequency wave transmission from the initial earthquake arriving by either atmospheric, ocean, or bottom paths. The atmospheric path appears to be the least efficient due to relatively high attenuation and poor coupling to the source. It would also give the shortest warning time: approximately 30 minutes. The ocean path via the deep sound channel, which has been shown by a previous Bermuda experiment to be an efficient means of coupling seismic energy to an island, would give a warning time of more than 1.5 hours. The bottom path(s), which gave strong received signals at a Sri Lanka seismic station, would give a warning time of about 2 hours. These estimates should provide a context for animal behavior reports.

  12. Poverty and growth impacts of high oil prices: Evidence from Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sharp rise in oil and food prices in 2007 and 2008 caused negative impacts on poverty and economic growth in many oil and food importing developing countries. Some analysts believe that these countries are under stress again due to a rise in crude oil prices, to a two-and-a-half year high in March 2011, which has also been partly responsible for higher food prices in recent months. However, there is a limited body of empirical evidence available from developing countries on the impact of high oil prices on growth in general and household poverty in particular. In this study, Sri Lanka is used as a case study and a computable general equilibrium (CGE) approach is adopted as an analytical framework to explore the growth and poverty impacts of high oil prices. The results suggest that urban low income households are the group most adversely affected by high global oil prices, followed by low income rural households. In contrast, estate low income households are the least affected out of all low income households. The energy intensive manufacturing sector and services sector are affected most compared to the agricultural sector. - Highlights: ► Using a general equilibrium model we find poverty and oil price link for Sri Lanka. ► Urban low income households are the group most adversely affected. ► Energy intensive manufacturing and services sectors are affected most.

  13. Update on uncertain etiology of chronic kidney disease in Sri Lanka's north-central dry zone

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kamani, Wanigasuriya.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This manuscript updates a review previously published in a local journal in 2012, about a new form of chronic kidney disease that has emerged over the past two decades in the north-central dry zone of Sri Lanka, where the underlying causes remain undetermined. Disease burden is higher [...] in this area, particularly North Central Province, and affects a rural and disadvantaged population involved in rice-paddy farming. Over the last decade several studies have been carried out to estimate prevalence and identify determinants of this chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology. OBJECTIVE: Summarize the available evidence on prevalence, clinical profile and risk factors of chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology in the north-central region of Sri Lanka. METHODS: PubMed search located 16 manuscripts published in peer-reviewed journals. Three peer-reviewed abstracts of presentations at national scientific conferences were also included in the review. RESULTS: Disease prevalence was 5.1% - 16.9% with more severe disease seen in men than in women. Patients with mild to moderate stages of disease were asymptomatic or had nonspecific symptoms; urinary sediments were bland; 24-hour urine protein excretion was

  14. Seroprevalence of varicella zoster virus infections in Colombo District, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyanage NPM

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Varicella Zoster virus (VZV infections occur worldwide, the epidemiology is remarkably different in tropical and temperate climates. VZV infections result in significant morbidity and mortality among adults in Sri Lanka. Aims : For future VZV vaccination strategies, we set to determine the age-specific seroprevalence rate of VZV infections in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Materials and methods : The study was carried out from 1999 to 2000. Multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used to collect 913 blood samples, which were tested for the presence of VZV-specific IgG antibodies. Results :0 VZV seroprevalence rates were markedly lower in all age groups when compared to temperate climates. The seroprevalence rates increased with age in both the rural and urban populations. Of those aged 60 years, only 50% in the rural population and 78.9% in the urban population were immune to VZV. Seroprevalence rates of VZV infections were significantly different between the urban and rural populations (P< 0.001, with VZV-specific IgG antibodies detected in 47.5% in the urban population and 27.9% in the rural population. It was found that 56.2% (131 of females of childbearing age were nonimmune to VZV. Conclusions : These findings highlight the need for a VZV vaccination program, which is likely to have a huge impact on the incidence of chickenpox and its associated morbidity and mortality.

  15. An Overview: Vaccination to control fowl typhoid in Commercial layers, Sri Lanka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.R. Priyantha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Poultry production and consumption in Sri Lanka, has been dramatically increased during last two decades and Salmonellosis was reported as one of the prevalent diseases in commercial layers. Both S.Gallianrum as well as S.Pullorum is causing severe economical impact to the industry, while S.Typhimurium and S.Enteritidis are also important in the public health aspects. Vaccination against Salmonellosis is widely practiced in several countries in the world to control the infection: In Sri Lanka, killed vaccine is permitted only for commercial layer, while breeder birds, commercial broilers are prohibited by regulation.Both Live attenuated and killed vaccine have many benefits, and proven results for controlling of none host- specific Salmonella in poultry and also in reducing the occurrence of human food born infections. Both vaccines were considered as potential to control the host specific Salmonella in poultry by reducing the mortality and feacal shedding to the environment. Evidencely, live vaccines are capable of controlling the human infections caused by non host specific Salmonella as a result of cross immunization in poultry. Since, Both vaccine given positive effect as well as negative effect to control the Salmonellsois in chicken and further studies are encouraged relevant to local situation.

  16. Measuring revealed and emergent vulnerabilities of coastal communities to tsunami in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkmann, Jörn; Fernando, Nishara

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents the important findings of a study undertaken in two selected tsunami-affected coastal cities in Sri Lanka (Batticaloa and Galle) to measure the revealed and emergent vulnerability of coastal communities. International risk studies have failed to demonstrate the high vulnerability of coastal communities to tsunami in Sri Lanka. Therefore, indirect assessment tools to measure pre-event vulnerability have to be complemented by assessment tools that analyse revealed and emergent vulnerability in looking at the aftermath and impact patterns of a real scenario, as well as in examining the dynamics of disaster recovery in which different vulnerabilities can be identified. The paper first presents a conceptual framework for capturing vulnerability within a process-oriented approach linked to sustainable development. Next, it highlights selected indicators and methods to measure revealed and emergent vulnerability at the local level using the examples of Batticaloa and Galle. Finally, it discusses the usefulness and application of vulnerability indicators within the framework of reconstruction. PMID:18217919

  17. Anomalous short period geomagnetic variations at two stations in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of the rates of change in the geomagnetic field components in the period range 20-600 sec recorded at Kondavil and Hikkaduwa, two stations in the equatorial electrojet belt near the northern and south western coasts respectively of Sri Lanka, shows anomalous variations. The results confirm induced current concentration in the Palk Strait and deflection of induced currents around the southerncoast of Sri Lanka postulated by earlier workers from observations of SSC and Bay events at Indian stations and from analogue and numerical model studies. At Kondavil, which is situated close to the geomagnetic equator, no appreciable difference in the night-time and day-time values of ?Z/?H and ?D/?H ratios was noticed while at Hikkaduwa, a station situated under the edge of the equatorial electrojet belt, a day-time enhancement of ?Z/?H ratios was found at all periods in the observed range. An enhancement of the H component at Colombo over that at Hikkaduwa was also found at short periods, the enhancement being greater at day-time. The day-time enhancement in the ?Z/?H ratios at Hikkaduwa and in the ratio of the H components at Colombo and Hikkaduwa could be due to the effect of the equatorial electrojet on the short period variations. (author)

  18. The Nursing Shortage Impact on Job Outcome (The Case in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Shammika Senani Mudihanselage Hellerawa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The nursing shortage is a common problem throughout the world. Nurses form the largest proportion of the healthcare system and play a significant role in providing direct patient care. Considering the importance of the role of nurses in the healthcare system, it is important to investigate how nursing shortage effects the quality of patient care, nurses’ job satisfaction and their work stress. A study was conducted to investigate the correlation between these at the Polonnaruwa District General Hospital in Sri Lanka with a random sample of nurses working in the hospital and using a self-administered questionnaire. This study uses an explanatory research design. The statistical analysis confirmed a positive relationship between nurse shortage and workload. It also shows a significant positive relationship between workload and the quality of patient care. Furthermore, a negative relationship was observed between workload and the quality of patient care. In addition, this study calculates the mean effect of emotional intelligence of these factors, and a significant correlation is found between emotional intelligence and workload as well as work stress. There is a firm evidence that in Sri Lanka, nursing shortage influences the workload of the employee, finally affecting the quality of patient care. In addition, the study recognized the capability of nurses to manage their emotions as well as emotions of others, which has increased their tolerance to control psychological stress in performing their duty. This study confirms that nurse’s emotional intelligence act as a partial oderating variable for job outcomes of nurses.

  19. The geology, mineralogy and rare element geochemistry of the gem deposits of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. Dissanayake

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The gem deposits of Sri Lanka are studied from the point of view of their geology, mineralogy and geochemistry. Nearly all the gem formations are located in the central high-grade metamorphic terrain of the Highland Complex. The gem deposits are classified as sedimentary, metamorphic and magmatic; the sedimentary types being the most abundant. The mineralogy of the gem deposits varies widely with, among others, corundum, chrysoberyl, beryl, spinel, topaz,zircon, tourmaline, garnet and sphene being common.Rare element concentrations in sediments from the three main gem fields of Sri Lanka, namely Ratnapura, Elahera and Walawe, were studied. It was found that some sediments are considerably enriched in certain elements compared to their average continental crustal abundances. The Walawe Ganga sediments show anomalous enrichments of the high field strength and associated elements, particularly Zr, Hf, W and Ti. This is attributed to the presence of accessory mineralssuch as zircon, monazite and rutile. Some of these heavy minerals comprise as much as 50 wt% of sediment. The geochemical enrichment of some trace elements compared to their average crustal abundances indicates that highly differentiated granites and associated pegmatites have provided the source materials for enrichment.

  20. Characteristics of Narrow Bipolar Pulses observed from lightning in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekara, T. A. L. N.; Fernando, M.; Sonnadara, U.; Cooray, V.

    2016-02-01

    A detailed study on electric field characteristics of Narrow Bipolar Pulses (NBP) observed in Sri Lanka is presented here. NBPs analyzed in this work were recorded at a coastal location in the Southern part of Sri Lanka (Matara: 5.95 °N, 8.53 °E), from five highly active consecutive thunderstorm days during the month of May in 2013. The waveforms were recorded with a 10 ns resolution within a 100 ms time window. Both positive and negative NBPs were observed in this study with the negative type being the most frequent. Parameters presented in this study were the rise time (Tr), zero crossing time (Tz), the duration of slow front (Ts), the full width of half maximum (FWHM), the pulse duration and the ratio of amplitude of overshoot to the corresponding peak amplitude (Os/Pa). The corresponding average values of negative NBPs for these parameters were found to be 0.58 ?s, 3.01 ?s, 0.20 ?s, 1.38 ?s, 19.21 ?s and 0.19 respectively. Similarly, for positive events corresponding values were 1.38 ?s, 4.66 ?s, 0.48 ?s, 1.93 ?s, 16.42 ?s and 0.37 respectively. The above values conforms to a much narrower bipolar events when compared to previously reported values which is considered to be caused by the propagation effects of signals captured by the apparatus.

  1. The impact of electricity supply on economic growth in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    World net electricity consumption is expected to double over the next two decades. With increasing demand, electricity shortages will be prevalent, particularly in developing countries. An adequate and regular power supply would support economic growth in developing countries. Previous studies have demonstrated a strong correlation between electricity use and economic development. Studies have shown that there is a bi-directional causal relationship between gross domestic product and electricity consumption in Taiwan for the period 1954 to 1997. In order to examine the impact of electricity supply on economic growth in Sri Lanka, this paper presented the results of a study that applied Yang's model, using a simple regression analysis. The paper presented the methodology and estimation results. The study incorporated a cost benefit analysis model which assessed the economic, social and environmental impacts of dam projects in Sri Lanka. It was concluded that the application of Yang's regression analysis is one possible approach to estimate a better range for the expected increase in economic output parameter. 14 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  2. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Lanka is essentially a detached portion of the Deccan Plateau of south India and like it, is underlain almost everywhere by hard old Precambrian rocks. Prior to 1940 there was no systematic organised geological survey work on the island. Between 1957 and 1962 a partial aerial survey and field traverses were conducted in a search for radio- active minerals. Since then a modest programme has continued. Thorianite was first discovered in placer deposits in 1903 and prospecting has found many other refractory radioactive minerals probably derived from the weathering of pegmatites. Monazite is found as an important constituent of beach placer deposits and it is estimated to have an average content of 8-10%ThO2 and 0.3 - 0.5% U3O8. Up to 1000 tons monazite per year could be produced from the beach sand industry. Sri Lanka has had very little systematic exploration for uranium and as it is largely composed of Precambrian rocks it deserves closer attention. On the other hand it is part of a thorium rich province and there is a body of technical opinion that believes that thorium rich provinces are unlikely to contain significant uranium deposits. For these reasons it is estimated that the Speculative Potential may be within the range of 1000 to 10,000 tonnes uranium. In addition it maybe possible to produce up to 5 tonnes uranium and 100 tonnes thorium from the beach sand industry on an annual basis. (author)

  3. Mapping mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, Sri Lanka, India and Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Menil Victoria

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited evidence about mental health finances in low and middle-income countries is a key challenge to mental health care policy initiatives. This study aimed to map mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, India (Kerala state, Sri Lanka and Lao PDR focusing on how much money is available for mental health, how it is spent, and how this impacts mental health services. Methods A researcher in each region reviewed public mental health-related budgets and interviewed key informants on government mental health financing. A total of 43 key informant interviews were conducted. Quantitative data was analyzed in an excel matrix using descriptive statistics. Key informant interviews were coded a priori against research questions. Results National ring-fenced budgets for mental health as a percentage of national health spending for 2007-08 is 1.7% in Sri Lanka, 3.7% in Ghana, 2.0% in Kerala (India and 6.6% in Uganda. Budgets were not available in Lao PDR. The majority of ring-fenced budgets (76% to 100% is spent on psychiatric hospitals. Mental health spending could not be tracked beyond the psychiatric hospital level due to limited information at the health centre and community levels. Conclusions Mental health budget information should be tracked and made publically accessible. Governments can adapt WHO AIMS indicators for reviewing national mental health finances. Funding allocations work more effectively through decentralization. Mental health financing should reflect new ideas emerging from community based practice in LMICs.

  4. Design of optimal power cogeneration for north-east Sri Lanka based on stand-alone renewable energy systems

    OpenAIRE

    Davidrajuh, Reggie

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal model to satisfy electricity needs of North-east Sri Lanka (NE-SL). With the absence of indigenous fossil fuel and large-scale hydrologic resources, NE-SL depends on the import of fossil fuel for electricity generation, causing economic and environmental hardships. This paper explores a sustainable power generation using a mix of renewable energy resources.

  5. Cost to government health-care services of treating acute self-poisonings in a rural district in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickramasinghe, Kanchana; Steele, Paul; Dawson, Andrew; Dharmaratne, Dinusha; Gunawardena, Asha; Senarathna, Lalith; de Siva, Dhammika; Wijayaweera, Kusal; Eddleston, Michael; Konradsen, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the direct financial costs to the Sri Lanka Ministry of Health of treating patients after self-poisoning, particularly from pesticides, in a single district. METHODS: Data on staff, drug, laboratory and other inputs for each patient admitted for self-poisoning were prospect...

  6. Des truites sous climat subéquatorial ? (Les possibilités de Sri-Lanka)

    OpenAIRE

    Reizer, C.

    1985-01-01

    Trouts on subequatorial climate ? (Possibilities of Sri Lanka). Though climatic and other factors have reduced wildlife's role in the life of Sereer villagers, hunting for food is still practised, especially by younger peuple. Thanks to a field study, this activity is examined and its future envisaged in the context of rural development.

  7. Understanding School Health Environment through Interviews with Key Stakeholders in Lao PDR, Mongolia, Nepal and Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Lee, Eun Young; Gittelsohn, Joel; Nkala, Denis; Choi, Bo Youl

    2015-01-01

    Studies on health promoting schools (HPS) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are scarce. To contribute to the development of HPS in these countries, we conducted formative research to understand the school environment in Lao PDR, Mongolia, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. Forty-three teachers, 10 government workers and 5 parents participated in…

  8. Wives' Attitudes toward Gender Roles and Their Experience of Intimate Partner Violence by Husbands in Central Province, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatilleke, Achini; Poudel, Krishna C.; Sakisaka, Kayako; Yasuoka, Junko; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jimba, Masamine

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a community based, cross-sectional study to describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) by husbands and the association between wives' attitudes toward gender roles and their experience of IPV in Central Province, Sri Lanka. This article included a representative sample of 624 wives between 15 and 49 years of…

  9. 77 FR 59899 - U.S. Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... amending the Notice published at 77 FR 48499, August 14, 2012, regarding the U.S. Multi-Sector Trade... reasons stated above, the Mission Description section of the amended Notice published at 77 FR 48499... International Trade Administration U.S. Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka...

  10. The Politics, Policies and Progress of Basic Education in Sri Lanka. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 38

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Angela W.

    2010-01-01

    Sri Lanka is hailed internationally for her achievements in literacy, access to education and equality of educational opportunity. However, progress has not been straightforward due to the complex interactions between politics, policy formulation, and the implementation of reforms. This dynamic process has often led to contradictory outcomes. This…

  11. Formula Funding and Decentralized Management of Schools--Has It Improved Resource Allocation in Schools in Sri Lanka?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunatilake, Nisha; Jayawardena, Priyanka

    2010-01-01

    Using the experience of the Educational Quality Inputs (EQI) Scheme in Sri Lanka the paper examines the distributional aspects of formula-based funding and efficiency of decentralized management of education funds in a developing country setting. The study finds that the EQI fund distribution is largely pro-poor. However, results show that to…

  12. A Comparative Study of Student Support Services of Allama Iqbal Open University and the Open University of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed; Chaudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Chaudhry, Amtul Hafeez

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to compare the availability, quality, similarities and differences in student support services offered by the Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Pakistan and The Open University of Sri Lanka (OUSL). It also aims to identify and report the deficiencies that students of both the institutions face in the student support services.…

  13. Comparative Study of Pre-Service Teacher Education Programme at Secondary Stage in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    The present research work has studied and compared the different issues of pre-service teacher education programme in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Pakistan. The data were collected from 24 principals, 88 teacher educators and 157 student teachers from institutions and universities where Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) course were. The data were…

  14. Facilitating Long-Term Recovery from Natural Disasters: Psychosocial Programming for Tsunami-Affected Schools of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Jayasena, Asoka; Summerville, Meredith; Borja, Amanda P.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a school-based intervention project conducted in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka 15 to 18 months after the December 2004 Tsunami. The work responds to the need for culturally relevant programming to address long-term psychosocial recovery of children and adolescents affected by large scale disasters. Program…

  15. Sustainability and Local People's Participation in Coastal Aquaculture: Regional Differences and Historical Experiences in Sri Lanka and the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergquist, Daniel A.

    2007-11-01

    This article discusses environmental sustainability in aquaculture and its contribution to poverty alleviation, based on field studies in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. The aquaculture practices studied are the monoculture of the black tiger prawn ( Penneaus monodon) and milkfish ( Chanos chanos) and the polyculture of the two species together with the mud crab ( Scylla serrata). Factors affecting economic viability, social equity and environmental impacts in aquaculture are discussed and used to illuminate local and regional differences between aquaculture in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. Findings indicate that the most significant difference is the level of participation by local people (i.e., people originating ?10 km away from the farm location). In the Philippines, 84 % of the people involved in aquaculture are locals, whereas in Sri Lanka, 55% are outsiders. Whether differences between the two areas can be explained by analyzing regional conditions, which might have resulted in different aquaculture practices, is discussed. In Sri Lanka, semi-intensive shrimp monoculture is currently the most common practice, whereas in the Philippines, extensive shrimp/fish polyculture is more common. Previous studies, as well as fieldwork, indicate that extensive culture practices reduce environmental impacts and benefit local people more. Sustainability in aquaculture is, however, also dependent on the extent of mangrove conversion into ponds. As such, extensive and locally owned farms do not necessarily result in an all but sustainable situation. Keeping this in mind, it is discussed if extensive polyculture practices might result in a more sustainable aquaculture, both environmentally and socioeconomically.

  16. Escalating chronic kidney diseases of multi-factorial origin in Sri Lanka: causes, solutions, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2014-11-01

    During the last two decades, Sri Lanka, located close to the equator, has experienced an escalating incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown aetiology (CKDue) in dry zonal areas. Similar incidences of unusual CKDs have been reported in the dry zonal, agricultural areas of several other equatorial countries. In Sri Lanka, the incidence of CKDue is highest in the North Central Province (NCP), where approximately 45 % of the country's paddy fields are located. However, in recent years, the disease has spread into areas adjacent to as well as distant from the NCP. The cause of CKD in Sri Lanka is unknown, and may likely due to interactions of different potential agents; thus, CKD is of multi-factorial origin (CKD-mfo). These factors include, the negative effects from overuse of agrochemicals. Nevertheless, the potential interactions and synergism between probable agents have not been studied. This systematic review discusses the proposed hypotheses and causes of CKD-mfo in Sri Lanka, and ways to decrease the incidence of this disease and to eradicate it, and provide some recommendations. During the past decade, a number of groups have investigated this disorder using different methodologies and reported various correlations, but failed to find a cause. Research has focussed on the contamination of water with heavy metals, agrochemicals, hard water, algae, ionicity, climate change, and so forth. Nevertheless, the levels of any of the pollutants or conditions reported in water in NPC are inconsistent not correlated with the prevalence of the disease, and are too low to be the sole cause of CKD-mfo. Meanwhile, several nephrotoxins prevalent in the region, including medications, leptospirosis, toxic herbs, illicit alcohol, locally grown tobacco, and petrochemicals, as well as the effects of changed habits occured over the past four decades have not been studied to date. Taken together, the geographical distribution and overall findings indicate that combinations of factors and/or their interactions are likely to precipitate CKD-mfo, which kills more than 5,000 people annually in Sri Lanka; most victims are middle-aged male farmers. Much anecdotal evidence from this region suggests that consumption of contaminated water is the most likely source of this deadly disease. Although the aetiology is unknown, prevention of this "environmentally acquired" disease seems relatively straightforward. Solutions include (a) preventing environmental pollution, (b) stopping the irresponsible use and decreasing the usage of agrochemicals, and encouraging the use of environmentally friendly agricultural methods, (c) taking proper precautions when using agrochemicals and safe disposal of their containers, (d) changing the risky behaviour of farmers and educating them to preserve the environment, and (e) providing clean potable water to all affected regions. Implementing a well-coordinated, in-depth, region-wide, broad-based research study together with a long-term effective surveillance programme across the country is essential to curbing this disease. Unless firm actions are taken promptly, more than three million healthy people in the country, live in agricultural regions, are at risk for contracting CKD-mfo and succumb to premature deaths, which are preventable. PMID:25239006

  17. Century scale climate change in the central highlands of Sri Lanka

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J De Silva; D U J Sonnadara

    2016-02-01

    In this study, an analysis of century scale climate trends in the central highlands of Sri Lanka is presented. Monthly rainfall and temperature records of the period 1869–2006 from five climatological stations were analyzed. The trend is calculated by the least square regression analysis and the significance of the observed trend is estimated using the Mann–Kendall statistic. The results clearly show that there is a statistically significant decrease in annual rainfall in the western slopes of the central highlands. Throughout the last century, the annual reduction of rainfall in Nuwara Eliya which is at an altitude of 1895 m was 5.2 mm/year. The decrease is largely due to the reduction in southwest monsoon rainfall which contributes to 75% of the total reduction. No significant change was observed on the eastern side of the central highlands which receives rainfall predominantly from the northeast monsoons. The mean annual temperature in the mountainous region shows a uniform increasing trend which is in line with the 100-year global temperature increase of 0.8 ± 0.2°C. Kandy, which is at an altitude of 477 m and closely linked with the rainfall climatology of Nuwara Eliya, showed no significant change in the mean annual temperature. If the current trend continues, in another 100 years, western and eastern slopes of central highlands will receive the same amount of rainfall from the southwest monsoon and the northeast monsoon which will have far reaching consequences for Sri Lanka’s economy and the ecology of the hill country.

  18. Selenium and iodine in soil, rice and drinking water in relation to endemic goitre in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endemic goitre has been reported in the climatic wet zone of south-west Sri Lanka for the past 50 years, but rarely occurs in the northern dry zone. Despite government-sponsored iodised salt programmes, endemic goitre is still prevalent. In recent years, it has been suggested that Se deficiency may be an important factor in the onset of goitre and other iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). Prior to the present study, environmental concentrations of Se in Sri Lanka and the possible relationships between Se deficiency and endemic goitre had not been investigated. During the present study, chemical differences in the environment (measured in soil, rice and drinking water) and the Se-status of the human population (demonstrated by hair samples from women) were determined for 15 villages. The villages were characterised by low (25%) goitre incidence (NIDD, MIDD and HIDD, respectively). Results show that concentrations of soil total Se and iodine are highest in the HIDD villages, however, the soil clay and organic matter content appear to inhibit the bioavailability of these elements. Concentrations of iodine in rice are low (?58 ng/g) and rice does not provide a significant source of iodine in the Sri Lankan diet. High concentrations of iodine (up to 84 ?g/l) in drinking water in the dry zone may, in part, explain why goitre is uncommon in this area. This study has shown for the first time that significant proportions of the Sri Lankan female population may be Se deficient (24, 24 and 40% in the NIDD, MIDD and HIDD villages, respectively). Although Se deficiency is not restricted to areas where goitre is prevalent, a combination of iodine and Se deficiency could be involved in the pathogenesis of goitre in Sri Lanka. The distribution of red rice cultivation in Sri Lanka is coincident with the HIDD villages. Varieties of red rice grown in other countries contain anthocyanins and procyanidins, compounds which in other foodstuffs are known goitrogens. The potential goitrogenic properties of red rice in Sri Lanka are presently unknown and require further investigation. It is likely that the incidence of goitre in Sri Lanka is multi-factorial, involving trace element deficiencies and other factors such as poor nutrition and goitrogens in foodstuffs

  19. Nephrotoxic contaminants in drinking water and urine, and chronic kidney disease in rural Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic kidney disease of unknown (“u”) cause (CKDu) is a growing public health concern in Sri Lanka. Prior research has hypothesized a link with drinking water quality, but rigorous studies are lacking. This study assesses the relationship between nephrotoxic elements (namely arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and uranium (U)) in drinking water, and urine samples collected from individuals with and/or without CKDu in endemic areas, and from individuals without CKDu in nonendemic areas. All water samples – from a variety of source types (i.e. shallow and deep wells, springs, piped and surface water) – contained extremely low concentrations of nephrotoxic elements, and all were well below drinking water guideline values. Concentrations in individual urine samples were higher than, and uncorrelated with, those measured in drinking water, suggesting potential exposure from other sources. Mean urinary concentrations of these elements for individuals with clinically diagnosed CKDu were consistently lower than individuals without CKDu both in endemic and nonendemic areas. This likely stems from the inability of the kidney to excrete these toxic elements via urine in CKDu patients. Urinary concentrations of individuals were also found to be within the range of reference values measured in urine of healthy unexposed individuals from international biomonitoring studies, though these reference levels may not be safe for the Sri Lankan population. The results suggest that CKDu cannot be clearly linked with the presence of these contaminants in drinking water. There remains a need to investigate potential interactions of low doses of these elements (particularly Cd and As) with other risk factors that appear linked to CKDu, prior to developing public health strategies to address this illness. - Highlights: • Drinking water in rural Sri Lanka contains low levels of inorganic nephrotoxicants • Urinary nephrotoxicants are consistent with reference levels from unaffected areas. • Kidney disease cannot be clearly linked to nephrotoxicant levels in drinking water. • Future work should consider low dose effects of nephrotoxicants on kidney function

  20. Butching it up: an analysis of same-sex female masculinity in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuru-Utumpala, Jayanthi

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine the embodiment of female masculinity as experienced by 12 gender-non-conforming lesbians in Sri Lanka. By drawing on western feminist and queer theories, it critiques western theories in relation to a non-western subjectivity, attempting to unravel the seemingly empowering, albeit problematic, category of female masculinity. Data gathered through qualitative interviews address one key research question: how do gender-non-conforming lesbians in Sri Lankan embody female masculinity? As the discussion unfolds, this paper analyses the ways they view themselves, the extent to which their actions and behaviours fit within a masculine framework and the ways in which notions of desire are felt and understood in relation to their understanding of gender. In terms of theory, the analysis is located in social constructivist theory, while drawing on a postmodernist approach. Theoretically, the concept of female masculinity allows a woman embodying masculinity to dislodge men and maleness from it. The reality within a Sri Lankan experience, however, can at times be different, as this paper reveals. PMID:23837849

  1. Studies on prevalence of anopheline species and community perception of malaria in Jaffna district, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.D. Karunaweera

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Over two decades of civil unrest and the conflict situation have had detrimental effects on vector control activities and management of malaria in Jaffna district which is an endemic region for malaria in Sri Lanka. With the background that only a few small-scale studies on malaria and its vectors have been reported from this district, a study was designed to explore the current status of malaria in the Jaffna district in relation to vector and community aspects.Methods: Adults and larvae of anopheline mosquitoes were collected monthly from selected endemic localities. Species prevalence of the collected mosquitoes was studied while the collected adults of Anopheles subpictus, a potential vector in the district, was screened for sibling species composition based on morphological characteristics and exposed to common insecticides using WHO bioassay kits. Knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP of the community were tested using a pre-tested structured questionnaire in high-risk and low-risk localities in the district.Results: The anopheline mosquito species distribution in the district was—An. culicifacies (0.5%, An. subpictus (46%, An. varuna (4%, An. nigerrimus (44% and An. pallidus (5.5%. Among the collected larvae the percent prevalence of An. culicifacies was 13% and other species follows as: An. subpictus (71%, An. varuna (4%, An. nigerrimus (10% and An. pallidus (2%. Sibling species B, C and D of An. subpictus were present in the district with the predominance of B in both coastal and inland areas, while all members showed both indoor and outdoor resting characteristics, they were highly resistant to DDT (4% and highly susceptible to malathion (5%. KAP study in the district showed a reasonable level of knowledge, positive attitude and practices towards malaria.Conclusion: An. subpictus, the reported major vector of Jaffna and a well-established secondary vector of malaria in the country, continues to be the predominant anopheline species. The distribution of sibling species of An. subpictus complex in the Jaffna district, revealed for the first time, has implications for future studies on its bionomics and malaria transmission pattern in this area and the planning of control strategies for this region. The community perception of disease, which revealed a satisfactory knowledge indicates the potential for better community participation in future malaria control activities in this region. As potential vectors are still present, health authorities need to be vigilant to prevent any future epidemics of malaria.

  2. A determination of air pollution in Colombo and Kurunegala, Sri Lanka, using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry on Heterodermia speciosa

    OpenAIRE

    GUNATHILAKA, Patikiri Arachchilage Don Hasantha Nayan

    2011-01-01

    Sri Lanka is facing severe environmental problems such as air and water pollution due to rapid industrialisation and urbanisation. Because there have not been many studies on heavy metal pollution in Sri Lanka, the present study attempts to contribute to the literature a determination of metal pollution using indicators found in lichen specimens. Our study utilised energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to determine element concentrations resulting from air pollution in the lichen ...

  3. Epidemic of self-poisoning with seeds of the yellow oleander tree (Thevetia peruviana) in northern Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddleston, M; Ariaratnam, C A; Meyer, W P; Perera, G; Kularatne, A M; Attapattu, S; Sheriff, M H; Warrell, D A

    1999-04-01

    Deliberate self-harm is an important problem in the developing world. Ingestion of yellow oleander seeds (Thevetia peruviana) has recently become a popular method of self-harm in northern Sri Lanka -- there are now thousands of cases each year. These seeds contain cardiac glycosides that cause vomiting, dizziness, and cardiac dysrhythmias such as conduction block affecting the sinus and AV nodes. This paper reports a study of the condition's mortality and morbidity conducted in 1995 in Anuradhapura General Hospital, a secondary referral centre serving 750 000 people in Sri Lanka's north central province. 415 cases were admitted to the hospital during 11 months; 61% were women and 46% were less than 21 years old. A prospective study of 79 patients showed that 6% died soon after admission. 43% presented with marked cardiac dysrhythmias which necessitated ther transfer to the coronary care unit in Colombo for prophylactic temporary cardiac pacing. The reasons for the acts of self-harm were often relatively trivial, particularly in children; most denied that they wished to die. Unfortunately, the case fatality rate for oleander poisoning in Sri Lanka is at least 10%. This epidemic is not only causing many unnecessary deaths, it is also putting immense stress on the already stretched Sri Lankan health services. There is an urgent need for an intervention which could be used in rural hospitals, thus preventing the hazardous and expensive emergency transfer of patients to the capital. PMID:10357862

  4. Muslim Demand for Territorial Autonomy in the Eastern Sri Lanka: An Analysis of Its Origin, Accommodation and the Present Stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Agus Yusoff

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since Sri Lankan ethnic conflict was considered as a confrontation between the majority Sinhalese and the minority Tamils, the impact of conflict and civil war on other [minority] ethnic groups has always been sidetracked by major parties involved in resolving conflict. One of the communities severely impacted but always forgotten in the discourse of resolution process is the Muslims who ever resorted to violent agitations and arm rebellion to resolve their problem and achieve their political objectives. However, the constant impact of ethnic conflict and civil war on the lives and livelihoods of the community caused them to search for political and institutional mechanism to protect them. Muslim autonomy demand has emerged on this backdrop in the middle of 1980s and has been advocated by Muslim parties and public in the discourse of ethnic politics in Sri Lanka. There has been changing dynamics, phases of acceleration and sidetracks on the advocacy of the demand. This paper aims to examine the changing dynamics of the Muslim demand for territorial autonomy in the eastern part of Sri Lanka. The study was conducted using both primary and secondary data collected from desk analysis and field survey conducted in three years. Analysis of the study is interpretive and descriptive in nature. Findings reveal that the fragmentation of Muslims politics, demerge of north-eastern province, and the new political context in eastern Sri Lanka not only caused to sidetrack the demand but also made the demand politically contested and irrelevant.

  5. Post-disaster community tourism recovery: the tsunami and Arugam Bay, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lyn; Jarvie, Jim K

    2008-12-01

    Tourism is highly vulnerable to external, non-controllable events. A natural disaster can affect the local tourism industry in numerous ways, and such events are particularly devastating for small communities whose local economy is heavily dependent on the sector. Loss of infrastructure plus negative media stories can have long-term ramifications for the destination. In spite of the economic importance of tourism, post-disaster recovery efforts in this sector are often overlooked by non-governmental organisations (NGOs), which focus on more traditional livelihoods such as agriculture or fishing. This paper describes Mercy Corps' support of tourism recovery activities in Arugam Bay, a remote village on the east coast of Sri Lanka, following the 2004 tsunami. The local economic base is built largely on two sectors: community tourism and fishing. As many other actors were supporting recovery in the local fishing industry, Mercy Corps concentrated on revitalising the tourism sector. PMID:18479472

  6. Effect of soil carbohydrates on nutrient availability in natural forests and cultivated lands in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, R. R.; Seneviratne, G.; Kulasooriya, S. A.

    2013-05-01

    Carbohydrates supply carbon sources for microbial activities that contribute to mineral nutrient production in soil. Their role on soil nutrient availability has not yet been properly elucidated. This was studied in forests and cultivated lands in Sri Lanka. Soil organic matter (SOM) fractions affecting carbohydrate availability were also determined. Soil litter contributed to sugars of plant origin (SPO) in croplands. The negative relationship found between clay bound organic matter (CBO) and glucose indicates higher SOM fixation in clay that lower its availability in cultivated lands. In forests, negative relationships between litter and sugars of microbial origin (SMO) showed that litter fuelled microbes to produce sugars. Fucose and glucose increased the availability of Cu, Zn and Mn in forests. Xylose increased Ca availability in cultivated lands. Arabinose, the main carbon source of soil respiration reduced the P availability. This study showed soil carbohydrates and their relationships with mineral nutrients could provide vital information on the availability of limiting nutrients in tropical ecosystems.

  7. Sri Lanka's Health Unit Program: A Model of "Selective" Primary Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Hewa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the health unit program developed in Sri Lanka in the early twentieth century was an earlier model of selective primary health care promoted by the Rockefeller Foundation in the 1980s in opposition to comprehensive primary health care advocated by the Alma-Ata Declaration of the World Health Organization. A key strategy of the health unit program was to identify the most common and serious infectious diseases in each health unit area and control them through improved sanitation, health education, immunization and treatment with the help of local communities. The health unit program was later introduced to other countries in South and Southeast Asia as part of the Rockefeller Foundation's global campaign to promote public health.

  8. Entrepreneurial Orientation and Business Performance of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises of Hambantota District Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauzul Mafasiya Fairoz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship has played an important role in economic growth, innovation, competitiveness and in poverty alleviation. This study investigated the degree of Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO of twenty five manufacturing Small and Medium scale Enterprises (SMEs in Hambantota District, Sri Lanka (HDSL and the effects of EO dimensions including proactiveness, innovativeness, and risk taking to business performance. Interviews were used as the main instrument for data collection. Qualitative and quantitative techniques were applied for data analysis. Findings showed about 52% of SMEs in HDSL represented moderate level of EO. Proactiveness, innovativeness, risk taking and overall EO were significantly correlated with market share growth. Results further indicated there were positive correlations among proactiveness and EO with business performance. This study could be useful for policy makers to plan their activities towards entrepreneurship development of SMEs in HDSL.

  9. Risk factors for malaria: a microepidemiological study in a village in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoek, Wim van der; Konradsen, F; Dijkstra, D S; Amerasinghe, P H; Amerasinghe, F P

    1998-01-01

    had a higher risk for malaria than people living in houses where they were not used (RR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.03-2.07). The build-up of Anopheles culicifacies populations before the start of the transmission season had taken place in a stream near the village. Living close to the stream was a risk factor...... for malaria early in the transmission season, although this did not reach statistical significance (comparing < 250 m with > 500 m, RR = 2.13, 95% CI 0.96-4.71).......Environmental and socioeconomic risk factors for malaria were studied in a village in Sri Lanka. Over a period of one year, all 49 households in the village were visited every alternate day to obtain information on malaria episodes. Information on risk factors was obtained through questionnaires...

  10. Moore's law, Dabbawalas, and pediatric cardiac care in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Lanka is an island nation in Indian Ocean that provides free healthcare to all citizens through government healthcare system. It has commendable health indices in the region. Pediatric cardiac services have rapidly progressed over past few years helping to further bring down infant and under-five mortality rates. Lady Ridgeway Hospital for Children (LRH) is the only tertiary care referral center for children with heart disease in the country. Currently it performs approximately 1,000 cardiac catheterizations and 1,000 cardiac surgeries every year. Target is to double the surgical output to treat all children with heart diseases in a timely and appropriate manner. Being a middle-income country, this is not an easy task. Technology used in diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart diseases is rapidly advancing with its price tag. In such a setting, it is challenging to proceed to achieve this target in a resource-limited environment

  11. Moore?s law, Dabbawalas, and pediatric cardiac care in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duminda Samarasinghe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sri Lanka is an island nation in Indian Ocean that provides free healthcare to all citizens through government healthcare system. It has commendable health indices in the region. Pediatric cardiac services have rapidly progressed over past few years helping to further bring down infant and under-five mortality rates. Lady Ridgeway Hospital for Children (LRH is the only tertiary care referral center for children with heart disease in the country. Currently it performs approximately 1,000 cardiac catheterizations and 1,000 cardiac surgeries every year. Target is to double the surgical output to treat all children with heart diseases in a timely and appropriate manner. Being a middle-income country, this is not an easy task. Technology used in diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart diseases is rapidly advancing with its price tag. In such a setting, it is challenging to proceed to achieve this target in a resource-limited environment.

  12. Perspective of trust towards e-government initiatives in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranaweera, H M B P

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on understanding the antecedent conditions of trustworthiness of the users towards the use of e-government services and attempt to propose a model to assess the influences of the trustworthiness for the use of e-government services in Sri Lanka. Trustworthiness was considered as an additional construct along with the technology acceptance model (TAM) constructs. Structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was used to test the proposed model by utilizing the responses of 898 citizens. SEM results reveal that the proposed model is acceptable showing goodness of fit. The proposed model tested by SEM is appropriate to assess what extend trustworthiness of the users influence for the use of e-government services and this would be worth to pay more attention on trust when develop and implement e-government initiatives. PMID:26759761

  13. Application of structural geology in exploration for residual gem deposits of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendis, D.P.J.

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Geological investigations of some major gem-bearing areas of Sri Lanka have shown that the gem deposits are controlled by the geological structure. Corundum deposits are generally associated with axial plane areas of tight, doubly plunging synclinoria and anticlinoria where occurrences of crystalline limestones and pegmatites are observed. Corundum deposits also occur at sites of heavy structural disturbances such as discontinuities, faults, folds, joints, lensing and necking zones etc. if occurrences of marbles and/or intrusions of granite and pegmatites have taken place. Alluvial gem deposits do not necessarily exist close to the area where they originate, but most concentrations of alluvial gem beds still remain close to the source area. Detailed investigations of the geological structure of a gem-bearing area and the relationship of these structural elements with appropriate source rocks will yield vital clues to the existence of gem deposits.

  14. Impacts of the 2004 Indian ocean tsunami on the southwest coasts of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert A.; Goff, John A.; Nichol, Scott L.

    2007-01-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused major landscape changes along the southwest coasts of Sri Lanka that were controlled by the flow, natural topography and bathymetry, and anthropogenic modifications of the terrain. Landscape changes included substantial beach erosion and scouring of return-flow channels near the beach, and deposition of sand sheets across the narrow coastal plain. In many areas tsunami deposits also included abundant building rubble due to the extensive destruction of homes and businesses in areas of dense development. Trim lines and flow directions confirmed that shoreline orientation and wave refraction from embayments and rock-anchored headlands locally focused the flow and amplified the inundation. Tsunami deposits were 1 to 36 cm thick but most were less than 25 cm thick. Deposit thickness depended partly on antecedent topography. The deposits were composed of coarse to medium sand organized into a few sets of plane parallel laminae that exhibited overall upward fining and landward thinning trends.

  15. Municipal solid waste management in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka: Problems, issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the problems, issues and challenges faced by Sri Lanka based on the outcome of a recent study conducted in the country's Southern Province. The study consists of a public survey, discussions with local authority staff involved in waste management, discussions with Provincial Council and Government officials, dialogue with local politicians, review of documents and field observations. The study revealed that only 24% of the households have access to waste collection and that in rural areas it was less than 2%. A substantial number of households in areas without waste collection expect local authorities to collect their waste. The study also showed that most sites in the province are under capacity to handle any increased demand. Urgent and immediate improvement of the waste disposal sites is necessary to meet the current demand for improved waste collection. The study also revealed that there is a high willingness of people for home composting

  16. Ultra-micro trace element contents in spices from Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spices were analyzed by ICP-MS for determination of the ultra-micro trace elements in the human adult, Bi, Cd, Co, Ni, Pd, Pt, Se, Sn, Te, Tl, to complement previous results obtained by INAA and by EDXRF. The spices, originating from Sri Lanka, were curry, chilli powder and turmeric powders, coriander, cinnamon, black pepper, fennel, rampeh and curry leaves, and cumin. The analytical procedure was validated by analyzing the certified reference materials NIST SRM 1572 Citrus Leaves and NIST SRM 1573 Tomato Leaves. The results indicate that spices may contribute well to the daily optimal uptake of nutrients of a human adult. The adequacy of spices as a reference material with certified ultra micro trace elements is suggested. (author)

  17. Demand for road-fuel in a small developing economy: The case of Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper estimates the demand for road fuel (petrol and auto-diesel) in the context of a small developing economy-Sri Lanka. The data set covers a period of 39 years from 1964 to 2002 representing both close economy and open economy policy regimes. The estimation procedure is based on seemingly unrelated regression equation (SURE) methodology mainly to capture substitutability of petrol and diesel in road transportation. The effect of auto-fuel prices on vehicle demand is also analyzed as a part of the analysis. In addition to confirming existing evidence on road-fuel demand, the findings reveal some interesting evidence with respect to own-price elasticity, cross-price elasticity, lag effects, income and vehicle mix variables

  18. Absolute alpha activity measurements of some plants growing in monazite bearing soils in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deposits of monazite bearing soils occur along the Southwest, West and East Coasts of Sri Lanka. High levels of gamma activity in some plant species growing in the West Coast have been reported. The high levels were due to the presence of the daughter nuclides of 232Th, most of which are alpha emitters. Absolute alpha activity measurements of ash samples of some plants growing in monazite bearing soils were carried out using the alpha sensitive polymeric nuclear track detector CR-39. The values ranged from 60-1900 mBq/g and were in good agreement with the values obtained from conventional scintillation counting method. The activity concentration of 228Th in the ash samples was also calculated by measuring the activity concentration of emanated thoron trapped inside a glass bottle with the use of a CR-39 track detector. (author)

  19. Radioactivity of beach sand in the south western coast of Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity concentrations and effective dose rates due to 232Th, 238U and 40K were determined for sand samples collected along the coastal strip from Crow Island to Beruwala, a part of south western coast of Sri Lanka, using a high-purity germanium detector. The ranges and the mean activity concentrations measured were (11-19 600, 2100), (7-3150, 450) and (14-1210, 220) Bq kg-1 for 232Th, 238U and 40K, respectively. The effective annual gamma dose in the area ranged from 0.004 to 16.8 mSv y-1. For 21 % of the locations, the annual effective dose determined from the activity concentrations exceeded the average worldwide exposure of 2.4 mSv y-1. (authors)

  20. Real-Time Biosurveillance Pilot Programme in Sri Lanka: Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerasinghe Gamachchige Chamindu Sampath

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The latter parts of 2007 and early months of 2008 witnessed an alarming number of deaths due to a Leptospirosis outbreak in Sri Lanka(1. An unusual number of patients presenting with symptoms of fever, headache or myalgia concentrated in particular geographic areas (North Central and North Western Province in Sri Lanka could have signalled the epidemiologists of an abnormal event with the help of a quicker surveillance programme leading to possible implementation of optimal strategies which could possibly have minimized the early deaths and even prevented the progression of the outbreak. The present day paper-based disease surveillance and notification systems in Sri Lanka(2, confined to a set of notifiable diseases, often require 15-30 days to communicate data and for the central Epidemiology Unit to process it. This latency does not allow for timely detection of disease outbreaks and it limits the ability of the health system to effectively respond and mitigate their consequences. Therefore it negatively affects the health status of the work force and productivity of the country. The Real Time Bio-surveillance Program (RTBP is a pilot study aiming to introduce modern technology to the Health Department of Sri Lanka to complement the existing disease surveillance and notification systems. The processes involve digitizing all clinical health records and analysing them in near real-time to detect unusual events to forewarn health workers before the diseases reach epidemic states. Similar studies have been conducted on bio terrorism surveillance in Winnipeg, Canada(3, pandemic surveillance in Morocco(4 and North Carolina Disease Event Tracking and Epidemiologic Collection Tool (NC DETECT in North Carolina(5. The infrastructure of the project RTBP is composed of an interconnected network between health care workers via mHealthSurvey mobile phone application, T-Cube web interface (TCWI and Sahana Messaging/Alerting Module. Health records from health facilities, namely demographic information, symptoms, suspected and diagnosed diseases are collected through the mHealthSurvey, a mobile phone application(6, that feed in to the TCWI(7, a browser based software tool that detects adverse events; health officials are notified of the adverse events using the Sahana Alerting module that transports via Short Message Service (SMS, Email, and Web(10. Evaluation of the RTBP involves a replication study and parallel cohort study. This pilot study indicates the need for more robust mobile application for data collection with complete ontology, semantics and vocabulary in disease-syndrome information to reduce noise and increase reliability in the datasets. More rigorous capacity building and frequent use is required for health officials to take advantage of the full potential of TCWI. This paper discusses the technologies used in the pilot and the initial findings in relation to usability of the system.

  1. Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology and ground-water ionicity: study based on Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharma-Wardana, M W C; Amarasiri, Sarath L; Dharmawardene, Nande; Panabokke, C R

    2015-04-01

    High incidence of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDU) in Sri Lanka is shown to correlate with the presence of irrigation works and rivers that bring-in 'nonpoint source' fertilizer runoff from intensely agricultural regions. We review previous attempts to link CKDU with As, Cd and other standard toxins. Those studies (e.g. the WHO-sponsored study), while providing a wealth of data, are inconclusive in regard to aetiology. Here, we present new proposals based on increased ionicity of drinking water due to fertilizer runoff into the river system, redox processes in the soil and features of 'tank'-cascades and aquifers. The consequent chronic exposure to high ionicity in drinking water is proposed to debilitate the kidney via a Hofmeister-type (i.e. protein-denaturing) mechanism. PMID:25119535

  2. Anopheles culicifacies breeding in Sri Lanka and options for control through water management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, F; Matsuno, Y; Amerasinghe, F P; Amerasinghe, P H; Hoek, Wim van der

    1998-01-01

    This paper assesses the options for control of malaria vectors through different water management practices in a natural stream in Sri Lanka. The association between water level in the stream and breeding of the immature stages of the primary vector Anopheles culicifacies was investigated and the...... feasibility of using existing irrigation infrastructure to reduce the breeding potential discussed. The most feasible option would be to implement a management routine where water is released periodically from an upstream reservoir to reduce the number of breeding sites downstream. This study indicates that...... by regulating the water level above 20 cm in the stream throughout the dry season the breeding of A. culicifacies could be significantly reduced. The intervention would have only limited impact on the water lost for agriculture and the management input would be minimal. However, for the intervention...

  3. Establishment of antimicrobial residue monitoring programme for food of animal origin in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Antibiotic drugs are often used both therapeutically and prophylactically in animal production, and are necessary for many production systems. However, the presence of unacceptable levels of antimicrobial residues in animal products may lead to direct effects on the consumer, such as allergies and toxicities such as dose-independent idiosyncratic reactions that can be triggered due to chloramphenicol residues. Indirect adverse reactions include the promotion of antimicrobial resistance. Further, the parent drugs and their metabolites of the nitrofuran group of antimicrobials are known to be carcinogens. In order to promote awareness on food safety and quality assurance, it is necessary to monitor antimicrobial residues in animal products. This can be done only by having well equipped laboratories and validated techniques. Sri Lanka, as an export country for cultured shrimp, needs to comply with EU regulations. The establishment of the residue monitoring programme in Sri Lanka was commenced in 2002 at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Peradeniya. Three techniques have been established in Sri Lanka for monitoring antimicrobial residues in food of animal origin. The modified EU Six Plate Test (SPT) is a bioassay technique, which screens six groups of antimicrobials, namely; penicillin, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, macrolides (erythromycin), tetracycline and sulphonamides. Food commodities are screened for chloramphenicol residues using a commercially available ELISA kit (Euro Diagnostica, Netherlands), which is a microtiter plate, based competitive enzyme immunoassay. A HPLC-DAD technique has been established to detect nitrofuran metobolites in shrimp including the primary metobolites of furazolidone, furaltadone, nitrofurantoin and nitrofurazon. Since July 2002 a total of 1712 samples including 900 chicken samples and 812 shrimp samples were screened for antimicrobial residues using the SPT. Since November 2002, 1027 shrimp samples from export consignments have been tested using ELISA. In 2007 the HPLC technique was established and 85 shrimp samples have been tested. Out of the 900 broiler meat samples tested by SPT, 52 samples (5.8 %) showed positive results while all the shrimp samples tested were negative. Out of the 1027 shrimp samples tested using ELISA, 2 samples (0.2 %) were positive. All the samples tested using by HPLC were negative for nitrofuran metabolites. There is clear evidence that the frequency of residues occurrence in the samples tested decreased as the project progressed due to increased awareness among farmers on restrictions imposed on using antimicrobial agents in animal production. Trace back procedures were adopted in situations where residue violations were observed in order to initiate action to prevent reoccurrence through the appropriate and responsible use of antimicrobials, and efforts were taken to ensure sustainability of the project. Further, steps are now being taken to comply with ISO 17025 Certification in order to obtain the status of laboratory accreditation. The laboratory established at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka is now recognized as an Independent Reference Laboratory for monitoring antimicrobial residues in food of animal origin. The laboratory service for the analysis of food samples for antimicrobial residue monitoring is now extended to producers and quality assurance divisions of regulatory authorities. (author)

  4. Instructors’ Perspective on E-Learning Adoption in Sri Lanka: A Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husnayati Hussin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available E-Learning has become an increasingly popular mode of instruction in higher education due to advances in the Internet and multimedia technologies. The purpose of the study is to gauge the perception and views of the lecturers at South Eastern University (SEUSL. As it is an exploratory study, the case study method was undertaken. The result of the study indicates that the lecturers are with positive attitude and supportive mindset to embark on e-learning initiative and it also identified a number of factors that could potentially influence the e-learning implementation in the university. Moreover the findings are instrumental and directing in undertaking a comprehensive study to understand the overall perception of lecturers towards e-learning implementation at the tertiary educational institutions in Sri Lanka.

  5. Neighborhood Environment and Self-Rated Health among Adults in Southern Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truls Østbye

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalenceof different neighborhood environmental stressors and associations between the stressors and self-rated health are described in a representative sample of 2,077 individuals, aged 18-85 years, in southern Sri Lanka. Mosquito menace (69.4%, stray dog problems (26.8%, nuisance from neighbors (20.3%, and nuisance from drug users (18.7% were found to be the most prevalent environmental stressors. None of the stressors investigated were associated with self-rated physical health, but nuisance from neighbors, nuisance from drug users, shortage of water and having poor water/ sewage drainage system were associated with self-rated mental health among the respondents.

  6. Conservation Value of Forest Plantations: A Study of Four Timber Species in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayuri R Wijesinghe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the potential of forest plantations in Sri Lanka consisting of teak, mahoganyand two species of eucalyptus, to facilitate the conservation of biodiversity using two taxonomic groups,the plants and birds. Their diversity in plantations at a harvestable age were compared with that of anatural forest. Enumerations of plants and dbh/height measurements were conducted in quadrates, whileavifauna was recorded along transects. Results show that plantation forests supported a reasonably richcommunity of both plants and birds, including natives and endemics. A large proportion of species werecommon to both plantations and natural forests indicating that plantations hold a subset of forest species.The presence of plants of various height and girth classes together with the high diversity and evennessvalues indicate that, although timber plantations are initially established as mono-cultivations, theyfacilitate the colonization of additional species. These findings thus demonstrate that forest plantationscould make a significant contribution towards biodiversity conservation.

  7. Pattern of pesticide storage before pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Fahim; Manuweera, Gamini; Gunnell, David; Azher, Shifa; Eddleston, Michael; Dawson, Andrew; Konradsen, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides is the commonest means of suicide in rural Asia. It is mostly impulsive and facilitated by easy access to pesticides. The aim of this large observational study was to investigate the immediate source of pesticides used for self......-harm to help inform suicide prevention strategies such as reducing domestic access to pesticides. METHODS: The study was conducted in a district hospital serving an agricultural region of Sri Lanka. Patients who had self-poisoned with pesticides and were admitted to the adult medical wards were...... interviewed by study doctors following initial resuscitation to identify the source of pesticides they have ingested. RESULTS: Of the 669 patients included in the analysis, 425 (63.5%) were male; the median age was 26 (IQR 20-36). In 511 (76%) cases, the pesticides had been stored either inside or immediately...

  8. Addressing domestic violence through antenatal care in Sri Lanka's plantation estates: Contributions of public health midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infanti, Jennifer J; Lund, Ragnhild; Muzrif, Munas M; Schei, Berit; Wijewardena, Kumudu

    2015-11-01

    Domestic violence in pregnancy is a significant health concern for women around the world. Globally, much has been written about how the health sector can respond effectively and comprehensively to domestic violence during pregnancy via antenatal services. The evidence from low-income settings is, however, limited. Sri Lanka is internationally acknowledged as a model amongst low-income countries for its maternal and child health statistics. Yet, very little research has considered the perspectives and experiences of the key front line health providers for pregnant women in Sri Lanka, public health midwives (PHMs). We address this gap by consulting PHMs about their experiences identifying and responding to pregnant women affected by domestic violence in an underserved area: the tea estate sector of Badulla district. Over two months in late 2014, our interdisciplinary team of social scientists and medical doctors met with 31 estate PHMs for group interviews and a participatory workshop at health clinics across Badulla district. In the paper, we propose a modified livelihoods model to conceptualise the physical, social and symbolic assets, strategies and constraints that simultaneously enable and limit the effectiveness of community-based health care responses to domestic violence. Our findings also highlight conceptual and practical strategies identified by PHMs to ensure improvements in this complex landscape of care. Such strategies include estate-based counselling services; basic training in family counselling and mediation for PHMs; greater surveillance of abusive men's behaviours by male community leaders; and performance evaluation and incentives for work undertaken to respond to domestic violence. The study contributes to international discussions on the meanings, frameworks, and identities constructed at the local levels of health care delivery in the global challenge to end domestic violence. In turn, such knowledge adds to international debates on the roles and responsibilities of health care professionals in responding to and preventing domestic violence. PMID:26448163

  9. Gastroprotective effect of Piper betle Linn. leaves grown in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. A. M. Arawwawala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Piper betle Linn. (Piperaceae is used as a remedy for gastric ulcers in traditional medicinal systems in Sri Lanka. However, the gastroprotective activity has never been proven scientifically using betel leaves grown in Sri Lanka. Objective: To evaluate the gastroprotective activity of hot aqueous extract (HAE and cold ethanolic extract (CEE of P. betle in rats as the experimental model. Materials and Methods: Three doses (200, 300, and 500 mg/kg/bw of both extracts were evaluated for the gastroprotective activity against ethanol induced gastric ulcers in rats. The parameters evaluated were (a effects of HAE on mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa, (b acidity (total and free, (c volume and (d pH of the gastric juice. Results: Oral administration of HAE and CEE provided marked dose dependent (HAE: r2 = 0.97; CEE: r2 = 0.96 and significant (P ? 0.05 protection against gastric damage caused by absolute ethanol. The gastroprotective effect of CEE was comparable with that of HAE. Further, gastroprotective activity of the highest dose of both extracts were significantly greater (P ? 0.05 than that of misoprostol, the reference drug. The HAE significantly (P ? 0.05 increased the mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa and inhibited the volume of gastric acid. However, acidity (total and free and pH of the gastric juice remained unaltered. Conclusion: It is concluded that both HAE and CEE of P. betle leaves have a strong gastroprotective activity.

  10. Board Leadership Structure, Audit Committee and Audit Quality: Evidence from Manufacturing Companies in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirunavukarasu Velnampy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper aims to analyze whether the corporate governance attributes such as board leadershipstructure, audit committee meetings held, size of independent non-executive directors and size of non-executivedirectors have significant impact on audit quality of manufacturing companies listed on Colombo Stock Exchange,Sri Lanka during 2011 to 2013.Research Design: The study takes 32 manufacturing companies listed in Sri Lanka out of 36 as sample andemploys binary logistic regression method for modeling the association between a binary dependent variable suchas audit quality and multiple independent variables such as board leadership structure, audit committee meetingsheld, size of independent non-executive directors, and size of non-executive directors.Findings: The study finds the logistic regression model for overall evaluation, statistical tests of individualpredictors and goodness-of-fit. As per the output, Hosmer and Lemeshow test reveals the model for goodness offit with chi-square of 17.503 and with probability value of 0.008, which is significant at five percent levels. Cox &Snell R Square reveal 56.2 % of the variance in audit quality. Whereas board leadership structure and auditcommittee meetings held have significant relationship with audit quality, size of non-executive directors and sizeof independent non-executive directors have shown insignificant association.Research Limitation-As sample size is relatively small, there may be a challenge to generalize the results ofthis study widely.Originality-This research contributes to the literature by adding the significant association between somecorporate governance variables and audit quality. The findings from this research could be generalized to thecompanies similar to this category.

  11. Road traffic crashes, injury and fatality trends in Sri Lanka: 1938-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samath D Dharmaratne

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To analyse trends in road traffic crashes, injuries and fatalities over 75 years in Sri Lanka. Methods Data on road traffic crashes, injuries and fatalities between 1938 and 2013 were obtained from the Police Statistics Unit. Rates per 100 000 population were calculated and trends were analysed using joinpoint regression analysis. Findings Road traffic crashes and injuries rose substantially between 1938 and 2013: annual crashes increased from 61.2 to 183.6 per 100 000 people; injuries, from 35.1 to 98.6 per 100 000; and fatalities, from 3.0 to 10.8 per 100 000 people per year. Joinpoint analysis showed large fluctuations in crashes and injuries over time but the fatalities rose almost continuously. These fluctuations paralleled the country's political and economic development. In some years, better traffic law enforcement and improved public transportation may have been associated with reduced crashes and injuries, whereas rapid growth in vehicle numbers, especially two- and three-wheeled vehicles, may have contributed to increased crashes and injuries. In addition, insurance policies that did not require a police report to claim may have led to underreporting of crashes and allowed drivers to avoid prosecution. Conclusion Fluctuations over time in road traffic crashes and injuries in Sri Lanka are associated with changes in political, economic and traffic policy. There is potential for reducing road traffic crashes and injuries through better traffic law enforcement, restrictions on the importation of two- and three-wheeled vehicles and policies to improve road safety and prevent underreporting of crashes.

  12. Mitigation of Sri Lanka Island Effects in Colombo Sounding Data during DYNAMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, P. E.; Johnson, R. H.; Yoneyama, K.

    2013-12-01

    During the Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) field campaign, upper-air soundings were launched at Colombo, Sri Lanka as part of the enhanced northern sounding array (NSA) of the experiment. The Colombo soundings were affected at low-levels by diurnal heating of this large island and by flow blocking due to elevated terrain to the east of the Colombo site. Because of the large spacing between sounding sites, these small-scale effects are aliased onto the larger scale impacting analyses and atmospheric budgets over the DYNAMO NSA. To mitigate these local island effects on the large-scale budgets, a procedure was designed which uses ECMWF-analyzed fields in the vicinity of Sri Lanka to estimate open-ocean conditions (i.e, as if this island were not present). These 'unperturbed' ECMWF fields at low-levels are then merged with observed Colombo soundings. This procedure effectively mutes the blocking effects and large diurnal cycle observed in the low-level Colombo fields. In westerly flow regimes, adjusted Colombo winds increase the low-level westerlies by 2-3 m/s with a similar increase of the low-level easterlies in easterly flow regimes. In general, over the NSA the impact of the adjusted Colombo winds results in more low-level divergence (convergence), more mid-level subsidence (rising motion) and reduced (increased) rainfall during the westerly (easterly) wind regimes. In comparison to independent TRMM rainfall estimates, both the mean budget-derived rainfall and its temporal correlation are improved by using the adjusted Colombo soundings. In addition, use of the 'unperturbed' fields result in a more realistic moisture budget analyses, both in its diurnal cycle and during the build-up phase of the November MJO when a gradual deepening of apparent drying was observed. Overall, use of the adjusted Colombo soundings appears to have a beneficial impact on the NSA analyses and budgets.

  13. Croire après la bombe : les interactions entre violence, religion et développement au Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indika Bulankulame

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pendant les trente ans qu’a duré la guerre civile au Sri Lanka, de nombreux citoyens ont été touchés par des attentats à la bombe destinés à perturber la vie quotidienne, non seulement dans les zones de guerre mais aussi dans les quartiers urbains, particulièrement à Colombo, la capitale. Si beaucoup ont perdu la vie, d’autres ont survécu, mais restent profondément meurtris, handicapés et traumatisés. Le présent article explore la signification de la « survie » telle que l’ont éprouvée les personnes dotées du nouveau statut de « victimes d’attentats à la bombe ». Son auteur s’interroge sur la capacité des survivants à assumer leur rôle de soutien de famille et/ou à faire face aux graves bouleversements économiques consécutifs aux profonds changements survenus dans leur vie. L’article constate de manière générale qu’en raison de la perte de revenus et de l’incapacité de participer pleinement à l’économie de marché, les survivants sont relégués à la marge des grands débats sur le développement et des possibilités qui en découleraient. La fin des hostilités a marqué un tournant clair en faveur du développement du Sri Lanka et, dans cette période cruciale d’après-guerre, il importe de se pencher sur les différentes façons dont la religion peut répondre aux besoins des survivants. C’est pourquoi l’interaction dynamique entre religion, violence politique et développement est mise en relief. Dans l’examen des mécanismes d’adaptation et de survie, il est question des réponses qu’offre la religion à la mondialisation (néolibérale tributaire du marché et à l’exposition à la terreur et à la violence, en atténuant l’expérience des traumatismes et en permettant aux survivants de se confronter à la réalité au quotidien.

  14. Informed consent in Sri Lanka: A survey among ethics committee members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriwardhana Chesmal

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approval of the research proposal by an ethical review committee from both sponsoring and host countries is a generally agreed requirement in externally sponsored research. However, capacity for ethics review is not universal. Aim of this study was to identify opinions and views of the members serving in ethical review and ethics committees in Sri Lanka on informed consent, essential components in the information leaflet and the consent form. Methods We obtained ethical approval from UK and Sri Lanka. A series of consensus generation meetings on the protocol were conducted. A task oriented interview guide was developed. The interview was based on open-ended questionnaire. Then the participants were given a WHO checklist on informed consent and requested to rate the items on a three point scale ranging from extremely important to not important. Results Twenty-nine members from ethics committees participated. Majority of participants (23, believed a copy of the information leaflet and consent form, should accompany research proposal. Opinions about the items that should be included in the information leaflets varied. Participants identified 18 criteria as requirements in the information leaflet and 19 for the consent form. The majority, 20 (69%, believed that all research need ethical approval but identified limited human resource, time and inadequate capacity as constraints. Fifteen (52% believed that written consent is not required for all research. Verbal consent emerged as an alternative to written consent. The majority of participants rated all components of the WHO checklist as important. Conclusion The number of themes generated for the consent form (N = 18 is as many as for the information leaflet (N = 19 and had several overlaps. This suggests that the consent form should be itemized to reflect the contents covered in the information leaflet. The participants' opinion on components of the information leaflets and consent forms proved to be similar with WHO checklist on informed consent.

  15. Century scale climate change in the central highlands of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J. De; J Sonnadara, D. U.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an analysis of century scale climate trends in the central highlands of Sri Lanka is presented. Monthly rainfall and temperature records of the period 1869-2006 from five climatological stations were analyzed. The trend is calculated by the least square regression analysis and the significance of the observed trend is estimated using the Mann-Kendall statistic. The results clearly show that there is a statistically significant decrease in annual rainfall in the western slopes of the central highlands. Throughout the last century, the annual reduction of rainfall in Nuwara Eliya which is at an altitude of 1895 m was 5.2 mm/year. The decrease is largely due to the reduction in southwest monsoon rainfall which contributes to 75% of the total reduction. No significant change was observed on the eastern side of the central highlands which receives rainfall predominantly from the northeast monsoons. The mean annual temperature in the mountainous region shows a uniform increasing trend which is in line with the 100-year global temperature increase of 0.8 ± 0.2?C. Kandy, which is at an altitude of 477 m and closely linked with the rainfall climatology of Nuwara Eliya, showed no significant change in the mean annual temperature. If the current trend continues, in another 100 years, western and eastern slopes of central highlands will receive the same amount of rainfall from the southwest monsoon and the northeast monsoon which will have far reaching consequences for Sri Lanka's economy and the ecology of the hill country.

  16. Impact of distributed and independent power generation on greenhouse gas emissions: Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Lanka has a hydropower dominated power system with approximately two thirds of its generation capacity based on large hydro plants. The remaining one third are based on oil fired thermal generation with varying technologies, such as oil steam, Diesel, gas turbines and combined cycle plants. A significant portion of this capacity is in operation as independent power plants (IPPs). In addition to these, Sri Lanka presently has about 40 MWs of mini-hydro plants, which are distributed in the highlands and their surrounding districts, mainly connected to the primary distribution system. Further, there are a few attempts to build fuel wood fired power plants of small capacities and connect them to the grid in various parts of the country. The study presented in this paper investigates the impact of these new developments in the power sector on the overall emissions and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in particular. It examines the resulting changes to the emissions and costs in the event of developing the proposed coal power plant as an IPP under different investment and operational conditions. The paper also examines the impact on emissions with 80 MWs of distributed power in different capacities of wind, mini-hydro and wood fired power plants. It is concluded that grid connected, distributed power generation (DPG) reduces emissions, with only a marginal increase in overall costs, due to the reduction in transmission and distribution network losses that result from the distributed nature of generation. These reductions can be enhanced by opting for renewable energy based DPGS, as the case presented in the paper, and coupling them with demand side management measures. It is also concluded that there is no impact on overall emissions by the base load IPPs unless they are allowed to change over to different fuel types and technologies. (author)

  17. Assessment of economic impact of electricity supply interruptions in the Sri Lanka industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the outcome of the Sri Lanka case study on assessing the economic impact of power interruptions on industry in the South Asia region, comprising the countries of Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh and India. The technical assessment evaluates the cost to the country's economy in terms of the industrial loss due to supply interruptions and environmental impacts from standby generation used to supplement the power requirements of the industrial sector. The study found that the main economic impact of the power interruptions, both planned and unplanned, is the loss of output in the industrial sector. In a typical year of power shortages, such as 2001, arising from a deficit in generation capacity, these losses can be as high as approximately US$ 81 million a year, which is approximately 0.65% of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). Also, the economic impact due to unplanned outages can be around US$ 45 million (0.3% of GDP) in a typical year. On average, these values for planned and unplanned outages are US$ 0.66 and US$ 1.08 per kW h of energy loss, respectively. It is also observed that 92% of the sampled industries have standby generation facilities to satisfy either, in full or partially, their own power requirements, which produced approximately 146 GW h of energy in 2001. The serious economic and environmental impacts of power interruptions, both planned and unplanned, underlines the importance of timely implementation of the long term least cost generation expansion plan and proper maintenance of transmission and distribution networks to ensure their high reliability. Therefore, it is clear that the utility needs to take immediate steps to improve its supply reliability in order to retain consumers and justify the existence of a centralised generation facility

  18. A deterministic analysis of tsunami hazard and risk for the southwest coast of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijetunge, J. J.

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes a multi-scenario, deterministic analysis carried out as a pilot study to evaluate the tsunami hazard and risk distribution in the southwest coast of Sri Lanka. The hazard and risk assessment procedure adopted was also assessed against available field records of the impact of the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004. An evaluation of numerically simulated nearshore tsunami amplitudes corresponding to ‘maximum-credible' scenarios from different subduction segments in the Indian Ocean surrounding Sri Lanka suggests that a seismic event similar to that generated the tsunami in 2004 can still be considered as the ‘worst-case' scenario for the southwest coast. Furthermore, it appears that formation of edge waves trapped by the primary waves diffracting around the southwest significantly influences the nearshore tsunami wave field and is largely responsible for relatively higher tsunami amplitudes in certain stretches of the coastline under study. The extent of inundation from numerical simulations corresponding to the worst-case scenario shows good overall agreement with the points of maximum penetration of inundation from field measurements in the aftermath of the 2004 tsunami. It can also be seen that the inundation distribution is strongly influenced by onshore topography. The present study indicates that the mean depth of inundation could be utilised as a primary parameter to quantify the spatial distribution of the tsunami hazard. The spatial distribution of the risk of the tsunami hazard to the population and residential buildings computed by employing the standard risk formula shows satisfactory correlation with published statistics of the affected population and the damage to residential property during the tsunami in 2004.

  19. Unmarried women’s ways of facing single motherhood in Sri Lanka – a qualitative interview study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In Sri Lanka, motherhood within marriage is highly valued. Sex out of wedlock is socially unacceptable and can create serious public health problems such as illegal abortions, suicide and infanticide, and single motherhood as a result of premarital sex is considered shameful. The way unmarried women facing single motherhood reflect on and make use of their agency in their social environments characterised by limited social and financial support has consequences for the health and well-being of both themselves and their children. The aim of this study was to explore and describe how unmarried women facing single motherhood in Sri Lanka handle their situation. Methods This qualitative study comprised semi-structured interviews with 28 unmarried pregnant women or single mothers. The data were analysed by qualitative content analysis and the results related to the conceptual framework of social navigation. Results The women facing single motherhood expressed awareness of having trespassed norms of sexuality through self-blame, victimhood and obedience, and by considering or attempting suicide. They demonstrated willingness to take responsibility for becoming pregnant before marriage by giving the child up for adoption, bringing up the child themselves, claiming a father for their child, refraining from marriage in the future, permanently leave their home environment, and taking up employment. Throughout the interviews, the women expressed fear of shame, and striving for familial and societal acceptance and financial survival. Conclusions A social environment highly condemning of unmarried motherhood hindered these women from making strategic choices on how to handle their situation. However, to achieve acceptance and survival, the women tactically navigated norms of femininity, strong family dependence, a limited work market, and different sources of support. Limited access to resources restricted the women’s sexual and reproductive health and rights, including their ability to make acceptable and healthy choices for themselves and their children. PMID:23388103

  20. Collective trauma in northern Sri Lanka: a qualitative psychosocial-ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somasundaram Daya

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex situations that follow war and natural disasters have a psychosocial impact on not only the individual but also on the family, community and society. Just as the mental health effects on the individual psyche can result in non pathological distress as well as a variety of psychiatric disorders; massive and widespread trauma and loss can impact on family and social processes causing changes at the family, community and societal levels. Method This qualitative, ecological study is a naturalistic, psychosocial ethnography in Northern Sri Lanka, while actively involved in psychosocial and community mental health programmes among the Tamil community. Participatory observation, key informant interviews and focus group discussion with community level relief and rehabilitation workers and government and non-governmental officials were used to gather data. The effects on the community of the chronic, man-made disaster, war, in Northern Sri Lanka were compared with the contexts found before the war and after the tsunami. Results Fundamental changes in the functioning of the family and the community were observed. While the changes after the tsunami were not so prominent, the chronic war situation caused more fundamental social transformations. At the family level, the dynamics of single parent families, lack of trust among members, and changes in significant relationships, and child rearing practices were seen. Communities tended to be more dependent, passive, silent, without leadership, mistrustful, and suspicious. Additional adverse effects included the breakdown in traditional structures, institutions and familiar ways of life, and deterioration in social norms and ethics. A variety of community level interventions were tried. Conclusion Exposure to conflict, war and disaster situations impact on fundamental family and community dynamics resulting in changes at a collective level. Relief, rehabilitation and development programmes to be effective will need to address the problem of collective trauma, particularly using integrated multi-level approaches.

  1. Is Hiding Foot and Mouth Disease Sensitive Behavior for Farmers? A Survey Study in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunarathne, Anoma; Kubota, Satoko; Kumarawadu, Pradeep; Karunagoda, Kamal; Kon, Hiroichi

    2016-02-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) has a long history in Sri Lanka and was found to be endemic in various parts of the country and constitutes a constant threat to farmers. In Sri Lanka, currently there is no regular, nationwide vaccination programme devised to control FMD. Therefore, improving farmers' knowledge regarding distinguishing FMD from other diseases and ensuring prompt reporting of any suspicion of FMD as well as restricting movement of animals are critical activities for an effective FMD response effort. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between farmers' knowledge levels and their behaviors to establish a strategy to control FMD. In our study, item count technique was applied to estimate the number of farmers that under-report and sell FMD-infected animals, although to do so is prohibited by law. The following findings were observed: about 63% of farmers have very poor knowledge of routes of FMD transmission; 'under-reporting' was found to be a sensitive behavior and nearly 23% of the farmers were reluctant to report FMD-infected animals; and 'selling FMD-infected animals' is a sensitive behavior among high-level knowledge group while it is a non-sensitive behavior among the low-level knowledge group. If farmers would understand the importance of prompt reporting, they may report any suspected cases of FMD to veterinary officials. However, even if farmers report honestly, they do not want to cull FMD-infected animals. Thus, education programs should be conducted not only on FMD introduction and transmission, but also its impact. Furthermore, consumers may criticize the farmers for culling their infected animals. Hence, not only farmers, but also consumers need to be educated on the economic impact of FMD and the importance of controlling an outbreak. If farmers have a high knowledge of FMD transmission, they consider selling FMD-infected animals as a sensitive behavior. Therefore, severe punishment should be levied for selling FMD-infected animals. PMID:26732453

  2. Total mercury content, weight and length relationship in swordfish (Xiphias gladius) in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinadasa, B K K K; Edirisinghe, E M R K B; Wickramasinghe, I

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global environmental pollutant that has been the cause of many public health concerns. It is transferred through trophic level and bio magnification in the food chain. Total Hg level was measured by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry in muscle tissue of 176 Swordfish (Xiphiasgladius) samples ranging from 11.8-112.0 kg total weight and 45-278 cm total length, collected from major fish landing sites in Sri Lanka during July 2009 to March 2010. Total Hg concentration varied between 0.18-2.58 mg/kg wet weight (ww), with a mean value ± standard deviation of 0.90 ± 0.52 mg/kg ww. Of the investigated samples 32% exceeded Hg limits as set by the European Union and Sri Lankan legislation (1 mg/kg, ww). Hg concentration of swordfish showed a significant positive relationship (P value < 0.05) with the fish length and weight. Consequently, consumption of larger fish leads to an increase in the exposure level for consumers. PMID:24779931

  3. Reactogenicity and safety of the human rotavirus vaccine, Rotarix™ in The Philippines, Sri Lanka, and India: a post-marketing surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Lulu; Chitraka, Amarjeet; Liu, Aixue; Choudhury, Jaydeep; Kumar, Kishore; Berezo, Lennie; Cimafranca, Leonard; Chatterjee, Pallab; Garg, Pankaj; Siriwardene, Prasanna; Bernardo, Rommel; Mehta, Shailesh; Balasubramanian, Sundaram; Karkada, Naveen; Htay Han, Htay

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory bodies in The Philippines, Sri Lanka, and India require post-marketing surveillance to provide additional safety data on Rotarix™ in real-life settings. In such studies conducted in The Philippines (November 2006 to July 2012; NCT00353366), Sri Lanka (November 2008 to August 2009; NCT00779779), and India (August 2009 to April 2010; NCT00938327), 2 doses of Rotarix™ were administered according to the local prescribing information (PI). The occurrence of at least Grade "2"/"3" solicited adverse event (AE) (fever, vomiting, or diarrhea), within 15 days in The Philippines or 8 days in Sri Lanka and India; unsolicited AEs within 31 days and serious adverse events (SAEs) throughout the study were recorded. Of the 1494, 522, and 332 infants enrolled in The Philippines, Sri Lanka, and India, 14.7% 14.9% and 12.7% infants, respectively recorded at least Grade "2"/"3" solicited AEs. The most commonly reported solicited AEs were irritability in The Philippines (32.2% post-Dose-1; 23.5% post-Dose-2) and India (23.0% post-Dose-1; 13.2% post-Dose-2), and fever (18.0% post-Dose-1; 20.2% post-Dose-2) in Sri Lanka. Unsolicited AEs were recorded in 24.5% (The Philippines), 4.8% (Sri Lanka), and 6.9% (India) of infants. Forty-one SAEs were recorded in the Philippines of which 6 (decreased oral intake with increased sleeping time and constipation; pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and intussusception) were considered by the investigators as causally related to vaccination. One vaccine-unrelated SAE occurred in a Sri Lankan infant. All SAEs resolved and the infants recovered. Two doses of Rotarix™, administered to healthy infants according to local PI, were well tolerated in The Philippines, Sri Lanka, and India. PMID:25424932

  4. Intimate partner violence against women in the capital province of Sri Lanka: prevalence, risk factors, and help seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya, Vathsala; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Axemo, Pia

    2011-08-01

    This article presents findings from a cross-sectional community survey exploring intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in the Western province of Sri Lanka. Findings show that lifetime prevalence of physical violence (34%), controlling behavior (30%), and emotional abuse (19%) was high and the prevalence of sexual violence was low (5%). Young women and those with partners who abused alcohol/drugs and had extra-marital affairs are at increased risk of violence. Although living in a patriarchal society, low prevalence of child marriages and lack of dowry-related violence could be to Sri Lankan women's advantage relative to their Asian counterparts in preventing IPV. PMID:21890530

  5. Using focus groups to investigate service quality determinants for customer satisfaction in selected university libraries in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaminda Jayasundara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at establishing service quality determinants which may affect customer satisfaction in university libraries in Sri Lanka. Using the literature, 113 service quality determinants were identified. These were then reviewed by eight focus groups in four different universities. Forty of the determinants were perceived to be applicable to their context. The participants also added 14 quality requirements which they thought were not provided for in the list. Finally, the content and face validity of the 54 determinants were evaluated by a panel of experts who ultimately reduced them to 50. This study recommends the use of the identified quality determinants by library administrators and policymakers in the higher education sector in Sri Lanka to gauge the levels of customer satisfaction and assure quality of service.

  6. Pre-elimination stage of malaria in Sri Lanka: assessing the level of hidden parasites in the population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajakaruna, Rupika S; Alifrangis, Michael; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H; Konradsen, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the dramatic drop in the transmission of malaria in Sri Lanka in recent years, the country entered the malaria pre-elimination stage in 2008. Assessing the community prevalence of hidden malaria parasites following several years of extremely low transmission is central to the...... districts, Anuradhapura and Kurunegala, previously considered as high malaria transmission areas in Sri Lanka, where peaks of transmission follow the rainy seasons was assessed. Blood samples of non-febrile individuals aged five to 55 years were collected from randomly selected areas in the two districts at...... process of complete elimination. The existence of a parasite reservoir in a population free from clinical manifestations, would influence the strategy for surveillance and control towards complete elimination. METHODS: The prevalence of hidden parasite reservoirs in two historically malaria endemic...

  7. Food security, agricultural subsidies, energy, and the environment: a process of 'glocalization' in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendis, P.

    2001-07-01

    This paper analyzes the interplay of policy dilemma in the areas of food security, agricultural subsidies, energy consumption, and the environment in the 'glocalization' process of Sri Lanka. It demonstrates that the domestic agricultural and food sector is intricately interconnected with the global economy and world market forces. While this paper gives a primary focus on domestic rice production and wheat import policies, it further examines the environmental consequences and public health issues that are associated with the process of 'glocalization' as part of globalization. This 'glocalization' has led to a series of intended and unintended externalities for Sri Lanka whose economic integration is irreversibly linked to agricultural and subsidy policies of other food exporting and producing countries of Asia and the United States. (author)

  8. Towards a risk map of malaria for Sri Lanka: the importance of house location relative to vector breeding sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H; Perera, Devika; Piyaratne, M K; Amerasinghe, Felix P

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Sri Lanka, the major malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies breeds in pools formed in streams and river beds and it is likely that people living close to such breeding sites are at higher risk of malaria than people living further away. This study was done to quantify the importance...... of house location relative to vector breeding sites for the occurrence of malaria in order to assess the usefulness of this parameter in future malaria risk maps. Such risk maps could be important tools for planning efficient malaria control measures. METHODS: In a group of seven villages in north...... central Sri Lanka, malaria cases were compared with community controls for distance from house to breeding sites and a number of other variables, including type of housing construction and use of anti-mosquito measures. The presence of An. culicifacies in bedrooms was determined by indoor insecticide...

  9. Establishment of multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) technology for goats in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) has been done successfully in goats in some countries (Chen et al., 2008). It can be used to multiply the genetically superior animals and to make elite herds with increased production potential. There have been no previous reports on successful MOET in goats in Sri Lanka. Therefore, this study was carried out to establish techniques for in vivo production and transfer of goat embryos in Sri Lanka. Genetically superior does (n = 7) were subjected to super ovulation for in vivo embryo production using a protocol modified from that of Batt et al (1993). Progesterone releasing intravaginal pessaries (45 mg, Cronolone) was inserted on Day 1 of the programme. The does in group 1 (n = 3) were stimulated on Day 8 with injections of pure porcine Follicular Stimulating Hormone (pFSH), while those in group 2 (n = 4) were stimulated with pure ovine Follicular Stimulating Hormone (oFSH). Equine Chorionic Gonadotrophin (eCG) was given to all does in the evening of Day 8. Subsequent injections of pFSH (group 1) or oFSH (group 2) were given in the morning and evening on Day 9 and Day 10. All does were injected with prostaglandin analogue (263 ?g/ml cloprostenol sodium) in the morning of Day 9 and vaginal pessaries were removed in the evening of Day 10. On Day 11, pFSH or oFSH was injected in the morning and Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) was injected in the evening. Immediately after the GnRH injection does were exposed to breeding with a genetically superior Jamnapari buck for 48 hours. Embryos were collected surgically 7 d after oestrus, by flushing of the uterus with embryo flushing medium containing lactated Ringer's solution with 1% bovine serum albumin at 37 deg C through a mid ventral laparotomy. The quality of the embryos was assessed microscopically and those considered to be of good and excellent quality were transferred surgically to oestrus synchronized recipient goats (n = 6) 7 d post-oestrus. The ovarian parameters measured and mean numbers of embryos recovered after superovalation are given. The total number and the quality of the embryos recovered from each group of does are shown in Table II. Following embryo transplantation, 4 of the 6 recipient does were diagnosed pregnant by ultrasound at day 35. The first goat kid born (named 'Peradeniya Kumari') was a single healthy female with 3.6 kg birth weight at full term. Two more does kidded, resulting in four healthy kids with birth weights of 3.2 kg (female), 1.8 kg (female), 1.6 kg (male) and 1.2 kg (male), while an abortion was observed in one doe. During the first six weeks the average weight gains of the first two kids born were 152.3 and 149.2 g/d, respectively. The results showed that valuable, genetically superior female goats can be multiplied using embryo transfer. The superovulatory response, quality and quantity of the embryos were better with oFSH than with pFSH. Although the number of embryos recovered was high in both groups, only some of the embryos were transferred due to the lack of sufficient number of recipient goats. The resulting offspring showed high growth rates and good survivability. Further experiments are warranted to optimize the protocols under Sri Lankan conditions and to compare the data statistically. In conclusion, the birth of healthy goat offspring through MOET technology is reported for the first time in Sri Lanka, indicating the feasibility of multiplying superior goats through this technology. (author)

  10. JOB SATISFACTION AND EMPLOYEES’ WORK PERFORMANCE: A CASE STUDY OF PEOPLE’S BANK IN JAFFNA PENINSULA, SRI LANKA

    OpenAIRE

    Balasundaram NIMALATHASAN; Brabete, Valeriu

    2010-01-01

    Abstract:For the purpose of this study, the data was extracted from the branches of people’s bank operating within Jaffna peninsula, Sri Lanka. Here, we analysed the data by employing simple correlation analysis. In the analysis, it is found that there is a positive relationship between job satisfaction and employees’ work performance. That is high level of fair promotion, reasonable pay system appropriate work itself and good working condition leads to high level of employees’ performance. I...

  11. A theoretical model to predict customer satisfaction in relation to service quality in selected university libraries in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Chaminda Jayasundara; Patrick Ngulube; Mabel K. Minishi-Majanja

    2009-01-01

    University library administrators in Sri Lanka have begun to search for alternative ways to satisfy their clientele on the basis of service quality. This article aims at providing a theoretical model to facilitate the identification of service quality attributes and domains that may be used to predict customer satisfaction from a service quality perspective. The effectiveness of existing service quality models such as LibQUAL, SERVQUAL and SERVPREF have been questioned. In that regard, this s...

  12. Effectiveness of Tobacco Control Measures in Reducing Tobacco Use among Adolescents and Young Adults in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waduarachchige Don Aruna Shantha De Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sri Lanka became a signatory to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in September 2003 and ratified in November 2003. Aiming to reduce tobacco burden in Sri Lanka, National Authority on Tobacco and Alcohol Act [NATA] No. 27 was authorized in 2006. The objective of this study was to assess the behavioral changes related to tobacco use among adolescents and young adults following the exposure to tobacco control measures implemented by NATA. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from October 2011 to November 2011 among adolescent (13-19 years and young adult (20-39 years males in Anuradhapura divisional secretary area in Sri Lanka. A self-administered questionnaire and focus group discussions were used for data collection. Confounding factors were controlled by stratification and randomization. Results: A total of 456 male respondents including 168 (37% adolescents and 288 (63% young adults participated in the study. Among the ever smokers 66 (14 % had already quitted smoking while 151 (33% were current smokers. The majority of the respondents (95.4% of quitters and 88.0% of current smokers were acquainted with the dangers of smoking through the mass media. Among the current smokers and quitters, the knowledge on health risks of smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke was quite satisfactory. The current smokers as well as the quitters were well aware of the tobacco control measures. Smokers as well as the non-smokers and quitters supported these measures. Conclusion: Tobacco control measures implemented by NATA had a favorable influence on reducing tobacco burden among adolescents and young adults in Sri Lanka      

  13. TSUNAMI ON 26 DECEMBER 2004: SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF TSUNAMI HEIGHT AND THE EXTENT OF INUNDATION IN SRI LANKA

    OpenAIRE

    Janaka J. Wijetunge

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the massive tsunami of 26 December 2004 on Sri Lanka bytracing the tsunami height, the extent of inundation and the level of damage along the affectedcoastal belt. The results of an extensive field survey that was carried out in the east, south andwest coasts to record the evidence of water levels left behind by the tsunami clearly indicate non-uniform spatial distribution of inundation along the affected coastline of the country. Thetsunami inundation had be...

  14. Homegardens as a multi-functional land-use strategy in Sri Lanka with focus on carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Eskil; Ostwald, Madelene; Nissanka, S P; Marambe, Buddhi

    2013-11-01

    This paper explores the concept of homegardens and their potential functions as strategic elements in land-use planning, and adaptation and mitigation to climate change in Sri Lanka. The ancient and locally adapted agroforestry system of homegardens is presently estimated to occupy nearly 15 % of the land area in Sri Lanka and is described in the scientific literature to offer several ecosystem services to its users; such as climate regulation, protection against natural hazards, enhanced land productivity and biological diversity, increased crop diversity and food security for rural poor and hence reduced vulnerability to climate change. Our results, based on a limited sample size, indicate that the homegardens also store significant amount of carbon, with above ground biomass carbon stocks in dry zone homegardens (n = 8) ranging from 10 to 55 megagrams of carbon per hectare (Mg C ha(-1)) with a mean value of 35 Mg C ha(-1), whereas carbon stocks in wet zone homegardens (n = 4) range from 48 to 145 Mg C ha(-1) with a mean value of 87 Mg C ha(-1). This implies that homegardens may contain a significant fraction of the total above ground biomass carbon stock in the terrestrial system in Sri Lanka, and from our estimates its share has increased from almost one-sixth in 1992 to nearly one-fifth in 2010. In the light of current discussions on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+), the concept of homegardens in Sri Lanka provides interesting aspects to the debate and future research in terms of forest definitions, setting reference levels, and general sustainability. PMID:23456780

  15. Time Preference and Natural Resource Use by Local Communities: The Case of Sinharaja Forest in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Gunatilake, H. M.; Wickramasinghe, W. A. R.; Abeygunawardena, P.

    2007-01-01

    Empirical studies on the impact of the individual rate of time preference (IRTP) on natural resource use are scarce. This paper investigates the impact of IRTP on forest resources harvesting from the Sinharaja Man and Biosphere Reserve in Sri Lanka. The impact of IRTP on the harvest rate of forest resources was tested using a simultaneous equation model. Analysis of the determinants of IRTP shows that the base value and age of the respondents negatively influence the IRTP while risk perceptio...

  16. Integrated School-Based Surveillance for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections and Lymphatic Filariasis in Gampaha District, Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawardena, Sharmini; Gunawardena, Nipul K.; Kahathuduwa, Ganga; Karunaweera, Nadira D.; de Silva, Nilanthi R; Ranasinghe, Udaya B.; Samarasekara, Sandhya D.; Nagodavithana, Kumara C.; Rao, Ramakrishna U; Rebollo, Maria P; WEIL, GARY J.

    2014-01-01

    We explored the practicality of integrating surveillance for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH, assessed by Kato-Katz) with transmission assessment surveys for lymphatic filariasis (LF) in two evaluation units (EUs) in Gampaha district, Sri Lanka (population 2.3 million). The surveys were performed 6 years after five annual rounds of mass drug administration with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole. Each transmission assessment survey tested children (N = 1,462 inland EU; 1,642 coastal EU) s...

  17. Community uptake of safe storage boxes to reduce self-poisoning from pesticides in rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Flemming; Pieris, Ravi; Weerasinghe, Manjula; van der Hoek, Wim; Eddleston, Michael; Dawson, Andrew H

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute poisoning by agricultural pesticides is a well established global public health problem. Keeping pesticides under safe storage is now promoted as a potential way to reduce the number of severe poisoning cases. However, there have been no published studies documenting the feasibility of such an approach. Therefore, the objective of the study presented here was to determine community perceptions and use of in-house safe storage boxes for pesticides in rural Sri Lanka. METHODS: Bo...

  18. Pre-elimination stage of malaria in Sri Lanka: assessing the level of hidden parasites in the population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajakaruna, Rupika S; Alifrangis, Michael; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H; Konradsen, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the dramatic drop in the transmission of malaria in Sri Lanka in recent years, the country entered the malaria pre-elimination stage in 2008. Assessing the community prevalence of hidden malaria parasites following several years of extremely low transmission is central to the process of complete elimination. The existence of a parasite reservoir in a population free from clinical manifestations, would influence the strategy for surveillance and control towards complete eliminati...

  19. Geographic structure of Plasmodium vivax: microsatellite analysis of parasite populations from Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunawardena, Sharmini; Karunaweera, Nadira D; Ferreira, Marcelo U; Phone-Kyaw, Myatt; Pollack, Richard J; Alifrangis, Michael; Rajakaruna, Rupika S; Konradsen, Flemming; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H; Schousboe, Mette L; Galappaththy, Gawrie N L; Abeyasinghe, Rabindra R; Hartl, Daniel L; Wirth, Dyann F

    2010-01-01

    Genetic diversity and population structure of Plasmodium vivax parasites can predict the origin and spread of novel variants within a population enabling population specific malaria control measures. We analyzed the genetic diversity and population structure of 425 P. vivax isolates from Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Ethiopia using 12 trinucleotide and tetranucleotide microsatellite markers. All three parasite populations were highly polymorphic with 3-44 alleles per locus. Approximately 65% were mult...

  20. Costs of Dengue Control Activities and Hospitalizations in the Public Health Sector during an Epidemic Year in Urban Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalagala, Neil; Tissera, Hasitha; Palihawadana, Paba; Amarasinghe, Ananda; Ambagahawita, Anuradha; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Shepard, Donald S.; Tozan, Yeşim

    2016-01-01

    Background Reported as a public health problem since the 1960s in Sri Lanka, dengue has become a high priority disease for public health authorities. The Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling dengue and other disease outbreaks and associated health care. The involvement of large numbers of public health staff in dengue control activities year-round and the provision of free medical care to dengue patients at secondary care hospitals place a formidable financial burden on the public health sector. Methods We estimated the public sector costs of dengue control activities and the direct costs of hospitalizations in Colombo, the most heavily urbanized district in Sri Lanka, during the epidemic year of 2012 from the Ministry of Health’s perspective. The financial costs borne by public health agencies and hospitals are collected using cost extraction tools designed specifically for the study and analysed retrospectively using a combination of activity-based and gross costing approaches. Results The total cost of dengue control and reported hospitalizations was estimated at US$3.45 million (US$1.50 per capita) in Colombo district in 2012. Personnel costs accounted for the largest shares of the total costs of dengue control activities (79%) and hospitalizations (46%). The results indicated a per capita cost of US$0.42 for dengue control activities. The average costs per hospitalization ranged between US$216–609 for pediatric cases and between US$196–866 for adult cases according to disease severity and treatment setting. Conclusions This analysis is a first attempt to assess the economic burden of dengue response in the public health sector in Sri Lanka. Country-specific evidence is needed for setting public health priorities and deciding about the deployment of existing or new technologies. Our results suggest that dengue poses a major economic burden on the public health sector in Sri Lanka. PMID:26910907

  1. Trends of fluid requirement in dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever: a single centre experience in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Kularatne, Senanayake AM; Weerakoon, Kosala GAD; Munasinghe, Ruwan; Ralapanawa, Udaya K; Pathirage, Manoji

    2015-01-01

    Background Meticulous fluid management is the mainstay of treatment in dengue fever that is currently governed by consensus guidelines rather than by strong research evidence. To examine this issue we audited the fluid requirement of a cohort of adult patients with dengue fever (DF) and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) in a tertiary care clinical setting. Results This retrospective cohort study was conducted from July 2012 to January 2013 in Teaching Hospital, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. Adult pati...

  2. Distributed Lag Nonlinear Modelling Approach to Identify Relationship between Climatic Factors and Dengue Incidence in Colombo District, Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Thiyanga Talagala

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever and its more severe deadly complication dengue hemorrhagic fever is an infectious mosquito borne disease. The rise in dengue fever has made a heavy economic burden to the country. Climate variability is considered as the major determinant of dengue transmission. Sri Lanka has a favorable climatic condition for development and transmission of dengue.  Hence the aim of this study is to estimate the effect of diverse climatic variables on the transmission of dengue while taking the ...

  3. Helvolic acid, an antibacterial nortriterpenoid from a fungal endophyte, Xylaria sp. of orchid Anoectochilus setaceus endemic to Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnaweera, Pamoda B.; Williams, David E.; de Silva, E. Dilip; Wijesundera, Ravi L.C.; Dalisay, Doralyn S.; Andersen, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    An endophytic fungus was isolated from surface sterilized leaf segments of Anoectochilus setaceus, an orchid endemic to Sri Lanka, and was identified as Xylaria sp. by morphological characters and DNA sequencing. Bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionation of the organic extract of a laboratory culture of this fungus led to the isolation of the known antibacterial helvolic acid. Helvolic acid was active against the Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis [minimal inhibitory concentrations...

  4. Status of organic agriculture in Sri Lanka with special emphasis on tea production systems (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze)

    OpenAIRE

    Williges, Ute

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated a group of poor and isolated farmers from the mid country of Sri Lanka, Kandy District, Udapalatha Secretarial Division, which successfully developed plots of degraded former tea plantation land into productive and diverse home gardens by adapting organic agriculture practices. Here, former subsistence production was overcome by means of the concentration on the organic cultivation of tea as a cash crop facilitating market access. Direct marketing of an organic product...

  5. Mental Health and the Role of Cultural and Religious Support in the Assistance of Disabled Veterans in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Thulitha Wickrama; Piyanjali de Zoysa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of PTSD and CES-D depressive symptoms, their association with previously untested supportive resources such as Buddhist religious activities, Buddhist bodhipuja rituals and horoscope readings for 45 recently wounded veterans in Sri Lanka. The results revealed an 85.4% prevalence rate of clinical levels of CES-D depression and a 42.2% prevalence rate of clinical levels of PTSD. The results of this study provide unique evidence for the significant role of Bu...

  6. Costs of Dengue Control Activities and Hospitalizations in the Public Health Sector during an Epidemic Year in Urban Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Thalagala, Neil; Tissera, Hasitha; Palihawadana, Paba; Amarasinghe, Ananda; Ambagahawita, Anuradha; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Shepard, Donald S; Tozan, Yeşim

    2016-01-01

    Background Reported as a public health problem since the 1960s in Sri Lanka, dengue has become a high priority disease for public health authorities. The Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling dengue and other disease outbreaks and associated health care. The involvement of large numbers of public health staff in dengue control activities year-round and the provision of free medical care to dengue patients at secondary care hospitals place a formidable financial burden on the publi...

  7. Physico-chemical characteristics of Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles varuna breeding water in a dry zone stream in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piyaratne, M K; Amerasinghe, F P; Amerasinghe, P H; Konradsen, F

    2005-01-01

    in north-central Sri Lanka. METHODS: The physico-chemical parameters measured were: temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, alkalinity, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, carbondioxide, ferrous iron, phosphate, colour and turbidity. In total, 75...... calcium. Among habitat characteristics, An. culicifacies was associated with light and vegetation, and negatively associated with the presence of potential predators. An. varuna was positively associated with other aquatic fauna. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: Surprisingly this detailed study did not find...

  8. Impact of economic labour migration: a qualitative exploration of left-behind family member perspectives in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Wickramage, Kolitha; Jayaweera, Kaushalya; Adikari, Anushka; Weerawarna, Sulochana; Van Bortel, Tine; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sumathipala, Athula

    2015-06-01

    Sri Lanka is a major labour sending country in Asia, with a high proportion of female labour migrants employed as domestic housemaids in the Middle East with increasing remittances. Despite such financial gains for families and national economy, health and social effects on the left-behind families have had limited exploration. This qualitative study was carried out across five districts with high labour migration rates in Sri Lanka. Twenty in-depth interviews were conducted with participants recruited through purposive sampling. Data was analysed using content and thematic analysis and emerging themes were mapped. Pre-migration socio-economic situation, economic difficulties and higher earning possibilities abroad were considered to be the major push and pull factors for labour migration. Post-migration periods were shown to be of mixed benefit to left-behind families and children suffer the negative effects of parental absence. The absence of support mechanisms for dealing with adverse events such as serious injury, death, abuse or imprisonment were cited as major concerns. Post-migration periods affect the health, well-being and family structures of left-behind families. Promoting economic prosperity while ensuring health and social protection is a formidable policy challenge for 'labour sending' countries such as Sri Lanka. PMID:24242226

  9. A pilot health information management system for public health midwives serving in a remote area of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, E Shan S; Wimalaratne, Samantha R U; Marasinghe, Rohana B; Edirippulige, Sisira

    2012-04-01

    We developed an electronic Health Information Management System (HIMS) for Public Health Midwives (PHMs) in Sri Lanka. We conducted a needs analysis amongst 16 PHMs, which found that they spent most of their time managing health records. The HIMS was designed so that it could accept data from the PHMs, and generate reports which could be used by the PHMs themselves as well as by their supervisors. The HIMS was trialled by a group of 16 PHMs in a remote area of the Ratnapura district of Sri Lanka. Mini-laptops with the software were distributed to the PHMs and they were given the necessary training. They started entering historical data from the registers into the system by themselves. Nearly 10,000 public health records were generated in the first three months. In a subsequent survey, the PHMs all gave positive answers indicating that they were happy with the pilot system, they would like to continue using it to enhance their service and they wanted to see it expanded across the whole of Ratnapura district. The system seems to be a practical solution for the field activities of PHMs in Sri Lanka. PMID:22362835

  10. Home ranges and habitat use of sloth bears Melursus ursinus inornatus in Wasgomuwa National Park, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayeke, S.; Van Manen, F.T.; Padmalal, U.K.G.K.

    2007-01-01

    We studied home ranges and habitat selection of 10 adult sloth bears Melursus ursinus inornatus at Wasgomuwa National Park, Sri Lanka during 2002-2003. Very little is known about the ecology and behaviour of M. u. inornatus, which is a subspecies found in Sri Lanka. Our study was undertaken to assess space and habitat requirements typical of a viable population of M. u. inornatus to facilitate future conservation efforts. We captured and radio-collared 10 adult sloth bears and used the telemetry data to assess home-range size and habitat use. Mean 95% fixed kernel home ranges were 2.2 km2 (SE = 0.61) and 3.8 km2 (SE = 1.01) for adult females and males, respectively. Although areas outside the national park were accessible to bears, home ranges were almost exclusively situated within the national park boundaries. Within the home ranges, high forests were used more and abandoned agricultural fields (chenas) were used less than expected based on availability. Our estimates of home-range size are among the smallest reported for any species of bear. Thus, despite its relatively small size, Wasgomuwa National Park may support a sizeable population of sloth bears. The restriction of human activity within protected areas may be necessary for long-term viability of sloth bear populations in Sri Lanka as is maintenance of forest or scrub cover in areas with existing sloth bear populations and along potential travel corridors. ?? Wildlife Biology 2007.

  11. A theoretical model to predict customer satisfaction in relation to service quality in selected university libraries in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaminda Jayasundara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available University library administrators in Sri Lanka have begun to search for alternative ways to satisfy their clientele on the basis of service quality. This article aims at providing a theoretical model to facilitate the identification of service quality attributes and domains that may be used to predict customer satisfaction from a service quality perspective. The effectiveness of existing service quality models such as LibQUAL, SERVQUAL and SERVPREF have been questioned. In that regard, this study developed a theoretical model for academic libraries in Sri Lanka based on the disconfirmation and performance-only paradigms. These perspectives were considered by researchers to be the core mechanism to develop service quality/customer satisfaction models. The attributes and domain identification of service quality was carried out with a stratified sample of 263 participants selected from postgraduate and undergraduate students and academic staff members from the faculties of Arts in four universities in Sri Lanka. The study established that responsiveness, supportiveness, building environment, collection and access, furniture and facilities, technology, Web services and service delivery were quality domains which can be used to predict customer satisfaction. The theoretical model is unique in its domain structure compared to the existing models. The model needs to be statistically tested to make it valid and parsimonious.

  12. Development and Validation of a Measure of Quality of Life for the Young Elderly in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Sudirikku Hennadige Padmal; Jayasuriya, Anura Rohan; Rajapaksa, Lalini Chandika; de Silva, Ambepitiyawaduge Pubudu; Barraclough, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Sri Lanka has one of the fastest aging populations in the world. Measurement of quality of life (QoL) in the elderly needs instruments developed that encompass the sociocultural settings. An instrument was developed to measure QoL in the young elderly in Sri Lanka (QLI-YES), using accepted methods to generate and reduce items. The measure was validated using a community sample. Construct, criterion and predictive validity and reliability were tested. A first-order model of 24 items with 6 domains was found to have good fit indices (CMIN/df = 1.567, RMR = 0.05, CFI = 0.95, and RMSEA = 0.053). Both criterion and predictive validity were demonstrated. Good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's ? = 0.93) was shown. The development of the QLI-YES using a societal perspective relevant to the social and cultural beliefs has resulted in a robust and valid instrument to measure QoL for the young elderly in Sri Lanka. PMID:26712893

  13. Energy access and transition to cleaner cooking fuels and technologies in Sri Lanka: Issues and policy limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easy energy access is a trigger for human, social, and economic development. A research project was undertaken in Sri Lanka to broaden the understanding of human dimension of energy access and technologies. A questionnaire survey, covering 2269 households, gathered data on socio-economic contexts and issues influencing a transition towards clean cooking facilities. The findings reveal that the transition is impeded by four factors: the lack of motivation and the pressure for switching over to cleaner facilities, the lack of modern energy technology options, the financial risks, and the lack of financing and other support. The paper describes the delicate two-way interrelation between women earning wages and the transitions to cleaner cooking fuels and technologies. The findings suggest the need for a policy framework involving the stakeholders, financing and standardised technologies. To make a change it is proposed to introduce a national, integrated policy incorporating financing and energy governance. - Highlights: ? Households in Sri Lanka lack access to modern energy technology options for cooking. ? Cooking with fuel wood and residues is the norm in Sri Lanka, particularly in rural households. ? A survey of rural households revealed that most cannot afford to switch to cleaner cooking options. ? Most households have little awareness of the health impacts of biomass cooking. ? Women in regular formal employment are more likely to value cleaner cooking options that save time.

  14. Reducing the scarcity in mental health research from low and middle income countries: a success story from Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Sumathipala, Athula; Siribaddana, Sisira; Samaraweera, Sudath; Abeysinghe, Nihal; Prince, Martin; Hotopf, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    There is an enormous inequity in global health as well as research. Less than 10% of research funds are spent on the diseases that account for 90% of the global disease burden. This case study of north-south, south-south collaborations in Sri Lanka is a classic example of the issues faced by mental health researchers in low and middle income countries (LMICs). In this paper, work carried out by the Institute of Psychiatry (IoP), King's College London and the Institute for Research and Development (IRD) partnership since 1997 in Sri Lanka is presented to show an example of a successful private research institution based in a LMIC as a product of south-south and north-south collaboration in mental health research. The evidence of scarcity of mental health research and resources is overwhelmingly abundant in the context of Sri Lanka. IRD-IoP partnership showcases a successful north-south partnership with equality and efficiency. It has moved beyond start-up phase and has become a sustainable initiative in terms of funding, collaboration, research output and policy impact. International funding agencies, academics, and other bodies need to address sustaining such initiatives as priorities in reducing scarcity and inequity in mental health research in developing countries. PMID:21338302

  15. Malathion resistance and prevalence of the malathion carboxylesterase mechanism in populations of mosquito vectors of disease in Sri Lanka / Résistance au malathion et prévalence du mécanisme de la malathion carboxylestérase dans des populations de moustiques vecteurs de maladies à Sri Lanka / Resistencia al malatión y prevalencia del mecanismo de la malatión-carboxilesterasa en las poblaciones de mosquitos vectores de enfermedades en Sri Lanka

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.H.P.P., Karunaratne; J., Hemingway.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar los niveles de resistencia al malatión y la prevalencia del mecanismo de actividad carboxilesterasa sobre este producto entre los mosquitos en Sri Lanka. MÉTODOS: Empleando métodos recomendados por la OMS, se llevaron a cabo bioensayos en muestras de los siguientes mosquitos vec [...] tores de Sri Lanka: Culex quinquefasciatus, C. tritaeniorhynchus, C. gelidus; Anopheles culicifacies B, A. subpictus; Aedes aegypti y A. albopictus. RESULTADOS: Se detectaron mecanismos de actividad carboxilestarasa específicos para el malatión en A. culicifacies y A. subpictus, dato indicativo de una alta tasa de metabolización del insecticida. Por el contrario, la resistencia de C. quinquefasciatus y C. tritaeniorhynchus al malatión está mediada por una resistencia de amplio espectro a los compuestos organofosforados, debida a unos niveles elevados de esterasas que secuestran el malaoxón pero son incapaces de metabolizar el malatión. CONCLUSIÓN: La resistencia desarrollada por Anopheles spp. tiene que ser una consecuencia directa de las actividades de lucha antipalúdica, dado que en Sri Lanka el malatión sólo se emplea con fines de salud pública. La resistencia observada en Culex spp., en cambio, se debe al uso en gran escala de insecticidas organofosforados como larvicidas contra la filariasis, y con fines agrícolas en arrozales, espacios preferidos como criaderos por C. tritaeniorhynchus. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels of malathion resistance and prevalence of the malathion carboxylesterase mechanism among mosquitoes in Sri Lanka. METHODS: Bioassays were carried out using WHO-recommended methods on samples of the following Sri Lankan mosquito vectors: Culex quinquefasciatus, C. t [...] ritaeniorhynchus, C. gelidus; Anopheles culicifacies B, A. subpictus; Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. FINDINGS: Malathion-specific carboxylesterase mechanisms were found in A. culicifacies and A. subpictus, both giving high rates of insecticide metabolism. In contrast, malathion resistance in C. quinquefasciatus and C. tritaeniorhynchus is linked to broad-spectrum resistance to organophosphorus compounds due to elevated levels of esterases that sequester malaoxon, but are unable to metabolize malathion. CONCLUSIONS: Resistance among the Anopheles spp. must have occurred as a direct result of antimalarial activities, since malathion use in Sri Lanka is limited to public health treatments. In contrast, resistance among Culex spp. has resulted from large-scale use of the organophosphorus insecticide group as larvicides for filariasis control and on rice paddy, where C. tritaeniorhynchus predominantly breeds, for agricultural purposes.

  16. Sri Lanka: an innovative approach to the implementation of integrated parasite control, nutrition and family planning projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra, T

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the Sri Lanka Integrated Project of Parasite Control, Nutrition, and Family Planning is to approach the community through the medium of parasite control and lead it to a better life through community participation in an integrated health program built on the 3 pillars of parasite control, better nutrition, and family planning. Other objectives include studying the mechanism of community participation in 3 very different environments, which were typical of different regions of the country and therefore replicable models. The progress of the project areas was to be monitored so that they would provide viable models for future expansion. The 3 project areas selected are broadly typical of Sri Lanka, while, at the same time, being distinctly different from each other. The Nakulugamuwa Project may be described as a typical Sinhala rural area over 120 miles southeast of the capital city of Colombo. The project area consists of the 2 adjoining villages of Nakulagamuwa and Kudawella. The Panadura Project is a semi urban area of about 20 miles from Colombo and also exhibits typical characteristics. Its population of 10,358 is not homogeneous and consists of various conclaves as well as "mixed areas." The Galnewa Project is located over 100 miles northeast of Colombo in the Mahaweli Project area. It is a new settlement of over 10,000 persons. JOICFP's link organization in Sri Lanka has been the government's Ministry of Family Health. This contributed greatly to the success of the pilot project thanks to the high level and good coordination at the National Steering Committee (NSC). The key organization is the Project Committee. Volunteers constitute the backbone of the Project Committee and link the Committee with the community. Development of human resources in the integrated project areas has been a great success. The field level officials of the Health Department (nurses, sanitarians, midwives, and health educators) have been in the forefront of activities in training the JOICFP volunteers. Human resource development has always been given the highest priority in Sri Lanka. This approach has been implemented fully. There has been a significant reduction in parasite borne infection in all 3 project areas. The achievement in the fields of nutrition and child health are not so readily quantifiable, but future nutritional surveys are expected to objectively indicate the improvement which is now subjectively observed. Sri Lanka's success in integrated project administration has been due to the following: high level interagency representation and close coordination at NSC level; field level coordination of government officials and activities at the project level; project leadership by Project Manager/Medical Officer; and considerable autonomy at project level. PMID:12313055

  17. Establishment of Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer (MOET) technology for goats in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to determine a suitable follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) preparation for superovulation in goats, establish techniques for embryo production and transfer in goats, and to examine the feasibility of applying such techniques in Sri Lanka. Two groups of genetically superior does were inserted with progesterone releasing intravaginal pessaries (45 mg Cronolone) on d 1 of the programme. On d 8, the does in Group 1 (n = 3) and Group 2 (n = 4) were given 2.5 mL injections of pure porcine FSH (pFSH, 20 mg/mL) or pure ovine FSH (oFSH, 0.88 mg/mL), respectively. On the same day, all animals were injected with 300 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG, 500 ?g/mL). Subsequent injections of 1.25 mL pFSH or oFSH were given in the morning and evening on d 9 and 10. Does were injected with 197 ?g prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?, 263 ?g/mL) in the morning of d 9 and vaginal pessaries were removed on the even- ing of d 10. On d 11, 1.25 mL of pFSH or oFSH and 1 mL of luteinising hormone releasing hormone (LHRH, 50 ?g/mL) injections were given in the morning and evening, respectively. On the same day, does in oestrus were bred to two Jamnapari bucks. Seven d post- oestrus, embryos were collected surgically, using embryo flushing medium. The quality of the embryos was assessed and the recovered embryos were transplanted surgically to oestrus synchronised goat recipients (n = 4/group) at 7 d post-oestrus. Following embryo transplantation, four does (Group 1, n = 1, Group 2, n = 3) were found to be pregnant by ultrasound scanning at 35 d into pregnancy. One healthy female offspring (Peradeniya Kumari) was born to Group 1. Another four goat kids were born to Group 2, while one kid died. In the same group, one abortion was reported. The results suggest that oFSH is better than pFSH for the superovulation of goats and that embryo transfer technology can be used in goats in Sri Lanka. (author)

  18. Use of a clinical tool for screening and diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardana, H V Y D; Senarath, U; Chandrawansa, P H; Karunaweera, N D

    2015-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) was first detected in Sri Lanka in 1992.Local disease is caused by a genetically different variant of Leishmania donovani. Early case detection and management is the mainstay of L. donovani control. High degree of clinical suspicion is critical but a clinical diagnostic tool is not available for leishmaniasis. Current study described, for the first time, a two-staged clinical algorhythm that facilitates screening of CL in Sri Lanka by primary health care worker in stage 1 and management by medical professional in stage 2.Selected clinical markers of 400 patients suspected of CL were analysed retrospectively with laboratory confirmation of leishmaniasis. Ten clinical markers predicted CL with a over 90% accuracy. Subsets of markers showed high levels of sensitivities (60-97.2%) and/or significant association with positive laboratory results as compared to negative lesions [typical onset (acne-form, painless non-itchy), (P?=?0.026), size up to 2?cm (P?=?0.046), well-defined edges (P?=?0.002), regular edges (P?=?0.018), rounded shape (P?=?0.030), and lesions at 5-8?months (P?=?0.052)]. Five of them (typical onset, number up to 2, small size, rounded edges, and rounded shape) also had > 70% sensitivity levels as compared to laboratory findings. Typical onset had the highest sensitivity of 97% and a PPV of 72%. Lesions at 5-8?months duration having defined edges (P?=? 0.013, specificity 89.7%, PPV 83.1) or having regular edges (P?=?0.006, specificity 86.2%, PPV 82.4%) were also predictive of CL. Most of early laboratory-confirmed (? 67%, PPV > 70%) and had defined edges (sensitivity of 52-71%, specificity 46.7-68.8%), (PPV 75.1-86%). Four clinical markers served as good diagnostic markers in both early (???4) and late (>12?months) lesions, viz. typical onset (91.3-98.4%), presence of ??2 lesions (sensitivity 82.6-94.7%), size ??2?cm (66.9-73.7%), and regular edges (68.6-76.3%). Reliability of clinical markers generally declined in chronic lesions. However, small lesions of over 12?months were highly indicative of CL (sensitivity of 66%, specificity 66.7%). None of the single/combination markers, however, were 100% sensitive or specific, highlighting the undeniable usefulness of laboratory confirmation, in diagnosis. Decision-making algorithm used 10 basic clinical features for screening and seven specific clinical markers for clinical handling and referral for investigations. PMID:26184581

  19. Laboratory studies of dune sand for the use of construction industry in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva Jayawardena, Upali; Wijesuriya, Roshan; Abayaweera, Gayan; Viduranga, Tharaka

    2015-04-01

    With the increase of the annual sand demand for the construction industry the excessive excavation of river sand is becoming a serious environmental problem in Sri Lanka. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the possibility for an alternative to stop or at least to minimize river sand mining activities. Dune sand is one of the available alternative materials to be considered instead of river sand in the country. Large quantities of sand dunes occur mainly along the NW and SE coastal belt which belong to very low rainfall Dry Zone coasts. The height of dune deposits, vary from 1m to about 30 meters above sea level. The objective of this paper is to indicate some studies and facts on the dune sand deposits of Sri Lanka. Laboratory studies were carried out for visual observations and physical properties at the initial stage and then a number of tests were carried out according to ASTM standards to obtain the compressive strength of concrete cylinders and mortar cubes mixing dune sand and river sand in different percentages keeping a constant water cement ratio. Next the water cement ratio was changed for constant dune sand and river sand proportion. Microscopic analysis shows that the dune sand consist of 95 % of quartz and 5 % of garnet, feldspar, illmenite and other heavy minerals with clay, fine dust, fine shell fragments and organic matters. Grains are sub-rounded to angular and tabular shapes. The grain sizes vary from fine to medium size of sand with silt. The degree of sorting and particle size observed with dune sands are more suited with the requirement of fine aggregates in the construction industry. The test result indicates that dune sand could be effectively used in construction work without sieving and it is ideal for wall plastering due to its'-uniformity. It could also be effectively used in concrete and in mortars mixing with river sand. The best mixing ratio is 75% dune sand and 25% river sand as the fine aggregate of concrete. For mortar the mixing percentage is 50%. The best water cement ratio for mix proportion is 0.45. It was observed that the available amount of dune sand can be extracted to meet the demand for sand in construction industry. However, the extraction of dune sand from the areas close to the sea will cause several social, environmental and legal problems. Therefore sand mining from dunes must be commenced after making a detailed Environmental Impact Assessment.

  20. Policy Debate | Humanitarian Protection in the Midst of Civil War: Lessons from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norah Niland

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Editor’s note: This paper is a contribution to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy-makers and practioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, the initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from scholars and/or policy-makers.Authored by Norah Niland, the initial paper addresses the protection dimension of humanitarian action in the Sri Lankan Civil War. The end phase of this long-standing war and subsequent internment of survivors illustrate the limited capacity of the international relief system to adequately protect civilians. The author argues that the failure of intergovernmental crisis management and the human rights machinery was exacerbated by the relief system’s lack of agency in safeguarding humanitarian space and the protected status of civilians. According to Norah Niland, relief actors largely ignored the instrumentalisation of humanitarianism and the use of sovereignty and Global War on Terror (GWOT narratives to rationalise the slaughter of thousands. The lack of accountability for and reflection on the humanitarian  operation  in Sri Lanka will likely complicate future relief efforts and add to the suffering of  civilians in other crisis settings. The paper  is followed by critical comments by Sir John Holmes, Former UN Under-Secretary General and Emergency Relief Coordinator, Head of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, and Miriam Bradley, Postdoctoral Researcher, Programme for the Study of International Governance, the Graduate Institute, Geneva.This debate can be pursued on the eJournal’s blog http://devpol.hypotheses.org/69Download the full debate in .pdf

  1. Exposure to conflict and disaster: A national survey on the prevalence of psychotic experiences in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keraite, Arune; Sumathipala, Athula; Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Morgan, Craig; Reininghaus, Ulrich

    2016-03-01

    Recent research conducted in high-income countries suggests psychotic experiences are common in the general population, but evidence from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) remains limited. Sri Lanka is a LMIC affected by three decades of civil conflict and, in 2004, a devastating tsunami. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of psychotic experiences in a general population sample in Sri Lanka and associations with conflict- and tsunami-related trauma. This is a first National Mental Health Survey conducted in Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional, multi-stage, cluster sampling design was used to estimate the prevalence of psychotic symptoms. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, conflict- and tsunami-related trauma, and psychotic experiences were collected using culturally validated measures in a sample of 5927 participants. The weighted prevalence of psychotic symptoms was 9.7%. Exposure to one or more conflict-related events (adj. OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.40-2.31, preporting psychotic experiences. Psychotic experiences were more common in individuals directly exposed to tsunami disaster (adj. OR, 1.68, 95% CI 1.04-2.73, P=0.035) and in those who had a family member who died or was injured as result of tsunami (adj. OR, 1.42, 95% CI 1.04-1.94, p=0.029). Our findings suggest that psychotic experiences are common in the Sri Lankan population. Exposure to traumatic events in armed conflicts and natural disasters may be important socio-environmental factors in the development of psychotic experiences. PMID:26817400

  2. An investigation into the role of alcohol in self-harm in rural Sri Lanka: a protocol for a multimethod, qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Jane Brandt; Rheinländer, Thilde

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Sri Lanka has one of the highest suicide and self-harm rates in the world and although alcohol has been found to be a risk factor for self-harm in Sri Lanka, we know little about the connection between the two. This paper comprises a protocol for a qualitative study investigating alcohol’s role in selfharm in rural Sri Lanka at three levels: the individual, community and policy level. The analysis will bring new understanding of the link between alcohol and self-harm in Sri Lanka, drawing on structural, cultural and social concepts. It will equip researchers, health systems and policy makers with vital information for developing strategies to address alcohol-related problems as they relate to self-harm. Methods and analysis: To capture the complexity of the link between alcohol and self-harm in the Anuradhapura district in the North Central Province in Sri Lanka, qualitative methods will be utilised. Specifically, the data will consist of serial narrative life-story interviews with up to 20 individuals who have non-fatally selfharmed and where alcohol directly or indirectly was involved in the incidence as well as with their significant others; observations in communities and families; six focus group discussions with community members; and key-informant interviews with 15–25 stakeholders who have a stake in alcohol distribution, marketing, policies, prevention and treatment as they relate to self-harm. Ethics and dissemination: The study has received ethical approval from the Ethical Review Committee of the Faculty of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka. A sensitive data collection technique will be used and ethical issues will be considered throughout the study. Results: The results will be disseminated in scientific peer-reviewed articles in collaboration with Sri Lankan and other international research partners.

  3. Analysis of Polymorphisms in the Merozoite Surface Protein-3a Gene and Two Microsatellite Loci in Sri Lankan Plasmodium vivax: Evidence of Population Substructure in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Mette L; Rajakaruna, Rupika S; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H; Konradsen, Flemming; Ord, Rosalynn; Pearce, Richard; Bygbjerg, Ib C; Roper, Cally; Alifrangis, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. The geographical distribution of genetic variation in Plasmodium vivax samples (N = 386) from nine districts across Sri Lanka is described using three markers; the P. vivax merozoite surface protein-3a (Pvmsp-3a) gene, and the two microsatellites m1501 and m3502. At Pvmsp-3a, 11 alleles were found with an expected heterozygosity (H(e)) of 0.81, whereas at m1501 and m3502, 24 alleles (H(e) = 0.85) and 8 alleles (H(e) = 0.74) were detected, respectively. Overall, 95 unique three locus ge...

  4. Towards e-learning for all in Sri Lanka - progress and problems in some selected Sri Lankan 21st century initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Mozelius, Peter; Hewagamage, K. P.; Hansson, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    In the 21st century Sri Lanka and many other regions in Asia have shown a rapid but heterogeneous development in the field of Information and Communications Technology (ICT).The difference in impact on urban regions and rural areas has sometimes been described as the internal digital divide. At the same time as the gap has diminished between cities in developing countries and the developed world the internal development gap has increased in many Asian countries. How can this gap be bridged? I...

  5. Socio-geographic perception in the diffusion of innovation: Solar energy technology in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understandings of the diffusion process have tended to emphasize either the adoption perspective, which focuses on individual characteristics, or the market perspective, which focuses on institutional context. In this paper we bring these two perspectives together by recognizing that people are embedded in socio-geographic contexts that affect their perceptions of their situations, which in turn shape the innovativeness of individuals and places. Focusing on the diffusion of Solar Home Systems (SHS) in Sri Lanka, we explore the role of context at the village (by comparing adoption rates among villages) and individual (by comparing time-to-adoption among household decision makers in a case-study village) scales. At the village scale, we find that expectations of government policy based on interactions related to ethnicity and politicians' previous power-grid connection promises are significant drivers of SHS adoption, along with perceived tolerance levels in the village for non-conformist behavior. Among household decision makers within the case-study village, we analyze relative adoption time and the duration of the innovation-decision process and find that perceiving strong village-level social control inhibits SHS adoption decision making. The results add to innovation diffusion theory and provide policy recommendations for agencies promoting solar energy in developing countries

  6. Effect of food quality and availability on rainforest rodents of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.B. Ratnaweera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropical rodent communities are highly diverse species assemblages, yet remain poorly studied. This investigation was conducted with the objective of examining the responses of rainforest rodents to food quality and availability. These factors were assessed through laboratory and field trials conducted in the Sinharaja and Kanneliya rainforests in Sri Lanka. The effect of food quality on the foraging behavior of rodents was examined through feeding experiments using natural rainforest fruits/seeds. In addition, the effect of food augmentation on the rodent population was also investigated. Diet choice experiments showed that rodents exhibited clear food preferences, with certain fruit types being preferentially consumed and others rejected. Tolerance tests where animals were provided with a single fruit type showed that some items that were avoided when offered with a range of food items were consumed when no alternatives were available. In the field a positive relationship was found between fruit/seed and rodent densities; seed addition resulted in marked increases in rodent numbers. These results suggest that tropical rodent populations are food limited, at least during seasons when fruits/seeds are in short supply. Food selectivity also means that populations of rainforest rodents might be adversely affected by changes in tree species composition resulting from habitat disturbance and fragmentation

  7. Predicting effects of rainforest fragmentation from live trapping studies of small mammals in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Wijesinghe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of forest fragmentation on small mammals inhabiting the rainforests of Sri Lanka. Fifteen forests ranging in size from 145 to 11000 ha were live-trapped for five to eight nights each in both interior and edge habitats, yielding a total of 18400 trap nights. A total of 444 individuals belonging to 10 species of small mammals were captured. Multiple-regression analysis incorporating three indicators of fragmentation: patch area, shape index (perimeter/area and degree of isolation, showed no significant effects on overall species richness of small mammals. This is likely because the decline of forest-adapted species from small forest fragments was accompanied by an increase in more tolerant and adaptive species. Patch size, however, had a significant positive effect on the abundance of small mammals. Of the two dominant species, the endemic Mus mayori was positively affected by patch area whilst Rattus rattus was not affected. Although no differences were evident between interior and edge habitats with respect to total species richness and abundance, endemics were more abundant in core areas while the reverse was true for the non-endemics. Core forest areas were significantly different from forest edges with respect to canopy cover, density of herbaceous vegetation, large trees and litter cover. These results suggest that forest fragmentation is detrimental to some forest specialists and beneficial to some generalists.

  8. Characterization of the Temporal and Spatial Dynamics of the Dengue Epidemic in Northern Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anno, S.; Imaoka, K.; Tadono, T.; Igarashi, T.; Sivaganesh, S.; Kannathasan, S.; Kumaran, V.; Surendran, S.

    2014-11-01

    Dengue outbreaks are affected by biological, ecological, socio-economic and demographic factors that vary over time and space. These factors have been examined separately, with limited success, and still require clarification. The present study aimed to investigate the spatial and temporal relationships between these factors and dengue outbreaks in the northern region of Sri Lanka. Remote sensing (RS) data gathered from a plurality of satellites: TRMM TMI, Aqua AMSR-E, GCOM-W AMSR2, DMSP SSM/I, DMSP SSMIS, NOAA-19 AMSU, MetOp-A AMSU and GEO IR were used to develop an index comprising rainfall. Humidity (total precipitable water, or vertically integrated water vapor amount) and temperature (surface temperature) data were acquired from the JAXA Satellite Monitoring for Environmental Studies (JASMES) portal which were retrieved and processed from the Aqua/MODIS and Terra/MODIS data. RS data gathered by ALOS/AVNIR-2 were used to detect urbanization, and a digital land cover map was used to extract land cover information. Other data on relevant factors and dengue outbreaks were collected through institutions and extant databases. The analyzed RS data and databases were integrated into geographic information systems, enabling both spatial association analysis and spatial statistical analysis. Our findings show that the combination of ecological factors derived from RS data and socio-economic and demographic factors is suitable for predicting spatial and temporal patterns of dengue outbreaks.

  9. Reproductive health concerns in six conflict-affected areas of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottegoda, Sepali; Samuel, Kumudini; Emmanuel, Sarala

    2008-05-01

    This article draws on a study conducted by the Women and Media Collective between 2004 and 2005 to highlight some of the reproductive health concerns of women from Sinhalese, Tamil and Muslim ethnic groups, living in situations of conflict in Sri Lanka. The study focussed on women from six conflict-affected areas in the north and east of the country: Jaffna (Northern Province), Mannar and Puttalam (North-Western Province), Polonnaruwa (North-Central Province), Batticaloa and Ampara (Eastern Province). Higher levels of poverty, higher rates of school drop-out, low pay and precarious access to work, mainly in the informal sector, higher rates of early marriage, pregnancy and home births, higher levels of maternal mortality and lower levels of contraceptive use were found. Economic, social and physical insecurity were key to these phenomena. Physically and psychologically, women were at high risk of sexual and physical violence, mainly from their partners/spouses but also from family members, often related to dowry. The article brings out the voices of women whose lives have been overshadowed by conflict and displacement, and the nature of structural barriers that impede their right to health care services, to make informed decisions about their lives and to live free of familial violence. PMID:18513609

  10. Self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka: small-area variations in incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawson Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-poisoning is one of the most common methods of suicide worldwide. The intentional ingestion of pesticides is the main contributor to such deaths and in many parts of rural Asia pesticide self-poisoning is a major public health problem. To inform the development of preventive measures in these settings, this study investigates small-area variation in self-poisoning incidence and its association with area-based socioeconomic and agricultural factors. Methods Ecological analysis of intentional self-poisoning in a rural area (population 267,613 of Sri Lanka in 2002. The geographic distribution of cases was mapped to place of residence. Using administrative division (GN, median population size 1416, as unit of analysis, associations with socioeconomic and agricultural indicators were explored using negative binomial regression models. Results The overall incidence of intentional self-poisoning in the study area was 315 per 100,000 (range: 0 – 2168 per 100,000 across GNs. Socioeconomic disadvantage, as indexed by poor housing quality (p = 0.003 and low levels of education (p Conclusion Considerable small-area variation in incidence rates of intentional self-poisoning was found. The noteworthy concentration of cases in certain areas and the inverse association with socioeconomic deprivation merit attention and should be investigated using individual-level exposure data.

  11. The Political Economy of Desire in Ritual and Activism in SriLanka (abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Van Daele

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Amidst the complexity of the development-religion nexus, this chapter examines desire and its varying expressions as fundamental concerns of many religions motivating both development and alternatives to development. In Sri Lanka, as people deal with social change, the neoliberal and globalised development is understood and re-interpreted through local idioms and formations of desire. The neoliberal economy cultivates desire and, as such, leads to a perceived increase in the presence of pretas (greedy, hungry ghosts that occasionally emerge when people die. The hungry ghosts, as fetishised formations of desire, resonate with consumers and entrepreneurs, who exhibit an insatiable hunger for ever more material wealth. Hence, the ritual appeasement of hungry ghosts and the social activism of groups such as the Movement for National Land and Agricultural Reform are clearly linked by their mutual concern with the existential insecurity of fellow human and non-human beings caused by excessive and unbalanced desire. However, the explicit articulation of specific concerns regarding desire diverges between ritual action and social activism. Ritual materialises and condenses the anxiety related to desire, whereas social activism describes the fetishisation of desire in more abstract economic, political and scientific terms.

  12. The effects of the 2004 tsunami on a coastal aquifer in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vithanage, Meththika Suharshini; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard

    2012-01-01

    On December 26, 2004, the earthquake off the southern coast of Sumatra in the Indian Ocean generated far-reaching tsunami waves, resulting in severe disruption of the coastal aquifers in many countries of the region. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of the tsunami on groundwater in coastal areas. Field investigations on the east coast of Sri Lanka were carried out along a transect located perpendicular to the coastline on a 2.4 km wide sand stretch bounded by the sea and a lagoon. Measurements of groundwater table elevation and electrical conductivity (EC) of the groundwater were carried out monthly from October 2005 to August 2007. The aquifer system and tsunami saltwater intrusion were modeled using the variable-density flow and solute transport code HST3D to understand the tsunami plume behavior and estimate the aquifer recovery time. EC values reduced as a result of the monsoonal rainfall following the tsunami with a decline in reduction rate during the dry season. The upper part of the saturated zone (down to 2.5 m) returned to freshwater conditions (EC < 1000 µS/cm) 1 to 1.5 years after the tsunami, according to field observations. On the basis of model simulations, it may take more than 15 years for the entire aquifer (down to 28 m) to recover completely, although the top 6 m of the aquifer may become fresh in about 5 years

  13. The effects of the 2004 tsunami on a coastal aquifer in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithanage, Meththika; Engesgaard, Peter; Villholth, Karen G; Jensen, Karsten H

    2012-01-01

    On December 26, 2004, the earthquake off the southern coast of Sumatra in the Indian Ocean generated far-reaching tsunami waves, resulting in severe disruption of the coastal aquifers in many countries of the region. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of the tsunami on groundwater in coastal areas. Field investigations on the east coast of Sri Lanka were carried out along a transect located perpendicular to the coastline on a 2.4 km wide sand stretch bounded by the sea and a lagoon. Measurements of groundwater table elevation and electrical conductivity (EC) of the groundwater were carried out monthly from October 2005 to August 2007. The aquifer system and tsunami saltwater intrusion were modeled using the variable-density flow and solute transport code HST3D to understand the tsunami plume behavior and estimate the aquifer recovery time. EC values reduced as a result of the monsoonal rainfall following the tsunami with a decline in reduction rate during the dry season. The upper part of the saturated zone (down to 2.5 m) returned to freshwater conditions (EC tsunami, according to field observations. On the basis of model simulations, it may take more than 15 years for the entire aquifer (down to 28 m) to recover completely, although the top 6 m of the aquifer may become fresh in about 5 years. PMID:22171954

  14. Measuring the economic cost of malaria to households in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, F; Hoek, Wim van der; Amerasinghe, P H; Amerasinghe, F P

    1997-01-01

    limited, malaria cases were concentrated in an important agricultural season. During this season, 5.6% of working days were lost due to malaria. In addition, children, who were not part of the economically active population, lost 10% of school days due to malaria during the high transmission season. In......The economic cost at the household level of labor days lost due to malaria and other illnesses was estimated in a rural community in Sri Lanka. Over a one-year period, 223 episodes of malaria were recorded from the 298 inhabitants of the village. Based on daily activity records, the economically...... active age group was defined as 14-60 years. In this age group, 1.8% of working days were lost due to malaria and 5.2% due to all other illnesses. The value of a labor day lost was based on the actual rural wage rate for children, women, and men, with weeks during periods of high labor demand weighting...

  15. Frontiers of the food–energy–water trilemma: Sri Lanka as a microcosm of tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Debra; Hornberger, George

    2016-01-01

    Food, energy, and water are three critical resources for humanity. As climate variability, population growth, and lifestyle changes amplify the stress placed on each of the resources, the interrelationships among food, energy, and water systems become more pronounced. Political conflict, social and cultural norms, and spatial and temporal distribution of the resources add additional layers of complexity. It is in this context that the significance of understanding the impacts of water scarcity on the decisions around food and energy productions has emerged. Our work establishes tradeoff frontiers (TFs) as a method useful in illustrating the system-level tradeoffs between allocating water for food and water for energy. This paper illustrates how TFs can be used to (1) show how scarcity in water resources affects the tradeoffs between food and energy and (2) explore the political and social constraints that can move production away from what is feasible technically. We use Sri Lanka, a country where water resources are variable both in space and time and a country with relatively self-contained energy and agricultural sectors, as a microcosm of the food security, energy security, and water security trilemma. Nevertheless, our application of tradeoff frontiers is applicable widely to other systems.

  16. The age for the fossil-bearing Tabbowa beds in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S. C.; Dassanayake, S.; Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Well-preserved terrestrial fossils, mainly including conifers, cycads and ferns, were discovered from the Tabbowa beds in northwestern Sri Lanka. The high diversity and abundance of plants and insects from these Jurassic sediments provide a unique window to understand floral evolution and plant-insect co-evolution in the Mesozoic. For example, unearthed fossils from the Tabbowa beds indicate that leaf feeding and dwelling insects played a significant role in the Jurassic ecosystem. For another example, feeding and chewing marks on leaves allow studying insect behavior and paleo-ecology. Additionally, the recent discoveries of Otozamites latiphyllus and Otozamites tabbowensis from these sediments provide evidence that Bennettitales, an extinct order of seed plants, widely spread in the Gondwana during the Jurassic period. Although most fossils are yet to be well studied, and only few of the fossil occurrences have been published in western journals, plant fossils from the Tabbowa beds have great potential for substantially increasing our knowledge of Jurassic terrestrial ecosystems. The fossil-bearing Tabbowa beds are mainly composed of sandstone, siltstone, and mudstone with occasional thin bands of nodular limestone. Until now, radio-isotopic age determinations for the fossil-rich Tabbowa beds are lacking. In this study, we investigate the geological and geochronological setting of this area by dating detrital zircons from the Tabbowa beds. The age data will allow testing several hypotheses regarding the plant evolution, the basin development of this region.

  17. Predictors of violence against children in Tamil families in northern Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriskandarajah, Vathsalan; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    Children living in post-conflict settings are not only at high risk of developing war-related psychopathology but also of experiencing maltreatment within their families. However, little is known about the mechanisms of the relationship between war and family violence. In order to investigate the variables associated with the experience and perpetration of child maltreatment, we conducted a two-generational study with Tamil families in the North of Sri Lanka, a region affected by war and Tsunami. We interviewed children and the corresponding family dyads and triads with 359 children, 122 mothers, and 88 fathers on the basis of standardized questionnaires to assess their exposure to adverse life experiences and mental health symptoms. Using multivariate regression analyses, we found that the strongest predictors for children's report of victimization were children's exposure to mass trauma and child psychopathology. Mothers' experiences of mass trauma, family violence and partner violence were each significantly related to mother-reported maternal perpetration as well as child-reported victimization. Likewise, all types of traumatic events reported by fathers were significantly related to child-reported victimization and father-reported perpetration. Fathers' alcohol use was the strongest predictor of father-reported paternal perpetration. These findings provide further support for the transmission of mass trauma into family violence, and emphasize the role of child psychopathology as well as alcohol consumption in this relationship. PMID:26521032

  18. Geologic impacts of the 2004 Indian ocean tsunami on Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, B.M.; Jaffe, B.E.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Morton, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    The December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was generated by a large submarine earthquake (magnitude ???9.1) with an epicenter located under the seafloor in the eastern Indian Ocean near northern Sumatra, Indonesia. The resulting tsunami was measured globally and had significant geologic impacts throughout the Indian Ocean basin. Observations of tsunami impacts, such as morphologic change, sedimentary deposits, and water-level measurements, are used to reconstruct tsunamogenic processes. Data from Sumatra, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives provide a synoptic view of tsunami characteristics from a wide range of coastal environments both near- and far-field from the tsunami origin. Impacts to the coast as a result of the tsunami varied depending upon the height of the wave at impact, orientation of the coast with regard to direction of wave approach, and local topography, bathymetry, geology, and vegetation cover. Tsunami deposits were observed in all the countries visited and can be generally characterized as relatively thin sheets (<80 cm), mostly of sand. ?? 2006 Gebru??der Borntraeger.

  19. The Clinical Interview Schedule--Sinhala version: validation in a community setting in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Shiranee Champika; Rajapakse, Lalini; Abeysinghe, Ranil; Prince, Martin

    2002-01-01

    The Clinical Interview Schedule Revised (CIS-R) was validated in a clinic setting for adolescents 15-19 years of age in Sri Lanka. The interview schedule was translated into Sinhala and modified to include sections introducing each symptom group. One-hundred-and-thirty-one adolescents attending a psychiatric clinic for the first time were interviewed by a lay interviewer using CIS-R (Translated). They had previously been examined and rated by a psychiatrist using local (emic) diagnostic procedures. All the filtering questions showed a high level of sensitivity (80%-96%). None of the questions in the sleep problems and phobias sections were effective at discriminating between those who did and did not show significant symptoms in these areas according to the psychiatrist. The internal consistency of the sections of the interview schedule (when these two sections were excluded) varied between 0.60 and 0.82. Linear regression showed that, when both sections were excluded, 97% of the variation of total score could be explained. Therefore, it was decided to exclude the sleep problems and phobias sections from the modified interview schedule. As the population samples are likely to be different from clinic samples it is necessary to test the validity again in a community sample before confirming the validity of the modified interview schedule. PMID:12459820

  20. Sexual dimorphism in digital dermatoglyphic traits among Sinhalese people in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate gender-wise diversity of digital dermatoglyphic traits in a sample of Sinhalese people in Sri Lanka. Findings Four thousand and thirty-four digital prints of 434 Sinhalese individuals (217 males and 217 females) were examined for their digital dermatoglyphic pattern distribution. The mean age for the entire group was 23.66 years (standard deviation?=?4.93 years). The loop pattern is observed more frequently (n?=?2,592, 59.72%) compared to whorl (n?=?1,542, 35.53%) and arch (n?=?206, 4.75%) in the Sinhalese population. Females (n?=?1,274, 58.71%) have a more ulnar loop pattern than males (n?=?1,231, 56.73%). The plain whorl pattern is observed more frequently in males (n?=?560, 25.81%) compared to females (n?=?514, 23.69%).The double loop pattern is observed more frequently on the right and left thumb (digit 1) of both males and females. Pattern intensity index, Dankmeijer index and Furuhata index are higher in males. Conclusions Ulnar loop is the most frequently occurring digital dermatoglyphic pattern among the Sinhalese. All pattern indices are higher in males. To some extent, dermatoglyphic patterns of Sinhalese are similar to North Indians and other Caucasoid populations. Further studies with larger sample sizes are recommended to confirm our findings. PMID:24377367