The Palk Strait separates India (upper left) from Sri Lanka (center). This true-color image from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on May 20, 2002, shows the strait filled with bright sediment, while off the northeast tip of Sri Lanka, a dark stain in the waters could be a phytoplankton bloom. On Sri Lanka, much of the native forests have been cleared, but small pockets remain in preserves, such as that seen in the southeastern portion of the island, where dense green vegetation can be seen.
Nawaratna, Sujeevi S. K.; Weilgama, Danister J.; Wijekoon, Chandana J.; Dissanayake, Manel; Rajapaksha, Kosala
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an emerging disease in Sri Lanka. Of 116 patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of CL, 86 were confirmed positive for Leishmania donovani. Most patients had single dry lesions, usually on the face. Patients were from 5 of the 7 agroclimatic zones in Sri Lanka.
Surendran Sinnathamby N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles culicifacies is the major vector of both falciparum and vivax malaria in Sri Lanka, while Anopheles subpictus and certain other species function as secondary vectors. In Sri Lanka, An. culicifacies is present as a species complex consisting of species B and E, while An. subpictus exists as a complex of species A-D. The freshwater breeding habit of An. culicifacies is well established. In order to further characterize the breeding sites of the major malaria vectors in Sri Lanka, a limited larval survey was carried out at a site in the Eastern province that was affected by the 2004 Asian tsunami. Methods Anopheline larvae were collected fortnightly for six months from a brackish water body near Batticaloa town using dippers. Collected larvae were reared in the laboratory and the emerged adults were identified using standard keys. Sibling species status was established based on Y-chromosome morphology for An. culicifacies larvae and morphometric characteristics for An. subpictus larvae and adults. Salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH were determined at the larval collection site. Results During a six month study covering dry and wet seasons, a total of 935 anopheline larvae were collected from this site that had salinity levels up to 4 parts per thousand at different times. Among the emerged adult mosquitoes, 661 were identified as An. culicifacies s.l. and 58 as An. subpictus s.l. Metaphase karyotyping of male larvae showed the presence of species E of the Culicifacies complex, and adult morphometric analysis the presence of species B of the Subpictus complex. Both species were able to breed in water with salinity levels up to 4 ppt. Conclusions The study demonstrates the ability of An. culicifacies species E, the major vector of falciparum and vivax malaria in Sri Lanka, to oviposit and breed in brackish water. The sibling species B in the An. subpictus complex, a well-known salt water breeder and a secondary malaria vector in the country, was also detected at the same site. Since global warming and the rise in sea levels will further increase of inland brackish water bodies, the findings have significant implications for the control of malaria in Sri Lanka and elsewhere.
Human degenerative diseases and congenital defects are common throughout the world. Many people suffer also from burns, fractures and nerve damage resulting from traumatic accidents and outbreaks of violence which occur all too frequently, especially in poorer countries. Far too many people are impaired for life because they have no access to treatment or simply cannot afford it. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Division of Nuclear Medicine, to improve facilities at the Sri Lanka Tissue Bank. (IAEA)
Mattsson, Eskil; Persson, U Martin; Ostwald, Madelene; Nissanka, S P
Any system to compensate countries for reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) requires a historical reference level against which future performance can be measured. Here we examine the possibilities Sri Lanka, a small forest country with limited data on forest carbon stocks, has to get ready for REDD+. We construct a historical reference level using available forest inventory data combined with updated 2008 and 2009 in situ carbon density data for Sri Lankan forests. Furthermore, we use a combination of qualitative and quantitative data to attribute the clearing of Sri Lankan forests in the latest years for which national forest inventory data are available, 1992-1996, to various proximate drivers and to estimate the opportunity cost of forest conservation. We estimate that baseline deforestation emissions in Sri Lanka amounted to 17MtCO(2)yr(-1) in the 1992-1996 period, but conclude that it is challenging for Sri Lanka to produce a robust and accurate reference level due to the lack of nationally based inventories. We find that the majority of forest clearing (87%) is due to small-scale, rainfed farming, with the two other major drivers being rice and tea cultivation. Further, Sri Lankan revenues from REDD+ participation could be substantial, but they are sensitive to REDD+ policy transaction cost, highly uncertain timber revenues, and particularly the carbon price paid for emission reductions. The latter needs to be higher than $5-10/tCO(2) if there are to be substantial incentives for Sri Lanka to participate in REDD+. There is, however, a large gap in the knowledge of deforestation drivers that needs to be filled if Sri Lanka is to formulate an effective policy response to forest degradation in REDD+. For successful REDD+ implementation in Sri Lanka to happen, technological assistance, readiness assistance, and continued political momentum are crucial. PMID:22361108
The topography of the island nation of Sri Lanka is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. For this special view heights below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored red. These low coastal elevations extend 5 to 10 km (3.1 to 6.2 mi) inland on Sri Lanka and are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges, rising sea level, or, as in the aftermath of the earthquake of December 26, 2004, tsunami. These so-called tidal waves have occurred numerous times in history and can be especially destructive, but with the advent of the near-global SRTM elevation data planners can better predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events. Sri Lanka is shaped like a giant teardrop falling from the southern tip of the vast Indian subcontinent. It is separated from India by the 50km (31mi) wide Palk Strait, although there is a series of stepping-stone coral islets known as Adam's Bridge that almost form a land bridge between the two countries. The island is just 350km (217mi) long and only 180km (112mi) wide at its broadest, and is about the same size as Ireland, West Virginia or Tasmania. The southern half of the island is dominated by beautiful and rugged hill country, and includes Mt Pidurutalagala, the islandaE(TM)s highest point at 2524 meters (8281 ft). The entire northern half comprises a large plain extending from the edge of the hill country to the Jaffna peninsula. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C. Location: 8.0 degrees North latitude, 80.7 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 275.6 by 482.4 kilometers (165.4 by 299.0 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000
Kumarasinghe S; Kumarasinghe M
Chronic folliculitis (CF) is a chronic infection of hair follicles leading to atrophy and loss of the affected hairs. This study was done on 51 patients with CF presenting at the Dermatology Clinic at General Hospital Matara, Sri Lanka, to identify specific clinical features and aetiological factors, and to study histopathology. Pus cultures were done on 25 cases. Biopsies were done on 6 patients. CF was commoner in males (59%); 76% were under 34 years, and 39% had occupa...
eHealth Sri lanka 2010 - International Conference on eHealth15 & 16 September 2010at Waters Edge – Battaramulla - Sri LankaThe closing date for submission of Abstracts is 31st of July 2010.For more details, visit www.ehealth2010.hissl.org
The article deals with the use of X-rays and magnetic resonance imaging in medical diagnosis in its introduction. Then it elaborates on the facilities in the field of medical imaging for diagnosis, in Sri Lanka. The use of Technetium-99m in diagnostic medicine as well as the future of medical imaging in Sri Lanka is also dealt with
There are two major levels of obtaining radiation or nuclear education and training in Sri Lanka : the University and training courses in nuclear related technology and radiation protection offered by the Atomic Energy Authority of the Ministry of Science and Technology . This paper summarizes the status, some of the activities and problems of radiation education in Sri Lanka. (author)
Siriwardana, H. V. Yamuna D.; Noyes, Harry A.; Beeching, Nicholas J; Chance, Michael L.; Karunaweera, Nadira D; Bates, Paul A.
To investigate the relationship of cutaneous leishmaniasis isolates from Sri Lanka to known species, we performed DNA sequencing and microsatellite analyses. We identified Leishmania donovani as the agent of Sri Lanka cutaneous leishmaniasis and showed that these parasites are closely related to those causing visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent.
Nanayakkara, Susilakanthi; Smith, Jean S.; Rupprecht, Charles E.
Rabies virus exists in dogs on Sri Lanka as a single, minimally divergent lineage only distantly related to other rabies virus lineages in Asia. Stable, geographically isolated virus populations are susceptible to local extinction. A fully implemented rabies-control campaign could make Sri Lanka the first Asian country in >30 years to become free of rabies virus.
Livelihoods in Sri Lanka have been affected not only by the initial devastation of the tsunami but also by the policies and practices of the government and the humanitarian aid community’s post-disaster response.
Full Text Available Chronic folliculitis (CF is a chronic infection of hair follicles leading to atrophy and loss of the affected hairs. This study was done on 51 patients with CF presenting at the Dermatology Clinic at General Hospital Matara, Sri Lanka, to identify specific clinical features and aetiological factors, and to study histopathology. Pus cultures were done on 25 cases. Biopsies were done on 6 patients. CF was commoner in males (59%; 76% were under 34 years, and 39% had occupational exposure to possible irritants. Thirty five precent admitted of scrubbing legs with rough objects. Ichthyosis vulgaris was evident in 47%. All pus cultures revealed Staphylococcus aureus. Clinical features and histopathological features were similar to those described by Harman (1968. Rough scrubbing, ichthyosis and occupational exposure to irritants may be aetiologically relevant.
Morton, R.A.; Goff, J.R.; Nichol, S.L.
Field observations and sediment samples at a coastal-plain setting in southeastern Sri Lanka were used to document the erosional and depositional impacts of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and to interpret the hydrodynamic processes that produced an extensive sand-sheet deposit. Tsunami deposit thicknesses ranged from 6 to 22??cm with thickness being controlled partly by antecedent topography. The deposit was composed of coarse to medium sand organized into plane-parallel laminae and a few laminasets. Vertical textural trends showed an overall but non-systematic upward fining and upward thinning of depositional units with an upward increase in heavy-mineral laminations at some locations. Repeated patterns in the vertical textural trends (upward fining, upward coarsening, uniform) were used to subdivide and correlate the deposit into five hydro-textural stratigraphic units. The depositional units were linked to hydrodynamic processes and upcurrent conditions, such as rates of sediment supply and composition of the sediment sources. Vertical changes in grain-size distributions recorded the depositional phases associated with flow acceleration, initial unsteady pulsating flow, relatively stable and uniform flow, flow deceleration, slack water, and return flow or flow redirection. Study results suggest that vertical textural trends from multiple cross-shore sections can be used to interpret complex tsunami flow histories, but at the location examined, interpretation of the lateral textural trends did not provide a basis for identifying the correct sediment transport pathways because flow near the landward boundary was multidirectional.
Rhinosporidiosis, an enigmatic disease, is present in 90 countries world-wide. Sri Lanka has the highest prevalence per capita, while India has the largest number of reported cases. It is now appearing in Europe. Since its discovery in 1892, unresolved enigmas of the disease and its causative pathogen, still remain. This overview highlights these enigmas to encourage Sri Lankan researchers to investigate them.
This paper provides facts pertaining to Entrepreneurship in Sri Lanka and existing constraints on entrepreneurial initiatives. Perhaps most notably the author trying to suggest that inventions & innovations happen in Sri Lanka and absolutely it requires a certain support to proliferate entrepreneur’s business ideas from authoritative bodies. Finally, the author postulates recent budget proposals to enhance SME performances in Sri Lanka.
Full Text Available Rhinosporidiosis, an enigmatic disease, is present in 90 countries world-wide. Sri Lanka has the highest prevalence per capita, while India has the largest number of reported cases. It is now appearing in Europe. Since its discovery in 1892, unresolved enigmas of the disease and its causative pathogen, still remain. This overview highlights these enigmas to encourage Sri Lankan researchers to investigate them.
Stone, E.; Hornberger, G. M.
Efficient management of freshwater resources is critical as concerns with water security increase due to changes in climate, population, and land use. Effective water management in agricultural systems is especially important for irrigation and water quality. This research explores the implications of tradeoffs between maximization of crop yield and minimization of nitrogen loss to the environment, primarily to surface water and groundwater, in rice production in Sri Lanka. We run the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model under Sri Lankan climate and soil conditions. The model serves as a tool to simulate crop management scenarios with different irrigation and fertilizer practices in two climate regions of the country. Our investigation uses DNDC to compare rice yields, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and nitrogen leaching under different cultivation scenarios. The results will inform best practices for farmers and decision makers in Sri Lanka on the management of water resources and crops.
This monograph examines the language planning situation in Sri Lanka with particular emphasis on the planning of Sinhala as an official language of the country. It explores the historical, social, ideological and political processes, changes in language policy decisions, as well as the complexities of the language policy and planning situation in…
The first Sri Lankan Personal Genome was successfully sequenced by scientists and bioinformaticians from the University of Colombo, Sri Lanka and the Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, New Delhi, India. This project was initiated by the Specialty Board in Biomedical Informatics of the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka.
Full Text Available The first Sri Lankan Personal Genome was successfully sequenced by scientists and bioinformaticians from the University of Colombo, Sri Lanka and the Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, New Delhi, India. This project was initiated by the Specialty Board in Biomedical Informatics of the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka.
De Silva, S
The point to be made in this article about the changing demography of Sri Lanka is that demographic conditions (an older population and growth rate of 1.6) are favorable for economic growth. Planning for economic growth is demonstrated in discussing trends and their relationship to economic development rather than providing a macroeconomic analysis. The 1st demographic characteristic of importance is the age structure of the population, which identifies labor force potential, dependents, and those not economically active in order to calculate required social services. Consumer expenditure patterns are affected, as well as educational costs. The rapid mortality decline of the 1940's and the high fertility up to the 1960's created a broad based age structure that swelled student populations and labor force (unemployment). The 1980's is marked by 39% 15 years in 1981 versus 35% in 1971, and 6.4$ 60 years in 1981 versus 6.6% in 1971. Anticipated trends based on either 2.1, 2.5, or 2.9 children/mother indicate that the population structure would remain the same except for those 0-14 years. This amounts to 20-21.3 million by 2001 and 5.5-6.7 million 15 years. Economic planning is affected by the following age groups: preschoolers, school age children, working population, and old age population. A gradual decline in preschoolers would eventually lead to a 9% population versus a 13% in 2001. 23% of the current population of 5-14 year olds will decrease after 1996 with slow or medium growth to 19-21%. The next 2 decades will experience a swelling of the working age population from 9.56 million to 12.7 million, which was 15 years ago the total population figure. The rate change is from 58.2% to 60-63%. By 2001 the 60 year old population will be 9% (1.8 million) or equal to those 5 years. Attention, thus, needs to be paid to the equitability of distribution of services and improvement in quality rather than expansion. New jobs need to be created to prevent high unemployment, with a demand reaching, by the year 2000, 75,000/year. Transportation, housing, internal movement and overcrowding of cities by migrant workers are other areas to be addressed. With a rising population reaching early retirement of 55 years, many would be dependents without pensions or retirement benefits. More women comprise this group since life expectancy is 70.5 years versus 67.5. More women comprise this group since life expectancy is 70/.5 years versus 67.5. If the output/capital ratio of 0.25 at 1.6 growth rate could be increased with a 20% or greater investment, which means an annual growth rate of per capita product of 3-4%, economic development would be enhanced. PMID:12281615
Mawalagedara, R.; Kumar, D.; Oglesby, R. J.; Ganguly, A. R.
The IPCC AR4 identifies small islands as particularly vulnerable to climate change. Here we consider the cases of two tropical islands: Sri Lanka in the Indian Ocean and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean. The islands share a predominantly tropical climate with diverse topography and hence significant spatial variability of regional climate. Seasonal variability in temperatures is relatively small, but spatial variations can be large owing to topography. Precipitation mechanisms and patterns over the two islands are different however. Sri Lanka receives a majority of the annual rainfall from the summer and winter monsoons, with convective rainfall dominating in the inter-monsoon period. Rainfall generating mechanisms over Puerto Rico can range from orographic lifting, disturbances embedded in Easterly waves and synoptic frontal systems. Here we compare the projected changes in the regional and seasonal means and extremes of temperature and precipitation over the two islands during the middle of this century with the present conditions. Two 5-year regional climate model runs for each region, representing the present (2006-2010) and future (2056-2060) conditions, are performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with the lateral boundary conditions provided using the output from CCSM4 RCP8.5 greenhouse gas emissions pathway simulation from the CMIP5 ensemble. The consequences of global warming for water resources and the overall economy are examined. While both economies have substantial contributions from tourism, there are major differences: The agricultural sector is much more important over Sri Lanka compared to Puerto Rico, while the latter exhibits no recent growth in population or in urbanization trends unlike the former. Policy implications for water sustainability and security are discussed, which highlight how despite the differences, certain lessons learned may generalize across the two relatively small tropical islands, which in turn have diverse economic, infrastructural, and societal constraints.
Perrone, D.; Jacobi, J. H.; Hornberger, G. M.
Long term planning for adaptation by countries requires assessing the adequacy of current and future plans for handling observed and projected climate change. The uncertainties surrounding changes in the monsoons and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation cycle complicate planned adaptation in South Asia. Sri Lanka is a nation that is in the midst of executing a large development program and subject to the climate uncertainties that surround South Asia. Using exploratory principal component analysis and factor analysis, we analyze the spatial patterns of temporal variability and the spatial patterns of rainfall, respectively, for Sri Lanka. Our results show changes in the timings of the monsoons and slight shifts in the spatial rainfall patterns. The spatial changes are unlikely to affect the success of the development plan, but changes in the timing have important implications for water management strategies.
L C Somatunga
Full Text Available To comprehensively review the issues of smokeless tobacco use in Sri Lanka . This review paper is based on a variety of sources including Medline, WHO documents, Ministry of Health and Nutrition, Colombo and from other sources. Results: The prevalence of smokeless tobacco (SLT use in Sri Lanka has been reported high, especially among rural and disadvantaged groups. Different smokeless tobacco products were not only widely available but also very affordable. An increasing popularity of SLT use among the youth and adolescents is a cause for concern in Sri Lanka. There were evidences of diverse benign, premalignant, and malignant oral diseases due to smokeless tobacco use in the country. The level of awareness about health risks related to the consumption of smokeless tobacco products was low, particularly among the people with low socio-economic status. In Sri Lanka various forms of smokeless tobacco products, some of them imported, are used. At the national level, 15.8% used smokeless tobacco products and its use is three-fold higher among men compared to women. Betel quid is by far the traditional form in which tobacco is a general component. Other manufactured tobacco products include pan parag/pan masala, Mawa, Red tooth powder, Khaini, tobacco powder, and Zarda. Some 8.6% of the youth are current users of smokeless tobacco. There are studies demonstrating the harmful effects of smokeless tobacco use, especially on the oral mucosa, however, the level of awareness of this aspect is low. The highest mean expenditure on betel quid alone in rural areas for those earning Rs. 5,000/month was Rs. 952. The core issue is the easy availability of these products. To combat the smokeless tobacco problem, public health programs need to be intensified and targeted to vulnerable younger age groups. Another vital approach should be to levy higher taxation.
Konradsen, F; Steele, P; Perera, D; van der Hoek, W; Amerasinghe, P H; Amerasinghe, F P
The study provides estimates of the cost of various malaria control measures in an area of North-Central Province of Sri Lanka where the disease is endemic. We assumed that each measure was equally effective. In these terms, impregnating privately purchased bednets with insecticide was estimated to cost Rs 48 (US(40.87) per individual protected per year, less than half the cost of spraying houses with residual insecticides. Larviciding of vector breeding sites and especially the elimination of b...
Premawardhena, A; Silva, S.; Arambepola, M; Olivieri, N; Merson, L; Muraco, J; Allen, A.; C. Fisher; PETO, T; Vichinsky, E.; WEATHERALL, D
The thalassemias pose an increasing burden for health-care services in many Asian countries. In order to conserve rare resources, it is essential to determine the reasons for the remarkable phenotypic heterogeneity and natural history of these disorders so that the most cost-effective methods for their control and management can be established. A long-term observational study of patients with different forms of thalassemia in Sri Lanka suggests that in addition to the well-defined primary, se...
In this Article some of the applications of naturally occuring and artificial isotopes in the study of hydrological problems in Sri Lanka, are discussed. They are the water balance of a small catchment, origin of leakage to the graphite mines at Bogola in Sri Lanka, origin of thermal springs, origin of tropical monsoons and recharge study at Bandarakoswatte are discussed
Cats are essential in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally-resistant oocysts in nature. Nothing is known of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Sri Lanka. Serum samples from 86 cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka were tested f...
Jenkins, Rachel; Mendis, Jayan; COORAY, SHERVA; Cooray, Marius
Introduction Sri Lanka has one of the highest suicide rates in the world, with recent protracted conflict and the tsunami aggravating mental health needs. This paper describes a project to establish a systematic “train the trainers” programme to integrate mental health into primary care in Sri Lanka's public health system and private sector.
Cardozo, Mieke T. A. Lopes
This article seeks to explore the "two faces of education" through a critical analysis of peace education in Sri Lanka. It aims to contribute to the wider debate on the complex role of education in situations of conflict. The article starts with an overview of what peace education is, or should be. This leads to the conclusion that peace education…
Pattiaratchi, C. B.; Wijeratne, S.; De Vos, A.
Sri Lanka, a relatively large island (length 440 km; width 225 km), occupies a unique location within the equatorial belt in the northern Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea on its western side and the Bay of Bengal on its eastern side and experiences bi-annually reversing monsoon winds. This allows for the Island to interact with the seasonally reversing monsoon currents leading to the the island mass effect and enhanced primary production. We will present elements of the dynamics of the surface circulation and coastal upwelling in the waters around Sri Lanka using satellite imagery and numerical simulations using the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS). The model was run for 4 years to examine the inter-annual, seasonal and shorter term (~10 days) variability. The results confirmed the presence of the reversing current system, between the equator and Sri Lanka, in response to the changing wind field: the eastward flowing Southwest Monsoon Current (SMC) during the Southwest (SW) monsoon transporting 11.5 Sv and the westward flowing Northeast Monsoon Current (NMC) transporting 9.5 Sv during the Northeast (NE) monsoon, respectively. A recirculation feature located to the east of Sri Lanka during the SW monsoon, the Sri Lanka Dome, is shown to result from the interaction between the SMC and the Island of Sri Lanka. Along the eastern and western coasts, during both monsoon periods, flow is southward converging along the south coast (see Figure). During the SW monsoon the Island deflects the eastward flowing SMC southward whilst along the east coast the southward flow results from the Sri Lanka Dome recirculation. The major upwelling region, during both monsoon periods, is located along the south coast resulting from southward flow converging along the south coast and subsequent divergence associated with the offshore transport of water(see Figure). Higher surface chlorophyll concentrations were observed during the SW monsoon. The location of the flow convergence and hence the upwelling centre was dependent on the relative strengths of wind driven flow along the east and west coasts: during the SW (NE) monsoon the flow along the western (eastern) coast was stronger migrating the upwelling centre to the east (west).
A survey conducted by the Sri Lanka Family Planning Association (FPA) revealed a significant unmet need for reproduction health education among young people. The FPA presented the survey findings to policy makers and educational leaders at a national seminar. Emerging from this seminar were a pilot project in Sri Lanka schools, a program to train counselors in premarital at regular intervals. These interventions resulted in a substantial increase in the number of young people presenting to FPA clinics. Moreover, their success led the FPA to launch a national sexual education program in the schools, beginning in 1992. In preparation, a series of orientation seminars were held for Ministry of Education officials and school administrators. A team of teachers was recruited to participate in an intensive 2-month training program in sex education for youth over 15 years of age. At present, daily sex education classes are conducted in selected Sri Lankan schools and out-of-school youth are reached during holidays. The FPA has set a goal of reaching 100,000 young people with this program by the end of 1993. Program evaluation indicates that the proportion of young people who scored over 75% on a test of knowledge of human sexuality increased overall from 9% at pre-test to 67% at post-intervention testing. The FPA has received favorable feedback on this program from parents, educators, community leaders, and religious leaders, including some Buddhist priests. PMID:12345373
Sri Lanka has faced several disasters in the recent past, both manmade and natural. The mental health and psychosocial consequences have been felt at the individual, family, and collective levels. Individuals developed normal distress, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, or alcohol abuse. There were changes in family and social processes causing a tearing of the social fabric, lack of social cohesion, disconnection, mistrust, hopelessness, dependency, lack of motivation, powerlessness, and despondency. Because of the widespread nature of mental health needs, a community approach would reach the most number of people. PMID:23954050
Wolff, W. A.
The water surrounding the island of Sri Lanka has a temperature difference resource which is more than adequate for potential OTEC use. The temperature resource was examined between 5--10/sup 0/ North latitude and 78--83/sup 0/ East longitude. This area includes the surrounding waters on all sides of Sri Lanka. There is a large area north and northwest of the island where there is insufficient depth to provide the needed cold water supply. The annual average ..delta..T at 1000 meters is 21.3/sup 0/C. An annual average ..delta..T greater than 20/sup 0/C is available at 800 meters. The temperature is very consistent at depths with little difference between the coldest monthly mean temperature and the warmest. The area has an upper mixed layer the entire year, (deepest in January--February and shallowest in the fall). Winds and storms are not a major problem for this site, although there are occasional tropical storms or hurricanes. Low to moderate sea and swell conditions generally dominate throughout the year. The surface currents are generally moderate throughout the year, changing direction with the shifting monsoons.
Gunnell, D; Fernando, R; Hewagama, M; Priyangika, W D D; Konradsen, F; Eddleston, M
BACKGROUND: Between 1950 and 1995 suicide rates in Sri Lanka increased 8-fold to a peak of 47 per 100,000 in 1995. By 2005, rates had halved. We investigated whether Sri Lanka's regulatory controls on the import and sale of pesticides that are particularly toxic to humans were responsible for these changes in the incidence of suicide. METHODS: Ecological analysis using graphical and descriptive approaches to identify time trends in suicide and risk factors for suicide in Sri Lanka, 1975-2005. RE...
Full Text Available The multiracial Sri Lankan society shows the roots of conflicts. The number of migrants from the south-east of Asia and India to Sri Lanka is quite high. The Sri Lankan society is made up of 74% of Sinhalese, 12.7% of Sri Lankan Tamils, 5.5% of Indian Tamils, 7.3% Muslims and people from other races.(www.govlk. All these social sections of the Lankan society have given rise to different myths regarding their races involving Tamil, Dravidian and Muslim religions. There has been a conflict over the historical issue: the first migration to Sri Lanka among the Sinhalese and Tamil. Since the independence of Sri Lanka on 4th February 1948 there has been witnessed this conflict.
Full Text Available Grappling with how to respond to both conflict and tsunami-induced displacement, Sri Lanka is an ideal testing groundfor the principles of humanitarian partnership which areat the heart of the Global Humanitarian Platform (GHP.
Brief description of how nuclear power is used to generate electricity, advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power, and the main factors that should be taken into consideration in dividing to use nuclear power in Sri Lanka
Kelegama, Saman; Tilakaratna, Ganga
Sri Lanka has achieved a high level of financial inclusion compared to other South Asian countries. Its financial sector comprises a wide range of financial institutions providing financial services such as loans, savings, pawning, leasing and finance, and remittance and money transfer facilities. There is also evidence that a larger share of households in Sri Lanka accesses multiple financial institutions for their credit and savings needs. However, the use of insurance services, ATM facilit...
Thankom Arun; Borooah, Vani K.
The Gender impact in Earnings Inequality: Evidence from Sri LankaAbstract: This paper estimates an earnings function for Sri Lanka, followed by a decomposition analysis of male-female earnings suggest that the gender disparity in earnings largely represents ‘discrimination’ against women. The findings showed that irrespective of their “inferior” labour market attributes, men had average earnings that were considerably higher than the female average and that this could be attributed entirely t...
van der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming
This report describes the characteristics of patients with acute pesticide poisoning in a rural area of Sri Lanka and, for intentional self-poisoning cases, explores the relative importance of the different determinants. Data were collected for 239 acute pesticide-poisoning cases, which were admitted to two rural hospitals in Sri Lanka. Sociodemographic characteristics, negative life events and agricultural practices of the intentional self-poisoning cases were compared with a control group. Mos...
Hoek, Wim van der; Konradsen, F; Athukorala, K; Wanigadewa, T
Acute pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in Sri Lanka. In several agricultural districts, it precedes all other causes of death in government hospitals. Most of the acute poisoning cases are intentional (suicide) and occur among young adults, mainly males. Poisoning due to occupational exposure is also common, but less well documented. In an irrigation area in Sri Lanka a very high incidence of serious pesticide poisoning was observed, with 68% due to intentional ingestion of l...
Full Text Available The Gender impact in Earnings Inequality: Evidence from Sri LankaAbstract: This paper estimates an earnings function for Sri Lanka, followed by a decomposition analysis of male-female earnings suggest that the gender disparity in earnings largely represents ‘discrimination’ against women. The findings showed that irrespective of their “inferior” labour market attributes, men had average earnings that were considerably higher than the female average and that this could be attributed entirely to discrimination in favour of male earners.
In Sri Lanka, Climate Change Mitigation Studies have received low priority and have been limited to an ADB-sponsored preliminary study followed by an initial assessment of some mitigation options in the energy and agricultural sectors, with technical assistance from the US Country Studies Program. The major focus was on options of the mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector. Owing to funding constraints, only the potential for reduction of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the various mitigation options were quantified; analysis of monetary costs and benefits or policy/programs for adoption of the options were not undertaken. For the non-energy sector, a very limited study on mitigation of methane emissions from rice fields was carried out. (au)
Chilcote, Rebekah L.
This paper details art therapy with children affected by the December 2004 tsunami in Sri Lanka. Over 30,000 Sri Lankans lost their lives when the tsunami decimated coastal areas. The child survivors witnessed horrific traumatic events and the loss of loved ones, but had not been given opportunity to express their grief and pain. A 4-week art…
The commonest cause of nutritional anaemia in the Sri Lankan population is iron deficiency. The diets of the population belonging to the lower socio-economic groups contain little food of animal origin. Thus, their diets are deficient in easily absorbable (haem) iron; and are also heavily cereal-based. Therefore interference in the absorption of dietary iron also occurs. Iron-deficiency anaemia is not restricted to the so-called ''vulnerable groups'' in Sri Lanka, however, their greater demands make the problem not only commoner but also more severe. Among pregnant and lactating women anaemia is often associated with folate deficiency. It must also be noted that the low availability of dietary iron is compounded in large population groups. Malaria, presently raging on an epidemic scale is also a major contributory factor to the incidence of anaemia. The purpose of this study was to examine the iron status of pre-school children and pregnant women; to establish normal levels of biochemical indices at different trimesters; to record the effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy; and to record the bioavailability of iron from weaning foods and common adult diets. 6 figs, 14 tabs
Vialard, J.; Terray, P.; Duvel, J.-P.; Nanjundiah, R.S.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Shankar, D.
The factors controlling rainfall over southern India and Sri Lanka between January and April, i.e. outside of the southwest and northeast monsoons are explored. This period accounts for 20% of annual precipitation over Sri Lanka and 10% over...
Gaur, A.S.; Muthucumaran, R.; Chandraratne, W.M.; Orillandeda, B.C.; Manders, M.; Karunarathna, S.; Weerasinghe, P.; Dayananda, A.M.A.; Zainab, T.; Sudaryadi, A.; Ghani, K.A.B.A.; Wahjudin, J.; Samaraweera, N.
An international team comprised of experts in diving and underwater archaeology from Sri Lanka, India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Philippines participated in the assessment of the shipwreck at Godawaya, Sri Lanka. The main objective of the exploration...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several epidemiological studies have shown that cannabis; the most widely used illegal drug in the world, is associated with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD. Aims To assess the characteristics of cannabis use and its association with SSD in a cohort of psychiatrically ill patients and discuss the implications for policy development Methods This is a retrospective analytical study of a cohort of psychiatric patients who received treatment in the psychiatry unit of the Provincial General Hospital, Ratnapura, Sri Lanka over five years (2000 - 2004. The schizophrenia spectrum disorders defined in this article include schizophrenia and the schizoaffective disorders. Results A total of 3644 patient records were analyzed. The percentage of self reported life time cannabis (LTC use was 2.83% (103, all males. Sixteen percent (576 of the total cohort was diagnosed with SSD by 2009. Male sex and LTC use were significantly associated with SSD (p Conclusions Self reported LTC use was strongly associated with being diagnosed with SSD. However we could not identify a particular subgroup of users that are at increased risk to recommend targeted primary prophylaxis. The policy implications of this observation are discussed.
... Part 126 RIN 1400-AD10 Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Sri Lanka AGENCY... Traffic in Arms Regulations to add another exception to the license denial policy toward Sri Lanka. This change allows for exports to Sri Lanka for assistance for aerial and maritime surveillance....
This thesis aims to gain a deeper understanding of relationships and sexuality of women at risk of social exclusion in Sri Lanka and the risk of violations of their sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) that they might face. Individual qualitative interviews with migrant women workers (n=18) and men (n=18) in the Free Trade Zone (FTZ), women facing single motherhood (n=28) and women formerly involved in prostitution (n=15) were conducted. Conceptual approaches included gender, soci...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rickettsioses are emerging infections in Sri Lanka as shown by the increase in the number of clinically diagnosed rickettsial patients being reported to the Epidemiology Unit, Sri Lanka. However, mapping the disease for the whole island with laboratory confirmed cases has not been previously carried out. Methods 615 samples received from 23 hospital representing 8 provinces were tested using ELISA or IFA methods and clinical data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Results Rash was found among more spotted fever seropositive patients than scrub typhus seropositive patients while the opposite was true for the presence of eschar. Spotted fever and scrub typhus was found in a geographically restricted manner. Consistent temporal patterns were seen for the presentation of patients with rickettsioses in Kandy and Kurunegala districts for 2009 and 2010. Conclusions This study expanded knowledge on the distribution of rickettsioses in Sri Lanka and their clinical profiles which in turn helps in the clinical diagnosis of these infections.
Government of Sri Lanka has policy target to achieve 100% electrification by end of year 2012. Grid-based electrification is possible up to maximum 95% of the population in Sri Lanka. Balance 5% of the electrification has to be mainly depending on off-grid technologies such as solar PV, wind, biomass and micro hydro. Use of renewable based off-grid technologies is limited by the seasonal variation of the resource. This barrier could be overcome by coupling renewable based power generation t...
de Vos, A.; Pattiaratchi, C. B.; Wijeratne, E. M. S.
Sri Lanka occupies a unique location within the equatorial belt in the northern Indian Ocean, with the Arabian Sea on its western side and the Bay of Bengal on its eastern side, and experiences bi-annually reversing monsoon winds. Aggregations of blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) have been observed along the southern coast of Sri Lanka during the northeast (NE) monsoon, when satellite imagery indicates lower productivity in the surface waters. This study explored elements of the dynamics of the surface circulation and coastal upwelling in the waters around Sri Lanka using satellite imagery and numerical simulations using the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS). The model was run for 3 years to examine the seasonal and shorter-term (~10 days) variability. The results reproduced correctly the reversing current system, between the Equator and Sri Lanka, in response to the changing wind field: the eastward flowing Southwest Monsoon Current (SMC) during the southwest (SW) monsoon transporting 11.5 Sv (mean over 2010-2012) and the westward flowing Northeast Monsoon Current (NMC) transporting 9.6 Sv during the NE monsoon, respectively. A recirculation feature located to the east of Sri Lanka during the SW monsoon, the Sri Lanka Dome, is shown to result from the interaction between the SMC and the island of Sri Lanka. Along the eastern and western coasts, during both monsoon periods, flow is southward converging along the southern coast. During the SW monsoon, the island deflects the eastward flowing SMC southward, whilst along the eastern coast, the southward flow results from the Sri Lanka Dome recirculation. The major upwelling region, during both monsoon periods, is located along the southern coast, resulting from southward flow converging along the southern coast and subsequent divergence associated with the offshore transport of water. Higher surface chlorophyll concentrations were observed during the SW monsoon. The location of the flow convergence and hence the upwelling centre was dependent on the relative strengths of wind-driven flow along the eastern and western coasts: during the SW (NE) monsoon, the flow along the western (eastern) coast was stronger, migrating the upwelling centre to the east (west).
As in many other countries, the development of hydro resources in Sri Lanka is associated with multiple purposes, including the generation of electricity. Because of the importance of this resource, it is necessary to optimize the characteristics of the associated reservoirs, not only in terms of installed capacity, but also with regard to the use of water for power generation and the other purposes involved. This paper describes the experience of Sri Lanka in the use of the WASP-III computer program and several computer programs that have been developed in the country for simulating the operation of multipurpose reservoirs. (author). 5 refs, 25 figs
Intentional yellow oleander poisoning is a growing problem that is straining the health care services of Sri Lanka as it is a readily available method of suicide. The country remains to have one the highest suicide rates in the world, and the trend of oleander poisoning has been difficult to halt due to the lack of resources to manage the problem. As mental health issues are becoming a serious public health problem in Sri Lanka, it is timely to consider what efforts could be made to manage th...
Full Text Available Intentional yellow oleander poisoning is a growing problem that is straining the health care services of Sri Lanka as it is a readily available method of suicide. The country remains to have one the highest suicide rates in the world, and the trend of oleander poisoning has been difficult to halt due to the lack of resources to manage the problem. As mental health issues are becoming a serious public health problem in Sri Lanka, it is timely to consider what efforts could be made to manage this unique phenomenon.
Sumathipala, A; Fernando, D J; Siribaddana, S H; Abeysingha, M R; Jayasekare, R W; Dissanayake, V H; De Silva, N
Nearly all twin registers are based in developed countries and there is no twin register in the developing world. Our objectives were to initiate the process of establishing a nationwide twin register in Sri Lanka by starting a volunteer register first and working towards a population-based register. Regular newspaper advertisements, feature articles, radio talks, and television programmes were used to publicise a competition for twins, their parents/relatives and friends requesting them to participate by sending in details of twins. The competition ran from 28 March 1997 for a period of 3 months. It offered prizes for three winners selected by drawing lots. Advertisements highlighted the objective of the competition as establishing a twin register for future research and emphasised that informed consent would be obtained for individual research projects. Those who registered comprise 4602 twin pairs (same sex: male--1564, female--1885; different sex--1153), 80 sets of triplets (same sex: male--17, female--31; different sex--42) and two sets of quadruplets (different sex). The oldest twins, triplets, quadruplets are 85, 46, and 5 years old, respectively; 88.0% of twins are less than 30 years old. Although others have previously used media publicity to enrol twins in twin registers, we believe this to be the first time that twins have been enrolled through competition. We have more young twins, and our gender and zygosity proportions after applying Weinburg's rule do not match the proportions expected from a volunteer twin sample. Establishing a twin register for research purposes has proved possible in a developing country. PMID:11463139
Full Text Available Study on writing strategy used in Arabic as a foreign language is a new emerging concept. Few studies have contracted on essay written in Arabic as a final product and illustrated deficiencies that surfaced. This study investigates the writing strategies employed by 6 learners in Fathih Institute of Sri Lanka (FISL. A Qualitative research was conducted using the think aloud protocol; observation and retrospective interview to provide the facts. Results of a pilot study revealed that a proficient learner employ varieties of writing strategies better than an average learner and less proficient learners on their essay writing tasks. The findings also revealed that there is a lot to be done to improve the Arabic writing skills of Sri Lankan learners. The implications of the results are that, teachers need to rethink about the problems that average and less proficient students encounter and figure out ways to help them achieve proficiency. Also, there is the need to help these learners how to make their place and organize their opinions more reasonably in writing activities.
Some of the applications of naturally occurring and artificial isotopes in the study of hydrological problems in Sri Lanka are discussed, namely the water balance of a small catchment, origin of leakage to the graphite mines at Bogala, origin of thermal springs, origin of tropical monsoons and recharge study at Bandarakoswatte
This article was written by the Institution's overseas representative Professor P.P.G.L. Siriwardene, Chairman of the Atomic Energy Authority of Sri Lanka, with the express purpose of conveying to members of the Institution a broad outline of his country's interest in the peaceful uses of atomic energy. (author)
Dahanayake, Nishada Dhananjaya; Gamlath, Sharmila
Purpose: This study intends to investigate the extent to which the Sri Lanka Army can be described as a learning organization. Design/methodology/approach: The main tool of analysis used was the Dimensions of the Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) developed by Marsick and Watkins, with the exclusion of the sections on financial and…
A dolerite dike from southwestern Sri Lanka gave whole-rock K-Ar ages of 152.6 ± 7.6 Ma and 143.3 ± 7.2 Ma. Many of the other dolerite dikes of Sri Lanka are considered to be of Mesozoic ages judging from the present age data and tectonometamorphic history of Sri Lanka. Petrographic similarities should not be used for age correlations, because dolerites of different age may have the same petrography. Preliminary natural remanent magnetization (NRM) after AF and thermal demagnetization gave a mean inclination of 24.6deg and declination of 67.5deg with ?95=21.7deg. A virtual geomagnetic pole position calculated from the mean NRM was rotated relative to Antarctica so as to fit with that obtained from the Jurassic Ferrar dolerite of Antarctica. This rotation results in the location and attitude of Sri Lanka to attach with Antarctica at Lutzow-Holm Bay as suggested by Barron et al. (1978). (author). 18 refs
Zirconolites, CaZrTi2O7, from Sri Lanka and Pala Bora, South Africa, and a calzirtite, CaZr3TiO9, from Jacupiranga, Brazil, were examined using the electron microprobe, x-ray diffraction (annealing study), transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy. The x-ray data indicate that all three zirconolites are metamict. Both Sri Lanka zirconolites are amorphous to the limits of resolution of the electron microscope (approx. 10 A). The Pala Bora zirconolite is largely amorphous but contains isolated domains (50 to 200 A) of crystalline material which may be the result of post-metamict recrystallization and alteration. The only other significant evidence for chemical alteration was the lower ThO2 concentration (1 to 2 weight percent) and slightly lower analytic totals for the rims of the Sri Lanka zirconolites. Upon annealing at 11300C for 5 hours, all three zirconolites recrystallized as microcrystalline aggregates. Refined unit cell parameters and volumes are consistent with published data for synthetic zirconolites. Both Sri Lanka zirconolites contain microvoids, spherical in shape, and 200 Angstroms to 2 microns in size. This porosity may be the result of helium accumulation arising from the decay of U and Th. The calzirtite was highly crystalline, exhibited no porosity, and was unchanged by the annealing treatment
What can Montessorians learn from teaching in a war-torn country, and what can they hope to share with others in the process? These questions were much on the author's mind when she went to Sri Lanka in the summer of 2003. This article contains excerpts from e-mails the author sent home, chronicling her experience teaching two high school English…
Sørensen, Birgitte Refslund
In this article I argue that in Sri Lanka the field of education has been a constant and significant element in the relationship between population and politicians, and it plays an important role in most people's experiences and understandings of politics, just as it affects their own political participation.
Graduate unemployment has been a major socio-politico-economic problem in the small open economy of Sri Lanka for the past 35 years. The nature of the problem, causal factors and policy responses are examined in this paper with a special focus on the role of higher education within a highly competitive and knowledge-based economic environment. The…
Jayawardana, A. K. L.; O'Donnell, Michael
The Asian Tsunami struck Sri Lanka on December 26, 2004. Sri Lanka was the second worst affected country after Indonesia, and this natural disaster killed in excess of 35,000 people and displaced over 1 million. The article explores the Tsunami Disaster Management Program developed by one Sri Lankan university: the Postgraduate Institute of…
Full Text Available A third of the estimated 600,000 IDPs in Sri Lanka live in areas controlled by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam (LTTE. Displaced people within these so-called ‘un-cleared’ or ‘liberated areas’ (termsused by the Sri Lankan government and the LTTE respectively are at especial risk. Their situation highlights the difficulties of assessing protection and assistance in the context of conflict.
Abeykoon, A T
At a 1994 symposium on sex preference in Asia, represented countries were grouped as follows: a) rapid fertility decline, strong son preference, and abnormal sex ratio at birth (China, Taiwan, and the Republic of Korea); b) rapid fertility decline, no son preference, and normal sex ratio at birth (Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand); and c) slow fertility decline, strong son preference, and normal sex ratio at birth (Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan). This article reviews the factors responsible for strong son preference in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan and the reasons for the lack of son preference in Sri Lanka. Abnormal sex ratios are attributed to sex-selective abortions. Sex preference in South Asia results in excessive mortality of female children. Mention is made of a higher mortality risk of daughters in Indian households with more older female children. Bairagi is cited for his evidence that in Bangladesh daughters having older sisters have a higher mortality risk. In Pakistan survey results indicate that sons are preferred. Numerous authors are cited for evidence suggesting that fertility might be lower if son preference were reduced. Rajaretnam and Deshpande are cited for findings that contraceptive prevalence in south India would increase by about 12% in high-prevalence areas and about 25% in low-prevalence areas in the absence of sex preference. Bourne and Walker and Das Gupta are identified as authors providing evidence that increased economic opportunities for women, increased women's status, and increased value placed on women's work would reduce the desire for sons. Cain argues for better old-age security and better access to food and medical care. Abeykoon has shown that weakened son preference in Sri Lanka occurred over a 20-year period as improvements were made in women's status. Parents in Sri Lanka give greater value to the small-family norm than to the sex of the child. A slight preference was found in 1975 and 1992. Discrimination in food and medical care in Sri Lanka was apparent only prior to 1962. Sri Lankan women have experienced rapid expansion of literacy and educational attainment, improved life expectancy, and wide economic involvement. Women in Sri Lanka are also less vulnerable to oppression within the family. PMID:12290695
Since Rice is the staple food in Sri Lanka strong emphasis has been given for the improvement of Rice in Sri Lanka. Over the last three decades 36 high yielding rice varieties have been developed. The present yield potential of Sri Lanka's best varieties have been recorded to be be around 10 mt/ha. At present more than 90% of the total paddy extent is grown with modern high yielding rice varieties and as a result the national paddy production has increased from 1.8 mt/ha to 3.5 mt/ha. Induced mutations is used in plant breeding. Use of radiation to produce haploids and for production of transitory sexuality in apomicts have been done. Under the coarse grains and millet varietal program, maize have recorded increasing attention owing to the fact that is is used for human consumption and as feed grain for poultry. Promising varieties of Soya bean, cowpea, mung bean, black gram and ground nut have been recommended for cultivation. Research attention has also been directed towards Root and Tuber crops which have great potential in providong food for the rapidly increasing population in Sri Lanka. Potato is the most important and popular tuber crop. A number of improved varieties with respect to a number of local fruit crops such as banana, sweet orange, lemonime, avocado, pineapple, rambutan, grapes.have been introduced. New improved varieties of indigenous vegetables such as tomato, brinjal etc. have been produced. Chillies and onions with desirable qualities also have bnions with desirable qualities also have been identified. Mutation breeding provides a novel approach to the plant breeders for raising the productivity of crop plants, thus complementing conventional methods. Any way the use of induced mutations in crop improvement has not been properly exploited in Sri Lanka as yetSince Rice is the staple food in Sri Lanka strong emphasis has been given for the improvement of Rice in Sri Lanka. Over the last three decades 36 high yielding rice varieties have been developed. The present yield potential of Sri Lanka's best varieties have been recorded to be be around 10 mt/ha. At present more than 90% of the total paddy extent is grown with modern high yielding rice varieties and as a result the national paddy production has increased from 1.8 mt/ha to 3.5 mt/ha. Induced mutations is used in plant breeding. Use of radiation to produce haploids and for production of transitory sexuality in apomicts have been done. Under the coarse grains and millet varietal program, maize have recorded increasing attention owing to the fact that is is used for human consumption and as feed grain for poultry. Promising varieties of Soya bean, cowpea, mung bean, black gram and ground nut have been recommended for cultivation. Research attention has also been directed towards Root and Tuber crops which have great potential in providong food for the rapidly increasing population in Sri Lanka. Potato is the most important and popular tuber crop. A number of improved varieties with respect to a number of local fruit crops such as banana, sweet orange, lemonime, avocado, pineapple, rambutan, grapes.have been introduced. New improved varieties of indigenous vegetables such as tomato, brinjal etc. have been produced. Chillies and onions with desirable qualities also have
Sri Lanka is a tropical Island in the Southern tip of Indian subcontinent positioned at 50 55' to 90 50' N latitude and 790 42' to 810 53' E longitude surrounded by the Indian Ocean. It is an island 435 km in length and 224 km width consisting of a land are of 6.56 million ha with a population of 20 million. In area wise it is ranked as 118th in the world, where at present ranked as 47 in population wise and ranked 19th in population density. The country was under colonial rule under Portuguese, Dutch and British from 1505 to 1948. The majority of the people in the past and present earn their living from activities based on land, which indicates the important of the soil resource. The objective of this paper is to describe the landmarks of the history of Soil Science to highlight the achievements and failures, which is useful to enrich our present understanding of Sri Lankan soils. The landmarks of the history of Soil Science in Sri Lanka can be divided to three phases namely, the early period (prior to 1956), the middle period (1956 to 1972) and the present period (from 1972 onwards). During the early period, detailed analytical studies of coffee and tea soils were compiled, and these gave mainly information on up-country soils which led to fertilizer recommendations based on field trials. In addition, rice and forest soils were also studied in less detail. The first classification of Sri Lankan soils and a provisional soil map based on parent material was published by Joachim in 1945 which is a major landmark of history of Soil Science in Sri Lanka. In 1959 Ponnamperuma proposed a soil classification system for wetland rice soils. From 1963 to 1968 valuable information on the land resource was collected and documented by aerial resource surveys funded by Canada-Ceylon Colombo plan aid project. This covered 18 major river basins and about 1/4th of Sri Lanka, which resulted in producing excellent soil maps and information of the areas called the Kelani Aruvi Ara and Walawe basins. The provisional soil map was updated by many other workers as Moorman and Panabokke in 1961 and 1972 using this information. The soil map produced by De Alwis and Panabokke in 1972 at a scale of 1:500,000 was the soil maps mostly used during the past years During the present era, the need for classification of Soils of Sri Lanka according to international methods was felt. A major leap forward in Soil Survey, Classification leading to development of a soil data base was initiated in 1995 with the commencement of the "SRICANSOL" project which was a twining project between the Soil Science Societies of Sri Lanka and Canada. This project is now completed with detail soil maps at a scale of 1:250,000 and soil classified according to international methods for the Wet, Intermediate and Dry zones of Sri Lanka. A digital database consisting of soil profile description and physical and chemical data is under preparation for 28, 40 and 51 benchmark sites of the Wet, Intermediate and Dry zones respectively. The emphases on studies on Soil Science in the country at present is more towards environmental conservation related to soil erosion control, reducing of pollution of soil and water bodies from nitrates, pesticide residues and heavy metal accumulation. Key words: Sri Lanka, Provisional soil map
Jenkins, Rachel; Mendis, Jayan; Cooray, Sherva; Cooray, Marius
Introduction Sri Lanka has one of the highest suicide rates in the world, with recent protracted conflict and the tsunami aggravating mental health needs. This paper describes a project to establish a systematic "train the trainers" programme to integrate mental health into primary care in Sri Lanka's public health system and private sector.Methods A 40 hour training programme was delivered to curriculum and teaching materials were adapted for Sri Lanka, and delivered to 45 psychiatrists, 110 medical officers of mental health and 95 registered medical practitioners, through five courses, each in a different region (Colombo, Kandy, Jaffna, Galle and Batticola). Participants were selected by the senior psychiatrist of each region, on the basis of ability to conduct subsequent roll out of the training. The course was very interactive, with discussions, role plays and small group work, as well as brief theory sessions.Results Qualitative participant feedback was encouraging about the value of the course in improving patient assessments and treatments, and in providing a valuable package for roll out to others. Systematic improvement was achieved between pre- and post-test scores of participants at all training sites. The participants had not had prior experience in such interactive teaching methods, but were able to learn these new techniques relatively quickly.Conclusions The programme has been conducted in collaboration with the Sri Lankan National Institute of Mental Health and the Ministry of Health, and this partnership has helped to ensure that the training is tailored to Sri Lanka and has the chance of long term sustainability. PMID:23277794
Karunanayake, Dushantha; MATSUMOTO, TAKASHI; Wimalaratne, Omala; Nanayakkara, Susilakanthi; Perera, Devika; Nishizono, Akira; AHMED, Kamruddin
Rabies is a public health concern in Sri Lanka. The incidence of dog rabies remains unchanged, but the incidence of suspect human rabies is decreasing gradually in Sri Lanka. This finding indicates the effects of improved access to postexposure prophylaxis by animal bite victims and increased rabies awareness. As in other rabies-endemic countries, in Sri Lanka, human rabies is transmitted mainly by dogs, although domestic and wild animals have been diagnosed rabid, and can pose a risk of expo...
A. de Vos
Full Text Available Sri Lanka occupies a unique location within the equatorial belt in the northern Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea on its western side and the Bay of Bengal on its eastern side. The region is characterised by bi-annually reversing monsoon winds resulting from seasonal differential heating and cooling of the continental land mass and the ocean. This study explored elements of the dynamics of the surface circulation and coastal upwelling in the waters around Sri Lanka using satellite imagery and the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS configured to the study region and forced with ECMWF interim data. The model was run for 2 yr to examine the seasonal and shorter term (?10 days variability. The results confirmed the presence of the reversing current system in response to the changing wind field: the eastward flowing Southwest Monsoon Current (SMC during the Southwest (SW monsoon transporting 11.5 Sv and the westward flowing Northeast Monsoon Current (NMC transporting 9.5 Sv during the Northeast (NE monsoon, respectively. A recirculation feature located to the east of Sri Lanka during the SW monsoon, the Sri Lanka Dome, is shown to result from the interaction between the SMC and the Island of Sri Lanka. Along the eastern and western coasts, during both monsoon periods, flow is southward converging along the south coast. During the SW monsoon the Island deflects the eastward flowing SMC southward whilst along the east coast the southward flow results from the Sri Lanka Dome recirculation. The major upwelling region, during both monsoon periods, is located along the south coast and is shown to be due to flow convergence and divergence associated with offshore transport of water. Higher surface chlorophyll concentrations were observed during the SW monsoon. The location of the flow convergence and hence the upwelling centre was dependent on the relative strengths of wind driven flow along the east and west coasts: during the SW (NE monsoon the flow along the western (eastern coast was stronger and hence the upwelling centre was shifted to the east (west. The presence of upwelling along the south coast during both monsoon periods may explain the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus aggregations in this region.
Full Text Available Food prices have been increasing sharply since 2003. In the globalized world, the transmission of global foodprice increases to domestic market determines the decision of economic agents and policy makers of a domesticeconomy. The recent growth of global food prices affects the welfare of poor consumers and producers. In SriLanka, large segment of the population spends more than 50 percent of their income on food. Thus, this studyinvestigates and assesses how international food price surge affects domestic inflation process in Sri Lanka. Theempirical statistical results are derived by using a battery of parametric and non-parametric econometrictechniques using monthly data of price series for the period from 2003M1 to 2013M12. The co-integrationanalysis results confirm that global food prices, domestic prices are co-integrated. Therefore, Sri Lankangovernment needs to develop a safety net program for the poor and a longer term poverty reduction strategy.Policy attention needs to shift towards efforts to increase food production. The results of this study have variouspolicy implications for monetary policy, food and agricultural policy and trade policy for Sri Lanka.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of innovation attributes on postgraduate students’ e-learning acceptance between Sri Lanka and Malaysia. The Diffusion of Innovation theory identifies five attributes of innovation namely relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialabiltity, observability which impact for the attitude and intention of using e- learning. Sri Lanka and Malaysia are the countries which have more similarities in terms of history, geography and culture. Therefore a comparison between Sri Lanka and Malaysia for the innovation attributes towards the attitude and intention of using e-learning is more relevant as to acquire the knowledge on how economic and technological development have an impact on postgraduate students preferences. A random sample of 400 was drawn from the postgraduate students in locally based universities in Sri Lanka and Malaysia. It was found that Sri Lanka and Malaysia has similar in e-learning acceptance in terms of observability and relative advantage which has a significant impact on attitude and intention of using e-learning and also complexity and trialability was the least significant factors on e-learning acceptance in both Sri Lanka and Malaysia. This is the first attempt of comparing e-learning acceptance between Sri Lanka and Malaysia and discloses information on how Sri Lanka and Malaysia differ. The findings of this paper can be used by the higher educational institutions in Sri Lanka and Malaysia when implementing e learning solutions.
Back, P.A.A.; Westwell, J.R. (Sir Alexander Gibb and Partners, Reading (GB))
Sri Lanka has both a climate and topography favourable to hydroelectricity. The largest river in the country is the Mahaweli Ganga, of which almost all the potential has now been exploited by the Kotmale, Victora, Randenigala and Rantembe (under construction) schemes. The hydro development of Sri Lanka will continue with the construction of projects on other river systems, and the Samanalawewa project on the Walawe Ganga (flowing south from the Central Highlands) is one such project now under construction. This project consists of a 100 m-high embankment dam, a 5 km-long power tunnel, a steel penstock and a surface power station with two 60 MW units. At a later stage it is planned to double the size of the powerplant and tap the flow from a tributary, which passes above the power tunnel near its downstream end. (author).
Handapangoda, Wasana Sampath; Sisira Kumara, Ajanth
Over the past few decades, at an unprecedented rate, mobile phone has penetrated Sri Lanka, triggering much hype and investment as well as multiple socioeconomic implications. Yet, examining the developmental impact of mobile phones has, however, drawn surprisingly little attention in Sri Lanka with no studies focusing primarily on the impact of mobile phones on the empowerment of women. Therefore, this paper, applying primarily qualitative methodology, attempts an investigatio...
Robertson, Colin; Sawford, Kate; Daniel, Samson L.A.; Trisalyn A. Nelson; Stephen, Craig
Because many infectious diseases are emerging in animals in low-income and middle-income countries, surveillance of animal health in these areas may be needed for forecasting disease risks to humans. We present an overview of a mobile phone–based frontline surveillance system developed and implemented in Sri Lanka. Field veterinarians reported animal health information by using mobile phones. Submissions increased steadily over 9 months, with ?4,000 interactions between field veterinarians an...
Agampodi Thilini C; Agampodi Suneth B; UKD Piyaseeli
Abstract Background Adolescent health needs, behaviours and expectations are unique and routine health care services are not well geared to provide these services. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived reproductive health problems, health seeking behaviors, knowledge about available services and barriers to reach services among a group of adolescents in Sri Lanka in order to improve reproductive health service delivery. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in a semi u...
Changsheng Xu; Santhirasegaram Selvarathinam; Wen X. Li
Sociopolitical instability severely affects economic growth in short and long run. This study analyzes that sociopolitical instability measured by proxy measure; annual growth rate of tourist arrivals in Sri Lanka during 1960-2005 adversely affects economic growth. Our empirical findings based on ordinary lease square econometric estimation, show that sociopolitical instability negatively and significantly affect economic growth. Reduction of economic growth rate (-0.032) due to the sociopoli...
Bandara, Jayatilleke S.; Yu, Wusheng
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to answer the question: does a bilateral free trade agreement (FTA) lead to an improvement in the security of a member country and greater peace between two member countries in the developing world? Design/methodology/approach – This paper reviews existing literature and uses the idea of non-economic gains from regional trading agreements to explain how Sri Lanka managed to use FTAs to neutralise India and obtain military assistance from Pakistan using its ...
Sri Lanka is an island nation in Indian Ocean that provides free healthcare to all citizens through government healthcare system. It has commendable health indices in the region. Pediatric cardiac services have rapidly progressed over past few years helping to further bring down infant and under-five mortality rates. Lady Ridgeway Hospital for Children (LRH) is the only tertiary care referral center for children with heart disease in the country. Currently it performs approximately 1,000 card...
Silva, Ranil; Gamage, Ranjani; Wewelwala, Chandika; Gunarathna, Dinusha; Kittner, Steven; Sirisena, Dharshan; Weerasinghe, Anura; Amarasinghe, Pryani
Stroke in young adults is more common in India and Sri Lanka and the reasons for this are not well understood. The current study was conducted to elucidate the risk factors and radiologic features in young people (age < 45 years) with ischemic stroke. Sociodemographic data, stroke risk factor information, and laboratory investigations were recorded in 41 cases with first-ever ischemic stroke. Most common risk factors for stroke in the 15- to 45-year-old age group were: hypertension, 8 (21%); ...
The Central Bank of Sri Lanka has increasingly been relying on interest rates as the instrument for conducting monetary policy. Changes to the key monetary policy variables, the Repo and the Reverse Repo rates, are initially expected to be reflected in the OMO rates and the call money market rates, before being passedthrough to commercial bank retail interest rates. It is important to obtain a good understanding of the speed and magnitude of the interest rate pass-through to make timely monet...
P de Zoysa
The Buddhist practice of cultivating mindfulness has been increasingly influencing psychotherapeutic work. However, in Sri Lanka, the documentation on the use of such practice in psychotherapy is scarce. This paper aims to discuss the influence of Buddhist mindfulness practice on psychotherapy; present a case of mixed anxiety-depressive disorder where mindfulness practice and behaviour therapy were used in its treatment and discuss issues that need to be considered in the use of mindfulness p...
Fernando, P; Wikramanayake, E D; Janaka, H K; Jayasinghe, L K A; Gunawardena, M; Kotagama, S W; Weerakoon, D; Pastorini, J
We studied the ranging patterns of 10 elephants in and around the Yala protected area complex, southern Sri Lanka, using VHF radio telemetry. All tracked elephants displayed similar ranging patterns. The observed home ranges were small (mean=115.2±64.0 km2) relative to reported home ranges in India, possibly in response to high habitat productivity and abundant perennial water sources. Elephants showed high fidelity to their ranges. Home ranges had relatively large core areas, suggesting inte...
In this paper we examine the channels through which innovations to policy variables— policy rates or monetary aggregates—affect such macroeconomic variables as output and inflation in Sri Lanka. The effectiveness of monetary policy instruments is judged through the prism of conventional policy channels (money/interest rate, bank lending, exchange rate and asset price channels) in VAR models. The timing and magnitude of these effects are assessed using impulse response functions...
Galappaththy Gawrie NL; Gunawardena Dissanayake M; Vounatsou Penelope; Briët Olivier JT; Amerasinghe Priyanie H
Abstract Background Rainfall data have potential use for malaria prediction. However, the relationship between rainfall and the number of malaria cases is indirect and complex. Methods The statistical relationships between monthly malaria case count data series and monthly mean rainfall series (extracted from interpolated station data) over the period 1972 – 2005 in districts in Sri Lanka was explored in four analyses: cross-correlation; cross-correlation with pre-whitening; inter-annual; and...
Galappaththy Gawrie NL; Gunawardena Dissanayake M; Vounatsou Penelope; Briët Olivier JT; Amerasinghe Priyanie H
Abstract Background Malaria in Sri Lanka is unstable and fluctuates in intensity both spatially and temporally. Although the case counts are dwindling at present, given the past history of resurgence of outbreaks despite effective control measures, the control programmes have to stay prepared. The availability of long time series of monitored/diagnosed malaria cases allows for the study of forecasting models, with an aim to developing a forecasting system which could assist in the efficient a...
Pushpa Ranasinghe; Jayan Mendis; Raveen Hanwella
In the current practice of psychiatry there is a shift from hospital to community based care. Different models of community psychiatry have been tried in different countries. Though this concept is based on several core principles, each country has to find what is best suited for its population. In Sri Lanka too, community psychiatry projects have been initiated by psychiatrists. We describe below one such project started in a postal area in the capital, Colombo, by one of the authors. The pr...
S. Abyerami; K. Sivashanthini
A herpetological survey was carried out to study the diversity of snakes from 2002 to 2004. The study revealed eighteen species of terrestrial snakes belonging to five families. Out of which four species were highly venomous species; two were mildly venomous and the rest of the twelve were non poisonous species. Two species were endemic to Sri Lanka and six out of the eighteen documented species were recorded for the first time from Jaffna Peninsula.
Full Text Available After the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami inundation event, thin sediment films of fining up sequences were located in several topographic depressions of the southern coastal belt of Sri Lanka. The films consisting of silty fine sand with particular microfossil assemblages were located also in closed containers, bottles and kitchen tables. Well preserved microfossils such as foraminifera, radiolarians as well as spicules of sponges were noted in these recent tsunami sediments.Random augur holes were drilled into some selected depressions in the southern coastal villages of Peraliya and Denuwala situated at locations separated by about 50km. In several such holes, at least two fining up sequences were located below the surface in soil horizons separated from each other by 35cm to 1m. These soil profiles were overlying older coral reefs developed on lateritic formations. The microscopic observations on particular size fractions of the soil horizons showed microfossil assemblages with textures, color and organic C contents strikingly comparable to those observed in the recent tsunami sediments of Sri Lanka. Our findings imply the occurrence of at least two paleo- tsunami events of different ages in Sri Lanka originating apparently from a common source.
Since 1977 considerable effort has been made in Sri Lanka to develop and disseminate wind pumping systems primarily in the small-scale agricultural sector in the island's dry zone. Through close cooperation with the Consultancy Services Wind Energy Developing Countries (CWD) in the Netherlands this programme has been successful in developing the necessary hardware but the broad objective of promoting wide spread use of wind pumping in Sri Lanka is yet to materialize. In analyzing probable reasons for this, the paper highlights that the basic arguments underlying the origin of the project in 1976, such as foreign exchange savings and local industrial development, became irrelevant to the post 1977 political and economic policies of the new government. Thus, the general economic framework adopted in Sri Lanka since 1977 does not seem to provide the necessary pre-conditions for development of a local industry for wind pumps. Due to this reason and the fact that kerosene oil used in conventional agriculturla pumps is subsidized, the ability of wind pumps to compete in the wind pump market seems highly constrained. It is concluded that under such conditions the prospects for the manufacturing and marketing of wind pumps on an industrial scale are not very favourable
This paper describes a study conducted in the lighting sector of office buildings as a part of a broader research study aimed at developing building codes for Sri Lanka addressing lighting as well as thermal comfort in order to optimise the use of electricity within these buildings. The study covered different tasks performed in office buildings and the optimum lighting levels required to perform these tasks in the office environment in Sri Lanka. Also, it included assessing the visual performance of people involved in different activities under varying illumination levels in a controlled environment and a comparison of these optimum lighting levels with international standards. It can be seen that the required optimum lighting levels are generally lower in Sri Lanka in comparison to specified standard levels, and this scenario is likely to be similar in other developing countries too. These findings clearly emphasise the need to adopt lighting standards most appropriate to local conditions, in turn helping improve the energy efficiency within buildings
... Sri Lanka (Colombo) February 3-8, 2013, published at 77 FR 48499, August 14, 2012 to revise the... Mission to Chennai and Cochin, India and Colombo, Sri Lanka on February 3-8, 2013, published at 77 FR... International Trade Administration U.S. Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka...
With a significant unelectrified rural population, Sri Lanka has followed the evolution of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology in the West very closely since the 1970s as terrestrial applications for photovoltaics were developed. It was not until 1980 that the Sri Lankan government embarked on the promotion of solar photovoltaics for rural domestic use when the Ceylon Electricity Board formed the Energy Unit. In addition, Australian and Sri Lankan government-funded pilot projects have given the local promoters further valuable insight into how and how not to promote solar photovoltaics. The establishment of community-based solar photovoltaic programmes by non-governmental organizations has developed a novel approach to bridge the gap between this state-of-the-art technology and the remotely located end-users. (author)
We have engaged in a concerted attempt to undertake research and apply earth science information for development in Sri Lanka, with a focus on climate sciences. Here, we provide details of an ongoing attempt to harness science for disaster identification as a prelude to informed disaster management. Natural disasters not only result in death and destruction but also undermine decades of development gains as highlighted by recent examples from Sri Lanka. First, in May 2003, flooding and landslides in the South-West led to 260 deaths, damage to 120,000 homes and destruction of schools, infrastructure and agricultural land. Second, on December 26, 2000, a cyclone in the North-Central region left 8 dead, 55,000 displaced, with severe damage to fishing, agriculture, infrastructure and cultural sites. Third, an extended island-wide drought in 2001 and 2002 resulted in a 2% drop in GDP. In the aftermath of these disasters, improved disaster management has been deemed to be urgent by the Government of Sri Lanka. In the past the primary policy response to disasters was to provide emergency relief. It is increasingly recognized that appropriate disaster risk management, including risk assessment, preventive measures to reduce losses and improved preparedness, can help reduce death, destruction and socio-economic disruption. The overwhelming majority of hazards in Sri Lanka - droughts, floods, cyclones and landslides -have hydro-meteorological antecedents. Little systematic advantage has, however, been taken of hydro-meteorological information and advances in climate prediction for disaster management. Disaster risks are created by the interaction between hazard events and vulnerabilities of communities, infrastructure and economically important activities. A comprehensive disaster risk management system encompasses risk identification, risk reduction and risk transfer. We undertook an identification of risks for Sri Lanka at fine scale with the support of the Global Disaster Hotspots project of the Earth Institute at Columbia University. We developed tools that translate meteorological, environmental and socio-economic exposure and vulnerability information into assessments of relevant hazard related disaster risk at appropriate spatial and temporal scales. We also developed high-resolution predictive capabilities for assessing seasonal hazard event. We found that useful hazard risk and vulnerability analysis can be carried out with the type of data that is available in Sri Lanka with sufficiently fine scale as to be useful for national level planning and action. Also, hydro-meteorological information was essential to estimate hazard risks. This analysis brought out a distinct seasonality to drought, floods, landslides and cyclone hazards in Sri Lanka. This work provides a foundation for systematic disaster management that shall manage risks through measures such as hazard warnings, scenario-based relief identification and planning, strategic river basin management, risk mapping and land use zoning, standards for construction and infrastructure. The fostering of research and application capacity in the vulnerable community leads to the appropriate and sustainable use of earth science information. This work contributes to the mitigation of risk of vulnerable communities and provides an example of the harnessing of geosciences for poverty alleviation and improvement of human well-being. Note: The contributions of Vidhura Ralapanawe, Upamala Tennakoon, Ruvini Perera, Maxx Dilley, Bob Chen and the Hotspots team are gratefully acknowledged.
The Energy Services Delivery Project (ESDP) in Sri Lanka was an exemplary renewable energy access programme. Consisting of a Credit Component, a Wind Farm Component and a Capacity Building Component, the $53.8 million ESDP successfully installed 21,000 off-grid Solar Home Systems (SHS), 31 megawatts (MW) of grid-connected mini-hydro capacity, 574 kilowatts (kW) of off-grid village hydroelectric systems serving 2,897 households, and a 3MW grid-connected wind farm from 1997 to 2002. By the end of 2004, two years after the ESDP’s close, the Sri Lankan renewable energy industry boasted more than 40 mini-hydro developers, 10 registered solar companies, 22 registered village hydro developers and 12 village hydro equipment suppliers compared to less than three of each before the ESDP began. This study explores the dynamics of the ESDP, and investigates its structure, benefits, challenges and broader implications.
Lopes Cardozo, Mieke T. A.; Hoeks, Celine C. M. Q.
This paper aims to explore the "agency" of teachers for peacebuilding education in Sri Lanka through a critical multiscalar analysis of the interplay between "context"--education policies and governance--and "agent"--teachers as strategic political actors. It draws on two studies conducted in Sri Lanka in 2006 and…
As in many former colonies, language policy and planning in Sri Lanka has been largely shaped by and continues to be overshadowed by its history of colonial rule. Sri Lanka experienced colonization under three different western powers for over four centuries. This situation was further muddied by the three-decades long ethnic-based civil war which…
Samaraweera, Sudath; Sumathipala, Athula; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sivayogan, S.; Bhugra, Dinesh
Sri Lanka has the one of highest rates of suicide. Important factors associated with suicide were determined via the psychological autopsy approach (which had not been carried out previously in Sri Lanka). Over a 3-month period, in a catchment area, 31 suicides among Sinhalese were identified and 27 were investigated. Males were more likely to…
Sedere, Upali M.
Sri Lanka is widening its scope for vocational education sub-sector. The emerging global trends and the aspirations of the emerging Sri Lanka after defeating terrorism demands the preparation of the graduating youth at different stages of the education system for employment. Vocational education faces many challenges. Though there are…
Evans, J.; Little, A. W.
This paper is based on research on the role of UK qualifications suppliers in providing qualifications and accreditation in Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe in the context of rather different engagements with liberalisation, structural adjustment and globalisation. Sri Lanka's economic liberalisation and growth since the late 1970s has had a "de facto"…
Sedere, Upali M.
Equity is a major concern for all development actors. Although Sri Lanka has successfully addressed equity issues in education sector there are unresolved factors and variables those perpetuate inequity. There are emerging new equity issues those that Sri Lanka needs to address. The changing population dynamics and the huge middle class population…
Full Text Available Following the Sri Lankan Government’s military defeat of the internationally proscribed terrorist organisation, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE in May 2009, Sri Lanka embarked on an essential and long-term twofold post-conflict strategy: (i rehabilitation and reintegration of former LTTE combatants, and (ii the rebuilding of the conflict-affected Tamil communities of the Northern and Eastern Provinces. The rehabilitation program was by many counts a success, with demonstrated cognitive transformation in attitudes and behaviour of most of the (formerly radicalised combatants. Reconciliation initiatives were implemented to fulfill the urgent social, political, and economic needs of the conflict-affected communities of the North and East. These reconciliation efforts continue to be implemented and comprise different measures taken in: (1 resettlement and humanitarian assistance, (2 reconstruction of key transport, economic, health, and social infrastructure for reintegration, (3 political engagement, and (4 various types of peace-building work. Sri Lanka’s post-conflict strategy adopts a holistic approach, seeking the contribution of the public sector, private sector, community organisations, international organisations, NGOs, and private individuals from different segments of society in Sri Lanka. However, despite the many effective state-led and other reconciliation efforts undertaken by Sri Lanka, the author is able to present a number of recommendations to the government of Sri Lanka to overcome shortcomings in the rehabilitation and reconciliation programs adopted, as well as other challenges faced by Sri Lanka, such as the relentless disinformation campaign against the Sri Lankan state pursued by the remnant LTTE cells surviving internationally. To understand the complex nature of the Sri Lankan conflict and the skillful disinformation campaign pursued against the Sri Lankan state by the LTTE’s transnational network, a comprehensive introduction is provided as a part of this article.
Premawardhena, A; Fisher, CA; Olivieri, NF; Silva, S.; Arambepola, M; Perera, W; O'Donnell, A; Peto, TE; Viprakasit, V; Merson, L; Muraca, G; Weatherall, DJ
Haemoglobin E beta thalassaemia is the commonest form of severe thalassaemia in many Asian countries, but little is known about its natural history, the reasons for clinical diversity, or its management. We studied 109 Sri Lankan patients with the disorder over 5 years. 25 patients were not receiving transfusion; transfusion was stopped with no deleterious effect in a further 37. We identified several genetic and environmental factors that might contribute to the phenotypic diversity of the d...
Full Text Available The concept “Building Back Better” (BBB was formally introduced following the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, which implies using a collaborative approach to improve the physical, social and economic conditions of a community during post-disaster reconstruction and recovery. This paper introduces eight BBB Principles which contribute towards achieving BBB. The post-tsunami recovery effort in Sri Lanka was examined using the BBB Principles to determine the extent to which BBB has been incorporated in immediate and long-term disaster management practices. Reports, literature, and data collected from a site visit made to Sri Lanka in 2010/2011 were analysed to establish the findings. Although BBB concepts were recognized, failure in execution resulted in a non-BBB recovery. Lessons learnt from shortcomings have been understood and incorporated into current disaster management practices. Good BBB practices currently in effect include: hazard-based land-use planning and risk-based structural regulations; increased awareness; participatory approaches; and stakeholder training. The absence of legislative support to implement BBB initiatives is the only drawback preventing so far. Lessons from Sri Lanka can benefit disaster management practices worldwide.
Mohammad Agus Yusoff; Nordin Hussin; Athambawa Sarjoon
Sri Lankan Muslims, the second largest minority ethnic group with 9.4 per cent (2012) of the total population has been victimized in the cause of ethnic politics, ethno-nationalism, and ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka. Like other ethnic groups in Sri Lanka, the Muslims also have a historical origin that follows a set of distinctive ethno-centric cultural and religious practices. They have contributed much to the communal harmony, socio-economic and political development of the country throughout...
Moira M. Cameron
A request from the nurses of Sri Lanka led to the establishment of the country’s first university nursing program. Delivered by distance, the program represented a collaborative, approach among a Sri Lankan university (The Open University of Sri Lanka), a Canadian university (Athabasca University) and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), who funded the project. The challenges facing this undertaking included the lack of available culturally appropriate course materials, the E...
This bachelor thesis is conducted as a Minor Field Study (MFS) in Colombo, Sri Lanka. The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between journalism and politics from three questions at issue: 1) What is the role of media according to the journalists? 2) How do journalists work with political reporting in the Sri Lankan print media? 3) How does print media and politics correspond to each other in Sri Lanka?. The theoretical framework consists of theories onmedia systems, democracy...
Spatial and temporal variation of frequencies of thunderstorms over Sri Lanka using thunder day data is presented. A thunder day is simply a calendar day in which thunder is heard at least once at a given location. Two sets of data were collected and analyzed: annual totals for 10 climatological stations for a period of 50 years and monthly totals for 20 climatological stations for a period of 20 years. The average annual thunder days over Sri Lanka was found to be 76. Among the climatological stations considered, a high number of annual thunder days was recorded in Ratnapura (150 days/year), followed by Colombo (108 days/year) and Bandarawela (106 days/year). It appears that there are no widespread long-term increasing or decreasing trends in thunderstorm frequencies. However, Colombo, the capital of Sri Lanka which has over two million people shows an increasing trend of 0.8 thunder days per year. Although there is a high variability between stations reporting the number of thunder days, the overall pattern within a year is clear. Thunderstorm frequencies are high during two periods: March-May and September-November, which coincide with the first inter-monsoon and second inter-monsoon periods. Compared to the dry zone, the wet zone, especially the southwestern region, has high thunderstorm activity. There is a clear spatial difference in thunderstorm activities during the southwest and northeast monsoon seasons. During both these seasons, enhanced thunderstorm activities are reported on the leeward side of the mountain range. A slight reduction in the thunderstorm activities was found in the high elevation areas of the hill country compared to the surrounding areas. A lightning ground flash density map derived using annual thunder days is also presented.
Amerasinghe Priyanie H; Galappaththy Gawrie NL; Briët Olivier JT; Konradsen Flemming
Abstract One year ago, the authors of this article reported in this journal on the malaria situation in Sri Lanka prior to the tsunami that hit on 26 December 2004, and estimated the likelihood of a post-tsunami malaria outbreak to be low. Malaria incidence has decreased in 2005 as compared to 2004 in most districts, including the ones that were hit hardest by the tsunami. The malaria incidence (aggregated for the whole country) in 2005 followed the downward trend that started in 2000. Howeve...
Briët, Olivier J T; Galappaththy, Gawrie N L; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H; Konradsen, Flemming
One year ago, the authors of this article reported in this journal on the malaria situation in Sri Lanka prior to the tsunami that hit on 26 December 2004, and estimated the likelihood of a post-tsunami malaria outbreak to be low. Malaria incidence has decreased in 2005 as compared to 2004 in most districts, including the ones that were hit hardest by the tsunami. The malaria incidence (aggregated for the whole country) in 2005 followed the downward trend that started in 2000. However, surveilla...
Ramachandran, S; Ganaikabahu, B; Pushparajan, K; De Silva, C K; Wijesekera, J
Scattered or diffuse myonecrosis is the histopathologic basis for muscle pain and tenderness due to bites by Vipera russelli pulchella in Sri Lanka. These lesions may even occur without any clinical symptoms. Subclinical lesions may form one end of continuous spectrum, with the other being severe pain and muscle tenderness with rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuria. Electromyographic abnormalities, when present, are suggestive of a myopathic pattern, rather than inflammatory muscle disease. A subclinical motor neuropathy may also occur. Hence, there is evidence for subclinical envenomation following bites by Russell's viper. Early antivenom therapy does not prevent the histologic, electromyographic, or nerve conduction abnormalities. PMID:8203709
Silva P. K. de
The only otter found in Sri Lanka is Lutra lutra. A survey was carried out in 1989/1990 in the highland region of the island, an area drained by four river systems. Abundant signs of otters were found. Freshwater crabs form the main part of the otters' diet in the study area, where few fish are found. Although at present, otters are plentiful, partly because access to tea plantations is limited, reducing pressure on otters living on them, this may not continue as vegetable farming increases,...
Garcin, M.; Desprats, J. F.; Fontaine, M.; Pedreros, R.; Attanayake, N.; Fernando, S.; Siriwardana, C. H. E. R.; de Silva, U.; Poisson, B.
The devastating impact of the tsunami of 26 December 2004 on the shores of the Indian Ocean recalled the importance of knowledge and the taking into account of coastal hazards. Sri Lanka was one of the countries most affected by this tsunami (e.g. 30 000 dead, 1 million people homeless and 70% of the fishing fleet destroyed). Following this tsunami, as part of the French post-tsunami aid, a project to establish a Geographical Information System (GIS) on coastal hazards and risks was funded. This project aims to define, at a pilot site, a methodology for multiple coastal hazards assessment that might be useful for the post-tsunami reconstruction and for development planning. This methodology could be applied to the whole coastline of Sri Lanka. The multi-hazard approach deals with very different coastal processes in terms of dynamics as well as in terms of return period. The first elements of this study are presented here. We used a set of tools integrating a GIS, numerical simulations and risk scenario modelling. While this action occurred in response to the crisis caused by the tsunami, it was decided to integrate other coastal hazards into the study. Although less dramatic than the tsunami these remain responsible for loss of life and damage. Furthermore, the establishment of such a system could not ignore the longer-term effects of climate change on coastal hazards in Sri Lanka. This GIS integrates the physical and demographic data available in Sri Lanka that is useful for assessing the coastal hazards and risks. In addition, these data have been used in numerical modelling of the waves generated during periods of monsoon as well as for the December 2004 tsunami. Risk scenarios have also been assessed for test areas and validated by field data acquired during the project. The results obtained from the models can be further integrated into the GIS and contribute to its enrichment and to help in better assessment and mitigation of these risks. The coastal-hazards-and-risks GIS coupled with modelling thus appears to be a very useful tool that can constitute the skeleton of a coastal zone management system. Decision makers will be able to make informed choices with regards to hazards during reconstruction and urban planning projects.
Garcin, M.; Desprats, J.F.; Fontaine, M; Pedreros, R.; Attanayake, N.; Fernando, S.; Siriwardana, C.H.E.R.; U. De Silva; Poisson, B.
The devastating impact of the tsunami of 26 December 2004 on the shores of the Indian Ocean recalled the importance of knowledge and the taking into account of coastal hazards. Sri Lanka was one of the countries most affected by this tsunami (e.g. 30 000 dead, 1 million people homeless and 70% of the fishing fleet destroyed). Following this tsunami, as part of the French post-tsunami aid, a project to establish a Geographical Information System (GIS) on coastal hazards and risks was funded. T...
Full Text Available The devastating impact of the tsunami of 26 December 2004 on the shores of the Indian Ocean recalled the importance of knowledge and the taking into account of coastal hazards. Sri Lanka was one of the countries most affected by this tsunami (e.g. 30 000 dead, 1 million people homeless and 70% of the fishing fleet destroyed. Following this tsunami, as part of the French post-tsunami aid, a project to establish a Geographical Information System (GIS on coastal hazards and risks was funded. This project aims to define, at a pilot site, a methodology for multiple coastal hazards assessment that might be useful for the post-tsunami reconstruction and for development planning. This methodology could be applied to the whole coastline of Sri Lanka.
The multi-hazard approach deals with very different coastal processes in terms of dynamics as well as in terms of return period. The first elements of this study are presented here. We used a set of tools integrating a GIS, numerical simulations and risk scenario modelling. While this action occurred in response to the crisis caused by the tsunami, it was decided to integrate other coastal hazards into the study. Although less dramatic than the tsunami these remain responsible for loss of life and damage. Furthermore, the establishment of such a system could not ignore the longer-term effects of climate change on coastal hazards in Sri Lanka.
This GIS integrates the physical and demographic data available in Sri Lanka that is useful for assessing the coastal hazards and risks. In addition, these data have been used in numerical modelling of the waves generated during periods of monsoon as well as for the December 2004 tsunami. Risk scenarios have also been assessed for test areas and validated by field data acquired during the project. The results obtained from the models can be further integrated into the GIS and contribute to its enrichment and to help in better assessment and mitigation of these risks.
The coastal-hazards-and-risks GIS coupled with modelling thus appears to be a very useful tool that can constitute the skeleton of a coastal zone management system. Decision makers will be able to make informed choices with regards to hazards during reconstruction and urban planning projects.
Full Text Available In the current practice of psychiatry there is a shift from hospital to community based care. Different models of community psychiatry have been tried in different countries. Though this concept is based on several core principles, each country has to find what is best suited for its population. In Sri Lanka too, community psychiatry projects have been initiated by psychiatrists. We describe below one such project started in a postal area in the capital, Colombo, by one of the authors. The project began in late 2008 and by 2010 was functioning independently and fulfilled the criteria for a community based mental health service.
Sunil-Chandra, N P; Clement, J; Maes, P; DE Silva, H J; VAN Esbroeck, M; VAN Ranst, M
Two global (re-)emerging zoonoses, leptospirosis and hantavirus infections, are clinically indistinguishable. Thirty-one patients, hospitalized in Sri Lanka for acute severe leptospirosis, were after exclusion of other potentially involved pathogens, prospectively screened with IgM ELISA for both pathogens. Of these, nine (29·0%) were positive for leptospirosis only, one (3·2%) for hantavirus only, seven (22·5%) for both pathogens concomitantly, whereas 13 (41·9%) remained negative for both. Moreover, in a retrospective study of 23 former patients, serologically confirmed for past leptospirosis, six (26·0%) were also positive in two different IgG ELISA hantavirus formats. Surprisingly, European Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) results were constantly higher, although statistically not significantly different, than Asian Hantaan virus (HTNV), suggesting an unexplained cross-reaction, since PUUV is considered absent throughout Asia. Moreover, RT-PCR on all hantavirus IgM ELISA positives was negative. Concomitant leptospirosis-hantavirus infections are probably heavily underestimated worldwide, compromising epidemiological data, therapeutical decisions, and clinical outcome. PMID:25582980
Full Text Available Various international organizations and foreign advisors suggested that developing countries should focusprimarily on foreign direct investment (FDI as a source of external finance. In this context, the main purpose ofthe study is to find out the impact of foreign direct investment on economic growth in the Sri LankanPerspective. Data on the foreign direct investment and economic growth from the year 1990 to 2011 werecollected for the study purpose. Further, the results revealed that, there is no significant impact of FDI on theeconomic growth, which is in lowest level. Only 4.3 percent of the variance in the dependent variable has beenfound. In contrast, we found that, in the Sri Lankan context, there is a long run equilibrium relationship betweenFDI and economic growth rate. Statistical findings on the basic regression analysis, Co integration test andGranger causality test show the contradiction in terms of the findings. Meantime, scholars in the econometricsstated that, Co integration test generally is applied among time series data. Due to that, Co integration test givethe insights to the findings in terms of long run view. Finally, we have suggested that, the Sri LankanGovernment and Central Bank of Sri Lanka jointly should take the necessary action to focus on theinfrastructure development through the FDI to get the economic growth in the long term view. Meantime, FDIshould be directed to agricultural actives to get the food sufficient aspects in the local and globalized level.
Amerasinghe Priyanie H
Full Text Available Abstract One year ago, the authors of this article reported in this journal on the malaria situation in Sri Lanka prior to the tsunami that hit on 26 December 2004, and estimated the likelihood of a post-tsunami malaria outbreak to be low. Malaria incidence has decreased in 2005 as compared to 2004 in most districts, including the ones that were hit hardest by the tsunami. The malaria incidence (aggregated for the whole country in 2005 followed the downward trend that started in 2000. However, surveillance was somewhat affected by the tsunami in some coastal areas and the actual incidence in these areas may have been higher than recorded, although there were no indications of this and it is unlikely to have affected the overall trend significantly. The focus of national and international post tsunami malaria control efforts was supply of antimalarials, distribution of impregnated mosquito nets and increased monitoring in the affected area. Internationally donated antimalarials were either redundant or did not comply with national drug policy, however, few seem to have entered circulation outside government control. Despite distribution of mosquito nets, still a large population is relatively exposed to mosquito bites due to inadequate housing. There were no indications of increased malaria vector abundance. Overall it is concluded that the tsunami has not negatively influenced the malaria situation in Sri Lanka.
Research on radiation processing of natural polymer such as polysaccharides of chitosan, cellulose, carrageenan has been carried out in Sri Lanka since the year 2004. The research group have been involving in development activities on application of chitin and chitosan for wound dressing, irradiated chitosan on shelf life extension of fruits such as papaya, banana, mangoes, radiation crosslinked super-absorbent hydrogel from sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by radiation processing. Hydrogels prepared with PVA/Carrageenan/Agar has been studied on guinea pigs to determine the wound healing effect. Irradiated chitosan powder and chitosan solution was studied in vitro and found chitosan solution (1%) directly subjected to irradiation dosages even at 5 kGy was highly effective in control of anthracnose causing organism of papaya. In vivo studies with irradiated 1% chitosan solution on Rathana and red lady variety of papaya shows better control of spoilage of papaya to a considerable extent. The government of Sri Lanka (Ministry of Science and Technology and Atomic Energy Authority) is in the process of establishing the first government owned Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility and it will be helpful to transfer the output of R and D in radiation processing. (author)
The India-Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement has been in operation for more than a decade. The paper provides the Sri Lankan perspective of the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) highlighting both the positive outcomes and the negative aspects. The paper shows that the FTA has worked in favor of Sri Lanka but its full potential has not yet been realized due to market access problems in India, and the lack of supply capacity for some products in Sri Lanka. The India-Sri Lanka Comprehensive Economic Partne...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS are often distressed, disabled and dissatisfied with the care they receive. Illness beliefs held by patients have a major influence on the decision to consult, persistence of symptoms and the degree of disability. Illness perception models consist of frameworks to organise information from multiple sources into distinct but interrelated dimensions: identity (the illness label, cause, consequences, emotional representations perceived control and timeline. Our aim was to elicit the illness perceptions of patients with MUS in Sri Lankan primary care to modify and improve a CBT intervention. Method An intervention study was conducted in a hospital primary care clinic in Colombo, Sri Lanka using CBT for MUS. As a part of the baseline assessment, qualitative data was collected using; the Short Explanatory Model Interview (SEMI, from 68 patients (16–65 years with MUS. We categorised the qualitative data in to key components of the illness perception model, to refine CBT intervention for a subsequent larger trial study. Results The cohort was chronically ill and 87% of the patients were ill for more than six months (range six months to 20 years with 5 or more symptoms and 6 or more visits over preceding six months. A majority were unable to offer an explanation on identity (59% or the cause (56%, but in the consequence domain 95% expressed significant illness worries; 37% believed their symptoms indicated moderately serious illness and 58% very serious illness. Reflecting emotional representation, 33% reported fear of death, 20% fear of paralysis, 13% fear of developing cancer and the rest unspecified incurable illness. Consequence and emotional domains were significant determinants of distress and consultations. Their repeated visits were to seek help to alleviate symptoms. Only a minority expected investigations (8.8 % or diagnosis (8.8%. However, the doctors who had previously treated them allegedly concentrated more on identity than cause. The above information was used to develop simple techniques incorporating analogies to alter their perceptions Conclusion The illness perception model is useful in understanding the continued distress of patients with persistent symptoms without an underlying organic cause. Hence it can make a significant contribution when developing and evaluating culturally sensitive patient friendly interventions.
Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina
This paper discusses the solar orientation of the archaeological complex of Sigiriya, the Lion Rock, in Sri Lanka. We can see that the axis of this complex is oriented with the sunset of the zenithal sun.
Thirunavukarasu Velnampy; Nadarajah Sivathaasan; Rajalingam Tharanika; Muthulingam Sinthuja
Purpose: This paper aims to analyze whether the corporate governance attributes such as board leadershipstructure, audit committee meetings held, size of independent non-executive directors and size of non-executivedirectors have significant impact on audit quality of manufacturing companies listed on Colombo Stock Exchange,Sri Lanka during 2011 to 2013.Research Design: The study takes 32 manufacturing companies listed in Sri Lanka out of 36 as sample andemploys binary logistic regression met...
PROBLEM: Adolescent pregnancies are an emerging problem in Sri Lanka and particular among Indian Tamil adolescents (10-19 years) from the tea estates. The risks and consequences for health and socio-economical risks for mother and child such as increased risk for maternal and infant mortality are unacceptable large. THE RESEARCH QUESTION FOR THIS THESIS: what are the influencing factors for adolescents (10-19 years) in Sri Lanka, particularly in tea estates, that lead to pregnancy and STI inc...
Alexander, Rukshan; Alexander, Miroshan
Dengue is a notifiable communicable disease in Sri Lanka since 1996. Dengue fever spread rapidly among people living in most of the districts of Sri Lanka. The present notification system of dengue communicable diseases which is enforced by law is a passive surveillance system carried out by the public health care professionals. The present notification of communicable disease system is manual, slow, inefficient, and repetitive all of these lead to handle the dengue related ...
Zhang, Jenny J; Senaratne, Tharanga N; Daniels, Rachel; Valim, Clarissa; Alifrangis, Michael; Amerasinghe, Priyanie; Konradsen, Flemming; Rajakaruna, Rupika; Wirth, Dyann F; Karunaweera, Nadira D
Abstract. Widespread antimalarial resistance has been a barrier to malaria elimination efforts in Sri Lanka. Analysis of genetic markers in historic parasites may uncover trends in the spread of resistance. We examined the frequency of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter (pfcrt; codons 72-76) haplotypes in Sri Lanka in 1996-1998 and 2004-2006 using a high-resolution melting assay. Among 59 samples from 1996 to 1998, we detected the SVMNT (86%), CVMNK (10%), and CVIET (2%) haplotypes, w...
Hoek, Wim van der; Amerasinghe, F P; Konradsen, F; Amerasinghe, P H
In and around a village in the Anuradhapura District of Sri Lanka anopheline larvae were sampled from July 1994 to April 1996 in all surface water bodies. Samples positive for Anopheles culicifacies, the established vector of malaria in Sri Lanka, and for An. barbirostris, An. vagus, and An. varuna, potential secondary vectors, were characterized by site, exposure to sunlight, substratum, turbidity of the water, presence of vegetation, and presence of fauna. Availability of pools of stagnant wat...
Dharmawardena, Priyani; Premaratne, Risintha G; de AW Gunasekera, WM Kumudunayana T; Hewawitarane, Mihirini; Mendis, Kamini; Fernando, Deepika
Sri Lanka has reached zero indigenous malaria cases in November 2012, two years before its targeted deadline for elimination. Currently, the biggest threat to the elimination efforts are the risk of resurgence of malaria due to imported cases. This paper describes two clusters of imported malaria infections reported in 2013 and 2014, one among a group of Pakistani asylum-seekers resident in Sri Lanka, and the other amongst local fishermen who returned from Sierra Leone. The two clusters studi...
M. A. R. Priyantha
Poultry production and consumption in Sri Lanka, has been dramatically increased during last two decades and Salmonellosis was reported as one of the prevalent diseases in commercial layers. Both S.Gallianrum as well as S.Pullorum is causing severe economical impact to the industry, while S.Typhimurium and S.Enteritidis are also important in the public health aspects. Vaccination against Salmonellosis is widely practiced in several countries in the world to control the infection: In Sri Lanka...
Shalindra Ranasinghe; Rhaiza DC Maingon; Bray, Daniel P; Ward, Richard D; Chandani Udagedara; Manel Dissanayake; Vathsala Jayasuriya; Nissanka K de Silva
Although the reported aetiological agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sri Lanka is Leishmania donovani, the sandfly vector remains unknown. Ninety-five sandflies, 60 females and 35 males, collected in six localities in the district of Matale, central Sri Lanka, close to current active transmission foci of CL were examined for taxonomically relevant characteristics. Eleven diagnostic morphological characters for female sandflies were compared with measurements described for Indian and Sr...
Wijeratne Thilina; Gurusinghe Jayantha; Welgama Srina; Rodrigo Chaturaka; Jayananda Gamini; Rajapakse Senaka
Abstract Background Sri Lanka recorded an extraordinary high suicide rate for adolescents aged 15 - 19 in the early 1990s (46.5/100,000). With this in perspective, the Ministry of Health in Sri Lanka recommends school programmes for adolescents by mental health units of local hospitals. Methods We conducted cross sectional surveys to screen for symptoms of anxiety and depression among students aged 14 - 18 during school mental health programmes. Two schools were randomly selected within the R...
Ocwieja, Karen E; Fernando, Anira N; Sherrill-Mix, Scott; Sundararaman, Sesh A; Tennekoon, Rashika N; Tippalagama, Rashmi; Krishnananthasivam, Shivankari; Premawansa, Gayani; Premawansa, Sunil; De Silva, Aruna Dharshan
In 2009, a severe epidemic of dengue disease occurred in Sri Lanka, with higher mortality and morbidity than any previously recorded epidemic in the country. It corresponded to a shift to dengue virus 1 as the major disease-causing serotype in Sri Lanka. Dengue disease reached epidemic levels in the next 3 years. We report phylogenetic evidence that the 2009 epidemic DENV-1 strain continued to circulate within the population and caused severe disease in the epidemic of 2012. Bayesian phylogeographic analyses suggest that the 2009 Sri Lankan epidemic DENV-1 strain may have traveled directly or indirectly from Thailand through China to Sri Lanka, and after spreading within the Sri Lankan population, it traveled to Pakistan and Singapore. Our findings delineate the dissemination route of a virulent DENV-1 strain in Asia. Understanding such routes will be of particular importance to global control efforts. PMID:24799375
Agger, Inger; Igreja, Victor; Kiehle, Rachel; Polatin, Peter
This study explores the therapeutic implications of including culturally adapted spiritual ceremonies in the process of testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines. Data were collected through an action research process with Asian mental health and human rights organizations, during which the testimonial method was reconceptualized and modified to include four sessions. In the first two sessions, community workers assist survivors in the writin...
Fernando, H. J. S.; McCulley, J. L.; Mendis, S. G.; Perera, K.
Observations of the trail of destruction of the Sumatra tsunami of 26 December 2004 indicate remarkable, small-scale spatial variations, of the order of a few kilometers, of water inundation and destruction in southwestern Sri Lanka [Shiermeier, 2005; Liu et al., 2005] that are much smaller than the tsunami wavelength of ˜100 km.For example, the town of Peraliya, was awash with an approximately 1.5-km water inundation from a wave of 10 m in height; the inundation there carried the passenger train Samudra Devi (the “Ocean Queen”) inland some 50 m, killing 1700 people. Yet,˜3 km south, in Hikkaduwa, there was a mere 2-3 m wave height, 50-m inundation and no deaths.
About Knowledge Management: Process of organizing and distributing an Organization’s collective wisdom so the right information gets to the right people at the right time. NKM Implementation Problems in Sri Lanka: • Difficulty of identifying nuclear knowledge holders; • NKM has not been given considerable importance; • Many nuclear science experts are in retirement age; • No proper mechanism is available to replace young personnel for their positions; • Unawareness of general public about his technology. • Capacity building through training and education and transferring knowledge from centers of knowledge to centers of growth are key issues. • Development of new courses related to nuclear science is a key issue to be highly considered. • The tendency towards the training and educations of nuclear personnel in the country is becoming less and less
Khazai, B.; Franco, G.; Ingram, J. C.; Rumbaitis del Rio, C.
Reconstruction can be an opportunity to address longer-term livelihood vulnerability within poor communities and households, and to empower the most vulnerable. The post-tsunami reconstruction efforts in Sri Lanka can be seen on two disconnected scales. On a local scale there seems to be a growing recognition by district-level government and NGOs on the importance of households in creating social, human and financial capital, as demonstrated by many programs targeted at rebuilding livelihoods and income-generating activities. On a national scale, however, programs have revealed an emphasis on houses as the physical capital rather than housing as the arena of social and economic life. The aim of national-scale programs is to deliver tangible and quantifiable products, in the form of houses built, often without regard of whether this complements or disrupts livelihoods. One example of such a directive is the implementation of a coastal buffer zone which will ban any new construction within a 100 to 200 meter band from the ocean and allowing only structures that sustained less than 40 percent damage to remain and rebuild. In general these kind of surviving structures along the coast are businesses such as hotels and restaurants. In an island nation such as Sri Lanka, where beach front property is by and large considered low-income housing, typically inhabited by fishermen who rely on the ocean for their livelihoods, the buffer zone constitutes a drastic oversight of local processes shaping these households. The product-oriented solution on the national scale has resulted in building permanent houses for fishery communities in resettlement sites kilometers away from the ocean. The focus of this presentation will be on reconciling the need for immediate shelter needs with a long-term perspective of livelihood rehabilitation using Sri Lanka as a case study. Houses themselves are often not an immediate priority for local people, whose first need is likely to resume income-generating activities. In normal times, building houses is seen as a multi-stage process often fitted around the local economic calendar: annual farming or fishing cycles for example. Disaster victims may choose to stay in makeshift shelters in the short term, hoping to have more time, money or materials for rebuilding later. A major challenge for the tsunami-stricken areas in Sri Lanka is to find ways of widening public participation in what to date has been a governmental framework that operates on two disconnected scales in its reconstruction efforts. There is a general absence of mechanisms for incorporating community participation into the governmental decision-making process. Local governments might have also been expected to play a larger role in recovery decision making, but frequently lack both the resources and the authority to become actively involved. Lack of participation in the construction process, has led on an over-reliance on outsiders, reinforcing an attitude of raised expectations.
Sri Lanka is an island nation in Indian Ocean that provides free healthcare to all citizens through government healthcare system. It has commendable health indices in the region. Pediatric cardiac services have rapidly progressed over past few years helping to further bring down infant and under-five mortality rates. Lady Ridgeway Hospital for Children (LRH) is the only tertiary care referral center for children with heart disease in the country. Currently it performs approximately 1,000 cardiac catheterizations and 1,000 cardiac surgeries every year. Target is to double the surgical output to treat all children with heart diseases in a timely and appropriate manner. Being a middle-income country, this is not an easy task. Technology used in diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart diseases is rapidly advancing with its price tag. In such a setting, it is challenging to proceed to achieve this target in a resource-limited environment. PMID:26085764
Silva P. K. de
Full Text Available The only otter found in Sri Lanka is Lutra lutra. A survey was carried out in 1989/1990 in the highland region of the island, an area drained by four river systems. Abundant signs of otters were found. Freshwater crabs form the main part of the otters' diet in the study area, where few fish are found. Although at present, otters are plentiful, partly because access to tea plantations is limited, reducing pressure on otters living on them, this may not continue as vegetable farming increases, bringing pesticide and fertiliser washoff and soil erosion. Mining is also causing increased water turbidity, and fish farming is leading to otters being destroyed. Peak Wilderness Sanctuary and the Horton Plains National Park help to protect otters and other wildlife, but conservation measures need to be put in place now to protect otters against theses growing threats.
An ED-XRF facility was established in the analytical laboratory of the Atomic Energy Authority of Sri Lanka in 2001 under the technical assistance received through a IAEA TC project. The facility comprises of a X ray tube (Rich - Seifert), a sample holder with secondary target assembly and a Si (Li) detector. The laboratory has also got the necessary facilities to analyze water samples by co-precipitating technique using APDC. Our XRF laboratory has already established analytical procedures to use emission transmission methods (AXIl-QAES, P. Kump), back-scatter fundamental parameter method (QXAS-BFP), APDC co-precipitation method and thin and thick sample analysis method. Selected activities carried out by the XRF Laboratory are: Research study on heavy metal concentration levels in crow feathers collected from different environments and in industrial effluents released to a main water body (i.e the Kelani River); Research study on hyper accumulating capacity of flora in Ussangoda area (Serpentine mineral deposited area); Study on the possibility of removing heavy metals in liquid waste by bricks (low cost waste water treatment method); Study on heavy metal contamination in soil collected from Tsunami affected areas; Elemental analysis of air particulate matter to identify pollutants and pollution sources; Provision of analytical services to archaeological studies; Alloy analysis for technical evaluations. In Sri Lanka, there is a rising demand for this analytical service as it can provide the customer relatively fast and reliable results at low cost. AEA has decided to upgrade the existing facility to TXRF through the IAEA technical assistance to meet the demand for the services to analyse water and other liquid samples. In addition, Quality Assurance and Quality control procedures have been implemented for validation of analytical methods and check of accuracy of analytical results obtained
Hoover, Richard B.; Wallis, Jamie; Wickramarathne, Keerthi; Samaranayake, Anil; Williams, George; Jerman, Gregory; Wallis, D. H.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.
On December 29, 2012, a bright yellow and green fireball was observed to disintegrate over the Polonnaruwa District of North Central, Sri Lanka. Many low density, black stones were recovered soon after the observed fall from rice paddy fields near the villages of Aralaganwila and Dimbulagala. These stones were initially studied by optical microscopy methods at the Medical Research Institute in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Soon thereafter, samples were sent to the UK and to the United States. More extensive Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy studies were then carried out at Cardiff University and the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center. The physico-chemical properties, elemental abundances, mineralogy and stable isotope data clearly indicate that these stones are non-terrestrial. Freshly fractured interior surfaces of the black stones have also been observed to contain the remains of fossilized diatom. Many of the diatom frustules are clearly embedded in the meteorite rock matrix and exhibit nitrogen levels below the EDX detection limits. Some of the fossil diatoms are araphid marine pennates and planktonic forms that are inconsistent with conditions associated with rice paddy fields. These observations indicate the fossilized diatoms are indigenous to the meteorites rather than post-arrival biological contaminants. The carbon content and mineralogy suggests that these stones may represent a previously ungrouped clan of carbonaceous meteorites. The extremely low density (~0.6) of the stones and their observed mineralogy was inconsistent with known terrestrial rocks (e.g., pumice, diatomite and fulgurites). The minerals detected suggest that the parent body of the Polonnaruwa stones may have been the nucleus of a comet. These observations are interpreted as supporting the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe Panspermia hypothesis and the hypothesis that diatoms and other microorganisms might be capable of living and growing in water ice and brines in comets.
Galappaththy Gawrie NL
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria in Sri Lanka is unstable and fluctuates in intensity both spatially and temporally. Although the case counts are dwindling at present, given the past history of resurgence of outbreaks despite effective control measures, the control programmes have to stay prepared. The availability of long time series of monitored/diagnosed malaria cases allows for the study of forecasting models, with an aim to developing a forecasting system which could assist in the efficient allocation of resources for malaria control. Methods Exponentially weighted moving average models, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models with seasonal components, and seasonal multiplicative autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA models were compared on monthly time series of district malaria cases for their ability to predict the number of malaria cases one to four months ahead. The addition of covariates such as the number of malaria cases in neighbouring districts or rainfall were assessed for their ability to improve prediction of selected (seasonal ARIMA models. Results The best model for forecasting and the forecasting error varied strongly among the districts. The addition of rainfall as a covariate improved prediction of selected (seasonal ARIMA models modestly in some districts but worsened prediction in other districts. Improvement by adding rainfall was more frequent at larger forecasting horizons. Conclusion Heterogeneity of patterns of malaria in Sri Lanka requires regionally specific prediction models. Prediction error was large at a minimum of 22% (for one of the districts for one month ahead predictions. The modest improvement made in short term prediction by adding rainfall as a covariate to these prediction models may not be sufficient to merit investing in a forecasting system for which rainfall data are routinely processed.
Production status, farming systems and genetic diversity of indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka were evaluated using six geographically distinct populations. The indigenous cattle population of the country is considered as a nondescript mixture of genotypes, and represents more than half of the total cattle population of 1.2 million heads. Five distinct indigenous populations were investigated for morphological analysis, and four were included in evaluating genetic differences. Farming systems were analysed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. The genetic variation was assessed within and between populations using 15 autosomal and two Y-specific microsatellite markers, and compared with two indigenous populations from the African region. Farming system analysis revealed that indigenous cattle rearing was based on traditional mixed-crop integration practices and operates under limited or no input basis. The contribution of indigenous cattle to total tangible income ranged from zero to 90% reflecting the high variation in the purpose of keeping. Morphometric measurements explained specific phenotypic characteristics arising from geographical isolation and selective breeding. Though varying according to the region, the compact body, narrow face, small horns and humps with shades of brown and black coat colour described the indigenous cattle phenotype in general. Genetic analysis indicated that indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka have high diversity with average number of alleles per locus ranging from 7.9 to 8.5. Average heterozygosity of different regions varied within a narrow range (0.72 ± 0.04 to 0.76 ± 0.03). Genetic distances between regions were low (0.085 and 0.066) suggesting a similar mixture of genotypes across regions. Y-specific analysis indicated a possible introgression of Taurine cattle in one of the cattle populations. (author)
Dharmapriya, P. L.; Malaviarachchi, Sanjeewa P. K.; Galli, Andrea; Su, Ben-Xun; Subasinghe, N. D.; Dissanayake, C. B.; Nimalsiri, T. B.; Zhu, Bin
Here, we report a natural field example for the coexistence of spinel + quartz as a non-UHT assemblage in spinel- and cordierite-bearing garnet-sillimanite-biotite-graphite gneiss (khondalite) interbedded with orthopyroxene-garnet-biotite bearing intermediate granulites from the Highland Complex (HC) in Sri Lanka. The khondalite contains Zn-rich spinel mainly in four textural assemblages namely: (a) spinel co-existing with tiny quartz (ZnO = 12.67-12.85 wt%), (b) spinel surrounded by sillimanite moates and in intergrowth with skeletal sillimanites (ZnO = 9.03-9.17 wt%), (c) symplectitic spinels at the margin of sillimanite (ZnO = 4.09-4.28 wt%) and (d) spinel co-existing with ilmenite or as isolated grains (ZnO = 7.61-7.97 wt% and Cr2O3 = 5.99-6.27 wt%). Assemblage (a) and (b) occur within garnet while assemblages of (c) and (d) are present within cordierite moates after garnet in the matrix. Pseudosections calculated in the NCKFMASHTMnO system and conventional geothermobarometry suggest that the metamorphic peak conditions attained by the spinel + quartz bearing khondalites and associated intermediate granulites did not exceed T of 900 °C and P of 7.5-8.5 kbar. Post-peak evolution was characterized by a stage of nearly-isobaric cooling down to T of 770 °C and P of 7.5 kbar, followed by a late stage of isothermal decompression down to P < 6.5 kbar and T of 770 °C. We propose that the incorporation of large amount of Zn into spinel from exotic, metasomatic fluids and possibly incorporation of Fe3+ into spinel under high oxidizing conditions may have shifted the stabilization of co-existing spinel + quartz to T < 900 °C. Hence, this study provides insights into the occurrence of spinel + quartz as a non- UHT assemblage suggesting that the coexistence of spinel + quartz should be treated with care and considered only as indicative, but not diagnostic of UHT metamorphism.
Following the Sri Lankan Government’s military defeat of the internationally proscribed terrorist organisation, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) in May 2009, Sri Lanka embarked on an essential and long-term twofold post-conflict strategy: (i) rehabilitation and reintegration of former LTTE combatants, and (ii) the rebuilding of the conflict-affected Tamil communities of the Northern and Eastern Provinces. The rehabilitation program was by many counts a success, with demonstra...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Snake bite is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in certain parts of Sri Lanka. This study was designed to determine the offending snakes, neurological manifestations, disease course, and outcome in neurotoxic envenomation. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Fifty six consecutive patients admitted with neurological manifestations following snake bite were studied prospectively. Data were obtained regarding the offending snakes, neurological symptoms, time taken for onset of symptoms, neurological signs, and time taken for recovery. RESULTS: The offending snake was Russell?s viper in 27(48.2%, common and Sri Lankan krait in 19(33.9%, cobra in 3(5.4%, and unidentified in 7(12.5%. Ptosis was the commonest neurological manifestation seen in 48(85.7% followed by ophthalmoplegia (75%, limb weakness (26.8%, respiratory failure (17.9%, palatal weakness (10.7%, neck muscle weakness (7.1%, and delayed sensory neuropathy (1.8%. Neurological symptoms were experienced usually within 6 hours after the bite. Following administration of antivenom, the signs of recovery became evident within a few hours to several days. The duration for complete recovery ranged from four hours to two weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Complete recovery of neuromuscular weakness was observed in all patients except for one who died with intracerebral haemorrhage shortly after admission.
Ponniah, G; Reardon, G
This article assesses the impact of technological changes on women's employment in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. The findings of the research initiated by UN University Institute for New Technologies were used to determine how globalization and technological change alter women's role in the society and the economy in two comparable yet contrasting economies. In Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, the manufacturing and service sectors have grown as a result of the globalization strategies of the two governments. The use of new technologies in work processes has been a function of the countries' participation in global trade, and high levels of foreign direct investment have been the source of much job creation. In both countries, a large proportion of the new industrial workforce consists of women. However, while creating new employment opportunities and improving pay and conditions for some women, jobs tend to be based on flexible, short-term forms of employment with serious health and safety risks. Furthermore, technological advancement like automation increases the number of unemployed "unskilled" workers. Lastly, these two countries seem unaware of the implications of new technology, which makes them vulnerable and weak participants in the global market. Therefore, awareness can be enhanced by a greater exposure to technology through work experience and good quality training. PMID:12179942
Like others Sri Lankans too have fear of nuclear radiation, probably because of the weak system of proper radiation education. Some National Institutes and few Universities are involved in nuclear science teaching and research. There are two major levels of obtaining radiation or nuclear education and training in Sri Lanka : the University and training courses in nuclear related technology and radiation protection offered by the Atomic Energy Authority of the Ministry of Science and Technology. This paper summarizes the status, some of the activities and problems of radiation education in Sri Lanka. (author)
Ramanayake, R. P. J. C.
Sri Lankan health system consists of Allopathic, Ayurvedic, Unani, and several other systems of medicine and allopathic medicine is catering to the majority of the health needs of the people. As in many other countries, Sri Lankan health system consists of both the state and the private sector General practitioners, MOs in OPDs of hospitals and MOs of central dispensaries, provide primary medical care in Sri Lanka. Most of the general practices are solo practices. One does not need postgradua...
Stuart Locke; Nirosha Hewa Wellalage; Frank Scrimgeour
This study investigates the link between ethnic minority directors and agency conflict in Sri Lankan listed companies during a global financial crisis. Due to social and economic pressures in recent decades, ethnic minorities now make up a larger proportion of directors on corporate boards in Sri Lanka. In addition, the global financial crisis has increased demand for boards to strengthen their ethnic diversity in workplaces. This study shows that while Sri Lankan boards increased ...
Ranasinghe Priyanga; Ellawela Amaya; Gunatilake Saman B
Abstract Background To identify non-cognitive and socio-demographic characteristics determining academic success of Sri Lankan medical undergraduates. Methods A retrospective study among 90 recently graduated students of the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka. Students were stratified into two equal groups; ‘High-achievers’ (honours degree at the final MBBS examination) and ‘Low-achievers’ (repeated one or more subjects at the same examination). A revise...
Ranmali Waduge; Asiri Rodrigo; Upali Peris
The government of Sri Lanka recently introduced many measures to limit the accessibility and availability of pornography in the country including censorship of websites containing sexually explicit material and active prosecution of Sri Lankans who appeared on such websites Available evidence suggests that pornographic consumption among Sri Lankan adolescents is considerable and such exposure may influence sexual attitudes and activity including sexual aggression in youth. However the current...
Jayasekera Wijetunge, J.
The Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004 caused unprecedented loss of lives and damage to property in Sri Lanka with over 35,000 killed, 20,000 injured and about 100,000 dwellings and other buildings destroyed or damaged. This catastrophic event also exposed lack of disaster preparedness at the time in Sri Lanka and underscored the need for pro-active disaster planning and risk mitigation. Given the apparently low probability of recurrence of destructive ocean-wide tsunami similar to that in 2004, Sri Lanka preferred an integrated approach to tsunami risk mitigation consisting primarily of non-structural measures, namely, public education and awareness; early warning and evacuation; hazard and risk mapping; and necessary institutional and legislative initiatives. The Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System currently under development, though by no means foolproof, will help improve Sri Lanka’s tsunami early warning capability and reliability. Yet, the more difficult and challenging task will be the dissemination of such tsunami warnings fast and effectively to the vulnerable communities so as to enable their evacuation to safe locations. The Disaster Management Centre of the Government of Sri Lanka has been coordinating all activities related to disaster risk mitigation in the country. Their efforts have indeed been commendable, particularly in setting up of institutional mechanisms to better coordinate risk mitigation activities and in strengthening, streamlining and directing the capabilities and resources of relevant governmental and non-governmental organizations towards a common goal of disaster risk reduction through a multi-hazard approach. The university system in Sri Lanka also has made many contributions towards disaster mitigation through capacity building initiatives, hazard mapping and research. On the whole, Sri Lanka has taken significant steps towards disaster risk reduction since the tsunami devastation in 2004. The country now has a sound disaster risk management institutional framework underpinned by necessary legislative provisions. A comprehensive and holistic strategy has been formulated to unify, prioritize and coordinate the disaster risk management activities that have been planned to be implemented in the next 5-10 years towards building a safer Sri Lanka. As a result, we in Sri Lanka are expected to face disasters better than what we were five years back, yet there is a long way to go to make ourselves disaster resilient.
Full text: The production status, farming systems and genetic diversity of indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka were evaluated using six geographically distinct populations in Sri Lanka, which is a small island located below the southern tip of Indian subcontinent. The indigenous cattle population of the country is considered as a non-descript type mixture of genotypes, and represent more than the half of total cattle population of 1.2 million heads. Six distinct indigenous populations (NE, NC, So, No, TK and Th) were investigated for morphological and genetic differences. The respective farming systems were also evaluated to complete the requirement in developing conservation and utilization strategies. The sampling was carried out based on the non-existence of artificial insemination facilities to assure the target populations are indigenous. The six populations were assumed genetically isolated from each other in the absence of nomadic pattern of rearing and regular cattle migration. The farming systems were analyzed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire by single visits to each location. Single visits were practiced, as there is no variation in farming system according to the period of the year. Morphometric measurements were taken during the visit and the genetic variation was assessed within and between five populations using 15 autosomal and two Y-specific microsatellite markers. The farming system analysis revealed that indigenous cattle are reared as a traditional practice in all the regions of the country under limited or no input situations. Since the low productivity masks its real contribution to the rural livelihood, the level of utilization was confounded within the attributes of respective farming systems. The contribution of indigenous cattle to total tangible income ranged from 0% to 90% in different regions reflecting the high variation in the purpose of keeping indigenous cattle. Integration with crop, especially with paddy was the common feature in systems across the regions. Morphometric measurements identified the specific phenotypic characteristics resulted by geographical isolation and selective breeding. Though vary according to the regional preferences, the compact body, narrow face, small horns and humps with shades of brown and black coat colour described the indigenous cattle phenotype in general. The diversity analysis based on microsatellite genotyping indicated that indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka has a high genetic diversity with average number of alleles per locus ranging from 7.9 to 8.5. Average heterozygosity of different regions varied within a narrow range (0.72 ± 0.04 to 0.76 ± 0.03). The genetic distances (DA) between regions were low (ranged between 0.085 and 0.066) suggesting a similar mixture of genotypes across regions despite the geographical isolation. However, two genetic clusters were visible though no relationship of those clusters with the geographical distribution of different regions could be observed. Introgression of taurine cattle was evidenced in one of the cattle populations (NC) as suggested by the Y-specific microsatellite analysis (author)
The efficiency of oestrus detection in pure Bos taurus and Bos taurus x Bos indicus breeds on two large farms and on smallholdings in the mid-country region of Sri Lanka was studied. Milk samples were collected on the day of insemination (D0), and at 7 days (D7) and 23 days (D23) after insemination for the measurement of progesterone concentrations. Of a total of 228 inseminations performed on large farms, ovulatory oestrus was confirmed by progesterone measurement in only 144 animals, giving a correct oestrus detection rate of 63.2%. Of a total of 1317 inseminations performed on smallholdings, oestrus was correctly detected in 805 animals, giving an accuracy of 61.1%. The number of services per conception on large farms and on smallholdings was found to be 3.2 and 2.9, respectively. Most of the incorrect timings of service were due to inseminations being performed during the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle: 28.9% in large farms and 23.1% under smallholder conditions; and on smallholdings, 15.5% of the services were given to anoestrous cows or to cows which failed to ovulate. The percentage of cows in oestrus served by private inseminators (71.3%) was found to be significantly higher (P<0.025) than that in cows served by government technicians (53.8%). The accuracy of diagnosing pregnancy and non-pregnancy on the basis of progesterone concentrations 23 days after insemination, as confirmed by subsequent rectal examination after eight weeks, was found to be 72.5% and 96.4%, respectively. In post-partum cows, the involution of the uterus was found to be complete within 28 ± 8.0 days in 95% of the animals studied. The calving to first service interval was 155 ± 77 days on smallholder farms. In this study, the major causes for lowered reproductive efficiency in cattle in Sri Lanka were found to be delayed onset of post-partum ovarian activity and incorrect timing of service. (author). 33 refs, 9 tabs
Full Text Available Abstract Background International guidelines on research have focused on protecting research participants. Ethical Research Committee (ERC approval and informed consent are the cornerstones. Externally sponsored research requires approval through ethical review in both the host and the sponsoring country. This study aimed to determine to what extent ERC approval and informed consent procedures are documented in locally and internationally published human subject research carried out in Sri Lanka. Methods We obtained ERC approval in Sri Lanka and the United Kingdom. Theses from 1985 to 2005 available at the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine (PGIM library affiliated to the University of Colombo were scrutinised using checklists agreed in consultation with senior research collaborators. A Medline search was carried out with MeSH major and minor heading 'Sri Lanka' as the search term for international publications originating in Sri Lanka during 1999 to 2004. All research publications from CMJ during 1999 to 2005 were also scrutinized. Results Of 291 theses, 34% documented ERC approvals and 61% documented obtaining consent. From the international journal survey, 250 publications originated from Sri Lanka of which only 79 full text original research publications could be accessed electronically. Of these 38% documented ERC approval and 39% documented obtaining consent. In the Ceylon Medical Journal 36% documented ERC approval and 37% documented obtaining consent. Conclusion Only one third of the publications scrutinized recorded ERC approval and procurement of informed consent. However, there is a positive trend in documenting these ethical requirements in local postgraduate research and in the local medical journal.
Chemical Variability and leaf damages among lychee varieties, host of the Sri Lanka weevil Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus Marshall. Jerome Niogret, Nancy Epsky, Paul Kendra, Peter Teal The Sri Lanka weevil Myllocerus undercimpustulatus undatus Marshall is serious economic pest in India and P...
Women who migrate from Sri Lanka to become domestic workers in Lebanon face gender, class, and race discrimination that often results in abuse, yet the predicament of these women is largely ignored by local and international humanitarian and human rights agencies. Public consciousness about the plight of Asian domestic workers in the Persian Gulf region was raised in 1990 when domestic workers were repatriated in the wake of the Gulf War. In Lebanon, nearly half of the work permits granted to foreigners in 1997 were to women from Sri Lanka. This migration began in the 1970s and is sanctioned by the Sri Lanka government because of the economic benefits accruing from wages sent home by these women. Lebanese families procure domestic positions through an employment agency that arranges transportation and entry for the Sri Lankan women. These women, especially minors, often have to bribe Sri Lankan government agents to falsify travel documents. Upon arrival in Lebanon, the women have no support systems or job security. Most employment contracts last 3 years and pay $100/month with no benefits or protection from local labor laws. Domestic workers are made vulnerable by employers who withhold salaries or travel documents. Upon return to Sri Lanka, former domestic workers face social disapproval and marital problems. To redress this situation, the governments of sending and receiving countries must take action to protect female migrant workers, and nongovernmental organizations must publicize the plight of these women and take action to address the abuses they face. PMID:12321536
Kanchana Kumari, Bandara; Manjula, Weerasekera; Chinthika P, Gunasekara; Nilantha, Ranasinghe; Chamil, Marasinghe; Neluka, Fernando.
Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease all over the world, important in tropical and subtropical areas. A majority of leptospirosis infected patients present as subclinical or mild disease while 5-10% may develop severe infection requiring hospitalisation and critical care. It is possible t [...] hat several factors, such as the infecting serovar, level of leptospiraemia, host genetic factors and host immune response, may be important in predisposition towards severe disease. Different Leptospira strains circulate in different geographical regions contributing to variable disease severity. Therefore, it is important to investigate the circulating strains at geographical locations during each outbreak for epidemiological studies and to support the clinical management of the patients. In this study immunochromatography, microscopic agglutination test and polymerase chain reaction were used to diagnose leptospirosis. Further restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing methods were used to identify the circulating strains in two selected geographical regions of Sri Lanka. Leptospira interrogans, Leptospira borgpetersenii and Leptospira kirschneri strains were identified to be circulating in western and southern provinces. L. interrogans was the predominant species circulating in western and southern provinces in 2013 and its presence was mainly associated with renal failure.
Kanchana Kumari, Bandara; Manjula, Weerasekera; Chinthika P, Gunasekara; Nilantha, Ranasinghe; Chamil, Marasinghe; Neluka, Fernando.
Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease all over the world, important in tropical and subtropical areas. A majority of leptospirosis infected patients present as subclinical or mild disease while 5-10% may develop severe infection requiring hospitalisation and critical care. It is possible t [...] hat several factors, such as the infecting serovar, level of leptospiraemia, host genetic factors and host immune response, may be important in predisposition towards severe disease. Different Leptospira strains circulate in different geographical regions contributing to variable disease severity. Therefore, it is important to investigate the circulating strains at geographical locations during each outbreak for epidemiological studies and to support the clinical management of the patients. In this study immunochromatography, microscopic agglutination test and polymerase chain reaction were used to diagnose leptospirosis. Further restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing methods were used to identify the circulating strains in two selected geographical regions of Sri Lanka. Leptospira interrogans, Leptospira borgpetersenii and Leptospira kirschneri strains were identified to be circulating in western and southern provinces. L. interrogans was the predominant species circulating in western and southern provinces in 2013 and its presence was mainly associated with renal failure.
Subasinghe, Sandeepani Kanchana; Jones, D Gareth
Considerable attention is being given to the availability of bodies for anatomical education. This raises the question of the manner in which they are obtained, that is, whether they are unclaimed or donated. With increasing emphasis upon the ethical desirability of using body bequests, the spotlight tends to be focused on those countries with factors that militate against donations. However, little attention has been paid to cultures where donations are readily available. One such country is Sri Lanka where the majority of the Buddhist population follows Theravada Buddhism. Within this context, the expectation is that donations will be given selflessly without expecting anything in return. This is because donation of one's body has blessings for a better outcome now and in the afterlife. The ceremonies to honor donors are outlined, including details of the "Pirith Ceremony." The relevance for other cultures of these features of body donation is discussed paying especial attention to the meaning of altruism and consent, and justification for the anonymization of cadavers. The degree to which anatomy is integrated into the surrounding culture also emerges as significant. Anat Sci Educ 8: 484-489. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:25689145
The objective of the present study was to determine the specific radioactivity concentrations of Ra sup 226, Th sup 232 and K sup 40 in brick samples collected from different areas and compare with the corresponding results for bricks of different countries.Sixteen clay and four cement brick samples were collected from kilns in different areas in Sri Lanka. The gamma ray spectra of the prepared samples were measured using a typical high resolution gamma spectrometer based on a shielded HpGe detector.The spectrometer was calibrated for energy and efficiency over the experimental energy range 186-2700 keV using IAEA reference material RGU-1, RGTH-1 and RGK-1.GANAAS software was used to analyse the photopeaks. The measured average specific radioactivity concentrations of Ra sup 226, Th sup 232, K sup 40 in the clay bricks were 35, 69 and 604 Bq per kg respectively. For cement bricks these values were 17, 42, 525 Bq per kg. The corresponding world average values are 50,50 and 500 Bq per kg for the said radionuclides.All three radionuclides were greater than the world average in clay bricks measured from Mahiyangana. Clay bricks from Ampitiya, Anuradhapura and Nikaweratiya measured values are less than the world average for all three radionuclides. Data on concentrations of natural radionuclides can be used to determine dose rates in relation to building materials
The paper aims to present the structure of weather types at two meteorological stations Galle and Nuwara Eliya (Sri Lanka). The weather type is determined as a generalized characteristic of the weather by features and gradation of selected meteorological elements. All available data on daily average, maximum and minimum air temperature, the average daily total cloud amount and the daily precipitation amount come from OGIMET database and have been used to designate weather types. The analysis was performed for the period April 2002 - March 2012. The weather types were designated based on the modified A. Wo? (2010) classification of weather types. The frequency of groups, subgroups, classes, and types of weather were determined. Additionally, determined frequency of sequences of days with the same weather type. The analysis allows to conclude, that the structure of weather types at both stations was poorly differentiated. There were very stable weather conditions. In Galle, the most frequent was very warm, partly cloudy weather, without precipitation (920) and in Nuwara Eliya warm, partly cloudy weather without precipitation (820).
Apart from the few occurrences of Gondwana (Jurassic), Miocene and later sediments, most of Sri Lanka consists of Precambrian rocks of Archaean age. These rocks underwent metamorphism under amphibolite and granulite facies conditions about 200 Ma ago. Nine anomalous areas for uranium mineralization were identified after a preliminary geochemical survey of the whole island, except for the northwestern Miocene belt. Consistent low contents of uranium in stream sediment samples suggested that solution or hydromorphic dispersion of uranium is not a prominent mechanism and that most of the uranium dispersion is rather mechanical in nature in most of the country. Six of the above areas lie either within or close to the boundary between the Highland Series and the Vijayan Complex. The latter mainly consists of granitic gneisses, hornblende biotite gneisses, granitoids and migmatites formed under amphibolite facies conditions. Denser sampling (one sample per 1 km2) in Phase II of the programme in two areas, namely Maha Cya and Mala Oya, indicated that further exploration work would be worthwhile. A number of samples from these areas had uranium values greater than 500 ppm. Further, the composition of the amphiboles and pyroxenes from rocks of the Maha Cya area are comparable to those in rocks from known areas of uranium mineralization such as the Mary Kathleen uranium deposit in Australia. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs
Galappaththy Gawrie NL
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rainfall data have potential use for malaria prediction. However, the relationship between rainfall and the number of malaria cases is indirect and complex. Methods The statistical relationships between monthly malaria case count data series and monthly mean rainfall series (extracted from interpolated station data over the period 1972 – 2005 in districts in Sri Lanka was explored in four analyses: cross-correlation; cross-correlation with pre-whitening; inter-annual; and seasonal inter-annual regression. Results For most districts, strong positive correlations were found for malaria time series lagging zero to three months behind rainfall, and negative correlations were found for malaria time series lagging four to nine months behind rainfall. However, analysis with pre-whitening showed that most of these correlations were spurious. Only for a few districts, weak positive (at lags zero and one or weak negative (at lags two to six correlations were found in pre-whitened series. Inter-annual analysis showed strong negative correlations between malaria and rainfall for a group of districts in the centre-west of the country. Seasonal inter-annual analysis showed that the effect of rainfall on malaria varied according to the season and geography. Conclusion Seasonally varying effects of rainfall on malaria case counts may explain weak overall cross-correlations found in pre-whitened series, and should be taken into account in malaria predictive models making use of rainfall as a covariate.
Natural hazards amounting to disasters have almost become an endemic phenomenon during past decades throughout the globe, particularly affecting less resourced countries. The capabilities of the affected nations are stretched to the maximum in most of the disasters, thereby exposing deficiencies at various levels of the disaster mitigation mechanisms. A key factor identified through the human experience of all previous disaster scenarios is the requisite of effective and integrated local, national and regional disaster management mechanisms. The national and regional legal framework in this context can supplement disaster management enormously by drafting and implementing practical legislation which can be activated in disaster situations to co-ordinate the relief missions and minimize the damage. Thus, the existing legal systems and legislation at national and regional levels should be modified accordingly to yield proper disaster management policies. However, many less resourced countries are still lacking functional disaster management mechanisms in local legislation and are consequently highly vulnerable to heavy casualties in disasters. Sri Lanka is a typical example of a state which had an ineffective disaster management mechanism, not strengthened by legislation, when the Asian tsunami struck the country in December 2004, despite having frequently been affected by natural and man-made hazards during the past three decades. The net effect was total disarray in disaster victim identification, leading to drastic and irreparable consequences. PMID:17191630
T. R. Wijesundara
Full Text Available Cybernetics has experienced a major breakthrough and led to the utilization of computers at nearly all parts of daily life including social networking. Even though Social Networking Sites (SNS is a global phenomenon, it is constrained by local conditions such as culture. Thus, the purpose of the study is to incorporate cultural dimensions to the motivations and usage patterns of the SNS considering SNS as a collection of features. Present study replicates a study made in the United States in Sri Lanka, and identified differences, trace them to cultural reasons. Findings revealed that while patterns of SNS usage do not differ across cultures, some of the motivations behind them do differ. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings, possible cultural reasons for differences and directions for further research are discussed.
Ceramics were produced for centuries in Sri Lanka for various purposes. Ancient ceramic articles such as pottery, bricks, tiles, sewer pipes, etc, were made from naturally occurring raw materials. Use of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in characterizing of two ancient ceramic samples from two different archaeological sites in Sri Lanka is presented. The information obtained in this manner is used to figure out the ancient ceramic technology, particularly to learn about the raw materials used, the source of raw materials, processing parameters such as firing temperature or binders used in ceramic production. This information then can be used to explore the archaeometric background such as the nature and extent of cultural and technological interaction between different periods of history in Sri Lanka.
The direct cause of the tsunami of 26 December 2004 was an earthquake off the coast of North Sumatra with a magnitude of 9.0 on the Richter scale. This earthquake set in motion a huge wave that hit fourteen countries around the Indian Ocean. When the tsunami landed, the waves varied from approximately 30 metres high in Banda Aceh up to ten metres in parts of Sri Lanka. The tsunami hit thirteen out of a total of 25 districts in Sri Lanka and more than two-thirds of its coastline. Loss of life ...
This document is intended as background information on nuclear energy to contribute to Sri Lanka's comparative study of alternative sources of energy. This study has considered the safety and environmental effects of nuclear power reactors. Basic concepts of nuclear physics are introduced and providing and appreciation of safety considerations and safety aspects of nuclear power plants and the personnel. Radioactive waste management, storage and disposal are also discussed. Natural radiation levels in Sri Lanka are provided as well as information on biological effects of radiation especially occupational exposure licensing procedures for nuclear power plants are outlined strategy for public awareness of nuclear power is proposed
Garcin, Manuel; Desprats, Jean-François; Pedreros, Rodrigo; Fontaine, Mélanie; Sedan, Olivier; Lenotre, Nicole; Attanayake, Nishantha; De Silva, Udaya; Fernando, Starin; Siriwardana, Cher
The impact of the tsunami of December 26, 2004 in Sri Lanka clearly showed the importance of a thorough knowledge of coastal risks and of taking these into account in order to reduce their impacts. We present here a project funded by French Government (Ministère des Affaires Etrangères) and BRGM Research Division including both Sri Lankan and French institutions. The aims of this project are to implement an effective tool designed to reduce the impact of coastal natural hazards and to anticip...
Full Text Available Introduction: Job stress and job satisfaction play a key role in the work environment of an organization. These influence the behaviour of a doctor towards his or her co-workers, administration and, most importantly towards the patients. Objective: To assess job stress among consultants working in Colombo group of hospitals and to identify the factors that affect job satisfaction. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted by using postal questionnaire on 262 consultants working in Colombo group of hospitals. Hospital consultants job stress and job satisfaction questionnaire developed by Amanda Ramirez et al. was used with their permission. Results: Of the 262 questionnaires mailed 171 were returned. Of total responded 84.6% reported extremely satisfied or satisfied with their work. Nearly 92% agreed intellectual stimulation by teaching contributed to their job satisfaction. Nearly 80% reported having a high level of responsibility, being perceived to do the job well by the colleagues, being able to bring about positive changes to the unit, having a high level of autonomy contributed to their job satisfaction. Poor administration and lack of facilities e.g. computers, filing procedures caused job stress in 73%. Threat of being sued for malpractice or having to deal with distressed relatives did not contribute to stress in nearly 80%. Conclusion: In Sri Lanka nearly 85% consultants reported they were satisfied with their job and teaching medical undergraduates and post graduates was one of the major contributory factors. However 73% indicated factors such as lack of resources, and poor administration cause stress at work. Providing computers and basic stationery for patient documentation and efficient and effective administration will improve the work output of consultants by reducing their stress levels.
Thilakaratne, I D S I P; Rajapaksha, G; Hewakopara, A; Rajapakse, R P V J; Faizal, A C M
A total of 1520 ornamental fish of 13 species from 26 export farms in Sri Lanka were collected between October 1999 and March 2000 and examined for parasites. Fish species examined were guppy Poecilia reticulata, goldfish Carassius auratus, platy Xiphophorus maculatus, molly Poecilia sphenops, angel Pterophyllum scalare, swordtail Xiphophorus helleri, tetras Hyphessobrycon species, barbs Capeota and Puntius spp., gourami Colisa sp., carp Cyprinus carpio, fighters Betta spelendens and others (Brachydanio and Astronotus spp.). Nine species of monogenean trematodes (Dactylogyrus extensus, Dactylogyrus cf. extensus, D. vastator, Dactylogyrus cf. vastator Dactylogyrus spp., Gyrodactylus turnbulli, G. katherineri, Gyrodactylus cf. katherineri, Gyrodactylus spp.), 7 protozoan species (Trichodina nigra, Trichodina spp., Tetrahymena corlissi, T. pyriformis, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Ichthyobodo necator, Piscinoodinium spp.), 3 species of copepod arthropods (Lernaea cyprinacea, Ergasilus ceylonensis, Argulus foliaceus), 1 metacercarial stage of a digenean trematode (Centrocestus spp.) and 1 nematode (Capillaria spp.) were identified. Parasites were found in fish from 23 of the 26 farms with an overall prevalence of parasitism in 45.3% of fish. The variation in farm prevalence among different parasites was significant (p Tetrahymena, compared with 13/930 for all other species, which is a statistically significant result (p < 0.01). Similarly, 13/44 and 18/44 carp were infected with Argulus foliaceus and Lernaea cyprinacea, compared with 7/1476 and 15/1476, respectively, for all other species combined (p < 0.01). Capillaria spp. was found only in guppies (4/590) and angel fish (3/92) while Centrocestus spp. was found in goldfish (12/153) only. PMID:12747641
Gumindu Garuka Kulatunga
Full Text Available Continuous Professional Development (CPD can be described as a continuous process which begins on the day a person start practicing as a doctor. Continuous Medical Education (CME concentrates on improving individual professional knowledge by education and training in areas determined by experts. But in CPD, professionals play an active role in defining the knowledge which they see as relevant to their own professional needs and learning takes place not only at individual level but also at organisational level. CPD is becoming a popular mode of learning worldwide by which doctors keep their practice up to-date. CPD is seen as essential for effective practice and for professional development. Even though the standard format of CPD for many years has been formal, there is no specific method in operation. Over the last decade there has been increasing interest in the use of computers to facilitate collaborative learning between healthcare professionals for CPD. Web-based learning is an attractive methodology for medical education and offers some advantages over traditional methods. There is improved clinical practice and improved clinical decision making as a result of web based learning. Professionals are satisfied with the ?exibility and the convenience offered in Web-based mode of CPD delivery as it saves time and money. Web based CPD programmes will fulfil the educational requirements of health professionals in the peripheral parts of Sri Lanka who have difficulty in attending formal education sessions due to their geographical isolation. Meeting the educational needs of professionals already in practice remains a challenge and web based online CPD can play a major role in proving the high demand.
Senarathna S M D K Ganga
Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute paracetamol poisoning is a rapidly increasing problem in Sri Lanka. The antidotes are expensive and yet no health economic evaluation has been done on the therapy for acute paracetamol poisoning in the developing world. The aim of this study is to determine the cost effectiveness of using N-acetylcysteine over methionine in the management of acute paracetamol poisoning in Sri Lanka. Methods Economic analysis was applied using public healthcare system payer perspective. Costs were obtained from a series of patients admitted to the National Hospital of Sri Lanka with a history of acute paracetamol overdose. Evidence on effectiveness was obtained from a systematic review of the literature. Death due to hepatotoxicity was used as the primary outcome of interest. Analysis and development of decision tree models was done using Tree Age Pro 2008. Results An affordable treatment threshold of Sri Lankan rupees 1,537,120/death prevented was set from the expected years of productive life gained and the average contribution to GDP. A cost-minimisation analysis was appropriate for patients presenting within 10 hours and methionine was the least costly antidote. For patients presenting 10-24 hours after poisoning, n-acetylcysteine was more effective and the incremental cost effectiveness ratio of Sri Lankan rupees 316,182/life saved was well under the threshold. One-way and multi-way sensitivity analysis also supported methionine for patients treated within 10 hours and n-acetylcysteine for patients treated within 10-24 hours as preferred antidotes. Conclusions Post ingestion time is an important determinant of preferred antidotal therapy for acute paracetamol poisoning patients in Sri Lanka. Using n-acetylcysteine in all patients is not cost effective. On economic grounds, methionine should become the preferred antidote for Sri Lankan patients treated within 10 hours of the acute ingestion and n-acetylcysteine should continue to be given to patients treated within 10-24 hours.
Biermayer, Peter; Busch, John; Hakim, Sajid; Turiel, Issac; du Pont, Peter; Stone, Chris
A feasibility study evaluated the costs and benefits of establishing a program for testing, labeling and setting minimum efficiency standards for appliances and lighting in Sri Lanka. The feasibility study included: refrigerators, air-conditioners, flourescent lighting (ballasts & CFls), ceiling fans, motors, and televisions.
Rao, R.R.; Girishkumar, M.S.; Ravichandran, M.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Pankajakshan, T.
cooler, low-salinity waters from the head Bay of Bengal (BoB) into the south-eastern AS. But due to a lack of any direct in situ measurements, it is not clear whether any part of this current that flows through the Indo-Sri Lanka Channel (ISLC...
The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in 86 unwanted dogs obtained in two batches (36 in batch 1, 50 in batch 2) from Sri Lanka was determined. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT) and found in 58 (67.4%) of 86 dogs with titers of 1:20 in seven, 1:40 in four, ...
This article discusses the life and career of a Tamil teacher of English working in the government education system in northern Sri Lanka. Based on data gathered in an extended life history interview, the article explores the teacher's own experiences of schooling, his reasons for entering teaching as a profession, his professional training, and…
In education, there is a growing interest in the concept of "competency" especially in vocational training and professional development. The concept is strongly associated with the ability to apply knowledge and skills in effective ways in unanticipated situations. In Sri Lanka, a new competency-based mathematics curriculum was…
Davis, Christina P.
This article presents a holistic view of ideological barriers to bilingual policy implementation in Sri Lanka, a conflict-ridden postcolonial nation-state. I examine Sinhalese youth and adults' Tamil as a second language (TSL) learning and speaking practices across three contexts: a multilingual school, a program for government servants, and an…
Sri Lanka has had a hydropower dominated electricity generation sector for many years with a gradually decreasing percentage contribution from hydroresources. At the same time, the thermal generation share has been increasing over the years. Therefore, the expected fuel mix in the future in the large scale thermal generation system would be dominated by petroleum products and coal. This will result in a gradual increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) and other environmental emissions in the power sector and, hence, require special attention to possible mitigation measures. This paper analyses both the supply side and demand side (DSM) options available in the Sri Lanka power sector in mitigating emissions in the sector considering the technical feasibility and potential of such options. Further, the paper examines the carbon abatement costs associated with such supply side and DSM interventions using an integrated resource planning model, which is not used in Sri Lanka at present. The sensitivities of the final generation costs and emissions to different input parameters, such as discount rates, fuel prices and capital costs, are also presented in the paper. It is concluded that while some DSM measures are economically attractive as mitigation measures, all the supply side options have a relatively high cost of mitigation, particularly in the context of GHG emission mitigation. Further it is observed that when compared with the projected price of carbon under different global carbon trading scenarios, these supply side options cannot provide economically beneficial CO2 mitigation in countries like Sri Lanka
Despite Sri Lanka's 1990 commitment to provide 10-11 years of free education to all, only 93% of children in the 5-14-year-old age group were in school by the year 2000. Moreover, the education participation rates are not equitable across the country, varying by socio-economic groups. This paper examines the determinants of school…
Cashman, Timothy G.; Asing-Cashman, Joyce G.
This qualitative study strives to provide a greater understanding of the past, current, and future state of education in Sri Lanka after the 2004 tsunami. The researchers' key objectives are to provide additional insight to educators of the far-reaching impact of the tsunami via a website they created. Rather than concentrate on the same sort of…
Little, Angela W.
In 1997, the Government of Sri Lanka launched a comprehensive set of education reforms designed to promote equitable access to basic education and improvements in learning outcomes. The package of reforms arose as a political response to widespread youth unrest in the late 1980s and attracted considerable "political will", a vague but much vaunted…
This mixed method research study is situated in the school effectiveness research paradigm to examine the correlation between the effectiveness of urban, primary school principals and their students' performance in mathematics. Nine, urban, primary schools from Negombo, a coastal fishing area in Sri Lanka, were selected; their student achievements…
T. P. Burt
Full Text Available Daily rainfall totals are analyzed for the main agro-climatic zones of Sri Lanka for the period 1976–2006. The emphasis is on daily rainfall rather than on longer-period totals, in particular the number of daily falls exceeding given threshold totals. For one station (Mapalana, where a complete daily series is available from 1950, a longer-term perspective on changes over half a century is provided. The focus here is particularly on rainfall in March and April, given the sensitivity of agricultural decisions to early southwest monsoon rainfall at the beginning of the Yala cultivation season but other seasons are also considered, in particular the northeast monsoon. Rainfall across Sri Lanka over three decades is investigated in relation to the main atmospheric drivers known to affect climate in the region: sea surface temperatures in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, of which the former are shown to be more important. The strong influence of El Niño and La Niña phases on various aspects of the daily rainfall distribution in Sri Lanka is confirmed: positive correlations with Pacific sea-surface temperatures during the north east monsoon and negative correlations at other times. It is emphasized in the discussion that Sri Lanka must be placed in its regional context and it is important to draw on regional-scale research across the Indian subcontinent and the Bay of Bengal.
Jeris, Laurel; Gajanayake, Jaya; Ismail, Jesima; Ebert, Seela; Peris, Amara; Wanasundara, Leelangi; Diyadawagamage, Nalika
This paper describes a participatory research (PR) project encompassing a capacity-development programme and advocacy skill-building initiative for rural women. The project actively engaged four prominent women's non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Sri Lanka: Agromart Foundation, Centre for Women's Research (CENWOR), Sarvodaya Women's…
Harris, Simon; Lewer, Nick
In September 2005, adult students from Kilinochchi, located in the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)-controlled Wanni region of northern Sri Lanka, were awarded University of Bradford, UK, validated postgraduate certificates or diplomas in conflict resolution and peace preparedness. The diploma is, we think, a landmark in peace education…
The use of radiation induced mutations is an effective additional tool for plant breeding work in Sri Lanka. Mutation Breeding could be effectively utilized to create favourable specific changes such as short culms, 90o resistance to pests and diseases, improvement in grain quality etc
Full Text Available Abstract Background Air pollution is increasingly documented as a threat to public health in most developing countries. Evaluation of current air quality levels, regulatory standards and scientific literature on outdoor and indoor air pollution, and health effects are important to identify the burden, develop and implement interventions and to fill knowledge gaps in Sri Lanka. Methods PUBMED and Medline databases, local journals and conference proceedings were searched for epidemiologic studies pertaining to air pollution and health effects in Sri Lanka. All the studies pertaining to air pollution and health effects were considered. Results Sixteen studies investigated the association between exposure to ambient or indoor air pollution (IAP and various health outcomes ranging from respiratory symptoms, low birth weight and lung cancers. Of the sixteen, three used a case control design. Half of the studies collected exposure data only through questionnaires. There were positive associations between air pollution and adverse health effects in all studies. Methodological limitations in most of the studies resulted in poor quantification of risk estimates. Conclusion A limited number of epidemiological studies in Sri Lanka have investigated the health effects of air pollution. Based on findings of studies and reported air quality levels, air pollution may be considered a neglected public health problem in Sri Lanka.
Little, Angela W.; Evans, Jane
Based mainly on a study of newspaper adverts for qualifications and tuition courses in Sri Lanka over a period from 1965 to 2000, this paper describes a decentralisation of control over the supply of qualifications. It is argued that this has occurred not through a deliberate policy mechanism to decentralise qualifications, but rather by default,…
Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Dengue Virus Transmission by Blood Stem Cell Donor after Travel to Sri Lanka; Germany, 2013. Created: 9/22/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 10/8/2014.
Samarajeewa, A.D.; Schiere, J.B.; M.N.M. Ibrahim; Viets, T.
A study was carried out to identify biological and socio-economic constraints and opportunities for livestock development in coconut plantations in Sri Lanka. One part of the study focussed on the use of participatory rural appraisal to establish felt needs of different farmer categories in terms of feeding practices. Small coconut land holders ( 6 ha) kept livestock for indirect (secon...
Ratnayeke, Shyamala; Van Manen, Frank T.
Bears are large, charismatic mammals whose presence often garners conservation attention. Because healthy bear populations typically require large, contiguous areas of habitat, land conservation actions often are assumed to benefit co-occurring species, including other mammalian carnivores. However, we are not aware of an empirical test of this assumption. We used remote camera data from 2 national parks in Sri Lanka to test the hypothesis that the frequency of detection of sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) is associated with greater richness of carnivore species. We focused on mammalian carnivores because they play a pivotal role in the stability of ecological communities and are among Sri Lanka's most endangered species. Seven of Sri Lanka's carnivores are listed as endangered, vulnerable, or near threatened, and little empirical information exists on their status and distribution. During 2002–03, we placed camera traps at 152 sites to document carnivore species presence. We used Poisson regression to develop predictive models for 3 categories of dependent variables: species richness of (1) all carnivores, (2) carnivores considered at risk, and (3) carnivores of least conservation concern. For each category, we analyzed 8 a priori models based on combinations of sloth bear detections, sample year, and study area and used Akaike's information criterion (AICc) to test our research hypothesis. We detected sloth bears at 55 camera sites and detected 13 of Sri Lanka's 14 Carnivora species. Species richness of all carnivores showed positive associations with the number of sloth bear detections, regardless of study area. Sloth bear detections were also positively associated with species richness of carnivores at risk across both study years and study areas, but not with species richness of common carnivores. Sloth bears may serve as a valuable surrogate species whose habitat protection would contribute to conservation of other carnivores in Sri Lanka.
Gunda, T.; Hornberger, G. M.
Two distinct irrigation systems dominate the landscape in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The tank-cascade system, which originates from third century BC, is a small-scale system that has been the traditional method for communities to meet their farming water needs. The Mahaweli reservoir system, in contrast, is a large-scale irrigation scheme initiated in the 1970s that diverts water across hundreds of kilometers from the headwaters of the Mahaweli River to farmers. Although approximately equal amounts of paddy land are irrigated under these two systems, very little comparative analysis has been conducted on the spatial variation of irrigation water quality in Sri Lanka. An exploratory study was conducted in June 2013 in Anuradhapura district, an area that experiences the highest level of paddy production instability and has had long-standing irrigation water quality issues. A total of 30 water samples from both cascade systems and Mahaweli system H-7 were analyzed for pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, and chromatic dissolved organic matter using field instruments. A subset of these samples was further analyzed for nitrate and ammonia using colorimetric methods. While the sparse data from our study revealed some interesting trends, it is difficult to extrapolate in detail. Therefore, we compare inferences drawn about the Sri Lanka data to a more detailed analysis of chromatic dissolved organic matter in a Tennessee watershed. This comparison will provide insight into possible interpretations relative to the water quality data collected in Sri Lanka. As Sri Lanka continues to develop its irrigation resources, water quality assessments such as this one are critical for identifying factors limiting paddy production in the country.
Herath, A T; Abayasekara, C L; Chandrajith, Rohana; Adikaram, N K B
Use of bottled water in Sri Lanka has increased over the last decade, while new brands of bottled water are often introduced to the market. However, the manufacturers' adherence to bottled water regulations is questionable, raising concerns regarding the quality of bottled water. The objective of the current study was to investigate the microbiological and chemical quality of bottled water in Sri Lanka. Thirty bottled water brands were sampled and their chemical and microbiological parameters were analyzed. Microbiological analysis was carried out within 1 to 3, 3 to 6, 6 to 9, and 9 to 12 mo after the date of manufacture. The results indicated that 63% of brands tested exceeded the levels permitted by the Sri Lanka Standards Institution (SLSI) for presumptive total coliforms (TC) (brands exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) permitted level. Thirty percent of brands exceeded the limit for presumptive fecal coliforms (FC) (0 cfu per 100 mL in accordance with WHO permitted levels, SLSI and the Sri Lanka Health Ministry requirement). Eighty percent of brands showed higher heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) which exceeded the WHO guidelines for bottled drinking water. Throughout their shelf life, the counts of TC, FC, and HPC bacteria decreased. Bacteria identified were Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pasteurella haemolytica, the most frequently being P. aeruginosa. The dominant fungi identified were Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. Inorganic chemical parameters were within permitted levels for all brands except for initial content of ammonia. The results of this study show the need for the bottling industry to be monitored closely by relevant authorities, in order to provide safe bottled drinking water to consumers in Sri Lanka. PMID:22384963
Perera, W S
Increases in the educational level and allied factors such as late marriage have led to a decrease in the birth rate to 27.6/1000 in Sri Lanka. The World Fertility Survey in 1975 revealed that the average number of children desired was only 2.4 although the average number per family was 3.9, indicating the need for population education especially at the school level. Population education components were introduced to the junior secondary level, grades 6-9, in stages beginning in 1974 following institution of the Population Education In-School Project at the Curriculum Development Centre of the Ministry of Education. Population components were introduced into language, mathematics, science, health science, and social studies curricula already being taught. The longrange objectives of the program are to prepare future citizens who will be knowledgeable about the impact of population growth on the quality of life, and to promote responsible attitudes and decisions regarding family size. Immediate objectives are to promote understanding of population dynamics and encourage responsible attitudes. The program strives to avoid conflict with sociocultural and socioreligious norms of the various population sectors. Teacher training was provided in residential seminars, and through course guides and reference books. Reorganization of the educational structure led to a brief period of inactivity for the Population Education Unit, but work began again in 1980. The Non-Formal Education Branch of the Ministry of Education is ragarded as a possible area for introduction of population education components in adult education. Most population education programs directed toward adults are conducted by other ministries. The main problems in implementation of the junior secondary level population education program have been initial training of teachers and provision of resource and reference materials; use of the mobile library donated by the UNESCO Population Education Clearinghouse is expected to help alleviate the latter problem. An innovative method of inservice teacher training utilized by the program is the use of a network of master teachers as inservice advisors. PMID:12265649
Muthucumarana, R.; Gaur, A.S.; Chandraratne, W.M.; Manders, M.; Rao, B.R.; Bhushan, R.; Khedekar, V.D.; Dayananda, A.M.A.
from this site include many quern stones, various types of ceramics, and glass ingots. The comparative study of the artefacts from the Godawaya site and terrestrial sites of Sri Lanka and India suggest that the ship might have originated from...
Mattsson, Eskil; Ostwald, Madelene; Nissanka, S P; Marambe, Buddhi
This paper explores the concept of homegardens and their potential functions as strategic elements in land-use planning, and adaptation and mitigation to climate change in Sri Lanka. The ancient and locally adapted agroforestry system of homegardens is presently estimated to occupy nearly 15 % of the land area in Sri Lanka and is described in the scientific literature to offer several ecosystem services to its users; such as climate regulation, protection against natural hazards, enhanced lan...
Presidendivalimistest Sri Lankal. Uus president Mahinda Rajapaksa on valmis kohtuma tamilite mässu juhtidega ning arutama rahu taastamise võimalusi. Presidendi eesmärgid. Lisa: Pommirünnakud poliitikute vastu
Full Text Available This paper analyzes sustainable development practices within Sri Lanka’s energy sector. It directs attention to how expertise functions in development decision making in ways that can unintentionally inhibit sustainable development. Understanding expertise as merely specialized knowledge clouds its role as a social activity. In practice, expertise is a combination of knowledge and authority, and expert knowledge exists within a hierarchically ordered authority structure of diverse knowledge domains—what is referred to here as “knowledge hierarchies.” Knowledge hierarchies exclude the participation of some relevant knowledge domains, and thereby preclude the possibility of local sustainable development. The Energy Forum of Sri Lanka, a small renewable energy advocacy organization, strives to enable sustainability by going beyond facile calls for greater inclusion to confront the mechanisms of exclusion. The paper documents three of the Energy Forum’s development interventions intended to level out the knowledge hierarchy that inhibits sustainable energy development in Sri Lanka. Drawing insights from the Energy Forum’s approach, the paper argues that experts who wish to contribute to sustainable development must attend to the knowledge hierarchies in which they operate to ensure that their own authority does not exclude other relevant knowledge domains.
Shalindra, Ranasinghe; Rhaiza DC, Maingon; Daniel P, Bray; Richard D, Ward; Chandani, Udagedara; Manel, Dissanayake; Vathsala, Jayasuriya; Nissanka K de, Silva.
Full Text Available Although the reported aetiological agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sri Lanka is Leishmania donovani, the sandfly vector remains unknown. Ninety-five sandflies, 60 females and 35 males, collected in six localities in the district of Matale, central Sri Lanka, close to current active transmis [...] sion foci of CL were examined for taxonomically relevant characteristics. Eleven diagnostic morphological characters for female sandflies were compared with measurements described for Indian and Sri Lankan sandflies, including the now recognised Phlebotomus argentipes sensu lato species complex. The mean morphometric measurements of collected female sandflies differed significantly from published values for P. argentipes morphospecies B, now re-identified as Phlebotomus annandalei from Delft Island and northern Sri Lanka, from recently re-identified P. argentipes s.s. sibling species and from Phlebotomus glaucus. Furthermore, analysis of underlying variation in the morphometric data through principal component analysis also illustrated differences between the population described herein and previously recognised members of the P. argentipes species complex. Collectively, these results suggest that a morphologically distinct population, perhaps most closely related to P. glaucus of the P. argentipess. I. species complex, exists in areas of active CL transmission. Thus, research is required to determine the ability of this population of flies to transmit cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Full Text Available Sri Lanka was badly affected by the tsunami that occurred on 26th December 2004. The tsunami destroyed about two-thirds of the Sri Lankan coastline and affected more than 1,000,000 people. It does not only affected the lives of the community, but also had a devastating effect on their housing and livelihoods. The overall loss of 100,000 or more houses due to the tsunami proved to be a major challenge to the emergency response teams and disaster planners. Although several major disasters of varying magnitudes have occurred in the world, the body of knowledge related to post-disaster housing reconstruction and rehabilitation appears fragmented and poorly integrated. This paper attempts to fill this theoretical gap by focusing on the extent to which good practice knowledge transfer helps in overcoming this problem for more effective and efficient delivery of post-tsunami housing in Sri Lanka. The paper applied knowledge transfer principles within the context of the two housing reconstruction strategies employed in post-tsunami housing reconstruction in Sri Lanka; namely donor-driven housing and owner driven housing. The results of this study reveal that the knowledge transfer within this context cannot be simply copied and inserted from one context without any localisation. Therefore, the paper proposes a high-level abstraction of the core principles of community engagement through participatory techniques associated with appropriate capacity and capability building techniques that will enable the various stakeholders to create a new application to suit the appropriate context of the transfer destination (post-tsunami context in Sri Lanka.
The Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus gallus) is generally considered to be main ancestor of the domestic fowl (Callus domesticus). However, it is also believed that other wild Callus species might have contributed to the modern genetic make-up of the domestic fowl, one wild species being the Ceylon Jungle Fowl (Gallus lafayetti), endemic to Sri Lanka, which could have contributed to the domestic stock of Sri Lankan native poultry. The present study was conducted in order to investigate the origin of native fowl in Sri Lanka and to establish genetic relationships among them and the Ceylon Jungle Fowl. Morphological characters of endemic, indigenous and exotic fowl types were recorded. These included Ceylon Jungle fowl; eleven types of native chicken from Sri Lanka; and two exotic chicken breeds (Cornish and Rhode Island Red). Blood samples were collected for DNA extraction. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was carried out using sixteen non-specific primers. The results of morphological characterization revealed many variations in plumage and colour pattern. Single and pea comb types were found in both native and exotic types of chicken. A prominent yellow colour marking on a red comb was a unique feature in Ceylon Jungle fowl. The presence of white spots in red earlobes was a distinguishing feature of all native chicken types. Sixteen non-specific primers were used in the study, and produced 22 polymorphic bands ranging from 500 to 1960 bp. Genetic similarity indices ranged from 0.5 to 1.1 in average genetic distance scale, indicating a broad genetic base in the samples studied. Cluster analysis revealed a clear separation of Ceylon Jungle Fowl from all other types studied, indicating that contribution in data analysis, and the Director and staff, National Zoological Gardens, Sri Lanka, for their help in sampling Ceylon Jungle Fowl. (author)
A. P. Sumanapala
Full Text Available Sinhalestes orientalis (Hagen in Selys, 1862 the only representative of its genus, is an endemic and globally critically endangered damselfly in Sri Lanka. It was first collected from Rambodde, Sri Lanka in 1858 and after that no new information on this species has been available. Here, we report on the re-discovery of Sinhalestes orientalis from the Peak Wilderness Sanctuary, Sri Lanka after 154 years from its last and only record.
This empirical study on good governance and conflict transformation in Sri Lanka is located within the larger scholarly discourse on good governance as a solution to conflict in developing societies. Sri Lanka is one of the oldest post-colonial democratic systems among the states of the South and has experienced various elections and changes of government between 1947 and 2001. This speaks to a certain extent for consolidation of democracy. However, Sri Lanka suffers under one of the most pro...
Sørensen, Jane Brandt; Rheinländer, Thilde; Sørensen, Birgitte Refslund; Pearson, Melissa; Agambodi, Thilini; Siribaddana, Sisara; Konradsen, Flemming
Introduction: Sri Lanka has one of the highest suicide and self-harm rates in the world and although alcohol has been found to be a risk factor for self-harm in Sri Lanka, we know little about the connection between the two. This paper comprises a protocol for a qualitative study investigating alcohol’s role in selfharm in rural Sri Lanka at three levels: the individual, community and policy level. The analysis will bring new understanding of the link between alcohol and self-harm in Sri Lanka, ...
In this article, David Hayes explores the language learning and teaching experiences of a teacher of English in Sri Lanka. He shows how the acquisition of English enabled the teacher to access the social capital available to speakers of English, which holds a divisive place in postcolonial Sri Lankan society. In his reflections on his career, this…
Goff, James; Liu, Philip L-F.; Higman, Bretwood; Morton, Robert; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Fernando, Haindra; Lynett, Patrick; Fritz, Hermann; Synolakis, Costas; Fernando, Starin
An International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) consisting of scientists from the United States, New Zealand, and Sri Lanka evaluated the impacts of the 26 December 2004 transoceanic tsunami in Sri Lanka two weeks after the event. Tsunami runup height, inundation distance, morphological changes, and sedimentary characteristics of deposits were recorded and analyzed along the southwest and east coasts of the country. Preliminary results show how local topography and bathymetry controlled the limits of inundation and associated damage to the infrastructure. The largest wave height of 8.71?m was recorded at Nonagama, while the greatest inundation distance of 390?m and runup height of 12.50?m was at Yala. At some sites, human alterations to the landscape increased the damage caused by the tsunami; this was particularly evident in areas of coral poaching and of sand dune removal.
The geochemical abundances of 22 elements from the < 0.63 ?m fraction of gem-bearing alluvial gravel from the main gem fields of Sri Lanka have been studied. These abundances are compared with those in the probable source rocks. Be and Zr are generally enriched in the gem-bearing sediments compared with most alkali and alkaline earths, which are depleted. When compared to the metal contents of average shales, the < 0.63 ?m fraction of the gem sediments of Sri Lanka is enriched in Be, Zr, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn. The charnockites and the gneisses of the area are rich in most of these elements and in the gem-bearing sediments, they are presumably found in diadochic substitution in minerals, or adsorbed by a variety of clay minerals, secondary Fe and Mn hydroxides and oxides and primary minerals. (author)
J. Aloy Niresh
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of firm size on profitability of quoted manufacturing firms inSri Lanka. In this study, data of 15 companies which were active in Colombo Stock Exchange (CSE betweenthe years 2008 to 2012 has been used. As indicators of firm profitability, Return on Assets and Net Profit havebeen used whereas Total Assets and Total Sales have been utilized as indicators of firm size. Correlation andregression methods have been used in the empirical analysis. There is no indicative relationship between firmsize and profitability of listed manufacturing firms, the findings reveal. In addition, the results showed that firmsize has no profound impact on profitability of the listed manufacturing firms in Sri Lanka.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is very little genetically informative research identifying true environmental risks for psychiatric conditions. These may be best explored in regions with diverse environmental exposures. The current study aimed to explore similarities and differences in such risks contributing to depression and fatigue. Methods Home interviews assessed depression (lifetime-ever, fatigue and environmental exposures in 4,024 randomly selected twins from a population-based register in the Colombo district of Sri Lanka. Results Early school leaving and standard of living showed environmentally-mediated effects on depression, in men. In women, life events were associated with depression partly through genetic pathways (however, the temporal order is consistent with life events being an outcome of depression, as well as the other way around. For fatigue, there were environmentally mediated effects (through early school leaving and life events and strong suggestions of family-environmental influences. Conclusions Compared to previous studies from higher-income countries, novel environmentally-mediated risk factors for depression and fatigue were identified in Sri Lanka. But as seen elsewhere, the association between life events and depression was partially genetically mediated in women. These results have implications for understanding environmental mechanisms around the world.
Agger, Inger; Igreja, Victor; Kiehle, Rachel; Polatin, Peter
This study explores the therapeutic implications of including culturally adapted spiritual ceremonies in the process of testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines. Data were collected through an action research process with Asian mental health and human rights organizations, during which the testimonial method was reconceptualized and modified to include four sessions. In the first two sessions, community workers assist survivors in the writing of their testimony, which is their narrative about the human rights violations they have suffered. In the third session, survivors participate in an honour ceremony in which they are presented with their testimony documents. In the fourth session, the community workers meet with the survivors for a reevaluation of their well-being. The honour ceremonies developed during the action research process came to employ different kinds of symbolic language at each site: human rights (India), religious/Catholic (Sri Lanka), religious/Buddhist (Cambodia), and religious/Moslem (Philippines). They all used embodied spirituality in various forms, incorporating singing, dancing, and religious purification rituals in a collective gathering. We suggest that these types of ceremonies may facilitate an individual's capacity to contain and integrate traumatic memories, promote restorative self-awareness, and engage community support. Additional research is needed to determine the method's applicability in other sociopolitical contexts governed by more Western-oriented medical traditions. PMID:22637721
Full Text Available The return and relocation of IDPs in the East of Sri Lankaoffer lessons on the critical issues that must be addressed ifthe housing rights of IDPs in the North are to be respected.
Full text: Sri Lanka is a tropical island, which shelters a large number and variety of wild as well as domesticated animals. As an oceanic island Sri Lanka has a high percentage of endemic species that have evolved because of the isolation, but they are particularly vulnerable. Its location, astride the sea routes between the east and west throughout the history, has exposed the country to be a recipient of variety of animal species transported throughout the world. This history had made the gene pool of native animals very unique and diverse. In this context native poultry species of Sri Lanka demonstrate an incomparable scenario in evolution of domestic poultry species. According to one of the hypotheses regarding the evolution of poultry, the Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus gallus) is considered as the main ancestor of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus). However, it is also believed that the domestic fowl descent from different ancestral groups, one of which is Ceylon Jungle Fowl. Ceylon Jungle Fowl (Gallus laffeyatti) is endemic to Sri Lanka. Nevertheless, different native fowl types found in Sri Lanka resemble varying characteristics of Asiatic fowl. However, except for the few studies on G. laffeyatti there is hardly any information available on the origin of Sri Lankan native fowl. Also there is only one investigation done so far on the relationship of the Ceylon Jungle Fowl and native fowl population in Sri Lanka. Therefore, the present study was conducted, in order to investigate the origin of native fowl in Sri Lanka and to find out the genetic relationship among them. Observations of morphological characters of endemic, indigenous and exotic fowl types were carried out using Ceylon Jungle fowl, eleven types of native chicken and two exotic chicken breeds (Cornish and Rhode Island Red). Blood samples for DNA extraction were collected from the above three categories of chicken. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis were carried out using sixteen non-specific primers. The results of morphological characterization revealed many variations in plumage color pattern. Single and pea comb types were found in both native and exotic types of chicken. A prominent yellow color marking on red color comb was a unique feature in Ceylon Jungle fowl. In the sample tested only one indigenous chicken type showed feathered shank character. Another distinguishing feature observed was the presence of white spot in red color earlobes of all native chicken types except naked neck type, which is believed to be a cross of exotic and indigenous. Sixteen non-specific primers used in the study produced 22 polymorphic bands ranging from 500 base pair (bp) to 1957.6 bp. There were two monomorphic bands common to all chicken types tested. Genetic similarity coefficient detected according to Noeingen Index ranged from 0.5 to 1.1 indicating a wide genetic base of tested samples of chicken. According to the results of cluster analysis there was a clear separation of Ceylon Jungle fowl from the other chicken types used in the study. This indicates that there was an early separation and divergent evolution of Ceylon Jungle fowl from all the other domestic chicken types tested. It appears that the contribution of Ceylon Jungle Fowl in development of Sri Lankan native chicken is minute or very marginal. However, the present study was carried out with limited sample size and from the present results it can be confirmed that RAPD is an effective method, though the repeatability is low, in genetic characterization of animal populations with wide genetic basis. (author)
Vialard, J. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), CNRS, IRD, Paris (France); National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa (India); Terray, P. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), CNRS, IRD, Paris (France); Duvel, J.P. [CNRS, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Paris (France); Nanjundiah, R.S. [IISc, Center of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Bangalore (India); Shenoi, S.S.C. [Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services, Hyderabad (India); Shankar, D. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa (India)
Most of the annual rainfall over India occurs during the Southwest (June-September) and Northeast (October-December) monsoon periods. In March 2008, however, Southern peninsular India and Sri Lanka received the largest rainfall anomaly on record since 1979, with amplitude comparable to summer-monsoon interannual anomalies. This anomalous rainfall appeared to be modulated at intraseasonal timescale by the Madden Julian Oscillation, and was synchronous with a decaying La Nina event in the Pacific Ocean. Was this a coincidence or indicative of a teleconnection pattern? In this paper, we explore factors controlling rainfall over southern India and Sri Lanka between January and April, i.e. outside of the southwest and northeast monsoons. This period accounts for 20% of annual precipitation over Sri Lanka and 10% over the southern Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Interannual variability is strong (about 40% of the January-April climatology). Intraseasonal rainfall anomalies over southern India and Sri Lanka are significantly associated with equatorial eastward propagation, characteristic of the Madden Julian Oscillation. At the interannual timescale, we find a clear connection with El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO); with El Ninos being associated with decreased rainfall (correlation of -0.46 significant at the 98% level). There is also a significant link with local SST anomalies over the Indian Ocean, and in particular with the inter-hemispheric sea surface temperature (SST) gradient over the Indian Ocean (with colder SST south of the equator being conducive to more rainfall, correlation of 0.55 significant at the 99% level). La Ninas/cold SSTs south of the equator tend to have a larger impact than El Ninos. We discuss two possible mechanisms that could explain these statistical relationships: (1) subsidence over southern India remotely forced by Pacific SST anomalies; (2) impact of ENSO-forced regional Indian Ocean SST anomalies on convection. However, the length of the observational record does not allow distinguishing between these two mechanisms in a statistically significant manner. (orig.)
The objective of the paper is to examine the information and communication technology sector in Pakistan and Sri-Lanka because they are among top five countries in ICT in the South Asian region. The research is helpful for decision makers to channel ICT related resources where they are required the most. ICT oriented data have been collected by International Telecommunication Union but no comparison exists between the countries included in the research. Therefore, the sources of data are ITU ...
Perera Thisara; Ranasinghe Priyanga; Perera Udeshika; Perera Sherin; Adikari Madura; Jayasinghe Saroj; Constantine Godwin R
Abstract Background Patients’ knowledge on prescribed medications play a key role in the long term management of cardiac diseases and in determining their outcome. The present study evaluates the knowledge about prescribed medication among cardiac patients and aim to identify factors influencing knowledge. Methods A descriptive-cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 adult patients attending clinics at the Cardiology Unit of the National Hospital of Sri Lanka. Knowledge assessment focus...
Kelly, Roger; Mavrotas, George
Using dynamic econometric techniques the paper investigates the determinants of private saving in Sri Lanka with a primary focus on the role of financial sector development. Empirical evidence is obtained indicating the existence of the Ricardian equivalence hypothesis, and the significance of credit constraints on private saving. Most significantly, an index of financial sector development variables is constructed, based on measures of the relative size of the financial sector, the absolute ...
Ramanayake RPJC; Perera DP; De Silva AHW; Sumanasekara RDN
Sri Lanka has an extensive network of health care institutions, but there is no registered population for any particular health care institution. Patients are free to select which doctor to consult and which hospital to get admitted. Also there is no established referral and back referral system in practice. This free movement of patients within and between the primary, secondary and tertiary levels of care by patient's choice has given rise to a situation where each episode of an illness or ...
Amerasinghe, P H; Amerasinghe, F P; Konradsen, F; Fonseka, K T; Wirtz, R A
Malaria transmission by anopheline mosquitoes was studied in a traditional tank-irrigation-based rice-producing village in the malaria-endemic low country dry zone of northcentral Sri Lanka during the period August 1994-February 1997. Adult mosquitoes were collected from human and bovid bait catches, bovid-baited trap huts, indoor catches, and pit traps. Mosquito head-thoraces were tested for the presence of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, and blood-engorged abdomens for the presence of huma...
Satharasinghe Raveendra L; Samarasekara D; Peiris Ranjith SK; Navarathne Metthanandha MN; Ariyasinghe Madurangi HADP; Dayaratne Asangi HGK; De Silva Arjuna P; Niriella Madunil A; Rajindrajith Sharman; Dassanayake Anuradha S; Wickramasinghe A; de Silva H
Abstract Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is being increasingly diagnosed in Asia. However there are few epidemiological data from the region. Methods To determine prevalence and clinical characteristics of IBD, a hospital-based survey was performed in the Colombo and Gampaha districts (combined population 4.5 million) in Sri Lanka. Patients with established ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), who were permanent residents of these adjoining districts, were recruited f...
Sathiakumar Nalini; Wickremasinghe Ananda R; Nandasena Yatagama
Abstract Background Air pollution is increasingly documented as a threat to public health in most developing countries. Evaluation of current air quality levels, regulatory standards and scientific literature on outdoor and indoor air pollution, and health effects are important to identify the burden, develop and implement interventions and to fill knowledge gaps in Sri Lanka. Methods PUBMED and Medline databases, local journals and conference proceedings were searched for epidemiologic studi...
Sumanasiri, W.G.C.S.B.; Gamika A. Prathapsinghe
The Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) represents one of the most seriousendangered species. Capturing and domestication of these wild elephantscan be considered as one of the measures of elephant conservation.Domesticated elephants play a major role during festival processions in SriLanka. However, there is always a risk of getting panic and disobeying ofthese animals to the mahout's order. Self-Tranquilizer was invented toovercome the constraint such as difficulty of reaching and targeting th...
R.G.A.S. Rajapaksha; Balasuriya,A; S.A.M.C. Samarakoon; W.A.R.T. Wickramarachchi
Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV) is an important plant virus on one of the economically most important vegetable crops; tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). This had not been molecularly detected before, in Sri Lanka. TYLCV-GN-SL was isolated from apparently infected tomato plants using modified Cetyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) method in Gannoruwa. Associated Begomoviruses were detected using Deng 541/Deng 540 and AV 494/AC 1048 primer pairs. TYLCV was detected for the first tim...
Piyaratne, M K; Amerasinghe, P H; Amerasinghe, F P; Konradsen, F
No previous studies have been conducted on the natural food of larval Anopheles culicifacies s.l. (the major malaria vector) and An. varuna (a secondary vector) in Sri Lanka. The present study analyzed the contents of guts dissected from larvae collected from pools in a natural stream-cum-irrigation conveyance channel in the Upper Yan Oya watershed in the North Central Province of the country during August-September 1997 and July 1998. Determinations of physicochemical and biological parameters ...
Mohamed, Fahim; Manuweera, Gamini; Gunnell, David; Azher, Shifa; Eddleston, Michael; Dawson, Andrew; Konradsen, Flemming
BACKGROUND: Deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides is the commonest means of suicide in rural Asia. It is mostly impulsive and facilitated by easy access to pesticides. The aim of this large observational study was to investigate the immediate source of pesticides used for self-harm to help inform suicide prevention strategies such as reducing domestic access to pesticides. METHODS: The study was conducted in a district hospital serving an agricultural region of Sri Lanka. Patien...
DiNitrogen-fixing capacity of four species of leguminous trees of Sri Lanka (Abarema bigemina, Adenanthera bicolor, Humboldtia laurifolia and Pericopsis mooniana) by analyzing their xylem sap and by taking acetylene reducyion (AR) measurements of nodulated roots of all species, except A.bicolor which had no nodules. Based on the results of the study on P.mooniana, a method to determine the C2H2/N2 conversion factor by analysing the total NH2 compounds is being developed
Konradsen, F; Matsuno, Y; Amerasinghe, F P; Amerasinghe, P H; Hoek, Wim van der
This paper assesses the options for control of malaria vectors through different water management practices in a natural stream in Sri Lanka. The association between water level in the stream and breeding of the immature stages of the primary vector Anopheles culicifacies was investigated and the feasibility of using existing irrigation infrastructure to reduce the breeding potential discussed. The most feasible option would be to implement a management routine where water is released periodical...
van der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming
BACKGROUND: Acute poisoning, especially deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides, is an emerging global public health problem, but reliable incidence estimates are lacking. Only a few previous studies have assessed the impact of regulatory or other preventive measures. OBJECTIVE: To estimate trends in incidence and causes of acute poisoning over time in rural Sri Lanka, and to assess the possible impact of policies that aimed to restrict availability of highly toxic pesticides. MET...
Eriyagma, N.; Jinapala, K.
The term "Environmental Flows (EF)" may be defined as "the quantity, timing and quality of water flows required to sustain freshwater and estuarine ecosystems and the human livelihoods and well-being that depend on these ecosystems". It may be regarded as "water for nature" or "environmental demand" similar to crop water requirements, industrial or domestic water demand. The practice of EF is still limited to a few developed countries such as Australia, South Africa and the UK. In many developing countries EF is rarely considered in water resources planning and is often deemed "unimportant". Sri Lanka, being a developing country, is no exception to this general rule. Although the country underwent an extensive irrigation/water resources development phase during the 1960s through to the 1980s, the concept of EF was hardly considered. However, as Sri Lanka's water resources are being exploited more and more for human usage, ecologists, water practitioners and policymakers alike have realized the importance of EF in sustaining not only freshwater and estuarine ecosystems, but also their services to humans. Hence estimation of EF has been made mandatory in environmental impact assessments (EIAs) of all large development projects involving river regulation/water abstraction. Considering EF is especially vital under the rapid urbanization and infrastructure development phase that dawned after the end of the war in the North and the East of the country in 2009. This paper details simple tools (including a software package which is under development) and methods that may be used for coarse scale estimation of EF at/near monitored locations on major rivers of Sri Lanka, along with example applications to two locations on River Mahaweli. It is hoped that these tools will help bridge the gap between EF science and its practice in Sri Lanka and other developing countries.
Mayuri R Wijesinghe; V. R. de Silva
This paper assesses the potential of forest plantations in Sri Lanka consisting of teak, mahoganyand two species of eucalyptus, to facilitate the conservation of biodiversity using two taxonomic groups,the plants and birds. Their diversity in plantations at a harvestable age were compared with that of anatural forest. Enumerations of plants and dbh/height measurements were conducted in quadrates, whileavifauna was recorded along transects. Results show that plantation forests supported a reas...
Rural societies in war-affected areas can be described as ’distressed livelihoods’: they experience a dramatic increase in risk and uncertainty. How does this affect land use and agricultural coping strategies of small-scale farm households? This was the key research question of a multi-disciplinary, comparative village study carried out in the war-torn areas of Sri Lanka. The study employed the analytical framework of rural livelihoods promoted by DFID. In addition, theoretical models of ris...
Mubarak, K. N.; Daley, P. O.; Jeffrey, C.
The aim of this thesis is to explore how livelihoods are recovering in the aftermath of the 2004 tsunami in Sri Lanka through the lens of the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework and the social networks approach—methods of inquiry that have gained considerable impetus in livelihoods research. The study is conducted with reference to two tsunami-affected fisher villages in the Hambantota District, Southern Province. It employs a qualitative ethnographic methodology that examines narratives emergi...
Agampodi, Suneth B; Dahanayaka, Niroshan J.; Bandaranayaka, Anoma K.; Perera, Manoj; Priyankara, Sumudu; Weerawansa, Prasanna; Matthias, Michael A; VINETZ, JOSEPH M.
Leptospirosis is known to be an important cause of weather disaster-related infectious disease epidemics. In 2011, an outbreak of leptospirosis occurred in the relatively dry district of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka where diagnosis was resisted by local practitioners because leptospirosis was not known in the area and the clinical presentation was considered atypical. To identify the causative Leptospira associated with this outbreak, we carried out a cross-sectional study. Consecutive clinically ...
Konradsen, F; Hoek, Wim van der; Amerasinghe, P H; Amerasinghe, F P; Fonseka, K T
A study of the cost of malaria at the household level, community perceptions, preventive measures and illness behaviour linked to the disease was undertaken in 5 villages in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The surveyed community had a high knowledge of malaria, although side effects of antimalarial drugs were often confused with symptoms of the disease. The community sought prompt diagnosis and treatment at 'western-type' facilities, with 84% making use of government facilities as their first choice ...
Amerasinghe Priyanie; Yahiya Zeenas; Chandimala Janaki; Yang Hyemin; Galappaththy Gawrie N; Zubair Lareef; Ward Neil; Connor Stephen J
Abstract Background El Niño events were suggested as a potential predictor for malaria epidemics in Sri Lanka based on the coincidence of nine out of 16 epidemics with El Niño events from 1870 to 1945. Here the potential for the use of El Niño predictions to anticipate epidemics was examined using enhanced climatic and epidemiological data from 1870 to 2000. Methods The epidemics start years were identified by the National Malaria Control Programme and verified against epidemiological records...
Nadarajah Sivathaasan; Sivapalan Achchuthan; Rajendran Kajananthan
The primary aim of the study is to identify whether there are any significant mean differences amongdemographic variables such as gender, age group, faculty, teaching language and experience of universityteachers employed at the University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka on the usage of electronic information resources (EIR).The study employs independent samples t- test and one-way ANOVA (f-test) to test the operational hypotheses.The survey method used in this study is a questionnaire and a total of 7...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sri Lanka recorded an extraordinary high suicide rate for adolescents aged 15 - 19 in the early 1990s (46.5/100,000. With this in perspective, the Ministry of Health in Sri Lanka recommends school programmes for adolescents by mental health units of local hospitals. Methods We conducted cross sectional surveys to screen for symptoms of anxiety and depression among students aged 14 - 18 during school mental health programmes. Two schools were randomly selected within the Ratnapura municipality (urban population of approx. 50,000, Sri Lanka and all students aged 14-18 were assessed with self administered (pre tested, Sinhalese translations questionnaires [Center for epidemiologic studies depression scale, Anxiety screening test of suicide and mental health association international]. Results A total of 445 students were assessed (male-54.4%, female 45.6%. Thirty six percent screened positive for depression (mild depression-17%, severe depression-19% and 28% screened positive for severe anxiety. Females screened positive for depression and anxiety significantly more than the males (p = 0.0001, 0.005 respectively. Students in classes facing barrier examinations at the end of the year had the highest positivity rates. Examination related issues (36% were the most commonly cited problem. Recommendations It is recommended that: 1. School mental health development programmes in Sri Lanka concentrate more on reducing examination related stress, and in particular focus on the female students 2. Policy decisions are made to reduce competition for higher education 3. A nationally coordinated survey on mental health of adolescent students is carried out utilizing the island-wide network of medical officers of mental health.
Truls Østbye; Bilesha Perera; Chandramali Jayawardana
The prevalenceof different neighborhood environmental stressors and associations between the stressors and self-rated health are described in a representative sample of 2,077 individuals, aged 18-85 years, in southern Sri Lanka. Mosquito menace (69.4%), stray dog problems (26.8%), nuisance from neighbors (20.3%), and nuisance from drug users (18.7%) were found to be the most prevalent environmental stressors. None of the stressors investigated were associated with self-rated physical health, ...
de Menil Victoria; Wood Sarah K; Raja Shoba; Mannarath Saju C
Abstract Background Limited evidence about mental health finances in low and middle-income countries is a key challenge to mental health care policy initiatives. This study aimed to map mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, India (Kerala state), Sri Lanka and Lao PDR focusing on how much money is available for mental health, how it is spent, and how this impacts mental health services. Methods A researcher in each region reviewed public mental health-related budgets and interviewed key inf...
Abstract Background The internet is a relatively new medium of disseminating health information. Studies on Internet usage for health information are mainly done in developed countries and very few studies have been carried out in developing countries. Methods The Internet usage of patients who were attending specialist clinics in Teaching Hospital Karapitiya and Southern Hospital in Galle, Sri Lanka was investigated. The study was carried out on the following specialities; General Medicine, ...
The new growth theory establishes, among other things, that government expenditure can manipulate economic growth of a country. This study attempts to explain whether government expenditure increases or decreases economic growth in the context of Sri Lanka. Results obtained applying an analytical framework based on time series and second degree polynomial regressions are generally consistent with previous findings: government expenditure and economic growth are positively correlated; ex...
The food crisis of 2008 exacerbated the nutritional insecurity of poor people around the world. Still today, unprecedented numbers of people do not have access to food because of insufficient economic potential. Sri Lanka is a low income food deficit country which has, until recently experienced civil war, and has high numbers of malnourished people. The objective of this thesis was to identify factors that influence a households susceptibility to food insecurity and to determine how househo...
Asha de Vos
Full Text Available Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus movements are often driven by the availability of their prey in space and time. While globally blue whale populations undertake long-range migrations between feeding and breeding grounds, those in the northern Indian Ocean remain in low latitude waters throughout the year with the implication that the productivity of these waters is sufficient to support their energy needs. A part of this population remains around Sri Lanka where they are usually recorded close to the southern coast during the Northeast Monsoon. To investigate inter-annual variability in sighting locations, we conducted systematic Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD and visual surveys between January–March 2011 and January–March 2012. In 2011, there was a notable decrease in inshore sightings compared to 2009 and 2012 (p < 0.001. CTD data revealed that in 2011 there was increased freshwater in the upper water column accompanied by deeper upwelling than in 2012. We hypothesise that anomalous rainfall, along with higher turbidity resulting from river discharge, affected the productivity of the inshore waters and caused a shift in blue whale prey and, consequently, the distribution of the whales themselves. An understanding of how predators and their prey respond to environmental variability is important for predicting how these species will respond to long-term changes. This is especially important given the rapid temperature increases predicted for the semi-enclosed northern Indian Ocean.
The objective of the paper is to estimate environmental externalities related to a run of river project in Sri Lanka and to investigate inequity in distribution of impacts among different social groups. Diversion of the river resulted in loss of water sports (for high-income groups both local and remote), loss of historical monuments (for remote high-income groups) and recreation losses (for local poor). Removal of forest cover leads to loss of non-timber products (for local poor) and carbon storage (for remote high- and low-income groups). Loss of home garden productivity was borne by local poor groups. Benefit of the project, generation of 145 GWh annually, was a gain for the grid connected groups. The impacts were valued using various valuation methods. The base case of the cost benefit analysis resulted in NPV of US$ 11,335,730. When distributional weights are applied for different income groups, both the sign and magnitude of net benefits change. In order to be viable, the project needs diversion of at least 9% of generated electricity to the poorest households in the country. Implications for energy policy towards reducing externality and inequality impacts are also discussed.
Gunawardena, U.A.D. Prasanthi [Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda (Sri Lanka)
The objective of the paper is to estimate environmental externalities related to a run of river project in Sri Lanka and to investigate inequity in distribution of impacts among different social groups. Diversion of the river resulted in loss of water sports (for high-income groups both local and remote), loss of historical monuments (for remote high-income groups) and recreation losses (for local poor). Removal of forest cover leads to loss of non-timber products (for local poor) and carbon storage (for remote high- and low-income groups). Loss of home garden productivity was borne by local poor groups. Benefit of the project, generation of 145 GWh annually, was a gain for the grid connected groups. The impacts were valued using various valuation methods. The base case of the cost benefit analysis resulted in NPV of US$ 11,335,730. When distributional weights are applied for different income groups, both the sign and magnitude of net benefits change. In order to be viable, the project needs diversion of at least 9% of generated electricity to the poorest households in the country. Implications for energy policy towards reducing externality and inequality impacts are also discussed. (author)
Gunawardena, U.A.D. Prasanthi, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda (Sri Lanka)
The objective of the paper is to estimate environmental externalities related to a run of river project in Sri Lanka and to investigate inequity in distribution of impacts among different social groups. Diversion of the river resulted in loss of water sports (for high-income groups both local and remote), loss of historical monuments (for remote high-income groups) and recreation losses (for local poor). Removal of forest cover leads to loss of non-timber products (for local poor) and carbon storage (for remote high- and low-income groups). Loss of home garden productivity was borne by local poor groups. Benefit of the project, generation of 145 GWh annually, was a gain for the grid connected groups. The impacts were valued using various valuation methods. The base case of the cost benefit analysis resulted in NPV of US$ 11,335,730. When distributional weights are applied for different income groups, both the sign and magnitude of net benefits change. In order to be viable, the project needs diversion of at least 9% of generated electricity to the poorest households in the country. Implications for energy policy towards reducing externality and inequality impacts are also discussed.
Milisenda, C.C.; Liew, T.C.; Hofmann, A.W.; Kroener, A.
Nd model ages of amphibolite- and granulite-grade rocks in Sri Lanka form a simple region pattern that broadly correlates with mappable geological units, and is in effect an isotopic map of the island's basement. The granulite-grade units of the Highland Group and Southwest Group have model ages of 2.2-3.0 Ga indicating derivation mainly from late Archean sources. They are bounded to the east and west by late Proterozoic gneisses of the Vijayan Complex with model ages of 1.1-2.0 Ga. The isotopic data identify three distinct crustal provinces and are not consistent with earlier suggestions that the Vijayan gneisses are retrograde equivalents of the Highland granulites. Sri Lanka is not a direct continuation of the Archean Dharwar Craton of southern India. Identification of Vijayan-type juvenile crustal terrains in other Gondwana fragments may play a key role in determining the precise attachment of southern India-Sri Lanka in eastern Gondwana.
Full Text Available The dragonflies and damselflies are a major insect group (Class Insecta; Order Odonata associated with water courses. Odonate assemblages with reference to their habitat characters have not been widely studied in Sri Lanka. We have investigated odonate assemblages for a period of three months in selected localities in southern Sri Lanka with reference to the habitat characters. Bundala and Embillakala lagoons in Bundala National Park (A Ramsar wetland in Sri Lanka, “Kirala Kele” Eco-tourism Zone-Matara, Bandaththara marshland system-Matara, “Kirala Kele” Biological Garden-Ambalanthota and Kosgahadola stream which belongs to Mulatiyana Rain forest reserve were selected as study sites since these sites are important in conservation of biodiversity. A total of 28 species were identified during the study period. Our data reveals odonate assemblages specific to the studied habitats such as bushlands, marshlands, lagoons, flowing water bodies, stagnant water bodies and vegetation type (wet zone and dry zone. These data will be useful in future studies and conservation of biodiversity in the studied habitats.
Full Text Available The diagnosis of cancer is associated with an unexpected breakdown of the physical, psychological and social well being. In addition to cancer related physical outcomes, cross-cultural issues are known to hasten patients’ clinical deterioration and can impact upon orientation as a healthy human being in society. As members of a developing nation in the second world, to provide patient oriented quality care while maintaining high standards of ethical practice, health care workers in Sri Lanka have to be culturally competent. In Sri Lanka, the cross-cultural ethical issues related to patients with a diagnosis of cancer include, awareness of one’s own cultural identity, gaining knowledge of different cultural issues, verbal and non verbal communication skills, respect for patients’ autonomy, involvement of the family and the relatives, addressing moral and spiritual backgrounds, development of effective communication skills and provision of social support. Therefore in the management of cancer patients in Sri Lanka, cultural issues should be given a high priority to maintain ethical standards and quality in palliative care. Culturally competent Health care workers safeguard the rights of patients, as well as providing optimal medical and surgical care.
Full Text Available — Liquidity management and profitability are very important issues in the growth and survival of business and the ability to handle the trade-off between the two a source of concern for financial managers.The study is also aimed at finding the effect of changes in liquidity levels on profitability of manufacturing companies in Sri Lanka. The study covered listed manufacturing companies in Sri Lanka over a period of past 5 years from 2008 to 2012. Correlation and regression analysis were used in the analysis and findings suggest that there is a significant relationship exists between liquidity and profitability among the listed manufacturing companies in Sri Lanka. Suggested that Inventory Sales Period (ISP, Current Ratio (CRand are significantly correlated with Return on Asset (ROA, Operating Cash Flow Ratio (OCFRare significantly correlated with Return on Equity (ROE 5 percent level of significance. At the same time ISP and OCFR also are significantly correlated with ROA, Creditors Payment Period (CPP also is significantly correlated with ROE at 1 percent level of significance.
Zubair, Lareef; Nissanka, Sarath P.; Weerakoon, W. M. W.; Herath, Dumindu I.; Karunaratne, Asha S; Prabodha, A. S. M.; Agalawatte, M. B.; Herath, Rasnayaka; Yahiya, S. Zeenas; Punyawardhene, B. V. R.; Vishwanathan, Janan; Delpitiya, Punya; Wijekoon, A. Erandika N.; Gunaratna, Janaka; Chandrasekara, Sewwandhi S. K.; Wickramagamage, P.; Weerasinghe, K. D. N.; Navaratne, Champa M.; Perera, Ruchika S.; Gunesekara, Asela I.; Kumara, G. M. Pradeep; Wallach, Daniel; Valdivia, Roberto O.; McDermid, Sonali
Sri Lanka has achieved tremendous progress since 1950 in crop production and food availability. Yields grew at an impressive rate until leveling off in the mid-eighties. Sri Lanka's population is anticipated to grow in the coming decades, creating an ever-greater demand for food security on the household, sub-district, regional, and national scales.The agricultural sector in Sri Lanka is vulnerable to climate shocks. An unusual succession of droughts and floods from 2008 to 2014 has led to both booms and busts in agricultural production, which were reflected in food prices. In both instances, the majority of farmers and consumers were adversely affected.At present the rice-farming systems are under stress due to inadequate returns for the farmers and difficulty in coping with shocks due to climate, pests, and diseases, and prices for produce. There are government price-support mechanisms, fertilizer-subsidy schemes, and crop insurance schemes, but the levels of the supports are modest and often do not effectively reach the farmers.
This paper relates the contemporary educational reforms in Sri Lanka to the processes of globalisation. The international monetary organisations such as the IMF and the World Bank and the regional organisations like the Asian Development Bank (ADB) play a dominant role in influencing the debt-receiving countries when it comes to their educational practice. The intensity of the influence of these organisations can vary depending on the existing educational policy of the aid receiving countries. This paper, after a brief introduction on globalisation, examines its effects on the education policy in Sri Lanka with a special emphasis on the current language policy. Equity in education is usually advocated at primary level based on the universal primary education concept so highly upheld by the World Bank. However, the present high human development indicators are undoubtedly due to Sri Lanka's free education policy in native languages. The paper concludes stressing the importance to retain the national education policy as a means of empowerment and liberation of its masses and creating stronger ethnic harmony.
Ekanayaka, Tanya Nissani Ilangakkone
This thesis represents the first ever study of Sri Lanka’s leading genre of contemporary popular song covering a period of over twelve years, and how its artists and principal audience interpolate ‘global’ and ‘local’ (linguistic and musical) elements in their invention and negotiation of the genre. The central objective is to articulate the collective linguistic identity of the genre’s artists and principal audience. They are shown to constitute a community of over 5.5 million...
Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic disease with no permanent cure. Sri Lanka is placed among the countries with the highest diabetes prevalence rates in the world (ie. 2.8 million Sri Lankans have diabetes or pre-diabetes, and most importantly, a significant proportions of the population is yet to be diagnosed. Patients with diabetes need lifelong care to prevent complications which further impose a significant burden on the country’s expenditure on healthcare. Moreover, patients need to maintain constant contact with the healthcare provider for the optimal management of diabetes. However, such arrangement is often costly and time consuming and therefore it ultimately aggravates the burden to patients, the healthcare system and the economy.With the development of telecommunication technologies, Telemedicine (i.e. the use of Information Communication Technology to provide healthcare at a distance has gained attention. Telemedicine can enhance communication between patient and healthcare provider without needing physical presence in one place. Telemedicine can link healthcare professionals from different corners of the globe to share knowledge and expertise. Moreover, evidence is surfacing to suggest that the telemedicine would be a viable alternative to conventional care.This article showcases a Sri Lankan study which describes the development of a Telemedicine system for Sri Lanka - Community Based Web-Mobile Platform (CBWMP. The concept of the platform is to maintain an electronic Personal Health Record (e-PHR in order to provide communication between different parties to optimise patient health information flow and also to coordinate the continuity of care at minimal cost. The CBWMP - integrated mobile phones and e-PHR - is capable of delivering diabetes education, co-ordinating effective management, and screening diabetes status. To avoid any cultural marginalisation, all the services can be accessed in the user’s preferred native language in Sri Lanka viz. Sinhala, Tamil, and English.
Gamage, Deepa; Palihawadana, Paba; Mach, Ondrej; Weldon, William C; Oberste, Steven M; Sutter, Roland W
The immunization program in Sri Lanka consistently reaches >90% coverage with oral poliovirus vaccines (OPV), and no polio supplementary vaccination campaigns have been conducted since 2003. We evaluated serological protection against polioviruses in children. A cross-sectional community-based survey was performed in three districts of Sri Lanka (Colombo, Badulla, and Killinochi). Randomly selected children in four age groups (9-11months, 3-4years, 7-9years, and 15years) were tested for poliovirus neutralizing antibodies. All 400 enrolled children completed the study. The proportion of seropositive children for poliovirus Type 1 and Type 2 was >95% for all age groups; for poliovirus Type 3 it was 95%, 90%, 77%, and 75% in the respective age groups. The vaccination coverage in our sample based on vaccination cards or parental recall was >90% in all age groups. Most Sri Lankan children are serologically protected against polioviruses through routine immunization only. This seroprevalence survey provided baseline data prior to the anticipated addition of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) into the Sri Lankan immunization program and the switch from trivalent OPV (tOPV) to bivalent OPV (bOPV). PMID:26166424
Full Text Available The government of Sri Lanka recently introduced many measures to limit the accessibility and availability of pornography in the country including censorship of websites containing sexually explicit material and active prosecution of Sri Lankans who appeared on such websites Available evidence suggests that pornographic consumption among Sri Lankan adolescents is considerable and such exposure may influence sexual attitudes and activity including sexual aggression in youth. However the current evidence on the beneficial effects of censorship of pornography is less than convincing. The authors believe that warm, communicative parent-child relationship and open discussion about sexual matters at home and at school could be more effective than restrictive measures such as censorship and punitive legislation.
Kasturiratne, Dulekha; Lean, Jonathan; Phippen, Andy
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how enterprise education was adapted from a UK higher education institution (HEI) setting into an international context through collaboration with two Sri Lankan universities. It demonstrates the value of enterprise education in different cultures, and presents learning from the challenges faced by…
Purpose: This paper seeks to present and discuss the findings of a study of staffing practices in the Sri Lankan private sector with particular reference to junior level managerial jobs. The scope of staffing practices consisted of six major areas, namely the usage of information from job analysis in staffing, the sources of labour, selection…
The experience of public policy in Sri Lanka has had a profound impact on the thinking of the global development community in relation to the role of education in economic development. In particular, the example of Sri Lanka helped to persuade policy makers around the world that governments can successfully develop a general education system to…
Cruikshank, A; Holbrook, J A
After a tsunami in 2004, the Sri Lankan Ministry of Science and Technology sought ways to accelerate their economic development through their burgeoning high tech industries. This paper serves as a recommendation to the Ministry to encourage Sri Lankan scientists working and studying abroad to return to the country to aid in rebuilding efforts. It accounts for the factors that lead many Sri Lankan nationals to move abroad, and provides recommendations to entice their return.
Danthanarayana, Nayomi; Williams, David T; Williams, Simon Hedley; Thevanesam, Vasanthi; Speers, David J; Fernando, M S S
The aetiology of acute meningoencephalitis in Sri Lankan children and adults is poorly understood. This study was carried out to determine pathogens responsible for meningoencephalitis in Sri Lanka. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was performed using cerebrospinal fluid samples (22 adult and 17 pediatric) collected from August to December 2009 from patients clinically diagnosed with acute meningoencephalitis at two tertiary care hospitals in Sri Lanka. Routine microbiology for bacterial pathogens together with in-house RT-PCR and PCR assays for the detection of dengue viruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, chikungunya virus, enteroviruses, mumps virus, measles virus, herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2, and varicella zoster virus were performed. Bacterial pathogens were not isolated from any patient specimens. However, from nine of the paediatric patients aged 1 month to 10?years (mean age 5.2?years) echovirus 9 (E-9; family Picornaviridae, genus Enterovirus,species Enterovirus B ) was detected by RT-PCR. All nine patients presented with fever, six had headache, and seven had vomiting. Neck stiffness indicating meningitis was present in six of the patients. Phylogenetic analysis of partial VP1 and VP4-VP2 genes showed these E-9 strains to be most closely related to E-9 strains detected in CSF from Korea and France in 2005 and 2006. The remaining patients were negative for all other viruses tested. E-9 was the most common cause of acute meningoencephalitis in the tested paediatric population from Sri Lanka in 2009, which likely reflects circulation of this E-9 strain between Europe and Asia over several years. PMID:25983131
Thevakaran, A.; McGregor, J. L.; Katzfey, J.; Hoffmann, P.; Suppiah, R.; Sonnadara, D. U. J.
In this study, we present an assessment of the Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) 50 km simulations forced by the sea surface temperature and sea ice concentration of six global climate models (GCMs) (ACCESS1-0, CCSM4, GFDL-CM3, NorESM, MPI-ESM and CNRM-CM5) from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) over South Asia, centred on Sri Lanka. The model simulations were compared with the data provided by the Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration towards Evaluation of Water Resource (APHRODITE) project and ERA-Interim from the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) over a broad region centred on Sri Lanka. This broad region includes South Asia and northern Indian Ocean. Statistical measures such as pattern correlations, mean biases and root mean square errors were calculated separately for the four seasons. Results based on statistical tests indicate that the current CCAM simulations capture the spatial patterns of 10 m wind speed, mean sea level pressure, temperature and rainfall over a broad region over South Asia fairly well. The annual cycles of temperature and rainfall were also compared against observations over the northern and southern regions of Sri Lanka by taking the field average of each model and the observed data. The characteristics of the observed annual variations of rainfall and temperature over the smaller domains are not very well captured by the CCAM simulations. There are differences in the magnitudes of the temperature and rainfall in the six member CCAM simulations. Comparatively, the two CCAM simulations CNRM-CM5 and GFDL-CM3 show slightly better agreement over the Sri Lankan region.
Anjana, Silva; Rivikelum, Samarasinghe; Senaka, Pilapitiya; Niroshana, Dahanayake; Sisira, Siribaddana.
Full Text Available Snakebite is a common occupational health hazard among Sri Lankan agricultural workers, particularly in the North Central Province. Viperine snakes, mainly Russell’s viper envenomation, frequently lead to acute renal failure. During the last two decades, an agrochemical nephropathy, a chronic tubulo [...] interstitial disease has rapidly spread over this area leading to high morbidity and mortality. Most of the epidemiological characteristics of these two conditions overlap, increasing the chances of co-occurrence. Herein, we describe four representative cases of viperine snakebites leading to variable clinical presentations, in patients with chronic agrochemical nephropathy, including two patients presented with acute and delayed anuria. These cases suggest the possibility of unusual manifestations of snakebite in patients with Sri Lankan agrochemical nephropathy, of which the clinicians should be aware. It could be postulated that the existing scenario in the Central America could also lead to similar clinical presentations.
Thirunavukkarasu Velnampy; Sivapalan Achchuthan; Rajendran Kajananthan
Various international organizations and foreign advisors suggested that developing countries should focusprimarily on foreign direct investment (FDI) as a source of external finance. In this context, the main purpose ofthe study is to find out the impact of foreign direct investment on economic growth in the Sri LankanPerspective. Data on the foreign direct investment and economic growth from the year 1990 to 2011 werecollected for the study purpose. Further, the results revealed that, there ...
This article argues that international and national humanitarian NGOs have a far more fundamental bearing on the social reconstitution of Sri Lankan society as a political, cultural, and moral entity than is usually acknowledged. Through their interventions, humanitarian agencies affect the power relationship between state and non-state actors and between local organizations and the war-affected populations that make up their constituencies. But NGOs also affect the political order by introducin...
Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Fukushi, Shintaro; Hayashida, Kyoko; Kothalawala, Hemal; Silva, Seekkuge Susil Priyantha; Vimalakumar, Singarayar Caniciyas; Kanagaratnam, Ratnam; Meewewa, Asela Sanjeewa; Suthaharan, Kalpana; Puvirajan, Thamotharampillai; de Silva, Weligodage Kumarawansa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki
Water buffaloes are thought to be the reservoir hosts for several hemoprotozoan parasites that infect cattle. In the present study, we surveyed Sri Lankan bred water buffaloes for infections with Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis using parasite-specific PCR assays. When 320 blood-derived DNA samples from water buffaloes reared in three different districts (Polonnaruwa, Mannar, and Mullaitivu) of Sri Lanka were PCR screened, B. bovis, B. bigemina, and T. orientalis were detected. While T. orientalis was the predominant parasite (82.5%), low PCR-positive rates were observed for B. bovis (1.9%) and B. bigemina (1.6%). Amplicons of the gene sequences of the Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 (RAP-1) of B. bovis, the Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA-1) of B. bigemina, and the Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) of T. orientalis were compared with those characterized previously in Sri Lankan cattle. While the B. bigemina AMA-1 sequences from water buffaloes shared high identity values with those from cattle, B. bovis RAP-1 sequences from water buffaloes diverged genetically from those of cattle. For T. orientalis, none of the MPSP sequence types reported previously in Sri Lankan cattle (types 1, 3, 5, and 7) were detected in the water buffaloes, and the MPSP sequences analyzed in the present study belonged to types N1 or N2. In summary, in addition to reporting the first PCR-based survey of Babesia and Theileria parasites in water buffaloes in Sri Lanka, the present study found that the predominant variants of water buffalo-derived B. bovis RAP-1 and T. orientalis MPSP sequences were different from those previously described from cattle in this country. PMID:24365246
Moira M. Cameron
Full Text Available A request from the nurses of Sri Lanka led to the establishment of the country’s first university nursing program. Delivered by distance, the program represented a collaborative, approach among a Sri Lankan university (The Open University of Sri Lanka, a Canadian university (Athabasca University and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA, who funded the project. The challenges facing this undertaking included the lack of available culturally appropriate course materials, the English language proficiency of prospective students, the unavailability of nursing and related literature and the student lack of ready accessibility to communications technology. The lack of nurses qualified to assume university faculty positions was an additional challenge. Seven years after the firsty intake of students, the OUSL BScN remains the country’s nursing degree program. In spite of small number of graduates, evaluation reveals that graduates are making a contribution to improving the nursing care of citizens while re-defining the traditional expectations of nurses. Success bring new challenges; among them is the need for educators and health planners to increase collaboration in order to further raise the levels of health care by continuing to improve the quality of nursing education.
Ranasinghe, Athula; Hartog, Joop
In this paper, we have used the standard Human Capital model to describe the post-compulsory schooling behaviour of Sri Lankans. We assumed that there is no uncertainty in the education system or in the labour market. Therefore, inthe steady-state, the earnings profile of one generation is a replica of the earnings of the next generation. Then, we modeled and estimated the school enrolment and the length of schooling decisions.Our results show a very clear positive association between the fam...
Full Text Available In post-war societies adolescents occupy liminal spaces – where social, political, economic, spatial and biological boundaries are still fluid and undetermined – and present a particular challenge for post-war communities as well as service providers. Drawing on a study from two war-affected villages in Sri Lanka, this paper examines the multi-faceted challenges that adolescents face in communities attempting to retain and redefine boundaries, identities, and social and moral regulation in a post-war context. It explores the dynamics of post-war change, especially in the social and moral regulation of sexuality, and its implications for adolescent girls and boys grappling with biological and social transformation—from internalizing gender norms to taking on adult economic roles. A second key concern of this paper is to underline how the post-war political economic context within which their communities are embedded shapes adolescents’ negotiation with personal and social transformation. A third key concern is to highlight the legacies of war in the form of surveillance, silences and complex psychosocial problems that adolescents are confronted in post-war contexts and the risk of cycles of inter-generational violence. Finally, the paper examines the role and relevance of formal services in areas such as education, reproductive health, community mobilization, or psychosocial support in the lives of adolescents. It also considers the often overlooked but fundamental support from families and communities in bolstering the resilience of adolescents as they go through this challenging life phase in difficult and complex circumstances.
Agampodi Thilini C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Exclusive breastfeeding up to the completion of the sixth month of age is the national infant feeding recommendation for Sri Lanka. The objective of the present study was to collect data on exclusive breastfeeding up to six months and to describe the association between exclusive breastfeeding and selected socio-demographic factors. Methods A clinic based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Medical Officer of Health area, Beruwala, Sri Lanka in June 2006. Mothers with infants aged 4 to 12 months, attending the 19 child welfare clinics in the area were included in the study. Infants with specific feeding problems (cleft lip and palate and primary lactose intolerance were excluded. Cluster sampling technique was used and consecutive infants fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled. A total of 219 mothers participated in the study. The statistical tests used were survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional Hazard model. Results All 219 mothers had initiated breastfeeding. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was four months (95% CI 3.75, 4.25. The rates of exclusive breastfeeding at 4 and 6 months were 61.6% (135/219 and 15.5% (24/155 respectively. Bivariate analysis showed that the Muslim ethnicity (p = 0.004, lower levels of parental education (p Conclusion The rate of breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding up to the fourth month is very high in Medical Officer of Health area, Beruwala, Sri Lanka. However exclusive breastfeeding up to six months is still low and the prevalence of inappropriate feeding practices is high.
Vithanage, M.; Villholth, K.; Mahatantila, K.; Engesgaard, P.; Jensen, K.
On December 26th 2004, the earthquake off the south coast of Sumatra in the Indian Ocean generated tsunami waves, resulting in severe devastation in the coastal regions of Sri Lanka. Changes in water quality of a sand aquifer on the east coast of Sri Lanka due to the tsunami, subsequent disturbance due to well pumping and flushing by precipitation were investigated to observe its "natural cleansing" response by precipitation and the effect of well cleaning and pumping of water for domestic uses. The selected field sites near Batticaloa, located on the east coast of Sri Lanka, are bordered by the sea to the east and a lagoon to the west. The two sites were classified as disturbed and undisturbed, based on groundwater pumping. Daily rainfall was measured at the site and changes in water table were monitored from October, 2005 to October, 2006. Water samples were collected from 15 dug wells and 20 piezometers, from the disturbed and undisturbed sites, respectively to evaluate the temporal and spatial trends in water quality. Observed values of electrical conductivity, alkalinity and concentrations of calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium and sulphate in the disturbed site were slightly higher than that in the undisturbed site during the months of January, March, and October 2006. Furthermore, water quality parameter values in abandoned dug wells in the disturbed site have shown similar results as the undisturbed site. This was also evident from the geochemical inverse modelling using the U.S. Geological Survey code, PHREEQC. These findings support the hypothesis that well cleaning and abstraction of water for general purposes disturb the natural downward movement and the recession of the tsunami impacts and therefore, the imprint of the tsunami may have been prolonged in the disturbed site compared to the undisturbed site.
The Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) of Sri Lanka was established in 1970 by the legislation Atomic Energy Authority Act No.19 of 1969. Since the act was enacted 03 decades ago, the recent advances and needs were not identified. The AEA was empowered to carry out promotional activities of nuclear technology as well as regulatory activities. Under the provisions made in the act the Atomic Energy Regulations of 1975 were promulgated to regulate the activities related to radiation in the country until year 2000. Having realized that these regulations are not sufficient to meet the current international requirements with the technological advances in the fields 'Ionizing Radiation Protection Regulations' which conforms to the IAEA's Basic Safety Standards-115 were promulgated in year 2000. Even though the new regulations were made under the same act, the AEA could achieve a positive improvement in regulatory activities in use of ionizing radiation in the country by establishing a good system for implementation of a notification, licensing, and inspection programmes to conform to the International requirements. Three codes of practices have been drafted and are under review and few manuals have been printed for distribution among the radiation users. Two regulations on safe transport of radioactive material and radioactive waste management have to be promulgated and steps have been initiated in this regard. Assistance from the IAEA was received to strengthen the regulatory infrastructure in Sri Lanka under the model project in radiation protection. Also IAEA has carried out several missions to assess the regulatory effectiveness in Sri Lanka. These missions state the successful achievement of milestones I and II of the IAEA model project on Strengthening and Harmonization of Radiation Protection. However it is identified that amendment of the act is a timely requirement for the effective independence of the regulatory activities carried out by the AEA. (author)
Gunasekera, R.; Bandara, R. M. S.; Mallawatantri, A.; Saito, K.
Landslides are often triggered by intense precipitation and are exacerbated by increased urbanisation and human activity. There is a significant risk of large scale landslides in Sri Lanka and when they do occur, they have the potential to cause devastation to property, lives and livelihoods. There are several high landslide risk areas in seven districts (Nuwara Eliya, Badulla, Ratnapura, Kegalle, Kandy, Matale and Kalutara) in Sri Lanka. These are also some of the poorest areas in the country and consequently the recovery process after catastrophic landslides become more problematic. Therefore landslide risk management is an important concern in poverty reduction strategies. We focused on the district of Badulla, Sri Lanka to evaluate the a) quantitative scientific analysis of landslide risk and b) qualitative public perception of landslides in the area. Combining high resolution, hazard and susceptibility data we quantified the risk of landslides in the area. We also evaluated the public perception of landslides in the area using participatory GIS techniques. The evaluation of public perception of landslide risk has been complemented by use of Landscan data. The framework of the methodology for Landscan data is based on using the second order administrative population data from census, each 30 arc-second cell within the administrative units receives a probability coefficient based on slope, proximity to roads and land cover. Provision of this information from these complementary methods to the regional planners help to strengthen the disaster risk reduction options and improving sustainable land use practices through enhanced public participation in the decision making and governance processes.
Full Text Available The Asian elephant (Elephas maximus represents one of the most seriousendangered species. Capturing and domestication of these wild elephantscan be considered as one of the measures of elephant conservation.Domesticated elephants play a major role during festival processions in SriLanka. However, there is always a risk of getting panic and disobeying ofthese animals to the mahout's order. Self-Tranquilizer was invented toovercome the constraint such as difficulty of reaching and targeting theelephant in a crowded area, prolong loading time of the tranquilizer drug etc,experienced when palmer cap-chur gun is used. Current study was mainlybased on data collected through primary survey and experimental form.Target people of the study were, elephant owners and senior officersattached to Wild Life Department of Sri Lanka. Data were collected usingstructural questionnaire which included general information about captiveelephant management. Survey was concluded that approximately 115 oftamed elephants were rared in the Sri Lanka. Objective of this study was todo a feasibility assessment about Self-Tranquilizer as a safe, reliable anduser friendly method to tranquilize elephants during festive processions.Novel device of the “Self- Tranquilizer was experimented by using the deadelephant's skin. Mechanical background of this machine was fullytelephone operated. Major important part of this machine was auto-plunger.The auto-plunger can be used as a proper “Intramuscular drugadministrating” device. This machine was prepared to fix on the neck of theelephant. In any elephant was out of control, the veterinary surgeon cantranquilize the elephants just by dialing the secrete mobile number that isassigned to the particular elephant. “Self- Tranquilizer” found to beimportant to regain and safeguard the public confidence and safety,respectively.
Sharaf, I; Saw, A; Hyzan, Y; Sivananthan, K S
The tsunami which occurred off the west coast of North Sumatra on December 26, 2004 devastated the coastal areas of North Sumatra, South-West Thailand, South-East India and Sri Lanka killing more than a quarter of a million people. The destruction was enormous with many coastal villages destroyed. The other countries affected were Malaysia, Myanmar, Maldives, Bangladesh, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania and the Seychelles. In January 2005, volunteers went in weekly rotation to Banda Aceh in collaboration with Global Peace Mission. These were Dr Hyzan Yusof, Dr Suryasmi Duski, Dr Sharaf Ibrahim, Dr Saw Aik, Dr Kamariah Nor and Dr Nor Azlin. In Banda Aceh, the surgical procedures that we could do were limited to external fixation of open fractures and debriding infected wounds at the Indonesian Red Crescent field hospital. In February, a team comprising Dato Dr K S Sivananthan, Dr T Kumar and Dr S Vasan spent a week in Sri Lanka. In Sri Lanka, Dato Sivananthan and his team were able to perform elective orthopaedic operations in Dr Poonambalam Memorial Hospital. We appealed for national and international aid and received support from local hospitals and the orthopaedic industry. International aid bound for Banda Aceh arrived in Kuala Lumpur from the Philippine Orthopaedic Association, the Chiba Children's Hospital in Japan and the Chinese Orthopaedic Association. The COA donated 1.5 tons of orthopaedic equipments. A special handing over ceremony from the COA to the Indonesian Orthopaedic Association was held in Putrajaya in March. Malaysia Airlines flew in the donated equipment to Kuala Lumpur while the onward flight to Aceh was provided by the Royal Malaysian Air Force. In April, Dr Saw Aik and Dr Yong Su Mei joined the Tsu-Chi International Medical Association for volunteer services on Batam Island, Indonesia. The MOA acknowledges the many individuals and organizations, both governmental and non-governmental, for their contributions in the humanitarian efforts. PMID:16381273
Klinkenberg, Eveline; van der Hoek, Wim; Amerasinghe, Felix P
Malaria in Sri Lanka is unstable and epidemic, with large spatial and temporal differences in transmission dynamics. The disease is of great public health significance and identification of underlying risk factors is important in order to use the limited resources in a cost-effective way. The International Water Management Institute (IWMI) recently launched a project of GIS-based malaria risk mapping in Sri Lanka, to investigate whether this tool could be used for epidemic forecasting and for the planning of malaria control activities. This paper presents results for the Uda Walawe region in southern Sri Lanka, an irrigated agricultural area where malaria cases were mapped at the smallest administrative level for each month over a 10-year period. Malaria incidence rates were related to land- and water-use patterns, socio-economic features, and data on malaria control interventions in a multivariate analysis. Areas of high malaria risk were characterized by: (i) higher than average rainfall, (ii) greater forest coverage; (iii) slash and burn cultivation as a predominant agricultural activity; (iv) presence of many abandoned irrigation reservoirs; and (v) poor socio-economic status. Irrigated rice cultivation areas had a lower risk of malaria than non-irrigated areas. This difference could be due to socio-economic factors related to irrigation development and/or transmission dynamics related to vector density or species composition. Our findings call for malaria control strategies that are readily adapted to different ecological and epidemiological settings. Malaria risk maps are a convenient tool for discussing targeted and cost-effective interventions with disease control personnel. PMID:14732243
Full Text Available Abstract Background The internet is a relatively new medium of disseminating health information. Studies on Internet usage for health information are mainly done in developed countries and very few studies have been carried out in developing countries. Methods The Internet usage of patients who were attending specialist clinics in Teaching Hospital Karapitiya and Southern Hospital in Galle, Sri Lanka was investigated. The study was carried out on the following specialities; General Medicine, Pediatrics, General Surgery and Cardiothoracic surgery. Information was collected using an investigator-administered questionnaire while patients were waiting for a consultation. Results Three hundred and fifty five patients (or guardians in the Pediatric clinic participated in the study. One hundred seventy two (48.3% participants have heard about the Internet. There was a relationship between awareness of the Internet and age, educational level and the clinic attended. There was no difference of awareness depending on the gender or the hospital. Only three participants (0.97% have used the Internet to find information about their disease conditions. Close relatives searched the Internet about the conditions of two participants. Altogether, the Internet was used to search information on the disease condition of five participants (1.4%. Conclusion Very low usage of the Internet for health information retrieval in this study is probably due to low awareness of the Internet and low educational level. This low usage of Internet and the associated reasons shown in this study can be generalized to Sri Lanka and probably to other low-income countries that have lower educational level than Sri Lanka.
Tipre, Meghan; Luvall, Jeffrey; Haque, Akhlaque; McClure, Leslie; Zaitchik, Ben; Sathiakumar, Nalini
Dengue fever has increased exponentially in Sri Lanka, from 24.4 cases per 100,000 in 2003 to 165.3 per 100,000 population in 2013. Although early warning systems using predictor models have been previously developed in other settings, it is important to develop such models in each local setting. Further, the ability of these models to be applicable at smaller geographic units will enhance current vector control and disease surveillance measures. The aim of this paper was to identify environmental and socio-economic status (SES) risk factors that may predict dengue fever at the Gram Niladhari Divisions (GND) level (smallest administrative unit) in Colombo city, Sri Lanka. These factors included landcover classes, amount of vegetation, population density, water access and neighborhood SES as determined by roof type. A geographically weighted regression (GWR) was used to develop the prediction model. A total 55 GND units covering an area of 37 sq km were investigated. We found that GND units with decreased vegetation, higher built-up area, higher population density and poor access to tap-water supply were associated with high risk of dengue; the pertinent GND units were concentrated in the center of the city. This is the first study in Sri Lanka to include both environmental and socio-demographic factors in prediction models for dengue fever. The methodology may be useful in enhancing ongoing dengue fever control measures in the country, and to be extended to other countries in the region that have an increasing incidence of dengue fever.
Inoue, Shusaku; Wijeyewickrema, Anil C.; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Miura, Hiroyuki; Gunaratna, Priyantha; Madurapperuma, Manoj; Sekiguchi, Toru
The December 26, 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake that registered a moment magnitude (M w ) of 9.1 was one of the largest earthquakes in the world since 1900. The devastating tsunami that resulted from this earthquake caused more casualties than any previously reported tsunami. The number of fatalities and missing persons in the most seriously affected countries were Indonesia - 167,736, Sri Lanka - 35,322, India - 18,045 and Thailand - 8,212. This paper describes two field visits to assess tsunami effects in Sri Lanka by a combined team of Japanese and Sri Lankan researchers. The first field visit from December 30, 2004 January 04, 2005 covered the western and southern coasts of Sri Lanka including the cities of Moratuwa, Beruwala, Bentota, Pereliya, Hikkaduwa, Galle, Talpe, Matara, Tangalla and Hambantota. The objectives of the first field visit were to investigate the damage caused by the tsunami and to obtain eyewitness information about wave arrival times. The second field visit from March 10 18, 2005 covered the eastern and southern coasts of Sri Lanka and included Trincomalee, Batticaloa, Arugam Bay, Yala National Park and Kirinda. The objectives of the second visit were mainly to obtain eyewitness information about wave arrival times and inundation data, and to take relevant measurements using GPS instruments.
Thunberg, Nils; Eriksson, Joel
Background: There are different types of firms in the world. Those that lead change and those who follow change. In this thesis, the authors have chosen to see if a dynamic industry in a developing nation can be the leaders of change, or if they are stuck as the ones following developments in the west. Sri Lanka is a developing nation with a rapidly growing software industry. Like its neighbour, India, the country and region has been known for its cheap, yet highly skilled labour. This study ...
Yapa M.A.M. Wijerathna
Full Text Available Viroids are the smallest pathogens of plants. They are the cause of serious diseases on economic plants worldwide. Prevention and detection of the pathogens are the best method to reduce the economic loss from viroid infection. During last decade, genetics and molecular biology techniques have gained an increasing presence in plant pathology research. The purpose of this review is to highlight the most upgrade molecular biology techniques that have been used and studied recently. Most relevant published reports and hand skilled techniques have presented here with emphasis on suitable Viroid detection technique should be used for Sri Lanka.
Anthony, Sulali; Abeywickrama, Krishanthi; Dayananda, Ranjith; Wijeratnam, Shanthi Wilson; Arambewela, Luxshmi
The crown rot pathogens isolated from banana samples collected from 12 localities in Sri Lanka were Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium proliferatum and Colletotrichum musae. Fungal pathogens isolated were able to cause crown rot disease alone or in combination. Disease severity was higher when combinations of virulent pathogens were used. Cymbopogon nardus and Ocimum basilicum oils displayed fungicidal activity against C. musae and F. proliferatum between 0.2-0.6% (v/v) in a Poisoned food bioassay. Slightly lower concentrations of the test oils were needed for similar activity during liquid bioassays. The combination of Cymbopogon nardus and O. basilicum oils demonstrated synergistic action during both in-vivo bioassays. PMID:15008351
Liyanage, IK; Wickramasinghe, K; Ratnayake, HE; Palmer, P; MATTHEWS, DR; Katulanda, P
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to understand the usage patterns and correlates of illicit drug use among schoolchildren in Colombo district, Sri Lanka. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among grade 10 and 12 students using a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: From the 6000 students selected, 5353(89.22%) responded. Betel chewing with tobacco was seen in 28.48% males and 10.44% females. Substances such as Barbul, Madana Modaka, and cough syrups that are not established as il...
The desiccated coconut (DC) industry is one of the major export oriented food processing industries in Sri Lanka. This paper discusses the production processes, types of fuel used, energy use pattern and the overall specific thermal and electrical energy consumption in the DC sector. An analysis of the energy use highlights the inefficient processes and the key energy loss areas. Options for energy conservation in the DC mills have been discussed, and carbon dioxide emissions from this sector and its mitigation potential are estimated. Other options to improve efficiency and reduce other pollution and policy aspects have been presented
Vithanage, Meththika Suharshini; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard; Villholth, Karen G.; Jensen, Karsten Høgh
On December 26, 2004, the earthquake off the southern coast of Sumatra in the Indian Ocean generated far-reaching tsunami waves, resulting in severe disruption of the coastal aquifers in many countries of the region. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of the tsunami on groundwater in coastal areas. Field investigations on the east coast of Sri Lanka were carried out along a transect located perpendicular to the coastline on a 2.4 km wide sand stretch bounded by the sea and a l...
Konradsen, F; Hoek, Wim van der; Amerasinghe, P H; Amerasinghe, F P
The economic cost at the household level of labor days lost due to malaria and other illnesses was estimated in a rural community in Sri Lanka. Over a one-year period, 223 episodes of malaria were recorded from the 298 inhabitants of the village. Based on daily activity records, the economically active age group was defined as 14-60 years. In this age group, 1.8% of working days were lost due to malaria and 5.2% due to all other illnesses. The value of a labor day lost was based on the actual ru...
Konradsen, Flemming; Amerasinghe, Priyanie; van der Hoek, Wim; Amerasinghe, Felix; Perera, Devika; Piyaratne, Maldeniya
The objective of this study was to determine whether house characteristics could be used to further refine the residual insecticide-spraying program in Sri Lanka. Indoor-resting mosquito densities were estimated in 473 houses based on fortnightly collections over a two-and-a-half-year period. The type of house construction and the exact location of all houses were determined. In a multivariate analysis, distance of less than 750 meters between a house and the main vector-breeding site was strong...
Mohamed, Fahim; Perera, Aravinda; Wijayaweera, Kusal; Kularatne, Keerthi; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Eddleston, Michael; Dawson, Andrew; Konradsen, Flemming; Gunnell, David
BACKGROUND: One of the most important components of suicide prevention strategies is to target people who repeat self-harm as they are a high risk group. However, there is some evidence that the incidence of repeat self-harm is lower in Asia than in the West. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of previous self-harm among a consecutive series of self-harm patients presenting to hospitals in rural Sri Lanka. METHOD: Six hundred and ninety-eight self-poisoning patients pr...
The main emphasis of the work in Sri Lanka during the period under review has been on: the collection of available information on the biology of the plant and attempts to gain a more complete understanding of the biology by direct observation and experimentation; the study of the ecology of the plant with special reference to its competition with the other prevalent aquatic weeds in this country, viz Salvinia molesta; the study of the fauna and flora associated with the plant with a view to isolating some organisms that may prove to be suitable agents for its biological control
Hoek, Wim van der; Konradsen, F; Dijkstra, D S; Amerasinghe, P H; Amerasinghe, F P
Environmental and socioeconomic risk factors for malaria were studied in a village in Sri Lanka. Over a period of one year, all 49 households in the village were visited every alternate day to obtain information on malaria episodes. Information on risk factors was obtained through questionnaires and direct observations. Age below 17 years (relative risk [RR] = 1.66, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.18-2.35), use of bed nets (RR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.05-0.45) and traditional fumigants (RR = 0.58, 95...
This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Sri Lanka carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation
Thayaparan Aruppillai; Paulina Mary Godwin Phillip
This study investigates the impact of socio-economic characteristics of the farmers and its impact on their loans resettlement behavior in the People’s Bank, Puttalam branch in Sri Lanka. Secondary data were collected from the bank officials and the data were analyzed with 100 applicants who are cultivating paddy as a major crop and other field crops during the Maha and Yala season 2011/2012. This study was analyzed using descriptive statistics, Tobit model and in addition to that elasticity ...
Full Text Available This work investigates the nature of technological development and the viability of applying an evolutionary approach to the early development of iron production in Sri Lanka. The main objective of this paper is to use modern techniques in the fields of Physics and Engineering to investigate the wind-driven furnace used in early iron and steel producing industry dating to 300 B.C. In order to study the scientific aspects of the furnace, several theoretical calculations were carried out. Some of the crucial parameters and their optimal values are presented.
Despite a history of being subjected to mental health legislation for over a hundred years, Sri Lanka relies on these archaic laws to implement its present day services when most other countries in the region which have enacted recent reforms. This has resulted in discrepancies in service delivery and a less than optimum level of care. With the expansion of the country’s mental health services and other social changes, the need for immediate reforms, drafted a decade ago but not yet legislate...
Full Text Available Despite a history of being subjected to mental health legislation for over a hundred years, Sri Lanka relies on these archaic laws to implement its present day services when most other countries in the region which have enacted recent reforms. This has resulted in discrepancies in service delivery and a less than optimum level of care. With the expansion of the country’s mental health services and other social changes, the need for immediate reforms, drafted a decade ago but not yet legislated, is convincing.
Patterns of hospital transfer for self-poisoned patients in rural Sri Lanka: implications for estimating the incidence of self-poisoning in the developing world / Modalités d'hospitalisation des cas d'autoempoisonnement délibéré en milieu rural au Sri Lanka: ce qu'elles impliquent pour l'estimation de l'incidence des autoempoisonnements dans le monde en développement / Perfil de traslados interhospitalarios de pacientes autointoxicados en una zona rural de Sri Lanka: implicaciones para la estimación de la incidencia de autointoxicaciones en el mundo en desarrollo
Michael, Eddleston; K, Sudarshan; M, Senthilkumaran; K, Reginald; Lakshman, Karalliedde; Lalith, Senarathna; Dhammika de, Silva; MH, Rezvi Sheriff; Nick A, Buckley; David, Gunnell.
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: La mayoría de los datos sobre autointoxicaciones en las zonas rurales de Asia proceden de hospitales secundarios. Nuestros objetivos fueron los siguientes: evaluar cómo influyen los traslados de hospitales primarios a hospitales secundarios en las estimaciones de la tasa de letalidad; det [...] erminar si había algún sesgo de derivación según el sexo o el tipo de intoxicación; y estimar la incidencia anual de todos los tipos de autointoxicación, así como de las autointoxicaciones mortales, en un entorno rural del mundo en desarrollo. MÉTODOS: Entre el 1 de julio y el 31 de diciembre de 2002 se examinó en el momento del ingreso a los autointoxicados llegados al Hospital General de Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. Revisamos además las notas médicas correspondientes a los pacientes autointoxicados ingresados en 17 de los 34 hospitales periféricos de los alrededores durante el mismo periodo. RESULTADOS: En total fueron ingresadas en el hospital secundario 742 víctimas de autointoxicaciones, de las cuales fallecieron 81 (tasa de letalidad: 10,9%). Un total de 483 pacientes fueron ingresados en 17 hospitales periféricos de los alrededores. Seis pacientes (1,2%) murieron en esos hospitales, 249 fueron dados de alta, y 228 fueron trasladados al hospital secundario. No se observó ningún efecto del sexo o la edad sobre la probabilidad de traslado; sin embargo, los pacientes que habían ingerido adelfa o paraquat tenían más probabilidades de ser trasladados que los que habían tomado plaguicidas organofosforados u otros productos tóxicos. La incidencia anual estimada de autointoxicaciones y de autointoxicaciones mortales fue de 363 y 27 por 100 000 habitantes, respectivamente, con una tasa de letalidad global del 7,4% (intervalo de confianza del 95%: 6,0-9,0). CONCLUSIÓN: Un 50% de los pacientes ingresados en hospitales periféricos fueron dados de alta, lo que demuestra que las tasas de letalidad basadas en los datos de hospitales secundarios están infladas. No obstante, si bien la incidencia de autointoxicaciones es semejante a la de Inglaterra, en Sri Lanka las autointoxicaciones mortales son tres veces más frecuentes que las autolesiones mortales por cualquier método registradas en Inglaterra. Los datos basados en la población son esenciales para realizar comparaciones internacionales de la letalidad y la incidencia y para evaluar las intervenciones de salud pública. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: Most data on self-poisoning in rural Asia have come from secondary hospitals. We aimed to: assess how transfers from primary to secondary hospitals affected estimates of case-fatality ratio (CFR); determine whether there was referral bias according to gender or poison; and estimate the a [...] nnual incidence of all self-poisoning, and of fatal self-poisoning, in a rural developing-world setting. METHODS: Self-poisoning patients admitted to Anuradhapura General Hospital, Sri Lanka, were reviewed on admission from 1 July to 31 December 2002. We audited medical notes of self-poisoning patients admitted to 17 of the 34 surrounding peripheral hospitals for the same period. FINDINGS: A total of 742 patients were admitted with self-poisoning to the secondary hospital; 81 died (CFR 10.9%). 483 patients were admitted to 17 surrounding peripheral hospitals. Six patients (1.2%) died in peripheral hospitals, 249 were discharged home, and 228 were transferred to the secondary hospital. There was no effect of gender or age on likelihood of transfer; however, patients who had ingested oleander or paraquat were more likely to be transferred than were patients who had taken organophosphorus pesticides or other poisons. Estimated annual incidences of self-poisoning and fatal self-poisoning were 363 and 27 per 100 000 population, respectively, with an overall CFR of 7.4% (95% confidence interval 6.0-9.0). CONCLUSION: Fifty per cent of patients admitted to peripheral hospitals were discharged home, showing that CFRs based on secondary hospital data are inflated. However, while incidence of self-poisonin
Konradsen, Flemming; Hoek, Wim van der; Peiris, Pushpalatha
This long-term study in Sri Lanka explored the complexities behind self-inflicted pesticide poisonings by 166 Sri Lankans. Using or threatening to use pesticides for self-harm has become a response to stressful events and a powerful message towards a specific individual, or to the outside world in general, conveying misgiving, anger, sadness, hopelessness, frustration, or simply a way to manipulate a situation to one's own advantage. The effects of alcohol misuse are especially important in unde...
Karunaratne S.H.P.P.; Hemingway J.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels of malathion resistance and prevalence of the malathion carboxylesterase mechanism among mosquitoes in Sri Lanka. METHODS: Bioassays were carried out using WHO-recommended methods on samples of the following Sri Lankan mosquito vectors: Culex quinquefasciatus, C. tritaeniorhynchus, C. gelidus; Anopheles culicifacies B, A. subpictus; Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. FINDINGS: Malathion-specific carboxylesterase mechanisms were found in A. culicifacies and A. ...
Thirteen elements (Au, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn, Th, U and Zn) were determined in 120 heavy mineral concentrates from Sri Lankan stream sediments of the Highland Group of rocks in central Sri Lanka. The data indicate sporadic occurrences of gold, notably in the north of the region where this metal had not previously been found. The possibility of the existence of a previously unknown area of ultramafic rocks near Balangoda close to the plate boundary with the Vijayan Complex was indicated by high levels of chromium and nickel in the sediments. Background levels of uranium (8 ?g/g) were relatively high and three anomalies (>35 ?g/g) were detected in stream sediment concentrates. The project has pinpointed several areas where localized intensive exploration for specific minerals should be undertaken. Background levels have also been established for thirteen elements in stream sediment concentrates derived from the Highland Group of rocks. (orig.)
Illangasekare, T.; Tyler, S.W.; Clement, T.P.; Villholth, K.G.; Perera, A.P.G.R.L.; Obeysekera, J.; Gunatilaka, A.; Panabokke, C.R.; Hyndman, D.W.; Cunningham, K.J.; Kaluarachchi, J.J.; Yeh, W.W.-G.; Van Genuchten, M. T.; Jensen, K.
The 26 December 2004 tsunami caused widespread destruction and contamination of coastal aquifers across southern Asia. Seawater filled domestic open dug wells and also entered the aquifers via direct infiltration during the first flooding waves and later as ponded seawater infiltrated through the permeable sands that are typical of coastal aquifers. In Sri Lanka alone, it is estimated that over 40,000 drinking water wells were either destroyed or contaminated. From February through September 2005, a team of United States, Sri Lankan, and Danish water resource scientists and engineers surveyed the coastal groundwater resources of Sri Lanka to develop an understanding of the impacts of the tsunami and to provide recommendations for the future of coastal water resources in south Asia. In the tsunami-affected areas, seawater was found to have infiltrated and mixed with fresh groundwater lenses as indicated by the elevated groundwater salinity levels. Seawater infiltrated through the shallow vadose zone as well as entered aquifers directly through flooded open wells. Our preliminary transport analysis demonstrates that the intruded seawater has vertically mixed in the aquifers because of both forced and free convection. Widespread pumping of wells to remove seawater was effective in some areas, but overpumping has led to upconing of the saltwater interface and rising salinity. We estimate that groundwater recharge from several monsoon seasons will reduce salinity of many sandy Sri Lankan coastal aquifers. However, the continued sustainability of these small and fragile aquifers for potable water will be difficult because of the rapid growth of human activities that results in more intensive groundwater pumping and increased pollution. Long-term sustainability of coastal aquifers is also impacted by the decrease in sand replenishment of the beaches due to sand mining and erosion. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.
Gunawardena, M; Rowan, J S
Mangrove ecosystems in Sri Lanka are increasingly under threat from development projects, especially aquaculture. An economic assessment is presented for a relatively large (42 ha) shrimp culture development proposed for the Rekawa Lagoon system in the south of Sri Lanka, which involved an extended cost-benefit analysis of the proposal and an estimate of the "total economic value" (TEV) of a mangrove ecosystem. The analysis revealed that the internal benefits of developing the shrimp farm are higher than the internal costs in the ratio of 1.5:1. However, when the wider environmental impacts are more comprehensively evaluated, the external benefits are much lower than the external costs in a ratio that ranges between 1:6 and 1:11. In areas like Rekawa, where agriculture and fisheries are widely practiced at subsistence levels, shrimp aquaculture developments have disproportionately large impacts on traditional livelihoods and social welfare. Thus, although the analysis retains considerable uncertainties, more explicit costing of the environmental services provided by mangrove ecosystems demonstrates that low intensity, but sustainable, harvesting has far greater long-term value to local stakeholders and the wider community than large shrimp aquaculture developments. PMID:16151655
Peiris-John Roshini J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD and subsequent end stage renal failure necessitating renal replacement therapy has profound consequences for affected individuals and health care resources. This community based study was conducted to identify potential predictors of microalbuminuria in a randomly selected sample of adults from the North Central Province (NCP of Sri Lanka, where the burden of CKD is pronounced and the underlying cause still unknown. Methods Exposures to possible risk factors were determined in randomly recruited subjects (425 females and 461 males from selected areas of the NCP of Sri Lanka using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Sulphosalicylic acid and the Light Dependent Resister microalbumin gel filtration method was used for initial screening for microalbuminuria and reconfirmed by the Micral strip test. Results Microalbumnuria was detected in 6.1% of the females and 8.5% of the males. Smoking (p Conclusions Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, UTI, and smoking are known risk factors for microalbuminuria. The association between microalbuminuria and consumption of well water suggests an environmental aetiology to CKD in NCP. The causative agent is yet to be identified. Investigations for cadmium as a potential causative agent needs to be initiated.
Sri Lanka is essentially a detached portion of the Deccan Plateau of south India and like it, is underlain almost everywhere by hard old Precambrian rocks. Prior to 1940 there was no systematic organised geological survey work on the island. Between 1957 and 1962 a partial aerial survey and field traverses were conducted in a search for radio- active minerals. Since then a modest programme has continued. Thorianite was first discovered in placer deposits in 1903 and prospecting has found many other refractory radioactive minerals probably derived from the weathering of pegmatites. Monazite is found as an important constituent of beach placer deposits and it is estimated to have an average content of 8-10%ThO2 and 0.3 - 0.5% U3O8. Up to 1000 tons monazite per year could be produced from the beach sand industry. Sri Lanka has had very little systematic exploration for uranium and as it is largely composed of Precambrian rocks it deserves closer attention. On the other hand it is part of a thorium rich province and there is a body of technical opinion that believes that thorium rich provinces are unlikely to contain significant uranium deposits. For these reasons it is estimated that the Speculative Potential may be within the range of 1000 to 10,000 tonnes uranium. In addition it maybe possible to produce up to 5 tonnes uranium and 100 tonnes thorium from the beach sand industry on an annual basis. (author)
World net electricity consumption is expected to double over the next two decades. With increasing demand, electricity shortages will be prevalent, particularly in developing countries. An adequate and regular power supply would support economic growth in developing countries. Previous studies have demonstrated a strong correlation between electricity use and economic development. Studies have shown that there is a bi-directional causal relationship between gross domestic product and electricity consumption in Taiwan for the period 1954 to 1997. In order to examine the impact of electricity supply on economic growth in Sri Lanka, this paper presented the results of a study that applied Yang's model, using a simple regression analysis. The paper presented the methodology and estimation results. The study incorporated a cost benefit analysis model which assessed the economic, social and environmental impacts of dam projects in Sri Lanka. It was concluded that the application of Yang's regression analysis is one possible approach to estimate a better range for the expected increase in economic output parameter. 14 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs
The sharp rise in oil and food prices in 2007 and 2008 caused negative impacts on poverty and economic growth in many oil and food importing developing countries. Some analysts believe that these countries are under stress again due to a rise in crude oil prices, to a two-and-a-half year high in March 2011, which has also been partly responsible for higher food prices in recent months. However, there is a limited body of empirical evidence available from developing countries on the impact of high oil prices on growth in general and household poverty in particular. In this study, Sri Lanka is used as a case study and a computable general equilibrium (CGE) approach is adopted as an analytical framework to explore the growth and poverty impacts of high oil prices. The results suggest that urban low income households are the group most adversely affected by high global oil prices, followed by low income rural households. In contrast, estate low income households are the least affected out of all low income households. The energy intensive manufacturing sector and services sector are affected most compared to the agricultural sector. - Highlights: ? Using a general equilibrium model we find poverty and oil price link for Sri Lanka. ? Urban low income households are the group most adversely affected. ? Energy intensive manufacturing and services sectors are affected most.
Kanthi K A S Yapa
Remotely sensed data on ocean colour of waters surrounding Sri Lanka received from the Coastal Zone Colour Scanner (CZCS) are processed and analyzed. Raw data of 1 km resolution on relatively cloud free days during 1978-1986 are processed to produce sea surface chlorophyll maps within latitudes 4.5N-11N and longitudes 78E-85E, a region in the Indian Ocean surrounding Sri Lanka. The processed data include about 110 single day maps and composite averages for each month and season. The months of July, August and September are omitted in the calculation of averages due to insufficient data. The waters in the Gulf of Mannar and Palk Bay areas show high chlorophyll-a concentrations throughout the year. However, these high values may represent other suspended particles and dissolved organic matter besides chlorophyll-a as this region is shallow (< 100 m). Regions with high chlorophyll concentrations (>0:5 mg m-3) along the coast and western ocean region can be seen in the months of October and November, after the southwest monsoon period. As high surface chlorophyll concentrations may indicate high productivity, these regions need extensive measurements of primary production and also continuous monitoring of fish catches, during and after the southwest monsoon. Studies of particle composition in shallow water areas, in particular waters in Palk Bay and Gulf of Mannar, should be carried out in order to elucidate the effect of non-phytogenic.
An analysis of the rates of change in the geomagnetic field components in the period range 20-600 sec recorded at Kondavil and Hikkaduwa, two stations in the equatorial electrojet belt near the northern and south western coasts respectively of Sri Lanka, shows anomalous variations. The results confirm induced current concentration in the Palk Strait and deflection of induced currents around the southerncoast of Sri Lanka postulated by earlier workers from observations of SSC and Bay events at Indian stations and from analogue and numerical model studies. At Kondavil, which is situated close to the geomagnetic equator, no appreciable difference in the night-time and day-time values of ?Z/?H and ?D/?H ratios was noticed while at Hikkaduwa, a station situated under the edge of the equatorial electrojet belt, a day-time enhancement of ?Z/?H ratios was found at all periods in the observed range. An enhancement of the H component at Colombo over that at Hikkaduwa was also found at short periods, the enhancement being greater at day-time. The day-time enhancement in the ?Z/?H ratios at Hikkaduwa and in the ratio of the H components at Colombo and Hikkaduwa could be due to the effect of the equatorial electrojet on the short period variations. (author)
Browning, David G.; Scheifele, Peter M.; Vonwinkle, William A.
There has previously been significant anecdotal evidence that animals can anticipate or sense seismic events. It is known that large animals, specifically elephants, sense and utilize low frequency sound. The object of this paper is to estimate the possible warning times that large animals in Sri Lanka could have had of the Sumatra Tsunami, assuming they could sense low frequency wave transmission from the initial earthquake arriving by either atmospheric, ocean, or bottom paths. The atmospheric path appears to be the least efficient due to relatively high attenuation and poor coupling to the source. It would also give the shortest warning time: approximately 30 minutes. The ocean path via the deep sound channel, which has been shown by a previous Bermuda experiment to be an efficient means of coupling seismic energy to an island, would give a warning time of more than 1.5 hours. The bottom path(s), which gave strong received signals at a Sri Lanka seismic station, would give a warning time of about 2 hours. These estimates should provide a context for animal behavior reports.
Full Text Available Poultry production and consumption in Sri Lanka, has been dramatically increased during last two decades and Salmonellosis was reported as one of the prevalent diseases in commercial layers. Both S.Gallianrum as well as S.Pullorum is causing severe economical impact to the industry, while S.Typhimurium and S.Enteritidis are also important in the public health aspects. Vaccination against Salmonellosis is widely practiced in several countries in the world to control the infection: In Sri Lanka, killed vaccine is permitted only for commercial layer, while breeder birds, commercial broilers are prohibited by regulation.Both Live attenuated and killed vaccine have many benefits, and proven results for controlling of none host- specific Salmonella in poultry and also in reducing the occurrence of human food born infections. Both vaccines were considered as potential to control the host specific Salmonella in poultry by reducing the mortality and feacal shedding to the environment. Evidencely, live vaccines are capable of controlling the human infections caused by non host specific Salmonella as a result of cross immunization in poultry. Since, Both vaccine given positive effect as well as negative effect to control the Salmonellsois in chicken and further studies are encouraged relevant to local situation.
C. B. Dissanayake
Full Text Available The gem deposits of Sri Lanka are studied from the point of view of their geology, mineralogy and geochemistry. Nearly all the gem formations are located in the central high-grade metamorphic terrain of the Highland Complex. The gem deposits are classified as sedimentary, metamorphic and magmatic; the sedimentary types being the most abundant. The mineralogy of the gem deposits varies widely with, among others, corundum, chrysoberyl, beryl, spinel, topaz,zircon, tourmaline, garnet and sphene being common.Rare element concentrations in sediments from the three main gem fields of Sri Lanka, namely Ratnapura, Elahera and Walawe, were studied. It was found that some sediments are considerably enriched in certain elements compared to their average continental crustal abundances. The Walawe Ganga sediments show anomalous enrichments of the high field strength and associated elements, particularly Zr, Hf, W and Ti. This is attributed to the presence of accessory mineralssuch as zircon, monazite and rutile. Some of these heavy minerals comprise as much as 50 wt% of sediment. The geochemical enrichment of some trace elements compared to their average crustal abundances indicates that highly differentiated granites and associated pegmatites have provided the source materials for enrichment.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This manuscript updates a review previously published in a local journal in 2012, about a new form of chronic kidney disease that has emerged over the past two decades in the north-central dry zone of Sri Lanka, where the underlying causes remain undetermined. Disease burden is higher [...] in this area, particularly North Central Province, and affects a rural and disadvantaged population involved in rice-paddy farming. Over the last decade several studies have been carried out to estimate prevalence and identify determinants of this chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology. OBJECTIVE: Summarize the available evidence on prevalence, clinical profile and risk factors of chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology in the north-central region of Sri Lanka. METHODS: PubMed search located 16 manuscripts published in peer-reviewed journals. Three peer-reviewed abstracts of presentations at national scientific conferences were also included in the review. RESULTS: Disease prevalence was 5.1% - 16.9% with more severe disease seen in men than in women. Patients with mild to moderate stages of disease were asymptomatic or had nonspecific symptoms; urinary sediments were bland; 24-hour urine protein excretion was
de Menil Victoria
Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited evidence about mental health finances in low and middle-income countries is a key challenge to mental health care policy initiatives. This study aimed to map mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, India (Kerala state, Sri Lanka and Lao PDR focusing on how much money is available for mental health, how it is spent, and how this impacts mental health services. Methods A researcher in each region reviewed public mental health-related budgets and interviewed key informants on government mental health financing. A total of 43 key informant interviews were conducted. Quantitative data was analyzed in an excel matrix using descriptive statistics. Key informant interviews were coded a priori against research questions. Results National ring-fenced budgets for mental health as a percentage of national health spending for 2007-08 is 1.7% in Sri Lanka, 3.7% in Ghana, 2.0% in Kerala (India and 6.6% in Uganda. Budgets were not available in Lao PDR. The majority of ring-fenced budgets (76% to 100% is spent on psychiatric hospitals. Mental health spending could not be tracked beyond the psychiatric hospital level due to limited information at the health centre and community levels. Conclusions Mental health budget information should be tracked and made publically accessible. Governments can adapt WHO AIMS indicators for reviewing national mental health finances. Funding allocations work more effectively through decentralization. Mental health financing should reflect new ideas emerging from community based practice in LMICs.
Yadav, S. K.
The present research work has studied and compared the different issues of pre-service teacher education programme in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Pakistan. The data were collected from 24 principals, 88 teacher educators and 157 student teachers from institutions and universities where Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) course were. The data were…
Park, Sohyun; Lee, Eun Young; Gittelsohn, Joel; Nkala, Denis; Choi, Bo Youl
Studies on health promoting schools (HPS) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are scarce. To contribute to the development of HPS in these countries, we conducted formative research to understand the school environment in Lao PDR, Mongolia, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. Forty-three teachers, 10 government workers and 5 parents participated in…
Arunatilake, Nisha; Jayawardena, Priyanka
Using the experience of the Educational Quality Inputs (EQI) Scheme in Sri Lanka the paper examines the distributional aspects of formula-based funding and efficiency of decentralized management of education funds in a developing country setting. The study finds that the EQI fund distribution is largely pro-poor. However, results show that to…
Jayatilleke, Achini; Poudel, Krishna C.; Sakisaka, Kayako; Yasuoka, Junko; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jimba, Masamine
The authors conducted a community based, cross-sectional study to describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) by husbands and the association between wives' attitudes toward gender roles and their experience of IPV in Central Province, Sri Lanka. This article included a representative sample of 624 wives between 15 and 49 years of…
Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Jayasena, Asoka; Summerville, Meredith; Borja, Amanda P.
This article reports the findings of a school-based intervention project conducted in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka 15 to 18 months after the December 2004 Tsunami. The work responds to the need for culturally relevant programming to address long-term psychosocial recovery of children and adolescents affected by large scale disasters. Program…
Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed; Chaudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Chaudhry, Amtul Hafeez
This paper attempts to compare the availability, quality, similarities and differences in student support services offered by the Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Pakistan and The Open University of Sri Lanka (OUSL). It also aims to identify and report the deficiencies that students of both the institutions face in the student support services.…
Little, Angela W.
Sri Lanka is hailed internationally for her achievements in literacy, access to education and equality of educational opportunity. However, progress has not been straightforward due to the complex interactions between politics, policy formulation, and the implementation of reforms. This dynamic process has often led to contradictory outcomes. This…
This paper presents an optimal model to satisfy electricity needs of North-east Sri Lanka (NE-SL). With the absence of indigenous fossil fuel and large-scale hydrologic resources, NE-SL depends on the import of fossil fuel for electricity generation, causing economic and environmental hardships. This paper explores a sustainable power generation using a mix of renewable energy resources.
Endemic goitre has been reported in the climatic wet zone of south-west Sri Lanka for the past 50 years, but rarely occurs in the northern dry zone. Despite government-sponsored iodised salt programmes, endemic goitre is still prevalent. In recent years, it has been suggested that Se deficiency may be an important factor in the onset of goitre and other iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). Prior to the present study, environmental concentrations of Se in Sri Lanka and the possible relationships between Se deficiency and endemic goitre had not been investigated. During the present study, chemical differences in the environment (measured in soil, rice and drinking water) and the Se-status of the human population (demonstrated by hair samples from women) were determined for 15 villages. The villages were characterised by low (25%) goitre incidence (NIDD, MIDD and HIDD, respectively). Results show that concentrations of soil total Se and iodine are highest in the HIDD villages, however, the soil clay and organic matter content appear to inhibit the bioavailability of these elements. Concentrations of iodine in rice are low (?58 ng/g) and rice does not provide a significant source of iodine in the Sri Lankan diet. High concentrations of iodine (up to 84 ?g/l) in drinking water in the dry zone may, in part, explain why goitre is uncommon in this area. This study has shown for the first time that significant proportions of the Sri Lankan female population may be Se deficient (24, 24 and 40% in the NIDD, MIDD and HIDD villages, respectively). Although Se deficiency is not restricted to areas where goitre is prevalent, a combination of iodine and Se deficiency could be involved in the pathogenesis of goitre in Sri Lanka. The distribution of red rice cultivation in Sri Lanka is coincident with the HIDD villages. Varieties of red rice grown in other countries contain anthocyanins and procyanidins, compounds which in other foodstuffs are known goitrogens. The potential goitrogenic properties of red rice in Sri Lanka are presently unknown and require further investigation. It is likely that the incidence of goitre in Sri Lanka is multi-factorial, involving trace element deficiencies and other factors such as poor nutrition and goitrogens in foodstuffs
This paper seeks to examine the embodiment of female masculinity as experienced by 12 gender-non-conforming lesbians in Sri Lanka. By drawing on western feminist and queer theories, it critiques western theories in relation to a non-western subjectivity, attempting to unravel the seemingly empowering, albeit problematic, category of female masculinity. Data gathered through qualitative interviews address one key research question: how do gender-non-conforming lesbians in Sri Lankan embody female masculinity? As the discussion unfolds, this paper analyses the ways they view themselves, the extent to which their actions and behaviours fit within a masculine framework and the ways in which notions of desire are felt and understood in relation to their understanding of gender. In terms of theory, the analysis is located in social constructivist theory, while drawing on a postmodernist approach. Theoretically, the concept of female masculinity allows a woman embodying masculinity to dislodge men and maleness from it. The reality within a Sri Lankan experience, however, can at times be different, as this paper reveals. PMID:23837849
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Over two decades of civil unrest and the conflict situation have had detrimental effects on vector control activities and management of malaria in Jaffna district which is an endemic region for malaria in Sri Lanka. With the background that only a few small-scale studies on malaria and its vectors have been reported from this district, a study was designed to explore the current status of malaria in the Jaffna district in relation to vector and community aspects.Methods: Adults and larvae of anopheline mosquitoes were collected monthly from selected endemic localities. Species prevalence of the collected mosquitoes was studied while the collected adults of Anopheles subpictus, a potential vector in the district, was screened for sibling species composition based on morphological characteristics and exposed to common insecticides using WHO bioassay kits. Knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP of the community were tested using a pre-tested structured questionnaire in high-risk and low-risk localities in the district.Results: The anopheline mosquito species distribution in the district was—An. culicifacies (0.5%, An. subpictus (46%, An. varuna (4%, An. nigerrimus (44% and An. pallidus (5.5%. Among the collected larvae the percent prevalence of An. culicifacies was 13% and other species follows as: An. subpictus (71%, An. varuna (4%, An. nigerrimus (10% and An. pallidus (2%. Sibling species B, C and D of An. subpictus were present in the district with the predominance of B in both coastal and inland areas, while all members showed both indoor and outdoor resting characteristics, they were highly resistant to DDT (4% and highly susceptible to malathion (5%. KAP study in the district showed a reasonable level of knowledge, positive attitude and practices towards malaria.Conclusion: An. subpictus, the reported major vector of Jaffna and a well-established secondary vector of malaria in the country, continues to be the predominant anopheline species. The distribution of sibling species of An. subpictus complex in the Jaffna district, revealed for the first time, has implications for future studies on its bionomics and malaria transmission pattern in this area and the planning of control strategies for this region. The community perception of disease, which revealed a satisfactory knowledge indicates the potential for better community participation in future malaria control activities in this region. As potential vectors are still present, health authorities need to be vigilant to prevent any future epidemics of malaria.
Ravindra Dissanayake; Sudath Weerasiri
Sri Lanka is emerging as service sector driven economy with the GDP penetration of 50%-60% from service sector. After imposing the open economy policy in 1977, local brands had to gear ahead with intensive competition came from international brands. Telecommunication industry of Sri Lanka has been dominated by international brands, but local brands are strategically promoting the concept of country of origin (CO) or being local as a motive for citizens to deliberately purchase locally origina...
GUNATHILAKA, Patikiri Arachchilage Don Hasantha Nayan
Sri Lanka is facing severe environmental problems such as air and water pollution due to rapid industrialisation and urbanisation. Because there have not been many studies on heavy metal pollution in Sri Lanka, the present study attempts to contribute to the literature a determination of metal pollution using indicators found in lichen specimens. Our study utilised energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to determine element concentrations resulting from air pollution in the lichen ...
Mohammad Agus Yusoff
Full Text Available Since Sri Lankan ethnic conflict was considered as a confrontation between the majority Sinhalese and the minority Tamils, the impact of conflict and civil war on other [minority] ethnic groups has always been sidetracked by major parties involved in resolving conflict. One of the communities severely impacted but always forgotten in the discourse of resolution process is the Muslims who ever resorted to violent agitations and arm rebellion to resolve their problem and achieve their political objectives. However, the constant impact of ethnic conflict and civil war on the lives and livelihoods of the community caused them to search for political and institutional mechanism to protect them. Muslim autonomy demand has emerged on this backdrop in the middle of 1980s and has been advocated by Muslim parties and public in the discourse of ethnic politics in Sri Lanka. There has been changing dynamics, phases of acceleration and sidetracks on the advocacy of the demand. This paper aims to examine the changing dynamics of the Muslim demand for territorial autonomy in the eastern part of Sri Lanka. The study was conducted using both primary and secondary data collected from desk analysis and field survey conducted in three years. Analysis of the study is interpretive and descriptive in nature. Findings reveal that the fragmentation of Muslims politics, demerge of north-eastern province, and the new political context in eastern Sri Lanka not only caused to sidetrack the demand but also made the demand politically contested and irrelevant.
Robinson, Lyn; Jarvie, Jim K
Tourism is highly vulnerable to external, non-controllable events. A natural disaster can affect the local tourism industry in numerous ways, and such events are particularly devastating for small communities whose local economy is heavily dependent on the sector. Loss of infrastructure plus negative media stories can have long-term ramifications for the destination. In spite of the economic importance of tourism, post-disaster recovery efforts in this sector are often overlooked by non-governmental organisations (NGOs), which focus on more traditional livelihoods such as agriculture or fishing. This paper describes Mercy Corps' support of tourism recovery activities in Arugam Bay, a remote village on the east coast of Sri Lanka, following the 2004 tsunami. The local economic base is built largely on two sectors: community tourism and fishing. As many other actors were supporting recovery in the local fishing industry, Mercy Corps concentrated on revitalising the tourism sector. PMID:18479472
Ratnayake, R. R.; Seneviratne, G.; Kulasooriya, S. A.
Carbohydrates supply carbon sources for microbial activities that contribute to mineral nutrient production in soil. Their role on soil nutrient availability has not yet been properly elucidated. This was studied in forests and cultivated lands in Sri Lanka. Soil organic matter (SOM) fractions affecting carbohydrate availability were also determined. Soil litter contributed to sugars of plant origin (SPO) in croplands. The negative relationship found between clay bound organic matter (CBO) and glucose indicates higher SOM fixation in clay that lower its availability in cultivated lands. In forests, negative relationships between litter and sugars of microbial origin (SMO) showed that litter fuelled microbes to produce sugars. Fucose and glucose increased the availability of Cu, Zn and Mn in forests. Xylose increased Ca availability in cultivated lands. Arabinose, the main carbon source of soil respiration reduced the P availability. This study showed soil carbohydrates and their relationships with mineral nutrients could provide vital information on the availability of limiting nutrients in tropical ecosystems.
Weerasinghe Gamachchige Chamindu Sampath
Full Text Available The latter parts of 2007 and early months of 2008 witnessed an alarming number of deaths due to a Leptospirosis outbreak in Sri Lanka(1. An unusual number of patients presenting with symptoms of fever, headache or myalgia concentrated in particular geographic areas (North Central and North Western Province in Sri Lanka could have signalled the epidemiologists of an abnormal event with the help of a quicker surveillance programme leading to possible implementation of optimal strategies which could possibly have minimized the early deaths and even prevented the progression of the outbreak. The present day paper-based disease surveillance and notification systems in Sri Lanka(2, confined to a set of notifiable diseases, often require 15-30 days to communicate data and for the central Epidemiology Unit to process it. This latency does not allow for timely detection of disease outbreaks and it limits the ability of the health system to effectively respond and mitigate their consequences. Therefore it negatively affects the health status of the work force and productivity of the country. The Real Time Bio-surveillance Program (RTBP is a pilot study aiming to introduce modern technology to the Health Department of Sri Lanka to complement the existing disease surveillance and notification systems. The processes involve digitizing all clinical health records and analysing them in near real-time to detect unusual events to forewarn health workers before the diseases reach epidemic states. Similar studies have been conducted on bio terrorism surveillance in Winnipeg, Canada(3, pandemic surveillance in Morocco(4 and North Carolina Disease Event Tracking and Epidemiologic Collection Tool (NC DETECT in North Carolina(5. The infrastructure of the project RTBP is composed of an interconnected network between health care workers via mHealthSurvey mobile phone application, T-Cube web interface (TCWI and Sahana Messaging/Alerting Module. Health records from health facilities, namely demographic information, symptoms, suspected and diagnosed diseases are collected through the mHealthSurvey, a mobile phone application(6, that feed in to the TCWI(7, a browser based software tool that detects adverse events; health officials are notified of the adverse events using the Sahana Alerting module that transports via Short Message Service (SMS, Email, and Web(10. Evaluation of the RTBP involves a replication study and parallel cohort study. This pilot study indicates the need for more robust mobile application for data collection with complete ontology, semantics and vocabulary in disease-syndrome information to reduce noise and increase reliability in the datasets. More rigorous capacity building and frequent use is required for health officials to take advantage of the full potential of TCWI. This paper discusses the technologies used in the pilot and the initial findings in relation to usability of the system.
Fauzul Mafasiya Fairoz
Full Text Available Entrepreneurship has played an important role in economic growth, innovation, competitiveness and in poverty alleviation. This study investigated the degree of Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO of twenty five manufacturing Small and Medium scale Enterprises (SMEs in Hambantota District, Sri Lanka (HDSL and the effects of EO dimensions including proactiveness, innovativeness, and risk taking to business performance. Interviews were used as the main instrument for data collection. Qualitative and quantitative techniques were applied for data analysis. Findings showed about 52% of SMEs in HDSL represented moderate level of EO. Proactiveness, innovativeness, risk taking and overall EO were significantly correlated with market share growth. Results further indicated there were positive correlations among proactiveness and EO with business performance. This study could be useful for policy makers to plan their activities towards entrepreneurship development of SMEs in HDSL.
Konradsen, F; van der Hoek, W; Amerasinghe, P H; Amerasinghe, F P; Fonseka, K T
A study of the cost of malaria at the household level, community perceptions, preventive measures and illness behaviour linked to the disease was undertaken in 5 villages in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The surveyed community had a high knowledge of malaria, although side effects of antimalarial drugs were often confused with symptoms of the disease. The community sought prompt diagnosis and treatment at 'western-type' facilities, with 84% making use of government facilities as their first choice and 16% preferring private facilities. The preventive measures used were burning coils (54% of families) and special leaves (69% of families), and 93% of the families had their houses sprayed with insecticides. Average direct expenditure on a single malaria episode was $3 US, with some families spending more than 10% of the annual household net income per episode. The highest expenditure was on special diets for the sick person, to neutralize the perceived heating effect of the disease and its treatment. PMID:9196747
This paper describes the problems, issues and challenges faced by Sri Lanka based on the outcome of a recent study conducted in the country's Southern Province. The study consists of a public survey, discussions with local authority staff involved in waste management, discussions with Provincial Council and Government officials, dialogue with local politicians, review of documents and field observations. The study revealed that only 24% of the households have access to waste collection and that in rural areas it was less than 2%. A substantial number of households in areas without waste collection expect local authorities to collect their waste. The study also showed that most sites in the province are under capacity to handle any increased demand. Urgent and immediate improvement of the waste disposal sites is necessary to meet the current demand for improved waste collection. The study also revealed that there is a high willingness of people for home composting
Deposits of monazite bearing soils occur along the Southwest, West and East Coasts of Sri Lanka. High levels of gamma activity in some plant species growing in the West Coast have been reported. The high levels were due to the presence of the daughter nuclides of 232Th, most of which are alpha emitters. Absolute alpha activity measurements of ash samples of some plants growing in monazite bearing soils were carried out using the alpha sensitive polymeric nuclear track detector CR-39. The values ranged from 60-1900 mBq/g and were in good agreement with the values obtained from conventional scintillation counting method. The activity concentration of 228Th in the ash samples was also calculated by measuring the activity concentration of emanated thoron trapped inside a glass bottle with the use of a CR-39 track detector. (author)
Full text: Antibiotic drugs are often used both therapeutically and prophylactically in animal production, and are necessary for many production systems. However, the presence of unacceptable levels of antimicrobial residues in animal products may lead to direct effects on the consumer, such as allergies and toxicities such as dose-independent idiosyncratic reactions that can be triggered due to chloramphenicol residues. Indirect adverse reactions include the promotion of antimicrobial resistance. Further, the parent drugs and their metabolites of the nitrofuran group of antimicrobials are known to be carcinogens. In order to promote awareness on food safety and quality assurance, it is necessary to monitor antimicrobial residues in animal products. This can be done only by having well equipped laboratories and validated techniques. Sri Lanka, as an export country for cultured shrimp, needs to comply with EU regulations. The establishment of the residue monitoring programme in Sri Lanka was commenced in 2002 at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Peradeniya. Three techniques have been established in Sri Lanka for monitoring antimicrobial residues in food of animal origin. The modified EU Six Plate Test (SPT) is a bioassay technique, which screens six groups of antimicrobials, namely; penicillin, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, macrolides (erythromycin), tetracycline and sulphonamides. Food commodities are screened for chloramphenicol residues using a commercially available ELISA kit (Euro Diagnostica, Netherlands), which is a microtiter plate, based competitive enzyme immunoassay. A HPLC-DAD technique has been established to detect nitrofuran metobolites in shrimp including the primary metobolites of furazolidone, furaltadone, nitrofurantoin and nitrofurazon. Since July 2002 a total of 1712 samples including 900 chicken samples and 812 shrimp samples were screened for antimicrobial residues using the SPT. Since November 2002, 1027 shrimp samples from export consignments have been tested using ELISA. In 2007 the HPLC technique was established and 85 shrimp samples have been tested. Out of the 900 broiler meat samples tested by SPT, 52 samples (5.8 %) showed positive results while all the shrimp samples tested were negative. Out of the 1027 shrimp samples tested using ELISA, 2 samples (0.2 %) were positive. All the samples tested using by HPLC were negative for nitrofuran metabolites. There is clear evidence that the frequency of residues occurrence in the samples tested decreased as the project progressed due to increased awareness among farmers on restrictions imposed on using antimicrobial agents in animal production. Trace back procedures were adopted in situations where residue violations were observed in order to initiate action to prevent reoccurrence through the appropriate and responsible use of antimicrobials, and efforts were taken to ensure sustainability of the project. Further, steps are now being taken to comply with ISO 17025 Certification in order to obtain the status of laboratory accreditation. The laboratory established at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka is now recognized as an Independent Reference Laboratory for monitoring antimicrobial residues in food of animal origin. The laboratory service for the analysis of food samples for antimicrobial residue monitoring is now extended to producers and quality assurance divisions of regulatory authorities. (author)
This paper estimates the demand for road fuel (petrol and auto-diesel) in the context of a small developing economy-Sri Lanka. The data set covers a period of 39 years from 1964 to 2002 representing both close economy and open economy policy regimes. The estimation procedure is based on seemingly unrelated regression equation (SURE) methodology mainly to capture substitutability of petrol and diesel in road transportation. The effect of auto-fuel prices on vehicle demand is also analyzed as a part of the analysis. In addition to confirming existing evidence on road-fuel demand, the findings reveal some interesting evidence with respect to own-price elasticity, cross-price elasticity, lag effects, income and vehicle mix variables
The activity concentrations and effective dose rates due to 232Th, 238U and 40K were determined for sand samples collected along the coastal strip from Crow Island to Beruwala, a part of south western coast of Sri Lanka, using a high-purity germanium detector. The ranges and the mean activity concentrations measured were (11-19 600, 2100), (7-3150, 450) and (14-1210, 220) Bq kg-1 for 232Th, 238U and 40K, respectively. The effective annual gamma dose in the area ranged from 0.004 to 16.8 mSv y-1. For 21 % of the locations, the annual effective dose determined from the activity concentrations exceeded the average worldwide exposure of 2.4 mSv y-1. (authors)
Spices were analyzed by ICP-MS for determination of the ultra-micro trace elements in the human adult, Bi, Cd, Co, Ni, Pd, Pt, Se, Sn, Te, Tl, to complement previous results obtained by INAA and by EDXRF. The spices, originating from Sri Lanka, were curry, chilli powder and turmeric powders, coriander, cinnamon, black pepper, fennel, rampeh and curry leaves, and cumin. The analytical procedure was validated by analyzing the certified reference materials NIST SRM 1572 Citrus Leaves and NIST SRM 1573 Tomato Leaves. The results indicate that spices may contribute well to the daily optimal uptake of nutrients of a human adult. The adequacy of spices as a reference material with certified ultra micro trace elements is suggested. (author)
Sri Lanka is an island nation in Indian Ocean that provides free healthcare to all citizens through government healthcare system. It has commendable health indices in the region. Pediatric cardiac services have rapidly progressed over past few years helping to further bring down infant and under-five mortality rates. Lady Ridgeway Hospital for Children (LRH) is the only tertiary care referral center for children with heart disease in the country. Currently it performs approximately 1,000 cardiac catheterizations and 1,000 cardiac surgeries every year. Target is to double the surgical output to treat all children with heart diseases in a timely and appropriate manner. Being a middle-income country, this is not an easy task. Technology used in diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart diseases is rapidly advancing with its price tag. In such a setting, it is challenging to proceed to achieve this target in a resource-limited environment
Morton, Robert A.; Goff, John A.; Nichol, Scott L.
The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused major landscape changes along the southwest coasts of Sri Lanka that were controlled by the flow, natural topography and bathymetry, and anthropogenic modifications of the terrain. Landscape changes included substantial beach erosion and scouring of return-flow channels near the beach, and deposition of sand sheets across the narrow coastal plain. In many areas tsunami deposits also included abundant building rubble due to the extensive destruction of homes and businesses in areas of dense development. Trim lines and flow directions confirmed that shoreline orientation and wave refraction from embayments and rock-anchored headlands locally focused the flow and amplified the inundation. Tsunami deposits were 1 to 36 cm thick but most were less than 25 cm thick. Deposit thickness depended partly on antecedent topography. The deposits were composed of coarse to medium sand organized into a few sets of plane parallel laminae that exhibited overall upward fining and landward thinning trends.
Full Text Available Sri Lanka is an island nation in Indian Ocean that provides free healthcare to all citizens through government healthcare system. It has commendable health indices in the region. Pediatric cardiac services have rapidly progressed over past few years helping to further bring down infant and under-five mortality rates. Lady Ridgeway Hospital for Children (LRH is the only tertiary care referral center for children with heart disease in the country. Currently it performs approximately 1,000 cardiac catheterizations and 1,000 cardiac surgeries every year. Target is to double the surgical output to treat all children with heart diseases in a timely and appropriate manner. Being a middle-income country, this is not an easy task. Technology used in diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart diseases is rapidly advancing with its price tag. In such a setting, it is challenging to proceed to achieve this target in a resource-limited environment.
Full Text Available This paper argues that the health unit program developed in Sri Lanka in the early twentieth century was an earlier model of selective primary health care promoted by the Rockefeller Foundation in the 1980s in opposition to comprehensive primary health care advocated by the Alma-Ata Declaration of the World Health Organization. A key strategy of the health unit program was to identify the most common and serious infectious diseases in each health unit area and control them through improved sanitation, health education, immunization and treatment with the help of local communities. The health unit program was later introduced to other countries in South and Southeast Asia as part of the Rockefeller Foundation's global campaign to promote public health.
Dharma-Wardana, M W C; Amarasiri, Sarath L; Dharmawardene, Nande; Panabokke, C R
High incidence of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDU) in Sri Lanka is shown to correlate with the presence of irrigation works and rivers that bring-in 'nonpoint source' fertilizer runoff from intensely agricultural regions. We review previous attempts to link CKDU with As, Cd and other standard toxins. Those studies (e.g. the WHO-sponsored study), while providing a wealth of data, are inconclusive in regard to aetiology. Here, we present new proposals based on increased ionicity of drinking water due to fertilizer runoff into the river system, redox processes in the soil and features of 'tank'-cascades and aquifers. The consequent chronic exposure to high ionicity in drinking water is proposed to debilitate the kidney via a Hofmeister-type (i.e. protein-denaturing) mechanism. PMID:25119535
Monshi, Bardia; Zieglmayer, Verena
Western laws and codes of ethics frequently require that private health information be treated confidentially. However, cross-cultural research shows that it is not always easy to determine what members of a culture consider to be private or how they wish private information to be handled. This article begins by presenting an ethnographic study of patient-healer relationships in Sri Lanka; researchers were surprised to find that participants' views of health and privacy differed greatly from typical Western views, and that the privacy protections they had put in place caused discomfort among participants. Building on this ethics case study, the article explores two main questions. First, can a single definition of privacy possibly do justice to the cultural variations that exist, or does a conceptual definition inevitably run the risk of ethnocentrism? Second, to what extent is strict compliance with research regulations or ethics codes ethically justifiable when following the rules will obviously cause unease in international participants? PMID:16622990
Full Text Available The prevalenceof different neighborhood environmental stressors and associations between the stressors and self-rated health are described in a representative sample of 2,077 individuals, aged 18-85 years, in southern Sri Lanka. Mosquito menace (69.4%, stray dog problems (26.8%, nuisance from neighbors (20.3%, and nuisance from drug users (18.7% were found to be the most prevalent environmental stressors. None of the stressors investigated were associated with self-rated physical health, but nuisance from neighbors, nuisance from drug users, shortage of water and having poor water/ sewage drainage system were associated with self-rated mental health among the respondents.
Full Text Available E-Learning has become an increasingly popular mode of instruction in higher education due to advances in the Internet and multimedia technologies. The purpose of the study is to gauge the perception and views of the lecturers at South Eastern University (SEUSL. As it is an exploratory study, the case study method was undertaken. The result of the study indicates that the lecturers are with positive attitude and supportive mindset to embark on e-learning initiative and it also identified a number of factors that could potentially influence the e-learning implementation in the university. Moreover the findings are instrumental and directing in undertaking a comprehensive study to understand the overall perception of lecturers towards e-learning implementation at the tertiary educational institutions in Sri Lanka.
L. D. A. M. Arawwawala
Full Text Available Background: Piper betle Linn. (Piperaceae is used as a remedy for gastric ulcers in traditional medicinal systems in Sri Lanka. However, the gastroprotective activity has never been proven scientifically using betel leaves grown in Sri Lanka. Objective: To evaluate the gastroprotective activity of hot aqueous extract (HAE and cold ethanolic extract (CEE of P. betle in rats as the experimental model. Materials and Methods: Three doses (200, 300, and 500 mg/kg/bw of both extracts were evaluated for the gastroprotective activity against ethanol induced gastric ulcers in rats. The parameters evaluated were (a effects of HAE on mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa, (b acidity (total and free, (c volume and (d pH of the gastric juice. Results: Oral administration of HAE and CEE provided marked dose dependent (HAE: r2 = 0.97; CEE: r2 = 0.96 and significant (P ? 0.05 protection against gastric damage caused by absolute ethanol. The gastroprotective effect of CEE was comparable with that of HAE. Further, gastroprotective activity of the highest dose of both extracts were significantly greater (P ? 0.05 than that of misoprostol, the reference drug. The HAE significantly (P ? 0.05 increased the mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa and inhibited the volume of gastric acid. However, acidity (total and free and pH of the gastric juice remained unaltered. Conclusion: It is concluded that both HAE and CEE of P. betle leaves have a strong gastroprotective activity.
Full Text Available Purpose: This paper aims to analyze whether the corporate governance attributes such as board leadershipstructure, audit committee meetings held, size of independent non-executive directors and size of non-executivedirectors have significant impact on audit quality of manufacturing companies listed on Colombo Stock Exchange,Sri Lanka during 2011 to 2013.Research Design: The study takes 32 manufacturing companies listed in Sri Lanka out of 36 as sample andemploys binary logistic regression method for modeling the association between a binary dependent variable suchas audit quality and multiple independent variables such as board leadership structure, audit committee meetingsheld, size of independent non-executive directors, and size of non-executive directors.Findings: The study finds the logistic regression model for overall evaluation, statistical tests of individualpredictors and goodness-of-fit. As per the output, Hosmer and Lemeshow test reveals the model for goodness offit with chi-square of 17.503 and with probability value of 0.008, which is significant at five percent levels. Cox &Snell R Square reveal 56.2 % of the variance in audit quality. Whereas board leadership structure and auditcommittee meetings held have significant relationship with audit quality, size of non-executive directors and sizeof independent non-executive directors have shown insignificant association.Research Limitation-As sample size is relatively small, there may be a challenge to generalize the results ofthis study widely.Originality-This research contributes to the literature by adding the significant association between somecorporate governance variables and audit quality. The findings from this research could be generalized to thecompanies similar to this category.
This paper presents the outcome of the Sri Lanka case study on assessing the economic impact of power interruptions on industry in the South Asia region, comprising the countries of Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh and India. The technical assessment evaluates the cost to the country's economy in terms of the industrial loss due to supply interruptions and environmental impacts from standby generation used to supplement the power requirements of the industrial sector. The study found that the main economic impact of the power interruptions, both planned and unplanned, is the loss of output in the industrial sector. In a typical year of power shortages, such as 2001, arising from a deficit in generation capacity, these losses can be as high as approximately US$ 81 million a year, which is approximately 0.65% of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). Also, the economic impact due to unplanned outages can be around US$ 45 million (0.3% of GDP) in a typical year. On average, these values for planned and unplanned outages are US$ 0.66 and US$ 1.08 per kW h of energy loss, respectively. It is also observed that 92% of the sampled industries have standby generation facilities to satisfy either, in full or partially, their own power requirements, which produced approximately 146 GW h of energy in 2001. The serious economic and environmental impacts of power interruptions, both planned and unplanned, underlines the importance of timely implementation of the long term least cost generation expansion plan and proper maintenance of transmission and distribution networks to ensure their high reliability. Therefore, it is clear that the utility needs to take immediate steps to improve its supply reliability in order to retain consumers and justify the existence of a centralised generation facility
Ciesielski, P. E.; Johnson, R. H.; Yoneyama, K.
During the Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) field campaign, upper-air soundings were launched at Colombo, Sri Lanka as part of the enhanced northern sounding array (NSA) of the experiment. The Colombo soundings were affected at low-levels by diurnal heating of this large island and by flow blocking due to elevated terrain to the east of the Colombo site. Because of the large spacing between sounding sites, these small-scale effects are aliased onto the larger scale impacting analyses and atmospheric budgets over the DYNAMO NSA. To mitigate these local island effects on the large-scale budgets, a procedure was designed which uses ECMWF-analyzed fields in the vicinity of Sri Lanka to estimate open-ocean conditions (i.e, as if this island were not present). These 'unperturbed' ECMWF fields at low-levels are then merged with observed Colombo soundings. This procedure effectively mutes the blocking effects and large diurnal cycle observed in the low-level Colombo fields. In westerly flow regimes, adjusted Colombo winds increase the low-level westerlies by 2-3 m/s with a similar increase of the low-level easterlies in easterly flow regimes. In general, over the NSA the impact of the adjusted Colombo winds results in more low-level divergence (convergence), more mid-level subsidence (rising motion) and reduced (increased) rainfall during the westerly (easterly) wind regimes. In comparison to independent TRMM rainfall estimates, both the mean budget-derived rainfall and its temporal correlation are improved by using the adjusted Colombo soundings. In addition, use of the 'unperturbed' fields result in a more realistic moisture budget analyses, both in its diurnal cycle and during the build-up phase of the November MJO when a gradual deepening of apparent drying was observed. Overall, use of the adjusted Colombo soundings appears to have a beneficial impact on the NSA analyses and budgets.
Wijetunge, J. J.
This paper describes a multi-scenario, deterministic analysis carried out as a pilot study to evaluate the tsunami hazard and risk distribution in the southwest coast of Sri Lanka. The hazard and risk assessment procedure adopted was also assessed against available field records of the impact of the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004. An evaluation of numerically simulated nearshore tsunami amplitudes corresponding to ‘maximum-credible' scenarios from different subduction segments in the Indian Ocean surrounding Sri Lanka suggests that a seismic event similar to that generated the tsunami in 2004 can still be considered as the ‘worst-case' scenario for the southwest coast. Furthermore, it appears that formation of edge waves trapped by the primary waves diffracting around the southwest significantly influences the nearshore tsunami wave field and is largely responsible for relatively higher tsunami amplitudes in certain stretches of the coastline under study. The extent of inundation from numerical simulations corresponding to the worst-case scenario shows good overall agreement with the points of maximum penetration of inundation from field measurements in the aftermath of the 2004 tsunami. It can also be seen that the inundation distribution is strongly influenced by onshore topography. The present study indicates that the mean depth of inundation could be utilised as a primary parameter to quantify the spatial distribution of the tsunami hazard. The spatial distribution of the risk of the tsunami hazard to the population and residential buildings computed by employing the standard risk formula shows satisfactory correlation with published statistics of the affected population and the damage to residential property during the tsunami in 2004.
Sri Lanka has a hydropower dominated power system with approximately two thirds of its generation capacity based on large hydro plants. The remaining one third are based on oil fired thermal generation with varying technologies, such as oil steam, Diesel, gas turbines and combined cycle plants. A significant portion of this capacity is in operation as independent power plants (IPPs). In addition to these, Sri Lanka presently has about 40 MWs of mini-hydro plants, which are distributed in the highlands and their surrounding districts, mainly connected to the primary distribution system. Further, there are a few attempts to build fuel wood fired power plants of small capacities and connect them to the grid in various parts of the country. The study presented in this paper investigates the impact of these new developments in the power sector on the overall emissions and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in particular. It examines the resulting changes to the emissions and costs in the event of developing the proposed coal power plant as an IPP under different investment and operational conditions. The paper also examines the impact on emissions with 80 MWs of distributed power in different capacities of wind, mini-hydro and wood fired power plants. It is concluded that grid connected, distributed power generation (DPG) reduces emissions, with only a marginal increase in overall costs, due to the reduction in transmission and distribution network losses that result from the distributed nature of generation. These reductions can be enhanced by opting for renewable energy based DPGS, as the case presented in the paper, and coupling them with demand side management measures. It is also concluded that there is no impact on overall emissions by the base load IPPs unless they are allowed to change over to different fuel types and technologies. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex situations that follow war and natural disasters have a psychosocial impact on not only the individual but also on the family, community and society. Just as the mental health effects on the individual psyche can result in non pathological distress as well as a variety of psychiatric disorders; massive and widespread trauma and loss can impact on family and social processes causing changes at the family, community and societal levels. Method This qualitative, ecological study is a naturalistic, psychosocial ethnography in Northern Sri Lanka, while actively involved in psychosocial and community mental health programmes among the Tamil community. Participatory observation, key informant interviews and focus group discussion with community level relief and rehabilitation workers and government and non-governmental officials were used to gather data. The effects on the community of the chronic, man-made disaster, war, in Northern Sri Lanka were compared with the contexts found before the war and after the tsunami. Results Fundamental changes in the functioning of the family and the community were observed. While the changes after the tsunami were not so prominent, the chronic war situation caused more fundamental social transformations. At the family level, the dynamics of single parent families, lack of trust among members, and changes in significant relationships, and child rearing practices were seen. Communities tended to be more dependent, passive, silent, without leadership, mistrustful, and suspicious. Additional adverse effects included the breakdown in traditional structures, institutions and familiar ways of life, and deterioration in social norms and ethics. A variety of community level interventions were tried. Conclusion Exposure to conflict, war and disaster situations impact on fundamental family and community dynamics resulting in changes at a collective level. Relief, rehabilitation and development programmes to be effective will need to address the problem of collective trauma, particularly using integrated multi-level approaches.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Approval of the research proposal by an ethical review committee from both sponsoring and host countries is a generally agreed requirement in externally sponsored research. However, capacity for ethics review is not universal. Aim of this study was to identify opinions and views of the members serving in ethical review and ethics committees in Sri Lanka on informed consent, essential components in the information leaflet and the consent form. Methods We obtained ethical approval from UK and Sri Lanka. A series of consensus generation meetings on the protocol were conducted. A task oriented interview guide was developed. The interview was based on open-ended questionnaire. Then the participants were given a WHO checklist on informed consent and requested to rate the items on a three point scale ranging from extremely important to not important. Results Twenty-nine members from ethics committees participated. Majority of participants (23, believed a copy of the information leaflet and consent form, should accompany research proposal. Opinions about the items that should be included in the information leaflets varied. Participants identified 18 criteria as requirements in the information leaflet and 19 for the consent form. The majority, 20 (69%, believed that all research need ethical approval but identified limited human resource, time and inadequate capacity as constraints. Fifteen (52% believed that written consent is not required for all research. Verbal consent emerged as an alternative to written consent. The majority of participants rated all components of the WHO checklist as important. Conclusion The number of themes generated for the consent form (N = 18 is as many as for the information leaflet (N = 19 and had several overlaps. This suggests that the consent form should be itemized to reflect the contents covered in the information leaflet. The participants' opinion on components of the information leaflets and consent forms proved to be similar with WHO checklist on informed consent.
Full Text Available Pendant les trente ans qu’a duré la guerre civile au Sri Lanka, de nombreux citoyens ont été touchés par des attentats à la bombe destinés à perturber la vie quotidienne, non seulement dans les zones de guerre mais aussi dans les quartiers urbains, particulièrement à Colombo, la capitale. Si beaucoup ont perdu la vie, d’autres ont survécu, mais restent profondément meurtris, handicapés et traumatisés. Le présent article explore la signification de la « survie » telle que l’ont éprouvée les personnes dotées du nouveau statut de « victimes d’attentats à la bombe ». Son auteur s’interroge sur la capacité des survivants à assumer leur rôle de soutien de famille et/ou à faire face aux graves bouleversements économiques consécutifs aux profonds changements survenus dans leur vie. L’article constate de manière générale qu’en raison de la perte de revenus et de l’incapacité de participer pleinement à l’économie de marché, les survivants sont relégués à la marge des grands débats sur le développement et des possibilités qui en découleraient. La fin des hostilités a marqué un tournant clair en faveur du développement du Sri Lanka et, dans cette période cruciale d’après-guerre, il importe de se pencher sur les différentes façons dont la religion peut répondre aux besoins des survivants. C’est pourquoi l’interaction dynamique entre religion, violence politique et développement est mise en relief. Dans l’examen des mécanismes d’adaptation et de survie, il est question des réponses qu’offre la religion à la mondialisation (néolibérale tributaire du marché et à l’exposition à la terreur et à la violence, en atténuant l’expérience des traumatismes et en permettant aux survivants de se confronter à la réalité au quotidien.
Background In Sri Lanka, motherhood within marriage is highly valued. Sex out of wedlock is socially unacceptable and can create serious public health problems such as illegal abortions, suicide and infanticide, and single motherhood as a result of premarital sex is considered shameful. The way unmarried women facing single motherhood reflect on and make use of their agency in their social environments characterised by limited social and financial support has consequences for the health and well-being of both themselves and their children. The aim of this study was to explore and describe how unmarried women facing single motherhood in Sri Lanka handle their situation. Methods This qualitative study comprised semi-structured interviews with 28 unmarried pregnant women or single mothers. The data were analysed by qualitative content analysis and the results related to the conceptual framework of social navigation. Results The women facing single motherhood expressed awareness of having trespassed norms of sexuality through self-blame, victimhood and obedience, and by considering or attempting suicide. They demonstrated willingness to take responsibility for becoming pregnant before marriage by giving the child up for adoption, bringing up the child themselves, claiming a father for their child, refraining from marriage in the future, permanently leave their home environment, and taking up employment. Throughout the interviews, the women expressed fear of shame, and striving for familial and societal acceptance and financial survival. Conclusions A social environment highly condemning of unmarried motherhood hindered these women from making strategic choices on how to handle their situation. However, to achieve acceptance and survival, the women tactically navigated norms of femininity, strong family dependence, a limited work market, and different sources of support. Limited access to resources restricted the women’s sexual and reproductive health and rights, including their ability to make acceptable and healthy choices for themselves and their children. PMID:23388103
Infanti, Jennifer J; Lund, Ragnhild; Muzrif, Munas M; Schei, Berit; Wijewardena, Kumudu
Domestic violence in pregnancy is a significant health concern for women around the world. Globally, much has been written about how the health sector can respond effectively and comprehensively to domestic violence during pregnancy via antenatal services. The evidence from low-income settings is, however, limited. Sri Lanka is internationally acknowledged as a model amongst low-income countries for its maternal and child health statistics. Yet, very little research has considered the perspectives and experiences of the key front line health providers for pregnant women in Sri Lanka, public health midwives (PHMs). We address this gap by consulting PHMs about their experiences identifying and responding to pregnant women affected by domestic violence in an underserved area: the tea estate sector of Badulla district. Over two months in late 2014, our interdisciplinary team of social scientists and medical doctors met with 31 estate PHMs for group interviews and a participatory workshop at health clinics across Badulla district. In the paper, we propose a modified livelihoods model to conceptualise the physical, social and symbolic assets, strategies and constraints that simultaneously enable and limit the effectiveness of community-based health care responses to domestic violence. Our findings also highlight conceptual and practical strategies identified by PHMs to ensure improvements in this complex landscape of care. Such strategies include estate-based counselling services; basic training in family counselling and mediation for PHMs; greater surveillance of abusive men's behaviours by male community leaders; and performance evaluation and incentives for work undertaken to respond to domestic violence. The study contributes to international discussions on the meanings, frameworks, and identities constructed at the local levels of health care delivery in the global challenge to end domestic violence. In turn, such knowledge adds to international debates on the roles and responsibilities of health care professionals in responding to and preventing domestic violence. PMID:26448163
Gunarathne, Anoma; Kubota, Satoko; Kumarawadu, Pradeep; Karunagoda, Kamal; Kon, Hiroichi
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) has a long history in Sri Lanka and was found to be endemic in various parts of the country and constitutes a constant threat to farmers. In Sri Lanka, currently there is no regular, nationwide vaccination programme devised to control FMD. Therefore, improving farmers' knowledge regarding distinguishing FMD from other diseases and ensuring prompt reporting of any suspicion of FMD as well as restricting movement of animals are critical activities for an effective FMD response effort. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between farmers' knowledge levels and their behaviors to establish a strategy to control FMD. In our study, item count technique was applied to estimate the number of farmers that under-report and sell FMD-infected animals, although to do so is prohibited by law. The following findings were observed: about 63% of farmers have very poor knowledge of routes of FMD transmission; 'under-reporting' was found to be a sensitive behavior and nearly 23% of the farmers were reluctant to report FMD-infected animals; and 'selling FMD-infected animals' is a sensitive behavior among high-level knowledge group while it is a non-sensitive behavior among the low-level knowledge group. If farmers would understand the importance of prompt reporting, they may report any suspected cases of FMD to veterinary officials. However, even if farmers report honestly, they do not want to cull FMD-infected animals. Thus, education programs should be conducted not only on FMD introduction and transmission, but also its impact. Furthermore, consumers may criticize the farmers for culling their infected animals. Hence, not only farmers, but also consumers need to be educated on the economic impact of FMD and the importance of controlling an outbreak. If farmers have a high knowledge of FMD transmission, they consider selling FMD-infected animals as a sensitive behavior. Therefore, severe punishment should be levied for selling FMD-infected animals. PMID:26732453
Jayasuriya, Vathsala; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Axemo, Pia
This article presents findings from a cross-sectional community survey exploring intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in the Western province of Sri Lanka. Findings show that lifetime prevalence of physical violence (34%), controlling behavior (30%), and emotional abuse (19%) was high and the prevalence of sexual violence was low (5%). Young women and those with partners who abused alcohol/drugs and had extra-marital affairs are at increased risk of violence. Although living in a patriarchal society, low prevalence of child marriages and lack of dowry-related violence could be to Sri Lankan women's advantage relative to their Asian counterparts in preventing IPV. PMID:21890530
Jinadasa, B K K K; Edirisinghe, E M R K B; Wickramasinghe, I
Mercury (Hg) is a global environmental pollutant that has been the cause of many public health concerns. It is transferred through trophic level and bio magnification in the food chain. Total Hg level was measured by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry in muscle tissue of 176 Swordfish (Xiphiasgladius) samples ranging from 11.8-112.0 kg total weight and 45-278 cm total length, collected from major fish landing sites in Sri Lanka during July 2009 to March 2010. Total Hg concentration varied between 0.18-2.58 mg/kg wet weight (ww), with a mean value ± standard deviation of 0.90 ± 0.52 mg/kg ww. Of the investigated samples 32% exceeded Hg limits as set by the European Union and Sri Lankan legislation (1 mg/kg, ww). Hg concentration of swordfish showed a significant positive relationship (P value < 0.05) with the fish length and weight. Consequently, consumption of larger fish leads to an increase in the exposure level for consumers. PMID:24779931
This paper analyzes the interplay of policy dilemma in the areas of food security, agricultural subsidies, energy consumption, and the environment in the 'glocalization' process of Sri Lanka. It demonstrates that the domestic agricultural and food sector is intricately interconnected with the global economy and world market forces. While this paper gives a primary focus on domestic rice production and wheat import policies, it further examines the environmental consequences and public health issues that are associated with the process of 'glocalization' as part of globalization. This 'glocalization' has led to a series of intended and unintended externalities for Sri Lanka whose economic integration is irreversibly linked to agricultural and subsidy policies of other food exporting and producing countries of Asia and the United States. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify non-cognitive and socio-demographic characteristics determining academic success of Sri Lankan medical undergraduates. Methods A retrospective study among 90 recently graduated students of the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka. Students were stratified into two equal groups; ‘High-achievers’ (honours degree at the final MBBS examination and ‘Low-achievers’ (repeated one or more subjects at the same examination. A revised version of the Non-cognitive Questionnaire (NQ with additional socio-demographic data was the study instrument. Academic performance indicator was performance at the final MBBS examinations. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed using the dichotomous variable ‘Honours degree at final MBBS’ as the dependant factor. Results Males were 56.7%. Mean age?±?SD was 26.4?±?0.9?years. ‘High-achievers’ were significantly younger than ‘Low-achievers’. Significant proportion of ‘High-achievers’ were from the Western province and selected to university from Colombo district. A significant majority of ‘High-achievers’ entered medical school from their first attempt at GCE A/L examination and obtained ‘Distinctions’ at the GCE A/L English subject. ‘High-achievers’ demonstrated a significantly higher mean score for the following domains of NQ; Positive self-concept and confidence, realistic self-appraisal, leadership, preference of long range goals and academic familiarity. The binary logistic regression indicates that age, being selected to university from Colombo district, residency in Western province, entering university from GCE A/L first attempt, obtaining a ‘Distinction’ for GCE A/L English subject, higher number of patient-oriented case discussions, positive self-concept and confidence, leadership qualities, preference of long range goals and academic familiarity all significantly increased the odds of obtaining a Honours degree. Conclusion A combined system incorporating both past academic performance and non-cognitive characteristics might help improve the selection process and early recognition of strugglers.
Multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) has been done successfully in goats in some countries (Chen et al., 2008). It can be used to multiply the genetically superior animals and to make elite herds with increased production potential. There have been no previous reports on successful MOET in goats in Sri Lanka. Therefore, this study was carried out to establish techniques for in vivo production and transfer of goat embryos in Sri Lanka. Genetically superior does (n = 7) were subjected to super ovulation for in vivo embryo production using a protocol modified from that of Batt et al (1993). Progesterone releasing intravaginal pessaries (45 mg, Cronolone) was inserted on Day 1 of the programme. The does in group 1 (n = 3) were stimulated on Day 8 with injections of pure porcine Follicular Stimulating Hormone (pFSH), while those in group 2 (n = 4) were stimulated with pure ovine Follicular Stimulating Hormone (oFSH). Equine Chorionic Gonadotrophin (eCG) was given to all does in the evening of Day 8. Subsequent injections of pFSH (group 1) or oFSH (group 2) were given in the morning and evening on Day 9 and Day 10. All does were injected with prostaglandin analogue (263 ?g/ml cloprostenol sodium) in the morning of Day 9 and vaginal pessaries were removed in the evening of Day 10. On Day 11, pFSH or oFSH was injected in the morning and Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) was injected in the evening. Immediately after the GnRH injection does were exposed to breeding with a genetically superior Jamnapari buck for 48 hours. Embryos were collected surgically 7 d after oestrus, by flushing of the uterus with embryo flushing medium containing lactated Ringer's solution with 1% bovine serum albumin at 37 deg C through a mid ventral laparotomy. The quality of the embryos was assessed microscopically and those considered to be of good and excellent quality were transferred surgically to oestrus synchronized recipient goats (n = 6) 7 d post-oestrus. The ovarian parameters measured and mean numbers of embryos recovered after superovalation are given. The total number and the quality of the embryos recovered from each group of does are shown in Table II. Following embryo transplantation, 4 of the 6 recipient does were diagnosed pregnant by ultrasound at day 35. The first goat kid born (named 'Peradeniya Kumari') was a single healthy female with 3.6 kg birth weight at full term. Two more does kidded, resulting in four healthy kids with birth weights of 3.2 kg (female), 1.8 kg (female), 1.6 kg (male) and 1.2 kg (male), while an abortion was observed in one doe. During the first six weeks the average weight gains of the first two kids born were 152.3 and 149.2 g/d, respectively. The results showed that valuable, genetically superior female goats can be multiplied using embryo transfer. The superovulatory response, quality and quantity of the embryos were better with oFSH than with pFSH. Although the number of embryos recovered was high in both groups, only some of the embryos were transferred due to the lack of sufficient number of recipient goats. The resulting offspring showed high growth rates and good survivability. Further experiments are warranted to optimize the protocols under Sri Lankan conditions and to compare the data statistically. In conclusion, the birth of healthy goat offspring through MOET technology is reported for the first time in Sri Lanka, indicating the feasibility of multiplying superior goats through this technology. (author)
Gunatilake, H. M.; Wickramasinghe, W. A. R.; Abeygunawardena, P.
Empirical studies on the impact of the individual rate of time preference (IRTP) on natural resource use are scarce. This paper investigates the impact of IRTP on forest resources harvesting from the Sinharaja Man and Biosphere Reserve in Sri Lanka. The impact of IRTP on the harvest rate of forest resources was tested using a simultaneous equation model. Analysis of the determinants of IRTP shows that the base value and age of the respondents negatively influence the IRTP while risk perceptio...
Gunawardena, Sharmini; Gunawardena, Nipul K.; Kahathuduwa, Ganga; Karunaweera, Nadira D; de Silva, Nilanthi R; Ranasinghe, Udaya B.; Samarasekara, Sandhya D.; Nagodavithana, Kumara C.; Rao, Ramakrishna U; Rebollo, Maria P.; WEIL, GARY J.
We explored the practicality of integrating surveillance for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH, assessed by Kato-Katz) with transmission assessment surveys for lymphatic filariasis (LF) in two evaluation units (EUs) in Gampaha district, Sri Lanka (population 2.3 million). The surveys were performed 6 years after five annual rounds of mass drug administration with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole. Each transmission assessment survey tested children (N = 1,462 inland EU; 1,642 coastal EU) s...
Janaka J. Wijetunge
This paper examines the impact of the massive tsunami of 26 December 2004 on Sri Lanka bytracing the tsunami height, the extent of inundation and the level of damage along the affectedcoastal belt. The results of an extensive field survey that was carried out in the east, south andwest coasts to record the evidence of water levels left behind by the tsunami clearly indicate non-uniform spatial distribution of inundation along the affected coastline of the country. Thetsunami inundation had be...
Chaminda Jayasundara; Patrick Ngulube; Mabel K. Minishi-Majanja
University library administrators in Sri Lanka have begun to search for alternative ways to satisfy their clientele on the basis of service quality. This article aims at providing a theoretical model to facilitate the identification of service quality attributes and domains that may be used to predict customer satisfaction from a service quality perspective. The effectiveness of existing service quality models such as LibQUAL, SERVQUAL and SERVPREF have been questioned. In that regard, this s...
Mattsson, Eskil; Ostwald, Madelene; Nissanka, S P; Marambe, Buddhi
This paper explores the concept of homegardens and their potential functions as strategic elements in land-use planning, and adaptation and mitigation to climate change in Sri Lanka. The ancient and locally adapted agroforestry system of homegardens is presently estimated to occupy nearly 15 % of the land area in Sri Lanka and is described in the scientific literature to offer several ecosystem services to its users; such as climate regulation, protection against natural hazards, enhanced land productivity and biological diversity, increased crop diversity and food security for rural poor and hence reduced vulnerability to climate change. Our results, based on a limited sample size, indicate that the homegardens also store significant amount of carbon, with above ground biomass carbon stocks in dry zone homegardens (n = 8) ranging from 10 to 55 megagrams of carbon per hectare (Mg C ha(-1)) with a mean value of 35 Mg C ha(-1), whereas carbon stocks in wet zone homegardens (n = 4) range from 48 to 145 Mg C ha(-1) with a mean value of 87 Mg C ha(-1). This implies that homegardens may contain a significant fraction of the total above ground biomass carbon stock in the terrestrial system in Sri Lanka, and from our estimates its share has increased from almost one-sixth in 1992 to nearly one-fifth in 2010. In the light of current discussions on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+), the concept of homegardens in Sri Lanka provides interesting aspects to the debate and future research in terms of forest definitions, setting reference levels, and general sustainability. PMID:23456780
Konradsen, Flemming; Pieris, Ravi; Weerasinghe, Manjula; van der Hoek, Wim; Eddleston, Michael; Dawson, Andrew H
BACKGROUND: Acute poisoning by agricultural pesticides is a well established global public health problem. Keeping pesticides under safe storage is now promoted as a potential way to reduce the number of severe poisoning cases. However, there have been no published studies documenting the feasibility of such an approach. Therefore, the objective of the study presented here was to determine community perceptions and use of in-house safe storage boxes for pesticides in rural Sri Lanka. METHODS: Bo...
Rajakaruna, R S; Weerasinghe, M; Alifrangis, M; Amerasinghe, P H; Konradsen, F
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The involvement of private drug vendors in malaria treatment is particularly high in developing countries and understanding their practices and knowledge about antimalarials and malaria treatment will aid in devising strategies to increase the correct use of antimalarials and improve adherence to the government's malaria drug policy. Results of a study on the knowledge and practices of the private drug vendors conducted in seven districts in Sri Lanka, mostly in malari...
Wickramasinghe, Kanchana; Steele, Paul; Dawson, Andrew; Dharmaratne, Dinusha; Gunawardena, Asha; Senarathna, Lalith; de Siva, Dhammika; Wijayaweera, Kusal; Eddleston, Michael; Konradsen, Flemming
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the direct financial costs to the Sri Lanka Ministry of Health of treating patients after self-poisoning, particularly from pesticides, in a single district. METHODS: Data on staff, drug, laboratory and other inputs for each patient admitted for self-poisoning were prospectively collected over a one-month period from one general hospital (2005) and five peripheral hospitals (2006) in the Anuradhapura district. Data on transfers to secondary- and tertiary-level facilities w...
Piyaratne, M K; Amerasinghe, F P; Amerasinghe, P H; Konradsen, F
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Selected physico-chemical characteristics of flowing and pooled water in a stream that generated two malaria vectors, Anopheles culicifacies s.l. Giles and Anopheles varuna Iyengar, were investigated during August-September 1997 and July 1998 at the Upper Yan Oya watershed in north-central Sri Lanka. METHODS: The physico-chemical parameters measured were: temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, alkalinity, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrog...
Gunawardena, Sharmini; Karunaweera, Nadira D; Ferreira, Marcelo U; Phone-Kyaw, Myatt; Pollack, Richard J; Alifrangis, Michael; Rajakaruna, Rupika S; Konradsen, Flemming; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H; Schousboe, Mette L; Galappaththy, Gawrie N L; Abeyasinghe, Rabindra R; Hartl, Daniel L; Wirth, Dyann F
Genetic diversity and population structure of Plasmodium vivax parasites can predict the origin and spread of novel variants within a population enabling population specific malaria control measures. We analyzed the genetic diversity and population structure of 425 P. vivax isolates from Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Ethiopia using 12 trinucleotide and tetranucleotide microsatellite markers. All three parasite populations were highly polymorphic with 3-44 alleles per locus. Approximately 65% were mult...
Rajakaruna, Rupika S; Alifrangis, Michael; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H; Konradsen, Flemming
BACKGROUND: With the dramatic drop in the transmission of malaria in Sri Lanka in recent years, the country entered the malaria pre-elimination stage in 2008. Assessing the community prevalence of hidden malaria parasites following several years of extremely low transmission is central to the process of complete elimination. The existence of a parasite reservoir in a population free from clinical manifestations, would influence the strategy for surveillance and control towards complete eliminati...
Amerasinghe, F P; Konradsen, F; Fonseka, K T; Amerasinghe, P H
A 13-mo survey of immature anopheline mosquitoes breeding in surface water habitats was done at Mahameegaswewa village within the Huruluwewa watershed in north central Sri Lanka as part of a multidisciplinary study on malaria epidemiology. The watershed is representative of the ancient small tank-based irrigation network that still forms an important component of the rice production system in the low elevation dry zone. In total, 3,818 immatures representing 12 species were obtained from 2,940 s...
Ratnaweera, Pamoda B.; Williams, David E.; de Silva, E. Dilip; Wijesundera, Ravi L.C.; Dalisay, Doralyn S.; Andersen, Raymond J.
An endophytic fungus was isolated from surface sterilized leaf segments of Anoectochilus setaceus, an orchid endemic to Sri Lanka, and was identified as Xylaria sp. by morphological characters and DNA sequencing. Bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionation of the organic extract of a laboratory culture of this fungus led to the isolation of the known antibacterial helvolic acid. Helvolic acid was active against the Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis [minimal inhibitory concentrations...
Balasundaram NIMALATHASAN; Brabete, Valeriu
Abstract:For the purpose of this study, the data was extracted from the branches of people’s bank operating within Jaffna peninsula, Sri Lanka. Here, we analysed the data by employing simple correlation analysis. In the analysis, it is found that there is a positive relationship between job satisfaction and employees’ work performance. That is high level of fair promotion, reasonable pay system appropriate work itself and good working condition leads to high level of employees’ performance. I...
This study investigated a group of poor and isolated farmers from the mid country of Sri Lanka, Kandy District, Udapalatha Secretarial Division, which successfully developed plots of degraded former tea plantation land into productive and diverse home gardens by adapting organic agriculture practices. Here, former subsistence production was overcome by means of the concentration on the organic cultivation of tea as a cash crop facilitating market access. Direct marketing of an organic product...
Thulitha Wickrama; Piyanjali de Zoysa
This study examined the prevalence of PTSD and CES-D depressive symptoms, their association with previously untested supportive resources such as Buddhist religious activities, Buddhist bodhipuja rituals and horoscope readings for 45 recently wounded veterans in Sri Lanka. The results revealed an 85.4% prevalence rate of clinical levels of CES-D depression and a 42.2% prevalence rate of clinical levels of PTSD. The results of this study provide unique evidence for the significant role of Bu...
Waduarachchige Don Aruna Shantha De Silva
Full Text Available Background: Sri Lanka became a signatory to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in September 2003 and ratified in November 2003. Aiming to reduce tobacco burden in Sri Lanka, National Authority on Tobacco and Alcohol Act [NATA] No. 27 was authorized in 2006. The objective of this study was to assess the behavioral changes related to tobacco use among adolescents and young adults following the exposure to tobacco control measures implemented by NATA. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from October 2011 to November 2011 among adolescent (13-19 years and young adult (20-39 years males in Anuradhapura divisional secretary area in Sri Lanka. A self-administered questionnaire and focus group discussions were used for data collection. Confounding factors were controlled by stratification and randomization. Results: A total of 456 male respondents including 168 (37% adolescents and 288 (63% young adults participated in the study. Among the ever smokers 66 (14 % had already quitted smoking while 151 (33% were current smokers. The majority of the respondents (95.4% of quitters and 88.0% of current smokers were acquainted with the dangers of smoking through the mass media. Among the current smokers and quitters, the knowledge on health risks of smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke was quite satisfactory. The current smokers as well as the quitters were well aware of the tobacco control measures. Smokers as well as the non-smokers and quitters supported these measures. Conclusion: Tobacco control measures implemented by NATA had a favorable influence on reducing tobacco burden among adolescents and young adults in Sri Lanka
Full Text Available University library administrators in Sri Lanka have begun to search for alternative ways to satisfy their clientele on the basis of service quality. This article aims at providing a theoretical model to facilitate the identification of service quality attributes and domains that may be used to predict customer satisfaction from a service quality perspective. The effectiveness of existing service quality models such as LibQUAL, SERVQUAL and SERVPREF have been questioned. In that regard, this study developed a theoretical model for academic libraries in Sri Lanka based on the disconfirmation and performance-only paradigms. These perspectives were considered by researchers to be the core mechanism to develop service quality/customer satisfaction models. The attributes and domain identification of service quality was carried out with a stratified sample of 263 participants selected from postgraduate and undergraduate students and academic staff members from the faculties of Arts in four universities in Sri Lanka. The study established that responsiveness, supportiveness, building environment, collection and access, furniture and facilities, technology, Web services and service delivery were quality domains which can be used to predict customer satisfaction. The theoretical model is unique in its domain structure compared to the existing models. The model needs to be statistically tested to make it valid and parsimonious.
Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Wickramage, Kolitha; Jayaweera, Kaushalya; Adikari, Anushka; Weerawarna, Sulochana; Van Bortel, Tine; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sumathipala, Athula
Sri Lanka is a major labour sending country in Asia, with a high proportion of female labour migrants employed as domestic housemaids in the Middle East with increasing remittances. Despite such financial gains for families and national economy, health and social effects on the left-behind families have had limited exploration. This qualitative study was carried out across five districts with high labour migration rates in Sri Lanka. Twenty in-depth interviews were conducted with participants recruited through purposive sampling. Data was analysed using content and thematic analysis and emerging themes were mapped. Pre-migration socio-economic situation, economic difficulties and higher earning possibilities abroad were considered to be the major push and pull factors for labour migration. Post-migration periods were shown to be of mixed benefit to left-behind families and children suffer the negative effects of parental absence. The absence of support mechanisms for dealing with adverse events such as serious injury, death, abuse or imprisonment were cited as major concerns. Post-migration periods affect the health, well-being and family structures of left-behind families. Promoting economic prosperity while ensuring health and social protection is a formidable policy challenge for 'labour sending' countries such as Sri Lanka. PMID:24242226
Easy energy access is a trigger for human, social, and economic development. A research project was undertaken in Sri Lanka to broaden the understanding of human dimension of energy access and technologies. A questionnaire survey, covering 2269 households, gathered data on socio-economic contexts and issues influencing a transition towards clean cooking facilities. The findings reveal that the transition is impeded by four factors: the lack of motivation and the pressure for switching over to cleaner facilities, the lack of modern energy technology options, the financial risks, and the lack of financing and other support. The paper describes the delicate two-way interrelation between women earning wages and the transitions to cleaner cooking fuels and technologies. The findings suggest the need for a policy framework involving the stakeholders, financing and standardised technologies. To make a change it is proposed to introduce a national, integrated policy incorporating financing and energy governance. - Highlights: ? Households in Sri Lanka lack access to modern energy technology options for cooking. ? Cooking with fuel wood and residues is the norm in Sri Lanka, particularly in rural households. ? A survey of rural households revealed that most cannot afford to switch to cleaner cooking options. ? Most households have little awareness of the health impacts of biomass cooking. ? Women in regular formal employment are more likely to value cleaner cooking options that save time.
Ratnayeke, S.; Van Manen, F.T.; Padmalal, U.K.G.K.
We studied home ranges and habitat selection of 10 adult sloth bears Melursus ursinus inornatus at Wasgomuwa National Park, Sri Lanka during 2002-2003. Very little is known about the ecology and behaviour of M. u. inornatus, which is a subspecies found in Sri Lanka. Our study was undertaken to assess space and habitat requirements typical of a viable population of M. u. inornatus to facilitate future conservation efforts. We captured and radio-collared 10 adult sloth bears and used the telemetry data to assess home-range size and habitat use. Mean 95% fixed kernel home ranges were 2.2 km2 (SE = 0.61) and 3.8 km2 (SE = 1.01) for adult females and males, respectively. Although areas outside the national park were accessible to bears, home ranges were almost exclusively situated within the national park boundaries. Within the home ranges, high forests were used more and abandoned agricultural fields (chenas) were used less than expected based on availability. Our estimates of home-range size are among the smallest reported for any species of bear. Thus, despite its relatively small size, Wasgomuwa National Park may support a sizeable population of sloth bears. The restriction of human activity within protected areas may be necessary for long-term viability of sloth bear populations in Sri Lanka as is maintenance of forest or scrub cover in areas with existing sloth bear populations and along potential travel corridors. ?? Wildlife Biology 2007.
Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Sumathipala, Athula; Siribaddana, Sisira; Samaraweera, Sudath; Abeysinghe, Nihal; Prince, Martin; Hotopf, Matthew
There is an enormous inequity in global health as well as research. Less than 10% of research funds are spent on the diseases that account for 90% of the global disease burden. This case study of north-south, south-south collaborations in Sri Lanka is a classic example of the issues faced by mental health researchers in low and middle income countries (LMICs). In this paper, work carried out by the Institute of Psychiatry (IoP), King's College London and the Institute for Research and Development (IRD) partnership since 1997 in Sri Lanka is presented to show an example of a successful private research institution based in a LMIC as a product of south-south and north-south collaboration in mental health research. The evidence of scarcity of mental health research and resources is overwhelmingly abundant in the context of Sri Lanka. IRD-IoP partnership showcases a successful north-south partnership with equality and efficiency. It has moved beyond start-up phase and has become a sustainable initiative in terms of funding, collaboration, research output and policy impact. International funding agencies, academics, and other bodies need to address sustaining such initiatives as priorities in reducing scarcity and inequity in mental health research in developing countries. PMID:21338302
Malathion resistance and prevalence of the malathion carboxylesterase mechanism in populations of mosquito vectors of disease in Sri Lanka / Résistance au malathion et prévalence du mécanisme de la malathion carboxylestérase dans des populations de moustiques vecteurs de maladies à Sri Lanka / Resistencia al malatión y prevalencia del mecanismo de la malatión-carboxilesterasa en las poblaciones de mosquitos vectores de enfermedades en Sri Lanka
S.H.P.P., Karunaratne; J., Hemingway.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar los niveles de resistencia al malatión y la prevalencia del mecanismo de actividad carboxilesterasa sobre este producto entre los mosquitos en Sri Lanka. MÉTODOS: Empleando métodos recomendados por la OMS, se llevaron a cabo bioensayos en muestras de los siguientes mosquitos vec [...] tores de Sri Lanka: Culex quinquefasciatus, C. tritaeniorhynchus, C. gelidus; Anopheles culicifacies B, A. subpictus; Aedes aegypti y A. albopictus. RESULTADOS: Se detectaron mecanismos de actividad carboxilestarasa específicos para el malatión en A. culicifacies y A. subpictus, dato indicativo de una alta tasa de metabolización del insecticida. Por el contrario, la resistencia de C. quinquefasciatus y C. tritaeniorhynchus al malatión está mediada por una resistencia de amplio espectro a los compuestos organofosforados, debida a unos niveles elevados de esterasas que secuestran el malaoxón pero son incapaces de metabolizar el malatión. CONCLUSIÓN: La resistencia desarrollada por Anopheles spp. tiene que ser una consecuencia directa de las actividades de lucha antipalúdica, dado que en Sri Lanka el malatión sólo se emplea con fines de salud pública. La resistencia observada en Culex spp., en cambio, se debe al uso en gran escala de insecticidas organofosforados como larvicidas contra la filariasis, y con fines agrícolas en arrozales, espacios preferidos como criaderos por C. tritaeniorhynchus. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels of malathion resistance and prevalence of the malathion carboxylesterase mechanism among mosquitoes in Sri Lanka. METHODS: Bioassays were carried out using WHO-recommended methods on samples of the following Sri Lankan mosquito vectors: Culex quinquefasciatus, C. t [...] ritaeniorhynchus, C. gelidus; Anopheles culicifacies B, A. subpictus; Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. FINDINGS: Malathion-specific carboxylesterase mechanisms were found in A. culicifacies and A. subpictus, both giving high rates of insecticide metabolism. In contrast, malathion resistance in C. quinquefasciatus and C. tritaeniorhynchus is linked to broad-spectrum resistance to organophosphorus compounds due to elevated levels of esterases that sequester malaoxon, but are unable to metabolize malathion. CONCLUSIONS: Resistance among the Anopheles spp. must have occurred as a direct result of antimalarial activities, since malathion use in Sri Lanka is limited to public health treatments. In contrast, resistance among Culex spp. has resulted from large-scale use of the organophosphorus insecticide group as larvicides for filariasis control and on rice paddy, where C. tritaeniorhynchus predominantly breeds, for agricultural purposes.
de Silva Jayawardena, Upali; Wijesuriya, Roshan; Abayaweera, Gayan; Viduranga, Tharaka
With the increase of the annual sand demand for the construction industry the excessive excavation of river sand is becoming a serious environmental problem in Sri Lanka. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the possibility for an alternative to stop or at least to minimize river sand mining activities. Dune sand is one of the available alternative materials to be considered instead of river sand in the country. Large quantities of sand dunes occur mainly along the NW and SE coastal belt which belong to very low rainfall Dry Zone coasts. The height of dune deposits, vary from 1m to about 30 meters above sea level. The objective of this paper is to indicate some studies and facts on the dune sand deposits of Sri Lanka. Laboratory studies were carried out for visual observations and physical properties at the initial stage and then a number of tests were carried out according to ASTM standards to obtain the compressive strength of concrete cylinders and mortar cubes mixing dune sand and river sand in different percentages keeping a constant water cement ratio. Next the water cement ratio was changed for constant dune sand and river sand proportion. Microscopic analysis shows that the dune sand consist of 95 % of quartz and 5 % of garnet, feldspar, illmenite and other heavy minerals with clay, fine dust, fine shell fragments and organic matters. Grains are sub-rounded to angular and tabular shapes. The grain sizes vary from fine to medium size of sand with silt. The degree of sorting and particle size observed with dune sands are more suited with the requirement of fine aggregates in the construction industry. The test result indicates that dune sand could be effectively used in construction work without sieving and it is ideal for wall plastering due to its'-uniformity. It could also be effectively used in concrete and in mortars mixing with river sand. The best mixing ratio is 75% dune sand and 25% river sand as the fine aggregate of concrete. For mortar the mixing percentage is 50%. The best water cement ratio for mix proportion is 0.45. It was observed that the available amount of dune sand can be extracted to meet the demand for sand in construction industry. However, the extraction of dune sand from the areas close to the sea will cause several social, environmental and legal problems. Therefore sand mining from dunes must be commenced after making a detailed Environmental Impact Assessment.
Siriwardana, H V Y D; Senarath, U; Chandrawansa, P H; Karunaweera, N D
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) was first detected in Sri Lanka in 1992.Local disease is caused by a genetically different variant of Leishmania donovani. Early case detection and management is the mainstay of L. donovani control. High degree of clinical suspicion is critical but a clinical diagnostic tool is not available for leishmaniasis. Current study described, for the first time, a two-staged clinical algorhythm that facilitates screening of CL in Sri Lanka by primary health care worker in stage 1 and management by medical professional in stage 2.Selected clinical markers of 400 patients suspected of CL were analysed retrospectively with laboratory confirmation of leishmaniasis. Ten clinical markers predicted CL with a over 90% accuracy. Subsets of markers showed high levels of sensitivities (60-97.2%) and/or significant association with positive laboratory results as compared to negative lesions [typical onset (acne-form, painless non-itchy), (P?=?0.026), size up to 2?cm (P?=?0.046), well-defined edges (P?=?0.002), regular edges (P?=?0.018), rounded shape (P?=?0.030), and lesions at 5-8?months (P?=?0.052)]. Five of them (typical onset, number up to 2, small size, rounded edges, and rounded shape) also had > 70% sensitivity levels as compared to laboratory findings. Typical onset had the highest sensitivity of 97% and a PPV of 72%. Lesions at 5-8?months duration having defined edges (P?=? 0.013, specificity 89.7%, PPV 83.1) or having regular edges (P?=?0.006, specificity 86.2%, PPV 82.4%) were also predictive of CL. Most of early laboratory-confirmed (? 67%, PPV > 70%) and had defined edges (sensitivity of 52-71%, specificity 46.7-68.8%), (PPV 75.1-86%). Four clinical markers served as good diagnostic markers in both early (???4) and late (>12?months) lesions, viz. typical onset (91.3-98.4%), presence of ??2 lesions (sensitivity 82.6-94.7%), size ??2?cm (66.9-73.7%), and regular edges (68.6-76.3%). Reliability of clinical markers generally declined in chronic lesions. However, small lesions of over 12?months were highly indicative of CL (sensitivity of 66%, specificity 66.7%). None of the single/combination markers, however, were 100% sensitive or specific, highlighting the undeniable usefulness of laboratory confirmation, in diagnosis. Decision-making algorithm used 10 basic clinical features for screening and seven specific clinical markers for clinical handling and referral for investigations. PMID:26184581
This study was conducted to determine a suitable follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) preparation for superovulation in goats, establish techniques for embryo production and transfer in goats, and to examine the feasibility of applying such techniques in Sri Lanka. Two groups of genetically superior does were inserted with progesterone releasing intravaginal pessaries (45 mg Cronolone) on d 1 of the programme. On d 8, the does in Group 1 (n = 3) and Group 2 (n = 4) were given 2.5 mL injections of pure porcine FSH (pFSH, 20 mg/mL) or pure ovine FSH (oFSH, 0.88 mg/mL), respectively. On the same day, all animals were injected with 300 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG, 500 ?g/mL). Subsequent injections of 1.25 mL pFSH or oFSH were given in the morning and evening on d 9 and 10. Does were injected with 197 ?g prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?, 263 ?g/mL) in the morning of d 9 and vaginal pessaries were removed on the even- ing of d 10. On d 11, 1.25 mL of pFSH or oFSH and 1 mL of luteinising hormone releasing hormone (LHRH, 50 ?g/mL) injections were given in the morning and evening, respectively. On the same day, does in oestrus were bred to two Jamnapari bucks. Seven d post- oestrus, embryos were collected surgically, using embryo flushing medium. The quality of the embryos was assessed and the recovered embryos were transplanted surgically to oestrus synchronised goat recipients (n = 4/group) at 7 d post-oestrus. Following embryo transplantation, four does (Group 1, n = 1, Group 2, n = 3) were found to be pregnant by ultrasound scanning at 35 d into pregnancy. One healthy female offspring (Peradeniya Kumari) was born to Group 1. Another four goat kids were born to Group 2, while one kid died. In the same group, one abortion was reported. The results suggest that oFSH is better than pFSH for the superovulation of goats and that embryo transfer technology can be used in goats in Sri Lanka. (author)
Full Text Available Editor’s note: This paper is a contribution to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy-makers and practioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, the initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from scholars and/or policy-makers.Authored by Norah Niland, the initial paper addresses the protection dimension of humanitarian action in the Sri Lankan Civil War. The end phase of this long-standing war and subsequent internment of survivors illustrate the limited capacity of the international relief system to adequately protect civilians. The author argues that the failure of intergovernmental crisis management and the human rights machinery was exacerbated by the relief system’s lack of agency in safeguarding humanitarian space and the protected status of civilians. According to Norah Niland, relief actors largely ignored the instrumentalisation of humanitarianism and the use of sovereignty and Global War on Terror (GWOT narratives to rationalise the slaughter of thousands. The lack of accountability for and reflection on the humanitarian operation in Sri Lanka will likely complicate future relief efforts and add to the suffering of civilians in other crisis settings. The paper is followed by critical comments by Sir John Holmes, Former UN Under-Secretary General and Emergency Relief Coordinator, Head of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, and Miriam Bradley, Postdoctoral Researcher, Programme for the Study of International Governance, the Graduate Institute, Geneva.This debate can be pursued on the eJournal’s blog http://devpol.hypotheses.org/69Download the full debate in .pdf
SØrensen, Jane Brandt; Rheinländer, Thilde
Introduction: Sri Lanka has one of the highest suicide and self-harm rates in the world and although alcohol has been found to be a risk factor for self-harm in Sri Lanka, we know little about the connection between the two. This paper comprises a protocol for a qualitative study investigating alcohol’s role in selfharm in rural Sri Lanka at three levels: the individual, community and policy level. The analysis will bring new understanding of the link between alcohol and self-harm in Sri Lanka, drawing on structural, cultural and social concepts. It will equip researchers, health systems and policy makers with vital information for developing strategies to address alcohol-related problems as they relate to self-harm. Methods and analysis: To capture the complexity of the link between alcohol and self-harm in the Anuradhapura district in the North Central Province in Sri Lanka, qualitative methods will be utilised. Specifically, the data will consist of serial narrative life-story interviews with up to 20 individuals who have non-fatally selfharmed and where alcohol directly or indirectly was involved in the incidence as well as with their significant others; observations in communities and families; six focus group discussions with community members; and key-informant interviews with 15–25 stakeholders who have a stake in alcohol distribution, marketing, policies, prevention and treatment as they relate to self-harm. Ethics and dissemination: The study has received ethical approval from the Ethical Review Committee of the Faculty of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka. A sensitive data collection technique will be used and ethical issues will be considered throughout the study. Results: The results will be disseminated in scientific peer-reviewed articles in collaboration with Sri Lankan and other international research partners.
Schousboe, Mette L; Rajakaruna, Rupika S; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H; Konradsen, Flemming; Ord, Rosalynn; Pearce, Richard; Bygbjerg, Ib C; Roper, Cally; Alifrangis, Michael
Abstract. The geographical distribution of genetic variation in Plasmodium vivax samples (N = 386) from nine districts across Sri Lanka is described using three markers; the P. vivax merozoite surface protein-3a (Pvmsp-3a) gene, and the two microsatellites m1501 and m3502. At Pvmsp-3a, 11 alleles were found with an expected heterozygosity (H(e)) of 0.81, whereas at m1501 and m3502, 24 alleles (H(e) = 0.85) and 8 alleles (H(e) = 0.74) were detected, respectively. Overall, 95 unique three locus ge...
Chemin, Yann; Bandara, Niroshan; Eriyagama, Nishadi
The National Climate Observatory of Sri lanka is a proposition designed for the Government of Sri Lanka in September and discussed with private and public stakeholders in November 2014. The idea was initially to install a networked grid of weather instruments from locally-made open source hardware technology, on land and seas, that report live the state of climate. After initial stakeholder meetings, it was agreed to first try to connect any existing weather stations from different governmental and private sector agencies. This would bring existing information to a common ground through the Internet. At this point, it was realized that extracting information from various vendors set up would take a large amount of efforts, that is still the best and fastest anyway, as considerations from ownership and maintenance are the most important issues in a tropical humid country as Sri Lanka. Thus, the question of Open Design, open source hardware (OSHW) and free and open source software (FOSS) became a pivotal element in considering operationalization of any future elements of a national grid. Reasons range from ownership, to low-cost and customization, but prominently it is about technology ownership, royalty-free and local availability. Building on previous work from (Chemin and Bandara, 2014) we proposed to open design specifications and prototypes for weather monitoring for various kinds of needs, the Meteorological Department clearly specified that the highest variability observed spatially in Sri Lanka is rainfall, and their willingness to investigate OSHW electronics using their new team of electronics and sensors specialists. A local manufacturer is providing an OSHW micro-controller product, a start up is providing additional sensor boards under OSHW specifications and local manufacture of the sensors (tipping-bucket and other wind sensors) is under development and blueprints have been made available in the Public Domain for CNC machine, 3D printing or Plastic Molding. The Lanka Rainwater Harvesting Forum was in need of volumetric estimation of rainfall-runoff contributed to recharge of the aquifers. Regular reporting of high quality rainfall events and intensity is still a challenge to be addressed in Sri Lanka. A combination of OSHW and FOSS is being used to created a royalty-free, cheap raingauge design, with full control of on-board data collection and statistics. Development of an initial 15 raingauges include capacity-building, joint set up from the ground to scouting and installation, and full ownership of all aspects (hardware sourcing locally, software modification, communication troubleshooting, etc.). The Irrigation Department in Malwatu Oya had a requirement for real time rainfall information to manage reservoirs in cascade ("daisy chain") and mitigate flooding consequences downstream. 5 generic prototypes are now reporting to reservoir managers, and the reservoir management model is now rerun as often as needed to re-assess decision-requirements from any new rainfall about certain, already-known, dangerous intensity. The irrigation department capacity-building was provided in two trainings, one for engineers (decision-making support) and technicians (reporting and maintenance). Interest for further level of control in the system is low. Reporting online is following several potential routes, and an open design GPRS protocol is being developed, to simplify future weather stations design specifications in Sri Lanka.
Full Text Available Non-essential trace metals, namely mercury (Hg, cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb and arsenic (As, and essential trace elements copper (Cu, iron (Fe and zinc (Zn found in muscle tissues were analysed and compared between female, male skipjack tuna (SJT in the Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka. Forty-four (20 female and 24 male individual specimens of SJT were investigated using an atomic absorption spectrometer. The mean trace elements of the male fish were determined to include Hg, 0.12; Cd, 0.02; As, 0.85; Pb, <0.52; Cu, 5.45; Fe, 20.54 and Zn, 5.15 (mg/kg ww. The values for the female fish were determined to be Hg, 0.14; Cd, 0.03; As, 0.85; Pb, <0.52; Cu, 3.75; Fe, 21.82 and Zn, 8.11 (mg/kg ww. In terms of gender, the mean trace elements in the muscle tissue of male and female did not significantly vary (p < 0.05 except Cd and Zn. The results show that, according to European legislation, the muscle tissues of SJT are generally “safe” for human consumption.
Vithanage, Meththika Suharshini; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard
On December 26, 2004, the earthquake off the southern coast of Sumatra in the Indian Ocean generated far-reaching tsunami waves, resulting in severe disruption of the coastal aquifers in many countries of the region. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of the tsunami on groundwater in coastal areas. Field investigations on the east coast of Sri Lanka were carried out along a transect located perpendicular to the coastline on a 2.4 km wide sand stretch bounded by the sea and a lagoon. Measurements of groundwater table elevation and electrical conductivity (EC) of the groundwater were carried out monthly from October 2005 to August 2007. The aquifer system and tsunami saltwater intrusion were modeled using the variable-density flow and solute transport code HST3D to understand the tsunami plume behavior and estimate the aquifer recovery time. EC values reduced as a result of the monsoonal rainfall following the tsunami with a decline in reduction rate during the dry season. The upper part of the saturated zone (down to 2.5 m) returned to freshwater conditions (EC < 1000 µS/cm) 1 to 1.5 years after the tsunami, according to field observations. On the basis of model simulations, it may take more than 15 years for the entire aquifer (down to 28 m) to recover completely, although the top 6 m of the aquifer may become fresh in about 5 years
Vithanage, Meththika; Engesgaard, Peter; Villholth, Karen G; Jensen, Karsten H
On December 26, 2004, the earthquake off the southern coast of Sumatra in the Indian Ocean generated far-reaching tsunami waves, resulting in severe disruption of the coastal aquifers in many countries of the region. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of the tsunami on groundwater in coastal areas. Field investigations on the east coast of Sri Lanka were carried out along a transect located perpendicular to the coastline on a 2.4 km wide sand stretch bounded by the sea and a lagoon. Measurements of groundwater table elevation and electrical conductivity (EC) of the groundwater were carried out monthly from October 2005 to August 2007. The aquifer system and tsunami saltwater intrusion were modeled using the variable-density flow and solute transport code HST3D to understand the tsunami plume behavior and estimate the aquifer recovery time. EC values reduced as a result of the monsoonal rainfall following the tsunami with a decline in reduction rate during the dry season. The upper part of the saturated zone (down to 2.5 m) returned to freshwater conditions (EC tsunami, according to field observations. On the basis of model simulations, it may take more than 15 years for the entire aquifer (down to 28 m) to recover completely, although the top 6 m of the aquifer may become fresh in about 5 years. PMID:22171954
Understandings of the diffusion process have tended to emphasize either the adoption perspective, which focuses on individual characteristics, or the market perspective, which focuses on institutional context. In this paper we bring these two perspectives together by recognizing that people are embedded in socio-geographic contexts that affect their perceptions of their situations, which in turn shape the innovativeness of individuals and places. Focusing on the diffusion of Solar Home Systems (SHS) in Sri Lanka, we explore the role of context at the village (by comparing adoption rates among villages) and individual (by comparing time-to-adoption among household decision makers in a case-study village) scales. At the village scale, we find that expectations of government policy based on interactions related to ethnicity and politicians' previous power-grid connection promises are significant drivers of SHS adoption, along with perceived tolerance levels in the village for non-conformist behavior. Among household decision makers within the case-study village, we analyze relative adoption time and the duration of the innovation-decision process and find that perceiving strong village-level social control inhibits SHS adoption decision making. The results add to innovation diffusion theory and provide policy recommendations for agencies promoting solar energy in developing countries
This is the first inland wide study on seroprevalence of rinderpest in Sri Lanka. This study shows the advantages of using a serologically sensitive test, such as ELISA, in studying the seroepidemiology of a disease with low prevalence. The prevalence was highest in the northern, eastern and north-central provinces. The spread of rinderpest from the first location of the outbreak, which was in the eastern province in 1987, is attributed to the movement of bovines for slaughtering purposes. It appears that the spread of rinderpest could be reduced by controlling animal movement. Apparently, rinderpest had shifted from an epidemic form in the 1987-1989 period to an epidemic form from 1990 onwards, towards areas with high bovine density (>0.3 bovines/hectare). Furthermore, the extensive management system mostly practiced in the DL regions, in which animal-to-animal contact is more frequent, had contributed to the spread of rinderpest. The prevalence was higher in older bovines, probably because of exposure to natural infection during the last epidemic
Zebu cattle (Bos indicus) constitute 72.3% of the cattle population in Sri Lanka and consist of indigenous exotic and crosses. Indigenous Zebu cattle were primarily found in the dry and the intermediate zones with the remainder in the wet zone. In the latter two zones the indigenous Zebu have been gradually replaced by dairy-type exotic genotypes. In the dry zone Zebu cattle farming is done as a traditional village system (DTVS) and irrigated settlement system (DISS). The DTVS is the most prevalent system and 24% of small holdings within this system rear cattle. In 91.4% of these households cattle farming is either a primary or secondary occupation. Zebu cattle farming provides a modest income with meat, milk, draught and manure contribution 45%, 34%, 9% and 12%, respectively to the total income. Scarcity of grazing lands, high incidence of crop damages by cattle, an inadequate veterinary service and poor milk collecting network are having adverse effects on the sustainability of the system. The objective of the present study were to assess the distribution, production systems and reproductive patterns of cattle with special reference to indigenous Zebu cattle in traditional management systems. 39 refs, 4 figs, 7 tabs
Sri Lanka is to a certain extent largely dependent on hydroelectricity in order to meet its requirements for electrical energy of the country. Hydroelectric power at present contributes with about 80 percent of the total installed capacity of the country and with similar percentages of the total electricity generation, dependent on the year of rainfall. This situation is not expected to change drastically in the coming next years since the current expansion plans for the generating system envisage more additions of hydro power plants. These would be combined with the necessary additions of thermal power plants in order to prevent acute capacity and generation deficits in years of reduced rainfall. This paper reviews the thermal power plants being considered as candidates in system expansion planning studies for the country. Special emphasis is made on the analysis of how diesel powered plants can be economically considered to meet these needs and in the comparison of this type of plant with the available thermal power alternatives. (author). 4 refs, 3 figs, 11 tabs
Chang, S. C.; Dassanayake, S.; Wang, J.
Well-preserved terrestrial fossils, mainly including conifers, cycads and ferns, were discovered from the Tabbowa beds in northwestern Sri Lanka. The high diversity and abundance of plants and insects from these Jurassic sediments provide a unique window to understand floral evolution and plant-insect co-evolution in the Mesozoic. For example, unearthed fossils from the Tabbowa beds indicate that leaf feeding and dwelling insects played a significant role in the Jurassic ecosystem. For another example, feeding and chewing marks on leaves allow studying insect behavior and paleo-ecology. Additionally, the recent discoveries of Otozamites latiphyllus and Otozamites tabbowensis from these sediments provide evidence that Bennettitales, an extinct order of seed plants, widely spread in the Gondwana during the Jurassic period. Although most fossils are yet to be well studied, and only few of the fossil occurrences have been published in western journals, plant fossils from the Tabbowa beds have great potential for substantially increasing our knowledge of Jurassic terrestrial ecosystems. The fossil-bearing Tabbowa beds are mainly composed of sandstone, siltstone, and mudstone with occasional thin bands of nodular limestone. Until now, radio-isotopic age determinations for the fossil-rich Tabbowa beds are lacking. In this study, we investigate the geological and geochronological setting of this area by dating detrital zircons from the Tabbowa beds. The age data will allow testing several hypotheses regarding the plant evolution, the basin development of this region.
Anno, S.; Imaoka, K.; Tadono, T.; Igarashi, T.; Sivaganesh, S.; Kannathasan, S.; Kumaran, V.; Surendran, S.
Dengue outbreaks are affected by biological, ecological, socio-economic and demographic factors that vary over time and space. These factors have been examined separately, with limited success, and still require clarification. The present study aimed to investigate the spatial and temporal relationships between these factors and dengue outbreaks in the northern region of Sri Lanka. Remote sensing (RS) data gathered from a plurality of satellites: TRMM TMI, Aqua AMSR-E, GCOM-W AMSR2, DMSP SSM/I, DMSP SSMIS, NOAA-19 AMSU, MetOp-A AMSU and GEO IR were used to develop an index comprising rainfall. Humidity (total precipitable water, or vertically integrated water vapor amount) and temperature (surface temperature) data were acquired from the JAXA Satellite Monitoring for Environmental Studies (JASMES) portal which were retrieved and processed from the Aqua/MODIS and Terra/MODIS data. RS data gathered by ALOS/AVNIR-2 were used to detect urbanization, and a digital land cover map was used to extract land cover information. Other data on relevant factors and dengue outbreaks were collected through institutions and extant databases. The analyzed RS data and databases were integrated into geographic information systems, enabling both spatial association analysis and spatial statistical analysis. Our findings show that the combination of ecological factors derived from RS data and socio-economic and demographic factors is suitable for predicting spatial and temporal patterns of dengue outbreaks.
Sriskandarajah, Vathsalan; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia
Children living in post-conflict settings are not only at high risk of developing war-related psychopathology but also of experiencing maltreatment within their families. However, little is known about the mechanisms of the relationship between war and family violence. In order to investigate the variables associated with the experience and perpetration of child maltreatment, we conducted a two-generational study with Tamil families in the North of Sri Lanka, a region affected by war and Tsunami. We interviewed children and the corresponding family dyads and triads with 359 children, 122 mothers, and 88 fathers on the basis of standardized questionnaires to assess their exposure to adverse life experiences and mental health symptoms. Using multivariate regression analyses, we found that the strongest predictors for children's report of victimization were children's exposure to mass trauma and child psychopathology. Mothers' experiences of mass trauma, family violence and partner violence were each significantly related to mother-reported maternal perpetration as well as child-reported victimization. Likewise, all types of traumatic events reported by fathers were significantly related to child-reported victimization and father-reported perpetration. Fathers' alcohol use was the strongest predictor of father-reported paternal perpetration. These findings provide further support for the transmission of mass trauma into family violence, and emphasize the role of child psychopathology as well as alcohol consumption in this relationship. PMID:26521032
This study investigates the short-run dynamics and long-run equilibrium relationship between residential electricity demand and factors influencing demand - per capita income, price of electricity, price of kerosene oil and price of liquefied petroleum gas - using annual data for Sri Lanka for the period, 1960-2007. The study uses unit root, cointegration and error-correction models. The long-run demand elasticities of income, own price and price of kerosene oil (substitute) were estimated to be 0.78, - 0.62, and 0.14 respectively. The short-run elasticities for the same variables were estimated to be 0.32, - 0.16 and 0.10 respectively. Liquefied petroleum (LP) gas is a substitute for electricity only in the short-run with an elasticity of 0.09. The main findings of the paper support the following (1) increasing the price of electricity is not the most effective tool to reduce electricity consumption (2) existing subsidies on electricity consumption can be removed without reducing government revenue (3) the long-run income elasticity of demand shows that any future increase in household incomes is likely to significantly increase the demand for electricity and (4) any power generation plans which consider only current per capita consumption and population growth should be revised taking into account the potential future income increases in order to avoid power shortages in the country. (author)
Richmond, B.M.; Jaffe, B.E.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Morton, R.A.
The December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was generated by a large submarine earthquake (magnitude ???9.1) with an epicenter located under the seafloor in the eastern Indian Ocean near northern Sumatra, Indonesia. The resulting tsunami was measured globally and had significant geologic impacts throughout the Indian Ocean basin. Observations of tsunami impacts, such as morphologic change, sedimentary deposits, and water-level measurements, are used to reconstruct tsunamogenic processes. Data from Sumatra, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives provide a synoptic view of tsunami characteristics from a wide range of coastal environments both near- and far-field from the tsunami origin. Impacts to the coast as a result of the tsunami varied depending upon the height of the wave at impact, orientation of the coast with regard to direction of wave approach, and local topography, bathymetry, geology, and vegetation cover. Tsunami deposits were observed in all the countries visited and can be generally characterized as relatively thin sheets (<80 cm), mostly of sand. ?? 2006 Gebru??der Borntraeger.
Wim Van Daele
Full Text Available Amidst the complexity of the development-religion nexus, this chapter examines desire and its varying expressions as fundamental concerns of many religions motivating both development and alternatives to development. In Sri Lanka, as people deal with social change, the neoliberal and globalised development is understood and re-interpreted through local idioms and formations of desire. The neoliberal economy cultivates desire and, as such, leads to a perceived increase in the presence of pretas (greedy, hungry ghosts that occasionally emerge when people die. The hungry ghosts, as fetishised formations of desire, resonate with consumers and entrepreneurs, who exhibit an insatiable hunger for ever more material wealth. Hence, the ritual appeasement of hungry ghosts and the social activism of groups such as the Movement for National Land and Agricultural Reform are clearly linked by their mutual concern with the existential insecurity of fellow human and non-human beings caused by excessive and unbalanced desire. However, the explicit articulation of specific concerns regarding desire diverges between ritual action and social activism. Ritual materialises and condenses the anxiety related to desire, whereas social activism describes the fetishisation of desire in more abstract economic, political and scientific terms.
Full Text Available Now corporate governance issues have received wide attention of researchers for more than three decades due to the increasing economic crisis around the world. This research study consider the impact of corporate governance on the performance of listed financial institutions in Sri Lanka as main objective and recommend a suitable corporate governance practices for improving performance of listed financial institutions. To achieve these objectives, the researcher use Return on equity, Return on assets, as the key variables that defined the performance of the firm. On the other hand, Board size, Meeting frequency and audit committee of the company are used as variables to measure the corporate governance. Twenty five listed financial institutions were selected as sample size for the sample period of 2008-2012. The data will be collected by using the secondary sources. According to the analysis, variables of corporate governance significantly impact on firm’s performance and board size and audit committee size have positive impact on firm’s performance. However, meeting frequency has negatively impact on firm’s performance.
Full Text Available ABSTRACTChanges in water quality of a sand aquifer on the east coast of Sri Lanka due to the December 26, 2004 tsunami and subsequent disturbance due to well pumping and flushing by precipitation were investigated. Two closely spaced tsunami affected transects, spanning the ocean and an interior lagoon across a 2 km wide land strip were monitored from October, 2005 to September, 2006. Water samples were collected from 15 dug wells and 20 piezometers, from the disturbed and undisturbed sites respectively to evaluate the temporal and spatial trends in water quality.The EC values observed from the undisturbed area showed a significant decrease (3000 to 1200 ?S/cm with the rain from November 2005 to March 2006, while the values in the disturbed area appeared to have stabilized without further decline through the same period. The concentration range of EC, Ca, K, Na, alkalinity, total hardness and sulphate were higher in the disturbed site than in the undisturbed site. PHREEQC modeling showed that the mixed sea water fraction is higher in the disturbed site than in the undisturbed site, and this is likely due to the movement of the disturbed plume by water extraction through pumping and extensive well cleaning after the tsunami, causing forced diffusion and dispersion. No arsenic contamination was observed as all observed arsenic concentrations were below 10 ?g/L. For the sites investigated, there are clear indications of only a slow recovery of the aquifer with time in response to the onset of the monsoon.
Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate gender-wise diversity of digital dermatoglyphic traits in a sample of Sinhalese people in Sri Lanka. Findings Four thousand and thirty-four digital prints of 434 Sinhalese individuals (217 males and 217 females) were examined for their digital dermatoglyphic pattern distribution. The mean age for the entire group was 23.66 years (standard deviation?=?4.93 years). The loop pattern is observed more frequently (n?=?2,592, 59.72%) compared to whorl (n?=?1,542, 35.53%) and arch (n?=?206, 4.75%) in the Sinhalese population. Females (n?=?1,274, 58.71%) have a more ulnar loop pattern than males (n?=?1,231, 56.73%). The plain whorl pattern is observed more frequently in males (n?=?560, 25.81%) compared to females (n?=?514, 23.69%).The double loop pattern is observed more frequently on the right and left thumb (digit 1) of both males and females. Pattern intensity index, Dankmeijer index and Furuhata index are higher in males. Conclusions Ulnar loop is the most frequently occurring digital dermatoglyphic pattern among the Sinhalese. All pattern indices are higher in males. To some extent, dermatoglyphic patterns of Sinhalese are similar to North Indians and other Caucasoid populations. Further studies with larger sample sizes are recommended to confirm our findings. PMID:24377367
Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-poisoning is one of the most common methods of suicide worldwide. The intentional ingestion of pesticides is the main contributor to such deaths and in many parts of rural Asia pesticide self-poisoning is a major public health problem. To inform the development of preventive measures in these settings, this study investigates small-area variation in self-poisoning incidence and its association with area-based socioeconomic and agricultural factors. Methods Ecological analysis of intentional self-poisoning in a rural area (population 267,613 of Sri Lanka in 2002. The geographic distribution of cases was mapped to place of residence. Using administrative division (GN, median population size 1416, as unit of analysis, associations with socioeconomic and agricultural indicators were explored using negative binomial regression models. Results The overall incidence of intentional self-poisoning in the study area was 315 per 100,000 (range: 0 – 2168 per 100,000 across GNs. Socioeconomic disadvantage, as indexed by poor housing quality (p = 0.003 and low levels of education (p Conclusion Considerable small-area variation in incidence rates of intentional self-poisoning was found. The noteworthy concentration of cases in certain areas and the inverse association with socioeconomic deprivation merit attention and should be investigated using individual-level exposure data.
D. R. N. Sumanasekera
Full Text Available BackgroundThe online Diploma course in Family Medicine (DFM of the Post Graduate Institute of Medicine (PGIM of the University of Colombo is one of the pioneering online post graduate medical courses in Sri Lanka.ObjectivesTo describe student perceptions on the online DFM course.MethodsThe study population comprised of all the students (19 of the first batch of the course. Pre- tested self administered questionnaires were administered to all students. A Likert scale was used to assess the domains of teaching, learning, levels of understanding, and technical problems. The scale ranged from 1= ["poor / not useful/did not understand"] to 5= ["excellent/ very useful/ understood very well"]. A focus group discussion was carried out to strengthen the student perceptions, based on the themes which emerged.ResultsResponse rate was 98.4%. Levels of understanding the lessons were perceived to be high with an average of 4.8. Students were of the opinion that discussions and assignments helped them to engage in active learning. Online discussions were found to be the most useful form of learning. 88% commented that they are able to link clinical work to their online course work.ConclusionsThis online course has been useful in improving student knowledge and the levels of understanding of individual lessons are satisfactory. The most useful form of learning appeared to be online discussions.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is recognized as a metabolic disorder largely seen in urbanized populations. The purpose of this study was to assess prevalence and risk factors for NAFLD in a rural, physically active, economically deprived population in Sri Lanka. Methods By visiting individual households in the community, 35-64 year old adults resident in two selected estates in the Nuwara Eliya District of Sri Lanka, were invited to participate in the study. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were made on all participants. Blood samples were obtained for the assay of fasting glucose, serum lipids, serum insulin and alanine aminotransferase. NAFLD was diagnosed on established ultrasound criteria for fatty liver in the absence of hepatitis B and C markers and high alcohol consumption. Results Of those invited, 403 (65% participated in the study. Almost all participants were either Indian or Sri Lankan Tamils and 53% were females. Prevalence of NAFLD was 18% in this population. Twice as many males were diagnosed as having NAFLD compared to females. Male sex, high BMI, high waist circumference, high diastolic blood pressure and high plasma glucose levels were significant predictors of NAFLD. Conclusion Nearly one in five people in this predominantly Indian Tamil, rural, physically active, economically deprived population had NAFLD. The condition was associated with constituent features of the metabolic syndrome. These results support studies reporting ethnic variations in disease susceptibility and suggest that genetic factors may also play a role in determining disease risk.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels of malathion resistance and prevalence of the malathion carboxylesterase mechanism among mosquitoes in Sri Lanka. METHODS: Bioassays were carried out using WHO-recommended methods on samples of the following Sri Lankan mosquito vectors: Culex quinquefasciatus, C. tritaeniorhynchus, C. gelidus; Anopheles culicifacies B, A. subpictus; Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. FINDINGS: Malathion-specific carboxylesterase mechanisms were found in A. culicifacies and A. subpictus, both giving high rates of insecticide metabolism. In contrast, malathion resistance in C. quinquefasciatus and C. tritaeniorhynchus is linked to broad-spectrum resistance to organophosphorus compounds due to elevated levels of esterases that sequester malaoxon, but are unable to metabolize malathion. CONCLUSIONS: Resistance among the Anopheles spp. must have occurred as a direct result of antimalarial activities, since malathion use in Sri Lanka is limited to public health treatments. In contrast, resistance among Culex spp. has resulted from large-scale use of the organophosphorus insecticide group as larvicides for filariasis control and on rice paddy, where C. tritaeniorhynchus predominantly breeds, for agricultural purposes.
Schousboe, Mette L; Rajakaruna, Rupika S
Abstract. The geographical distribution of genetic variation in Plasmodium vivax samples (N = 386) from nine districts across Sri Lanka is described using three markers; the P. vivax merozoite surface protein-3a (Pvmsp-3a) gene, and the two microsatellites m1501 and m3502. At Pvmsp-3a, 11 alleles were found with an expected heterozygosity (H(e)) of 0.81, whereas at m1501 and m3502, 24 alleles (H(e) = 0.85) and 8 alleles (H(e) = 0.74) were detected, respectively. Overall, 95 unique three locus genotypes were detected among the 279 samples positive at all three loci (H(e) = 0.95). Calculating the pairwise fixation index (F(ST)) revealed statistically significant population structure. The presence of identical 2-loci microsatellite genotypes in a significant proportion of samples revealed local clusters of closely related isolates contributing to strong linkage disequilibrium between marker alleles. The results show evidence of high genetic diversity and possible population substructure of P. vivax populations in Sri Lanka.
K. A. J. M. Kuruppuarachchi
Full Text Available Fine roots in forest soils have important implications for global carbon (C balance, but processesunderlying this C sink are not well understood. This study evaluates year round dynamics of fine roots ina tropical dry mixed evergreen forest and an arboretum in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Monthly soil coresamples (up to 25 cm depth were collected randomly to cover a whole annual cycle of the two sites. Thesoils were air dried, sieved (< 2 mm, and fine roots (? 2 mm were separated by handpicking coupledwith a water floating technique. Then, fine root biomass and C density were calculated using oven dryweight. Annual mean fine root biomass of the dry zone forest and the arboretum were found to be 5.72 ±0.57 t/ha and 7.88 ± 0.81 t/ha, respectively, with C densities of 2.69 ± 0.27 t/ha and 3.7 ± 0.38 t/ha,respectively. Thus, dry zone arboretum showed a higher growth and biomass, and hence a C pool of fineroots, than the dry zone forest, possibly due to a younger forest stand with fast fine root turnover rate. Inboth sites during the dry spell, there was an increased production of fine roots and a simultaneous leafflush on the canopy with a green-up. The increased fine root growth during the dry season generallyallows the trees to absorb more water under water-stressed situations. These events may be due to anundisclosed survival mechanism of such ecosystems under drought, which needs further studies.Key words: Drought, Fine root growth and canopy green-up, Tropical dry zone vegetation
Amarnath, Giriraj; Inada, Yoshiaki; Inoue, Ryosuke; Alahacoon, Niranga; Smakhtin, Vladimir
During the catastrophic flooding it is critically important to estimate losses as it is essential for facilitating good decision making at the district, province and national levels of government and to appraise aid agencies for necessary assistance. Flood loss estimates can also be used to evaluate the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to strengthening flood control measures. In the case of Sri Lanka there were limited knowledge and application system exist for carrying out rapid damage assessment for Agriculture in Sri Lanka. FAO has developed the tool "Rapid Agricultural Disaster Assessment Routine" (RADAR) based on theoretical approach that uses simple tools for assessing the impact on agriculture of a disastrous event. There are two knowledge bases that contain information needed for calculation of the value loss or damage. The procedure of rapid impact assessment implies the use of knowledge-bases, database and GIS. In this study, the user friendly application of RADAR system has been developed. Three components were considered including agriculture, livestock and farmers asset to estimate the losses. The application will allow estimating flood damage at various scales and this being tested at district level and specific example for the 2011 floods in Sri Lanka. In order to understand flood inundation cycle, time-series optical MODIS satellite data (2000-2011) and microwave ALOS PALSAR (2006-2011) were used to derive annual flood extent, flood duration and recurrent areas to identify flood risk and impact of seasonal flooding on agriculture. This study demonstrates how RADAR & satellite-based flood products can be effectively used for rapid damage assessment and managing the floods.
S.N. Surendran & R. Ramasamy
Full Text Available Background & objectives : Anopheles culicifacies Giles, the major malaria vector in Sri Lanka, existsas a species complex comprising two sympatric sibling species— species B and E. Species E is reportedto be the major vector of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum parasites in Sri Lanka, whilst speciesB is a poor or nonvector as in India. Knowledge of the breeding habits of the two sibling species canhelp in designing optimal vector control strategies. Hence, a survey was conducted in Sri Lanka tostudy the preferential breeding habitats of An. culicifacies species B and E.Methods: Immature forms of An. culicifacies were collected from identified breeding sites in malariousdistricts. Collected larvae were typed for their sibling species status based on mitotic Y-chromosomestructure. Data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science version 10.0.Results: An. culicifacies immature forms were found in 23 collection sites. Among these samples19 were found to have species E and four to have species B. All species B larvae were collected fromTonigala village in the Puttalam district. None of the 23 sites was found to have both species B and E.Species E, the major vector of malaria, appears to breed in variety of breeding sites which can be of anindication of its adaptive variation to exploit breeding sites with varying limnological characteristics.Interpretation & conclusion: The present findings have to be taken into account when formulatingmore effective larval control measures. They also show the need for a detailed study of possibledifferent preferences for larval breeding sites between species B and E.
Senanayake, Suraji A; Ranaweera, K K D S; Gunaratne, Anil; Bamunuarachchi, Arthur
Nutritional attributes of flours obtained from five different cultivars of sweet potato roots commonly available in Sri Lanka showed significant differences in the tested parameters. The starch level ranged between 33% and 64% on the dry basis and the extractability from fresh tubers was governed by the quantity of starch. The crude fiber level ranged between 2.1% and 13.6% on dry basis and the highest level was observed in swp7 (CARI 273) and resistant starch ranged from 14.2% to 17.2%. High...
Nissanka, Ramani [Practical Action Consulting in Eastern Africa, Nairobi (Kenya)
Interest in cook stove improvement in Sri Lanka started in the early 1950s. These activities were initiated among the migrant South Indian community that worked in tea plantations concentrated in the central part of the country who had been influenced by the interest generated in the South India. However, these were not replicated in other parts of the country, possibly due to the abudance of the fuel-wood in those areas and also due to a lack of wider interest and awareness of the significance if Improved Cook Stoves (ICS).
Van Der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H; Perera, Devika; Piyaratne, M K; Amerasinghe, Felix P
BACKGROUND: In Sri Lanka, the major malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies breeds in pools formed in streams and river beds and it is likely that people living close to such breeding sites are at higher risk of malaria than people living further away. This study was done to quantify the importance of house location relative to vector breeding sites for the occurrence of malaria in order to assess the usefulness of this parameter in future malaria risk maps. Such risk maps could be important tools...
Weerasinghe, Manjula; Pieris, Ravi; Eddleston, Michael; Hoek, Wim van der; Dawson, Andrew; Konradsen, Flemming
BACKGROUND: Self-poisoning with pesticides is the cause of an estimated 300,000 deaths annually in rural Asia. The great majority of these deaths are from impulsive acts of self-harm using pesticides that are readily available in the home. The secure storage of pesticides under lock has been emphasized as a possible answer to the problem. This aspect, however, has been poorly researched. In this paper, we report on the design and use, in rural Sri Lanka, of a variety of different lockable storag...
Hanwella, Raveen; Jayasekera, Nicholas E L W; Varuni A. de Silva
The main aim of this study was to assess the mental health status of the Navy Special Forces and regular forces three and a half years after the end of combat operations in mid 2009, and compare it with the findings in 2009. This cross sectional study was carried out in the Sri Lanka Navy (SLN), three and a half years after the end of combat operations. Representative samples of SLN Special Forces and regular forces deployed in combat areas were selected using simple random sampling. Only per...
Pethiyagoda, Niyomi Ayesha
The primary purpose of this study to understand how the consideration set size affect for consumption frequency of fish in Sri-Lanka. Consideration set size of fish is considered to be affected by consumer attitude, convenience orientation, and consumer knowledge in Sri-Lankan context. Thus, the second objective was to investigate how consumer attitude, knowledge, convenience orientation, variety seeking tendency and price consciousness affect the formation of consideration set size. Based on...
Ground water resources in Sri Lanka are largely derived from direct rainfall seepage and recharge from surface water bodies. Ground water contamination potential of pesticides is governed by many soil, pesticide and environmental factors. One of the critical factors that affects is the rate at which pesticides degrade in the soil. This is the process that eliminates the chemical from the environment. Therefore the knowledge of degradation rates of pesticides is essential for pollution control management. Degradation and dissipation rates of 14C ring labelled carbofuran and diazinon in selected Sri Lankan soils were studied under laboratory conditions. 0.1 Ci/10 g soil of ring labelled carbofuran and diazinon-were added to Nuwara Eliya (Red yellow podzolic), Pugoda (Alluvials) Kalpitiya and Negombo (Regosols) soils and incubated in 75% of maximum water holding capacity and 28 degree C of temperature for 13 hours light and 11 hours dark conditions. Liberated 14CO2 was collected after 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28, 36, 42 and 58 days to an alkaline solution and analyzed using Liquid Scintillation Counter. Carbofuran has a mineralization rate of 12.5% in Kalpitiya regosols, 7.5% in Pugoda alluvials and lower rates in other two soils after 20 days. After 40 days it increases over 20% in Kalpitiya and in other three soils it was less than 15%. After-58 days the mineralization was over 60% in Kalpitiya soils but less than 500/o in other three soils. During the whole period the mineralization was less than 10% in Nuwara Eliya red yellow podzolic soils. Diazinon exhibited 25% mineralization in Nuwara Eliya and Kalpitiya soils after ten days but in Pugoda and Negombo soils it was less than 20%. After 40 days it was 80% in Kalpitiya soil and 60% in Nuwara Eliya. During the total period the mineralization is less than 25% in Negombo and Pugoda soils. Overall, the degradation rate of carbofuran is much lower than diazinon for all selected soils. Therefore the contamination risk by leaching of pesticide is much higher for carbofuran.
Anaemia due to iron deficiency is the commonest haematological problem found in Sri Lankan pregnant women and pre-school children. The reported prevalence rates amongst pregnant and lactating women ranged from 60-80%. The present study revealed that 3% of pregnant women had satisfactory iron stores and 57% had virtually no iron stores. Routine iron supplementation is justified not only to correct the anaemia but also to build up the maternal iron stores. In a longitudinal study of 100 pregnant women a very high prevalence was observed in spite of the fact that the population studied was on iron supplementation. A very poor compliance on iron therapy was seen. The incidence of low birth weight observed was 32%, quite similar to that has been reported previously for Sri Lanka. Therefore, further longitudinal studies have been designed to find out the efficacy of the present supplementary programme. In Galle District 54.5% of the pre-school children were found clearly anaemic and another 20% had evidence of iron depletion. As the dietary intake of iron was marginal, the weaning foods that are in practice were tested for iron availability. Iron absorption/availability studies by in-vivo (extrinsic tag method) and in-vitro (using radioiron 59Fe tracer) methods have shown a very poor (less than 5%) availability in many of the commonly used weaning foods. A statistically significant decrease in iron availability was seen with increase in amount of polyphenols mainly in some of the preparations made with green leaves. Addition of ascorbic acid rich food items showed an increase in iron availability (by 2-6 times). Dietary zinc intake of 46 children (2-5 yrs) was found 2-4 mg/1000 kcal, relating to total energy intake. Mean plasma zinc concentration of these children was 13.8±0.8 ?mol/L. Therefore further studies on the improvement of zinc and iron availability in weaning foods have been designed to be done in future. (author). 3 refs, 1 fig
Kaplan, M.; Renaud, F. G.; Lüchters, G.
The tsunami of December 2004 caused extensive human and economic losses along many parts of the Sri Lankan coastline. Thanks to extensive national and international solidarity and support in the aftermath of the event, most people managed to restore their livelihoods completely but some households did not manage to recover completely from the impacts of the event. The differential in recovery highlighted the various vulnerabilities and coping capacities of communities exposed to the tsunami. Understanding the elements causing different vulnerabilities is crucial to reducing the impact of future events, yet capturing them comprehensively at the local level is a complex task. This research was conducted in a tsunami-affected area in southwestern Sri Lanka to evaluate firstly the role of coastal vegetation in buffering communities against the tsunami and secondly to capture the elements of vulnerability of affected communities. The area was chosen because of its complex landscape, including the presence of an inlet connecting the Maduganga estuary with the sea, and because of the presence of remaining patches of coastal vegetation. The vulnerability assessment was based on a comprehensive vulnerability framework and on the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework in order to detect inherent vulnerabilities of different livelihood groups. Our study resulted in the identification of fishery and labour-led households as the most vulnerable groups. Unsurprisingly, analyses showed that damages to houses and assets decreased quickly with increasing distance from the sea. It could also be shown that the Maduganga inlet channelled the energy of the waves, so that severe damages were observed at relatively large distances from the sea. Some reports after the tsunami stated that mangroves and other coastal vegetation protected the people living behind them. Detailed mapping of the coastal vegetation in the study area and subsequent linear regression revealed significant differences between three vegetation classes present in the area with regard to water level and damages to houses. As our region showed homogeneity in some important factors such as coastal topography, our results should only be generalised to comparable regions.
Full Text Available The tsunami of December 2004 caused extensive human and economic losses along many parts of the Sri Lankan coastline. Thanks to extensive national and international solidarity and support in the aftermath of the event, most people managed to restore their livelihoods completely but some households did not manage to recover completely from the impacts of the event. The differential in recovery highlighted the various vulnerabilities and coping capacities of communities exposed to the tsunami. Understanding the elements causing different vulnerabilities is crucial to reducing the impact of future events, yet capturing them comprehensively at the local level is a complex task. This research was conducted in a tsunami-affected area in southwestern Sri Lanka to evaluate firstly the role of coastal vegetation in buffering communities against the tsunami and secondly to capture the elements of vulnerability of affected communities. The area was chosen because of its complex landscape, including the presence of an inlet connecting the Maduganga estuary with the sea, and because of the presence of remaining patches of coastal vegetation. The vulnerability assessment was based on a comprehensive vulnerability framework and on the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework in order to detect inherent vulnerabilities of different livelihood groups. Our study resulted in the identification of fishery and labour-led households as the most vulnerable groups. Unsurprisingly, analyses showed that damages to houses and assets decreased quickly with increasing distance from the sea. It could also be shown that the Maduganga inlet channelled the energy of the waves, so that severe damages were observed at relatively large distances from the sea. Some reports after the tsunami stated that mangroves and other coastal vegetation protected the people living behind them. Detailed mapping of the coastal vegetation in the study area and subsequent linear regression revealed significant differences between three vegetation classes present in the area with regard to water level and damages to houses. As our region showed homogeneity in some important factors such as coastal topography, our results should only be generalised to comparable regions.
Farming operations of small ruminants is one of the most common features in the small-scale livestock farmers, which represents 99% of the total farming population in Sri Lanka. However, the distribution of native small ruminants; goats and sheep, are scattered. The goat population is distributed mostly (72%) in drier areas whereas sheep are concentrated mainly in northern area of the country. Therefore the management systems of these farm animal genetic resources are largely influenced by the socio cultural conditions of the respective areas. The data collection on farming systems and production characteristics were carried out during the years 2007 and 2008 from the areas in the north central, north-western and northern parts of the island. The farms were randomly chosen based on their representativeness of indigenous small ruminant populations, having confirmed that there was no introduction of exotic breeds within documented past. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used for data collection from 40 farm families for each small ruminant species. The production status of each species was analyzed separately as they belong to separate regional, social and ethnic categories. Native goats are kept mainly for meat and manure and rarely for milk under extensive management conditions. The input levels were low, ranging from sub-standard levels to zero level. According to farmers' perspective, native goats are hardy and resistant to common diseases. This was further revealed by absence of disease incidence recorded during the survey. The herd size varies according to the area ranging from 1-2 goat on average in northern area and 6-7 on average in the north-central and north-western areas. The animals were recorded as small compact animals with varying coat colours either polled or horned. Females are prolific, however kids show low growth rates and high mortality before weaning. Breeding is done based on community arrangement using a hired buck. Low milk yield and low growth performance after weaning hinder their chances of being attracted as a genetic asset among rural community. This is mostly highlighted since the goat production is a part of mixed crop-livestock production system. The role-play of goat as an income generator was minimum (0%-20% of the total income) even in the areas, where the goat production is popular. Native sheep, know as Jaffna Local sheep are reared in very specific farming system prevailing in northern area of the island. The flock size of native sheep varies from 12-254 animals. There were only two farms having more than 200 animals. Animals are usually white with patches of various colours (brown and black), and have extremely short tails. Females usually have no horns but half of males do. Indigenous sheep are small animals with no production potential of wool. Breeding occurs naturally in a close system and no attention has paid for performance improvement but for the number. Single birth is most common though there were very few twinning (2.5%) recorded in the survey area. High lamb mortality rate could be seen due to harsh environmental conditions and lack of attention paid by the farmer s during lambing season. However, Jaffna Local is the hardy native sheep breed and it is the only local sheep breed in Sri Lanka. Majority of farmers kept sheep as a tradition and as an inherent property while few others (35%) recorded a family income born by selling manure and animals. Hence sheep production system is essentially a low-input, low-risk and low-return system specific to the area. (author)
Harendra de Silva, D G
Throughout history, the involvement of children in military operations has been extensively documented. The issue of child conscription is multi-faceted, with very few medical but more sociological aspects, including terrorism, politics, economics, history, culture and religion amongst other factors. Many United Nations Instruments as well as the International Criminal Court have documented that child conscription is detrimental to a child's development, violates Child Rights, and is a war crime. Efforts by international bodies to address conscription as child abuse have failed since the process is undertaken by groups rather than individuals, and because the law has no access to the perpetrators. The background to a conflict in Sri Lanka and various ethno-religious and political factors are discussed. The role of the diaspora community, the internet and various fund-raising mechanisms for war are discussed. The history of child conscription and studies examining reasons and the tasks assigned to them as conscripts as well as abusive aspects, especially in relation to emotional abuse, neglect and physical harm, are discussed. Documentation of conscription as child abuse needing a definition including a new definition of 'suicide by proxy' is stressed. The importance of culture and history, and the manipulation of the idealistic mind are discussed in the context of 'setting the stage' for child conscription. The toy weapon industry and the real arms industry, especially small arms, are important in maintaining conflicts, especially in the developing world. The conflicts of interests of members of the UN Security Council and the 'peace-keepers' of the world is discussed. PMID:24070161
Full Text Available Sri Lanka has an extensive network of health care institutions, but there is no registered population for any particular health care institution. Patients are free to select which doctor to consult and which hospital to get admitted. Also there is no established referral and back referral system in practice. This free movement of patients within and between the primary, secondary and tertiary levels of care by patient's choice has given rise to a situation where each episode of an illness or disease process is managed by different doctors in differing specialties.As in most care settings, the patient's medical or health record is held by the health service or doctor that is providing care to the patient for a specific ailment. This leads to a gap in communication between multiple caregivers leading to poor co-ordination of care. These difficulties faced and lessons learnt suggest the use of a medical record that is kept with the patient.Patient Held Medical Records (PHMR are formal and structured records that are given to patients to enable the continuity and quality of care which he takes with him when he goes for medical consultations. PHMRs aim to improve communication between patients and the multiple clinicians and health care workers who are involved in patient management.The PHMR we propose comprises of a folder, clinical notes, problem list, flow sheet and other optional items. The PHMR can be used as a tool to empower and educate the patients. It will improve transparency and trust and facilitate continuity of care. Increased work load, cost, restriction of freedom in writing notes, confidentiality and retention of records by patients are the disadvantages which need consideration.
Commers, Matthew J; Morival, Marc; Devries, Marten W
There is a pressing need for low-cost intervention models to promote mental health among children in the wake of natural disasters. This article describes an evaluation of one such model: the Happy/Sad Letter Box (HSLB) Project, a mental health promotion intervention designed to minimize trauma in children, resulting from the Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004. The HSLB Project was implemented in 68 schools in Sri Lanka's Hambantota District from April 2005 forward. Methods included questionnaires (n = 203), interviews, and group consultation with schoolchildren, teachers, teacher counsellors, principals, educational zone directors and parents. The HSLB intervention was seen as relevant and non-stigmatized, cost-effective if implemented after initial recovery steps, anecdotally effective in identifying and helping resolve trauma, accommodating the full range of children's daily stressors and sustainable. Gender, children's age, school size and the level of the tsunami impact for response were found to correlate with response differences. Along four dimensions previously identified in the literature (ability to triage, matching of intervention timing and focus, ability to accommodate a range of stressors and context compatibility), the HSLB Project is a promising intervention model (1) for children; (2) at group-level; (3) relating to natural disasters. The Nairobi Call to Action [WHO (2009) Nairobi Call to Action for Closing the Implementation Gap in Health Promotion. Geneva: World Health Organization] emphasized the importance of mainstreaming health promotion into priority programme areas, specifically including mental health. The HSLB Project represents the integration of health promotion practice into disaster preparedness mental health infrastructure. PMID:22952338
Satharasinghe Raveendra L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is being increasingly diagnosed in Asia. However there are few epidemiological data from the region. Methods To determine prevalence and clinical characteristics of IBD, a hospital-based survey was performed in the Colombo and Gampaha districts (combined population 4.5 million in Sri Lanka. Patients with established ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn's disease (CD, who were permanent residents of these adjoining districts, were recruited from hospital registries and out-patient clinics. Clinical information was obtained from medical records and patient interviews. Results There were 295 cases of IBD (UC = 240, CD = 55, of which 34 (UC = 30, CD = 4 were newly diagnosed during the study year. The prevalence rate for UC was 5.3/100,000 (95% CI 5.0-5.6/100,000, and CD was 1.2/100,000 (95% CI 1.0-1.4/100,000. The incidence rates were 0.69/100,000 (95% CI 0.44-0.94/100,000 for UC and 0.09/100,000 (95% CI 0.002-0.18/100,000 for CD. Female:male ratios were 1.5 for UC and 1.0 for CD. Mean age at diagnosis was (males and females 36.6 and 38.1y for UC and 33.4 and 36.2y for CD. Among UC patients, 51.1% had proctitis and at presentation 58.4% had mild disease. 80% of CD patients had only large bowel involvement. Few patients had undergone surgery. Conclusions The prevalence of IBD in this population was low compared to Western populations, but similar to some in Asia. There was a female preponderance for UC. UC was mainly mild, distal or left-sided, while CD mainly involved the large bowel.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the hospital admission data set that best captures the incidence of acute poisoning in rural Sri Lanka. METHODS: Data were collected on all acute poisoning cases admitted to 34 primary and 1 referral hospital in Anuradhapura district from September 2008 to January 2010. Three admission data sets were compared with the "true" incidence of acute poisoning to determine the systematic bias inherent to each data set. "True" incidence was calculated by adding all direct admissions (not transfers to primary hospitals and to the referral hospital. The three data sets were: (i all admissions to primary hospitals only; (ii all admissions to the referral hospital only (direct and referrals, and (iii all admissions to both primary hospitals and the referral hospital ("all admissions". The third is the government's routine statistical method but counts transfers twice, so for the study transferred patients were counted only once through data linkage. FINDINGS: Of 3813 patients admitted for poisoning, 3111 first presented to a primary hospital and 2287 (73.5% were later transferred to the referral hospital, where most deaths (161/177 occurred. All data sets were representative demographically and in poisoning type, but referral hospital data yielded a more accurate case-fatality rate than primary hospital data or "all admissions" data. Admissions to primary hospitals only or to the referral hospital only underestimated the incidence of acute poisoning by about 20%, and data on "all admissions" overestimated it by 60%. CONCLUSION: Admission data from referral hospitals are easily obtainable and accurately reflect the true poisoning incidence.
Mertens, T E; Fernando, M A; Marshall, T F; Kirkwood, B R; Cairncross, S; Radalowicz, A
Between January 1987 and February 1988, 4590 homes of children under five years of age were visited in three areas of Kurunegala district, Sri Lanka and data were collected on water related practices. 60% of the population used protected wells, 30% used unprotected sources and 10% used handpumps on boreholes or piped supplies. 90% of households had a source less than 1 km away. Mean water consumption was above 25 litres per capita per day and did not correlate with the distance to source. Samples of drinking water were collected and faecal coliform levels were determined in samples of stored water from 3092 households and in samples from the water sources used by 1043 of these households. The absence or presence of organisms in each sample, and the geometric mean count in samples with organisms were used as indices of contamination. Both indices changed with season and varied between areas and between types of water source. The proportion of positive source samples was uniformly high with the exception of piped supplies and handpumps. The mean count was highest for unprotected sources. There was no evidence that ground water contamination occurred in boreholes. With stored samples, boiling appeared to reduce contamination markedly. The proportion of positive stored water samples was also lower with the use of different vessels for collection and storage, with storage inside the house, and with use of a storage container other than an earthenware pot. Because surface water pollution appears to be important it is proposed that headwalls and drainage aprons be built around unprotected sources. Faecal contamination at the source may have more public health significance than contamination of stored water. In this respect public hygiene may play an important role in reducing water pollution at handpumps or protected wells. PMID:2339254
Nuberg, Ian K.; Evans, David G.; Senanayake, Ranil
Forest gardens are traditional agroecosystems in the humid tropics that have evolved a forestlike structure and as such are commonly thought to be a good example of sustainable agriculture. While this may be true in the sense of soil protection and maintenance of biodiversity, they are not necessarily maintainable in the context of competing land use in the landscape. Such appears to be the case of forest gardens in the uplands of Uva Province of Sri Lanka. This paper reports an agroecological analysis of forest gardens and other forms of land use in Uva, and discusses how this understanding can be used to make use of the good properties of forest gardens. It shows that although they have very real environmental and social benefits, they are unable to satisfy the material needs of a rural population undergoing demographic and cultural changes. However, the alternative land-use systems, both private smallholder and state owned, have serious deficiencies with respect to long-term sustainability, and it is essential to develop appropriate alternatives. It should be possible to design a smallholder farming system that incorporates the high productivity of market gardens (i.e., the cultivation of seasonal crops such as vegetables) with, at least, the high stability and biophysical sustainability of the forest garden. Considerable work still needs to be done on the design of such a system as well as the agency for its development and promotion. The paper treats the forest gardens of Uva as a case study from which some general conclusions can be drawn with respect to the conscious development of forest garden systems elsewhere in the tropics.
Kwong Fai A. Lo
Full Text Available Cities are becoming increasingly vulnerable to water-related issues due to rapid urbanization, installation of complex infrastructure and changes in rainfall patterns. This study aims at assessing the impacts of climate change on rainwater harvesting systems (RWH in the tropical urban city, Colombo, Sri Lanka. The future climate change projections are downscaled from global circulation models to the urban catchment scale using the Long Ashton Research Station Weather Generator (LARS-WG, described in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4, coupled with Inter Comparison Project (CMIP3 model results. Historical rainfall data from 1981–2010 is used to simulate long-term future rainfall data from 2011–2099. The percentage change of the rainfall is calculated. The rainfall patterns are analyzed based on the daily, monthly, seasonal and annual time scales. Water requirements are calculated based on the selected scenario types. Rainfall and water demand data are incorporated into a water balance model. Climate change impacts for the selected RWH scenarios are calculated based on the water security analysis for each scenario. Analysis of the future rainfall data of Colombo reveals that several extreme weather events with very heavy rainfall may occur in the future. However, the frequency of these big events may not occur too often. Most of the selected global circulation models (GCMs in this study predict that there will be more rainfall towards the end of this century (2080-2099. Residential RWH systems will be more affected than non-residential systems. RWH systems in Colombo should include potential future climate changes in their future design and planning and be prepared for excess runoff and additional measures against potential overflow and urban floods.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides is the commonest means of suicide in rural Asia. It is mostly impulsive and facilitated by easy access to pesticides. The aim of this large observational study was to investigate the immediate source of pesticides used for self-harm to help inform suicide prevention strategies such as reducing domestic access to pesticides. Methods The study was conducted in a district hospital serving an agricultural region of Sri Lanka. Patients who had self-poisoned with pesticides and were admitted to the adult medical wards were interviewed by study doctors following initial resuscitation to identify the source of pesticides they have ingested. Results Of the 669 patients included in the analysis, 425 (63.5% were male; the median age was 26 (IQR 20-36. In 511 (76% cases, the pesticides had been stored either inside or immediately outside the house; among this group only eight patients obtained pesticides that were kept in a locked container. Ten percent (n = 67 of the patients used pesticides stored in the field while 14% (n = 91 purchased pesticides from shops within a few hours of the episode. The most common reasons for choosing the particular pesticide for self-harm were its easy accessibility (n = 311, 46% or its popularity as a suicide agent in their village (n = 290, 43%. Conclusion Three quarters of people who ingested pesticides in acts of self-harm used products that were available within the home or in close proximity; relatively few patients purchased the pesticide for the act. The study highlights the importance of reducing the accessibility of toxic pesticides in the domestic environment.
Senaratne, Thamarasi N; Noordeen, Faseeha
Dengue fever (DF) is a mosquito borne virus infection which is endemic to the tropical regions of the world. In Sri Lanka, the first sero-positive case was reported in the 1960s; since then the island has experienced several outbreaks of DF/dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). The disease is more prevalent in some parts of the country where rapid urbanisation has taken place. Diagnosis of DF/DHF is mainly done using the clinical features only due to the unavailability of laboratory diagnosis in many parts of the country and this might lead to over or under diagnosis of the disease. A rational diagnostic approach which combines the history and clinical profiles together with specific virological laboratory data would help in the correct identification of the disease. Furthermore, a feasible algorithm for the laboratory diagnosis of dengue will help to confirm the cases with a high level of clinical suspicion. This would then facilitate the notification of correctly identified cases to the public health authorities to assess the dengue burden. The scope of this review is to improve the existing laboratory diagnosis of DF/DHF by proposing a feasible algorithm to implement in Sri Lanka that would enable better detection of cases. PMID:25233937
Stone, Elizabeth C; Hornberger, George M
Maintaining crop yields is vital as populations increase, but environmental degradation resulting from cultivation must be prevented. In particular, freshwater resources are at risk of nitrate leaching from superfluous fertilization. This research explores the tradeoffs between maximizing yield and limiting environmental impacts of rice production in Sri Lanka. The DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model was used to examine how various combinations of fertilization and irrigation management affect yield, nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, and nitrogen (N) leaching in paddy systems under climate and soil conditions in the dry zone of Sri Lanka from 1991 to 2010. Simulated fertilizer application rates ranged from zero to 2700kgN/ha and simulated irrigation schemes were continuously flooded, marginally flooded, and rain-fed. Increasing fertilizer levels from zero to 300kgN/ha per year increased yield but application of fertilizer beyond that amount ceased to affect yield for any of the three irrigation schemes. The combination of management options for obtaining the maximum grain yield, near 9000kgC/ha, with the greatest amount of N uptake and relatively low nitrate leaching was using 225kgN/ha under a continuously flooded regime. This research explores how cultivation in rice-growing regions in south Asia affects the environment and the N cycle, and demonstrates how informed management of these systems can reduce external inputs of N fertilizer without impacting yield. PMID:26519587
Wijesinghe, Rushika S; Wickremasinghe, Ananda R
Quality of life (QOL) was assessed in 141 filarial lymphedema patients and 128 healthy people in the Colombo district, Sri Lanka, by administering modified, translated, and validated (in Sri Lanka) versions of the Short Form 36 health survey questionnaire (SF-36) and the 30-item General Health questionnaire (GHQ-30). The GHQ-30 assesses the current mental health status. The SF-36 measures health on 8 multi-item dimensions covering functional state, well-being, and overall evaluation of health (physical functioning, role limitations resulting from physical health problems, role limitations resulting from emotional problems, energy/fatigue, emotional well-being, social functioning, pain and general health). By SF-36, patients experienced poorer physical functioning, more role limitations resulting from physical health conditions, less emotional well-being, poorer social functioning, and more pain than healthy individuals. By GHQ-30, mental well-being of healthy controls was significantly better than that of patients. The significant difference in the QOL as perceived by filarial lymphedema patients and healthy individuals reiterates the importance of morbidity control in patients affected by this disease. PMID:22308536
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Data on caregiver strain and depression of principal caregivers of patients with mental illnesses are few in developing countries. Findings from developed countries cannot be applied directly to developing countries as culture specific factors may influence the outcome. Methods A prospective study was carried out in the University Psychiatry Unit of the National Hospital of Sri Lanka (NHSL to identify symptoms of depression, caregiver strain and dissatisfaction with life in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Participants were assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies – Depression Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Modified Caregiver Strain Index. Results and discussion Eighty caregivers were interviewed (males; 36, 45%. Symptoms of depression were significant in 37.5%, while 48.8% had unsatisfactory scores on the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Depression and higher caregiver strain were associated with spending more time with the patient, interruption to work, disputes with relations, being assaulted by patient and self admission of needing professional help to overcome mental stress. Conclusion This study identified several associations for depression and increased caregiver strain among caregivers in a subset of patients with mental disorder in Sri Lanka. These can be used as markers to screen and increase pretest probability to identify caregivers needing help rather than applying the cumbersome questionnaires to all.
Agampodi, Thilini Chanchala; Agampodi, Suneth Buddhika; Fonseka, Pushpa
The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence and associations of mental health problems (MHPs) among adolescent schoolchildren in Sri Lanka 8 months after the tsunami disaster. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in the Galle Municipality area, Sri Lanka. The study instrument consisted of a self-administered questionnaire and the validated Sinhalese version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The prevalence of MHPs in the study population was 32.2% (confidence interval [CI] = 28.44% to 35.96%). Direct experience of the tidal wave (odds ratio [OR] = 2.93, P = .013), perception of being affected by tsunami (OR = 1.79, P = .0014), and impact of rumors (OR = 1.85, P < .001) were significantly associated with MHPs. Not having a close friend (OR = 1.79, P = .04), being criticized by teachers (OR = 1.66, P = .008), and adolescents being not satisfied with their academic achievements (OR = 2.42, P = .02) were also significantly associated with MHPs. Even 8 months after the tsunami, MHPs among adolescent schoolchildren in the affected areas are still very high. PMID:20460278
... pressing need for infrastructure development and the country requires significant outside expertise to meet... economic development, aspiring to GDP growth rates over 8%, and developing economic hubs in ports, aviation, knowledge, hospitality, leisure/tourism and energy. Compared to other South Asian countries, Sri Lanka...
Chandraratne, W.M.; Gaur, A.S.; Rao, B.R.; Bhushan, R.; Muthucumarana, R.; Manders, M.; Khedekar, V.D.; Dayananda, A.M.A.
concretions and wood pieces1. This ship wreck site, at a water depth of 33 m, is situated approx. 4 km offshore in the vicinity of river mouth of the Walawe Ganga on the southern coast of Sri Lanka. A carved inscription on a natural rock located to the north...
Jordans, M.J.D.; Tol, W.A.; Susanty, D.; Ntamatumba, P.; Luitel, N.P.; Komproe, I.H.; De Jong, J. T. V. M.
As one article in an ongoing series on Global Mental Health Practice, Mark Jordans and colleagues describe their work developing and evaluating a community-based psychosocial and mental health care package for children in five conflict affected countries: Burundi, Indonesia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Sudan.
Influence of pesticide regulation on acute poisoning deaths in Sri Lanka / Influence de la législation concernant les pesticides sur les décès par intoxication aiguë à Sri Lanka / Influencia de la regulación de los plaguicidas en las defunciones por intoxicación aguda en Sri Lanka
Darren M., Roberts; Ayanthi, Karunarathna; Nick A., Buckley; Gamini, Manuweera; M.H. Rezvi, Sheriff; Michael, Eddleston.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar en un país asiático en desarrollo la repercusión de la regulación de los plaguicidas en el número de defunciones por intoxicación. Estas normas¸ que entraron en vigor en Sri Lanka a partir de los años setenta, tenían por objeto reducir el número de defunciones por intoxicación -aut [...] ointoxicaciones deliberadas la mayoría de las veces- mediante la limitación de la disponibilidad y el uso de plaguicidas altamente tóxicos. MÉTODOS: La información sobre los cambios legislativos procede del Ministerio de Agricultura, los datos de ingreso en hospitales nacionales y de distrito se obtuvieron de la Unidad de Estadísticas Sanitarias de Sri Lanka, y los datos particulares sobre las defunciones por intoxicación con plaguicidas son el resultado de un examen manual de las notas de los pacientes y de los registros de la unidad de cuidados intensivos de Anuradhapura. RESULTADOS: Entre 1986 y 2000 se duplicó la cifra total de ingresos por intoxicación a nivel nacional, y los ingresos por intoxicación con plaguicidas aumentaron en más de un 50%. Al mismo tiempo, la tasa de letalidad descendió para las intoxicaciones totales y para las intoxicaciones por plaguicidas. En 1991-1992, el 72% de las defunciones por plaguicidas registradas en Anuradhapura se debieron a plaguicidas organofosforados (OF) y de carbamato -en particular a los productos monocrotofos y metamidofos, clasificados por la OMS como OF de tipo I. A partir de 1991, la importación de estos plaguicidas se redujo gradualmente hasta que se prohibieron para uso corriente en enero de 1995, con la correspondiente caída de las defunciones. Lamentablemente, su desaparición en las tareas agrícolas dio paso al endosulfán organoclorado, un OF de tipo II que causó un aumento de las defunciones por status epilepticus, de una en 1994 a 50 en 1998. El endosulfán fue prohibido en 1998, y durante los tres años siguientes el número de muertes por endosulfán se redujo a tres. Sin embargo, al final de la década el número de defunciones por plaguicidas había vuelto a ser similar al de 1991, atribuyéndose la mayoría de las defunciones a los OF de tipo II. Aunque estos productos son menos tóxicos que los OF de tipo I, su gestión sigue planteando problemas, pues son todavía muy tóxicos y su toxicidad se ve agravada por la escasez de servicios. CONCLUSIÓN: La caída de la tasa de letalidad en el contexto de una incidencia creciente de casos de autointoxicación indica que los programas de regulación de los plaguicidas en Sri Lanka fueron beneficiosos. Sin embargo, una inspección más atenta de la mortalidad por plaguicidas en un hospital reveló un desplazamiento hacia otros plaguicidas altamente tóxicos, pues al prohibirse el uso de uno de ellos en la agricultura no tardó en ser reemplazado por otro. En la futura reglamentación habría que prever tanto ese tipo de sustituciones como la posibilidad de tratar fácilmente las intoxicaciones por los plaguicidas de sustitución. Además, la regulación al efecto debe aplicarse al mismo tiempo que otras estrategias, como el manejo integrado de plagas, a fin de reducir la disponibilidad general de plaguicidas para autolesiones. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To assess in a developing Asian country the impact of pesticide regulation on the number of deaths from poisoning. These regulations, which were implemented in Sri Lanka from the 1970s, aimed to reduce the number of deaths - the majority from self-poisoning - by limiting the availability [...] and use of highly toxic pesticides. METHODS: Information on legislative changes was obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture, national and district hospital admission data were obtained from the Sri Lanka Health Statistics Unit, and individual details of deaths by pesticide poisoning were obtained from a manual review of patients' notes and intensive care unit records in Anuradhapura. FINDINGS: Between 1986 and 2000, the total national number of admissions due to poisoning doubled, and admissions due to pesticide poisonin
Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients’ knowledge on prescribed medications play a key role in the long term management of cardiac diseases and in determining their outcome. The present study evaluates the knowledge about prescribed medication among cardiac patients and aim to identify factors influencing knowledge. Methods A descriptive-cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 adult patients attending clinics at the Cardiology Unit of the National Hospital of Sri Lanka. Knowledge assessment focused on four different sections; drug name, dose, frequency and indication. The total score of 60 was calculated by giving each component the following weighted scores; drug name?=?20, indication?=?20, drug dose?=?10 and frequency?=?10. A binary logistic regression analysis to evaluate factors associated with ‘good knowledge’ (total score???40 was performed. Results Among 200 participants 56.5% (n?=?113 were males. Mean age was 59.7?±?8.2 years and a majority (n?=?170, 85.0% were older than 50 years of age. Sinhala was the primary language of 91.5% (n?=?183 of participants, while English was the primary language in only two of the study participants (1.0%. Eighty four percent of the participants were educated up to secondary education or above, while 2.5% (n?=?5 had no formal education. The overall knowledge (total score-60 on prescribed medications among the study population was ‘poor’ (score???20 in 46%, ‘adequate’ (score 21–40 in 36.5% and ‘good’ (score???40 in 17.5%. The results of the binary logistic regression analysis indicates that Secondary (OR-1.53 and Tertiary levels (OR-2.79 of education, self-reported perception of illness as being Moderate (OR-1.23 or Severe (OR-1.70 and being educated by a doctor (as reported by patients (OR-1.69 significantly increased the odds of having a ‘Good Knowledge of Drugs’. Majority of the patients were unable to read and understand the information written in English. The doctor’s contributed towards educating on drug information only in 33.0% of the patients. Conclusion In a resource-poor setting in patients with Limited English Proficiency, lower level of education and misperception of illness severity resulted in reduced knowledge on prescribed medications. Furthermore, being educated by a doctor significantly improved knowledge. However the doctors’ contribution at present to deliver quality health information to their patients was at an unsatisfactory level.
Full Text Available The wetting rate of soil is a measure of water repellency, which is a property of soils that prevents water from wetting or penetrating into dry soil. The objective of the present research was to examine the initial water repellency of organic manure amended soil, and its relation to the soil organic matter (SOM depletion rates in the laboratory. Soil collected from the Wilpita natural forest, Sri Lanka, was mixed with organic manure to prepare soil samples with 0, 5, 10, 25, and 50% organic manure contents. Locally available cattle manure (CM, goat manure (GM, and Casuarina equisetifolia leaves (CE were used as the organic manure amendments. Organic matter content of soils was measured in 1, 3, 7, 14, and 30 days intervals under the laboratory conditions with 74±5% relative humidity at 28±1°C. Initial water repellency of soil samples was measured as the wetting rates using the water drop penetration time (WDPT test. Initial water repellency increased with increasing SOM content showing higher increasing rate for hydrophobic CE amended samples compared with those amended with CM and GM. The relation between water repellency and SOM content was considered to be governed by the original hydrophobicities of added manures. The SOM contents of all the soil samples decreased with the time to reach almost steady level at about 30 d. The initial SOM depletion rates were negatively related with the initial water repellency. However, all the CE amended samples initially showed prominent low SOM depletion rates, which were not significantly differed with the amended manure content or the difference in initial water repellency. It is explicable that the original hydrophobicity of the manure as well has a potentially important effect on initiation of SOM decomposition. In contrast, the overall SOM depletion rate can be attributed to the initial water repellency of the manure amended sample, however, not to the original hydrophobicity of the amended manure. Hydrophobic protection may prevent rapid microbial decomposition of SOM and it is conceivable that hydrophobic substances in appropriate composition may reduce organic matter mineralization in soil. These results suggest the contribution of hydrophobic organic substances in bioresistance of SOM and their long-term accumulation in soils
Full text: This department was started in order to meet the urgent demand of iodine-131 treatment in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), as the waiting list in government hospitals was unduly long. Data obtained revealed that 52% of the patients had iodine-131 therapy within 4 months, 31% in 4 to 8 months and 17% over 8 months time. Institute received license to order, stock and administer iodine-131 from the AEA-Sri Lanka as its facilities were according to IAEA standards. Facility included three 'single bedded en-suit toilet rooms' with storage capacity for iodine-131 capsules. 115 cases (male: female ratio 1:4) of DTC were treated during the past one and half year and each received 100 GBq of radioactivity. 89 (77.3%) comprised papillary carcinoma, 25 (21.7%) follicular carcinoma and 1 case of mixed carcinoma. 52% of males and 60.8% of females were in the 26-45 years age group. Sixty cases of papillary carcinoma were sub-typed and grouped to observe the distribution of metastases and response to iodine-131. They were follicular variant (FV) in 28 (46%), micropaillary (MP) in 10 (20%), encapsulated (EP) in 8 (13.3%), tall cell (TC) in 3 (5%) and diffuse sclerosis (DS) in 9 (15%). TSH and Tg values were measured before therapy and four months afterwards. Activity readings were measured 30 min after ingestion and 4 days later and discharged when the values were less than 20 ?Sv / hour. Six of the nine (66%) DS cancer patients had metastasis in lymph nodes and lungs when referred for iodine-131 treatment. In 8 of these patients, Tg levels were raised. 36% (8/9) of the FC patients also had raised Tg levels indicating metastases and 4/5 were found to have bony metastases. In post iodine-131 therapy whole body scans, 3.3% had metastases in the lungs in PC and 20% of FC in skeleton. With a single dose of iodine-131 over 90% had drop in Tg levels to less than I ng/ml except in DS (23% drop) and TC (33% drop). The study shows that sub-typing of PC was useful and TC and DS types needed either a higher dose or a second dose of iodine-131. Administration of iodine-131 therapy within four months of surgery gave the best results. (author)
Artificial insemination (AI) has been accepted as the primary breeding tool in genetic upgrading programmes of cattle in Sri Lanka. Three studies were conducted, to determine the coverage and performance of AI at national, provincial and district levels (Study 1), the success rate and factors affecting success rate of AI in wet zone mid-country smallholder farms (Study 2) and in wet zone up-country large multiplier farms (Study 3). The objective was to design, implement remedial measures and/or determine future studies necessary to improve the efficiency of AI services. Study 1 revealed that at national level the AI service reached less than 15% of the breedable cattle and accounted for less than 6% of estimated annual calvings. The coverage reached above 50% of the breedable cattle only in the wet zone while in the intermediate and dry zone areas it was negligible. Study 2 revealed that the mean calving to first service interval (CFSI) in cattle of the wet zone mid-country small holdings was 183 ± 87.1 days (n=211) and the calving to conception interval (CCI) was 194 ± 93.9 days (n=143). The first service conception rate (FSCR) was 45% and the overall conception rate (OCR) was 50.2%, with an average of 1.99 services per conception (S/C). Study 3 showed that the mean CFSI and CCI in wet zone upcountry multiplier farmers were 111.2 ± 74.2 days (n=133) and 156 ± 92.7 days (n=170) respectively. The average FSCR and OCR were 50.4% and 53.6% respectively and the average S/C was 1.9. Study 1 showed that the AI coverage of the island is very low and the proportion of calvings from AI is too low to have a significant impact on genetic composition of the national cow population. Studies 2 and 3 showed that the success rate of the AI service in the more favourable and extensively covered wet zone areas was also low. These studies revealed that factors associated with the chain of events from farmer, cow, semen to the technician contributed to poor fertility. (author)
Anthony Zwi B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy analysis is often retrospective and not well suited to helping policy makers decide what to do; in contrast prospective policy analysis seeks to assist in formulating responses to challenging public policy questions. Suicide in Sri Lanka is a major public health problem, with ingestion of pesticides being the primary method. Previous policy interventions have been associated with reduced mortality through restricting access to the most toxic pesticides. Additional means of reducing access are still needed. Methods The prospective policy analysis comprised two stages. The first used a consensus activity within a well defined policy community to generate and frame policy options. The second broadened the analysis to include other stakeholders. We report the consensus activity with seven actors from agriculture, health, and academia. Policy options were identified through two rounds of discussion along with ratings by each participant on their degree of support for each option. Data were analysed quantitatively and discussions analysed with Nvivo 8 to code prominent and recurrent themes. Results The main finding was the strong support and consensus for two proposals: further regulation of pesticides and the novel idea of repackaging pesticides into non-lethal doses. Participants identified several factors that were supportive of future policy change including a strong legislative framework, good links between agriculture, health and academia, and a collaborative relationship with industry. Identified barriers and potential threats to policy change included political interference, difficulties of intersectoral collaboration, acceptability of options to the community, difficulty of implementation in rural communities and the challenge of reducing mortality. Conclusions The development and consideration of policy options within this epistemic community reflected an appreciation and understanding of many of the factors that can facilitate or thwart policy change. The understanding of context, evidence and ideas, implementation and impact influenced how the participants considered and rated the options. Use of epistemic community actors identified the level of support for each option, helped elaborate the particularities of context, as well as the power and influence of ideas. Further examination of the potential barriers and opportunities for these options will determine if broader consensus, involving a wider range of stakeholders, can be achieved and policy change promoted.
Ingram, J.; Rumbaitis-del Rio, C.; Franco, G.; Khazai, B.
The devastating tsunami that hit Sri Lanka on December 26, 2004 has demonstrated vividly the inter-connections between social and ecological resilience. Before the tsunami, the coastal zone of Sri Lanka was inhabited by predominantly poor populations, most of whom were directly dependent upon coastal natural resources, such as fisheries and coconut trees, for supporting their livelihoods. Many of these people have now lost their livelihoods through the destruction of their boats and nets for fishing, the contamination of drinking sources, homes, family members and assets. This presentation focuses on observations of the tsunami impacts on both social and ecological communities made along the affected coastline of Sri Lanka in April-May 2005. This assessment recorded patterns of ecological resistance and damage resulting from the tsunami in relation to damage on the human environment, with an exploration of the physical factors that may have contributed to vulnerability or resistance. This work also involved a preliminary assessment of the resilience and recovery of different natural resource based livelihood strategies following the disaster and an exploration of livelihood possibilities in proposed resettlement sites. From observations made in this and other recent studies, it is apparent that intact ecosystems played a vital role in protection from the impact of the tsunami and are vital for supporting people as they seek to rebuild their livelihoods. However, certain structural and biological characteristics appear to offer certain tree species, such as coconut (Cocos nucifera), an advantage in surviving such events and have been important for providing food and drink to people in the days after the tsunami. Areas where significant environmental damage had occurred prior to the tsunami or where there were few natural defenses present to protect human communities, devastation of homes and lives was extremely high. Although, there is evidence that many previously intact ecological systems were little affected or will recover from this large disturbance, major impacts on the natural environment may come in the aftermath of the tsunami during the rebuilding and reconstruction phase. The ability of communities to recover from disasters and to rebuild their lives is dependent on both an intact natural resource base and the maintenance of social networks for learning, adapting and managing resources. The potential impacts of rebuilding on the natural environment combined with policies on resettlement may influence the ability to learn, cope and manage such events and resources in the future.
Jude Pavilupillai J; Tharmasegaram Tharmatha; Sivasubramaniyam Gobika; Senthilnanthanan Meena; Kannathasan Selvam; Raveendran Selvarajah; Ramasamy Ranjan; Surendran Sinnathamby N
Abstract Background Dengue, chikungunya, malaria, filariasis and Japanese encephalitis are common mosquito-borne diseases endemic to Sri Lanka. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, the major vectors of dengue, were recently shown to undergo pre-imaginal development in brackish water bodies in the island. A limited survey of selected coastal localities of the Jaffna district in northern Sri Lanka was carried out to identify mosquito species undergoing pre-imaginal development in brackish and sa...
Full Text Available Abstract:For the purpose of this study, the data was extracted from the branches of people’s bank operating within Jaffna peninsula, Sri Lanka. Here, we analysed the data by employing simple correlation analysis. In the analysis, it is found that there is a positive relationship between job satisfaction and employees’ work performance. That is high level of fair promotion, reasonable pay system appropriate work itself and good working condition leads to high level of employees’ performance. In other words, employee’s job satisfaction has positive impact on their performance. Moreover, outcome of the research would be helpful to the academicians, practitioners, researchers, planners, and policy makers who are involved in the concerned area.
Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence of PTSD and CES-D depressive symptoms, their association with previously untested supportive resources such as Buddhist religious activities, Buddhist bodhipuja rituals and horoscope readings for 45 recently wounded veterans in Sri Lanka. The results revealed an 85.4% prevalence rate of clinical levels of CES-D depression and a 42.2% prevalence rate of clinical levels of PTSD. The results of this study provide unique evidence for the significant role of Buddhist religious activities, the cultural activity of horoscope reading, and the support of family and friends in reducing the depressive symptoms in disabled veterans. Moreover, with the present study we were able to conclude that the support of family and friends reduced both perceived depressive symptoms and the PTSD symptoms of wounded veterans.
Chandrajith, Rohana; Chaturangani, Dinusha; Abeykoon, Sumith; Barth, Johannes A. C.; van Geldern, Robert; Edirisinghe, Viraj; Dissanayake, Chandra B.
The Panama coastal aquifer system is an important water resource in the southeast coast of Sri Lanka that provides adequate supplies of water for agriculture and domestic uses. One of the biggest threats to these fragile aquifers is seawater intrusion. In this study , recharging mechanism and geochemical evaluation of groundwater in the coastal sandy aquifer of Panama were evaluated using chemical and stable isotope techniques. Thirty groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for their major ion concentrations and stable isotope ratios of oxygen (?18O) and hydrogen (?2H). All samples showed a decreasing order of concentrations for major anions in the order Cl- > HCO3- > SO42- > N-NO3- while cation concentrations decreased with Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+. Dominant hydrogeochemical characterizations of the groundwater were Na-Cl and mixed Ca-Mg-Cl types of water. Results of saturation index calculations indicate that the investigated groundwater body was mostly saturated with respect to calcite, dolomite and gypsum. In addition, stable isotope and geochemical data suggest that fresh groundwater in the aquifer is recharged mainly by local precipitation with only slight modification from evaporation and saline water intrusions. The communities in the study area depend almost exclusively on groundwater a better understanding of the hydrogeochemical characteristics of the aquifer system becomes increasingly important in the future for better local water resource management. References  Chandrajith, R., Chaturangani, D., Abeykoon, S., Barth, J.C., van Geldern, R., Edirisinghe, E.A.N.V. and Dissanayake, C.B. (in press): Quantification of groundwater-seawater interaction in a coastal sandy aquifer system: a study from Panama, Sri Lanka. - Environmental Earth Sciences, [doi:10.1007/s12665-013-3010-y].
The penetration of cleaner and energy efficient technologies in small power systems such as the one in Sri Lanka has encountered many problems. This has caused major concerns among the policy makers, mainly in the context of the growing need to reduce harmful emissions in the electricity supply industry from the point of view of both local environmental pollution as well as the global warming concerns. This paper presents the outcome of a study involved in identifying and ranking the barriers to the promotion of cleaner and energy efficient technologies and strategies to overcome these barriers in Sri Lanka. Barriers for renewable energy based systems such as wind and wood fuel fired plants (dendro thermal power) and cleaner technologies such as liquefied natural gas (LNG) fired combined cycle and IGCC (coal) were identified based on a survey. A direct assessment multi-criteria decision making method called Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to rank the barriers. The most effective strategies are proposed to address the three major barriers for each of these technologies based on extensive discussions with all the stakeholders in the electricity industry. It was found that lack of financing instruments, high initial cost and lack of assurance of resource supply or availability are the main barriers for renewable technologies. As for cleaner fuel and technology options associated with conventional generation systems, the lack of a clear government policy, uncertainty of fuel supplies and their prices and the reliability of the technologies themselves are the major barriers. Strategies are identified to overcome the above barriers. Establishment of a proper feed in tariff, geographical diversification of installations and capacity building in commercial banks are suggested for wind power. Investment incentives, streamlining of wood production and research on site identification are proposed for wood fuel fired plants. Also the study suggests delayed implementation, combined planning with other sectors of the economy, incorporating environmental cost in planning and investment incentives as strategies for IGCC and LNG based technologies
From pesticides to medicinal drugs: time series analyses of methods of self-harm in Sri Lanka / Des pesticides aux médicaments: analyses de séries chronologiques des méthodes d'automutilation au Sri Lanka / De los pesticidas a los fármacos: análisis de series temporales de los métodos de autolesión en Sri Lanka
Varuni A de, Silva; SM, Senanayake; P, Dias; R, Hanwella.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Examinar si los cambios recientes en los métodos de autolesión en Sri Lanka podrían explicar el descenso de la incidencia de suicidio en dicho país. MÉTODOS: Se llevaron a cabo análisis de series temporales de las tasas de suicidio y hospitalización por diferentes tipos de intoxicación. RE [...] SULTADOS: Entre 1996 y 2008, la incidencia anual de admisión hospitalaria provocada por intoxicación por sustancias farmacológicas o biológicas incrementó exponencialmente de 48,2 a 115,4 ingresos por cada 100 000 habitantes. Durante el mismo periodo, los ingresos anuales provocados por intoxicación con pesticidas se redujeron de 105,1 a 88,9 casos por cada 100 000 habitantes. La incidencia anual de suicidio se redujo exponencialmente, de un pico de 47,0 casos por cada 100 000 habitantes en 1995 a 19,6 por 100 000 habitantes en 2009. Las intoxicaciones fueron las responsables de 37,4 suicidios por cada 100 000 habitantes en 1995, pero en el año 2009 solo representaron 11,2 suicidios por cada 100 000 habitantes. La tasa de letalidad de las intoxicaciones por pesticidas presentó una reducción lineal, de 11,0 muertes por cada 100 casos de ingreso en el hospital en 1997 a 5,1 por cada 100 casos en el año 2008. CONCLUSIÓN: Desde mediados de la década de 1990 se ha experimentado una tendencia entre aquellas personas que pretenden autolesionarse en Sri Lanka que se aleja del uso inadecuado de los pesticidas (a pesar de que no se ha producido una reducción en la disponibilidad de los mismos) y que se acerca a un mayor uso de sustancias farmacológicas y de otro tipo. Estas tendencias unidas a una reducción de la mortalidad entre aquellos que sufrieron una intoxicación por pesticidas han dado como resultado un descenso global de la incidencia nacional de suicidio consumado. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To explore if recent changes in methods of self-harm in Sri Lanka could explain the decline in the incidence of suicide. METHODS: Time series analyses of suicide rates and hospitalization due to different types of poisoning were carried out. FINDINGS: Between 1996 and 2008 the annual inci [...] dence of hospital admission resulting from poisoning by medicinal or biological substances increased exponentially, from 48.2 to 115.4 admissions per 100 000 population. Over the same period, annual admissions resulting from poisoning with pesticides decreased from 105.1 to 88.9 per 100 000. The annual incidence of suicide decreased exponentially, from a peak of 47.0 per 100 000 in 1995 to 19.6 per 100 000 in 2009. Poisoning accounted for 37.4 suicides per 100 000 population in 1995 but only 11.2 suicides per 100 000 in 2009. The case fatality rate for pesticide poisoning decreased linearly, from 11.0 deaths per 100 cases admitted to hospital in 1997 to 5.1 per 100 in 2008. CONCLUSION: Since the mid 1990s, a trend away from the misuse of pesticides (despite no reduction in pesticide availability) and towards increased use of medicinal and other substances has been seen in Sri Lanka among those seeking self-harm. These trends and a reduction in mortality among those suffering pesticide poisoning have resulted in an overall reduction in the national incidence of accomplished suicide.
Madsen, Lizell Bustamante; Eddleston, Michael; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Pearson, Melissa; Agampodi, Suneth; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Konradsen, Flemming
INTRODUCTION: An estimated 803,900 people worldwide died as a result of self-harm in 2012. The deliberate ingestion of pesticides has been identified as the method most frequently used to commit fatal self-harm globally. In Sri Lanka, it is estimated that up to 60% of all suicides are committed using this method. The aim of the present study is to assess the cost-effectiveness of an ongoing safe storage intervention currently taking place in a rural Sri Lankan district and to model the cost-effe...
Sri Lankan spices, onion, shallots and dried chillies suffer considerable storage losses due to inadequate preservation method. Irradiation to a dose 7 kGy was found to be effective technique to reduce storage losses and improve quality of different spices. Preliminary results showed prospect of using irradiation for large scale preservation of dried chillis. But due to lack of irradiation, facility scaled- up irradiation and storage trials could not be undertaken. Based on study conducted by the Ceylon Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, a report was submitted to the Atomic Energy Authority of Sri Lanka on the current demand for a multi-purpose irradiation facility. The food items identified for irradiation processing include spices, desiccated coconut, shrimps for export; and onions, chillies and dried fish products, foliage plants and medical products for local trade. The volume of products for commercial processing has also been indicated in the survey report. Steps for approval of the Harmonised Regulations on Food Irradiation as adopted in the RCA Workshop in Seoul, 1998 are at the processing level for submission as a parliamentary bill. A consumer acceptance survey was carried out in 1997; the outcome showed a low acceptance for irradiated spices. About 200 participants comprising private exporters, govt. officials and students were made aware of the irradiation process and benefits of irradiation treatment through the training programmes on post-harvest management at the CISIR. (author)
Full Text Available The regional trade agreements (RTA have been one of the important developments in the world trading system in 1990s. There are number of studies on the effects trade agreements in different contexts. This study is an attempt to analyse the effects of bilateral trade agreements in the intraregional trade in the SAARC region with special reference to the Free Trade Agreements (FTA between India Sri Lanka. The study uses a panel regression analysis by using balance panel data. The study concludes that the FTA between India and Sri Lanka has brought positive results in the trade between these two nations by improving the bilateral trade in goods. The results of the study are important in the context of looking for the prospects of a free trade area in the region by member nations.
The Atomic Energy Authority, which was formed in 1969, is the organization responsible for the regulatory and promotional activities in the use of nuclear technology in Sri Lanka. The Authority functions under the Minister of Science, Technology and Human Resources Development. The governing body of the Authority is appointed by the Minster of Science, Technology and Human Resources Development. As defined by the AEA Act, the main objectives of the Authority are: Radiation protection; the dissemination of information on use of isotopes and radiation techniques; the promotion of the use of isotopes and radiation methodologies. As Sri Lanka does not possess any Research or Power reactors, the regulatory and promotional activities are limited to uses of radioisotopes and radiation in Medicine, Industry, Research Teaching. 1 fig
Current approaches of measuring vulnerability to natural hazards generally use a rather static perspective that focuses on a single point in time - often before a hazardous event occurs. In contrast, the paper argues that vulnerability assessment should also take into account the changing dynamics during and after a disaster. This paper provides a comparative analysis of the situation in Sri Lanka and Indonesia within the context of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The author presents concepts ...
Pastorini, J; Janaka, H K; Nishantha, H G; Prasad, T.; Leimgruber, P.; Fernando, P
Shifting cultivation, in which fields are traditionally cultivated for two or three consecutive years and left fallow for four to five years, is an ancient practice still prevalent in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Traditionally, shifting agriculture is rain dependent and is limited to the wet season. However, traditional patterns are now changing due to population pressures. We assessed the use of shifting agriculture areas by Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and the availability of fodder in a...
Priyan Perera; Hiran Amarasekera; N.D.R. Weerawardena
With increasing private sector investments in commercial forestry, it is apparent that plantationforestry in Sri Lanka is moving in the direction of managing fast growing timber species for shorterrotations. However, there’s a perceptionthat accelerated growth rates induced by improved forestmanagement practices can result in inferior wood quality. This study tested this perceptionby studyingthe effect of growth rate on the specific gravity, as a proxy for wood quality, of three alternative t...
Kularatne, Senanayake A. M.; Weerasinghe, Sajitha C.; Champika Gihan; Sujantha Wickramasinghe; Samath Dharmarathne; Asanka Abeyrathna; Thilak Jayalath
Chikungunya outbreaks occurred in the central province, Sri Lanka in 2006. This community-based study reports the epidemiology and the natural history of the infection from an affected village. Of the 199 families and 1001 individuals in the village, 159 (80%) and 513 (51%) were affected, respectively, comprising 237 (46%) males with peak incidence at 40–50 years. The acute illness caused polyarthritis in 233 (46%), and of them 230 (98%) progressed to chronic arthritic disability (CAD). Of th...
Suhail P; Sreejesh S
The regional trade agreements (RTA) have been one of the important developments in the world trading system in 1990s. There are number of studies on the effects trade agreements in different contexts. This study is an attempt to analyse the effects of bilateral trade agreements in the intraregional trade in the SAARC region with special reference to the Free Trade Agreements (FTA) between India Sri Lanka. The study uses a panel regression analysis by using balance panel data. The study conclu...
Briët, Olivier J T; Galappaththy, Gawrie N L; Konradsen, Flemming; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H; Amerasinghe, Felix P
BACKGROUND: Following the tsunami, a detailed overview of the area specific transmission levels is essential in assessing the risk of malaria in Sri Lanka. Recent information on vector insecticide resistance, parasite drug resistance, and insights into the national policy for malaria diagnosis and treatment are important in assisting national and international agencies in their control efforts. METHODS: Monthly records over the period January 1995-October 2004 of confirmed malaria cases were use...
Schousboe, Mette L; Rajakaruna, Rupika S; Salanti, Ali; Hapuarachchi, Hapuarachchige C; Galappaththy, Gawrie N L; Bygbjerg, Ib C; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H; Konradsen, Flemming; Alifrangis, Michael
BACKGROUND: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Plasmodium vivax dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthetase (Pvdhps) genes cause parasite resistance to the antifolate drug combination, sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP). Monitoring these SNPs provide insights into the level of drug pressure caused by SP use and presumably other antifolate drugs. In Sri Lanka, chloroquine (CQ) with primaquine (PQ) and SP with PQ is used as first and second line treatment, respectively,...
Harriss Louise; Simkin Sue; Ratnayeke Lakshmi; Hawton Keith; Scott Vanda
Abstract Background Self-poisoning with pesticides is a major reason for high suicide rates in rural areas of many developing countries. Safer storage of pesticides may be one means of prevention. We have conducted a study to assess the acceptability and use of lockable boxes for storing pesticides in rural Sri Lanka. Methods Four hundred lockable metal storage boxes were given to farming households, 100 in each of four villages. Assessment interviews were conducted by Sumithrayo (NGO) field ...
Jayasumana, Channa; Fonseka, Saranga; Fernando, Ashvin; Jayalath, Kumudika; Amarasinghe, Mala; Siribaddana, Sisira; Gunatilake, Sarath; Paranagama, Priyani
Chronic Kidney Disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) has escalated into an epidemic in North Central Province (NCP) and adjacent farming areas in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Studies have shown that this special type of CKD is a toxic nephropathy and arsenic may play a causative role along with a number of other heavy metals. We investigated the hypothesis that chemical fertilizers and pesticide could be a source of arsenic. 226 samples of Fertilizers and 273 samples of pesticides were collected a...
Heladhanavi 100MW Diesel Power Plant in Puttalam, Sri Lanka consists of six 18V46 Wartsila turbocharged air cooled engines. Specific fuel consumption of the engines varies with the ambient conditions. It has been seen in hotter days fuel consumption is higher comparatively to cooler days. This study was conducted as per the requirement to find out the reasons behind this variation of the fuel consumption and to quantify the effects on the efficiency with respect to the charge air properties i...
Bossuyt Franky; Loader Simon P; Biju SD; Van Bocxlaer Ines
Abstract Background High taxonomic level endemism in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot has been typically attributed to the subcontinent's geological history of long-term isolation. Subsequent out of – and into India dispersal of species after accretion to the Eurasian mainland is therefore often seen as a biogeographic factor that 'diluted' the composition of previously isolated Indian biota. However, few molecular studies have focussed on into-India dispersal as a possible so...
Ruf Martina; Kohiladevy Mahendran; Catani Claudia; Schauer Elisabeth; Elbert Thomas; Neuner Frank
Abstract Background The North-Eastern part of Sri Lanka had already been affected by civil war when the 2004 Tsunami wave hit the region, leading to high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children. In the acute aftermath of the Tsunami we tested the efficacy of two pragmatic short-term interventions when applied by trained local counselors. Methods A randomized treatment comparison was implemented in a refugee camp in a severely affected community. 31 children who presented wit...
Gunathilaka, Nayana; Hapugoda, Menaka; Abeyewickreme, Wimaladharma; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha
Background. Malaria was an endemic problem in Trincomalee District, Eastern Province of Sri Lanka. Very few recent data concerning Anopheles are available which transmit malaria. Therefore, the aim of this study is to identify various Anopheles species and the dynamics of anophelines including malaria vectors in Trincomalee District for effective vector control under the current malaria elimination program embarked in the country. Method. Entomological surveys were conducted on a monthly basi...
Surendran Sinnathamby N; Jude Pavilupillai J; Weerarathne Thilini C; Parakrama Karunaratne SHP; Ramasamy Ranjan
Abstract Background Anopheles subpictus s.l., an important malaria vector in Sri Lanka, is a complex of four morphologically identified sibling species A-D. Species A-D reportedly differ in bio-ecological traits that are important for vector control. We investigated possible variations that had not been reported previously, in the susceptibility to common insecticides and resistance mechanisms among the An. subpictus sibling species. Methods Adult An. subpictus were collected from localities ...
Manjula Hettiarachchi; Chathuranga Lakmal Fonseka; Priyanka Gunasekara; Prasanjanie Jayasinghe; Dasun Maduranga
Background: Individual variation of examination performance depends on many modifiable and non-modifiable factors, including pre-examination anxiety. Medical students’ quality of life (QoL) and certain biochemical changes occurring while they are preparing for examinations has not been explored. Purpose: We hypothesize that these parameters would determine the examination performance among medical students. Methods: Fourth-year medical students (n=78) from the University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka,...
Channa Jayasumana; Sarath Gunatilake; Priyantha Senanayake
The current chronic kidney disease epidemic, the major health issue in the rice paddy farming areas in Sri Lanka has been the subject of many scientific and political debates over the last decade. Although there is no agreement among scientists about the etiology of the disease, a majority of them has concluded that this is a toxic nephropathy. None of the hypotheses put forward so far could explain coherently the totality of clinical, biochemical, histopathological findings, and the unique g...
W.K.D.D. Liyanage; N.S. Gamage; G.D.C Pushpa Kumara; L Xulong
Large scale clearing of natural forests for human settlements as well as in the form of tea, rubberand cinnamon plantations resulted forest fragmentation in most natural ecosystems in the wet zone of SriLanka which posed massive threats to both nature and the humans including the loss of biodiversity,environmental hazards and increasing poverty. This paper discusses about the potential to develop ruralgreen economy as a result of consolidating these agricultural lands into analog forests as a...
North-Eastern Sri Lanka is ravaged by war since more than two decades. The civilian population, adults and children alike, has suffered uncounted traumatic events, such as areal bombing, shelling, torture, killings, persecution, forced migration and many other adverse life circumstances that usually accompany armed conflict. The focus of this work is on the build-up of a population-based mental health structure for the most severely affected children. Based on prior epidemiological studies th...
Abstract Background From January to May, 2009, a population of 300,000 in the Vanni, northern Sri Lanka underwent multiple displacements, deaths, injuries, deprivation of water, food, medical care and other basic needs caught between the shelling and bombings of the state forces and the LTTE which forcefully recruited men, women and children to fight on the frontlines and held the rest hostage. This study explores the long term psychosocial and mental health consequences of exposure to massiv...
Buckley Nick A; de Silva Dhammika; Adams Jon; Senarathna Lalith; Dawson Andrew H
Abstract Background Deliberate self-poisoning is a major public heath issue in developing countries. In rural Sri Lanka deliberate self-poisoning is one of the leading causes of hospital death. The majority of patients with poisoning present to rural hospitals for initial treatment that are staffed by non-specialist and often relatively junior doctors. The treatment of self-poisoning patients poses numerous clinical challenges and further difficulties are experienced if patients are uncoopera...
Abstract Background Studies on the mental health of refugees have tended to focus upon the impact of traumatic experiences in the country of origin, and acculturation processes in exile. The effects of crises in the country of origin on refugees living in exile have been little studied. This article examines how the final stages of the civil war in Sri Lanka in 2009 influenced members of pro-LTTE Tamil NGO's in Norway. Method Ethnographic fieldwork methods were employed within Tamil NGO's in ...
Tol, Wietse A; Ivan H. Komproe; Jordans, Mark J D; Vallipuram, Anavarathan; SIPSMA, HEATHER; Sivayokan, Sambasivamoorthy; Macy, Robert D; DE JONG, JOOP T.
We aimed to examine outcomes, moderators and mediators of a preventive school-based mental health intervention implemented by paraprofessionals in a war-affected setting in northern Sri Lanka. A cluster randomized trial was employed. Subsequent to screening 1,370 children in randomly selected schools, 399 children were assigned to an intervention (n=199) or waitlist control condition (n=200). The intervention consisted of 15 manualized sessions over 5 weeks of cognitive behavioral techniques ...
Neuner, Frank; Schauer, Elisabeth; Catani, Claudia; Ruf, Martina; Elbert, Thomas
At 3 to 4 weeks after the December 2004 tsunami disaster we assessed symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 264 children who lived in severely affected coastal communities in Manadkadu (northern coast), Kosgoda (western coast), and Galle (southern coast) in Sri Lanka. The prevalence rate of tsunami-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (ignoring the time criterion) ranged between 14% and 39% and an additional 5% to 8% had PTSD unrelated to the tsunami. The PTSD symptoms we...
Kunii Osamu; Dharmaratne Samath D; Costa Dehiwala GM; Abe Tomoko; Nishikiori Nobuyuki; Moji Kazuhiko
Abstract Background Describing adverse health effects and identifying vulnerable populations during and after a disaster are important aspects of any disaster relief operation. This study aimed to describe the mortality and related risk factors which affected the displaced population over a period of two and a half months after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in an eastern coastal district of Sri Lanka. Methods A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in 13 evacuation camps for internal...
Full Text Available Abstract Background From January to May, 2009, a population of 300,000 in the Vanni, northern Sri Lanka underwent multiple displacements, deaths, injuries, deprivation of water, food, medical care and other basic needs caught between the shelling and bombings of the state forces and the LTTE which forcefully recruited men, women and children to fight on the frontlines and held the rest hostage. This study explores the long term psychosocial and mental health consequences of exposure to massive, existential trauma. Methods This paper is a qualitative inquiry into the psychosocial situation of the Vanni displaced and their ethnography using narratives and observations obtained through participant observation; in depth interviews; key informant, family and extended family interviews; and focus groups using a prescribed, semi structured open ended questionnaire. Results The narratives, drawings, letters and poems as well as data from observations, key informant interviews, extended family and focus group discussions show considerable impact at the family and community. The family and community relationships, networks, processes and structures are destroyed. There develops collective symptoms of despair, passivity, silence, loss of values and ethical mores, amotivation, dependency on external assistance, but also resilience and post-traumatic growth. Conclusions Considering the severity of family and community level adverse effects and implication for resettlement, rehabilitation, and development programmes; interventions for healing of memories, psychosocial regeneration of the family and community structures and processes are essential.
Dharmaratne, Ranjith W
A significant number of people in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka suffer from chronic kidney diseases (CKD), and the author revisits existing literature related to CKD to find its causative factor. There is a direct connection between high fluoride levels in drinking water and kidney disease, and there are unhealthy levels of fluoride in the groundwater in Sri Lanka's CKD-affected areas. Based on the following observations, the author believes with confidence that excess fluoride in drinking water and in the locally grown food in the affected areas are the culprits of CKD in Sri Lanka. Fluoride excretion rate is considerably lower in children than adults, leading to renal damage of children living in areas with high fluoride. Adults who had renal damage due to fluoride in childhood are vulnerable to CKD with continued consumption of water from the same source. Patients with chronic renal insufficiency are at an increased risk of chronic fluoride toxicity. High content of fluoride in groundwater paves the way to excess fluoride in local food crops, consequently adding more fluoride to the systems of the consumers. People who work outdoors for prolonged periods consume excess water and tea, and are subjected to additional doses of fluoride in their system. In the mid-1980s, the increase in water table levels of the affected areas due to new irrigation projects paved the way to adding more fluorides to their system through drinking water and locally grown foods. PMID:25916575
Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the tsunami, a detailed overview of the area specific transmission levels is essential in assessing the risk of malaria in Sri Lanka. Recent information on vector insecticide resistance, parasite drug resistance, and insights into the national policy for malaria diagnosis and treatment are important in assisting national and international agencies in their control efforts. Methods Monthly records over the period January 1995 – October 2004 of confirmed malaria cases were used to perform an analysis of malaria distribution at district spatial resolution. Also, a focused review of published reports and routinely collected information was performed. Results The incidence of malaria was only 1 case per thousand population in the 10 months leading up to the disaster, in the districts with the highest transmission. Conclusion Although relocated people may be more exposed to mosquito bites, and their capacity to handle diseases affected, the environmental changes caused by the tsunami are unlikely to enhance breeding of the principal vector, and, given the present low parasite reservoir, the likelihood of a malaria outbreak is low. However, close monitoring of the situation is necessary, especially as December – February is normally the peak transmission season. Despite some losses, the Sri Lanka public health system is capable of dealing with the possible threat of a malaria outbreak after the tsunami. The influx of foreign medical assistance, drugs, and insecticides may interfere with malaria surveillance, and the long term malaria control strategy of Sri Lanka, if not in accordance with government policy.
E. Shan S. Rodrigo
Full Text Available We conducted a needs analysis amongst 16 Public Health Midwives (PHMs in Sri Lanka and found that they spend most of their time on managing health records. We developed an electronic Health Information Management System (HIMS to help them with their work. The HIMS was designed so that it could accept data from the PHMs, and generate reports which could be used by the PHMs themselves as well as by their supervisors. The HIMS was tested by a group of 16 PHMs in a remote area in the Rathnapura district. Mini-laptops with the software were distributed to the PHMs and they were given the necessary training. They started entering historical data from the registers into the system by themselves. Nearly 10,000 public health records were generated in the first three months. In a subsequent survey, all the PHMs gave positive answers indicating that they were happy with the pilot project and that they would like to continue using it to enhance their service. The system seems to be a practical solution for the field activities of PHMs in Sri Lanka. The knowledge gained from this study would be useful for future e-Health implementations in the public health sector of Sri Lanka.
Full text: Application of Quality Management System (QMS) of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) of the Atomic Energy Authority (ALA) of Sri Lanka provides path of workflow and information on laboratory operations, management and competence of staff that would assist the laboratory in continual improvement of its processes and meeting accreditation requirements in compliance with IS017025. Thus provision of customers' satisfied accredited dosimetry calibration services is needed for the country. The SSDL currently possesses a reference electrometer (PTW Unidos) with protection level ion- chambers (NE2575, 600cc ion-chamber and PTW - lOLt ion-chamber) and therapy level ion-chambers (NE2571, 0.6cc thimble ion-chamber). Also the laboratory is also having measuring standards (NE2570 electrometer with NE2575, 600cc ion-chamber and NE2571, 0.6cc thimble ion-chamber) . A gamma irradiator which contains two gamma sources (Co-60 and Cs-137) and a X-ray system with six ISO 4037 beam qualities (narrow spectrum of energy range: 33keV - 118keV) are available for protection level X-ray calibrations. Stability of the electrometers with Ion- chambers is performed with Sr-90 check sources, which are specially designed for each type of chambers in order to fix the set-up maintaining the same geometry for every measurement. An average of reading of ten consecutive measurements of which each measurement was made for 300s is taken for stability measurement. Each reading is corrected for ambient temperature and pressure. Acceptance of percentage deviation of stability results with respect to reference reading of respective chamber is ±1% for protection level and ± 0.5% for therapy level. All these equipments, when they are not in used are kept in a dry cabinet in order to control humidity. The SSDL of AEA has become a part of an international network of dosimetry laboratories established by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO). This network provides assistance for members to maintain consistency of Radiation Standard measurements in their dosimetry laboratories. Reference electrometer with ion-chambers has been calibrated from IAEA Radiation Standard Laboratory at Seibersdorf in Austria which is traceable to primary standards at BIPM. Measuring standards are calibrated using these reference standards. The SSDL also participates IAEA TLD dose audit program to ensure the accuracy of radiation standards and is firmly committed to achieve global harmonization wherever possible. Hence the QMS assures the quality and accuracy of the services provided to institutions such as hospitals, research institutes, industries for the safety of their radiation workers. Reference electrometer with ion-chambers is used to standardize the gamma radiation fields. Measurements are made from 1 m onwards from the source with 25 cm step increment along the beam axis. Ten consecutive readings are taken for the measurement of air-kerma rate at a point. Ambient temperature, pressure and humidity at the beginning and end of measurements of each measurement are taken by using calibrated ancillary instruments, which are traceable to national and international standards, for correction of density of air mass in the ion-chamber. This air-kerma rate is converted to ambient dose equivalent rate (ADER) for the calibration of area monitors and personal dose equivalent rate (PDER) for calibration of personal monitoring instruments/devices as recommended in IAEA Safety Report Series 16. Graphs, Distance Vs dose rate for ADER and PDER using power fitting formula are established. Decay correction is applied for each data point measured and a fresh graph, Distance Vs dose rate is prepared each day prior to calibration of instruments. Verification of dose given by the software program is done with manual calculation of three data points. Energies of X-ray beams used for protection level calibration are verified with first and second half-value thicknesses of each X-ray beam. Measurements are made to obtain details of beam p