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Sample records for sri lanka implications

  1. Sri Lanka.

    1989-12-01

    Sri Lanka has an area of 25,332 square miles and the terrain consists of coastal plains, with hills and mountains in the south central area. Population stands at 16.8 million with a growth rate of 1.6% and ethnic groups include Sinhalese 74%, Tamils 18%, Muslims 7%, and other 1%. The religions are Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity. Languages include Sinhala, Tamil and English, and the literacy rate is 87%. 68.9 years is the average life expectancy and the infant mortality rate is 31/1000. The government is a republic with a president, parliament and a court system. The gross national product is $7.2 billion with a 2.7% growth rate and an inflation rate of 14%. Natural resources include limestone, graphite, mineral sands, gems, and phosphate. Agricultural products include tea, rubber, coconuts, rice, and spices. Industry consists of textiles and garments, chemicals and petroleum products, food processing, wood and wood products, basic metal products, paper and paper products. The British ejected the Dutch in 1796 and set up the crown colony of Ceylon. In 1931 the colony was allowed limited self rule, and in 1948 it became independent. It is a less developed country with a annual average per capita income of $430. In 1977 the government undertook reforms and eliminated price and foreign exchange controls, reduced consumer subsidies and promoted private sector development. The results showed a more than 5% growth rate during the decade and tourism and foreign investment increased. Recently the growth has slowed partly because of a communal conflict, a trade imbalance and serious structural imbalances. PMID:12178023

  2. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Sri Lanka

    Sujeevi S. K. Nawaratna; Weilgama, Danister J.; Wijekoon, Chandana J.; Dissanayake, Manel; Rajapaksha, Kosala

    2007-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an emerging disease in Sri Lanka. Of 116 patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of CL, 86 were confirmed positive for Leishmania donovani. Most patients had single dry lesions, usually on the face. Patients were from 5 of the 7 agroclimatic zones in Sri Lanka.

  3. Parlamentswahl in Sri Lanka

    Stein, Carola

    2004-01-01

    Dieser Beitrag analysiert das Wahlergebnis der Parlamentswahl 2004 in Sri Lanka. Er wurde zuerst 2004 in der Zeitschrift "KAS-Auslandsinformationen" eröffnet. Bei den Wahlen ging zwar die von Staatspräsidentin Kumaratunga angeführte United People's Freedom Alliance aus den jüngsten Parlamentswahlen in Sri Lanka als Sieger hervor, jedoch wartet auf den neuen Premier Rajapakse kein leichtes Regieren – werden doch die anstehenden Aufgaben wie die Wiederaufnahme der Friedensgespräche mit der radi...

  4. Visitor satisfaction in agritourism and its implications for agritourism farmers in Sri Lanka

    Malkanthi, S. H. Pushpa; Jayant K. Routray

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate visitor satisfaction in agritourism and to understand the implications for agritourism farmers in Sri Lanka. This has been done following the Expectancy Disconfirmation Theory. There are 21 attributes under five different aspects selected for the satisfaction measurement. This study also provides a comparative picture of local and foreign visitors. The study has been conducted on three randomly selected agritourism destinations. Results reveal that out of ...

  5. Sri Lanka : Poverty Assessment

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    This Poverty Assessment report reviews the evolution, and nature of poverty in Sri Lanka, by examining why its significant, recent economic downturn contrasts sharply with its considerable, economic advances during the 1960s; why poverty fell rapidly, and to a relatively, low level in some areas, though it remained high in other parts of the country; and, whether the large resources given ...

  6. Sri Lanka Malaria Maps

    Hoek Wim; Gunawardena Dissanayake M; Briët Olivier JT; Amerasinghe Felix P

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite a relatively good national case reporting system in Sri Lanka, detailed maps of malaria distribution have not been publicly available. Methods In this study, monthly records over the period 1995 – 2000 of microscopically confirmed malaria parasite positive blood film readings, at sub-district spatial resolution, were used to produce maps of malaria distribution across the island. Also, annual malaria trends at district resolution were displayed for the period 1995 ...

  7. Sri Lanka; Background Papers

    International Monetary Fund

    1995-01-01

    This Background Paper on Sri Lanka provides information on the economic developments during 1992–95. Developments in the domestic and external sectors are discussed. The deficiencies of the official consumer price index that resulted in a substantial understatement of inflation performance in 1994 and alternative estimates of underlying inflation are described. The structural rigidities in the labor market that perpetuate high unemployment and limit job growth are also described. The paper ...

  8. Sri Lanka; Selected Issues

    International Monetary Fund

    1996-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The first chapter on monetary policy transmission examines the channels through which innovations to policy variables—policy rate or monetary aggregates—affect such macroeconomic variables as output and inflation in Sri Lanka. The effectiveness of monetary policy instruments is judged through the prism of conventional policy channels (money/interest rate, bank lending, exchange rate, asset price channels) in VAR models, and the timing and magnitude of these effects are a...

  9. Sri Lanka Malaria Maps

    van der Hoek Wim

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a relatively good national case reporting system in Sri Lanka, detailed maps of malaria distribution have not been publicly available. Methods In this study, monthly records over the period 1995 – 2000 of microscopically confirmed malaria parasite positive blood film readings, at sub-district spatial resolution, were used to produce maps of malaria distribution across the island. Also, annual malaria trends at district resolution were displayed for the period 1995 – 2002. Results The maps show that Plasmodium vivax malaria incidence has a marked variation in distribution over the island. The incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria follows a similar spatial pattern but is generally much lower than that of P. vivax. In the north, malaria shows one seasonal peak in the beginning of the year, whereas towards the south a second peak around June is more pronounced. Conclusion This paper provides the first publicly available maps of both P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria incidence distribution on the island of Sri Lanka at sub-district resolution, which may be useful to health professionals, travellers and travel medicine professionals in their assessment of malaria risk in Sri Lanka. As incidence of malaria changes over time, regular updates of these maps are necessary.

  10. Anopheles culicifacies breeding in brackish waters in Sri Lanka and implications for malaria control

    Surendran Sinnathamby N

    2010-04-01

    vector in the country, was also detected at the same site. Since global warming and the rise in sea levels will further increase of inland brackish water bodies, the findings have significant implications for the control of malaria in Sri Lanka and elsewhere.

  11. Sri Lanka : Development Policy Review

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This report provides an integrated view of Sri Lanka's long term development challenges for sustainable growth and poverty reduction. Sri Lanka's substantial achievements in human development are well known. In several dimensions - such as universal primary enrollment, gender equality, infant and maternal mortality - the country is well positioned to meet the Millennium Development Goals (...

  12. Sri Lanka : Accounting and Auditing

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    Sri Lanka has made considerable efforts in aligning its accounting and auditing practices with international standards to establish a high-quality corporate financial reporting system. Corporate accounting and disclosure practices, particularly for publicly traded companies, have improved over the past decade. Among forward-looking actions has been the enactment of the Sri Lanka Accounting...

  13. Tissue bank: Sri Lanka

    Human degenerative diseases and congenital defects are common throughout the world. Many people suffer also from burns, fractures and nerve damage resulting from traumatic accidents and outbreaks of violence which occur all too frequently, especially in poorer countries. Far too many people are impaired for life because they have no access to treatment or simply cannot afford it. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Division of Nuclear Medicine, to improve facilities at the Sri Lanka Tissue Bank. (IAEA)

  14. Sphene, Sri Lanka's newest gemstone

    Zwaan, P.C.; Arps, C.E.S.

    1980-01-01

    Three cut sphenes, originating from the Tissamaharama area in Sri Lanka, are described. Their properties are compared with those of gem quality sphenes from Capelinha, Brazil. There is hardly any difference between the chemical data of the major elements and physical properties of the specimens of these two sources. Even the inclusions are very similar. It is the first time that fine gem quality sphene has been reported from Sri Lanka.

  15. Sri Lanka, Colored Height

    2005-01-01

    The topography of the island nation of Sri Lanka is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. For this special view heights below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored red. These low coastal elevations extend 5 to 10 km (3.1 to 6.2 mi) inland on Sri Lanka and are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges, rising sea level, or, as in the aftermath of the earthquake of December 26, 2004, tsunami. These so-called tidal waves have occurred numerous times in history and can be especially destructive, but with the advent of the near-global SRTM elevation data planners can better predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events. Sri Lanka is shaped like a giant teardrop falling from the southern tip of the vast Indian subcontinent. It is separated from India by the 50km (31mi) wide Palk Strait, although there is a series of stepping-stone coral islets known as Adam's Bridge that almost form a land bridge between the two countries. The island is just 350km (217mi) long and only 180km (112mi) wide at its broadest, and is about the same size as Ireland, West Virginia or Tasmania. The southern half of the island is dominated by beautiful and rugged hill country, and includes Mt Pidurutalagala, the islandaE(TM)s highest point at 2524 meters (8281 ft). The entire northern half comprises a large plain extending from the edge of the hill country to the

  16. A Model of Inflation for Sri Lanka

    Cooray, Arusha

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses two models: an open economy model and a closed economy model to estimate a price equation for Sri Lanka. The results suggest greater support for the open economy model. Consistent with previous studies for Sri Lanka, supply side factors appear to be important in influencing the general price level in Sri Lanka.

  17. Sri Lanka : Recapturing Missed Opportunities

    World Bank

    2000-01-01

    Despite its healthy economic growth, due to good macroeconomic management, and progress in trade liberalization, Sri Lanka's development is perceived to be well below its potential. Certainly, the civil conflict has taken a heavy social, and economic toll on the country's performance, but also governance, and public institutions have weakened, though maintaining a dominance on the financia...

  18. Sri Lanka : Strengthening Social Protection

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This report reviews Sri Lanka's social protection programs and proposes strategic options for enhancing their role in promoting growth with equity. Well designed social protection (SP) systems can help address poverty and inequality through redistribution, and mitigate risks and facilitate employment opportunities, thus contributing to both growth and equity goals. The report first identif...

  19. Sri Lanka - Financial Sector Assessment

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This Financial Sector Assessment (FSA) is based on the work of the joint World Bank and IMF Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) update team that visited Sri Lanka between June 20 and July 3, 2007. The principal objectives of the FSAP Update were to: (i) assess developments in the financial sector and progress in strengthening financial sector regulation since 2002; and (ii) identify...

  20. Sri Lanka: Justice Sector Review

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Improvement of the performance of the judiciary is an important part of a growth agenda for Sri Lanka as it moves to middle income country status. The present government has set ambitious targets to double gross domestic product (GDP) per capita by 2016 and has cited the need for a more efficient judicial sector as a means of reducing poverty. This is consistent with the broad historical e...

  1. Chronic folliculitis in Sri Lanka

    Kumarasinghe S; Kumarasinghe M

    1996-01-01

    Chronic folliculitis (CF) is a chronic infection of hair follicles leading to atrophy and loss of the affected hairs. This study was done on 51 patients with CF presenting at the Dermatology Clinic at General Hospital Matara, Sri Lanka, to identify specific clinical features and aetiological factors, and to study histopathology. Pus cultures were done on 25 cases. Biopsies were done on 6 patients. CF was commoner in males (59%); 76% were under 34 years, and 39% had occupa...

  2. Earnings Inequality in Sri Lanka

    Arun, Thankom G.; Borooah, Vani

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1990s, accelerating economic growth has regained its dominance in the anti poverty strategies. However, the rising tendency of income inequity at the global level and within the countries emphasizes the need to incorporate distributional factors to make the pro-poor growth strategies effective. This paper explores the sources of this surge in income inequality in a developing country context. The paper attempts to estimate an earnings function for Sri Lanka based on the household ex...

  3. University museums in Sri Lanka

    Suratissa, Dissanayake M.; Nihal, Dayawansa P.

    2014-01-01

    Current status of university museums in Sri Lanka was evaluated. Results of questionnaire and interview survey revealed that the majority of universities lack museums. Two universities, including the pioneer University of Colombo, possess natural history museums administrated by curators. One of the oldest, University of Peradeniya, has a geological museum without a curator. Other universities possess a museum dedicated for Muslim culture, an art museum and an engineering museum. Poor infrast...

  4. Novel Human Parechovirus, Sri Lanka

    Pham, Ngan Thi Kim; Trinh, Quang Duy; Takanashi, Sayaka; Abeysekera, Chandra; Abeygunawardene, Asiri; Shimizu, Hideaki; Khamrin, Pattara; Okitsu, Shoko; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Of 362 fecal samples collected from children with acute gastroenteritis in Sri Lanka during 2005–2006, 30 (8.3%) were positive for human parechovirus (HPeV) by reverse transcription–PCR. A novel HPeV, designated as HPeV10, was identified in 2 samples by sequence analysis of the viral protein 1 gene of the detected HPeVs.

  5. Swine Influenza in Sri Lanka

    Perera, Harsha K. K.; Wickramasinghe, Geethani; Cheung, Chung L; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Smith, David K.; Poon, Leo L M; Perera, Aluthgama K. C.; Ma, Siu K; Sunil-Chandra, Narapiti P.; Guan, Yi; Peiris, Joseph S. M.

    2013-01-01

    To study influenza viruses in pigs in Sri Lanka,we examined samples from pigs at slaughterhouses. Influenza (H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses were prevalent during 2004–2005 and 2009–2012, respectively. Genetic and epidemiologic analyses of human and swine influenza viruses indicated 2 events of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus spillover from humans to pigs.

  6. Sri Lanka; Recent Economic Developments

    International Monetary Fund

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews economic developments in Sri Lanka during 1995–97. After slowing to 4 percent in 1996, economic growth recovered to 6½ percent in 1997. The slowdown in 1996 had been mainly owing to a severe drought that affected the agricultural sector and disrupted the power supply. The recovery in 1997 was strongest in agriculture and manufacturing, supplemented by continued good performance in the services sector, including a rebound in tourism. In addition, significant accomplishmen...

  7. Reading Sri Lanka's suicide rate.

    Widger, Tom

    2014-01-01

    By the final decade of the twentieth century, rates of suicide in Sri Lanka ranked among the highest in the world. However, in 1996 the suicide rate began to fall and was soon at its lowest level in almost 30 years. This decline poses problems for classic sociological theories of suicide and forces us to question some fundamental assumptions underlying social scientific approaches to the suicide rate. Drawing from sociological, medical epidemiological, historical, and anthropological secondar...

  8. Chronic kidney diseases of uncertain etiology (CKDue) in Sri Lanka: geographic distribution and environmental implications.

    Chandrajith, Rohana; Nanayakkara, Shanika; Itai, Kozuyoshi; Aturaliya, T N C; Dissanayake, C B; Abeysekera, Thilak; Harada, Kouji; Watanabe, Takao; Koizumi, Akio

    2011-06-01

    The increase in the number of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients from the north central region of Sri Lanka has become a environmental health issue of national concern. Unlike in other countries where long-standing diabetes and hypertension are the leading causes of renal diseases, the majority of CKD patients from this part of Sri Lanka do not show any identifiable cause. As the disease is restricted to a remarkably specific geographical terrain, particularly in the north central dry zone of the country, multidisciplinary in-depth research studies are required to identify possible etiologies and risk factors. During this study, population screening in the prevalent region and outside the region, analysis of geoenvironmental and biochemical samples were carried out. Population screening that was carried out using a multistage sampling technique indicated that the point prevalence of CKD with uncertain etiology is about 2-3% among those above 18 years of age. Drinking water collected from high-prevalent and non-endemic regions was analyzed for their trace and ultratrace element contents, including the nephrotoxic heavy metals Cd and U using ICP-MS. The results indicate that the affected regions contain moderate to high levels of fluoride. The Cd contents in drinking water, rice from affected regions and urine from symptomatic and non-symptomatic patients were much lower indicating that Cd is not a contributing factor for CKD with uncertain etiology in Sri Lanka. Although no single geochemical parameter could be clearly and directly related to the CKD etiology on the basis of the elements determined during this study, it is very likely that the unique hydrogeochemistry of the drinking water is closely associated with the incidence of the disease. PMID:20853020

  9. Radioisotopes and medical imaging in Sri Lanka

    The article deals with the use of X-rays and magnetic resonance imaging in medical diagnosis in its introduction. Then it elaborates on the facilities in the field of medical imaging for diagnosis, in Sri Lanka. The use of Technetium-99m in diagnostic medicine as well as the future of medical imaging in Sri Lanka is also dealt with

  10. Rabies in Sri Lanka: Splendid Isolation

    Nanayakkara, Susilakanthi; Smith, Jean S.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2003-01-01

    Rabies virus exists in dogs on Sri Lanka as a single, minimally divergent lineage only distantly related to other rabies virus lineages in Asia. Stable, geographically isolated virus populations are susceptible to local extinction. A fully implemented rabies-control campaign could make Sri Lanka the first Asian country in >30 years to become free of rabies virus.

  11. Nuclear science training in Sri Lanka

    There are two major levels of obtaining radiation or nuclear education and training in Sri Lanka : the University and training courses in nuclear related technology and radiation protection offered by the Atomic Energy Authority of the Ministry of Science and Technology . This paper summarizes the status, some of the activities and problems of radiation education in Sri Lanka. (author)

  12. Forecasts of Agricultural Drought in Sri Lanka

    Gilligan, J. M.; Gunda, T.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    As the most frequent natural disaster in Sri Lanka, drought greatly affects crop production and livelihoods. Over half of all agricultural crop damage in Sri Lanka is currently due to drought; the frequency and severity of drought in the country is only expected to increase with the changing climate. Previous work indicates that the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) are capable of capturing agricultural drought patterns (between 1881-2010) in the island nation. In this work, PDSI and SPI from 13 long-term meteorological stations will be projected into the future using a combination of artificial neural network and autoregressive integrated moving average models. The impacts of large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns (such as the Niño 3.4 index, a measure of sea surface temperature) and lead times on projection accuracy will also be explored. Model projections will be compared to weather data since 2010 to determine if the 2014 drought could have been forecasted using these methods. Since agricultural systems are strongly influenced by both natural and human systems, it is important to frame these physical findings within a social context. This work is part of an interdisciplinary project that assesses the perceptions of and adaptations to drought by rice farmers in Sri Lanka; disciplines represented in the group include hydrology, social psychology, ethnography, policy, and behavioral economics. Insights from the diverse research perspectives within the group will be drawn upon to highlight the social implications of the physical results.

  13. Dental workforce planning in Sri Lanka

    De Silva, Maduwage

    2012-01-01

    Sri Lanka is a developing South Asian country which provides free education and healthcare for all its citizens. This thesis presents a policy-oriented study, partly empirical and partly modelling, whose aim was to understand dental care provision and workforce planning, at a time where Sri Lanka?s dental health policies appear to have failed to achieve their intended results, leading to a mismatch between supply and demand, i.e. “underemployment and unemployment” of trained dental surgeons, ...

  14. Sri Lanka; Recent Economic and Policy Developments

    International Monetary Fund

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews economic and policy developments in Sri Lanka during 1996–98. Despite the slowdown in world trade and economic growth, Sri Lanka’s economy grew in 1998 at close to its historic average rate. The recorded 4¾ percent growth in real GDP was lower than 1997 when the economy was recovering after a bad harvest. In the first twelve months following the outbreak of the Southeast Asian crisis, Sri Lanka was helped by reduced export competition and lower commodity prices. But by...

  15. Perception and protection in Sri Lanka

    Francesca Bombi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available An assessment conducted in Sri Lanka in 2008 revealed that displaced people with disabilities were extremely vulnerable to protection incidents and their vulnerability was increased by their lack of voice.

  16. Perception and protection in Sri Lanka

    Francesca Bombi

    2010-01-01

    An assessment conducted in Sri Lanka in 2008 revealed that displaced people with disabilities were extremely vulnerable to protection incidents and their vulnerability was increased by their lack of voice.

  17. Sri Lanka's Trade Policies: Back to Protectionism

    Garry Pursell; F.M. Ziaul Ahsan

    2011-01-01

    In 1977 Sri Lanka was the first of the South Asian countries to decisively move away from the protectionist import-substitution trade policies that for many years had damaged their economic efficiency and hobbled their economic growth. Albeit with back-tracking episodes, Sri Lanka's liberalising trade policy reforms-especially reductions in the average level of import tariffs- were broadened and extended during the following 23 years. Together with other economic reforms this supported the ra...

  18. Smokeless tobacco use in Sri Lanka

    L C Somatunga; D N Sinha; P Sumanasekera; K Galapatti; S Rinchen; A Kahandaliyanage; Mehta, F. R.; N L Jayasuriya-Dissanayake

    2012-01-01

    To comprehensively review the issues of smokeless tobacco use in Sri Lanka . This review paper is based on a variety of sources including Medline, WHO documents, Ministry of Health and Nutrition, Colombo and from other sources. Results: The prevalence of smokeless tobacco (SLT) use in Sri Lanka has been reported high, especially among rural and disadvantaged groups. Different smokeless tobacco products were not only widely available but also very affordable. An increasing popularity of SLT us...

  19. Towards Inflation Targeting in Sri Lanka

    Ding Ding; Rahul Anand; Shanaka J. Peiris

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a practical model-based forecasting and policy analysis system (FPAS) to support a transition to an inflation forecast targeting regime in Sri Lanka. The FPAS model provides a relatively good forecast for inflation and a framework to evaluate policy trade-offs. The model simulations suggest that an open-economy inflation targeting rule can reduce macroeconomic volatility and anchor inflationary expectations given the size and type of shocks faced by the economy. Sri Lanka ...

  20. Measures of Underlying Inflation in Sri Lanka

    Souvik Gupta; Magnus Saxegaard

    2009-01-01

    During the first half of 2008, Sri Lanka witnessed significantly higher inflation than most other emerging Asian countries. Inflation has since declined amid declining world commodity prices and tight monetary policy. Given the sensitivity to global commodity prices, a core inflation measure could be useful for monetary policy. The purpose of this paper is to compare the performance of Sri Lanka's existing official measure of core inflation against alternative measures. Our findings suggest t...

  1. A grammar of Upcountry Sri Lanka Malay

    Nordhoff, S. (Stefan)

    2009-01-01

    Sri Lanka Malay is a variety of Malay which has undergone heavy influence from its adstrates Sinhala and Tamil since the first Malay immigrants arrived in Ceylon in the 17th century. While the lexicon is overwhelmingly Malay, the grammar has diverged considerably from its Austronesian origins and become solidly South Asian. Where other Malay varieties are morphologically isolating and have prepositions, postposed modifiers and verb-medial word order, Sri Lanka Malay is agglutinative and has p...

  2. India's Informal Trade With SriLanka

    Nisha Taneja

    2007-01-01

    The study is based on an extensive survey carried out in the Indian cities of Chennai, Trichy, Thiruvananthapuram, Tuticorin, Mumbai and Rameshwaram. Informal trade between India and Sri Lanka is largely a one way trade from India to Sri Lanka and is almost a third of the total value of trade through formal channels. Informal traders have developed efficient mechanisms for information flows, risk sharing and risk mitigation. The transaction costs of trading in the informal channels are signif...

  3. Shrimp Farming Practices in the Puttallam District of Sri Lanka: Implications for Disease Control, Industry Sustainability, and Rural Development

    M. Nalaka Munasinghe; Craig Stephen; Preeni Abeynayake; Abeygunawardena, Indra S.

    2010-01-01

    Shrimp farming has great potential to diversify and secure income in rural Sri Lanka, but production has significantly declined in recent years due to civil conflicts, some unsustainable practices and devastating outbreaks of disease. We examined management practices affecting disease prevention and control in the Puttalam district to identify extension services outputs that could support sustainable development of Sri Lankan shrimp farming. A survey on 621 shrimp farms (603 operational and 1...

  4. Hydrodynamic implications of textural trends in sand deposits of the 2004 tsunami in Sri Lanka

    Morton, R.A.; Goff, J.R.; Nichol, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    Field observations and sediment samples at a coastal-plain setting in southeastern Sri Lanka were used to document the erosional and depositional impacts of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and to interpret the hydrodynamic processes that produced an extensive sand-sheet deposit. Tsunami deposit thicknesses ranged from 6 to 22??cm with thickness being controlled partly by antecedent topography. The deposit was composed of coarse to medium sand organized into plane-parallel laminae and a few laminasets. Vertical textural trends showed an overall but non-systematic upward fining and upward thinning of depositional units with an upward increase in heavy-mineral laminations at some locations. Repeated patterns in the vertical textural trends (upward fining, upward coarsening, uniform) were used to subdivide and correlate the deposit into five hydro-textural stratigraphic units. The depositional units were linked to hydrodynamic processes and upcurrent conditions, such as rates of sediment supply and composition of the sediment sources. Vertical changes in grain-size distributions recorded the depositional phases associated with flow acceleration, initial unsteady pulsating flow, relatively stable and uniform flow, flow deceleration, slack water, and return flow or flow redirection. Study results suggest that vertical textural trends from multiple cross-shore sections can be used to interpret complex tsunami flow histories, but at the location examined, interpretation of the lateral textural trends did not provide a basis for identifying the correct sediment transport pathways because flow near the landward boundary was multidirectional.

  5. Rhinosporidiosis in Sri Lanka: An overview

    SN Arseculeratne

    2013-01-01

    Rhinosporidiosis, an enigmatic disease, is present in 90 countries world-wide. Sri Lanka has the highest prevalence per capita, while India has the largest number of reported cases. It is now appearing in Europe. Since its discovery in 1892, unresolved enigmas of the disease and its causative pathogen, still remain. This overview highlights these enigmas to encourage Sri Lankan researchers to investigate them.

  6. Sri Lanka's Trade Policy: Reverting to Dirigisme?

    Prema-chandra Athukorala

    2012-01-01

    This paper surveys recent development in Sri Lankan trade policy, with an emphasis on emerging protectionist tendencies, using Sri Lanka’s Trade Policy Review (2010) by the World Trade Organization as a reference point. The Sri Lankan experience for over the three decades following the liberalization reforms started in 1977 has clearly demonstrated that an outward-oriented policy regime can yield a superior development outcome compared to a closed-economy regime, even under severe strains o...

  7. Annotated checklist of millipedes (Myriapoda: Diplopoda) of Sri Lanka.

    Zoysa, H K S De; Nguyen, Anh D; Wickramasinghe, S

    2016-01-01

    This review lists the currently known species of millepedes in Sri Lanka and discusses their current taxonomic status and distribution based on previous studies from 1865 to date. A total of 104 millipede species belonging to 44 genera, 18 families and nine orders have been recorded in Sri Lanka. Of these, 82 are known only from Sri Lanka; additionally, nine genera and one family are known only from Sri Lanka. Most of the millipede species have been recorded from two localities, namely Pundaluoya and Kandy in the central highlands of Sri Lanka. Current knowledge on the taxonomy, evolutionary relationships, distribution and conservation of the millipedes of Sri Lanka is still limited and scattered. Thus we suggest more intensive surveys to acquire comprehensive data on the millipedes of Sri Lanka. PMID:27395514

  8. Avifaunal diversity in the peripheral areas of the Maduruoya National Park in Sri Lanka: With conservation and management implications

    Dinesh E. Gabadage; W. Madhava S. Botejue; Thilina D. Surasinghe; Mohomed M. Bahir; Majintha B. Madawala; Buddhi Dayananda; Vimukthi U. Weeratunga; D.M.S. Sameera Karunarathna

    2015-01-01

    A survey was randomly conducted in the marginal areas of Maduruoya National Park, Sri Lanka for a period of > 7 years. These study sites are located within the dry zone and the intermediate zone. The main vegetation type of the area is dry mixed evergreen forest. We recorded 196 bird species belonging to 66 families, and they included 161 breeding residents, 25 purely migrants, nine both resident and migrants, one vagrant, 14 nationally threatened, three globally threatened, and 10 endemic sp...

  9. Marketing Sri Lanka as an International Tourist Destination

    Laksiri, Weerawanse Mudiyanselage Rohan

    2007-01-01

    Within the last two decades Sri Lanka’s tourism industry has grown dramatically as one of the main foreign exchange earners and employment provider. Since Sri Lanka depends enormously on tourism for its growth and development, this paper provides an analysis of marketing efforts within the tourism industry in Sri Lanka for foreign tourists. In compliance with this trend, the purpose of this thesis and research is to review Sri Lanka as an international tourist destination and i...

  10. Agricultural Adaptation and Water Management in Sri Lanka

    Stone, E.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Efficient management of freshwater resources is critical as concerns with water security increase due to changes in climate, population, and land use. Effective water management in agricultural systems is especially important for irrigation and water quality. This research explores the implications of tradeoffs between maximization of crop yield and minimization of nitrogen loss to the environment, primarily to surface water and groundwater, in rice production in Sri Lanka. We run the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model under Sri Lankan climate and soil conditions. The model serves as a tool to simulate crop management scenarios with different irrigation and fertilizer practices in two climate regions of the country. Our investigation uses DNDC to compare rice yields, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and nitrogen leaching under different cultivation scenarios. The results will inform best practices for farmers and decision makers in Sri Lanka on the management of water resources and crops.

  11. Lyssavirus in Indian Flying Foxes, Sri Lanka

    Gunawardena, Panduka S.; Marston, Denise A.; Ellis, Richard J.; Wise, Emma L.; Karawita, Anjana C.; Breed, Andrew C.; McElhinney, Lorraine M.; Johnson, Nicholas; Banyard, Ashley C.

    2016-01-01

    A novel lyssavirus was isolated from brains of Indian flying foxes (Pteropus medius) in Sri Lanka. Phylogenetic analysis of complete virus genome sequences, and geographic location and host species, provides strong evidence that this virus is a putative new lyssavirus species, designated as Gannoruwa bat lyssavirus. PMID:27434858

  12. Understanding Poverty Reduction in Sri Lanka

    Ceriani, Lidia; Gabriela INCHAUSTE; Olivieri, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    This paper quantifies the contributions to poverty reduction observed in Sri Lanka between 2002 and 2012/13. The methods adopted for the analysis generate entire counterfactual distributions to account for the contributions of demographics, labor, and non-labor incomes in explaining poverty reduction. The findings show that the most important contributor to poverty reduction was growth in ...

  13. Corynebacterium haemolyticum infections in Sri Lanka.

    Wickremesinghe, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    Corynebacterium haemolyticum infections are described for the first time in Sri Lanka. In a period of 2 years from 1978-80 C. haemolyticum was isolated from the pharynx of 9 patients wih tonsillitis and from local septic lesions in 7 other patients. Association with other pathogens was common. No patients had a rash. The properties of the isolates are described.

  14. The Language Planning Situation in Sri Lanka

    Coperahewa, Sandagomi

    2009-01-01

    This monograph examines the language planning situation in Sri Lanka with particular emphasis on the planning of Sinhala as an official language of the country. It explores the historical, social, ideological and political processes, changes in language policy decisions, as well as the complexities of the language policy and planning situation in…

  15. Strengthening Science Education in Sri Lanka

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    Scientific literacy is essential to stimulate an environment conducive to new knowledge generation, discovery and innovation. A quality school science education is central to building a scientifically literate population. Science education in Sri Lanka has progressed both quantitatively and qualitatively since the 1950s. Access to science education has grown steadily. This paper addresses ...

  16. Human-crocodile conflict and conservation implications of Saltwater Crocodiles Crocodylus porosus (Reptilia: Crocodylia: Crocodylidae) in Sri Lanka

    A.A. Thasun Amarasinghe; Majintha B. Madawala; D.M.S. Suranjan Karunarathna; S. Charlie Manolis; Anslem de Silva; Ralf Sommerlad

    2015-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflict occurs when human requirements encroach on those of wildlife populations, with potential costs to both humans and wild animals.  As top predators in most inland waters, crocodilians are involved in human-wildlife conflicts in many countries.  Here we present findings of a 5-year survey on human-crocodile conflict on the island of Sri Lanka and relate the results to improving management practices. We aimed to quantify and understand the causes of human-crocodile conflic...

  17. Analysis of rubber supply in Sri Lanka

    Hartley, M.J.; Nerlove, M.; Peters, R.K. Jr.

    1987-11-01

    An analysis of the supply response for perennial crops is undertaken for rubber in Sir Lanka, focusing on the uprooting-replanting decision and disaggregating the typical reduced-form supply response equation into several structural relationships. This approach is compared and contrasted with Dowling's analysis of supply response for rubber in Thailand, which is based upon a sophisticated reduced-form supply function developed by Wickens and Greenfield for Brazilian coffee. Because the uprooting-replanting decision is central to understanding rubber supply response in Sri Lanka and for other perennial crops where replanting activities dominate new planting, the standard approaches do not adequately capture supply response.

  18. Diesel IPP is first for Sri Lanka

    Green, Sian

    1997-10-01

    In December this year, the first of eight diesel powered generating sets will be delivered to the site of Sri Lanka`s first major independent power project (IPP). Sapugaskanda plant is being developed and constructed by a European joint venture new to the IPP market and has won the support of major international investors. The 51 MW installation will provide a much needed injection of power into the hydropower-dominated system, and will serve as an example for further private investment in the country. (Author)

  19. Climate change and agricultural adaptation in Sri Lanka: a review

    Esham, Mohamed; Garforth, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is inevitable and will continue into the next century. Since the agricultural sector in Sri Lanka is one of the most vulnerable to climate change, a thorough understanding of climate transition is critical for formulating effective adaptation strategies. This paper provides an overview of the status of climate change and adaptation in the agricultural sector in Sri Lanka. The review clearly indicates that climate change is taking place in Sri Lanka in terms of rainfall variabil...

  20. Abortion in Sri Lanka: The Double Standard

    2013-01-01

    In Sri Lanka, women do not have access to legal abortion except under life-saving circumstances. Clandestine abortion services are, however, available and quite accessible. Although safe specialist services are available to women who can afford them, others access services under unsafe and exploitative conditions. At the time of this writing, a draft bill that will legalize abortion in instances of rape, incest, and fetal abnormalities awaits approval, amid opposition. In this article, I explore the current push for legal reform as a solution to unsafe abortion. Although a welcome effort, this amendment alone will be insufficient to address the public health consequences of unsafe abortion in Sri Lanka because most women seek abortions for other reasons. Much broader legal and policy reform will be required. PMID:23327236

  1. Abortion in Sri Lanka: the double standard.

    Kumar, Ramya

    2013-03-01

    In Sri Lanka, women do not have access to legal abortion except under life-saving circumstances. Clandestine abortion services are, however, available and quite accessible. Although safe specialist services are available to women who can afford them, others access services under unsafe and exploitative conditions. At the time of this writing, a draft bill that will legalize abortion in instances of rape, incest, and fetal abnormalities awaits approval, amid opposition. In this article, I explore the current push for legal reform as a solution to unsafe abortion. Although a welcome effort, this amendment alone will be insufficient to address the public health consequences of unsafe abortion in Sri Lanka because most women seek abortions for other reasons. Much broader legal and policy reform will be required. PMID:23327236

  2. Smokeless tobacco use in Sri Lanka

    L C Somatunga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To comprehensively review the issues of smokeless tobacco use in Sri Lanka . This review paper is based on a variety of sources including Medline, WHO documents, Ministry of Health and Nutrition, Colombo and from other sources. Results: The prevalence of smokeless tobacco (SLT use in Sri Lanka has been reported high, especially among rural and disadvantaged groups. Different smokeless tobacco products were not only widely available but also very affordable. An increasing popularity of SLT use among the youth and adolescents is a cause for concern in Sri Lanka. There were evidences of diverse benign, premalignant, and malignant oral diseases due to smokeless tobacco use in the country. The level of awareness about health risks related to the consumption of smokeless tobacco products was low, particularly among the people with low socio-economic status. In Sri Lanka various forms of smokeless tobacco products, some of them imported, are used. At the national level, 15.8% used smokeless tobacco products and its use is three-fold higher among men compared to women. Betel quid is by far the traditional form in which tobacco is a general component. Other manufactured tobacco products include pan parag/pan masala, Mawa, Red tooth powder, Khaini, tobacco powder, and Zarda. Some 8.6% of the youth are current users of smokeless tobacco. There are studies demonstrating the harmful effects of smokeless tobacco use, especially on the oral mucosa, however, the level of awareness of this aspect is low. The highest mean expenditure on betel quid alone in rural areas for those earning Rs. 5,000/month was Rs. 952. The core issue is the easy availability of these products. To combat the smokeless tobacco problem, public health programs need to be intensified and targeted to vulnerable younger age groups. Another vital approach should be to levy higher taxation.

  3. Cost of malaria control in Sri Lanka.

    Konradsen, F; P. Steele; Perera, D; van der Hoek, W; Amerasinghe, P. H.; Amerasinghe, F. P.

    1999-01-01

    The study provides estimates of the cost of various malaria control measures in an area of North-Central Province of Sri Lanka where the disease is endemic. We assumed that each measure was equally effective. In these terms, impregnating privately purchased bednets with insecticide was estimated to cost Rs 48 (US(40.87) per individual protected per year, less than half the cost of spraying houses with residual insecticides. Larviciding of vector breeding sites and especially the elimination o...

  4. Outcome of mechanical ventilation in Sri Lanka.

    Rajapakse, V. P.; Wijesekera, S

    1989-01-01

    The outcome of mechanical ventilation is reported in a series of 43 patients managed in an intensive care unit in Sri Lanka. Eighteen patients (42%) survived. Of these, all except one were discharged from hospital. Patients with organophosphate poisoning and Guillain-Barré polyneuritis had a mortality of 47% and 50% respectively. Patients who were ventilated postoperatively as a result of anaesthetic complications during surgery had a mortality rate of 20%. Patients with tetanus and myastheni...

  5. National Transfer Accounts Analysis for Sri Lanka

    Nikitin, Denis; De Silva, Indralal; Jayasekara, Tissa

    2012-01-01

    Sri Lanka has been going through a demographic transition triggered by decreasing fertility and increasing life expectancy. The demographic transition is marked by two stages. During the first stage, the drop in new births reduces the under-age dependency ratio, while the proportion of working age population expands. This reduction in dependency ratio due to declining fertility, frequently referred to as the demographic bonus, is associated with an increased pace of economic development due t...

  6. Saving and Growth in Sri Lanka

    Hevia, Constantino; Loayza, Norman

    2013-01-01

    In the aftermath of its long-standing civil war, Sri Lanka is keen to reap the social and economic benefits of peace. Even in the middle of civil conflict, the country was able to grow at rates that surpassed those of its neighbors and most developing countries. It is argued, then, that the peace dividend may bring about even higher rates of economic growth. Is this possible? And if so, under ...

  7. Sri Lanka: A guerra acabou, e agora?

    IZABELA PEREIRA

    2009-01-01

    Análise sobre o fim da guerra no Sri Lanka

    e as perspectivas de “Peacebuilding” para uma

    sustentável resolução do conflito.

  8. Improving poverty measurement in Sri Lanka

    Gunewardena, Dileni

    2004-01-01

    The past few years have seen great progress in the area of poverty measurement, both in terms of the development and consolidation of best practice, and in conceptual and methodological advances. This study examines poverty measurement in Sri Lanka against the backdrop of these developments, reviewing 22 poverty measurement studies over the period 1969-2002. It evaluates existing sources of data for poverty measurement, and makes recommendations that identify priority actions for improvement,...

  9. Survey of pesticide poisoning in Sri Lanka

    J. Jeyaratnam; Seneviratne, R. S. de Alwis; Copplestone, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    This study included a sample survey of the clinical records of patients admitted to the different hospitals in Sri Lanka, and showed that approximately 13 000 patients are admitted to hospital annually for pesticide poisoning and that each year 1000 of them die. Suicidal attempts account for 73% of the total, and occupational and accidental poisoning accounts for 24.9%. It is recommended that urgent action be taken to minimize the extent of the problem.

  10. Sri Lanka Quarterly Economic Update January 2012

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2012-01-01

    The Quarterly Economic Update (QEU) provides a comprehensive and updated analysis of recent economic performance in Sri Lanka. The QEU for January 2012 highlighted strong economic growth estimated in 2010 and 2011, and noted some indications that the economy has reaching its potential. Impact of the European economic slowdown should be carefully monitored in 2012. The QEU also contains a brief summary of Budget 2012.

  11. STREAM Country Strategy Paper: Sri Lanka

    2005-01-01

    In Sri Lanka the incidence of poverty varies among regions and livelihoods; aquatic resources users represent a poor category in many regions and therefore a vulnerable group. In December 2004 the country was hit by a Tsunami originating off the coast of Aceh in Indonesia, which affected the livelihoods of a large section of coastal aquatic resource users. The country is currently engaged in a major humanitarian effort to improve the livelihoods of aquatic resources users through various dono...

  12. Civilian Landmine Injuries in Sri Lanka.

    Meade, P.; Mirocha, J

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to describe the injuries sustained by displaced people returning home after a military conflict when landmines were not removed. METHOD: This study describes the landmine injuries to patients at the Jaffna Teaching Hospital in northern Sri Lanka over a 20-month period, from May 1, 1996, to December 31, 1997. RESULTS: There were definite and identifiable landmine injury patterns. Patients were most often wounded in the lower extremities, had multiple w...

  13. Climate change and hazardscape of Sri Lanka

    Akiko Yamane

    2009-01-01

    In recent years ‘vulnerability assessment’ has gained a prominent position in the international climate-change policy arena. There are many social-scientific studies that examine various methods and approaches involved in assessing vulnerability. Rather than making another addition to this literature I examine how climate-change policies have been translated in Sri Lanka in order to identify vulnerable places and social groups by combining actor-network theory and the concept of ‘hazardscape’...

  14. Strengthening Science Education in Sri Lanka

    Aturupane, Harsha; Dissanayake, Visaka; Jayewardene, Romaine; Shojo, Mari; Sonnadara, Upul

    2011-01-01

    Scientific literacy is essential to stimulate an environment conducive to new knowledge generation, discovery and innovation. A quality school science education is central to building a scientifically literate population. Science education in Sri Lanka has progressed both quantitatively and qualitatively since the 1950s. Access to science education has grown steadily. This paper addresses the challenges to providing a good science education and considers pathways to the future. Policy initiat...

  15. Sri Lanka Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    The Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes, Accounting and Auditing (ROSC AA) in Sri Lanka aims to assess the progress made on implementation of the policy recommendations of the first ROSC AA in 2004 and supports the Government of Sri Lanka in preparing a country action plan. This will further enhance the quality of corporate financial reporting, and thereby contribute toward the...

  16. New Dengue Virus Type 1 Genotype in Colombo, Sri Lanka

    Tissera, HA; Ooi, EE; Gubler, DJ; Tan, Y.; Logendra, B; Wahala, W; Silva, AM; Abeysinghe, MRN; Palihawadana, P; Gunasena, S; Tam, CC; Amarasinghe, A; Letson, GW; Margolis, HS; De Silva, AD

    2011-01-01

    The number of cases and severity of disease associated with dengue infection in Sri Lanka has been increasing since 1989, when the first epidemic of dengue hemorrhagic fever was recorded. We identified a new dengue virus 1 strain circulating in Sri Lanka that coincided with the 2009 dengue epidemic.

  17. Recent Isotope Applications in Hydrology and Sedimentology in Sri Lanka

    In this Article some of the applications of naturally occuring and artificial isotopes in the study of hydrological problems in Sri Lanka, are discussed. They are the water balance of a small catchment, origin of leakage to the graphite mines at Bogola in Sri Lanka, origin of thermal springs, origin of tropical monsoons and recharge study at Bandarakoswatte are discussed

  18. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka

    Cats are essential in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally-resistant oocysts in nature. Nothing is known of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Sri Lanka. Serum samples from 86 cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka were tested f...

  19. Sri Lanka: In Peace or in Pieces? A Critical Approach to Peace Education in Sri Lanka

    Cardozo, Mieke T. A. Lopes

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to explore the "two faces of education" through a critical analysis of peace education in Sri Lanka. It aims to contribute to the wider debate on the complex role of education in situations of conflict. The article starts with an overview of what peace education is, or should be. This leads to the conclusion that peace education…

  20. Indirect elements off neotectonic in Sri Lanka (Ceylon); Elementi indiretti di neotettonica in Sri Lanka

    Martinis, B.

    1998-12-31

    The hydrography of the eastern side of Sri Lanka appears to be entirely different from the opposite side. Actually in the first case the rivers, before reaching the Ocean flow parallel to the main development of the island thus showing two different ways of recent evolution. Besides these rather classical indirect elements of neotectonic, some remarkable elements may be found pointing out a slow and recent lifting of the region, such as meanders more or less embanked at high altitudes and various orders of terraces. All the considerations contained in this study are strictly personal and are referred to a trip to Sri Lanka in the month of September 1996. [Italiano] L`idrografia presente nel settore orientale dello Sri Lanka appare ben diversa da quella del settore opposto. Nel primo caso, infatti, i corsi d`acqua, prima di defluire verso l`oceano, presentano un decorso parallelo allo sviluppo principale dell`isola denunciando due modalita` diverse di evoluzione recente. Accanto a questi elementi indiretti piuttosto classici di neotettonica, se ne rinvengono altri significatiovi che denunciano un lento e recente sollevamento della regione, come meandri piu` o meno incassati a quote elevate e piu` ordini di terrazzi. Tutte le osservazioni contenute nel presente lavoro sono strettamente personali e si riferiscono ad una escursione effettuata nel settembre del 1996 nello Sri Lanka.

  1. Human-crocodile conflict and conservation implications of Saltwater Crocodiles Crocodylus porosus (Reptilia: Crocodylia: Crocodylidae in Sri Lanka

    A.A. Thasun Amarasinghe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Human-wildlife conflict occurs when human requirements encroach on those of wildlife populations, with potential costs to both humans and wild animals.  As top predators in most inland waters, crocodilians are involved in human-wildlife conflicts in many countries.  Here we present findings of a 5-year survey on human-crocodile conflict on the island of Sri Lanka and relate the results to improving management practices. We aimed to quantify and understand the causes of human-crocodile conflict in Sri Lanka, and propose solutions to mitigate it.  Visual encounter surveys were carried out to estimate the population size of Saltwater Crocodiles. We recorded 778 sightings of Saltwater Crocodiles at 262 of 400 locations surveyed, and estimate the total population to comprise more than 2000 non-hatchlings and to have increased at an average rate of 5% p.a. since 1978. We propose four crocodile vigilance zones within the wet zone and one crocodile vigilance zone within the dry zone of the country. Specific threats to Saltwater Crocodiles identified in crocodile vigilance zones were: habitat destruction and loss; illegal killing and harvesting (17 killings out of fear, ~200 incidents of killing for meat and skins, ~800 eggs annually for consumption; unplanned translocations; and, interaction with urbanization (10 incidents of crocodiles being run over by trains/vehicles and electrocution. Additionally, 33 cases of crocodile attacks on humans were recorded [8 fatal, 25 non-fatal (minor to grievous injuries] and more than 50 incidents of attacks on farm and pet animals. 

  2. Flexibility in Sri Lanka's labor market

    Rama, Martin; DEC

    1994-01-01

    Sri Lanka has had double-digit unemployment rates for more than a decade.And by 1990, 85 percent of the unemployed had spent more than a year searching for a job. Rama analyzes whether high unemployment rates and long spells of unemployment are the result of profuse legislation of the labor market or of market imperfections that would have prevailed even without government intervention. He shows that not all of the labor market regulations currently in force are highly distortive. Despite min...

  3. Coastal environmental degradation in Sri Lanka

    Patabendi, P. [Partners for Sustainable Development, Hewagama, Kaduwela (Sri Lanka)

    2000-07-01

    The economic importance of Sri Lanka's coastal area has increased with rapid urbanization and the development of commercial harbours. The growth on this small island has resulted in unmistakable signs of environmental stress which manifests itself in the loss of natural forest cover, water pollution, degradation of rural lands and increased levels of air, water and solid waste pollution. The population is projected to reach 25 million by 2030. This will create an unprecedented demand for food, fibre energy, developable land and other natural resources. Pollution and competition for resources has already degraded about half of the shoreline which put sustainable economic development and environmental values at risk. It is estimated that 25,000 metric tonnes of waste is thrown into the oceanic waters each year. The pollutants include oil, garbage and chemicals from industries. In addition, 60 per cent of the sewage from the city of Colombo is dumped into the sea. Coral mining which supplies 90 per cent of the lime for the construction industry is leading to the destruction of reefs serving as natural barriers against tidal waves. In 1996, the government of Sri Lanka began a plan for coast erosion management in which community participation plays a vital role. A coastal conservation education project for school children is set to begin in the near future. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Estimation of global radiation for Sri Lanka

    Samuel, T.D.M.A. (Univ. of Peradeniya (Sri Lanka))

    1991-01-01

    There are several formulae that relate global radiation to other climatological parameters such as sunshine hours, relative humidity, maximum temperature, and average temperature. In this paper a generally accepted modified form of the formula first introduced by Angstrom is used. It relates global radiation to hours of sunshine that have been measured for several years in many of the meteorological stations in Sri Lanka. The annual average of the ratio of the hours of sunshine to the length of the day, i.e., annual average of (S/Z), is found to vary considerably and to lie in the range 0.42-0.66. Fre're et al., have found, using data from many parts of the world, a general graphical representation for the variation of a and b with annual average (S/Z) lying in the range 0.28 to 0.75. This variation of a and b can be expressed as quadratic functions are modified and used to determine a and b values for stations in Sri Lanka.

  5. Thermal comfort implications of urbanization in a warm-humid city: the Colombo Metropolitan Region (CMR), Sri Lanka

    Emmanuel, R. [Moratuwa Univ., Dept. of Architecture, Moratuwa (Sri Lanka)

    2005-12-01

    In this paper we analyze the historic trends in thermal comfort (measured in terms of Temperature-Humidity Index [THI] and Relative Strain Index [RSI]) in the Sri Lankan primate city of Colombo and correlate them with land cover changes in the region. Land cover is calculated from time-series aerial photographs in terms of 'hard' cover (buildings, paved areas and roads) and 'soft' cover (trees, green areas and waterbodies). The period selected for analysis includes pre-rapid (up to 1977) and rapid urban phases (1978 onwards) in the city. Contemporary Sri Lanka's urbanization is peculiar in that mid to late 20th century urban rates (approx. 22% of the population) had remained virtually unchanged till the economy was liberalized in 1977, but have recently intensified (currently at about 35%). This offers a unique window of opportunity to look at the thermal comfort transition consequent to urbanization. Since many tropical cities are at a similar stage of demographic transition, lessons from Colombo may generally be applicable to other tropical developing cities as well. An increasing trend in thermal discomfort-particularly at night-is seen especially at the suburban station and it correlates well with hard land cover changes. The study also brings out the relative importance of land cover in city center vs. rural areas (e.g. hard cover has more effect on thermal discomfort in city center than in rural areas). Based on these findings, we postulate an outline for a climate-sensitive urban design policy for tropical cities. (Author)

  6. Avifaunal diversity in the peripheral areas of the Maduruoya National Park in Sri Lanka: With conservation and management implications

    Dinesh E. Gabadage

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey was randomly conducted in the marginal areas of Maduruoya National Park, Sri Lanka for a period of > 7 years. These study sites are located within the dry zone and the intermediate zone. The main vegetation type of the area is dry mixed evergreen forest. We recorded 196 bird species belonging to 66 families, and they included 161 breeding residents, 25 purely migrants, nine both resident and migrants, one vagrant, 14 nationally threatened, three globally threatened, and 10 endemic species. We also report the first-ever records of Chestnut-backed Owlet, Red-faced Malkoha, and Spot-winged Thrush from this dry area. However, these precious habitats and its species are threatened because of irresponsible human activities such as forest fires, land filings, hunting, road kills, encroachments, garbage dumping, agrochemicals, granite-rock blasting, logging, and road constructions. Therefore, we recommend that relevant authorities take immediate conservation action to increase the protection of these marginal areas or buffer zone in the near future.

  7. The impact of pesticide regulations on suicide in Sri Lanka

    Gunnell, D; Fernando, R; Hewagama, M;

    2007-01-01

    changes in the incidence of suicide. METHODS: Ecological analysis using graphical and descriptive approaches to identify time trends in suicide and risk factors for suicide in Sri Lanka, 1975-2005. RESULTS: Restrictions on the import and sales of WHO Class I toxicity pesticides in 1995 and endosulfan in......BACKGROUND: Between 1950 and 1995 suicide rates in Sri Lanka increased 8-fold to a peak of 47 per 100,000 in 1995. By 2005, rates had halved. We investigated whether Sri Lanka's regulatory controls on the import and sale of pesticides that are particularly toxic to humans were responsible for these...... 1998, coincided with reductions in suicide in both men and women of all ages. 19,769 fewer suicides occurred in 1996-2005 as compared with 1986-95. Secular trends in unemployment, alcohol misuse, divorce, pesticide use and the years associated with Sri Lanka's Civil war did not appear to be associated...

  8. Nuclear power generation of electricity in Sri Lanka?

    Brief description of how nuclear power is used to generate electricity, advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power, and the main factors that should be taken into consideration in dividing to use nuclear power in Sri Lanka

  9. Investigations on Piper betle grown in Sri Lanka

    L.S.R Arambewela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Piper betle is an economically important plant cultivated in Sri Lanka. Although more than 12 cultivars of betel are reported in Sri Lanka, very few scientific investigations have been carried out on them. Studies on the chemical constituents indicated that safrole is the major constituent, followed by chavibitol acetate, in the essential oil of common betel leaves of Sri Lanka. Investigations on the bioactivities of P. betle revealed the presence of antimicrobial, insecticidal, antioxidant, antinociceptive, antidiabetic and gastroprotective activities. In addition, P. betle was found to be safe in terms of hepatotoxicity, renotoxicity, hematotoxicity, gross morphology, weights of organs, stress or aversive behaviors in rats. The above findings indicate the vast potential of P. betle yet to be harnessed for the benefit of mankind and the betel industry of Sri Lanka.

  10. Challenges of collective humanitarian response in Sri Lanka

    Firzan Hashim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Grappling with how to respond to both conflict and tsunami-induced displacement, Sri Lanka is an ideal testing groundfor the principles of humanitarian partnership which areat the heart of the Global Humanitarian Platform (GHP.

  11. Surface circulation and upwelling patterns around Sri Lanka

    Vos, A; Pattiaratchi, C. B.; E. M. S. Wijeratne

    2013-01-01

    Sri Lanka occupies a unique location within the equatorial belt in the northern Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea on its western side and the Bay of Bengal on its eastern side. The region is characterised by bi-annually reversing monsoon winds resulting from seasonal differential heating and cooling of the continental land mass and the ocean. This study explored elements of the dynamics of the surface circulation and coastal upwelling in the waters around Sri Lanka using satellite imagery and...

  12. Surface circulation and upwelling patterns around Sri Lanka

    Vos, A; Pattiaratchi, C. B.; E. M. S. Wijeratne

    2014-01-01

    Sri Lanka occupies a unique location within the equatorial belt in the northern Indian Ocean, with the Arabian Sea on its western side and the Bay of Bengal on its eastern side, and experiences bi-annually reversing monsoon winds. Aggregations of blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) have been observed along the southern coast of Sri Lanka during the northeast (NE) monsoon, when satellite imagery indicates lower productivity in the surface waters. This study explored elements o...

  13. Financial inclusion, regulation, and education in Sri Lanka

    Kelegama, Saman; Tilakaratna, Ganga

    2014-01-01

    Sri Lanka has achieved a high level of financial inclusion compared to other South Asian countries. Its financial sector comprises a wide range of financial institutions providing financial services such as loans, savings, pawning, leasing and finance, and remittance and money transfer facilities. There is also evidence that a larger share of households in Sri Lanka accesses multiple financial institutions for their credit and savings needs. However, the use of insurance services, ATM facilit...

  14. Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Sri Lanka and the Maldives

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; George, R.

    2003-08-01

    The Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) wind resource group identifies the wind characteristics and distribution of the wind resource in Sri Lanka and the Maldives. The detailed wind resource maps and other information contained in the atlas facilitate the identification of prospective areas for use of wind energy technologies, both for utility-scale power generation and off-grid wind energy applications.

  15. The Gender impact in Earnings Inequality: Evidence from Sri Lanka

    Thankom Arun; Borooah, Vani K.

    2011-01-01

    The Gender impact in Earnings Inequality: Evidence from Sri LankaAbstract: This paper estimates an earnings function for Sri Lanka, followed by a decomposition analysis of male-female earnings suggest that the gender disparity in earnings largely represents ‘discrimination’ against women. The findings showed that irrespective of their “inferior” labour market attributes, men had average earnings that were considerably higher than the female average and that this could be attributed entirely t...

  16. Getting The Incentives Right: Sri Lanka Forest Conservation

    Cyril Bogahawatte

    1999-01-01

    Sri Lanka, like many countries in Southeast Asia, is battling deforestation. However, this study has found that the country's current forest conservation strategy could gain vital grass-roots support, provided it is carried out pragmatically and with full regard for local people's needs. The study looked at conservation efforts in Sri Lanka's wet zone forests. His main conclusion: that community participation in conservation efforts can only be secured by the provision of appropriate economic...

  17. Cost of malaria control in Sri Lanka

    Konradsen, F; Steele, P; Perera, D;

    1999-01-01

    The study provides estimates of the cost of various malaria control measures in an area of North-Central Province of Sri Lanka where the disease is endemic. We assumed that each measure was equally effective. In these terms, impregnating privately purchased bednets with insecticide was estimated to...... relatively large catchment area (Rs 71 (US$ 1.29) per malaria case treated). Mobile clinics (Rs 153 (US$ 2.78) per malaria case treated) and a village treatment centre (Rs 112 (US$ 2.04)) per malaria case treated) were more expensive options for the government, but were considerably cheaper for households...... than the traditional hospital facilities. This information can guide health planners and government decision-makers in choosing the most appropriate combination of curative and preventive measures to control malaria. However, the option that is cheapest for the government may not be so for the...

  18. Climate change mitigation studies in Sri Lanka

    In Sri Lanka, Climate Change Mitigation Studies have received low priority and have been limited to an ADB-sponsored preliminary study followed by an initial assessment of some mitigation options in the energy and agricultural sectors, with technical assistance from the US Country Studies Program. The major focus was on options of the mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector. Owing to funding constraints, only the potential for reduction of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the various mitigation options were quantified; analysis of monetary costs and benefits or policy/programs for adoption of the options were not undertaken. For the non-energy sector, a very limited study on mitigation of methane emissions from rice fields was carried out. (au)

  19. Climate change mitigation studies in Sri Lanka

    Wickramaratne, Rupa [Ministry of Forestry and Environment, GEF/UNDP Enabling Activity Project (Sri Lanka)

    1998-12-01

    In Sri Lanka, Climate Change Mitigation Studies have received low priority and have been limited to an ADB-sponsored preliminary study followed by an initial assessment of some mitigation options in the energy and agricultural sectors, with technical assistance from the US Country Studies Program. The major focus was on options of the mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector. Owing to funding constraints, only the potential for reduction of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the various mitigation options were quantified; analysis of monetary costs and benefits or policy/programs for adoption of the options were not undertaken. For the non-energy sector, a very limited study on mitigation of methane emissions from rice fields was carried out. (au)

  20. A Profile of Biomass Stove Use in Sri Lanka

    Kibri H. Everett

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A large body of evidence has confirmed that the indoor air pollution (IAP from biomass fuel use is a major cause of premature deaths, and acute and chronic diseases. Over 78% of Sri Lankans use biomass fuel for cooking, the major source of IAP in developing countries. We conducted a review of the available literature and data sources to profile biomass fuel use in Sri Lanka. We also produced two maps (population density and biomass use; and cooking fuel sources by district to illustrate the problem in a geographical context. The biomass use in Sri Lanka is limited to wood while coal, charcoal, and cow dung are not used. Government data sources indicate poor residents in rural areas are more likely to use biomass fuel. Respiratory diseases, which may have been caused by cooking emissions, are one of the leading causes of hospitalizations and death. The World Health Organization estimated that the number of deaths attributable to IAP in Sri Lanka in 2004 was 4300. Small scale studies have been conducted in-country in an attempt to associate biomass fuel use with cataracts, low birth weight, respiratory diseases and lung cancer. However, the IAP issue has not been broadly researched and is not prominent in Sri Lankan public health policies and programs to date. Our profile of Sri Lanka calls for further analytical studies and new innovative initiatives to inform public health policy, advocacy and program interventions to address the IAP problem of Sri Lanka.

  1. Iron deficiency anaemia in Sri Lanka

    The commonest cause of nutritional anaemia in the Sri Lankan population is iron deficiency. The diets of the population belonging to the lower socio-economic groups contain little food of animal origin. Thus, their diets are deficient in easily absorbable (haem) iron; and are also heavily cereal-based. Therefore interference in the absorption of dietary iron also occurs. Iron-deficiency anaemia is not restricted to the so-called ''vulnerable groups'' in Sri Lanka, however, their greater demands make the problem not only commoner but also more severe. Among pregnant and lactating women anaemia is often associated with folate deficiency. It must also be noted that the low availability of dietary iron is compounded in large population groups. Malaria, presently raging on an epidemic scale is also a major contributory factor to the incidence of anaemia. The purpose of this study was to examine the iron status of pre-school children and pregnant women; to establish normal levels of biochemical indices at different trimesters; to record the effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy; and to record the bioavailability of iron from weaning foods and common adult diets. 6 figs, 14 tabs

  2. Art Therapy with Child Tsunami Survivors in Sri Lanka

    Chilcote, Rebekah L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper details art therapy with children affected by the December 2004 tsunami in Sri Lanka. Over 30,000 Sri Lankans lost their lives when the tsunami decimated coastal areas. The child survivors witnessed horrific traumatic events and the loss of loved ones, but had not been given opportunity to express their grief and pain. A 4-week art…

  3. The peat resources of Sri Lanka

    Lappalainen, E. [Geological Survey, Kuopio (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The wetlands of Sri Lanka cover a total area of somewhat less than 150 km{sup 2}. The wetlands of the coast are tidal flats and lagoons with small mangrove areas. In addition to these, small, locally eroding mires occur in the mountains of the island`s interior. The most significant peatland is, however, the Muthurajawela mire north of Colombo, the capital city. On this extension of the Negombo lagoon there are 29 km{sup 2} of peatland. Since paludification started there 7 400 years ago, the long-term average peat growth increment has been 0.6 mm y-i, and the average rate of accumulation of dry matter 80.4 g m-2 y{sup -1}. The average carbon content of the peat is 42.8 %, the hydrogen content 4.20 %, the nitrogen content 0.79 % and the phosphorus content 0.14 %. The area of 165 ha suitable for energy production contains 3.14 Mm{sup 3} of peat and 258 000 tonnes of dry matter. The ash content of mineable peat is 14.5 %, dry bulk density 82.4 kg m{sup -3} and the sulphur content 5.86 %, on average. (orig.) (7 refs.)

  4. Seroepidemiololgy of rickettsioses in Sri Lanka: a patient based study

    Liyanapathirana Veranja

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rickettsioses are emerging infections in Sri Lanka as shown by the increase in the number of clinically diagnosed rickettsial patients being reported to the Epidemiology Unit, Sri Lanka. However, mapping the disease for the whole island with laboratory confirmed cases has not been previously carried out. Methods 615 samples received from 23 hospital representing 8 provinces were tested using ELISA or IFA methods and clinical data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Results Rash was found among more spotted fever seropositive patients than scrub typhus seropositive patients while the opposite was true for the presence of eschar. Spotted fever and scrub typhus was found in a geographically restricted manner. Consistent temporal patterns were seen for the presentation of patients with rickettsioses in Kandy and Kurunegala districts for 2009 and 2010. Conclusions This study expanded knowledge on the distribution of rickettsioses in Sri Lanka and their clinical profiles which in turn helps in the clinical diagnosis of these infections.

  5. Sri Lanka Wind Farm Analysis and Site Selection Assistance

    Young, M.; Vilhauer, R.

    2003-08-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), has been working in partnership with the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) in an on-going process to quantify the Sri Lanka wind energy potential and foster wind energy development. Work to date includes completion of the NREL wind atlas for Sri Lanka. In addition, the Ceylon Electricity Board (CEB) has conducted a wind resource assessment of several areas of the country and has successfully completed and is currently operating a 3-MW pilot wind project. A review of the work completed to date indicates that additional activities are necessary to provide Sri Lanka with the tools necessary to identify the best wind energy development opportunities. In addition, there is a need to identify key policy, regulatory, business and infrastructure issues that affect wind energy development and to recommend steps to encourage and support wind power development and investment.

  6. Environmental impact assessment in Sri Lanka: A progress report

    Butler, J.W. [International Resources Group, Ltd., Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The paper reports on progress by the Government of Sri Lanka in the implementation of a formal environmental impact assessment (EIA) requirement. The authors have recently conducted several activities in Sri Lanka intended to improve the analytical quality of EIA documents and the utility of the EIA process in government decisionmaking, with particular attention to the use of programmatic or sectoral EIAs. The U.S. Agency for International Development established a 5-year project, the Natural Resources and Environmental Policy Project (NAREPP), to provide training and technical assistance in EIA and related disiplines for the Central Environmental Authority (CEA), several other Sri Lanka government agencies, and the private sector. This activity has involved efforts to expand the technical expertise within Sri Lanka for conducting EIA, which include developing EIA courses and materials in cooperation with several universities and conducting intensive training programs for both government and private-sector environmental professionals. This EIA will focus on the selection of government-approved industrial estates throughout the country, on which most new industrial development projects are to be located. Further training programs in the use of current analytical methodologies for EIA were also developed and conducted. The effectiveness of these activities can be assessed by evaluating changes in the content and quality of subsequent EIA documents and in the extent to which such documents affect environmental decisionmaking in Sri Lanka. The authors discuss the role of the programmatic EIA in the industrial development program of Sri Lanka, remaining constraints on the EIA process, and recommendations for further improvement.

  7. Surface circulation and upwelling patterns around Sri Lanka

    de Vos, A.; Pattiaratchi, C. B.; Wijeratne, E. M. S.

    2014-10-01

    Sri Lanka occupies a unique location within the equatorial belt in the northern Indian Ocean, with the Arabian Sea on its western side and the Bay of Bengal on its eastern side, and experiences bi-annually reversing monsoon winds. Aggregations of blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) have been observed along the southern coast of Sri Lanka during the northeast (NE) monsoon, when satellite imagery indicates lower productivity in the surface waters. This study explored elements of the dynamics of the surface circulation and coastal upwelling in the waters around Sri Lanka using satellite imagery and numerical simulations using the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS). The model was run for 3 years to examine the seasonal and shorter-term (~10 days) variability. The results reproduced correctly the reversing current system, between the Equator and Sri Lanka, in response to the changing wind field: the eastward flowing Southwest Monsoon Current (SMC) during the southwest (SW) monsoon transporting 11.5 Sv (mean over 2010-2012) and the westward flowing Northeast Monsoon Current (NMC) transporting 9.6 Sv during the NE monsoon, respectively. A recirculation feature located to the east of Sri Lanka during the SW monsoon, the Sri Lanka Dome, is shown to result from the interaction between the SMC and the island of Sri Lanka. Along the eastern and western coasts, during both monsoon periods, flow is southward converging along the southern coast. During the SW monsoon, the island deflects the eastward flowing SMC southward, whilst along the eastern coast, the southward flow results from the Sri Lanka Dome recirculation. The major upwelling region, during both monsoon periods, is located along the southern coast, resulting from southward flow converging along the southern coast and subsequent divergence associated with the offshore transport of water. Higher surface chlorophyll concentrations were observed during the SW monsoon. The location of the flow convergence and hence the

  8. Sri Lanka; First Post-Program Monitoring Discussion

    International Monetary Fund

    2014-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Context. Sri Lanka’s economy has navigated recent market turbulence relatively well. Growth has remained solid, inflation is in mid-single digits, and the current account deficit has narrowed. From mid-May, the exchange rate came under pressure as market expectations of U.S. Federal Reserve tapering shifted, but Sri Lanka’s experience was in line with that of other emerging markets. Since September, market pressures have eased. By some metrics, reserves remain on the low...

  9. Wind energy for electricity generation in Sri Lanka

    Fernando, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    Different aspects of the island Sri Lanka are discussed in relation to the use of wind energy to generate electric power. The electricity demand and supply are dealt with as well as geo-climatic features. Wind resources in different parts of Sri Lanka are determined. Further study is needed to achieve more data on wind potential and wind speeds. Finally a case study is discussed, carried out to assess the feasibility of integration of wind and hydro resources in combination to meet a predetermined load to be used in an optimal configuration. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Computer modelling of multipurpose multireservoir systems of Sri Lanka

    As in many other countries, the development of hydro resources in Sri Lanka is associated with multiple purposes, including the generation of electricity. Because of the importance of this resource, it is necessary to optimize the characteristics of the associated reservoirs, not only in terms of installed capacity, but also with regard to the use of water for power generation and the other purposes involved. This paper describes the experience of Sri Lanka in the use of the WASP-III computer program and several computer programs that have been developed in the country for simulating the operation of multipurpose reservoirs. (author). 5 refs, 25 figs

  11. Sri Lanka and the Tamil Tigers: Conflict and Legitimacy

    Shlomi Yass

    2014-01-01

    The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) was founded in 1976, demanding the establishment of an independent state for the Tamil ethnic minority in northern and northeastern Sri Lanka. In May 2009, following over three decades of conflict, its leader, Velupillai Prabhakaran was killed and the group was dismantled. The LTTE was established long before other well-known terror groups emerged, and yet it received little attention in comparison. An analysis of the relations between Sri Lankan go...

  12. Writing Strategy Use: AFL Learners in Sri Lanka

    Nagoor Gafoordeen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Study on writing strategy used in Arabic as a foreign language is a new emerging concept. Few studies have contracted on essay written in Arabic as a final product and illustrated deficiencies that surfaced. This study investigates the writing strategies employed by 6 learners in Fathih Institute of Sri Lanka (FISL. A Qualitative research was conducted using the think aloud protocol; observation and retrospective interview to provide the facts. Results of a pilot study revealed that a proficient learner employ varieties of writing strategies better than an average learner and less proficient learners on their essay writing tasks. The findings also revealed that there is a lot to be done to improve the Arabic writing skills of Sri Lankan learners. The implications of the results are that, teachers need to rethink about the problems that average and less proficient students encounter and figure out ways to help them achieve proficiency. Also, there is the need to help these learners how to make their place and organize their opinions more reasonably in writing activities.

  13. Investing in Maternal Health : Learning from Malaysia and Sri Lanka

    Pathmanathan, Indra; Liljestrand, Jerker; Jo. M. Martins; Lalini C. Rajapaksa; Lissner, Craig; de Silva, Amala; Selvaraju, Swarna; Singh, Prabha Joginder

    2003-01-01

    This study provides the most comprehensive and detailed analysis available on factors behind the decline in maternal mortality in Malaysia and Sri Lanka in the past 50 to 60 years and the magnitude of health system expenditures on maternal health. The main findings are that a modest investment in maternal health services, combined with other poverty reduction measures leads to a fairly rap...

  14. Exegetical somersaults - Theories on the Kolam Dances of Sri Lanka

    Mey, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives a short outline of the performance and perception of one of the most famous mask performances of Sri Lanka, the Kolam Dances. It will analyse their components, strategy and structure and link them to overarching notions of Sinhalese culture.

  15. Sri Lanka: Addressing the Needs of an Aging Population

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This study is about the key issues that will have to be addressed in order to successfully avert serious problems, or even crisis, as Sri Lanka's inevitable population aging unfolds. The four main chapters of this report focus on these four critical areas in turn. The second chapter examines living arrangements, intergenerational transfers as well as the respect and authority old people en...

  16. Feeding Hungry Minds: Grassroots Library Services in Sri Lanka.

    Corea, Ishvari

    1991-01-01

    Describes three specific programs developed in Sri Lanka to provide library services to urban and rural poor people. Providing reading material to children to help raise literacy levels is emphasized, resources required for these extension services are examined, and the responsibility for the administration of the projects is considered. (LRW)

  17. Faith, relief and development: the Sri Lanka experience

    Guy Hovey; Amjad Saleem

    2008-01-01

    A strategic partnership between the United MethodistCommittee on Relief (UMCOR)1 and Muslim Aid (MA)2 inSri Lanka, now formalised into a worldwide partnershipagreement, offers a model for effective, community-based,culturally appropriate and sustainable assistance provision.

  18. Learning Organization Dimensions of the Sri Lanka Army

    Dahanayake, Nishada Dhananjaya; Gamlath, Sharmila

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study intends to investigate the extent to which the Sri Lanka Army can be described as a learning organization. Design/methodology/approach: The main tool of analysis used was the Dimensions of the Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) developed by Marsick and Watkins, with the exclusion of the sections on financial and…

  19. Entanglements of Politics and Education in Sri Lanka

    Sørensen, Birgitte Refslund

    2011-01-01

    In this article I argue that in Sri Lanka the field of education has been a constant and significant element in the relationship between population and politicians, and it plays an important role in most people's experiences and understandings of politics, just as it affects their own political...

  20. Recent isotope applications in hydrology and sedimentology in Sri Lanka

    Some of the applications of naturally occurring and artificial isotopes in the study of hydrological problems in Sri Lanka are discussed, namely the water balance of a small catchment, origin of leakage to the graphite mines at Bogala, origin of thermal springs, origin of tropical monsoons and recharge study at Bandarakoswatte

  1. Microorganisms in the Coloured Rain of Sri Lanka

    Samaranayake, Anil; Wickramarathne, K.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    2013-02-01

    A variety of pigmented microorganisms have been identified in the red, yellow, blue and black rain that fell over Sri Lanka in December 2012 and January 2013. There is tentative evidence for the presence of similar organisms, including diatoms, in meteorites falling over the same time period. These microorganisms are likely to have served as nuclei for the condensation of rain drops.

  2. A jurassic-cretaceous dolerite dike from Sri Lanka

    A dolerite dike from southwestern Sri Lanka gave whole-rock K-Ar ages of 152.6 ± 7.6 Ma and 143.3 ± 7.2 Ma. Many of the other dolerite dikes of Sri Lanka are considered to be of Mesozoic ages judging from the present age data and tectonometamorphic history of Sri Lanka. Petrographic similarities should not be used for age correlations, because dolerites of different age may have the same petrography. Preliminary natural remanent magnetization (NRM) after AF and thermal demagnetization gave a mean inclination of 24.6deg and declination of 67.5deg with α95=21.7deg. A virtual geomagnetic pole position calculated from the mean NRM was rotated relative to Antarctica so as to fit with that obtained from the Jurassic Ferrar dolerite of Antarctica. This rotation results in the location and attitude of Sri Lanka to attach with Antarctica at Lutzow-Holm Bay as suggested by Barron et al. (1978). (author). 18 refs

  3. The Labour Market Experience of University Graduates in Sri Lanka

    Chandrasiri, Sunil

    2008-01-01

    Graduate unemployment has been a major socio-politico-economic problem in the small open economy of Sri Lanka for the past 35 years. The nature of the problem, causal factors and policy responses are examined in this paper with a special focus on the role of higher education within a highly competitive and knowledge-based economic environment. The…

  4. Zirconolites from Sri Lanka, South Africa and Brazil

    Zirconolites, CaZrTi2O7, from Sri Lanka and Pala Bora, South Africa, and a calzirtite, CaZr3TiO9, from Jacupiranga, Brazil, were examined using the electron microprobe, x-ray diffraction (annealing study), transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy. The x-ray data indicate that all three zirconolites are metamict. Both Sri Lanka zirconolites are amorphous to the limits of resolution of the electron microscope (approx. 10 A). The Pala Bora zirconolite is largely amorphous but contains isolated domains (50 to 200 A) of crystalline material which may be the result of post-metamict recrystallization and alteration. The only other significant evidence for chemical alteration was the lower ThO2 concentration (1 to 2 weight percent) and slightly lower analytic totals for the rims of the Sri Lanka zirconolites. Upon annealing at 11300C for 5 hours, all three zirconolites recrystallized as microcrystalline aggregates. Refined unit cell parameters and volumes are consistent with published data for synthetic zirconolites. Both Sri Lanka zirconolites contain microvoids, spherical in shape, and 200 Angstroms to 2 microns in size. This porosity may be the result of helium accumulation arising from the decay of U and Th. The calzirtite was highly crystalline, exhibited no porosity, and was unchanged by the annealing treatment

  5. The development of atomic energy in Sri Lanka

    This article was written by the Institution's overseas representative Professor P.P.G.L. Siriwardene, Chairman of the Atomic Energy Authority of Sri Lanka, with the express purpose of conveying to members of the Institution a broad outline of his country's interest in the peaceful uses of atomic energy. (author)

  6. Food Crops Breeding in Sri Lanka - Achievements and challenges

    Since Rice is the staple food in Sri Lanka strong emphasis has been given for the improvement of Rice in Sri Lanka. Over the last three decades 36 high yielding rice varieties have been developed. The present yield potential of Sri Lanka's best varieties have been recorded to be be around 10 mt/ha. At present more than 90% of the total paddy extent is grown with modern high yielding rice varieties and as a result the national paddy production has increased from 1.8 mt/ha to 3.5 mt/ha. Induced mutations is used in plant breeding. Use of radiation to produce haploids and for production of transitory sexuality in apomicts have been done. Under the coarse grains and millet varietal program, maize have recorded increasing attention owing to the fact that is is used for human consumption and as feed grain for poultry. Promising varieties of Soya bean, cowpea, mung bean, black gram and ground nut have been recommended for cultivation. Research attention has also been directed towards Root and Tuber crops which have great potential in providong food for the rapidly increasing population in Sri Lanka. Potato is the most important and popular tuber crop. A number of improved varieties with respect to a number of local fruit crops such as banana, sweet orange, lemonime, avocado, pineapple, rambutan, grapes.have been introduced. New improved varieties of indigenous vegetables such as tomato, brinjal etc. have been produced. Chillies and onions with desirable qualities also have been identified. Mutation breeding provides a novel approach to the plant breeders for raising the productivity of crop plants, thus complementing conventional methods. Any way the use of induced mutations in crop improvement has not been properly exploited in Sri Lanka as yet

  7. The Asian Tsunami and Problem-Based Learning for Postgraduate Students in Sri Lanka

    Jayawardana, A. K. L.; O'Donnell, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The Asian Tsunami struck Sri Lanka on December 26, 2004. Sri Lanka was the second worst affected country after Indonesia, and this natural disaster killed in excess of 35,000 people and displaced over 1 million. The article explores the Tsunami Disaster Management Program developed by one Sri Lankan university: the Postgraduate Institute of…

  8. Landmarks of History of Soil Science in Sri Lanka

    Mapa, R.

    2012-04-01

    Sri Lanka is a tropical Island in the Southern tip of Indian subcontinent positioned at 50 55' to 90 50' N latitude and 790 42' to 810 53' E longitude surrounded by the Indian Ocean. It is an island 435 km in length and 224 km width consisting of a land are of 6.56 million ha with a population of 20 million. In area wise it is ranked as 118th in the world, where at present ranked as 47 in population wise and ranked 19th in population density. The country was under colonial rule under Portuguese, Dutch and British from 1505 to 1948. The majority of the people in the past and present earn their living from activities based on land, which indicates the important of the soil resource. The objective of this paper is to describe the landmarks of the history of Soil Science to highlight the achievements and failures, which is useful to enrich our present understanding of Sri Lankan soils. The landmarks of the history of Soil Science in Sri Lanka can be divided to three phases namely, the early period (prior to 1956), the middle period (1956 to 1972) and the present period (from 1972 onwards). During the early period, detailed analytical studies of coffee and tea soils were compiled, and these gave mainly information on up-country soils which led to fertilizer recommendations based on field trials. In addition, rice and forest soils were also studied in less detail. The first classification of Sri Lankan soils and a provisional soil map based on parent material was published by Joachim in 1945 which is a major landmark of history of Soil Science in Sri Lanka. In 1959 Ponnamperuma proposed a soil classification system for wetland rice soils. From 1963 to 1968 valuable information on the land resource was collected and documented by aerial resource surveys funded by Canada-Ceylon Colombo plan aid project. This covered 18 major river basins and about 1/4th of Sri Lanka, which resulted in producing excellent soil maps and information of the areas called the Kelani Aruvi Ara

  9. Anaemia among Female Undergraduates Residing in the Hostels of University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka

    Gayashan Chathuranga; Thushara Balasuriya; Rasika Perera

    2014-01-01

    Anaemia is a major public health problem that has affected around 25% of the world's population. An analytical cross-sectional study was performed on 313 female undergraduates residing in hostels of University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka, during year 2011. Objective of this study was to determine prevalence and contributing factors to anaemia among the study population. Haemoglobin concentration was assayed using cyanomethaemoglobin method. A pretested self-administered questionnaire wa...

  10. Surface circulation and upwelling patterns around Sri Lanka

    A. de Vos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sri Lanka occupies a unique location within the equatorial belt in the northern Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea on its western side and the Bay of Bengal on its eastern side. The region is characterised by bi-annually reversing monsoon winds resulting from seasonal differential heating and cooling of the continental land mass and the ocean. This study explored elements of the dynamics of the surface circulation and coastal upwelling in the waters around Sri Lanka using satellite imagery and the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS configured to the study region and forced with ECMWF interim data. The model was run for 2 yr to examine the seasonal and shorter term (∼10 days variability. The results confirmed the presence of the reversing current system in response to the changing wind field: the eastward flowing Southwest Monsoon Current (SMC during the Southwest (SW monsoon transporting 11.5 Sv and the westward flowing Northeast Monsoon Current (NMC transporting 9.5 Sv during the Northeast (NE monsoon, respectively. A recirculation feature located to the east of Sri Lanka during the SW monsoon, the Sri Lanka Dome, is shown to result from the interaction between the SMC and the Island of Sri Lanka. Along the eastern and western coasts, during both monsoon periods, flow is southward converging along the south coast. During the SW monsoon the Island deflects the eastward flowing SMC southward whilst along the east coast the southward flow results from the Sri Lanka Dome recirculation. The major upwelling region, during both monsoon periods, is located along the south coast and is shown to be due to flow convergence and divergence associated with offshore transport of water. Higher surface chlorophyll concentrations were observed during the SW monsoon. The location of the flow convergence and hence the upwelling centre was dependent on the relative strengths of wind driven flow along the east and west coasts: during the SW (NE monsoon the flow

  11. USE OF AND ATTITUDES TOWARD TOBACCO AND ALCOHOL AMONG ADULTS IN SOUTHERN SRI LANKA

    Lombardo, Sarah; Perera, Bilesha; Beaudry, Lauren; Grad, Jennifer; Maselko, Joanna; Østbye, Truls

    2013-01-01

    The adverse health effects of tobacco and alcohol are well known. Alcohol consumption is increasing in Sri Lanka, but few population studies have been conducted. The objective of this study was to document tobacco and alcohol consumption levels among adults in southern Sri Lanka and to identify the main reasons for using or refraining from alcohol and tobacco products. Tobacco and alcohol use within Sri Lanka is relatively common, particularly among adult males. Reasons given for smoking and ...

  12. Demand for private tuition classes under the free education policy. Evidence based on Sri Lanka

    Pallegedara, Asankha

    2011-01-01

    Private tuition classes are growing phenomenon in Sri Lanka especially among students who prepare for competitive national school qualifying examinations. It is one of major education issues under the free education policy in Sri Lanka. It can tarnish the real purpose of free education policy. In this paper, we examine the demand for private tuition classes in Sri Lanka by using two waves of Household Income and Expenditure Surveys (HIES) conducted by the Department of Census and Statistics (...

  13. A survey of odonate assemblages associated with selected wetland localities in southern Sri Lanka

    Chandana, E.P.S.; Rajapaksha, A.C.D.; Samarasekara, W.G.K.H.

    2012-01-01

    The dragonflies and damselflies are a major insect group (Class Insecta; Order Odonata) associated with water courses. Odonate assemblages with reference to their habitat characters have not been widely studied in Sri Lanka. We have investigated odonate assemblages for a period of three months in selected localities in southern Sri Lanka with reference to the habitat characters. Bundala and Embillakala lagoons in Bundala National Park (A Ramsar wetland in Sri Lanka), “Kirala Kele” Eco-tourism...

  14. Inter-Annual Variability in Blue Whale Distribution off Southern Sri Lanka between 2011 and 2012

    Asha de Vos; Pattiaratchi, Charitha B.; Harcourt, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) movements are often driven by the availability of their prey in space and time. While globally blue whale populations undertake long-range migrations between feeding and breeding grounds, those in the northern Indian Ocean remain in low latitude waters throughout the year with the implication that the productivity of these waters is sufficient to support their energy needs. A part of this population remains around Sri Lanka where they are usually recorded cl...

  15. Female wages in the apparel industry post-MFA : the cases of Cambodia and Sri Lanka

    Savchenko, Yevgeniya; Lopez Acevedo, Gladys

    2012-01-01

    The end of the Multi-fiber Arrangement/Agreement on Textiles and Clothing in 2005 was a major policy change that affected the allocation of global apparel productions well as the lives of workers involved in this sector. Since the apparel industry is often the major female employer in developing countries, this policy change was expected to have major implications for women. This paper analyzes the wages and working conditions of women in the apparel sector in Cambodia and Sri Lanka following...

  16. Wind and Solar Resource Assessment of Sri Lanka and the Maldives (CD-ROM)

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; George, R.

    2003-08-01

    The Wind and Solar Resource Assessment of Sri Lanka and the Maldives CD contains an electronic version of Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Sri Lanka and the Maldives (NREL/TP-500-34518), Solar Resource Assessment for Sri Lanka and the Maldives (NREL/TO-710-34645), Sri Lanka Wind Farm Analysis and Site Selection Assistance (NREL/SR-500-34646), GIS Data Viewer (software and data files with a readme file), and Hourly Solar and Typical Meteorological Year Data with a readme file.

  17. A Profile of Biomass Stove Use in Sri Lanka

    Everett, Kibri H.; Thornburg, Vanessa E.; Phillips, Michael J.; Myles F. Elledge; Sumal Nandasena

    2012-01-01

    A large body of evidence has confirmed that the indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass fuel use is a major cause of premature deaths, and acute and chronic diseases. Over 78% of Sri Lankans use biomass fuel for cooking, the major source of IAP in developing countries. We conducted a review of the available literature and data sources to profile biomass fuel use in Sri Lanka. We also produced two maps (population density and biomass use; and cooking fuel sources by district) to illustrate the...

  18. Pesticide poisoning: a major health problem in Sri Lanka

    Hoek, Wim van der; Konradsen, F; Athukorala, K;

    1998-01-01

    pesticides is the most important reason for this high number of poisoning cases. The frequent application of highly hazardous pesticides in high concentrations was often irrational and posed serious health and financial risks to the farmers. Sales promotion activities and credit facilities promoted this......Acute pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in Sri Lanka. In several agricultural districts, it precedes all other causes of death in government hospitals. Most of the acute poisoning cases are intentional (suicide) and occur among young adults, mainly males. Poisoning due to...... occupational exposure is also common, but less well documented. In an irrigation area in Sri Lanka a very high incidence of serious pesticide poisoning was observed, with 68% due to intentional ingestion of liquid pesticides. It is argued that the easy availability and widespread use of highly hazardous...

  19. The design of Sri Lanka's Samanalawewa project

    Back, P.A.A.; Westwell, J.R. (Sir Alexander Gibb and Partners, Reading (GB))

    1988-06-01

    Sri Lanka has both a climate and topography favourable to hydroelectricity. The largest river in the country is the Mahaweli Ganga, of which almost all the potential has now been exploited by the Kotmale, Victora, Randenigala and Rantembe (under construction) schemes. The hydro development of Sri Lanka will continue with the construction of projects on other river systems, and the Samanalawewa project on the Walawe Ganga (flowing south from the Central Highlands) is one such project now under construction. This project consists of a 100 m-high embankment dam, a 5 km-long power tunnel, a steel penstock and a surface power station with two 60 MW units. At a later stage it is planned to double the size of the powerplant and tap the flow from a tributary, which passes above the power tunnel near its downstream end. (author).

  20. Promoting growth in Sri Lanka : lessons from East Asia

    Ahmed, Sadiq; Ranjan, Priya

    1995-01-01

    Sri Lanka's weak economic performance, although compounded by the civil war and budgetary imbalance, largely reflects the following: 1) a stop-and-go pattern of policy reform, because of political constraints - even though the results of reform were generally positive; 2) weak economic management, resulting in high inflation and a high fiscal and balance of payments deficit; 3) poor management of public spending; 4) mixed performance in exchange-rate management, with periods of substantial ov...

  1. Moore's law, Dabbawalas, and pediatric cardiac care in Sri Lanka

    Duminda Samarasinghe

    2015-01-01

    Sri Lanka is an island nation in Indian Ocean that provides free healthcare to all citizens through government healthcare system. It has commendable health indices in the region. Pediatric cardiac services have rapidly progressed over past few years helping to further bring down infant and under-five mortality rates. Lady Ridgeway Hospital for Children (LRH) is the only tertiary care referral center for children with heart disease in the country. Currently it performs approximately 1,000 card...

  2. Sri Lanka Student Assessment : SABER Country Report 2012

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    In 2012, Sri Lanka joined the Russia Education Aid for Development (READ) trust fund program, the goal of which is to help countries improve their capacity to design, carry out, analyze, and use assessments for improved student learning. As part of the READ trust fund program, and in order to gain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of its existing assessment system, Tajikistan ...

  3. Description of Duttaphrynus atukoralei (Anura: Bufonidae) tadpoles from Sri Lanka.

    Bopage, Malaka M; Wewelwala, Krishan; Krvavac, Milivoje; Jovanovic, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Duttaphrynus atukoralei (Bogert & Senanayake, 1966) is a relatively abundant toad known from Southern and Southeastern Sri Lanka. It occurs from sea level up to ~200 m above sea level (IUCN 2014). For almost half a century since its original description there was no information on its life cycle; the only information available is related to its description and distribution (Dutta & Manamendra-Arachchi 1996; Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda 2006). PMID:26249461

  4. Detection of Rickettsioses and Q fever in Sri Lanka

    Angelakis, Emmanouil; Munasinghe, Aruna; Yaddehige, Iranga; Liyanapathirana, Veranja; Thevanesam, Vasanthi; Bregliano, Anne; Socolovschi, Cristina; Edouard, Sophie; Fournier, Pierre Edouard; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Current serological evidence suggests the presence of scrub typhus and spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiosis in Sri Lanka. Our objective was to identify rickettsial agents/Q fever as aetiological causes for patients who were presumed having rickettsioses by the presence of an eschar or a rash. Sera from patients with unknown origin fever from Matara were tested by immunofluorescence for SFG rickettsial antigens, typhus group rickettsiae, Orientia tsutsugamushi, and Coxiell...

  5. Interest Rate Pass-through in Sri Lanka

    Amarasekara, Chandranath

    2005-01-01

    The Central Bank of Sri Lanka has increasingly been relying on interest rates as the instrument for conducting monetary policy. Changes to the key monetary policy variables, the Repo and the Reverse Repo rates, are initially expected to be reflected in the OMO rates and the call money market rates, before being passedthrough to commercial bank retail interest rates. It is important to obtain a good understanding of the speed and magnitude of the interest rate pass-through to make timely monet...

  6. Does Political Competition Lessen Ethnic Discrimination? Evidence from Sri Lanka

    Sharif, Iffath A.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of political competition on ethnic discrimination remains largely unexplored. To address this gap, this paper explores the relationship between the level of political competition and the probability of receiving government transfers among ethnic minorities in Sri Lanka in the run up to the national elections of 2000. The paper shows that making politicians dependent on the votes of members of ethnic groups other their own can encourage moderation in discriminatory practices towards...

  7. The gender impact in earnings inequality: Evidence from Sri Lanka

    Arun, Thankom; Vani K. Borooah

    2011-01-01

    This paper estimates an earnings function for Sri Lanka, followed by a decomposition analysis of male-female earnings suggest that the gender disparity in earnings largely represents ‘discrimination’ against women. The findings showed that irrespective of their “inferior” labour market attributes, men had average earnings that were considerably higher than the female average and that this could be attributed entirely to discrimination in favour of male earners.

  8. A CBA model of a hydro project in Sri Lanka

    Morimoto, Risako; Hope, C. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Judge Inst. of Management

    2004-07-01

    This study demonstrates an empirical application of a cost benefit analysis for hydro projects, which includes social and environmental as well as economic aspects. The model treats uncertain inputs by specifying them as probability distributions. A proposed hydro project in Sri Lanka is used as a case study. The study uses time variable discount rates related to economic growth and investigates the sensitivity of the net present value to the choice of a discount rate. (author)

  9. Plantation Patriarchy and Structural Violence: Women Workers in Sri Lanka

    Kurian, Rachel; Jayawardena, Kumari

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Plantation production began in Sri Lanka in the early 19th century under British colonial rule, when the government provided financial incentives and infrastructural support for the commercialisation and export of agricultural crops in line with promoting laissez-faire capitalism. Motivated by the possibility of making high profits, British entrepreneurs, including several officials, took up the large-scale cultivation of initially coffee, and then subsequently, t...

  10. The practice of mindfulness based behaviour therapy in Sri Lanka

    P de Zoysa

    2010-01-01

    The Buddhist practice of cultivating mindfulness has been increasingly influencing psychotherapeutic work. However, in Sri Lanka, the documentation on the use of such practice in psychotherapy is scarce. This paper aims to discuss the influence of Buddhist mindfulness practice on psychotherapy; present a case of mixed anxiety-depressive disorder where mindfulness practice and behaviour therapy were used in its treatment and discuss issues that need to be considered in the use of mindfulness p...

  11. Internet-based media coverage on dengue in Sri Lanka between 2007 and 2015

    Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Cohn, Emily; Lloyd, David C.; Tozan, Yesim; Brownstein, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Internet-based media coverage to explore the extent of awareness of a disease and perceived severity of an outbreak at a national level can be used for early outbreak detection. Dengue has emerged as a major public health problem in Sri Lanka since 2009.Objective: To compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lana with references to other diseases (malaria and influenza) in Sri Lanka and to compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lanka with notified cases of dengue in Sri L...

  12. Internet-based media coverage on dengue in Sri Lanka between 2007 and 2015

    Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Cohn, Emily; Lloyd, David C.; Tozan, Yesim; Brownstein, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Internet-based media coverage to explore the extent of awareness of a disease and perceived severity of an outbreak at a national level can be used for early outbreak detection. Dengue has emerged as a major public health problem in Sri Lanka since 2009. Objective To compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lana with references to other diseases (malaria and influenza) in Sri Lanka and to compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lanka with notified cases of dengue in Sri La...

  13. Internet-based media coverage on dengue in Sri Lanka between 2007 and 2015

    Annelies Wilder-Smith; Emily Cohn; Lloyd, David C.; Yesim Tozan; Brownstein, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Internet-based media coverage to explore the extent of awareness of a disease and perceived severity of an outbreak at a national level can be used for early outbreak detection. Dengue has emerged as a major public health problem in Sri Lanka since 2009. Objective: To compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lana with references to other diseases (malaria and influenza) in Sri Lanka and to compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lanka with notified cases of dengue in Sri ...

  14. Groundwater overuse and farm-level technical inefficiency: evidence from Sri Lanka

    Athukorala, Wasantha; Wilson, Clevo

    2012-08-01

    Extraction of groundwater for onion and other cash crop production has been increasing rapidly during the last two decades in the dry zone areas of Sri Lanka. As a result of overuse, the quantity of available groundwater is gradually declining, while water quality is deteriorating. The deteriorating water quality has a negative impact on agricultural production, especially for crops (such as onions) that are sensitive to increases in salinity levels. This issue is examined with respect to onion production in Sri Lanka. A stochastic frontier production function (SFPF) is used, in which technical efficiency and the determinants of inefficiencies are estimated simultaneously. The results show that farmers are overusing groundwater in their onion cultivation, which has resulted in decreasing yields. Factors contributing to inefficiency in production are also identified. The results have important policy implications.

  15. Prospects for a wind pump industry in Sri Lanka

    Since 1977 considerable effort has been made in Sri Lanka to develop and disseminate wind pumping systems primarily in the small-scale agricultural sector in the island's dry zone. Through close cooperation with the Consultancy Services Wind Energy Developing Countries (CWD) in the Netherlands this programme has been successful in developing the necessary hardware but the broad objective of promoting wide spread use of wind pumping in Sri Lanka is yet to materialize. In analyzing probable reasons for this, the paper highlights that the basic arguments underlying the origin of the project in 1976, such as foreign exchange savings and local industrial development, became irrelevant to the post 1977 political and economic policies of the new government. Thus, the general economic framework adopted in Sri Lanka since 1977 does not seem to provide the necessary pre-conditions for development of a local industry for wind pumps. Due to this reason and the fact that kerosene oil used in conventional agriculturla pumps is subsidized, the ability of wind pumps to compete in the wind pump market seems highly constrained. It is concluded that under such conditions the prospects for the manufacturing and marketing of wind pumps on an industrial scale are not very favourable

  16. Determination of the geoid of central highlands in Sri Lanka

    Prasanna, Herath Mudiyanselage Indika; Tantrigoda, Dhammika Ariyakumara

    2009-06-01

    The available geoid undulations on the WGS84 ellipsoid at over two hundred GPS stations are interpolated using a least-squares surface fitting technique to determine the geoid of the central highlands in Sri Lanka. However, it is not possible to interpolate these points directly to prepare a detailed map of the geoid surface as the geoid separation varies intense due to the rugged local topography making the interpolation inaccurate. The gravity potential and subsequently the undulation of the local geoid due to the topography have been calculated separately using a topographic model and removed from the available geoid undulations. This model was created using information obtained from 1:50 000 digital topographic maps provided by the Survey department of Sri Lanka. The resulting geoid separations were interpolated and three surface polynomials were employed to determine the geoid using the least-squares surface fitting technique. To avoid possible artefacts in regions without observations, an area including central highlands was selected to determine the geoid. Finally, the geoid undulations due to the topography were added back to the Bouguer co-geoid represented by three mathematical surfaces to create a detailed map of the geoid of Sri Lanka. A local positive geoid surface superimposing a large negative regional surface has been obtained and the local maximum value of the geoid undulation is about -92.05 m in the vicinity of Piduruthalagala peak.

  17. GEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FOR PALEO-TSUNAMIS IN SRI LANKA

    Nayomi Kulasena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available After the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami inundation event, thin sediment films of fining up sequences were located in several topographic depressions of the southern coastal belt of Sri Lanka. The films consisting of silty fine sand with particular microfossil assemblages were located also in closed containers, bottles and kitchen tables. Well preserved microfossils such as foraminifera, radiolarians as well as spicules of sponges were noted in these recent tsunami sediments.Random augur holes were drilled into some selected depressions in the southern coastal villages of Peraliya and Denuwala situated at locations separated by about 50km. In several such holes, at least two fining up sequences were located below the surface in soil horizons separated from each other by 35cm to 1m. These soil profiles were overlying older coral reefs developed on lateritic formations. The microscopic observations on particular size fractions of the soil horizons showed microfossil assemblages with textures, color and organic C contents strikingly comparable to those observed in the recent tsunami sediments of Sri Lanka. Our findings imply the occurrence of at least two paleo- tsunami events of different ages in Sri Lanka originating apparently from a common source.

  18. Lighting energy efficiency in office buildings: Sri Lanka

    Wijayatunga, Priyantha D.C. [Moratuwa Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Moratuwa (Sri Lanka); Fernando, W.J.L.S.; Ranasinghe, S. [Sri Lanka Energy Managers Association, Colombo (Sri Lanka)

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes a study conducted in the lighting sector of office buildings as a part of a broader research study aimed at developing building codes for Sri Lanka addressing lighting as well as thermal comfort in order to optimise the use of electricity within these buildings. The study covered different tasks performed in office buildings and the optimum lighting levels required to perform these tasks in the office environment in Sri Lanka. Also, it included assessing the visual performance of people involved in different activities under varying illumination levels in a controlled environment and a comparison of these optimum lighting levels with international standards. It can be seen that the required optimum lighting levels are generally lower in Sri Lanka in comparison to specified standard levels, and this scenario is likely to be similar in other developing countries too. These findings clearly emphasise the need to adopt lighting standards most appropriate to local conditions, in turn helping improve the energy efficiency within buildings. (Author)

  19. Electricity demand for Sri Lanka: A time series analysis

    Amarawickrama, Himanshu A. [Surrey Energy Economics Centre (SEEC), Department of Economics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Infrastructure Advisory, Ernst and Young LLP, 1 More London Place, London SE1 2AF (United Kingdom); Hunt, Lester C. [Surrey Energy Economics Centre (SEEC), Department of Economics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    This study estimates electricity demand functions for Sri Lanka using six econometric techniques. It shows that the preferred specifications differ somewhat and there is a wide range in the long-run price and income elasticities with the estimated long-run income elasticity ranging from 1.0 to 2.0 and the long-run price elasticity from 0 to -0.06. There is also a wide range of estimates of the speed with which consumers would adjust to any disequilibrium, although the estimated impact income elasticities tended to be more in agreement ranging from 1.8 to 2.0. Furthermore, the estimated effect of the underlying energy demand trend varies between the different techniques; ranging from being positive to zero to predominantly negative. Despite these differences, the forecasts generated from the six models up until 2025 do not differ significantly. It is therefore encouraging that the Sri Lanka electricity authorities can have some faith in econometrically estimated models used for forecasting. Nonetheless, by the end of the forecast period in 2025 there is a variation of around 452 MW in the base forecast peak demand that, in relative terms for a small electricity generation system like Sri Lanka's, represents a considerable difference. (author)

  20. Lighting energy efficiency in office buildings: Sri Lanka

    This paper describes a study conducted in the lighting sector of office buildings as a part of a broader research study aimed at developing building codes for Sri Lanka addressing lighting as well as thermal comfort in order to optimise the use of electricity within these buildings. The study covered different tasks performed in office buildings and the optimum lighting levels required to perform these tasks in the office environment in Sri Lanka. Also, it included assessing the visual performance of people involved in different activities under varying illumination levels in a controlled environment and a comparison of these optimum lighting levels with international standards. It can be seen that the required optimum lighting levels are generally lower in Sri Lanka in comparison to specified standard levels, and this scenario is likely to be similar in other developing countries too. These findings clearly emphasise the need to adopt lighting standards most appropriate to local conditions, in turn helping improve the energy efficiency within buildings

  1. Solar Resource Assessment for Sri Lanka and Maldives

    Renne, D.; George, R.; Marion, B.; Heimiller, D.; Gueymard, C.

    2003-08-01

    The countries of Sri Lanka and the Maldives lie within the equatorial belt, a region where substantial solar energy resources exist throughout much of the year in adequate quantities for many applications, including solar water heating, solar electricity, and desalination. The extent of solar resources in Sri Lanka has been estimated in the past based on a study of the daily total direct sunshine hours recorded at a number of weather and agricultural stations throughout the country. These data have been applied to the well-known Angstrom relationship in order to obtain an estimate of the distribution of monthly average daily total solar resources at these stations. This study is an effort in improve on these estimates in two ways: (1) to apply a gridded cloud cover database at a 40-km resolution to produce updated monthly average daily total estimates of all solar resources (global horizontal, DNI, and diffuse) for the country, and (2) to input hourly or three-hourly cloud cover observations made at nine weather stations in Sri Lanka and two in the Maldives into a solar model that produces estimates of hourly solar radiation values of the direct normal, global, and diffuse resource covering the length of the observational period. Details and results of these studies are summarized in this report.

  2. The family and demographic change in Sri Lanka.

    Caldwell, B

    1996-01-01

    Sri Lanka has almost completed the demographic transition with low mortality rates and fertility rates approaching replacement levels. Sri Lanka shares these characteristics with the South Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu in contrast to elsewhere in South Asia where mortality and especially fertility rates remain much higher. A key part of the explanation for these differences lies in the nature of the family. The Sri Lankan family is essentially the conjugal unit of husband, wife and dependent children whereas in northern South Asia agnatic relations between son and parents are central to family structure. Related to this family system the position of women in Sri Lankan society was relatively high in South Asian terms. Consequently women had a strong say in health and fertility behaviour. When required, for example, mothers take the initiative in seeking health care for themselves and their children. Importantly family structure has facilitated female education which is associated with both mortality and fertility decline. There are few concerns that the values imparted by secular education are contrary to the values of the family or to women's roles within it. The egalitarian family structure has also contributed to fertility decline by raising the costs of children and reducing the long-run benefits to be gained from them. Sri Lanka is particularly distinctive in the contribution of changes in female age at marriage to its fertility decline, marriage age having risen six years this century. This change has been accompanied in recent times by a shift from family-arranged to self-selected (love) marriage. The explanation lies in changes in the socio-economic system which have reduced the centrality of the family in wider social and economic relations, and placed a greater premium on an individual's own abilities and attributes. PMID:10165308

  3. Solar photovoltaics in Sri Lanka: a short history

    With a significant unelectrified rural population, Sri Lanka has followed the evolution of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology in the West very closely since the 1970s as terrestrial applications for photovoltaics were developed. It was not until 1980 that the Sri Lankan government embarked on the promotion of solar photovoltaics for rural domestic use when the Ceylon Electricity Board formed the Energy Unit. In addition, Australian and Sri Lankan government-funded pilot projects have given the local promoters further valuable insight into how and how not to promote solar photovoltaics. The establishment of community-based solar photovoltaic programmes by non-governmental organizations has developed a novel approach to bridge the gap between this state-of-the-art technology and the remotely located end-users. (author)

  4. Solar photovoltaics in Sri Lanka: a short history

    Gunaratne, L. (Solar Power and Light Co., Colombo (Sri Lanka))

    1994-10-01

    With a significant unelectrified rural population, Sri Lanka has followed the evolution of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology in the West very closely since the 1970s as terrestrial applications for photovoltaics were developed. It was not until 1980 that the Sri Lankan government embarked on the promotion of solar photovoltaics for rural domestic use when the Ceylon Electricity Board formed the Energy Unit. In addition, Australian and Sri Lankan government-funded pilot projects have given the local promoters further valuable insight into how and how not to promote solar photovoltaics. The establishment of community-based solar photovoltaic programmes by non-governmental organizations has developed a novel approach to bridge the gap between this state-of-the-art technology and the remotely located end-users. (author)

  5. Child (Sexual) Abuse: A Universal Problem, and Sri Lanka Is No Exception.

    Lamers-Winkelman, Francien

    2002-01-01

    Presents a response to de Zoysa's article "Child Sexual Abuse in Sri Lanka: The Current State of Affairs and Recommendations for the Future" (this issue). Discusses the many historic and socio-cultural factors that contribute to the sexual abuse of young children and discusses how Sri Lanka has made a major effort to combat such abuse. (Contains…

  6. Sri Lanka - Poverty Assessment : Engendering Growth with Equity, Opportunities and Challenges

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This report on poverty assessment in Sri Lanka establishes that the development story in Sri Lanka is one of mixed success. The country is on par with middle income countries and Millennium Development Goal timetables for universal primary school enrollment, gender parity in primary and secondary school enrollment, and universal provision of reproductive health services. At the same time, ...

  7. Returns to Education in Sri Lanka: A Pseudo-Panel Approach

    Himaz, Rozana; Aturupane, Harsha

    2016-01-01

    This study employs a pseudo-panel approach to estimate the returns to education among income earners in Sri Lanka. Pseudo-panel data are constructed from nine repeated cross sections of Sri Lanka's Labor Force Survey data from 1997 to 2008, for workers born during 1953-1974. The results show that for males, one extra year of education increases…

  8. The Role of UK Qualification Suppliers in Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe: A Comparative Evaluation

    Evans, J.; Little, A. W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is based on research on the role of UK qualifications suppliers in providing qualifications and accreditation in Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe in the context of rather different engagements with liberalisation, structural adjustment and globalisation. Sri Lanka's economic liberalisation and growth since the late 1970s has had a "de facto"…

  9. The Changing Times: General Education and the Vocational Training System in Sri Lanka

    Sedere, Upali M.

    2010-01-01

    Sri Lanka is widening its scope for vocational education sub-sector. The emerging global trends and the aspirations of the emerging Sri Lanka after defeating terrorism demands the preparation of the graduating youth at different stages of the education system for employment. Vocational education faces many challenges. Though there are…

  10. Equity in Education: Opportunities and Challenges In A Changing Sri Lanka

    Sedere, Upali M.

    2010-01-01

    Equity is a major concern for all development actors. Although Sri Lanka has successfully addressed equity issues in education sector there are unresolved factors and variables those perpetuate inequity. There are emerging new equity issues those that Sri Lanka needs to address. The changing population dynamics and the huge middle class population…

  11. Sri Lanka Development Forum : The Economy, Regional Disparities, and Global Opportunities

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This report is intended to inform the discussions of the Sri Lanka Development Forum. Specifically, section One reviews recent economic performance, the status of macroeconomic management and the strategic directions outlined in Mahinda Chintana. It notes that the recent acceleration in Sri Lanka's growth can be partly attributed to large aid flows for tsunami reconstruction and to rapid g...

  12. Sri Lanka; Price Changes and the Poor

    Anne Marie Gulde

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the short-run impact of Sri Lanka’s recent structural adjustment program on the poorest segments of society. While the ultimate goal of all macroeconomic adjustment programs is to overcome structural rigidities and put the economy on a sustainable growth path, some of the measures implemented, such as the liberalization of food and energy prices, cuts in subsidies and other budgetary spending, and exchange rate changes, may cause significant increases in relative prices fa...

  13. 77 FR 48499 - U.S. Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka Chennai and Cochin, India and...

    2012-08-14

    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka Chennai and Cochin, India and Colombo, Sri Lanka February 3-8, 2013 AGENCY: International Trade Administration... in Sri Lanka, are organizing a Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka from February 3-9,...

  14. SOFTWARE TEST AUTOMATION IN PRACTICE: EMPIRICAL STUDY FROM SRI LANKA

    S. Hushalini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In today, software projects are more complex than ever before, bugs are found before the product released and always creep in and often reappear. The Objective of the automated testing is to simplify as much of the testing effort as possible with minimum scripts. Automated software testing is the best way to increase the effectiveness, efficiency and coverage of software testing for software projects and also enables an organization to influence technology to perform tedious repetitive tasks efficiently, saving both time and cost, Along with that it gives more time to create test and increasing overall test coverage. The Current Literature suggests that nowadays it is very noticeable when considering the number of companies investing in automated testing tools due to the increased importance of Test Automation in software engineering. This paper will focus on how software test automation is in practice of today’s Sri Lankan’s software developments projects and will present the empirical observations. The objective of this empirical study is to shed light on the problems and the limitations in using the test automation tools and to figure out how test automation in Sri Lanka utilizes it significant key roles to succeed in software development projects in managing the mundane tasks. This paper can be used in future as a reference to obtain the knowledge and the findings of Test Automation use in Sri Lanka for early adopters.

  15. Software Test Automation in Practice: Empirical Study from Sri Lanka

    S.Hushalini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In today, software projects are more complex than ever before, bugs are found before the product released and always creep in and often reappear. The Objective of the automated testing is to simplify as much of the testing effort as possible with minimum scripts. Automated software testing is the best way to increase the effectiveness, efficiency and coverage of software testing for software projects and also enables an organization to influence technology to perform tediousrepetitive tasks efficiently, saving both time and cost, Along with that it gives more time to create test and increasing overall test coverage. The Current Literature suggests that nowadays it is very noticeable when considering the number of companies investing in automated testing tools due to the increased importance of Test Automation in software engineering. This paper will focus on how software test automation is in practice of today’s Sri Lankan’s software developments projects and will present the empirical observations. The objective of this empirical study is to shed light on the problems and the limitations in using the test automation tools and to figure out how test automation in Sri Lanka utilizes it significant key roles to succeed insoftware development projects in managing the mundane tasks. This paper can be used in future as a reference to obtain the knowledge and the findings of Test Automation use in Sri Lanka for early adopters.

  16. Identifying biomass fuel shortages in Sri Lanka

    Howes, Michael (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). Inst. of Development Studies)

    1989-01-01

    This paper analyses data from the Sri Lankan Forestry Master Plan and other sources, to explore the causes of biomass shortages, and to identify the areas where interventions are likely to have most impact. Five districts, concentrated in the wet lowland and hill country zones, are found to be in overall biomass fuel deficit whilst in a further five, which include dry zone locations, fuelwood consumption exceeds potential supply, Within the area of overall deficit, poorer urban groups and rural families with no home gardens - who together comprise 15% of all households nationally - are affected most severely. Another 10% of households are likely to suffer to a lesser extent. (author).

  17. A case study of the relationship between journalism and politics in Sri Lanka

    Westerberg, Isabella

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is conducted as a Minor Field Study (MFS) in Colombo, Sri Lanka. The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between journalism and politics from three questions at issue: 1) What is the role of media according to the journalists? 2) How do journalists work with political reporting in the Sri Lankan print media? 3) How does print media and politics correspond to each other in Sri Lanka?. The theoretical framework consists of theories onmedia systems, democracy...

  18. Spatial and temporal variations of thunderstorm activities over Sri Lanka

    Sonnadara, Upul

    2016-05-01

    Spatial and temporal variation of frequencies of thunderstorms over Sri Lanka using thunder day data is presented. A thunder day is simply a calendar day in which thunder is heard at least once at a given location. Two sets of data were collected and analyzed: annual totals for 10 climatological stations for a period of 50 years and monthly totals for 20 climatological stations for a period of 20 years. The average annual thunder days over Sri Lanka was found to be 76. Among the climatological stations considered, a high number of annual thunder days was recorded in Ratnapura (150 days/year), followed by Colombo (108 days/year) and Bandarawela (106 days/year). It appears that there are no widespread long-term increasing or decreasing trends in thunderstorm frequencies. However, Colombo, the capital of Sri Lanka which has over two million people shows an increasing trend of 0.8 thunder days per year. Although there is a high variability between stations reporting the number of thunder days, the overall pattern within a year is clear. Thunderstorm frequencies are high during two periods: March-May and September-November, which coincide with the first inter-monsoon and second inter-monsoon periods. Compared to the dry zone, the wet zone, especially the southwestern region, has high thunderstorm activity. There is a clear spatial difference in thunderstorm activities during the southwest and northeast monsoon seasons. During both these seasons, enhanced thunderstorm activities are reported on the leeward side of the mountain range. A slight reduction in the thunderstorm activities was found in the high elevation areas of the hill country compared to the surrounding areas. A lightning ground flash density map derived using annual thunder days is also presented.

  19. Integrated approach for coastal hazards and risks in Sri Lanka

    Garcin, M.; Desprats, J. F.; Fontaine, M.; Pedreros, R.; Attanayake, N.; Fernando, S.; Siriwardana, C. H. E. R.; de Silva, U.; Poisson, B.

    2008-06-01

    The devastating impact of the tsunami of 26 December 2004 on the shores of the Indian Ocean recalled the importance of knowledge and the taking into account of coastal hazards. Sri Lanka was one of the countries most affected by this tsunami (e.g. 30 000 dead, 1 million people homeless and 70% of the fishing fleet destroyed). Following this tsunami, as part of the French post-tsunami aid, a project to establish a Geographical Information System (GIS) on coastal hazards and risks was funded. This project aims to define, at a pilot site, a methodology for multiple coastal hazards assessment that might be useful for the post-tsunami reconstruction and for development planning. This methodology could be applied to the whole coastline of Sri Lanka. The multi-hazard approach deals with very different coastal processes in terms of dynamics as well as in terms of return period. The first elements of this study are presented here. We used a set of tools integrating a GIS, numerical simulations and risk scenario modelling. While this action occurred in response to the crisis caused by the tsunami, it was decided to integrate other coastal hazards into the study. Although less dramatic than the tsunami these remain responsible for loss of life and damage. Furthermore, the establishment of such a system could not ignore the longer-term effects of climate change on coastal hazards in Sri Lanka. This GIS integrates the physical and demographic data available in Sri Lanka that is useful for assessing the coastal hazards and risks. In addition, these data have been used in numerical modelling of the waves generated during periods of monsoon as well as for the December 2004 tsunami. Risk scenarios have also been assessed for test areas and validated by field data acquired during the project. The results obtained from the models can be further integrated into the GIS and contribute to its enrichment and to help in better assessment and mitigation of these risks. The coastal

  20. Small hydropower projects and sustainable energy development in Sri Lanka

    Morimoto, R.; Munasinghe, M. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom); Munasinghe Inst. for Development, Colombo (Sri Lanka); Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Sustainable development has evolved to encompass three major viewpoints: economic, social and environmental. Given the wide-ranging potential impacts of energy on national sustainable development, we review the linkages between these two topics. In the Sri Lanka case study presented here, the Sustainomics framework is used to assess the role of small hydroelectric power projects in sustainable energy development. Key variables represent economic, social and environmental dimensions. This analysis helps policy-makers compare and rank project alternatives more easily and effectively. The multi-dimensional analysis, which includes environmental and social variables, supplements the more conventional cost benefit analysis based on economic values alone. (Author)

  1. Breaking energy bonds: micro hydro in Sri Lanka

    Lahiru Perera, M.A.; Karunaratne, T.W. [ITDG (Sri Lanka)

    2001-08-01

    The article discusses the need to provide electrical power through mini hydroelectric power systems for disadvantaged rural communities in Sri Lanka. The objective of the country's Electricity Consumers' Society is to enable communities to have their own renewable energy sources over which they will have total control. The Society's strategy is discussed in detail. At present, mineral oil is still widely used in bottle lamps but a new era of empowerment appears to have dawned and will be completed when the 'powerless' 46% of the population has access to efficient, environmentally friendly electrical power.

  2. [Cutaneous diphtheria after a minor injury in Sri Lanka].

    Berg, L; Mechlin, A; Schultz, E S

    2016-02-01

    Cutaneous dipththeria is an infectious bacterial disease endemic in tropical regions, but rarely diagnosed in Germany. Following travel in Sri Lanka, a 60-year-old German presented to our dermatological clinic with a skin ulcer and extensive erythematous erosive edema of his left foot. Corynebacterium diphtheriae was isolated from a swab of the lesion. There were no clinical signs of toxic diphtheria. The patient was treated with penicillin G and erythromycin, followed by a slow healing of the lesion. The isolated strain could be identified as toxigenic C. diphtheriae mitis. Due to increased travel activity, dermatologists should have uncommon infections like cutaneous diphtheria in mind. PMID:26525966

  3. Ecologically sound building in Sri Lanka; Bygget i solen

    Brekke, Ragnar

    2002-07-01

    The article describes a 300 m2 office and television building in Sri Lanka. A number of energy-conserving measures have been implemented the most conspicuous of which are some large, blue solar cell roofs which at the same time give shade and 25000 W solar electricity. The dc from the solar cells is converted to 230 V ac by means of inverters. Among other environmentally friendly aspects is automobile-free garden, natural ventilation and cooling, energy-efficient equipment and wood materials from certified environmental forests. Sewer is handled on location by a local plant. 75 percent of the house is available to wheelchair users.

  4. Distribution of Lutra lutra in the Highlands of Sri Lanka

    Silva P. K. de

    1991-01-01

    The only otter found in Sri Lanka is Lutra lutra. A survey was carried out in 1989/1990 in the highland region of the island, an area drained by four river systems. Abundant signs of otters were found. Freshwater crabs form the main part of the otters' diet in the study area, where few fish are found. Although at present, otters are plentiful, partly because access to tea plantations is limited, reducing pressure on otters living on them, this may not continue as vegetable farming increases,...

  5. Sri Lanka and the Tamil Tigers: Conflict and Legitimacy

    Shlomi Yass

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE was founded in 1976, demanding the establishment of an independent state for the Tamil ethnic minority in northern and northeastern Sri Lanka. In May 2009, following over three decades of conflict, its leader, Velupillai Prabhakaran was killed and the group was dismantled. The LTTE was established long before other well-known terror groups emerged, and yet it received little attention in comparison. An analysis of the relations between Sri Lankan governments and the Tamil Tigers from the onset of the struggle in the 1970s up to the group’s final defeat in May 2009 can provide valuable lessons to other democratic states fighting terrorist organizations, including Israel.

  6. Installation of solar PV systems in Sri Lanka

    Fernando, M.P.T.P. [Sarvodaya Rural Technical Services, Moratuwa (Sri Lanka)

    1995-10-01

    The tropical country of Sri Lanka has hydroelectric power plants sufficient to provide electricity to only 40% of its 25,000 villages. The electric power needs of the average Sri Lankan rural communities are basic: three or four lights to illuminate their house and a power supply for their televisions. Solar radiation is abundant throughout the year. To take advantage of this resource, the Sarvodaya Rural Technical Services launched a Solar PV pilot demonstration project in the rural areas not served by the electric grid. The systems were being installed on an individual residence basis and funded by loans. Social and cultural problems which have arisen during the course of the project have slowed its implementation. This study identifies the problems and makes recommendations to resolve the current problems and avoid new ones.

  7. Characteristics of Rural Leptospirosis Patients Admitted to Referral Hospitals during the 2008 Leptospirosis Outbreak in Sri Lanka: Implications for Developing Public Health Control Measures

    Agampodi, Suneth B.; Nugegoda, Dhanaseela B.; Thevanesam, Vasanthi; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the exposure risk factors of highly endemic rural leptospirosis in tropical setting, we conducted a prospective, hospital-based case control study in Sri Lanka. A conceptual hierarchy of variables was used to analyze the data. Case patients included 38 (34%) females and 73 (66%) males with a mean age of 36 yr (SD 12.7 yr). Using piped, chlorinated water for drinking/general purposes (odds ratio [OR] 0.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16–0.67), paddy fields in the vicinity of home (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.06–2.97), sighting dogs at home yard/dog ownership (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.11–2.91), sighting cattle at home yard/cattle ownership (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.00–2.84), and work in a paddy field (OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.68, 5.41) were the main predictors of leptospirosis among febrile patients. In high endemic tropical settings with rural leptospirosis, risk factors in residential environments, rather than individual exposures, seemed to play a major role in leptospirosis disease transmission. PMID:25331809

  8. Research and development on radiation processing in Sri Lanka

    Research on radiation processing of natural polymer such as polysaccharides of chitosan, cellulose, carrageenan has been carried out in Sri Lanka since the year 2004. The research group have been involving in development activities on application of chitin and chitosan for wound dressing, irradiated chitosan on shelf life extension of fruits such as papaya, banana, mangoes, radiation crosslinked super-absorbent hydrogel from sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by radiation processing. Hydrogels prepared with PVA/Carrageenan/Agar has been studied on guinea pigs to determine the wound healing effect. Irradiated chitosan powder and chitosan solution was studied in vitro and found chitosan solution (1%) directly subjected to irradiation dosages even at 5 kGy was highly effective in control of anthracnose causing organism of papaya. In vivo studies with irradiated 1% chitosan solution on Rathana and red lady variety of papaya shows better control of spoilage of papaya to a considerable extent. The government of Sri Lanka (Ministry of Science and Technology and Atomic Energy Authority) is in the process of establishing the first government owned Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility and it will be helpful to transfer the output of R and D in radiation processing. (author)

  9. Greenhouse gas emission reduction: A case study of Sri Lanka

    Meier, P. [IDEA, Washington, DC (United States); Munasinghe, M. [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper we describe a case study for Sri Lanka that explores a wide range of options for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Options range from renewable technologies to carbon taxes and transportation sector initiatives. We find that setting electricity prices to reflect long-run marginal cost has a significant beneficial impact on the environment, and the expected benefits predicted on theoretical grounds are confirmed by the empirical results. Pricing reform also has a much broader impact than physical approaches to demand side management, although several options such as compact fluorescent lighting appear to have great potential. Options to reduce GHG emissions are limited as Sri Lanka lacks natural gas, and nuclear power is not practical until the system reaches a much larger size. Building the few remaining large hydro facilities would significantly reduce GHG emissions, but these would require costly resettlement programs. Given the inevitability for fossil-fuel base load generation, both clean coal technologies such as pressurized fluidized bed combustion, as well as steam-cycle residual oil fueled plants merit consideration as alternatives to the conventional pulverized coal-fired plants currently being considered. Transportation sector measures necessary to ameliorate local urban air pollution problems, such as vehicle inspection and maintenance programs, also bring about significant reductions of GHG emissions. 51 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Energy and street foods (Bangladesh and Sri Lanka)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Energy used by street food vendors is effectively replacing fuel consumption in the household, as studies have shown that street foods are often cheaper to buy than to prepare at home. Rapid urbanisation has led to a proliferation of these very small food outlets, particularly in the Asian subcontinent. Street foods provide employment and income to millions of people around the world, and provide low cost, affordable food to low income people. The project pilot tested improved biomass stoves with a selection of street food vendors. In Sri Lanka, laboratory tests were undertaken with the following three stoves: improved rice-husk burner, biomass gasifier, and double-mouth chimney stoves. From the pilot testing in Sri Lanka the key findings are that the efficient gasifier stove is not suitable for street food vendors, but there were some promising results from larger biomass stoves. In Bangladesh, the project piloted four types of biomass stove: single mouth, double mouth, bucket-type and institutional stove. As these were more established, the pilot focused on a method for reaching a larger number of beneficiaries, people were trained to make stoves in their own and in others' houses. Five workshops were held and over 540 stoves were built. Impact assessment exercises were undertaken in both countries. (author)

  11. Understanding the explanatory model of the patient on their medically unexplained symptoms and its implication on treatment development research: a Sri Lanka Study

    Sumathipala Kethaki

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS are often distressed, disabled and dissatisfied with the care they receive. Illness beliefs held by patients have a major influence on the decision to consult, persistence of symptoms and the degree of disability. Illness perception models consist of frameworks to organise information from multiple sources into distinct but interrelated dimensions: identity (the illness label, cause, consequences, emotional representations perceived control and timeline. Our aim was to elicit the illness perceptions of patients with MUS in Sri Lankan primary care to modify and improve a CBT intervention. Method An intervention study was conducted in a hospital primary care clinic in Colombo, Sri Lanka using CBT for MUS. As a part of the baseline assessment, qualitative data was collected using; the Short Explanatory Model Interview (SEMI, from 68 patients (16–65 years with MUS. We categorised the qualitative data in to key components of the illness perception model, to refine CBT intervention for a subsequent larger trial study. Results The cohort was chronically ill and 87% of the patients were ill for more than six months (range six months to 20 years with 5 or more symptoms and 6 or more visits over preceding six months. A majority were unable to offer an explanation on identity (59% or the cause (56%, but in the consequence domain 95% expressed significant illness worries; 37% believed their symptoms indicated moderately serious illness and 58% very serious illness. Reflecting emotional representation, 33% reported fear of death, 20% fear of paralysis, 13% fear of developing cancer and the rest unspecified incurable illness. Consequence and emotional domains were significant determinants of distress and consultations. Their repeated visits were to seek help to alleviate symptoms. Only a minority expected investigations (8.8 % or diagnosis (8.8%. However, the doctors who had previously

  12. The India–Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement and the Proposed Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement: A Closer Look

    Kelegama, Saman

    2014-01-01

    The India–Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement has been in operation for more than a decade. The paper provides the Sri Lankan perspective of the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) highlighting both the positive outcomes and the negative aspects. The paper shows that the FTA has worked in favor of Sri Lanka but its full potential has not yet been realized due to market access problems in India, and the lack of supply capacity for some products in Sri Lanka. The India–Sri Lanka Comprehensive Economic Pa...

  13. Internet-based media coverage on dengue in Sri Lanka between 2007 and 2015

    Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Cohn, Emily; Lloyd, David C.; Tozan, Yesim; Brownstein, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Internet-based media coverage to explore the extent of awareness of a disease and perceived severity of an outbreak at a national level can be used for early outbreak detection. Dengue has emerged as a major public health problem in Sri Lanka since 2009. Objective To compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lana with references to other diseases (malaria and influenza) in Sri Lanka and to compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lanka with notified cases of dengue in Sri Lanka. Design We examined Internet-based news media articles on dengue queried from HealthMap for Sri Lanka, for the period January 2007 to November 2015. For comparative purposes, we compared hits on dengue with hits on influenza and malaria. Results There were 565 hits on dengue between 2007 and 2015, with a rapid rise in 2009 and followed by a rising trend ever since. These hits were highly correlated with the national epidemiological trend of dengue. The volume of digital media coverage of dengue was much higher than of influenza and malaria. Conclusions Dengue in Sri Lanka is receiving increasing media attention. Our findings underpin previous claims that digital media reports reflect national epidemiological trends, both in annual trends and inter-annual seasonal variation, thus acting as proxy biosurveillance to provide early warning and situation awareness of emerging infectious diseases. PMID:27178645

  14. Internet-based media coverage on dengue in Sri Lanka between 2007 and 2015

    Annelies Wilder-Smith

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internet-based media coverage to explore the extent of awareness of a disease and perceived severity of an outbreak at a national level can be used for early outbreak detection. Dengue has emerged as a major public health problem in Sri Lanka since 2009. Objective: To compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lana with references to other diseases (malaria and influenza in Sri Lanka and to compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lanka with notified cases of dengue in Sri Lanka. Design: We examined Internet-based news media articles on dengue queried from HealthMap for Sri Lanka, for the period January 2007 to November 2015. For comparative purposes, we compared hits on dengue with hits on influenza and malaria. Results: There were 565 hits on dengue between 2007 and 2015, with a rapid rise in 2009 and followed by a rising trend ever since. These hits were highly correlated with the national epidemiological trend of dengue. The volume of digital media coverage of dengue was much higher than of influenza and malaria. Conclusions: Dengue in Sri Lanka is receiving increasing media attention. Our findings underpin previous claims that digital media reports reflect national epidemiological trends, both in annual trends and inter-annual seasonal variation, thus acting as proxy biosurveillance to provide early warning and situation awareness of emerging infectious diseases.

  15. Content Analysis of Food and Beverages Advertisements Targeting Children and Adults on Television in Sri Lanka

    Prathapan, Shamini; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Low, Wah Yun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Food marketing is one of the main factors in the increase in childhood obesity. The objective is to compare the strategies used for promotion of food and beverages advertisements on Sri Lankan television for children and adults. Method Among 16 analog television channels in Sri Lanka, 50% of the channels were selected randomly after stratifying according to language. Recording was during weekdays and weekends. In total, 95 different food and beverages advertisements were analyzed irrespective of the channel. Results Among all food and beverages–related advertisements, 78% were child focused, and among these 74% claimed health benefits. A statistically significant difference was found in terms of implications related to nutrition or health (P advertisements contained disclaimers. Conclusion and recommendations The Ministry of Health needs to pursue all food and beverages–focused advertisements for policy formulation and implementation. PMID:26658325

  16. Report of the survey of shark fisheries for conservation and management of shark resources, Sri Lanka

    2013-01-01

    A shark survey was conducted between October, 2012 and December, 2013 in order to strengthen the existing data collection and research thus improving conservation and management of sharks in Sri Lanka.

  17. Bank Finance For Small And Medium-Sized Enterprises In Sri Lanka: Issues And Policy Reforms

    Gamage Pandula

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Access to bank finance is necessary to create an economic environment that enables Small and Medium-sized enterprises (SMEs to grow and prosper. The SMEs in Sri Lanka, however, face significant constraints to access bank finance. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the access to bank finance and related issues in the SME sector of Sri Lanka. The paper is exploratory in nature and reviews the bank financing situation for SMEs in Sri Lanka, as well as provides an overview of constraints faced by the banks (supply-side and SMEs (demand-side. The paper also highlights some good practices in SME lending from international experience and outlines some recommendations to help overcome the constraints faced by the banks and SMEs. The recommendations discussed in this paper may be of importance to policymakers, not only in Sri Lanka, but in many other developing countries in a similar stage of economic growth.

  18. The Solar Orientation of the Lion Rock Complex in Sri Lanka

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the solar orientation of the archaeological complex of Sigiriya, the Lion Rock, in Sri Lanka. We can see that the axis of this complex is oriented with the sunset of the zenithal sun.

  19. The domestic financial market and the trade liberalization outcome : the evidence from Sri Lanka

    Athukorala, Premachandra; Rajapatirana, Sarath

    1991-01-01

    The authors developed a framework for analyzing the relationship between domestic financial markets and the effects of trade liberalization and applied it to Sri Lanka's experience between 1977 and 1987. They found that the domestic financial market significantly affects the outcome of trade liberalization. Because Sri Lanka deregulated its interest rates when it undertook the trade liberalization, this allowed those earning more from trade liberalization to hold financial assets rather than ...

  20. Sri Lanka - Public Sector Accounting and Auditing: A Comparison to International Standards

    Subramanian, P. K.; Wickramasinghe, Jiwanka; Points, Ronald; Jacobs, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This assessment of public sector accounting and auditing is generally meant to assist with the implementation o f more effective Public Financial Management (PFM) through better quality accounting and public audit processes in Sri Lanka. Following the introduction, and chapters on public sector accounting and auditing, Annex A explains the methodology used for the study. Annex B provides a summary of accounting and auditing standards referred to in this study. Annex C and D provide Sri Lanka ...

  1. Awareness of breast cancer among adolescent girls in Colombo, Sri Lanka: a school based study

    Ranasinghe, Hasanthika M; Ranasinghe, Nilakshika; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Seneviratne, Rohini De A; Rajapakse, Senaka

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the commonest cancer in women worldwide. Although programmes promoting breast cancer awareness are being carried out throughout Sri Lanka, few have targeted school students. We conducted this study to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding breast cancer with reference to screening, services available, breast self-examination, and sources of information, among adolescent schoolgirls in the Colombo District of Sri Lanka. Methods The knowledge, attitu...

  2. Symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescent students; a perspective from Sri Lanka

    Wijeratne Thilina; Gurusinghe Jayantha; Welgama Srina; Rodrigo Chaturaka; Jayananda Gamini; Rajapakse Senaka

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Sri Lanka recorded an extraordinary high suicide rate for adolescents aged 15 - 19 in the early 1990s (46.5/100,000). With this in perspective, the Ministry of Health in Sri Lanka recommends school programmes for adolescents by mental health units of local hospitals. Methods We conducted cross sectional surveys to screen for symptoms of anxiety and depression among students aged 14 - 18 during school mental health programmes. Two schools were randomly selected within the R...

  3. Sri Lanka - Poverty Assessment: Engendering Growth with Equity, Opportunities and Challenges

    Narayan, Ambar; Ventura, Princess; Yoshida, Nobuo

    2007-01-01

    This report on poverty assessment in Sri Lanka establishes that the development story in Sri Lanka is one of mixed success. The country is on par with middle income countries and Millennium Development Goal timetables for universal primary school enrollment, gender parity in primary and secondary school enrollment, and universal provision of reproductive health services. At the same time, consumption income poverty persists and the poor continue to face basic welfare challenges such as malnut...

  4. Spatiotemporal Hydrological Modelling with GIS for the Upper Mahaweli Catchment, Sri Lanka

    Premalal de Silva, Ranjith

    1997-01-01

    Sustainability of water resources is imperative for the continued prosperity of Sri Lanka where the economy is dependent upon agriculture. The Mahaweli river is the longest in Sri Lanka, with the upper catchment covering an area of 3124 sq .km .. The Mahaweli Development programme, a major undertaking in the upper catchment has been implemented with the aims of providing Mahaweli water to the dry zone of the country through a massive diversion scheme and also for generating hyd...

  5. An Integrative Sales Growth Model for Small Enterprises in Sri Lanka : Path Analysis Approach

    B, NISHANTHA

    2011-01-01

    Small enterprises are increasingly playing an important role in Sri Lanka. However, little is known about the determinants of small enterprise growth in this context. The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of the factors in different dimensions influencing small enterprise growth in Sri Lanka. Based on an analysis of data from 97 owner-managers of small manufacturing enterprises located in Colombo district, the researcher developed an integrative sales growth model that suggest...

  6. COMPARISON OF E-LEARNING ACCEPTANCE AMONG POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS IN SRI LANKA AND MALAYSIA

    Kaushalya Yatigammana; Md.Gapar Md.Johar; Chandra Gunawardhana

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of innovation attributes on postgraduate students’ e-learning acceptance between Sri Lanka and Malaysia. The Diffusion of Innovation theory identifies five attributes of innovation namely relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialabiltity, observability which impact for the attitude and intention of using e- learning. Sri Lanka and Malaysia are the countries which have more similarities in terms of history, geography and culture. T...

  7. Transforming Primary Education in Sri Lanka: From a 'Subject' of Education to a 'Stage' of Education

    Little, Angela; Aturupane, Harsha; Shojo, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Sri Lanka is a lower-middle income country with a per capita income of approximately US$ 2,400, and a population of around 20 million people. Sri Lanka's high rate of literacy is due to its sustained growth through the twentieth century. Primary education spans the first five grades of schooling, grades 1-5. Student's progress automatically to lower secondary education for four years of ed...

  8. Breastfeeding practices in a public health field practice area in Sri Lanka: a survival analysis

    Agampodi Thilini C; Agampodi Suneth B; Piyaseeli Udage Kankanamge D

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Exclusive breastfeeding up to the completion of the sixth month of age is the national infant feeding recommendation for Sri Lanka. The objective of the present study was to collect data on exclusive breastfeeding up to six months and to describe the association between exclusive breastfeeding and selected socio-demographic factors. Methods A clinic based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Medical Officer of Health area, Beruwala, Sri Lanka in June 2006. Mothers wi...

  9. Dynamic relationships between stock market performance and short term interest rate Empirical evidence from Sri Lanka

    Pallegedara, Asankha

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the dynamic relationships between stock market performance and the interest rates in Sri Lanka during June 2004 to April 2011. We use all share price index in the Colombo stock exchange as a measure of stock market performance indicator and Sri Lanka interbank offer rate as a measure of interest rate. We employ some conventional time series econometric techniques namely Unit root test, cointegration test, vector auto correction model (VECM), Granger-Causality test and Impu...

  10. Economic development perspectives of post-disaster infrastructure reconstruction: Post-tsunami reconstruction in Sri Lanka

    Palliyaguru, R. S.; Amaratunga, Dilanthi; Haigh, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Sri Lanka was found to be a disaster prone country in the recent past. The impact is more severe when developing countries are faced to various natural or man-made disasters. Impact appears in many forms; loss of lives and property, economic impact, social impact etc. As a developing country, Sri Lanka is much more concerned with the country’s economic development. Therefore, it is wise to look into post-disaster activities in development perspectives and integrate disaster ris...

  11. Is Hiding Foot and Mouth Disease Sensitive Behavior for Farmers? A Survey Study in Sri Lanka

    Gunarathne, Anoma; Kubota, Satoko; Kumarawadu, Pradeep; Karunagoda, Kamal; Kon, Hiroichi

    2016-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) has a long history in Sri Lanka and was found to be endemic in various parts of the country and constitutes a constant threat to farmers. In Sri Lanka, currently there is no regular, nationwide vaccination programme devised to control FMD. Therefore, improving farmers’ knowledge regarding distinguishing FMD from other diseases and ensuring prompt reporting of any suspicion of FMD as well as restricting movement of animals are critical activities for an effective F...

  12. Moore's law, Dabbawalas, and pediatric cardiac care in Sri Lanka.

    Samarasinghe, Duminda

    2015-01-01

    Sri Lanka is an island nation in Indian Ocean that provides free healthcare to all citizens through government healthcare system. It has commendable health indices in the region. Pediatric cardiac services have rapidly progressed over past few years helping to further bring down infant and under-five mortality rates. Lady Ridgeway Hospital for Children (LRH) is the only tertiary care referral center for children with heart disease in the country. Currently it performs approximately 1,000 cardiac catheterizations and 1,000 cardiac surgeries every year. Target is to double the surgical output to treat all children with heart diseases in a timely and appropriate manner. Being a middle-income country, this is not an easy task. Technology used in diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart diseases is rapidly advancing with its price tag. In such a setting, it is challenging to proceed to achieve this target in a resource-limited environment. PMID:26085764

  13. Distribution of Lutra lutra in the Highlands of Sri Lanka

    Silva P. K. de

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available The only otter found in Sri Lanka is Lutra lutra. A survey was carried out in 1989/1990 in the highland region of the island, an area drained by four river systems. Abundant signs of otters were found. Freshwater crabs form the main part of the otters' diet in the study area, where few fish are found. Although at present, otters are plentiful, partly because access to tea plantations is limited, reducing pressure on otters living on them, this may not continue as vegetable farming increases, bringing pesticide and fertiliser washoff and soil erosion. Mining is also causing increased water turbidity, and fish farming is leading to otters being destroyed. Peak Wilderness Sanctuary and the Horton Plains National Park help to protect otters and other wildlife, but conservation measures need to be put in place now to protect otters against theses growing threats.

  14. Malaria in Sri Lanka: one year post-tsunami

    Briët, Olivier J T; Galappaththy, Gawrie N L; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H;

    2006-01-01

    One year ago, the authors of this article reported in this journal on the malaria situation in Sri Lanka prior to the tsunami that hit on 26 December 2004, and estimated the likelihood of a post-tsunami malaria outbreak to be low. Malaria incidence has decreased in 2005 as compared to 2004 in most...... districts, including the ones that were hit hardest by the tsunami. The malaria incidence (aggregated for the whole country) in 2005 followed the downward trend that started in 2000. However, surveillance was somewhat affected by the tsunami in some coastal areas and the actual incidence in these areas may...... have been higher than recorded, although there were no indications of this and it is unlikely to have affected the overall trend significantly. The focus of national and international post tsunami malaria control efforts was supply of antimalarials, distribution of impregnated mosquito nets and...

  15. Nuclear Knowledge Management Implementation Issues In Sri Lanka

    About Knowledge Management: Process of organizing and distributing an Organization’s collective wisdom so the right information gets to the right people at the right time. NKM Implementation Problems in Sri Lanka: • Difficulty of identifying nuclear knowledge holders; • NKM has not been given considerable importance; • Many nuclear science experts are in retirement age; • No proper mechanism is available to replace young personnel for their positions; • Unawareness of general public about his technology. • Capacity building through training and education and transferring knowledge from centers of knowledge to centers of growth are key issues. • Development of new courses related to nuclear science is a key issue to be highly considered. • The tendency towards the training and educations of nuclear personnel in the country is becoming less and less

  16. Non-economic gains of Sri Lanka's FTAs with neighbours

    Bandara, Jayatilleke S.; Yu, Wusheng

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to answer the question: does a bilateral free trade agreement (FTA) lead to an improvement in the security of a member country and greater peace between two member countries in the developing world? Design/methodology/approach – This paper reviews existing...... literature and uses the idea of non-economic gains from regional trading agreements to explain how Sri Lanka managed to use FTAs to neutralise India and obtain military assistance from Pakistan using its FTAs with two countries during the recently concluded war. Findings – Even though political objectives...... motivations of countries forming regional and bilateral trading arrangements, this paper adds to understanding of what motivates small developing countries to form trade agreements with big neighbours....

  17. Birds of Sabaragamuwa University campus, Buttala, Sri Lanka

    T.D. Surasinghe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a bird survey in the Sabaragamuwa University premises in southeastern Sri Lanka between 2001 and 2004. We recorded 145 bird species, representing 17 orders and 51 families from the campus. The birdlife included Red-faced Malkoha, a globally Vulnerable species and four Near Threatened taxa. The university premises suffer from severe habitat alteration largely owing to fire, filling-up of aquatic habitats, resource over-extraction, improper waste management, invasion by exotic species and livestock grazing. Several conservation measures, including habitat management strategies such as restoration of riparian vegetation, and wetlands, increasing plant diversity in home gardens and prevention of secondary successions in grasslands are recommended to protect the campus environment and to conserve its avifaunal diversity.

  18. An overview of air pollution and respiratory illnesses in Sri Lanka

    Senarath, C. [Nilwala College of Education, Wilpita, Akuressa (Sri Lanka)

    2005-07-01

    This paper examines the effects on human health and controlling measures of air pollution in Sri Lanka. The objectives of the study were to identify and categorize the major air pollutants in Sri Lanka and their sources; examine the public health effects of air pollution; study the air pollution situation in Sri Lanka; understand the link between respiratory illnesses in Sri Lanka and air pollution; and, find control measures taken by the regulatory authorities to abate air pollution. Data were collected through interviews and conversation with air pollution stakeholders, reference materials, and visits with the Central Environmental Authority, Urban Development Authority and Public Health Bureau. The paper concludes that automobile exhaust is one of the major causes of air pollution and that respiratory diseases in Sri Lanka have become a major health problem. The author recommends that control measures should be strengthened to abate air pollution in Sri Lanka; steps should be taken to minimize traffic congestion and to develop programs to raise public awareness; artificial materials such as polythene and plastics in day-to-day activities should be minimized; and recycling processes of artificial materials should be enhanced. 7 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  19. X-ray fluorescence in IAEA Member States: Sri Lanka

    An ED-XRF facility was established in the analytical laboratory of the Atomic Energy Authority of Sri Lanka in 2001 under the technical assistance received through a IAEA TC project. The facility comprises of a X ray tube (Rich - Seifert), a sample holder with secondary target assembly and a Si (Li) detector. The laboratory has also got the necessary facilities to analyze water samples by co-precipitating technique using APDC. Our XRF laboratory has already established analytical procedures to use emission transmission methods (AXIl-QAES, P. Kump), back-scatter fundamental parameter method (QXAS-BFP), APDC co-precipitation method and thin and thick sample analysis method. Selected activities carried out by the XRF Laboratory are: Research study on heavy metal concentration levels in crow feathers collected from different environments and in industrial effluents released to a main water body (i.e the Kelani River); Research study on hyper accumulating capacity of flora in Ussangoda area (Serpentine mineral deposited area); Study on the possibility of removing heavy metals in liquid waste by bricks (low cost waste water treatment method); Study on heavy metal contamination in soil collected from Tsunami affected areas; Elemental analysis of air particulate matter to identify pollutants and pollution sources; Provision of analytical services to archaeological studies; Alloy analysis for technical evaluations. In Sri Lanka, there is a rising demand for this analytical service as it can provide the customer relatively fast and reliable results at low cost. AEA has decided to upgrade the existing facility to TXRF through the IAEA technical assistance to meet the demand for the services to analyse water and other liquid samples. In addition, Quality Assurance and Quality control procedures have been implemented for validation of analytical methods and check of accuracy of analytical results obtained

  20. Fossilized diatoms in meteorites from recent falls in Sri Lanka

    Hoover, Richard B.; Wallis, Jamie; Wickramarathne, Keerthi; Samaranayake, Anil; Williams, George; Jerman, Gregory; Wallis, D. H.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    2013-09-01

    On December 29, 2012, a bright yellow and green fireball was observed to disintegrate over the Polonnaruwa District of North Central, Sri Lanka. Many low density, black stones were recovered soon after the observed fall from rice paddy fields near the villages of Aralaganwila and Dimbulagala. These stones were initially studied by optical microscopy methods at the Medical Research Institute in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Soon thereafter, samples were sent to the UK and to the United States. More extensive Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy studies were then carried out at Cardiff University and the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center. The physico-chemical properties, elemental abundances, mineralogy and stable isotope data clearly indicate that these stones are non-terrestrial. Freshly fractured interior surfaces of the black stones have also been observed to contain the remains of fossilized diatom. Many of the diatom frustules are clearly embedded in the meteorite rock matrix and exhibit nitrogen levels below the EDX detection limits. Some of the fossil diatoms are araphid marine pennates and planktonic forms that are inconsistent with conditions associated with rice paddy fields. These observations indicate the fossilized diatoms are indigenous to the meteorites rather than post-arrival biological contaminants. The carbon content and mineralogy suggests that these stones may represent a previously ungrouped clan of carbonaceous meteorites. The extremely low density (~0.6) of the stones and their observed mineralogy was inconsistent with known terrestrial rocks (e.g., pumice, diatomite and fulgurites). The minerals detected suggest that the parent body of the Polonnaruwa stones may have been the nucleus of a comet. These observations are interpreted as supporting the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe Panspermia hypothesis and the hypothesis that diatoms and other microorganisms might be capable of living and growing in water ice and brines in comets.

  1. Indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka: production systems and genetic diversity

    Production status, farming systems and genetic diversity of indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka were evaluated using six geographically distinct populations. The indigenous cattle population of the country is considered as a nondescript mixture of genotypes, and represents more than half of the total cattle population of 1.2 million heads. Five distinct indigenous populations were investigated for morphological analysis, and four were included in evaluating genetic differences. Farming systems were analysed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. The genetic variation was assessed within and between populations using 15 autosomal and two Y-specific microsatellite markers, and compared with two indigenous populations from the African region. Farming system analysis revealed that indigenous cattle rearing was based on traditional mixed-crop integration practices and operates under limited or no input basis. The contribution of indigenous cattle to total tangible income ranged from zero to 90% reflecting the high variation in the purpose of keeping. Morphometric measurements explained specific phenotypic characteristics arising from geographical isolation and selective breeding. Though varying according to the region, the compact body, narrow face, small horns and humps with shades of brown and black coat colour described the indigenous cattle phenotype in general. Genetic analysis indicated that indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka have high diversity with average number of alleles per locus ranging from 7.9 to 8.5. Average heterozygosity of different regions varied within a narrow range (0.72 ± 0.04 to 0.76 ± 0.03). Genetic distances between regions were low (0.085 and 0.066) suggesting a similar mixture of genotypes across regions. Y-specific analysis indicated a possible introgression of Taurine cattle in one of the cattle populations. (author)

  2. Supporting elephant conservation in Sri Lanka through MODIS imagery

    Perera, Kithsiri; Tateishi, Ryutaro

    2012-10-01

    The latest national elephant survey of Sri Lanka (2011) revealed Sri Lanka has 5,879 elephants. The total forest cover for these elephants is about 19,500 sq km (2012 estimation) and estimated forest area is about 30% of the country when smaller green patches are also counted. However, studies have pointed out that a herd of elephants need about a 100 sq km of forest patch to survive. With a high human population density (332 people per sq km, 2010), the pressure for land to feed people and elephants is becoming critical. Resent reports have indicated about 250 elephants are killed annually by farmers and dozens of people are also killed by elephants. Under this context, researchers are investigating various methods to assess the elephant movements to address the issues of Human-Elephant-Conflict (HEC). Apart from various local remedies for the issue, the conservation of elephant population can be supported by satellite imagery based studies. MODIS sensor imagery can be considered as a successful candidate here. Its spatial resolution is low (250m x 250m) but automatically filters out small forest patches in the mapping process. The daily imagery helps to monitor temporal forest cover changes. This study investigated the background information of HEC and used MODIS 250m imagery to suggest applicability of satellite data for Elephant conservations efforts. The elephant movement information was gathered from local authorities and potentials to identify bio-corridors were discussed. Under future research steps, regular forest cover monitoring through MODIS data was emphasized as a valuable tool in elephant conservations efforts.

  3. P-T evolution of a spinel + quartz bearing khondalite from the Highland Complex, Sri Lanka: Implications for non-UHT metamorphism

    Dharmapriya, P. L.; Malaviarachchi, Sanjeewa P. K.; Galli, Andrea; Su, Ben-Xun; Subasinghe, N. D.; Dissanayake, C. B.; Nimalsiri, T. B.; Zhu, Bin

    2014-12-01

    Here, we report a natural field example for the coexistence of spinel + quartz as a non-UHT assemblage in spinel- and cordierite-bearing garnet-sillimanite-biotite-graphite gneiss (khondalite) interbedded with orthopyroxene-garnet-biotite bearing intermediate granulites from the Highland Complex (HC) in Sri Lanka. The khondalite contains Zn-rich spinel mainly in four textural assemblages namely: (a) spinel co-existing with tiny quartz (ZnO = 12.67-12.85 wt%), (b) spinel surrounded by sillimanite moates and in intergrowth with skeletal sillimanites (ZnO = 9.03-9.17 wt%), (c) symplectitic spinels at the margin of sillimanite (ZnO = 4.09-4.28 wt%) and (d) spinel co-existing with ilmenite or as isolated grains (ZnO = 7.61-7.97 wt% and Cr2O3 = 5.99-6.27 wt%). Assemblage (a) and (b) occur within garnet while assemblages of (c) and (d) are present within cordierite moates after garnet in the matrix. Pseudosections calculated in the NCKFMASHTMnO system and conventional geothermobarometry suggest that the metamorphic peak conditions attained by the spinel + quartz bearing khondalites and associated intermediate granulites did not exceed T of 900 °C and P of 7.5-8.5 kbar. Post-peak evolution was characterized by a stage of nearly-isobaric cooling down to T of 770 °C and P of 7.5 kbar, followed by a late stage of isothermal decompression down to P < 6.5 kbar and T of 770 °C. We propose that the incorporation of large amount of Zn into spinel from exotic, metasomatic fluids and possibly incorporation of Fe3+ into spinel under high oxidizing conditions may have shifted the stabilization of co-existing spinel + quartz to T < 900 °C. Hence, this study provides insights into the occurrence of spinel + quartz as a non- UHT assemblage suggesting that the coexistence of spinel + quartz should be treated with care and considered only as indicative, but not diagnostic of UHT metamorphism.

  4. Neurological manifestations of snake bite in Sri Lanka.

    Seneviratne U

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Snake bite is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in certain parts of Sri Lanka. This study was designed to determine the offending snakes, neurological manifestations, disease course, and outcome in neurotoxic envenomation. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Fifty six consecutive patients admitted with neurological manifestations following snake bite were studied prospectively. Data were obtained regarding the offending snakes, neurological symptoms, time taken for onset of symptoms, neurological signs, and time taken for recovery. RESULTS: The offending snake was Russell′s viper in 27(48.2%, common and Sri Lankan krait in 19(33.9%, cobra in 3(5.4%, and unidentified in 7(12.5%. Ptosis was the commonest neurological manifestation seen in 48(85.7% followed by ophthalmoplegia (75%, limb weakness (26.8%, respiratory failure (17.9%, palatal weakness (10.7%, neck muscle weakness (7.1%, and delayed sensory neuropathy (1.8%. Neurological symptoms were experienced usually within 6 hours after the bite. Following administration of antivenom, the signs of recovery became evident within a few hours to several days. The duration for complete recovery ranged from four hours to two weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Complete recovery of neuromuscular weakness was observed in all patients except for one who died with intracerebral haemorrhage shortly after admission.

  5. Climate change and agriculture in Sri Lanka; a Ricardian valuation

    Sungno Niggolseo [Yale Univ., School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, New Haven, CT (United States); Mendelsohn, Robert [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Munasinghe, Mohan [Munasinghe Inst. for Development (MIND), Colombo (Sri Lanka); Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2005-10-01

    This paper measures climate change impacts on Sri Lankan agriculture using the Ricardian method. The model examines the net revenue per hectare of the four most important crops in the country. The limited range of temperature variation allows only a simple test of temperature impacts, but the greater range of precipitation across the country distinguishes more complex precipitation effects. We then examine the impacts of the climate predictions of five AOGCM models and two simple uniform change scenarios for Sri Lanka. The impacts of rainfall increases are predicted to be beneficial to the country as a whole in all five AOGCM scenarios, but temperature increases are predicted to be harmful. Nationally, the impacts vary from -11 billion rupees (-20 per cent) to +39 billion rupees (+72 per cent) depending on the climate scenarios. With warming, the already dry regions (the Northern and Eastern provinces), are expected to lose large portions of their current agriculture, but the cooler regions (the central highlands), are predicted to remain the same or increase their output. The paper reconfirms that climate change damages could be large in tropical developing countries, but highly dependent on the actual climate scenario. (Author)

  6. Voormalige kindsoldaten in Sri Lanka, een onopgeloste erfenis van een bloedig conflict

    Stöpler, L.; Frerks, G.E.

    2010-01-01

    Lucien Stopler & Georg Frerks discuss the plight of the Tamil ex-child soldiers in Sri Lanka, an unresolved heritage of a bloody war. In the wake of the defeat of the LTTE, the Sri Lankan government has not shown much effort in addressing the root causes of the conflict and in building peace. It

  7. Evolution of dengue in Sri Lanka-changes in the virus, vector, and climate.

    Sirisena, P D N N; Noordeen, F

    2014-02-01

    Despite the presence of dengue in Sri Lanka since the early 1960s, dengue has become a major public health issue, with a high morbidity and mortality. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are the vectors responsible for the transmission of dengue viruses (DENV). The four DENV serotypes (1, 2, 3, and 4) have been co-circulating in Sri Lanka for more than 30 years. The new genotype of DENV-1 has replaced an old genotype, and new clades of DENV-3 genotype III have replaced older clades. The emergence of new clades of DENV-3 in the recent past coincided with an abrupt increase in the number of dengue fever (DF)/dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) cases, implicating this serotype in severe epidemics. Climatic factors play a pivotal role in the epidemiological pattern of DF/DHF in terms of the number of cases, severity of illness, shifts in affected age groups, and the expansion of spread from urban to rural areas. There is a regular incidence of DF/DHF throughout the year, with the highest incidence during the rainy months. To reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with DF/DHF, it is important to implement effective vector control programs in the country. The economic impact of DF/DHF results from the expenditure on DF/DHF critical care units in several hospitals and the cost of case management. PMID:24334026

  8. Present status of nuclear science education and training in Sri Lanka

    Like others Sri Lankans too have fear of nuclear radiation, probably because of the weak system of proper radiation education. Some National Institutes and few Universities are involved in nuclear science teaching and research. There are two major levels of obtaining radiation or nuclear education and training in Sri Lanka : the University and training courses in nuclear related technology and radiation protection offered by the Atomic Energy Authority of the Ministry of Science and Technology. This paper summarizes the status, some of the activities and problems of radiation education in Sri Lanka. (author)

  9. Anaemia among Female Undergraduates Residing in the Hostels of University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka

    Gayashan Chathuranga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia is a major public health problem that has affected around 25% of the world’s population. An analytical cross-sectional study was performed on 313 female undergraduates residing in hostels of University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka, during year 2011. Objective of this study was to determine prevalence and contributing factors to anaemia among the study population. Haemoglobin concentration was assayed using cyanomethaemoglobin method. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used to retrieve information regarding dietary habits and personal factors of participants. Descriptive statistical methods, chi-square test, and independent sample t-test were used to analyze data. Of the 302 females, 17.5% (n=53 had mild anaemia and 7.9% (n=24 had moderate anaemia. Severely anaemic individuals were not observed. Participants’ dietary habits and personal factors were not significantly associated with prevalence of anaemia (whether a participant is a vegetarian or not (P=0.525, drinking tea within one hour of a meal (P=0.775, frequency of consumption of red meat, fish, and eggs (P=0.499, antihelminthic treatment within past year (P=0.792, and menorrhagia (P=0.560. Anaemia in the study population is below the average for Sri Lankan data. Diet and selected medical conditions were not a causative factor for anaemia in this population.

  10. Indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka: Production systems and genetic diversity

    Full text: The production status, farming systems and genetic diversity of indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka were evaluated using six geographically distinct populations in Sri Lanka, which is a small island located below the southern tip of Indian subcontinent. The indigenous cattle population of the country is considered as a non-descript type mixture of genotypes, and represent more than the half of total cattle population of 1.2 million heads. Six distinct indigenous populations (NE, NC, So, No, TK and Th) were investigated for morphological and genetic differences. The respective farming systems were also evaluated to complete the requirement in developing conservation and utilization strategies. The sampling was carried out based on the non-existence of artificial insemination facilities to assure the target populations are indigenous. The six populations were assumed genetically isolated from each other in the absence of nomadic pattern of rearing and regular cattle migration. The farming systems were analyzed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire by single visits to each location. Single visits were practiced, as there is no variation in farming system according to the period of the year. Morphometric measurements were taken during the visit and the genetic variation was assessed within and between five populations using 15 autosomal and two Y-specific microsatellite markers. The farming system analysis revealed that indigenous cattle are reared as a traditional practice in all the regions of the country under limited or no input situations. Since the low productivity masks its real contribution to the rural livelihood, the level of utilization was confounded within the attributes of respective farming systems. The contribution of indigenous cattle to total tangible income ranged from 0% to 90% in different regions reflecting the high variation in the purpose of keeping indigenous cattle. Integration with crop, especially with paddy was the common

  11. Adolescents perception of reproductive health care services in Sri Lanka

    Agampodi Thilini C

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent health needs, behaviours and expectations are unique and routine health care services are not well geared to provide these services. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived reproductive health problems, health seeking behaviors, knowledge about available services and barriers to reach services among a group of adolescents in Sri Lanka in order to improve reproductive health service delivery. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in a semi urban setting in Sri Lanka. A convenient sample of 32 adolescents between 17–19 years of age participated in four focus group discussions. Participants were selected from four midwife areas. A pre-tested focus group guide was used for data collection. Male and female facilitators conducted discussions separately with young males and females. All tape-recorded data was fully transcribed and thematic analysis was done. Results Psychological distresses due to various reasons and problems regarding menstrual cycle and masturbation were reported as the commonest health problems. Knowledge on existing services was very poor and boys were totally unaware of youth health services available through the public health system. On reproductive Health Matters, girls mainly sought help from friends whereas boys did not want to discuss their problems with anyone. Lack of availability of services was pointed out as the most important barrier in reaching the adolescent needs. Lack of access to reproductive health knowledge was an important reason for poor self-confidence among adolescents to discuss these matters. Lack of confidentiality, youth friendliness and accessibility of available services were other barriers discussed. Adolescents were happy to accept available services through public clinics and other health infrastructure for their services rather than other organizations. A demand was made for separate youth friendly services through medical practitioners

  12. Oestrus detection and reproductive performance of cattle in Sri Lanka

    The efficiency of oestrus detection in pure Bos taurus and Bos taurus x Bos indicus breeds on two large farms and on smallholdings in the mid-country region of Sri Lanka was studied. Milk samples were collected on the day of insemination (D0), and at 7 days (D7) and 23 days (D23) after insemination for the measurement of progesterone concentrations. Of a total of 228 inseminations performed on large farms, ovulatory oestrus was confirmed by progesterone measurement in only 144 animals, giving a correct oestrus detection rate of 63.2%. Of a total of 1317 inseminations performed on smallholdings, oestrus was correctly detected in 805 animals, giving an accuracy of 61.1%. The number of services per conception on large farms and on smallholdings was found to be 3.2 and 2.9, respectively. Most of the incorrect timings of service were due to inseminations being performed during the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle: 28.9% in large farms and 23.1% under smallholder conditions; and on smallholdings, 15.5% of the services were given to anoestrous cows or to cows which failed to ovulate. The percentage of cows in oestrus served by private inseminators (71.3%) was found to be significantly higher (P<0.025) than that in cows served by government technicians (53.8%). The accuracy of diagnosing pregnancy and non-pregnancy on the basis of progesterone concentrations 23 days after insemination, as confirmed by subsequent rectal examination after eight weeks, was found to be 72.5% and 96.4%, respectively. In post-partum cows, the involution of the uterus was found to be complete within 28 ± 8.0 days in 95% of the animals studied. The calving to first service interval was 155 ± 77 days on smallholder farms. In this study, the major causes for lowered reproductive efficiency in cattle in Sri Lanka were found to be delayed onset of post-partum ovarian activity and incorrect timing of service. (author). 33 refs, 9 tabs

  13. Productivity cost due to maternal ill health in Sri Lanka.

    Suneth Agampodi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The global impact of maternal ill health on economic productivity is estimated to be over 15 billion USD per year. Global data on productivity cost associated with maternal ill health are limited to estimations based on secondary data. Purpose of our study was to determine the productivity cost due to maternal ill health during pregnancy in Sri Lanka. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied 466 pregnant women, aged 24 to 36 weeks, residing in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. A two stage cluster sampling procedure was used in a cross sectional design and all pregnant women were interviewed at clinic centers, using the culturally adapted Immpact tool kit for productivity cost assessment. Of the 466 pregnant women studied, 421 (90.3% reported at least one ill health condition during the pregnancy period, and 353 (83.8% of them had conditions affecting their daily life. Total incapacitation requiring another person to carry out all their routine activities was reported by 122 (26.1% of the women. In this study sample, during the last episode of ill health, total number of days lost due to absenteeism was 3,356 (32.9% of total loss and the days lost due to presenteeism was 6,832.8 (67.1% of the total loss. Of the 353 women with ill health conditions affecting their daily life, 280 (60% had coping strategies to recover loss of productivity. Of the coping strategies used to recover productivity loss during maternal ill health, 76.8% (n = 215 was an intra-household adaptation, and 22.8% (n = 64 was through social networks. Loss of productivity was 28.9 days per episode of maternal ill health. The mean productivity cost due to last episode of ill health in this sample was Rs.8,444.26 (95% CI-Rs.6888.74-Rs.9999.78. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal ill health has a major impact on household productivity and economy. The major impact is due to, generally ignored minor ailments during pregnancy.

  14. E-waste issues in Sri Lanka and the Basel Convention.

    Suraweera, Inoka

    2016-03-01

    E-waste is hazardous, complex and expensive to treat in an environmentally sound manner. The management of e-waste is considered a serious challenge in both developed and developing countries and Sri Lanka is no exception. Due to significant growth in the economy and investments and other reasons the consumption of electronic and electrical equipment in Sri Lanka has increased over the years resulting in significant generation of e-waste. Several initiatives such as introduction of hazardous waste management rules, ratification of the Basel Convention in 1992 and the introduction of a National Corporate E-waste Management Program have been undertaken in Sri Lanka to manage e-waste. Strengthening policy and legislation, introducing methods for upstream reduction of e-waste, building capacity of relevant officers, awareness raising among school children and the general public and development of an e-waste information system are vital. Research on e-waste needs to be developed in Sri Lanka. The health sector could play a leading role in the provision of occupational health and safety for e-waste workers, advocacy, capacity building of relevant staff and raising awareness among the general public about e-waste. Improper e-waste management practices carried out by informal sector workers need to be addressed urgently in Sri Lanka. PMID:26943598

  15. Ethics Review Committee approval and informed consent: an analysis of biomedical publications originating from Sri Lanka

    Siriwardhana Chesmal

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International guidelines on research have focused on protecting research participants. Ethical Research Committee (ERC approval and informed consent are the cornerstones. Externally sponsored research requires approval through ethical review in both the host and the sponsoring country. This study aimed to determine to what extent ERC approval and informed consent procedures are documented in locally and internationally published human subject research carried out in Sri Lanka. Methods We obtained ERC approval in Sri Lanka and the United Kingdom. Theses from 1985 to 2005 available at the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine (PGIM library affiliated to the University of Colombo were scrutinised using checklists agreed in consultation with senior research collaborators. A Medline search was carried out with MeSH major and minor heading 'Sri Lanka' as the search term for international publications originating in Sri Lanka during 1999 to 2004. All research publications from CMJ during 1999 to 2005 were also scrutinized. Results Of 291 theses, 34% documented ERC approvals and 61% documented obtaining consent. From the international journal survey, 250 publications originated from Sri Lanka of which only 79 full text original research publications could be accessed electronically. Of these 38% documented ERC approval and 39% documented obtaining consent. In the Ceylon Medical Journal 36% documented ERC approval and 37% documented obtaining consent. Conclusion Only one third of the publications scrutinized recorded ERC approval and procurement of informed consent. However, there is a positive trend in documenting these ethical requirements in local postgraduate research and in the local medical journal.

  16. 77 FR 69592 - U.S. Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka

    2012-11-20

    ... Sri Lanka (Colombo) February 3-8, 2013, published at 77 FR 48499, August 14, 2012 to revise the... Mission to Chennai and Cochin, India and Colombo, Sri Lanka on February 3-8, 2013, published at 77 FR 48499, August 14, 2012, as previously amended by notice at 77 FR 59899 (Oct. 1, 2012)...

  17. The use and abuse of female domestic workers from Sri Lanka in Lebanon.

    Abu-habib, L

    1998-03-01

    Women who migrate from Sri Lanka to become domestic workers in Lebanon face gender, class, and race discrimination that often results in abuse, yet the predicament of these women is largely ignored by local and international humanitarian and human rights agencies. Public consciousness about the plight of Asian domestic workers in the Persian Gulf region was raised in 1990 when domestic workers were repatriated in the wake of the Gulf War. In Lebanon, nearly half of the work permits granted to foreigners in 1997 were to women from Sri Lanka. This migration began in the 1970s and is sanctioned by the Sri Lanka government because of the economic benefits accruing from wages sent home by these women. Lebanese families procure domestic positions through an employment agency that arranges transportation and entry for the Sri Lankan women. These women, especially minors, often have to bribe Sri Lankan government agents to falsify travel documents. Upon arrival in Lebanon, the women have no support systems or job security. Most employment contracts last 3 years and pay $100/month with no benefits or protection from local labor laws. Domestic workers are made vulnerable by employers who withhold salaries or travel documents. Upon return to Sri Lanka, former domestic workers face social disapproval and marital problems. To redress this situation, the governments of sending and receiving countries must take action to protect female migrant workers, and nongovernmental organizations must publicize the plight of these women and take action to address the abuses they face. PMID:12321536

  18. Human body donation programs in Sri Lanka: Buddhist perspectives.

    Subasinghe, Sandeepani Kanchana; Jones, D Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Considerable attention is being given to the availability of bodies for anatomical education. This raises the question of the manner in which they are obtained, that is, whether they are unclaimed or donated. With increasing emphasis upon the ethical desirability of using body bequests, the spotlight tends to be focused on those countries with factors that militate against donations. However, little attention has been paid to cultures where donations are readily available. One such country is Sri Lanka where the majority of the Buddhist population follows Theravada Buddhism. Within this context, the expectation is that donations will be given selflessly without expecting anything in return. This is because donation of one's body has blessings for a better outcome now and in the afterlife. The ceremonies to honor donors are outlined, including details of the "Pirith Ceremony." The relevance for other cultures of these features of body donation is discussed paying especial attention to the meaning of altruism and consent, and justification for the anonymization of cadavers. The degree to which anatomy is integrated into the surrounding culture also emerges as significant. PMID:25689145

  19. Managing shallow aquifers in the dry zone of Sri Lanka.

    Sood, Aditya; Manthrithilake, Herath; Siddiqui, Salman; Rajah, Ameer; Pathmarajah, S

    2015-07-01

    This study looks at the groundwater issues in the dry zone of Sri Lanka and shows how the use of remote sensing with high-resolution images can help in groundwater management. A new approach is developed for automatic extraction of the location of agro-wells using high-spatial-resolution satellite imageries. As an example, three pilot sites in three different aquifer systems in the country are considered, and their high-resolution images are analyzed over two temporal time periods. The analysis suggests that the well density in all three regions has increased over the last few years, indicating higher levels of groundwater extraction. Using the well inventory developed by this new approach, the water budgeting was prepared for the mainland of Jaffna Peninsula. The analysis shows a wide variation in well density in the Jaffna Peninsula, ranging from (as little as) less than 15 wells per square kilometer to (as high as) more than 200 wells per square kilometer. Calculations made for the maximum allowable water extraction in each administrative division of Jaffna show that less than 3 h of daily extraction per well is possible in some districts. This points to an increasing pressure on groundwater resources in the region and thus highlights the importance of understanding groundwater budgets for sustainable development of the aquifers. PMID:26041062

  20. Molecular characterisation and disease severity of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka

    Kanchana Kumari Bandara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease all over the world, important in tropical and subtropical areas. A majority of leptospirosis infected patients present as subclinical or mild disease while 5-10% may develop severe infection requiring hospitalisation and critical care. It is possible that several factors, such as the infecting serovar, level of leptospiraemia, host genetic factors and host immune response, may be important in predisposition towards severe disease. Different Leptospira strains circulate in different geographical regions contributing to variable disease severity. Therefore, it is important to investigate the circulating strains at geographical locations during each outbreak for epidemiological studies and to support the clinical management of the patients. In this study immunochromatography, microscopic agglutination test and polymerase chain reaction were used to diagnose leptospirosis. Further restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing methods were used to identify the circulating strains in two selected geographical regions of Sri Lanka. Leptospira interrogans, Leptospira borgpetersenii and Leptospira kirschneri strains were identified to be circulating in western and southern provinces. L. interrogans was the predominant species circulating in western and southern provinces in 2013 and its presence was mainly associated with renal failure.

  1. Natural radioactivity in bricks used in Sri Lanka

    The objective of the present study was to determine the specific radioactivity concentrations of Ra sup 226, Th sup 232 and K sup 40 in brick samples collected from different areas and compare with the corresponding results for bricks of different countries.Sixteen clay and four cement brick samples were collected from kilns in different areas in Sri Lanka. The gamma ray spectra of the prepared samples were measured using a typical high resolution gamma spectrometer based on a shielded HpGe detector.The spectrometer was calibrated for energy and efficiency over the experimental energy range 186-2700 keV using IAEA reference material RGU-1, RGTH-1 and RGK-1.GANAAS software was used to analyse the photopeaks. The measured average specific radioactivity concentrations of Ra sup 226, Th sup 232, K sup 40 in the clay bricks were 35, 69 and 604 Bq per kg respectively. For cement bricks these values were 17, 42, 525 Bq per kg. The corresponding world average values are 50,50 and 500 Bq per kg for the said radionuclides.All three radionuclides were greater than the world average in clay bricks measured from Mahiyangana. Clay bricks from Ampitiya, Anuradhapura and Nikaweratiya measured values are less than the world average for all three radionuclides. Data on concentrations of natural radionuclides can be used to determine dose rates in relation to building materials

  2. Current status of uranium exploration in Sri Lanka

    Apart from the few occurrences of Gondwana (Jurassic), Miocene and later sediments, most of Sri Lanka consists of Precambrian rocks of Archaean age. These rocks underwent metamorphism under amphibolite and granulite facies conditions about 200 Ma ago. Nine anomalous areas for uranium mineralization were identified after a preliminary geochemical survey of the whole island, except for the northwestern Miocene belt. Consistent low contents of uranium in stream sediment samples suggested that solution or hydromorphic dispersion of uranium is not a prominent mechanism and that most of the uranium dispersion is rather mechanical in nature in most of the country. Six of the above areas lie either within or close to the boundary between the Highland Series and the Vijayan Complex. The latter mainly consists of granitic gneisses, hornblende biotite gneisses, granitoids and migmatites formed under amphibolite facies conditions. Denser sampling (one sample per 1 km2) in Phase II of the programme in two areas, namely Maha Cya and Mala Oya, indicated that further exploration work would be worthwhile. A number of samples from these areas had uranium values greater than 500 ppm. Further, the composition of the amphiboles and pyroxenes from rocks of the Maha Cya area are comparable to those in rocks from known areas of uranium mineralization such as the Mary Kathleen uranium deposit in Australia. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs

  3. Temporal correlation between malaria and rainfall in Sri Lanka

    Galappaththy Gawrie NL

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rainfall data have potential use for malaria prediction. However, the relationship between rainfall and the number of malaria cases is indirect and complex. Methods The statistical relationships between monthly malaria case count data series and monthly mean rainfall series (extracted from interpolated station data over the period 1972 – 2005 in districts in Sri Lanka was explored in four analyses: cross-correlation; cross-correlation with pre-whitening; inter-annual; and seasonal inter-annual regression. Results For most districts, strong positive correlations were found for malaria time series lagging zero to three months behind rainfall, and negative correlations were found for malaria time series lagging four to nine months behind rainfall. However, analysis with pre-whitening showed that most of these correlations were spurious. Only for a few districts, weak positive (at lags zero and one or weak negative (at lags two to six correlations were found in pre-whitened series. Inter-annual analysis showed strong negative correlations between malaria and rainfall for a group of districts in the centre-west of the country. Seasonal inter-annual analysis showed that the effect of rainfall on malaria varied according to the season and geography. Conclusion Seasonally varying effects of rainfall on malaria case counts may explain weak overall cross-correlations found in pre-whitened series, and should be taken into account in malaria predictive models making use of rainfall as a covariate.

  4. Climatic change in Asia: Sri Lanka country report

    NONE

    1994-07-01

    The report focuses on the impacts of climate change on water resources, agriculture and the coastal zone and investigates measures to reduce greenhouse gases through changes in future energy investments. Climate change scenarios indicate significant changes in temperature and rainfall in Sri Lanka in the year 2070. The study shows the most adverse impacts of climate change will be caused by sea level rise and the increased frequency of extreme rainfall and storms causing beach erosion, damage to coastal eco-systems such as mangroves and salinity intrusion and affecting the tourist and fisheries industries. Impacts on agriculture and on water resources will be adverse, but need further study of these and also of the severity of climate change. A `no regrets` policy for climate change mitigation is advocated, promoting energy efficiency and energy markets, preventing deforestation, enhancing the ability of eco-systems to respond to sea level rise and enabling the inhabitants to respond to climate change. Greater reliance on industrialization to reduce the dependence on agriculture is included in the national response strategy. Regional cooperation, for example to research the sea level rise problem and cope with natural disasters, is necessary. 122 refs., 23 figs., 103 tabs.

  5. Heat pumping technologies in Sri Lanka: applications and future prospects

    Tharumaratnam, V.; Mendis, D.L.O. [Mini Well Systems (pvt) Ltd. (Sri Lanka)

    1998-09-01

    New applications of heat pumping technologies have been introduced in Sri Lanka. These include manufacture of made tea, drying fruits and vegetables, and drying coconut for manufacture of export quality copra. Tea has been the backbone of the export economy for many years, and only recently has it been overtaken by garment exports. It also accounts for a large amount of energy, in terms of electricity supplied from the national grid, biomass in the form of firewood, and petroleum products , chiefly diesel oil. It has been demonstrated in pilot scale commercial trials by the company that application of heat pumping technology reduces the cost of energy in manufacture of tea from about Rs 5 per kilogram of made tea to about Rs 3. Mobile drying units have been manufactured to demonstrate the application of heat pumping technology for drying fruits, vegetables and other agricultural produce on a commercial scale. This has resulted in considerable interest in the CISIR, the Industrial Development Board, and various private sector organizations. Application of heat pumping to drying coconut for manufacture of copra has been very successful. The quality of copra has been consistently supra-grade, since there is no contamination as in the traditional method of manufacture using biomass fuels in the form of coconut shells, which causes discolouration. (author)

  6. Use of and attitudes toward tobacco and alcohol among adults in southern Sri Lanka.

    Lombardo, Sarah; Perera, Bilesha; Beaudry, Lauren; Grad, Jennifer; Maselko, Joanna; Ostbye, Truls

    2013-09-01

    The adverse health effects of tobacco and alcohol are well known. Alcohol consumption is increasing in Sri Lanka, but few population studies have been conducted. The objective of this study was to document tobacco and alcohol consumption levels among adults in southern Sri Lanka and to identify the main reasons for using or refraining from alcohol and tobacco products. Tobacco and alcohol use within Sri Lanka is relatively common, particularly among adult males. Reasons given for smoking and drinking frequently relate to social and image-based motivators. Women may be especially susceptible to the influence of peer pressure in social situations. Public health efforts should consider the use of demographic-specific anti-tobacco and anti-alcohol messages, as the motivators driving behavior appear to differ across gender and age groups. PMID:24437324

  7. Use of x-ray fluorescence and diffraction techniques in studying ancient ceramics of Sri Lanka

    Karunaratne, B. S. B.

    2012-07-01

    Ceramics were produced for centuries in Sri Lanka for various purposes. Ancient ceramic articles such as pottery, bricks, tiles, sewer pipes, etc, were made from naturally occurring raw materials. Use of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in characterizing of two ancient ceramic samples from two different archaeological sites in Sri Lanka is presented. The information obtained in this manner is used to figure out the ancient ceramic technology, particularly to learn about the raw materials used, the source of raw materials, processing parameters such as firing temperature or binders used in ceramic production. This information then can be used to explore the archaeometric background such as the nature and extent of cultural and technological interaction between different periods of history in Sri Lanka.

  8. Use of x-ray fluorescence and diffraction techniques in studying ancient ceramics of Sri Lanka

    Ceramics were produced for centuries in Sri Lanka for various purposes. Ancient ceramic articles such as pottery, bricks, tiles, sewer pipes, etc, were made from naturally occurring raw materials. Use of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in characterizing of two ancient ceramic samples from two different archaeological sites in Sri Lanka is presented. The information obtained in this manner is used to figure out the ancient ceramic technology, particularly to learn about the raw materials used, the source of raw materials, processing parameters such as firing temperature or binders used in ceramic production. This information then can be used to explore the archaeometric background such as the nature and extent of cultural and technological interaction between different periods of history in Sri Lanka.

  9. Impact of Worker’s Remittances on Household Income and Welfare in Sri Lanka

    Urumutta Gamage, Sandya Priyadarshani

    2014-01-01

    According to Economic and Social Statistic of Sri Lanka report in 2013, (p.21) the foreign employment was recorded as 23.8% of total labour force in the 2010. The total remittances income from abroad has risen steadily over the last years. As per the report, the remittances from Middle East countries were SLRS (Mn) 428,593 and it was SLRS (Mn) 335,387 from all other countries in 2012. Sri Lanka is struggling to strike a balance between maximizing the development benefits of mig...

  10. Composition of Mix Species Foraging Flocks of Birds in Riverstan of Montane Region, Sri Lanka

    S. Wikramasinghe; W.G.D.D.M. Shermila

    2013-01-01

    Montane zone mixed-species bird flock system is distinct from that of low-land wet zone of SriLanka, although some species are present in both systems. The present study identified the mixed speciesflocks of birds in Riverstan at Knuckles Region, Sri Lanka. Monthly transect counts and opportunisticobservations were made between January and May, 2012. A total of 78 flocks and 27 bird species wereencountered at Riverstan during the study period. The flock size varied between 2 to 13 species and...

  11. Characteristics of malaria vector breeding habitats in Sri Lanka: relevance for environmental management

    Hoek, Wim van der; Amerasinghe, F P; Konradsen, F;

    1998-01-01

    In and around a village in the Anuradhapura District of Sri Lanka anopheline larvae were sampled from July 1994 to April 1996 in all surface water bodies. Samples positive for Anopheles culicifacies, the established vector of malaria in Sri Lanka, and for An. barbirostris, An. vagus, and An. varuna...... exposed clear water pools, was able to exploit habitats that were shaded and contained turbid water. Environmental management interventions to control An. culicifacies breeding have to take into account that the secondary vectors of malaria exploit other habitats and would not be affected by the...

  12. Preliminary report on safety aspects on nuclear power generation in Sri Lanka

    This document is intended as background information on nuclear energy to contribute to Sri Lanka's comparative study of alternative sources of energy. This study has considered the safety and environmental effects of nuclear power reactors. Basic concepts of nuclear physics are introduced and providing and appreciation of safety considerations and safety aspects of nuclear power plants and the personnel. Radioactive waste management, storage and disposal are also discussed. Natural radiation levels in Sri Lanka are provided as well as information on biological effects of radiation especially occupational exposure licensing procedures for nuclear power plants are outlined strategy for public awareness of nuclear power is proposed

  13. Policies and regulations affecting biomass-related energy sector development in Sri Lanka

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    The future predictions of energy demand, limitations of hydro expansion and inadequate fossil fuel supplies in Sri Lanka suggest the requirement for a diversity of power sources in the future. It has been recognized that renewable energy (particularly biomass, hydro, wind and solar) will have an important role in meeting future energy demands. The main objective of this policy brief is to discuss the current status of the biomass energy sector of Sri Lanka and to lay a foundation for a process of further studies and consultations leading towards a well-integrated energy policy.

  14. Some notes on the butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea of Tantirimale Archaeological Site, Anuradhapura District, Sri Lanka

    M.D.C. Asela

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There are 243 species of butterflies which including 5 families in Sri Lanka and 20 of them are endemic. However out of the 243 species 37 butterfly species belonging to 4 families was discovered from Tanthirimale Archaeological Forest area. This forest is classified as a Tropical dry mixed evergreen forests and its situated dry zone in Anuradapura district of Sri Lanka. We select three habitat types such as: forests, Rock outcrops and scrublands for studding composition and structure of butterflies in Archaeological Forest area. However, this important forest is threatened by harmful human activities such as man made fire, illegal logging, chena cultivation and road kills.

  15. A new species of Microhyla (Anura: Microhylidae) from Sri Lanka: an integrative taxonomic approach.

    Wijayathilaka, Nayana; Garg, Sonali; Senevirathne, Gayani; Karunarathna, Nuwan; Biju, S D; Meegaskumbura, Madhava

    2016-01-01

    Species boundaries of Microhyla rubra of India and Sri Lanka were assessed using the following criteria: genetic barcoding, morphology, and vocalization. We use a ca. 500 bp fragment of the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene and show that there is an uncorrected pairwise distance of 2.7-3.2% between the Indian and Sri Lankan populations of M. rubra. We show that they are different in several call characteristics such as, dominant frequency, call duration, call rise time and pulse rate. Morphologically, the Sri Lankan population can be distinguished from the typical M. rubra described from southern India, by a combination of characters: body size, skin texture, and feet dimensions. We recognize the population from Sri Lanka as a new species, Microhyla mihintalei sp. nov., a widely distributed lowland species with an elevational distribution of up to 500 m a.s.l. PMID:27395556

  16. Neurophobia among medical students and non-specialist doctors in Sri Lanka

    Matthias, Anne Thushara; Nagasingha, Poorna; Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Gunatilake, Saman B

    2013-01-01

    Background Neurophobia is the fear of neurosciences held by medical students and doctors. The present study aims to identify whether Neurology is considered a difficult subject by medical students and non-specialist doctors from Sri Lanka and evaluate reasons for such perceived difficulties. Methods The study was conducted from May-June 2008. One hundred non-specialist doctors from the Colombo South Teaching Hospital and 150 medical students from the University of Sri Jayewardenepura were inv...

  17. Practices, advice and support regarding prolonged breastfeeding : a descriptive study from Sri Lanka.

    van den Berg, M.; Ball, H. L.

    2008-01-01

    Practice and duration of breastfeeding were examined in relation to traditional practices and modern recommendations on infant care in Sri Lanka. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 60 Sri Lankan mothers whose youngest child was 0.5-4 years. The results show that all mothers had breastfed their infants. Most respondents introduced additional foods at 4 months, as recommended by local public health services. The median age at cessation of breastfeeding was 2.9 years, in line with p...

  18. Heavy metals in Ratnapura alluvial gem sediments, Sri Lanka

    Vithanage, M. S.; Hettiarachchi, J. K.; Rajapaksha, A. U.; Wijesekara, H.; Hewawasam, T.

    2011-12-01

    The valuable gems in Sri Lanka are found from the sedimentary gem deposits in Ratnapura District, which are found as alluvial deposits some are about >50 m deep. Gem bearing gravel layer is taken out from the mine, washed by panning to recover the gem minerals in the heavy mineral fraction, is a common practice in the gem mining area. Gem bearing sediment layer is associated with different heavy minerals in which different trace metals as Co, Cr, Cu, Al, Zr, Pb and As also can be present. During panning, the sediment is washed away and the heavy metals attached to the sediments are released into the environment. Hence we studied the lability and bioavailability of arsenic and other heavy metals from the gem sediments. Sediment samples were collected from 15 small scale gem mines (3 soil layers- top, gem mineral layer and layer below gem bearing gravel layer), air dried and sieved to obtain 150 mg/kg), Cu (>150 mg/kg), Pb (>400 mg/kg), Zn (>600 mg/kg) and Co ions (>100 mg/kg). Arsenite in the gem sediments were low and recorded as Co>Zn>Mn>Ni>Cu>Pb. Sediments from few gem pits showed considerably high concentrations of metals analyzed. In some places Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn reported high in bioavailable fractions 70, 25, 20, 10 mg/kg respectively. Mobilization of these metals may increase due to changes in the pH and the presence of other ions in the environment. High concentrations of toxic metals in exchangeable and bioavailable fractions indicate the risk on plant and animals as well as the open water bodies and groundwater sources.

  19. Molecular characterization of cyanobacterial diversity in Lake Gregory, Sri Lanka

    Magana-Arachchi, Dhammika; Wanigatunge, Rasika; Liyanage, Madhushankha

    2011-07-01

    Eutrophication or the process of nutrient enrichment of stagnant waters due to excessive use of fertilizer is becoming a critical issue worldwide. Lake Gregory, an artificial lake situated in Nuwara Eliya, Sri Lanka was once a very attractive landscape feature and recreational area attracting a large number of visitors. Rapid urbanization in surrounding areas and the consequent intensification of agricultural and industrial activities led to eutrophication and siltation in the lake. Present study was conducted to detect cyanobacterial diversity and their ability to produce hepatotoxic microcystins using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. Twenty five water samples (surface and bottom) were collected from the lake and total nitrogen and total carbon were estimated. Cyanobacterial cultures were grown in appropriate media and microscopic observations were used to determine the morphological diversity of cyanobacteria isolated from different sites. Genomic DNA was isolated and purified from cyanobacteria using Boom's method. DNA samples were analyzed by PCR with oligonucleotide primers for 16S rRNA gene and mcyA gene of the operon that encodes a microcystin synthetase. The 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed the presences of cyanobacteria belong to Synechococcus sp., Microcystis aeruginosa, Calothrix sp., Leptolyngbya sp., Limnothrix sp., order Oscillatoriales and order Chroococcales. The sequences obtained from this study were deposited in the database under the accession numbers (GenBank: GU368104-GU368116). PCR amplification of mcyA primers indicated the potential for toxin formation of isolated M. aeruginosa from Lake Gregory. This preliminary study shows that the Lake Gregory is under the potential risk of cyanobacterial toxicity. Clearly more work is needed to extend this finding and clarify if other cyanobacterial isolates have genetic potential to produce microcystin since this lake is utilized for recreational activities.

  20. Sri Lankas tilnærming til helse : Sri lankas arbeid med tusenårsmålene i en historisk og samfunnsmessig sammenheng

    2012-01-01

    To end poverty in the world, the United Nations and its 189 member states came together in 2000 and formulated eight minor goals, The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by the end of year 2015. The fourth and fifth MDG aims to reduce respectively child mortality and to improve maternal health. In Sri Lanka, MDGs concerning maternal health and child mortality is almost on track with their desired outcome in 2015. Objective. To investigate the grounds for their positive outcomes related to low...

  1. Women and Management in Higher Education. CHESS Workshop (Colombo, Sri Lanka, January 5-11, 1997).

    University Grants Commission (Sri Lanka).

    The Commonwealth Higher Education Support Scheme (CHESS) 1997 Workshop was designed to promote the professional development of women in leadership positions in higher education. Participants were drawn from senior university academics and administrators from five countries: Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Specific objectives…

  2. Distribution pattern of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter (pfcrt) gene haplotypes in Sri Lanka 1996-2006

    Zhang, Jenny J; Senaratne, Tharanga N; Daniels, Rachel;

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. Widespread antimalarial resistance has been a barrier to malaria elimination efforts in Sri Lanka. Analysis of genetic markers in historic parasites may uncover trends in the spread of resistance. We examined the frequency of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter (pfcrt; codons 72...

  3. Technical Guide to Actions on Global Warming and Clean Development Mechanism in Sri Lanka

    Batagoda, B.M.S.; S.P. Nissanka; Wijekoon, Suren; Jaytilake, Avanthie

    2012-01-01

    The Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of the Government of Sri Lanka is the apex body under which all environmental issues and policy matters are addressed. The Global Affairs Division of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources is tasked with formulating policy and strategic planning and liaise with the international organizations dealing with global environmental iss...

  4. Feasibility of an appliance energy testing and labeling program for Sri Lanka

    Biermayer, Peter; Busch, John; Hakim, Sajid; Turiel, Issac; du Pont, Peter; Stone, Chris

    2000-04-01

    A feasibility study evaluated the costs and benefits of establishing a program for testing, labeling and setting minimum efficiency standards for appliances and lighting in Sri Lanka. The feasibility study included: refrigerators, air-conditioners, flourescent lighting (ballasts & CFls), ceiling fans, motors, and televisions.

  5. Is Marriage Delay a Multiphasic Response to Pressures for Fertility Decline? The Case of Sri Lanka.

    Caldwell, John; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated causes for rise in female age of marriage in Sri Lanka, studying 10,964 persons from 1,974 households. Found that rise in marriage age was not primarily a response to social pressure for fertility decline, but rather a result of urbanization, higher levels of education, unemployment, and consequent decline in parentally arranged early…

  6. Smallholder dairy production and markets: a comparison of production systems in Zambia, Kenya and Sri Lanka

    Moll, H.A.J.; Staal, S.J.; Ibrahim, M.N.M.

    2007-01-01

    Three smallholder dairy production systems in Zambia, Sri Lanka and Kenya are analysed and compared. The focus is on the relationships between the animal production system, the farm household system, and the institutional environment. Attention is given to the valuation of marketed and non-marketed

  7. Dengue Virus Transmission by Blood Stem Cell Donor after Travel to Sri Lanka; Germany, 2013

    2014-09-22

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Dengue Virus Transmission by Blood Stem Cell Donor after Travel to Sri Lanka; Germany, 2013.  Created: 9/22/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/8/2014.

  8. Duty and Service: Life and Career of a Tamil Teacher of English in Sri Lanka

    Hayes, David

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the life and career of a Tamil teacher of English working in the government education system in northern Sri Lanka. Based on data gathered in an extended life history interview, the article explores the teacher's own experiences of schooling, his reasons for entering teaching as a profession, his professional training, and…

  9. Letters From Batticaloa : TMVP's Emergence and the Transmission of Conflict in Eastern Sri Lanka

    Sanchez Meertens, A.

    2013-01-01

    In March 2004 a man known as Karuna Amman announced his defection from the LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam), an armed group seeking the formation of an independent Tamil state in the north and east of Sri Lanka. Six months after his defection, Karuna launched a new political movement – the Ta

  10. Food of larval Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles varuna in a stream habitat in Sri Lanka

    Piyaratne, M K; Amerasinghe, P H; Amerasinghe, F P;

    2005-01-01

    No previous studies have been conducted on the natural food of larval Anopheles culicifacies s.l. (the major malaria vector) and An. varuna (a secondary vector) in Sri Lanka. The present study analyzed the contents of guts dissected from larvae collected from pools in a natural stream-cum-irrigat...

  11. Strong association between house characteristics and malaria vectors in Sri Lanka

    Konradsen, Flemming; Amerasinghe, Priyanie; van der Hoek, Wim;

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether house characteristics could be used to further refine the residual insecticide-spraying program in Sri Lanka. Indoor-resting mosquito densities were estimated in 473 houses based on fortnightly collections over a two-and-a-half-year period. The...

  12. Religión, ayuda y desarrollo: el caso de Sri Lanka

    Hovey, Guy; Saleem, Amjad

    2008-01-01

    La colaboración estratégica entre United Methodist Commitee on Relief (UMCOR) y Muslim Aid (MA) en Sri Lanka, formalizada en la actualidad en un acuerdo de cooperación mundial, ofrece un modelo de distribución de ayuda eficaz, comunitario, sostenible y adecuado desde el punto de vista cultural.

  13. Fractured Narratives: Notes on women in conflict in Sri Lanka and Pakistan

    Nefloufer De Mel

    2002-01-01

    Neloufer de Mel draws on interviews with women survivors of the violence in Karachi, and research carried out in Sri Lanka in order to look at processes of militarization, patriarchy and feminist resistance and survival in both countries. Development (2002) 45, 99–104. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1110326

  14. A road map to the end of displacement in Sri Lanka?

    Jeevan Thiagarajah

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Consortium of Humanitarian Agencies (CHA is anon-profit agency representing those working in thehumanitarian sector in Sri Lanka. Our work on internaldisplacement, the knowledge we have gained and thecapacity we have developed owe much to collaborationwith Roberta Cohen and her Brookings colleagues.

  15. Livestock farming in coconut plantations in Sri Lanka: Constraints and opportunities

    Samarajeewa, A.D.; Schiere, J.B.; Ibrahim, M.N.M.; Viets, T.C.

    2003-01-01

    A study was carried out to identify biological and socio-economic constraints and opportunities for livestock development in coconut plantations in Sri Lanka. One part of the study focussed on the use of participatory rural appraisal to establish felt needs of different farmer categories in terms of

  16. Speaking Conflict: Ideological Barriers to Bilingual Policy Implementation in Civil War Sri Lanka

    Davis, Christina P.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a holistic view of ideological barriers to bilingual policy implementation in Sri Lanka, a conflict-ridden postcolonial nation-state. I examine Sinhalese youth and adults' Tamil as a second language (TSL) learning and speaking practices across three contexts: a multilingual school, a program for government servants, and an…

  17. Peace Education in Conflict Zones--Experience from Northern Sri Lanka

    Harris, Simon; Lewer, Nick

    2008-01-01

    In September 2005, adult students from Kilinochchi, located in the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)-controlled Wanni region of northern Sri Lanka, were awarded University of Bradford, UK, validated postgraduate certificates or diplomas in conflict resolution and peace preparedness. The diploma is, we think, a landmark in peace education…

  18. Rainfall Distributions in Sri Lanka in Time and Space: An Analysis Based on Daily Rainfall Data

    T. P. Burt

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Daily rainfall totals are analyzed for the main agro-climatic zones of Sri Lanka for the period 1976–2006. The emphasis is on daily rainfall rather than on longer-period totals, in particular the number of daily falls exceeding given threshold totals. For one station (Mapalana, where a complete daily series is available from 1950, a longer-term perspective on changes over half a century is provided. The focus here is particularly on rainfall in March and April, given the sensitivity of agricultural decisions to early southwest monsoon rainfall at the beginning of the Yala cultivation season but other seasons are also considered, in particular the northeast monsoon. Rainfall across Sri Lanka over three decades is investigated in relation to the main atmospheric drivers known to affect climate in the region: sea surface temperatures in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, of which the former are shown to be more important. The strong influence of El Niño and La Niña phases on various aspects of the daily rainfall distribution in Sri Lanka is confirmed: positive correlations with Pacific sea-surface temperatures during the north east monsoon and negative correlations at other times. It is emphasized in the discussion that Sri Lanka must be placed in its regional context and it is important to draw on regional-scale research across the Indian subcontinent and the Bay of Bengal.

  19. The Victoria Project, Sri Lanka: Victoria Power-Station. [Hydroelectric power

    Creber, B. (Sir Alexander Gibb and Partners (GB))

    1991-04-01

    The Victoria Hydroelectric Power-Station forms part of the Victoria Project on the Mahaweli Ganga in Sri Lanka and it provides the country's largest single power source. The Paper describes the planning, design and construction of the civil engineering works, including problems encountered, and also describes, in outline, the electrical and mechanical works. (Author).

  20. Greenhouse gas emission mitigation in the Sri Lanka power sector supply side and demand side options

    Wijayatunga, P.D.C. [University of Moratuwa (Sri Lanka). Centre for Energy Studies; Fernando, W.J.L.S. [Sri Lanka Energy Managers Association, Colombo (Sri Lanka); Shrestha, R.M. [Asian Inst. of Technology, Pathumthani (Thailand). Energy Program

    2003-12-01

    Sri Lanka has had a hydropower dominated electricity generation sector for many years with a gradually decreasing percentage contribution from hydroresources. At the same time, the thermal generation share has been increasing over the years. Therefore, the expected fuel mix in the future in the large scale thermal generation system would be dominated by petroleum products and coal. This will result in a gradual increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) and other environmental emissions in the power sector and, hence, require special attention to possible mitigation measures. This paper analyses both the supply side and demand side (DSM) options available in the Sri Lanka power sector in mitigating emissions in the sector considering the technical feasibility and potential of such options. Further, the paper examines the carbon abatement costs associated with such supply side and DSM interventions using an integrated resource planning model, which is not used in Sri Lanka at present. The sensitivities of the final generation costs and emissions to different input parameters, such as discount rates, fuel prices and capital costs, are also presented in the paper. It is concluded that while some DSM measures are economically attractive as mitigation measures, all the supply side options have a relatively high cost of mitigation, particularly in the context of GHG emission mitigation. Further it is observed that when compared with the projected price of carbon under different global carbon trading scenarios, these supply side options cannot provide economically beneficial CO{sub 2} mitigation in countries like Sri Lanka. (author)

  1. Greenhouse gas emission mitigation in the Sri Lanka power sector supply side and demand side options

    Sri Lanka has had a hydropower dominated electricity generation sector for many years with a gradually decreasing percentage contribution from hydroresources. At the same time, the thermal generation share has been increasing over the years. Therefore, the expected fuel mix in the future in the large scale thermal generation system would be dominated by petroleum products and coal. This will result in a gradual increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) and other environmental emissions in the power sector and, hence, require special attention to possible mitigation measures. This paper analyses both the supply side and demand side (DSM) options available in the Sri Lanka power sector in mitigating emissions in the sector considering the technical feasibility and potential of such options. Further, the paper examines the carbon abatement costs associated with such supply side and DSM interventions using an integrated resource planning model, which is not used in Sri Lanka at present. The sensitivities of the final generation costs and emissions to different input parameters, such as discount rates, fuel prices and capital costs, are also presented in the paper. It is concluded that while some DSM measures are economically attractive as mitigation measures, all the supply side options have a relatively high cost of mitigation, particularly in the context of GHG emission mitigation. Further it is observed that when compared with the projected price of carbon under different global carbon trading scenarios, these supply side options cannot provide economically beneficial CO2 mitigation in countries like Sri Lanka

  2. Perceptions and understanding of climate change in Sri Lanka : a case study

    Patabendi, P. [Team for Disaster Prevention and Sustainable Development, Kaduwela (Sri Lanka)

    2000-06-01

    A citizen's organization in Sri Lanka is conducting a study on current perceptions and attitudes of climate change in a small village in southern Sri Lanka just 100 km north of the capital city of Colombo. The study involves 500 villagers, of which the majority are farmers. While not yet completed, several interesting facts are emerging from this study. The 65,610 sq. km island of Sri Lanka is divided into two distinct climate regions, the wet and dry zones. The mean temperature of the island ranges from 26 to 28 degrees C. Rainfall occurs during the southwest and northeast monsoons. The three main factors for climatic change in Sri Lanka are depressions in the Bay of Bengal, intermonsoonal rain, and deforestation. A total of 500 households were given a questionnaire which was divided into the following 4 sections: (1) socio-economic situation of the household, (2) impacts of climate change, (3) behavioural intentions for actions to reduce the advance impacts of climate change, and (4) ideas about public policies to address climate change. Group discussions were also held to allow villagers to express their voices and raise questions. The study indicates that the villagers have a comprehensive perception about climate change issues in their community (experience gained by flash floods), but have less knowledge about climate change issues in the country. Many villagers believe that political intervention is necessary for any effective climate policy to emerge.

  3. An Analysis of the Competency-Based Secondary Mathematics Curriculum in Sri Lanka

    Egodawatte, Gunawardena

    2014-01-01

    In education, there is a growing interest in the concept of "competency" especially in vocational training and professional development. The concept is strongly associated with the ability to apply knowledge and skills in effective ways in unanticipated situations. In Sri Lanka, a new competency-based mathematics curriculum was…

  4. Atlas of Microorganisms in Coloured Rains and Meteorites in Sri Lanka

    Samaranayake, Anil; Wickramarathne, K.; Karunanayake, S. P. D.

    2013-02-01

    As a continuation of our earlier studies we present here an atlas of microscope images of organisms that we have discovered in a variety of coloured rain samples and meteorites that fell over Sri Lanka in December 2012 and January 2013.

  5. Percepción y protección en Sri Lanka

    Bombi, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Una evaluación llevada a cabo en Sri Lanka durante 2008 reveló que los desplazados con discapacidad resultaban extremadamente vulnerables ante incidentes relacionados con la protección; una vulnerabilidad que se ha incrementado por su falta de voz.

  6. Use of induced mutations for crop improvement programmes in Sri Lanka

    The use of radiation induced mutations is an effective additional tool for plant breeding work in Sri Lanka. Mutation Breeding could be effectively utilized to create favourable specific changes such as short culms, 90o resistance to pests and diseases, improvement in grain quality etc

  7. Mathematics Performance and Principal Effectiveness: A Case Study of Some Coastal Primary Schools in Sri Lanka

    Egodawatte, Gunawardena

    2012-01-01

    This mixed method research study is situated in the school effectiveness research paradigm to examine the correlation between the effectiveness of urban, primary school principals and their students' performance in mathematics. Nine, urban, primary schools from Negombo, a coastal fishing area in Sri Lanka, were selected; their student achievements…

  8. Sri lanka's experience with international contract migration and the reintegration of return migrants.

    Athukorala P

    1986-01-01

    ILO pub. Working paper on migrant workers from Sri Lanka and their social integration upon return migration to their home country - discusses the international migration of contract labour, duration of employment in host country, skills acquired, wages, savings and remittances; considers migration policy, especially a vocational training and credit system encouraging returnees to become self employed. References, statistical tables. Restricted.

  9. Saw-Scaled Viper Bites in Sri Lanka: Is It a Different Subspecies? Clinical Evidence from an Authenticated Case Series

    Gnanathasan, Ariaranee; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Peranantharajah, Thambipillai; Coonghe, Anthonia

    2012-01-01

    The saw-scaled viper (SSV) (Echis carinatus) is considered to be a highly venomous snake in Sri Lanka despite any published clinical justification. Being a rarity, the clinical profile of SSV bites is not well established in Sri Lanka. We report a series of 48 (n-48) SSV bites from the Northern Province of Sri Lanka. The majority (65%) of victims had evidence of local envenoming at the site of the bite; however, 29% showed spontaneous bleeding and 71% had coagulopathy. There were no deaths in...

  10. Geographic structure of Plasmodium vivax: microsatellite analysis of parasite populations from Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Ethiopia

    Gunawardena, Sharmini; Karunaweera, Nadira D; Ferreira, Marcelo U;

    2010-01-01

    Genetic diversity and population structure of Plasmodium vivax parasites can predict the origin and spread of novel variants within a population enabling population specific malaria control measures. We analyzed the genetic diversity and population structure of 425 P. vivax isolates from Sri Lanka.......8610 in Sri Lanka. Significant linkage disequilibrium was maintained. Population structure showed two clusters (Asian and African) according to geography and ancestry. Strong clustering of outbreak isolates from Sri Lanka and Ethiopia was observed. Predictive power of ancestry using two-thirds of the...

  11. Analysis of Polymorphisms in the Merozoite Surface Protein-3a Gene and Two Microsatellite Loci in Sri Lankan Plasmodium vivax: Evidence of Population Substructure in Sri Lanka

    Schousboe, Mette L; Rajakaruna, Rupika S; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H;

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. The geographical distribution of genetic variation in Plasmodium vivax samples (N = 386) from nine districts across Sri Lanka is described using three markers; the P. vivax merozoite surface protein-3a (Pvmsp-3a) gene, and the two microsatellites m1501 and m3502. At Pvmsp-3a, 11 alleles....... The results show evidence of high genetic diversity and possible population substructure of P. vivax populations in Sri Lanka....

  12. Drought Induced Fine Root Growth and Canopy Green-up of Tropical Dry Zone Vegetations in Sri Lanka

    K. A. J. M. Kuruppuarachchi; Seneviratne, G.; B. D. Madurapperuma

    2013-01-01

    Fine roots in forest soils have important implications for global carbon (C) balance, but processesunderlying this C sink are not well understood. This study evaluates year round dynamics of fine roots ina tropical dry mixed evergreen forest and an arboretum in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Monthly soil coresamples (up to 25 cm depth) were collected randomly to cover a whole annual cycle of the two sites. Thesoils were air dried, sieved (< 2 mm), and fine roots (≤ 2 mm) were separated by handpic...

  13. Role of technology transfer in abating greenhouse gas emissions: the case of Sri Lanka

    Gnanalingam, K.; Siyambalapitiya, T. [Sri Lanka Energy Managers Association, Colombo (Sri Lanka)

    1994-12-31

    Measures introduced by the Sri Lanka government to reduce energy consumption are outlined. These include introduction of improved cookstoves, promotion of gas use in place of electricity, introduction of efficient lighting, energy management programs in industry, and research into more appropriate agricultural machinery. Self-reliance in energy planning is advocated. Foreign expertise may be needed to initiate a process but emphasis is put on eventual transition to national staffing. The article outlines Sri Lanka`s foreign investment policy. It then describes the efforts made so far to improve the efficiency of lighting systems in households, together with details of costs and benefits of a possible state sponsored or private sector funded popularization programme for efficient lighting systems. 1 fig.

  14. Comparative Assessment of Irrigation Water Quality in Sri Lanka's Tank-Cascade and Mahaweli Irrigation Schemes

    Gunda, T.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Two distinct irrigation systems dominate the landscape in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The tank-cascade system, which originates from third century BC, is a small-scale system that has been the traditional method for communities to meet their farming water needs. The Mahaweli reservoir system, in contrast, is a large-scale irrigation scheme initiated in the 1970s that diverts water across hundreds of kilometers from the headwaters of the Mahaweli River to farmers. Although approximately equal amounts of paddy land are irrigated under these two systems, very little comparative analysis has been conducted on the spatial variation of irrigation water quality in Sri Lanka. An exploratory study was conducted in June 2013 in Anuradhapura district, an area that experiences the highest level of paddy production instability and has had long-standing irrigation water quality issues. A total of 30 water samples from both cascade systems and Mahaweli system H-7 were analyzed for pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, and chromatic dissolved organic matter using field instruments. A subset of these samples was further analyzed for nitrate and ammonia using colorimetric methods. While the sparse data from our study revealed some interesting trends, it is difficult to extrapolate in detail. Therefore, we compare inferences drawn about the Sri Lanka data to a more detailed analysis of chromatic dissolved organic matter in a Tennessee watershed. This comparison will provide insight into possible interpretations relative to the water quality data collected in Sri Lanka. As Sri Lanka continues to develop its irrigation resources, water quality assessments such as this one are critical for identifying factors limiting paddy production in the country.

  15. Assessing sloth bears as surrogates for carnivore conservation in Sri Lanka

    Ratnayeke, Shyamala; Van Manen, Frank T.

    2012-01-01

    Bears are large, charismatic mammals whose presence often garners conservation attention. Because healthy bear populations typically require large, contiguous areas of habitat, land conservation actions often are assumed to benefit co-occurring species, including other mammalian carnivores. However, we are not aware of an empirical test of this assumption. We used remote camera data from 2 national parks in Sri Lanka to test the hypothesis that the frequency of detection of sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) is associated with greater richness of carnivore species. We focused on mammalian carnivores because they play a pivotal role in the stability of ecological communities and are among Sri Lanka's most endangered species. Seven of Sri Lanka's carnivores are listed as endangered, vulnerable, or near threatened, and little empirical information exists on their status and distribution. During 2002–03, we placed camera traps at 152 sites to document carnivore species presence. We used Poisson regression to develop predictive models for 3 categories of dependent variables: species richness of (1) all carnivores, (2) carnivores considered at risk, and (3) carnivores of least conservation concern. For each category, we analyzed 8 a priori models based on combinations of sloth bear detections, sample year, and study area and used Akaike's information criterion (AICc) to test our research hypothesis. We detected sloth bears at 55 camera sites and detected 13 of Sri Lanka's 14 Carnivora species. Species richness of all carnivores showed positive associations with the number of sloth bear detections, regardless of study area. Sloth bear detections were also positively associated with species richness of carnivores at risk across both study years and study areas, but not with species richness of common carnivores. Sloth bears may serve as a valuable surrogate species whose habitat protection would contribute to conservation of other carnivores in Sri Lanka.

  16. Discovery of the Critically Endangered Tarantula Species of the Genus Poecilotheria (Araneae: Theraphosidae, Poecilotheria hanumavilasumica, From Sri Lanka

    Ranil P. Nanayakkara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The arboreal spiders in the genus Poecilotheria is represented by 16 species and restricted to India and Sri Lanka. Each country has eight endemic species. During a survey on mygalomorph spiders in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka, the critically endangered species of Theraphosidae Poecilotheria hanumavilasumica was discovered for the first time outside of its native habitat in India, expanding its range to northern Sri Lanka. The discovery of P. hanumavilasumica is unique, as it used to be a critically endangered and endemic species of the genus Poecilotheria found in India, and it is evident that during the land bridge connection between India and Sri Lanka, when the Pleistocene epoch biotic exchange took place between the two countries, taxa were dispersed through the land connections.

  17. Current Status of Marine Snakes from Jaffna Peninsula, Sri Lanka with Description of Hitherto Unrecorded Hydrophis fasciatus fasciatus (Schneider, 1799

    K. Sivashanthini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As only a few study reported on sea snakes of Sri Lanka, a study was undertaken from June 2003 to November 2004 in the coast of Jaffna Peninsula which lies in the Northern part of Sri Lanka. Out of the 121 specimens examined, 9 species under 5 genera in two families were documented in the coastal waters of both Valvettiturai to Point Pedro and the Jaffna lagoon waters. This includes Hydrophis fasciatus fasciatus which is no longer known in Sri Lanka increased the number of Hydrophis species to 8, thus the total number of sea snakes inhabiting the coastal waters of Sri Lanka become 14 in Hydrophiidae. Of the sea snakes collected, Lapemis curtus (33.88% and Praescutata viperina (23.97% were the commonly recorded species. Least recorded species were H. lapemoides, H. fasciatus fasciatus, Kerilia jerdonii jerdonii and Acrochordus granulatus (0.83, 0.83, 2.47 and 2.47%, respectively.

  18. Usual hospital care versus post-abortion care for women with unsafe abortion: a case control study from Sri Lanka

    Arambepola, Carukshi; Lalini C. Rajapaksa; Galwaduge, Chandani

    2014-01-01

    Background Good quality post-abortion-care (PAC) is essential to prevent death and long-term complications following unsafe abortion, especially in countries with restrictive abortion laws. We assessed the PAC given to women following an unsafe abortion, compared to the routine hospital care following spontaneous abortion or unintended pregnancy carried to term in Sri Lanka. Methods A case–control study was conducted in Sri Lanka among 171 cases following unsafe abortion, 638 controls followi...

  19. Homegardens as a Multi-functional Land-Use Strategy in Sri Lanka with Focus on Carbon Sequestration

    Mattsson, Eskil; Ostwald, Madelene; Nissanka, S P; Marambe, Buddhi

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of homegardens and their potential functions as strategic elements in land-use planning, and adaptation and mitigation to climate change in Sri Lanka. The ancient and locally adapted agroforestry system of homegardens is presently estimated to occupy nearly 15 % of the land area in Sri Lanka and is described in the scientific literature to offer several ecosystem services to its users; such as climate regulation, protection against natural hazards, enhanced lan...

  20. Problem—solving counseling as a therapeutic tool on youth suicidal behavior in the suburban population in Sri Lanka

    Perera, E. A. Ramani; Kathriarachchi, Samudra T

    2011-01-01

    Background: Suicidal behaviour among youth is a major public health concern in Sri Lanka. Prevention of youth suicides using effective, feasible and culturally acceptable methods is invaluable in this regard, however research in this area is grossly lacking. Objective: This study aimed at determining the effectiveness of problem solving counselling as a therapeutic intervention in prevention of youth suicidal behaviour in Sri Lanka. Setting and design: This control trial study was based on ho...

  1. Commercial vs. Open access: use of e-resources among academics of Engineering Faculties of Sri Lanka

    Arachchige, J J G; Karunarathna, Ananda

    2012-01-01

    Engineering Faculties of Sri Lanka are quite rich with IT facilities and e-culture where a lot of students and academics use the network environment for their scholarly activities. Some faculties have introduced online courses, online tutorials and submission and evaluation of assignments online. The purpose of this article was to explore the information seeking behavior of academics of engineering faculties of Sri Lanka toward the use of electronic resources for their teaching...

  2. Tertiary Education in Sri Lanka: Issues and Challenges

    N. Tharmaseelan

    2007-01-01

    The paper reviews the contemporary issues and challenges faced by the Sri Lankan higher educational institutions and justify the need for immediate changes needed in the system. Based on survey conducted among the past graduates of Sri Lankan tertiary institution, it highlights the areas need improvement and suggests different models for various areas to enhance the quality in tertiary education.

  3. EXPLORING GOOD PRACTICE KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER RELATED TO POST TSUNAMI HOUSING (RE-CONSTRUCTION IN SRI LANKA

    Bingunath Ingirige

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Sri Lanka was badly affected by the tsunami that occurred on 26th December 2004. The tsunami destroyed about two-thirds of the Sri Lankan coastline and affected more than 1,000,000 people. It does not only affected the lives of the community, but also had a devastating effect on their housing and livelihoods. The overall loss of 100,000 or more houses due to the tsunami proved to be a major challenge to the emergency response teams and disaster planners. Although several major disasters of varying magnitudes have occurred in the world, the body of knowledge related to post-disaster housing reconstruction and rehabilitation appears fragmented and poorly integrated. This paper attempts to fill this theoretical gap by focusing on the extent to which good practice knowledge transfer helps in overcoming this problem for more effective and efficient delivery of post-tsunami housing in Sri Lanka. The paper applied knowledge transfer principles within the context of the two housing reconstruction strategies employed in post-tsunami housing reconstruction in Sri Lanka; namely donor-driven housing and owner driven housing. The results of this study reveal that the knowledge transfer within this context cannot be simply copied and inserted from one context without any localisation. Therefore, the paper proposes a high-level abstraction of the core principles of community engagement through participatory techniques associated with appropriate capacity and capability building techniques that will enable the various stakeholders to create a new application to suit the appropriate context of the transfer destination (post-tsunami context in Sri Lanka.

  4. Preliminary investigation of genetic characterization of native and endemic fowl types of Sri Lanka

    The Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus gallus) is generally considered to be main ancestor of the domestic fowl (Callus domesticus). However, it is also believed that other wild Callus species might have contributed to the modern genetic make-up of the domestic fowl, one wild species being the Ceylon Jungle Fowl (Gallus lafayetti), endemic to Sri Lanka, which could have contributed to the domestic stock of Sri Lankan native poultry. The present study was conducted in order to investigate the origin of native fowl in Sri Lanka and to establish genetic relationships among them and the Ceylon Jungle Fowl. Morphological characters of endemic, indigenous and exotic fowl types were recorded. These included Ceylon Jungle fowl; eleven types of native chicken from Sri Lanka; and two exotic chicken breeds (Cornish and Rhode Island Red). Blood samples were collected for DNA extraction. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was carried out using sixteen non-specific primers. The results of morphological characterization revealed many variations in plumage and colour pattern. Single and pea comb types were found in both native and exotic types of chicken. A prominent yellow colour marking on a red comb was a unique feature in Ceylon Jungle fowl. The presence of white spots in red earlobes was a distinguishing feature of all native chicken types. Sixteen non-specific primers were used in the study, and produced 22 polymorphic bands ranging from 500 to 1960 bp. Genetic similarity indices ranged from 0.5 to 1.1 in average genetic distance scale, indicating a broad genetic base in the samples studied. Cluster analysis revealed a clear separation of Ceylon Jungle Fowl from all other types studied, indicating that contribution in data analysis, and the Director and staff, National Zoological Gardens, Sri Lanka, for their help in sampling Ceylon Jungle Fowl. (author)

  5. Rediscovery of a long lost endemic damselfly Sinhalestes orientalis (Hagen in Selys, 1862 from Peak Wilderness Sanctuary, Sri Lanka (Zygoptera: Lestidae

    A. P. Sumanapala

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sinhalestes orientalis (Hagen in Selys, 1862 the only representative of its genus, is an endemic and globally critically endangered damselfly in Sri Lanka. It was first collected from Rambodde, Sri Lanka in 1858 and after that no new information on this species has been available. Here, we report on the re-discovery of Sinhalestes orientalis from the Peak Wilderness Sanctuary, Sri Lanka after 154 years from its last and only record.

  6. Good Governance and Conflict Transformation in Sri Lanka : A Political Analysis of People's Perceptions of Institutions at the Local Level and the Challenges of Decentralised Governance

    Bigdon, Christine

    2006-01-01

    This empirical study on good governance and conflict transformation in Sri Lanka is located within the larger scholarly discourse on good governance as a solution to conflict in developing societies. Sri Lanka is one of the oldest post-colonial democratic systems among the states of the South and has experienced various elections and changes of government between 1947 and 2001. This speaks to a certain extent for consolidation of democracy. However, Sri Lanka suffers under one of the most pro...

  7. High lethality and minimal variation after acute self-poisoning with carbamate insecticides in Sri Lankaimplications for global suicide prevention

    Lamb, Thomas; Selvarajah, Liza R.; Mohamed, Fahim; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Gawarammana, Indika; Mostafa, Ahmed; Buckley, Nicholas A.; Roberts, Michael S.; Eddleston, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Highly hazardous organophosphorus (OP) insecticides are responsible for most pesticide poisoning deaths. As they are removed from agricultural practice, they are often replaced by carbamate insecticides of perceived lower toxicity. However, relatively little is known about poisoning with these insecticides. Methods: We prospectively studied 1288 patients self-poisoned with carbamate insecticides admitted to six Sri Lankan hospitals. Clinical outcomes were recorded for each patient and plasma carbamate concentration measured in a sample to confirm the carbamate ingested. Findings: Patients had ingested 3% carbofuran powder (719), carbosulfan EC25 liquid (25% w/v, 389), or fenobucarb EC50 liquid (50% w/v, 127) formulations, carbamate insecticides of WHO Toxicity Classes Ib, II, and II, respectively. Intubation and ventilation was required for 183 (14.2%) patients while 71 (5.5%) died. Compared with carbofuran, poisoning with carbosulfan or fenobucarb was associated with significantly higher risk of death [carbofuran 2.2%; carbosulfan 11.1%, OR 5.5 (95% CI 3.0–9.8); fenobucarb 6.3%, OR 3.0 (1.2–7.1)] and intubation [carbofuran 6.1%; carbosulfan 27.0%, OR 5.7 (3.9–8.3); fenobucarb 18.9%, OR 3.6 (2.1–6.1)]. The clinical presentation and cause of death did not differ markedly between carbamates. Median time to death was similar: carbofuran 42.3 h (IQR 5.5–67.3), carbosulfan 21.3 h (11.5–71.3), and fenobucarb 25.3 h (17.3–72.1) (p = 0.99); no patients showed delayed onset of toxicity akin to the intermediate syndrome seen after OP insecticide poisoning. For survivors, median duration of intubation was 67.8 h (IQR 27.5–118.8) with no difference in duration between carbamates. Reduced GCS at presentation was associated with worse outcome although some patients with carbosulfan died after presentation with normal GCS. Conclusions: We did not find carbamate insecticide self-poisoning to vary markedly according to the carbamate

  8. Home gardens and Dioscorea species – A case study from the climatic zones of Sri Lanka

    Ravi Sangakkara

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Home gardens are considered as vital units for enhancing food security particularly in developing nations of South Asia, such as Sri Lanka. Although the yam crop Dioscorea spp. constitute a popular but still minor component in Sri Lankan home gardens, they have the potential of producing large quantities of edible material with minimal inputs. However, their real value in South Asian home gardens is not yet reported. Hence, this study was carried out to get insights into home garden characteristics, gardener demography as well as current management practices within 300 Sri Lankan home garden systems that are located along a climatic gradient. By using interviews and field observations, gardeners, who cultivated in particular Dioscorea species, were studied within 10 of the 25 administrative districts distributed in the wet, intermediate and dry climatic zone of Sri Lanka. Furthermore, current management practices of yams cultivation were analyzed on local scale and compared afterwards with management recommendations published in the year 2006 by the Department of Agriculture. Dioscorea species were found in a majority of home gardens, especially in wet and intermediate zones of Sri Lanka. D. alata was the most prominent species and was managed at a subsistence level and not as per recommendations developed by the Department of Agriculture. Our results revealed that Dioscorea alata is an essential component of Sri Lankan home gardens in rural areas and can yield substantial quantities of edible tubers with low input, especially during times of food scarcities, and has therefore the potential to enhance food security and rural development.

  9. Sri Lanka : de la lutte contre le terrorisme à la catastrophe humanitaire

    Delon Madavan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available La volonté du gouvernement sri lankais d’en finir militairement avec le LTTE a abouti à une catastrophe humanitaire. L’armée et les Tigres se rendent coupables de crime de guerre et de crime contre l’humanité à l’encontre des civils tamouls, qui sont piégés dans la zone de combat ou enfermés dans des camps de détention. La perception différenciée de l’opération militaire selon les communautés nécessiterait la création d’un Tribunal Pénal International pour Sri Lanka.The will of Sri Lankan government to finish militarily with LTTE has ended with an humanitarian catastrophe. Both the Sri Lankan Army and the Tigers are guilty of international war and humanitarian crimes against Tamil civilians, who are trapped in the war zone or locked in detention camps. The different perceptions of the military operation according to the communities should need the creation of an International Penal Court for Sri Lanka

  10. Exploring good practice knowledge transfer related to post tsunami housing re-construction in Sri Lanka

    Bingunath Ingirige; Richard Haigh; Chamindi Malalgoda; Roshani Palliyaguru

    2008-01-01

    Sri Lanka was badly affected by the tsunami that occurred on 26th December 2004. The tsunami destroyed about two-thirds of the Sri Lankan coastline and affected more than 1,000,000 people. It does not only affected the lives of the community, but also had a devastating effect on their housing and livelihoods. The overall loss of 100,000 or more houses due to the tsunami proved to be a major challenge to the emergency response teams and disaster planners. Although several major disasters of va...

  11. Evaluation of physical activity among adults with diabetes mellitus from Sri Lanka

    Ranasinghe, D Chathuranga; Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Jayawardena, Ranil; Matthews, David R; Katulanda, Prasad

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the patterns of physical activity (PA) and the prevalence of physical inactivity among Sri Lankan adults with diabetes mellitus. Data were collected as part of a wider cross-sectional national study on diabetes in Sri Lanka. PA during the past week was assessed using the short version of the IPAQ. Overall prevalence of physical inactivity was 13.9%. Females (3091 ± 2119) had a significantly higher mean weekly total MET minutes than males (2506 ± 2084) (p 

  12. "Education Is All about Opportunities, Isn't It?": A Biographical Perspective on Learning and Teaching English in Sri Lanka

    Hayes, David

    2010-01-01

    In this article, David Hayes explores the language learning and teaching experiences of a teacher of English in Sri Lanka. He shows how the acquisition of English enabled the teacher to access the social capital available to speakers of English, which holds a divisive place in postcolonial Sri Lankan society. In his reflections on his career, this…

  13. Protecting housing rights for IDPs in Sri Lanka

    Todd Wassel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The return and relocation of IDPs in the East of Sri Lankaoffer lessons on the critical issues that must be addressed ifthe housing rights of IDPs in the North are to be respected.

  14. Malaria vectors in a traditional dry zone village in Sri Lanka

    Amerasinghe, P H; Amerasinghe, F P; Konradsen, F;

    1999-01-01

    catches, bovid-baited trap huts, indoor catches, and pit traps. Mosquito head-thoraces were tested for the presence of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, and blood-engorged abdomens for the presence of human blood by ELISAs. House surveys were done at two-day intervals to record cases of blood film......Malaria transmission by anopheline mosquitoes was studied in a traditional tank-irrigation-based rice-producing village in the malaria-endemic low country dry zone of northcentral Sri Lanka during the period August 1994-February 1997. Adult mosquitoes were collected from human and bovid bait...... in An. culicifacies and An. peditaeniatus. Malaria parasite infections were seen in seven mosquito species, with 75% of the positive mosquitoes containing P. falciparum and 25% P. vivax. Polymorph PV247 was recorded from a vector (i.e., An. varuna) for the first time in Sri Lanka. Computations of mean...

  15. A preliminary geochemical study of sedimentary gem deposits of Sri Lanka

    The geochemical abundances of 22 elements from the < 0.63 μm fraction of gem-bearing alluvial gravel from the main gem fields of Sri Lanka have been studied. These abundances are compared with those in the probable source rocks. Be and Zr are generally enriched in the gem-bearing sediments compared with most alkali and alkaline earths, which are depleted. When compared to the metal contents of average shales, the < 0.63 μm fraction of the gem sediments of Sri Lanka is enriched in Be, Zr, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn. The charnockites and the gneisses of the area are rich in most of these elements and in the gem-bearing sediments, they are presumably found in diadochic substitution in minerals, or adsorbed by a variety of clay minerals, secondary Fe and Mn hydroxides and oxides and primary minerals. (author)

  16. Detection of variant infectious bronchitis viruses in Sri Lanka (2012-2015).

    Ball, Christopher; Forrester, Anne; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2016-06-01

    Poultry production is an important sector of agriculture in Sri Lanka; however, there is a lack of information regarding circulation of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). RNA was extracted from chicken tissues, subjected to IBV S1 RT-PCR, and sequenced. Overall, 19 out of 34 (55.88 %) samples were IBV positive and contained the genotype 793B (n = 13; 68.42 %), D274 (n = 4; 21.05 %) or Massachusetts (n = 2; 10.53 %). All three genotypes contained at least one strain with less than 99 % nucleotide sequence identity to the corresponding vaccine strains. This report identified co-circulation of IBV strains 793B, Massachusetts and D274, in Sri Lanka that are divergent from the respective vaccine strains. PMID:27020570

  17. Integrated national energy planning and management: methodology and application to Sri Lanka. World Bank technical paper

    Munasinghe, M.; Meier, P.

    1988-01-01

    Given the importance of energy in modern economies, the first part of the volume is devoted to examining some of the key conceptual and analytical tools available for energy-policy analysis and planning. Policy tools and institutional frameworks that will facilitate better energy management are also discussed. Energy-policy analysis is explained, while effective energy management techniques are discussed to achieve desirable national objectives, using a selected set of policies and policy instruments. In the second part of the volume, the actual application of the principles set out earlier is explained through a case study of Sri Lanka. The monograph integrates the many aspects of the short-term programs already begun with the options for the medium to long term, and ends with the outline of a long-term strategy for Sri Lanka.

  18. Travel Report. A study on environmental technology projects and possibilities in Sri Lanka and Bangladesh

    Ratnaweera, H.; Aasgaard, G.F.

    1994-10-01

    The Norwegian Institute for Water Research, NIVA, has been involved in many projects in developing countries. Some of these countries have taken an interest in developing projects in environmental engineering. This travel report summarizes various meetings NIVA had with local authorities and institutions in Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. The report presents information on relevant projects, authorities and procedures as a preliminary study for NIVA`s future engagement in Asia. It is concluded that a significant potential for project activities exists in those countries. In addition to issues on water and wastewater treatment, there are project possibilities in water resource management, coastal studies, environmental impact assessment, institutional buildings etc. To evaluate the activities in the south-east Asia as a possible major area of activities for NIVA, the report suggests establishing two small-scale projects in Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. These projects will indicate the resource requirements for engagements in these countries and indicate possible problems

  19. The impact of electricity supply on economic growth in Sri Lanka

    Morimoto, Risako; Hope, Chris [Judge Institute of Management Studies, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1AG (United Kingdom)

    2004-01-01

    Yang (Energy Econ. 22 (2000) 309) has found a bi-directional causal relationship between gross domestic product and electricity consumption in Taiwan, ROC. This study applies Yang's model to examine the impact of electricity supply on economic growth in Sri Lanka. Morimoto and Hope (An extended CBA model of hydro projects in Sri Lanka (2001)) have found that the expected increase in economic output due to increased electricity supply (parameter EO) plays a crucial role in their cost benefit analysis model. This study shows that the application of Yang's regression analysis is one possible approach to estimate a better range for the parameter EO. The estimated figure is that an extra output of Rs. 88000-137000 ($US1120-1740) for every 1 MWh increase in electricity supply.

  20. An investigation into the role of alcohol in self-harm in rural Sri Lanka

    Sørensen, Jane Brandt; Rheinländer, Thilde; Sørensen, Birgitte Refslund;

    2014-01-01

    alcohol's role in self-harm in rural Sri Lanka at three levels: the individual, community and policy level. The analysis will bring new understanding of the link between alcohol and self-harm in Sri Lanka, drawing on structural, cultural and social concepts. It will equip researchers, health systems...... methods will be utilised. Specifically, the data will consist of serial narrative life-story interviews with up to 20 individuals who have non-fatally self-harmed and where alcohol directly or indirectly was involved in the incidence as well as with their significant others; observations in communities...... and families; six focus group discussions with community members; and key-informant interviews with 15-25 stakeholders who have a stake in alcohol distribution, marketing, policies, prevention and treatment as they relate to self-harm. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has received ethical approval from...

  1. Polymorphisms of transporter associated with antigen presentation, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10 and their implications for protection and susceptibility to severe forms of dengue fever in patients in Sri Lanka

    Anira N Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: To date, a clear understanding of dengue disease pathogenesis remains elusive. Some infected individuals display no symptoms while others develop severe life-threatening forms of the disease. It is widely believed that host genetic factors influence dengue severity. Aims: This study evaluates the relationship between certain polymorphisms and dengue severity in Sri Lankan patients. Settings and Design: Polymorphism studies are carried out on genes for; transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP, promoter of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and promoter of interleukin-10 (IL-10. In other populations, TAP1 (333, TAP2 (379, TNF-α (−308, and IL-10 (−1082, −819, −592 have been associated with dengue and a number of different diseases. Data have not been collected previously for these polymorphisms for dengue patients in Sri Lanka. Materials and Methods: The polymorphisms were typed by amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction in 107 dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF patients together with 62 healthy controls. Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson′s Chi-square contingency table analysis with Yates′ correction. Results: Neither the TAP nor the IL-10 polymorphisms considered individually can define dengue disease outcome with regard to severity. However, the genotype combination, IL-10 (−592/−819/−1082 CCA/ATA was significantly associated with development of severe dengue in these patients, suggesting a risk factor to developing DHF. Also, identified is the genotype combination IL-10 (−592/−819/−1082 ATA/ATG which suggested a possibility for protection from DHF. The TNF-α (−308 GG genotype was also significantly associated with severe dengue, suggesting a significant risk factor. Conclusions: The results reported here are specific to the Sri Lankan population. Comparisons with previous reports imply that data may vary from population to population.

  2. Preliminary investigation on genetic characterization of native and endemic fowl types in Sri Lanka

    Full text: Sri Lanka is a tropical island, which shelters a large number and variety of wild as well as domesticated animals. As an oceanic island Sri Lanka has a high percentage of endemic species that have evolved because of the isolation, but they are particularly vulnerable. Its location, astride the sea routes between the east and west throughout the history, has exposed the country to be a recipient of variety of animal species transported throughout the world. This history had made the gene pool of native animals very unique and diverse. In this context native poultry species of Sri Lanka demonstrate an incomparable scenario in evolution of domestic poultry species. According to one of the hypotheses regarding the evolution of poultry, the Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus gallus) is considered as the main ancestor of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus). However, it is also believed that the domestic fowl descent from different ancestral groups, one of which is Ceylon Jungle Fowl. Ceylon Jungle Fowl (Gallus laffeyatti) is endemic to Sri Lanka. Nevertheless, different native fowl types found in Sri Lanka resemble varying characteristics of Asiatic fowl. However, except for the few studies on G. laffeyatti there is hardly any information available on the origin of Sri Lankan native fowl. Also there is only one investigation done so far on the relationship of the Ceylon Jungle Fowl and native fowl population in Sri Lanka. Therefore, the present study was conducted, in order to investigate the origin of native fowl in Sri Lanka and to find out the genetic relationship among them. Observations of morphological characters of endemic, indigenous and exotic fowl types were carried out using Ceylon Jungle fowl, eleven types of native chicken and two exotic chicken breeds (Cornish and Rhode Island Red). Blood samples for DNA extraction were collected from the above three categories of chicken. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis were carried out using sixteen

  3. Environmental exposures and their genetic or environmental contribution to depression and fatigue: a twin study in Sri Lanka

    Kovas Yulia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is very little genetically informative research identifying true environmental risks for psychiatric conditions. These may be best explored in regions with diverse environmental exposures. The current study aimed to explore similarities and differences in such risks contributing to depression and fatigue. Methods Home interviews assessed depression (lifetime-ever, fatigue and environmental exposures in 4,024 randomly selected twins from a population-based register in the Colombo district of Sri Lanka. Results Early school leaving and standard of living showed environmentally-mediated effects on depression, in men. In women, life events were associated with depression partly through genetic pathways (however, the temporal order is consistent with life events being an outcome of depression, as well as the other way around. For fatigue, there were environmentally mediated effects (through early school leaving and life events and strong suggestions of family-environmental influences. Conclusions Compared to previous studies from higher-income countries, novel environmentally-mediated risk factors for depression and fatigue were identified in Sri Lanka. But as seen elsewhere, the association between life events and depression was partially genetically mediated in women. These results have implications for understanding environmental mechanisms around the world.

  4. Testimony ceremonies in Asia: integrating spirituality in testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines.

    Agger, Inger; Igreja, Victor; Kiehle, Rachel; Polatin, Peter

    2012-07-01

    This study explores the therapeutic implications of including culturally adapted spiritual ceremonies in the process of testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines. Data were collected through an action research process with Asian mental health and human rights organizations, during which the testimonial method was reconceptualized and modified to include four sessions. In the first two sessions, community workers assist survivors in the writing of their testimony, which is their narrative about the human rights violations they have suffered. In the third session, survivors participate in an honour ceremony in which they are presented with their testimony documents. In the fourth session, the community workers meet with the survivors for a reevaluation of their well-being. The honour ceremonies developed during the action research process came to employ different kinds of symbolic language at each site: human rights (India), religious/Catholic (Sri Lanka), religious/Buddhist (Cambodia), and religious/Moslem (Philippines). They all used embodied spirituality in various forms, incorporating singing, dancing, and religious purification rituals in a collective gathering. We suggest that these types of ceremonies may facilitate an individual's capacity to contain and integrate traumatic memories, promote restorative self-awareness, and engage community support. Additional research is needed to determine the method's applicability in other sociopolitical contexts governed by more Western-oriented medical traditions. PMID:22637721

  5. Effects of Climate Change on Urban Rainwater Harvesting in Colombo City, Sri Lanka

    Kwong Fai A. Lo; Suranjith Bandara Koralegedara

    2015-01-01

    Cities are becoming increasingly vulnerable to water-related issues due to rapid urbanization, installation of complex infrastructure and changes in rainfall patterns. This study aims at assessing the impacts of climate change on rainwater harvesting systems (RWH) in the tropical urban city, Colombo, Sri Lanka. The future climate change projections are downscaled from global circulation models to the urban catchment scale using the Long Ashton Research Station Weather Generator (LARS-WG), des...

  6. A descriptive profile of β-thalassaemia mutations in India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka

    Black, M. L.; Sinha, S; Agarwal, S; Colah, R.; Das, R; Bellgard, M; Bittles, A. H.

    2010-01-01

    Thalassaemia is a common and debilitating autosomal recessive disorder affecting many populations in South Asia. To date, efforts to create a regional profile of β-thalassaemia mutations have largely concentrated on the populations of India. The present study updates and expands an earlier profile of β-thalassaemia mutations in India, and incorporates comparable data from Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Despite limited data availability, clear patterns of historical and cultural population movements ...

  7. Moore′s law, Dabbawalas, and pediatric cardiac care in Sri Lanka

    Duminda Samarasinghe

    2015-01-01

    Sri Lanka is an island nation in Indian Ocean that provides free healthcare to all citizens through government healthcare system. It has commendable health indices in the region. Pediatric cardiac services have rapidly progressed over past few years helping to further bring down infant and under-five mortality rates. Lady Ridgeway Hospital for Children (LRH) is the only tertiary care referral center for children with heart disease in the country. Currently it performs approximately 1,000 card...

  8. Symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescent students; a perspective from Sri Lanka

    Wijeratne Thilina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sri Lanka recorded an extraordinary high suicide rate for adolescents aged 15 - 19 in the early 1990s (46.5/100,000. With this in perspective, the Ministry of Health in Sri Lanka recommends school programmes for adolescents by mental health units of local hospitals. Methods We conducted cross sectional surveys to screen for symptoms of anxiety and depression among students aged 14 - 18 during school mental health programmes. Two schools were randomly selected within the Ratnapura municipality (urban population of approx. 50,000, Sri Lanka and all students aged 14-18 were assessed with self administered (pre tested, Sinhalese translations questionnaires [Center for epidemiologic studies depression scale, Anxiety screening test of suicide and mental health association international]. Results A total of 445 students were assessed (male-54.4%, female 45.6%. Thirty six percent screened positive for depression (mild depression-17%, severe depression-19% and 28% screened positive for severe anxiety. Females screened positive for depression and anxiety significantly more than the males (p = 0.0001, 0.005 respectively. Students in classes facing barrier examinations at the end of the year had the highest positivity rates. Examination related issues (36% were the most commonly cited problem. Recommendations It is recommended that: 1. School mental health development programmes in Sri Lanka concentrate more on reducing examination related stress, and in particular focus on the female students 2. Policy decisions are made to reduce competition for higher education 3. A nationally coordinated survey on mental health of adolescent students is carried out utilizing the island-wide network of medical officers of mental health.

  9. Environmental and economic assessment of 'open waste dump' mining in Sri Lanka

    Danthurebandara, Maheshi; Van Passel, Steven; Van Acker, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Open waste dumps in Sri Lanka generate adverse environmental and socio-economic impacts due to inadequate maintenance. In this study, a concept of 'open waste dump mining' is suggested in order to minimise the environmental and socio-economic impacts, together with resource recovery. A model based on life cycle assessment and life cycle costing has been used to assess the environmental and economic feasibility of the suggested open waste dump mining concept. Two scenarios have been defined fo...

  10. Developing tools to link environmental flows science and its practice in Sri Lanka

    Eriyagma, N.; Jinapala, K.

    2014-09-01

    The term "Environmental Flows (EF)" may be defined as "the quantity, timing and quality of water flows required to sustain freshwater and estuarine ecosystems and the human livelihoods and well-being that depend on these ecosystems". It may be regarded as "water for nature" or "environmental demand" similar to crop water requirements, industrial or domestic water demand. The practice of EF is still limited to a few developed countries such as Australia, South Africa and the UK. In many developing countries EF is rarely considered in water resources planning and is often deemed "unimportant". Sri Lanka, being a developing country, is no exception to this general rule. Although the country underwent an extensive irrigation/water resources development phase during the 1960s through to the 1980s, the concept of EF was hardly considered. However, as Sri Lanka's water resources are being exploited more and more for human usage, ecologists, water practitioners and policymakers alike have realized the importance of EF in sustaining not only freshwater and estuarine ecosystems, but also their services to humans. Hence estimation of EF has been made mandatory in environmental impact assessments (EIAs) of all large development projects involving river regulation/water abstraction. Considering EF is especially vital under the rapid urbanization and infrastructure development phase that dawned after the end of the war in the North and the East of the country in 2009. This paper details simple tools (including a software package which is under development) and methods that may be used for coarse scale estimation of EF at/near monitored locations on major rivers of Sri Lanka, along with example applications to two locations on River Mahaweli. It is hoped that these tools will help bridge the gap between EF science and its practice in Sri Lanka and other developing countries.

  11. Education and Household Welfare in Sri Lanka from 1985 to 2006

    Rozana Himaz; Harsha Aturupane

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at the impact of education on household economic welfare in Sri Lanka over twenty years from 1985 to 2006 using five cross section household survey datasets. Applying quantile regression techniques the analysis finds that the incremental value to household welfare shows a distinct jump for an extra year of education at levels where important national examinations are completed. Moreover, higher quantiles systematically enjoy greater incremental welfare to education levels bet...

  12. Were human babies used as bait in crocodile hunts in colonial Sri Lanka?

    Anslem de Silva; Ruchira Somaweera

    2015-01-01

    Use of live animals as bait is not an uncommon practice in hunting worldwide.  However, some curious accounts of the use of human babies as bait to lure crocodiles in sport hunting exist on the island of Sri Lanka, where sport hunting was common during the British colonial period.  Herein we compile the available records, review other records of the practice, and discuss the likelihood of the exercise actually having taken place. 

  13. DETERMINANTS OF ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTIONS: APPLYING WESTERN MODEL TO THE SRI LANKA CONTEXT

    XIAOHUA LIN; ALAN CARSRUD; KALINGA JAGODA; WANQING SHEN

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the factors influencing the intention of students to start up a new venture. Using both the "Theory of Planned Behavior" and "Theory of Reasoned Action", a model is tested using survey data collected from 353 undergraduate business students in Sri Lanka. Results of structural equation modeling show entrepreneurial intentions are positively influenced by perceived behavioral control and macro-environment support. However, the effects of attitudes towards entrepreneurship an...

  14. Status of coral reefs in South Asia: Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Sri Lanka

    Rajasuriya, A.; Zahir, H.; Muley, E.V.; Subramanian, B.R.; Venkataraman, K.; Wafar, M.V.M.; Khan, S.M.M.H.; Whittingham, E.

    of loss in reef biodiversity. There is some coral mining, dredging of navigational channels, unsustainable fishing practices, coastal development, and souvenir collection. Recently, blasting of corals to create navigational channels has been stopped... medicines also has adverse impacts. Sri Lanka The major causes of reef degradation are: coral mining, sedimentation, destructive fishing practices (such as blast fishing), the use of bottom set nets, uncontrolled resource exploitation, including harvesting...

  15. Mapping mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, Sri Lanka, India and Lao PDR

    de Menil Victoria; Wood Sarah K; Raja Shoba; Mannarath Saju C

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Limited evidence about mental health finances in low and middle-income countries is a key challenge to mental health care policy initiatives. This study aimed to map mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, India (Kerala state), Sri Lanka and Lao PDR focusing on how much money is available for mental health, how it is spent, and how this impacts mental health services. Methods A researcher in each region reviewed public mental health-related budgets and interviewed key inf...

  16. Cannabis use among Navy personnel in Sri Lanka: a cross sectional study

    de Silva, Varuni Asanka; Jayasekera, Nicholas; Hanwella, Raveen

    2016-01-01

    Background Prevalence of cannabis use among military populations vary. There is evidence that drug use is associated with combat exposure and PTSD. The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of cannabis use among Sri Lanka Navy (SLN) personnel and to identify any relationship with cannabis use and combat exposure. Methods This cross sectional study was carried out among representative samples of SLN Special Forces (Special Boat Squadron) and regular forces deployed in combat area...

  17. Emerging scrub typhus infection in the northern region of Sri Lanka

    Pradeepan, Jebananthy Anandaselvam; Ketheesan, Natkunam; Murugananthan, Kalamathy

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an increasing trend in rickettsioses or typhus fevers in the island of Sri Lanka. The seroepidemiological mapping previously published did not include the northern region of the island. This study was conducted to demonstrate the presence of scrub typhus (ST) and to characterise the clinical presentation of ST in this region. Findings Serum samples from patients (n = 64) with clinical symptoms suspected of typhus fever following exclusion of other common febrile illnesses ...

  18. Corporate Social Responsibility in Garment Sourcing Networks: Factory Management Perspectives on Ethical Trade in Sri Lanka

    Perry, P.; Wood, SM; Fernie, J

    2014-01-01

    With complex buyer-driven global production networks and a labour-intensive manufacturing process, the fashion industry has become a focal point for debates on the social responsibility of business. Utilising an interview methodology with influential actors from seven export garment manufacturers in Sri Lanka, we explore the situated knowledge at one nodal point of the production network. We conceptualise factory management perspectives on the implementation of corporate social responsibility...

  19. Understanding Poverty Reduction in Sri Lanka: Evidence from 2002 to 2012/13

    Ceriani, Lidia; Gabriela INCHAUSTE; Olivieri, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    This paper quantifies the contributions to poverty reduction observed in Sri Lanka between 2002 and 2012/13. The methods adopted for the analysis generate entire counterfactual distributions to account for the contributions of demographics, labor, and non-labor incomes in explaining poverty reduction. The findings show that the most important contributor to poverty reduction was growth in labor income, stemming from an increase in the returns to salaried nonfarm workers and higher returns to ...

  20. Increase in protectionism and its impact on Sri Lanka's performance in global markets

    Kaminski, Bartlomiej; Ng, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Sri Lanka's external performance defies global trends on two counts. First, the level of openness as measured by the ratio of trade in goods and services, after a strong increase in 1987-95 and stagnation in 1996-2004, sharply fell in 2005-10 to the levels experienced during the era of import substitution. Second, the share of clothing in manufactured exports has remained largely unchanged...

  1. A quantitative exploration of the sociocultural context of teenage pregnancy in Sri Lanka

    Rajapaksa-Hewageegana, Neelamani; Salway, Sarah Maria; Piercy, Hilary; Samarage, Sarath

    2014-01-01

    Background: In common with other countries, teenage pregnancy is attracting policy attention in Sri Lanka because of the risks it poses to maternal and infant health and social and economic well-being. This study aimed to increase understanding of the context of teenage pregnancy, by (1) describing the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of pregnant teenagers and their partners; (2) exploring whether teenage pregnancies are planned and how they are received; and (3) exploring facto...

  2. Anthropogenic Threats and Conservation Needs of Blue Whales, Balaenoptera musculus indica, around Sri Lanka

    Vos, A; Brownell, R. L.; Tershy, B.; Croll, D.

    2016-01-01

    Blue whales in the Northern Indian Ocean are a morphologically and acoustically distinct population restricted to these waters. Off Sri Lanka a portion of the population concentrates near shore where they are exposed to a range of anthropogenic threats. We review available data to determine anthropogenic threats/stressors faced by this population and assign subjective rankings for the population-level severity of each threat/stressor based on severity, scope, and immediacy. With the cessation...

  3. Danzare l'assenza. Pratiche coreutiche e lotta politica dei Tamil di Sri' Lanka

    Natali,

    2011-01-01

    Every year since 1989, LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam) supporters have commemorated the dead Tigers, called Maaveerar (“Great Heroes” in Tamil), in public ceremonies held all over the world. Maaveerar Naal is celebrated on November 27th, officially recognized as the day on which the first Tiger died. In Sri Lanka, before the defeat of 2009, the ceremonies used to take place in the Tigers’ cemeteries, known as Tuillum Illam (lit. “Sleeping houses”). People would bring flowers, incense,...

  4. Environmental and Economic Impact of Mangrove Deforestation: Case study of Vadamaradchy East, SriLanka

    Sasikumar, Kumarasamy

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted in Vadamaradchy- East in Sri Lanka. Data collection was done for a period of two months from June to July 2011. The main focus of this study was to examine factors contributing to mangrove deforestation within the study area, and resultant impacts from deforestation. The study found that, the main factors that have contributed to deforestation include: Long civil wars in the region, poverty which pushed people to clear the forest to earn income through the sale of fire...

  5. Psychosocial wellbeing and physical health among Tamil schoolchildren in northern Sri Lanka

    Hamilton, Alexander; Foster, Charlie; Richards, Justin; Surenthirakumaran, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental disorders contribute to the global disease burden and have an increased prevalence among children in emergency settings. Good physical health is crucial for mental well-being, although physical health is multifactorial and the nature of this relationship is not fully understood. Using Sri Lanka as a case study, we assessed the baseline levels of, and the association between, mental health and physical health in Tamil school children. Methods We conducted a cross sectional st...

  6. Price Responsiveness of Residential, Industrial and Commercial Water Demand in Sri Lanka

    Dinusha Dharmaratna; Jaai Parasnis

    2010-01-01

    Appropriate pricing of water is critical for improving the efficiency of pipe-borne water supply systems in many developing countries. However, existing literature on residential, industrial and commercial water demand has primarily focused on developed countries. This paper estimates the demand for pipe-borne water from residential, industrial and commercial sectors in Sri Lanka. Price elasticity for residential consumers ranges from -0.06 to -0.58 and the income elasticity varies from 0.04 ...

  7. Reforming Pension Funds in Sri Lanka: International Diversification and the Employees’ Provident Fund

    Ajantha Sisira Kumara; Wade D. Pfau

    2010-01-01

    The Employees’ Provident Fund (EPF) of Sri Lanka is a defined-contribution pension fund whose pooled asset holdings consist mainly of local government bonds. Regulations prohibit international diversification, and this paper aims to quantify the extent of the potential harms, if any, caused by this constraint. To improve the robustness of the findings, we use two distinct methodologies. These include traditional mean-variance analysis from modern portfolio theory, and Monte Carlo simulations ...

  8. Estimating the Incidence of Road Traffic Fatalities and Injuries in Sri Lanka Using Multiple Data Sources

    Bhalla, K; Navaratne, K. V.; Shahraz, S.; BARTELS, D.; Abraham, J.; Dharmaratne, S.

    2010-01-01

    We used data from multiple sources to estimate the incidence of fatal and non-fatal road traffic injuries in Sri Lanka in 2005. We validated the accuracy of the data from the national traffic police by comparing with estimates based on national death registration. For estimating the incidence and patterns of non-fatal injuries, we used a nationally represented health survey (World Health Survey), and data on hospital admissions from a rural setting (Galle district). We estimate that in the ye...

  9. Trophic interactions in the coastal ecosystem of Sri Lanka: An ECOPATH preliminary approach

    Haputhantri, S; Villanueva, Ching-maria; Moreau, J

    2008-01-01

    This study attempts to assemble and summarize existing information in order to build a general representation of the trophic interactions within the shallow coastal ecosystem of Sri Lanka. A multispecific ecosystem-based approach on trophic relationships and their possible variations was performed using ECOPATH. Thirty-nine functional groups were considered representing all trophic levels in the food web. Time-dynamic simulation was carried out using the ECOSIM routine to evaluate the im...

  10. Quantifying and predicting depression literacy of undergraduates: a cross sectional study in Sri Lanka

    Amarasuriya, Santushi D.; Jorm, Anthony F; Reavley, Nicola J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The high rates of depression and low rates of related help-seeking among undergraduates are matters for concern. In response to the need to examine their knowledge about depression and its management, and the dearth of such research from non-western developing countries, this study examined the depression literacy of undergraduates in Sri Lanka. Methods A questionnaire was administered among 4671 undergraduates to examine their depression literacy relating to problem-recognition, m...

  11. Were human babies used as bait in crocodile hunts in colonial Sri Lanka?

    Anslem de Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of live animals as bait is not an uncommon practice in hunting worldwide.  However, some curious accounts of the use of human babies as bait to lure crocodiles in sport hunting exist on the island of Sri Lanka, where sport hunting was common during the British colonial period.  Herein we compile the available records, review other records of the practice, and discuss the likelihood of the exercise actually having taken place. 

  12. Effect of food quality and availability on rainforest rodents of Sri Lanka

    P.B. Ratnaweera; M. R. Wijesinghe

    2009-01-01

    Tropical rodent communities are highly diverse species assemblages, yet remain poorly studied. This investigation was conducted with the objective of examining the responses of rainforest rodents to food quality and availability. These factors were assessed through laboratory and field trials conducted in the Sinharaja and Kanneliya rainforests in Sri Lanka. The effect of food quality on the foraging behavior of rodents was examined through feeding experiments using natural rainforest frui...

  13. Role of rural institutions in the diffusion of agricultural innovations in Sri Lanka.

    Herath Hmg

    1983-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on the role of rural institutions in the diffusion of agricultural technology, and innovations in Sri Lanka - based on a sample survey, discusses the effects of farm size, tenancy, farmer age, education, etc., on productivity, profits and tractor and labour use; examines the access to green revolution technology, agricultural credit, fertilizer and agricultural markets; includes agricultural policy suggestions. Bibliography.

  14. Transmission of Global Food Prices to Domestic Prices: Evidence from Sri Lanka

    Sivarajasingham Selliah; Shri-Dewi Applanaidu; Sallahuddin Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Food prices have been increasing sharply since 2003. In the globalized world, the transmission of global foodprice increases to domestic market determines the decision of economic agents and policy makers of a domesticeconomy. The recent growth of global food prices affects the welfare of poor consumers and producers. In SriLanka, large segment of the population spends more than 50 percent of their income on food. Thus, this studyinvestigates and assesses how international food price surge af...

  15. War, migration and modernity: The micro-politics of the Hijab in Northeastern Sri Lanka

    Siriwardane, Rapti

    2014-01-01

    Since 2009, Sri Lanka's formative post-war years have increasingly been coloured by the intensification of militant Sinhala-Buddhist movements. In particular, the popularisation of costumes such as the abaya and variants of the hijab were often instrumentalised as a discursive battlefield, in agitating against what was framed as constituting a rising tide in Middle Eastern Islamic radicalism. This paper reveals how majoritarian ethno-nationalist discourses have served to erase or flatten nuan...

  16. Determination of Financial Risk Tolerance among Different Household Sectors in Sri Lanka

    Heenkenda, Shirantha

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the financial risk of tolerant behavior at the household level with particular emphasis on different household sectors in Sri Lanka. The analysis measured the household willingness to take financial risk or risk tolerance based on questionnaire survey. Financial risk tolerance was measured with the help of a likert-scale and a composite index was developed using the values for the answers. The study used descriptive statistics and also the one-way analysis of variance (ANO...

  17. Non-fatal self-poisoning across age groups, in Sri Lanka.

    Rajapakse, Thilini; Christensen, Helen; Cotton, Sue; Griffiths, Kathleen Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Attempted or non-fatal self-poisoning in common in Sri Lanka, but little is known about variation of psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent across differing ages. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka across three different age groups (namely 14-24 years, 25-34 years and ≥ 35 years). It was anticipated that the findings of the study would inform and guide development of preventive interventions for non-fatal self-poisoning in this country. 935 participants were interviewed within one week of admission to hospital for medical management of non-fatal self-poisoning, over a consecutive 14-month period. Socio-demographic factors, types of poison ingested, triggers and psychiatric morbidity was examined as a function of age. Results showed that a majority (83%) of participants were aged below 35 years. Younger participants aged <25 years were significantly more likely to ingest medicinal overdoses, compared to older persons (aged 25-34 years, and ≥ 35 years), who were more likely to ingest pesticides. Recent interpersonal conflict was a proximal trigger seen in all age groups, but suicidal intent, depression and alcohol use disorders increased with age. The overall study findings indicate that most who carry out acts of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka are young (aged <35 years). Interpersonal conflict as a trigger is common to all age groups, but psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent is higher in the older age groups, as is pesticide ingestion. Age specific interventions may be efficacious in the prevention of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka. PMID:26957344

  18. Implementing a practical fuelwood conservation policy. The case of Sri Lanka

    Meier, P.; Munasinghe, M.

    1987-04-01

    Despite the almost universal recognition of the importance of fuelwood conservation and management in developing countries, the formulation and implementation of practical programmes has proved to be difficult. This paper describes the recent experience in Sri Lanka in establishing a National Fuelwood Conservation Programme (NFCP) within the overall context of a national energy strategy (NES). Among the important factors leading to a workable policy consensus were institutional reforms and the use of simple but plausible models to demonstrate the dire consequences of inaction.

  19. Small wind generators for battery charging in Peru and Sri Lanka

    Dunnett, S. [Intermediate Technology Development Group, Rugby (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    The Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG) have developed a small wind generator (SWG) intended primarily for battery charging in Peru and Sri Lanka. The project is funded mainly by the Department for International Development (DfID) and aims to provide rural households and communities who do not have access to mains electricity with a form of electrification. This paper reports on progress to date and is correct at the time of going to press, but subsequent changes to specifications may occur. (Author)

  20. Estimation of N-2 Fixation in four tropical leguminous trees in Sri Lanka

    DiNitrogen-fixing capacity of four species of leguminous trees of Sri Lanka (Abarema bigemina, Adenanthera bicolor, Humboldtia laurifolia and Pericopsis mooniana) by analyzing their xylem sap and by taking acetylene reducyion (AR) measurements of nodulated roots of all species, except A.bicolor which had no nodules. Based on the results of the study on P.mooniana, a method to determine the C2H2/N2 conversion factor by analysing the total NH2 compounds is being developed

  1. Factors controlling January-April rainfall over southern India and Sri Lanka

    Vialard, J. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), CNRS, IRD, Paris (France); National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa (India); Terray, P. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), CNRS, IRD, Paris (France); Duvel, J.P. [CNRS, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Paris (France); Nanjundiah, R.S. [IISc, Center of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Bangalore (India); Shenoi, S.S.C. [Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services, Hyderabad (India); Shankar, D. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa (India)

    2011-08-15

    Most of the annual rainfall over India occurs during the Southwest (June-September) and Northeast (October-December) monsoon periods. In March 2008, however, Southern peninsular India and Sri Lanka received the largest rainfall anomaly on record since 1979, with amplitude comparable to summer-monsoon interannual anomalies. This anomalous rainfall appeared to be modulated at intraseasonal timescale by the Madden Julian Oscillation, and was synchronous with a decaying La Nina event in the Pacific Ocean. Was this a coincidence or indicative of a teleconnection pattern? In this paper, we explore factors controlling rainfall over southern India and Sri Lanka between January and April, i.e. outside of the southwest and northeast monsoons. This period accounts for 20% of annual precipitation over Sri Lanka and 10% over the southern Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Interannual variability is strong (about 40% of the January-April climatology). Intraseasonal rainfall anomalies over southern India and Sri Lanka are significantly associated with equatorial eastward propagation, characteristic of the Madden Julian Oscillation. At the interannual timescale, we find a clear connection with El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO); with El Ninos being associated with decreased rainfall (correlation of -0.46 significant at the 98% level). There is also a significant link with local SST anomalies over the Indian Ocean, and in particular with the inter-hemispheric sea surface temperature (SST) gradient over the Indian Ocean (with colder SST south of the equator being conducive to more rainfall, correlation of 0.55 significant at the 99% level). La Ninas/cold SSTs south of the equator tend to have a larger impact than El Ninos. We discuss two possible mechanisms that could explain these statistical relationships: (1) subsidence over southern India remotely forced by Pacific SST anomalies; (2) impact of ENSO-forced regional Indian Ocean SST anomalies on convection. However, the

  2. The (new) Buddhist nationalisms? Symmetries and specificities in Sri Lanka and Myanmar

    Schonthal, B; Walton, MJ

    2016-01-01

    A large proportion of mainstream media coverage of Sri Lanka and Myanmar has grouped Bodu Bala Sēnā (BBS), the 969 Movement and the Organization for the Protection of Race and Religion (MaBaTha in its Burmese acronym) as a single phenomenon. Referred to variously as Buddhist terrorism, Buddhist militarism or Buddhist nationalism, these groups appear in popular media as separate iterations of a shared type. However, beneath the many ostensible symmetries—particularly commonalities at the level...

  3. Complementarity of Trade and FDI Liberalization in Industrial Growth: Lessons from Sri Lanka

    Prema-chandra Athukorala; Sisira Jayasuriya

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines industrialisation experience in Sri Lanka following the market-oriented policy reforms initiated in 1977, with emphasis on the complementarity of trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) policies in shaping the reform outcome. It is found that the reforms helped to transform a primary product exporting economy into one in which manufactures dominate exports. Improved performance of domestic manufacturing through greater export orientation saw improvement in output and tot...

  4. Symbolic Gestures: The Development Terrain of Post-Tsunami Villages in (Southern) Sri Lanka

    Hollenbach, Pia; Ruwanpura, Kanchana N

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper analyses how rituals and ceremonies were deployed in the post-tsunami rehabilitation process in Sri Lanka to `incorporate? development projects into the habitus and social reality of local communities. It argues that even though the aid delivery process is represented as a gift, in reality it is more concerned with strengthening the social capital of the local and foreign donors. Through this process there is an expectation and an implicit demand for obligatio...

  5. The burden of diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose in an urban population of Sri Lanka

    Pinidiyapathirage, M J; Kasturiratne, A; Ranawaka, U. K.; Gunasekara, D; Wijekoon, N; Medagoda, K; Perera, S; Takeuchi, F.; Kato, N; Warnakulasuriya, T; Wickremasinghe, A R

    2013-01-01

    Aims To describe the burden of diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose in middle-aged residents (35–64 years) in an urban area of Sri Lanka. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Ragama Medical Officer of Health area, from which 2986 participants (1349 men and 1637 women) were randomly selected from the electoral registry between January and December 2007. The participants underwent a physical examination and had their height, weight, waist and hip circumferences and bl...

  6. Developing an Instrument to Analyze the Quality of the Secondary Level Mathematics Textbooks to Promote Bilingual Education in Sri Lanka

    Dayananda Keppetigoda; Wannigamage Chandradasa

    2015-01-01

    Bilingual Education (BE) was introduced to Sri Lankan education system in 2001. BE refers to an educational programme in which both native language and a second language are taught as subject matter and used as media of instruction while teaching non language subjects. The research conducted by the National Institute of Education (NIE) reveals the need of scientifically designed text books to promote BE in Sri Lanka, because they are the only resource for most of the Sri Lankan bilingual lear...

  7. Resistance Towards the Language of Globalisation - The Case of Sri Lanka

    Punchi, Lakshman

    2001-07-01

    This paper relates the contemporary educational reforms in Sri Lanka to the processes of globalisation. The international monetary organisations such as the IMF and the World Bank and the regional organisations like the Asian Development Bank (ADB) play a dominant role in influencing the debt-receiving countries when it comes to their educational practice. The intensity of the influence of these organisations can vary depending on the existing educational policy of the aid receiving countries. This paper, after a brief introduction on globalisation, examines its effects on the education policy in Sri Lanka with a special emphasis on the current language policy. Equity in education is usually advocated at primary level based on the universal primary education concept so highly upheld by the World Bank. However, the present high human development indicators are undoubtedly due to Sri Lanka's free education policy in native languages. The paper concludes stressing the importance to retain the national education policy as a means of empowerment and liberation of its masses and creating stronger ethnic harmony.

  8. The economic, demographic, sociocultural and political setting for emigration from Sri Lanka.

    Gunatilleke, G

    1995-01-01

    This study of emigration from Sri Lanka is introduced by a brief review of the situation during the colonial period and an overview of recent migration experience. The second section of the paper deals with data collection and sources for labor migration, political migration, and estimates of total net migration. The third section looks at economic and demographic trends in terms of the growth of the economy, population growth and social well-being, the growth of the labor force, unemployment, the structure of the work force, internal migration and access to agricultural lands, and income distribution and poverty. The sociocultural setting is then explored by considering exposure to the international environment, ethnicity and cultural affinity, the formation of information and job placement networks, the supportive role of the family, and the impact of success and failure. Moving on the influence of the political setting, the paper then discusses the government policy of foreign employment promotion as well as the influence of political developments on migration. In conclusion, the paper notes that future demand for domestic service workers will likely increase, and that Sri Lanka will continue to have a surplus of workers to fill this demand until the end of the 1990s, when a tightening domestic labor market and increased real wages will ease the push for migration. Political factors will continue to favor migration, however, unless a liberal democratic regime becomes the governing force in Sri Lanka. PMID:12347013

  9. Information and Communication Technology: A Comparison of Pakistan and Sri-Lanka

    Javed Iqbal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to examine the information and communication technology sector in Pakistan and Sri-Lanka because they are among top five countries in ICT in the South Asian region. The research is helpful for decision makers to channel ICT related resources where they are required the most. ICT oriented data have been collected by International Telecommunication Union but no comparison exists between the countries included in the research. Therefore, the sources of data are ITU who has identified twenty three parameters individually; they have been rearranged under three subjects: ICT infrastructure, usage and economic impact on the economies of the countries concerned. It is found that the infrastructure of Sri-Lanka is better than Pakistan while both countries are using their resources equally. However, the economic impacts are less visible in Pakistan than its counterpart. Overall the ICT score of Sri Lanka is better than Pakistan. It suggests that policy makers in both nations have to rethink to deploy their resources to take maximum benefit as par to the international standards.

  10. A survey of odonate assemblages associated with selected wetland localities in southern Sri Lanka

    Chandana, E.P.S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dragonflies and damselflies are a major insect group (Class Insecta; Order Odonata associated with water courses. Odonate assemblages with reference to their habitat characters have not been widely studied in Sri Lanka. We have investigated odonate assemblages for a period of three months in selected localities in southern Sri Lanka with reference to the habitat characters. Bundala and Embillakala lagoons in Bundala National Park (A Ramsar wetland in Sri Lanka, “Kirala Kele” Eco-tourism Zone-Matara, Bandaththara marshland system-Matara, “Kirala Kele” Biological Garden-Ambalanthota and Kosgahadola stream which belongs to Mulatiyana Rain forest reserve were selected as study sites since these sites are important in conservation of biodiversity. A total of 28 species were identified during the study period. Our data reveals odonate assemblages specific to the studied habitats such as bushlands, marshlands, lagoons, flowing water bodies, stagnant water bodies and vegetation type (wet zone and dry zone. These data will be useful in future studies and conservation of biodiversity in the studied habitats.

  11. Isotopic mapping of age provinces in Precambrian high-grade terrains: Sri Lanka

    Milisenda, C.C.; Liew, T.C.; Hofmann, A.W.; Kroener, A.

    1988-09-01

    Nd model ages of amphibolite- and granulite-grade rocks in Sri Lanka form a simple region pattern that broadly correlates with mappable geological units, and is in effect an isotopic map of the island's basement. The granulite-grade units of the Highland Group and Southwest Group have model ages of 2.2-3.0 Ga indicating derivation mainly from late Archean sources. They are bounded to the east and west by late Proterozoic gneisses of the Vijayan Complex with model ages of 1.1-2.0 Ga. The isotopic data identify three distinct crustal provinces and are not consistent with earlier suggestions that the Vijayan gneisses are retrograde equivalents of the Highland granulites. Sri Lanka is not a direct continuation of the Archean Dharwar Craton of southern India. Identification of Vijayan-type juvenile crustal terrains in other Gondwana fragments may play a key role in determining the precise attachment of southern India-Sri Lanka in eastern Gondwana.

  12. Ethics of cancer palliative care in Sri Lanka. A cross- cultural perspective.

    Dayasiri MBKC

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of cancer is associated with an unexpected breakdown of the physical, psychological and social well being. In addition to cancer related physical outcomes, cross-cultural issues are known to hasten patients’ clinical deterioration and can impact upon orientation as a healthy human being in society. As members of a developing nation in the second world, to provide patient oriented quality care while maintaining high standards of ethical practice, health care workers in Sri Lanka have to be culturally competent. In Sri Lanka, the cross-cultural ethical issues related to patients with a diagnosis of cancer include, awareness of one’s own cultural identity, gaining knowledge of different cultural issues, verbal and non verbal communication skills, respect for patients’ autonomy, involvement of the family and the relatives, addressing moral and spiritual backgrounds, development of effective communication skills and provision of social support. Therefore in the management of cancer patients in Sri Lanka, cultural issues should be given a high priority to maintain ethical standards and quality in palliative care. Culturally competent Health care workers safeguard the rights of patients, as well as providing optimal medical and surgical care.

  13. Implementation of genomic medicine in Sri Lanka: Initial experience and challenges.

    Sirisena, Nirmala D; Neththikumara, Nilaksha; Wetthasinghe, Kalum; Dissanayake, Vajira H W

    2016-06-01

    The recent advances in next generation sequencing technologies have made it possible to implement genomic medicine in developing countries such as Sri Lanka where capacity for utilization is limited. This paper aims to describe our initial experience and challenges faced in integrating genomic medicine into routine clinical practice. Using the Illumina MiSeq Next generation sequencing (NGS) platform and an in-house developed bioinformatics pipeline/workflow, we successfully implemented clinical exome sequencing for rare disorders, complex disorders with unusual coexisting phenotypes, and multigene cancer panel testing for inherited cancer syndromes. The advantages of implementing these tests, the challenges for bioinformatics analysis and reporting, the ethical, legal, and social implications of moving from genetic to genomic counseling, and special policy issues related to implementing these tests are further discussed. The implementation of genomic medicine into our routine clinical practice has facilitated improved care for our patients, attesting to the ability of resource limited countries to improve care using advanced genomic technology. PMID:27354939

  14. Inter-Annual Variability in Blue Whale Distribution off Southern Sri Lanka between 2011 and 2012

    Asha de Vos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus movements are often driven by the availability of their prey in space and time. While globally blue whale populations undertake long-range migrations between feeding and breeding grounds, those in the northern Indian Ocean remain in low latitude waters throughout the year with the implication that the productivity of these waters is sufficient to support their energy needs. A part of this population remains around Sri Lanka where they are usually recorded close to the southern coast during the Northeast Monsoon. To investigate inter-annual variability in sighting locations, we conducted systematic Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD and visual surveys between January–March 2011 and January–March 2012. In 2011, there was a notable decrease in inshore sightings compared to 2009 and 2012 (p < 0.001. CTD data revealed that in 2011 there was increased freshwater in the upper water column accompanied by deeper upwelling than in 2012. We hypothesise that anomalous rainfall, along with higher turbidity resulting from river discharge, affected the productivity of the inshore waters and caused a shift in blue whale prey and, consequently, the distribution of the whales themselves. An understanding of how predators and their prey respond to environmental variability is important for predicting how these species will respond to long-term changes. This is especially important given the rapid temperature increases predicted for the semi-enclosed northern Indian Ocean.

  15. Inequalities and externalities of power sector. A case of Broadlands hydropower project in Sri Lanka

    Gunawardena, U.A.D. Prasanthi [Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda (Sri Lanka)

    2010-02-15

    The objective of the paper is to estimate environmental externalities related to a run of river project in Sri Lanka and to investigate inequity in distribution of impacts among different social groups. Diversion of the river resulted in loss of water sports (for high-income groups both local and remote), loss of historical monuments (for remote high-income groups) and recreation losses (for local poor). Removal of forest cover leads to loss of non-timber products (for local poor) and carbon storage (for remote high- and low-income groups). Loss of home garden productivity was borne by local poor groups. Benefit of the project, generation of 145 GWh annually, was a gain for the grid connected groups. The impacts were valued using various valuation methods. The base case of the cost benefit analysis resulted in NPV of US$ 11,335,730. When distributional weights are applied for different income groups, both the sign and magnitude of net benefits change. In order to be viable, the project needs diversion of at least 9% of generated electricity to the poorest households in the country. Implications for energy policy towards reducing externality and inequality impacts are also discussed. (author)

  16. Inequalities and externalities of power sector: A case of Broadlands hydropower project in Sri Lanka

    The objective of the paper is to estimate environmental externalities related to a run of river project in Sri Lanka and to investigate inequity in distribution of impacts among different social groups. Diversion of the river resulted in loss of water sports (for high-income groups both local and remote), loss of historical monuments (for remote high-income groups) and recreation losses (for local poor). Removal of forest cover leads to loss of non-timber products (for local poor) and carbon storage (for remote high- and low-income groups). Loss of home garden productivity was borne by local poor groups. Benefit of the project, generation of 145 GWh annually, was a gain for the grid connected groups. The impacts were valued using various valuation methods. The base case of the cost benefit analysis resulted in NPV of US$ 11,335,730. When distributional weights are applied for different income groups, both the sign and magnitude of net benefits change. In order to be viable, the project needs diversion of at least 9% of generated electricity to the poorest households in the country. Implications for energy policy towards reducing externality and inequality impacts are also discussed.

  17. Inequalities and externalities of power sector: A case of Broadlands hydropower project in Sri Lanka

    Gunawardena, U.A.D. Prasanthi, E-mail: prasanthigunawardena@yahoo.co [Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda (Sri Lanka)

    2010-02-15

    The objective of the paper is to estimate environmental externalities related to a run of river project in Sri Lanka and to investigate inequity in distribution of impacts among different social groups. Diversion of the river resulted in loss of water sports (for high-income groups both local and remote), loss of historical monuments (for remote high-income groups) and recreation losses (for local poor). Removal of forest cover leads to loss of non-timber products (for local poor) and carbon storage (for remote high- and low-income groups). Loss of home garden productivity was borne by local poor groups. Benefit of the project, generation of 145 GWh annually, was a gain for the grid connected groups. The impacts were valued using various valuation methods. The base case of the cost benefit analysis resulted in NPV of US$ 11,335,730. When distributional weights are applied for different income groups, both the sign and magnitude of net benefits change. In order to be viable, the project needs diversion of at least 9% of generated electricity to the poorest households in the country. Implications for energy policy towards reducing externality and inequality impacts are also discussed.

  18. Saw-scaled viper bites in Sri Lanka: is it a different subspecies? Clinical evidence from an authenticated case series.

    Gnanathasan, Ariaranee; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Peranantharajah, Thambipillai; Coonghe, Anthonia

    2012-02-01

    The saw-scaled viper (SSV) (Echis carinatus) is considered to be a highly venomous snake in Sri Lanka despite any published clinical justification. Being a rarity, the clinical profile of SSV bites is not well established in Sri Lanka. We report a series of 48 (n-48) SSV bites from the Northern Province of Sri Lanka. The majority (65%) of victims had evidence of local envenoming at the site of the bite; however, 29% showed spontaneous bleeding and 71% had coagulopathy. There were no deaths in the series. The envenoming was mild in contrast to the mortality and significant morbidity associated with SSV bites in West Africa and some parts of India. These observations need to be further explored with laboratory studies to identify the venom components, study of morphological characteristics, and genetic profiling of the Sri Lankan SSV to see if it is different from the subspecies found elsewhere. PMID:22302858

  19. An Overview of Meat Industry in Sri Lanka: A Comprehensive Review.

    Alahakoon, Amali U; Jo, Cheorun; Jayasena, Dinesh D

    2016-01-01

    Livestock is considered as one of the most important segments in agriculture since animal husbandry was practiced for centuries as a backyard system by rural families. Livestock plays as a powerful tool in rural development where meat industry contributes a dominant part. Meat and meat products become a vital component in the diet, which had been one of the main protein sources traditionally as well. The development in the livestock and meat industry of Sri Lanka basically depends upon religious, cultural, and economic factors. There is a growing demand for processed meat products in Sri Lankan urban culture and several large scale processors entered the business during the past few decades. The consumption of meat and meat products shows an upward trend in Sri Lanka during the last decade and is anticipated to increase further in future. The growth potential of the local meat industry is considerably high owing to the improvement of the market and consumer perception. The present status, trends, and future prospects for the Sri Lankan meat industry with respect to production, consumption, processing, marketing, and improvement are discussed in this review. PMID:27194920

  20. An Overview of Meat Industry in Sri Lanka: A Comprehensive Review

    Alahakoon, Amali U.; Jo, Cheorun

    2016-01-01

    Livestock is considered as one of the most important segments in agriculture since animal husbandry was practiced for centuries as a backyard system by rural families. Livestock plays as a powerful tool in rural development where meat industry contributes a dominant part. Meat and meat products become a vital component in the diet, which had been one of the main protein sources traditionally as well. The development in the livestock and meat industry of Sri Lanka basically depends upon religious, cultural, and economic factors. There is a growing demand for processed meat products in Sri Lankan urban culture and several large scale processors entered the business during the past few decades. The consumption of meat and meat products shows an upward trend in Sri Lanka during the last decade and is anticipated to increase further in future. The growth potential of the local meat industry is considerably high owing to the improvement of the market and consumer perception. The present status, trends, and future prospects for the Sri Lankan meat industry with respect to production, consumption, processing, marketing, and improvement are discussed in this review. PMID:27194920

  1. Application of Modis Data to Assess the Latest Forest Cover Changes of Sri Lanka

    Perera, K.; Herath, S.; Apan, A.; Tateishi, R.

    2012-07-01

    Assessing forest cover of Sri Lanka is becoming important to lower the pressure on forest lands as well as man-elephant conflicts. Furthermore, the land access to north-east Sri Lanka after the end of 30 years long civil war has increased the need of regularly updated land cover information for proper planning. This study produced an assessment of the forest cover of Sri Lanka using two satellite data based maps within 23 years of time span. For the old forest cover map, the study used one of the first island-wide digital land cover classification produced by the main author in 1988. The old land cover classification was produced at 80 m spatial resolution, using Landsat MSS data. A previously published another study by the author has investigated the application feasibility of MODIS and Landsat MSS imagery for a selected sub-section of Sri Lanka to identify the forest cover changes. Through the light of these two studies, the assessment was conducted to investigate the application possibility of MODIS 250 m over a small island like Sri Lanka. The relation between the definition of forest in the study and spatial resolution of the used satellite data sets were considered since the 2012 map was based on MODIS data. The forest cover map of 1988 was interpolated into 250 m spatial resolution to integrate with the GIS data base. The results demonstrated the advantages as well as disadvantages of MODIS data in a study at this scale. The successful monitoring of forest is largely depending on the possibility to update the field conditions at regular basis. Freely available MODIS data provides a very valuable set of information of relatively large green patches on the ground at relatively real-time basis. Based on the changes of forest cover from 1988 to 2012, the study recommends the use of MODIS data as a resalable method to forest assessment and to identify hotspots to be re-investigated. It's noteworthy to mention the possibility of uncounted small isolated pockets of

  2. Culture, Gender, and Suicidal Behavior in Sri Lanka.

    Marecek, Jeanne

    1998-01-01

    The current pattern of suicides, including sex differences, is described. Institutional practices, material conditions, and social norms are explored. A study inquiring into Sri Lankan's perceptions of the problem is presented. Gender differences and cultural meanings of suicide are discussed, and questions addressing the source of suicidal…

  3. Staffing Practices in the Private Sector in Sri Lanka

    Wickramasinghe, Vathsala

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to present and discuss the findings of a study of staffing practices in the Sri Lankan private sector with particular reference to junior level managerial jobs. The scope of staffing practices consisted of six major areas, namely the usage of information from job analysis in staffing, the sources of labour, selection…

  4. The Text of a Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology. Acceptance of the Agreement by Sri Lanka

    On 9 March 1976 the Government of Sri Lanka notified the Agency of its acceptance of the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology between the Agency and Member States, in accordance with Section 9 thereof. Pursuant to Section 10, the Agreement consequently entered into force with respect to the Government of Sri Lanka on that date

  5. An assessment of CSIRO Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model simulations over Sri Lanka

    Thevakaran, A.; McGregor, J. L.; Katzfey, J.; Hoffmann, P.; Suppiah, R.; Sonnadara, D. U. J.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we present an assessment of the Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) 50 km simulations forced by the sea surface temperature and sea ice concentration of six global climate models (GCMs) (ACCESS1-0, CCSM4, GFDL-CM3, NorESM, MPI-ESM and CNRM-CM5) from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) over South Asia, centred on Sri Lanka. The model simulations were compared with the data provided by the Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration towards Evaluation of Water Resource (APHRODITE) project and ERA-Interim from the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) over a broad region centred on Sri Lanka. This broad region includes South Asia and northern Indian Ocean. Statistical measures such as pattern correlations, mean biases and root mean square errors were calculated separately for the four seasons. Results based on statistical tests indicate that the current CCAM simulations capture the spatial patterns of 10 m wind speed, mean sea level pressure, temperature and rainfall over a broad region over South Asia fairly well. The annual cycles of temperature and rainfall were also compared against observations over the northern and southern regions of Sri Lanka by taking the field average of each model and the observed data. The characteristics of the observed annual variations of rainfall and temperature over the smaller domains are not very well captured by the CCAM simulations. There are differences in the magnitudes of the temperature and rainfall in the six member CCAM simulations. Comparatively, the two CCAM simulations CNRM-CM5 and GFDL-CM3 show slightly better agreement over the Sri Lankan region.

  6. Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth: Evidence from Sri Lanka

    Thirunavukkarasu Velnampy; Sivapalan Achchuthan; Rajendran Kajananthan

    2013-01-01

    Various international organizations and foreign advisors suggested that developing countries should focusprimarily on foreign direct investment (FDI) as a source of external finance. In this context, the main purpose ofthe study is to find out the impact of foreign direct investment on economic growth in the Sri LankanPerspective. Data on the foreign direct investment and economic growth from the year 1990 to 2011 werecollected for the study purpose. Further, the results revealed that, there ...

  7. Diffusion of a Sustainable Farming Technique in Sri Lanka: An Agent-Based Modeling Approach

    Jacobi, J. H.; Gilligan, J. M.; Carrico, A. R.; Truelove, H. B.; Hornberger, G.

    2012-12-01

    We live in a changing world - anthropogenic climate change is disrupting historic climate patterns and social structures are shifting as large scale population growth and massive migrations place unprecedented strain on natural and social resources. Agriculture in many countries is affected by these changes in the social and natural environments. In Sri Lanka, rice farmers in the Mahaweli River watershed have seen increases in temperature and decreases in precipitation. In addition, a government led resettlement project has altered the demographics and social practices in villages throughout the watershed. These changes have the potential to impact rice yields in a country where self-sufficiency in rice production is a point of national pride. Studies of the climate can elucidate physical effects on rice production, while research on social behaviors can illuminate the influence of community dynamics on agricultural practices. Only an integrated approach, however, can capture the combined and interactive impacts of these global changes on Sri Lankan agricultural. As part of an interdisciplinary team, we present an agent-based modeling (ABM) approach to studying the effects of physical and social changes on farmers in Sri Lanka. In our research, the diffusion of a sustainable farming technique, the system of rice intensification (SRI), throughout a farming community is modeled to identify factors that either inhibit or promote the spread of a more sustainable approach to rice farming. Inputs into the ABM are both physical and social and include temperature, precipitation, the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), community trust, and social networks. Outputs from the ABM demonstrate the importance of meteorology and social structure on the diffusion of SRI throughout a farming community.

  8. Pre-elimination stage of malaria in Sri Lanka: assessing the level of hidden parasites in the population

    Rajakaruna, Rupika S; Alifrangis, Michael; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the dramatic drop in the transmission of malaria in Sri Lanka in recent years, the country entered the malaria pre-elimination stage in 2008. Assessing the community prevalence of hidden malaria parasites following several years of extremely low transmission is central to the...... districts, Anuradhapura and Kurunegala, previously considered as high malaria transmission areas in Sri Lanka, where peaks of transmission follow the rainy seasons was assessed. Blood samples of non-febrile individuals aged five to 55 years were collected from randomly selected areas in the two districts at...... hidden parasites. DISCUSSION: A reservoir of hidden parasites is unlikely to be a major concern or a barrier to the ongoing malaria elimination efforts in Sri Lanka. However, as very low numbers of indigenous cases are still recorded, an island-wide assessment and in particular, continued alertness and...

  9. Challenging knowledge hierarchies: working toward sustainable development in Sri Lanka's energy sector

    Dean Nieusma

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes sustainable development practices within Sri Lanka’s energy sector. It directs attention to how expertise functions in development decision making in ways that can unintentionally inhibit sustainable development. Understanding expertise as merely specialized knowledge clouds its role as a social activity. In practice, expertise is a combination of knowledge and authority, and expert knowledge exists within a hierarchically ordered authority structure of diverse knowledge domains—what is referred to here as “knowledge hierarchies.” Knowledge hierarchies exclude the participation of some relevant knowledge domains, and thereby preclude the possibility of local sustainable development. The Energy Forum of Sri Lanka, a small renewable energy advocacy organization, strives to enable sustainability by going beyond facile calls for greater inclusion to confront the mechanisms of exclusion. The paper documents three of the Energy Forum’s development interventions intended to level out the knowledge hierarchy that inhibits sustainable energy development in Sri Lanka. Drawing insights from the Energy Forum’s approach, the paper argues that experts who wish to contribute to sustainable development must attend to the knowledge hierarchies in which they operate to ensure that their own authority does not exclude other relevant knowledge domains.

  10. Relationships between Indian Ocean Sea surface temperature and the rainfall of Sri Lanka

    Suppiah, Ramasamy

    1988-02-28

    Spatial and temporal variations of the sea surface temperature (SST) over the Indian Ocean are examined by using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. The first EOF mode explains 20.54% of the total variance indicating positive values over the study area. The second and third EOF modes explain relatively less contribution, 5.6% and 5.1% of the total variance. A weak positive correlation coefficient is observed between the time coefficients of the first EOF mode of SST anomalies and the time coefficients of the first EOF mode of the rainfall anomalies over Sri Lanka when all months are considered. The positive relationships between SST anomalies of the Pacific and the Indian Oceans and rainfall anomalies of Sri Lanka first appear in March and April, and then gradually build up towards the significant level. In the case of the summer monsoon, Arabian Sea SST's strongly influence the rainfall of Sri Lank, particularly striking in the southwestern quadrant of the island. (8 figs, 4 tabs, 27 refs)

  11. Notes on the diet and habitat selection of the Sri Lankan Leopard Panthera pardus kotiya (Mammalia: Felidae in the central highlands of Sri Lanka

    A.M. Kittle

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The endangered Sri Lankan Leopard Panthera pardus kotiya occupies the island’s highly fragmented central hills where data on its feeding ecology and habitat use is largely absent. This study’s objective was to investigate diet and resource selection of leopards here with a focus on the extent of potential interactions with humans in this heavily populated, largely unprotected landscape. Fecal sample analysis was undertaken to investigate diet and sign index counts and selectivity index analysis to determine habitat and landscape features important to fine scale leopard utilization. Results indicated that leopards in the central hills hunt a wide range of prey (at least 10 genera, including larger species where available (e.g., Sambar Rusa unicolor and smaller, more specialized prey (e.g., Porcupine Hystrix indica where necessary. No domestic species were recorded in scat analysis (N=35 despite the availability of dogs Canis familiaris, suggesting such predation may be atypical in Sri Lanka. Leopards use a range of landscapes within the region including established and regenerating forests, plantation lands (e.g., pine, eucalyptus, tea, and areas in close proximity to human settlement. At a fine scale, areas of dense undergrowth including tall grasslands were preferred to more open forest, as well as to Pine Pinus caribaea monocultures. Avoidance of humans may be influencing these patterns. This study has important implications as researchers and managers necessarily expand beyond focusing on protected areas toward integrated, landscape-level conservation strategies.

  12. Megarthrus of southern India and Sri Lanka, with notes on their phylogenetic and biogeographical relationships (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Proteininae).

    Cuccodoro, Giulio; Liu, Zhiping

    2016-01-01

    South of the Deccan Plateau the genus Megarthrus Curtis was represented so far in the Indian subcontinent only by M. rufomarginatus Cameron, of the hilly areas of Tamil Nadu and Kerala, and Megarthrus bimaculatus Fauvel, of Sri Lanka. Here we describe three additional species from this area: M. nilgiriensis sp. n. and M. narendrani sp. n., both from southern India and strongly resembling M. bimaculatus, and M. lanka sp. n., of Sri Lanka and strongly resembling M. rufomarginatus. The five species of Megarthrus occurring in southern India and Sri Lanka are keyed and illustrated with colour pictures of habitus, genitalia and other main diagnostic characters. They belong to two homogeneous complexes of species-the «bimaculatus-complex» and the «rufomarginatus-complex»-that uniquely share many important features with the Sumatran M. sumatrensis Cameron and the Philippine M. vastus Wendeler, with which they constitute the here defined «vastus-group» of species. The Megarthrus fauna of southern India and Sri Lanka appears thus not only disjunct and completely distinct from that phylogenetically and taxonomically much more diverse of North of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, but also directly related to that of the Sunda shelf. PMID:27394564

  13. Promotion of Open Access through self-archiving in Sri Lanka: getting experiences from E-LIS

    Garusing Arachchige, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the main features of e-LIS; one of global level subject-based open access archive on Library and Information Sciences, and discusses the potential of obtaining E-LIS experiences to form a national level e-repository of scientific and scholarly resources in Sri Lanka. It is found that only one national level open access e-repository is available in Sri Lanka. It is NSF e-repository and is still in the beginning stage. There are some attempts to approach open access conc...

  14. Using Constitutional Provisions to Advance Environmental Justice – Some Reflections on Sri Lanka

    Camena Guneratne

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the principle of environmental justice and its potential applicability to developing countries such as Sri Lanka. It first considers the interpretation and application of the principle in its country of origin, the United States, where it is used primarily to address problems of discrimination in the context of pollution. The paper takes the view that while such an interpretation of environmental justice is valid in this particular context, it cannot address issues of environment and development that arise in countries of the global South, which are grappling with development processes. These processes give rise to issues that may be subject to judicial determination, including sustainable development, protection of natural resources, human rights and social equity. The principle must therefore be re-interpreted to encompass all these dimensions. This paper argues that such an expansion and implementation of the principle of environmental justice in a context of environment and development in countries such as Sri Lanka, is most effective within a constitutional framework of human rights. Constitutions provide both the substantive and procedural foundation of rights, which are interpreted, enforced and given validity at the highest level of the judicial process. Even where environmental rights per se are not contained in a constitution, the existing rights can be, and have been, re-formulated to address issues of environment and development and related human rights. This paper analyses constitutional rights in Sri Lanka, which although limited in scope, has nevertheless formed the basis of a wide body of jurisprudence which brings new dimensions to the principle.

  15. The Malaysian Orthopaedic Association humanitarian mission to Indonesia and Sri Lanka.

    Sharaf, I; Saw, A; Hyzan, Y; Sivananthan, K S

    2005-07-01

    The tsunami which occurred off the west coast of North Sumatra on December 26, 2004 devastated the coastal areas of North Sumatra, South-West Thailand, South-East India and Sri Lanka killing more than a quarter of a million people. The destruction was enormous with many coastal villages destroyed. The other countries affected were Malaysia, Myanmar, Maldives, Bangladesh, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania and the Seychelles. In January 2005, volunteers went in weekly rotation to Banda Aceh in collaboration with Global Peace Mission. These were Dr Hyzan Yusof, Dr Suryasmi Duski, Dr Sharaf Ibrahim, Dr Saw Aik, Dr Kamariah Nor and Dr Nor Azlin. In Banda Aceh, the surgical procedures that we could do were limited to external fixation of open fractures and debriding infected wounds at the Indonesian Red Crescent field hospital. In February, a team comprising Dato Dr K S Sivananthan, Dr T Kumar and Dr S Vasan spent a week in Sri Lanka. In Sri Lanka, Dato Sivananthan and his team were able to perform elective orthopaedic operations in Dr Poonambalam Memorial Hospital. We appealed for national and international aid and received support from local hospitals and the orthopaedic industry. International aid bound for Banda Aceh arrived in Kuala Lumpur from the Philippine Orthopaedic Association, the Chiba Children's Hospital in Japan and the Chinese Orthopaedic Association. The COA donated 1.5 tons of orthopaedic equipments. A special handing over ceremony from the COA to the Indonesian Orthopaedic Association was held in Putrajaya in March. Malaysia Airlines flew in the donated equipment to Kuala Lumpur while the onward flight to Aceh was provided by the Royal Malaysian Air Force. In April, Dr Saw Aik and Dr Yong Su Mei joined the Tsu-Chi International Medical Association for volunteer services on Batam Island, Indonesia. The MOA acknowledges the many individuals and organizations, both governmental and non-governmental, for their contributions in the humanitarian efforts. PMID

  16. Use of the internet by patients attending specialist clinics in Sri Lanka: a cross sectional study

    Kommalage Mahinda

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The internet is a relatively new medium of disseminating health information. Studies on Internet usage for health information are mainly done in developed countries and very few studies have been carried out in developing countries. Methods The Internet usage of patients who were attending specialist clinics in Teaching Hospital Karapitiya and Southern Hospital in Galle, Sri Lanka was investigated. The study was carried out on the following specialities; General Medicine, Pediatrics, General Surgery and Cardiothoracic surgery. Information was collected using an investigator-administered questionnaire while patients were waiting for a consultation. Results Three hundred and fifty five patients (or guardians in the Pediatric clinic participated in the study. One hundred seventy two (48.3% participants have heard about the Internet. There was a relationship between awareness of the Internet and age, educational level and the clinic attended. There was no difference of awareness depending on the gender or the hospital. Only three participants (0.97% have used the Internet to find information about their disease conditions. Close relatives searched the Internet about the conditions of two participants. Altogether, the Internet was used to search information on the disease condition of five participants (1.4%. Conclusion Very low usage of the Internet for health information retrieval in this study is probably due to low awareness of the Internet and low educational level. This low usage of Internet and the associated reasons shown in this study can be generalized to Sri Lanka and probably to other low-income countries that have lower educational level than Sri Lanka.

  17. Quantitative and Public Perception of Landslide Risk in Badulla, Sri Lanka

    Gunasekera, R.; Bandara, R. M. S.; Mallawatantri, A.; Saito, K.

    2009-04-01

    Landslides are often triggered by intense precipitation and are exacerbated by increased urbanisation and human activity. There is a significant risk of large scale landslides in Sri Lanka and when they do occur, they have the potential to cause devastation to property, lives and livelihoods. There are several high landslide risk areas in seven districts (Nuwara Eliya, Badulla, Ratnapura, Kegalle, Kandy, Matale and Kalutara) in Sri Lanka. These are also some of the poorest areas in the country and consequently the recovery process after catastrophic landslides become more problematic. Therefore landslide risk management is an important concern in poverty reduction strategies. We focused on the district of Badulla, Sri Lanka to evaluate the a) quantitative scientific analysis of landslide risk and b) qualitative public perception of landslides in the area. Combining high resolution, hazard and susceptibility data we quantified the risk of landslides in the area. We also evaluated the public perception of landslides in the area using participatory GIS techniques. The evaluation of public perception of landslide risk has been complemented by use of Landscan data. The framework of the methodology for Landscan data is based on using the second order administrative population data from census, each 30 arc-second cell within the administrative units receives a probability coefficient based on slope, proximity to roads and land cover. Provision of this information from these complementary methods to the regional planners help to strengthen the disaster risk reduction options and improving sustainable land use practices through enhanced public participation in the decision making and governance processes.

  18. Environmental and Socio-Demographic Determinants of Dengue Fever in Colombo City, Sri Lanka

    Tipre, Meghan; Luvall, Jeffrey; Haque, Akhlaque; McClure, Leslie; Zaitchik, Ben; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever has increased exponentially in Sri Lanka, from 24.4 cases per 100,000 in 2003 to 165.3 per 100,000 population in 2013. Although early warning systems using predictor models have been previously developed in other settings, it is important to develop such models in each local setting. Further, the ability of these models to be applicable at smaller geographic units will enhance current vector control and disease surveillance measures. The aim of this paper was to identify environmental and socio-economic status (SES) risk factors that may predict dengue fever at the Gram Niladhari Divisions (GND) level (smallest administrative unit) in Colombo city, Sri Lanka. These factors included landcover classes, amount of vegetation, population density, water access and neighborhood SES as determined by roof type. A geographically weighted regression (GWR) was used to develop the prediction model. A total 55 GND units covering an area of 37 sq km were investigated. We found that GND units with decreased vegetation, higher built-up area, higher population density and poor access to tap-water supply were associated with high risk of dengue; the pertinent GND units were concentrated in the center of the city. This is the first study in Sri Lanka to include both environmental and socio-demographic factors in prediction models for dengue fever. The methodology may be useful in enhancing ongoing dengue fever control measures in the country, and to be extended to other countries in the region that have an increasing incidence of dengue fever.

  19. Distribution and habitat preferences of tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae of the riverine ecosystems of Sri Lanka

    C.D. Dangalle

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tiger beetles have been observed in many riverine ecosystems of Sri Lanka. However, current locations, species, distribution of species, habitat preferences and possible interactions between species are unknown. The present study intends to investigate these details and provide information that can be used in further studies. Tiger beetles are sampled from 15 riverine locations and examined for identification, body weight and body length. The riverine locations are analysed for locational, climatic and soil parameters and microhabitat details are recorded. Statistical analysis using One-Way Analysis of Variance and Tukey’s pair comparison method of Minitab 16.0 statistical software package is conducted to compare the body sizes of species. Further, a statistical comparison between the climatic and soil parameters of the locations of Cylindera (Ifasina labioaenea and that of other species are carried out. The study reveals five tiger beetle species Cylindera (Ifasina labioaenea Horn, Cylindera (Ifasina willeyi Horn, Cylindera (Ifasina waterhousei Horn, Calomera cardoni Fleutiaux, Calomera angulata Fabricius, from the riverine ecosystems of Sri Lanka. Cylindera labioaenea is the most common species; C. willeyi and C. waterhousei are endemic to Sri Lanka. Cylindera labioaenea, C. willeyi and C. waterhousei are small, while Calomera cardoni and Calomera angulata are medium in size. Cylindera labioaenea is significantly smaller than C. willeyi and C. waterhousei, and resides in locations with significantly higher air temperatures, solar radiations and significantly lower relative humidity than the other two species. An optimal temperature range for the riverine tiger beetles is suggested and their preferences to soil moisture, soil temperature, soil colour and soil salinity are discussed. The occurrence of C. labioaenea as a single species population while the fact that other species co-exist may be due to a defensive strategy.

  20. Breastfeeding practices in a public health field practice area in Sri Lanka: a survival analysis

    Agampodi Thilini C

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exclusive breastfeeding up to the completion of the sixth month of age is the national infant feeding recommendation for Sri Lanka. The objective of the present study was to collect data on exclusive breastfeeding up to six months and to describe the association between exclusive breastfeeding and selected socio-demographic factors. Methods A clinic based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Medical Officer of Health area, Beruwala, Sri Lanka in June 2006. Mothers with infants aged 4 to 12 months, attending the 19 child welfare clinics in the area were included in the study. Infants with specific feeding problems (cleft lip and palate and primary lactose intolerance were excluded. Cluster sampling technique was used and consecutive infants fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled. A total of 219 mothers participated in the study. The statistical tests used were survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional Hazard model. Results All 219 mothers had initiated breastfeeding. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was four months (95% CI 3.75, 4.25. The rates of exclusive breastfeeding at 4 and 6 months were 61.6% (135/219 and 15.5% (24/155 respectively. Bivariate analysis showed that the Muslim ethnicity (p = 0.004, lower levels of parental education (p Conclusion The rate of breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding up to the fourth month is very high in Medical Officer of Health area, Beruwala, Sri Lanka. However exclusive breastfeeding up to six months is still low and the prevalence of inappropriate feeding practices is high.

  1. Geomagnetic field variations at the equatorial electrojet station in Sri Lanka, Peredinia

    R. G. Rastogi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the variations of the horizontal (H, vertical (Z and eastward (Y components of the geomagnetic field at Peredinia (PRD, an electrojet station in Sri Lanka, with the time of the day, season, sudden commencement (SSC and during geomagnetic storms. The daily variation of H showed a large peak around midday. The daily variation of Z appeared to be almost a time gradient curve of the daily variation of H, showing a maximum around 09:00 LT (75° EMT when the H field was increasing fastest and not at noon when Δ H was the maximum. Storm time variation of H resembled the variation of the Dst index but that of Z showed a large minimum about 2-3h before the time of minimum Dst or at the time of maximum time gradient of Dst variation. These features are compared with corresponding variations at the equatorial stations Trivandrum (TRD in India, and remarkable similarity in all observations is noticed at PRD and TRD. It is suggested that the observed abnormal features of Z variations at electrojet stations in India-Sri Lanka are due to (i direct effect of the ionospheric electrojet current (ii the induction effect of the image current by the average spatially extended conductivity region and (iii the induction current in the local subsurface conductor. It is suggested that the conductor responsible for the observed features in Z in India and Sri Lanka has to have extended spatial domain to latitudes well south of India, rather than confined to narrow Palk Strait.

  2. Chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology in Sri Lanka: Are leptospirosis and Hantaviral infection likely causes?

    Gamage, Chandika Damesh; Sarathkumara, Yomani Dilukshi

    2016-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology (CKDu) has been a severe burden and a public health crisis in Sri Lanka over the past two decades. Many studies have established hypotheses to identify potential risk factors although causative agents, risk factors and etiology of this disease are still uncertain. Several studies have postulated that fungal and bacterial nephrotoxins are a possible etiological factor; however, the precise link between hypothesized risk factors and the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease has yet to be proven in prior studies. Leptospirosis and Hantavirus infections are important zoonotic diseases that are naturally maintained and transmitted via infected rodent populations and which present similar clinical and epidemiological features. Both infections are known to be a cause of acute kidney damage that can proceed into chronic renal failure. Several studies have reported presence of both infections in Sri Lanka. Therefore, we hypothesized that pathogenic Leptospira or Hantavirus are possible causative agents of acute kidney damage which eventually progresses to chronic kidney disease in Sri Lanka. The proposed hypothesis will be evaluated by means of an observational study design. Past infection will be assessed by a cross-sectional study to detect the presence of IgG antibodies with further confirmatory testing among chronic kidney disease patients and individuals from the community in selected endemic areas compared to low prevalence areas. Identification of possible risk factors for these infections will be followed by a case-control study and causality will be further determined with a cohort study. If the current hypothesis is true, affected communities will be subjected for medical interventions related to the disease for patient management while considering supportive therapies. Furthermore and possibly enhance their preventive and control measures to improve vector control to decrease the risk of infection. PMID:27142134

  3. Zircon ion microprobe dating of high-grade rocks in Sri Lanka

    Kroener, A.; Williams, I.S.; Compston, W.; Baur, N.; Vitanage, P.W.; Perera, L.R.K.

    1987-11-01

    The high-grade gneisses of Sri Lanka display spectacular in-situ granulitization phenomena similar to those observed in southern India and of current interest for evolutionary models of the lower continental crust. The absolute ages of these rocks are poorly constrained and so, using the SHRIMP ion microprobe, the authors have analyzed small spots on zircons from upper amphibolite to granulite grade quartzitic and pelitic metasediments. Detrital grains from a metaquartzite of the Highland Group preserve premetamorphic U-Pb ages of between 3.17 and 2.4 Ga and indicate derivation of the sediment from an unidentified Archean source terrain. The Pb-loss patterns of these zircons and the other samples suggest severe disturbance at ca 1100 Ma ago, which the authors attribute to high-grade regional metamorphism. Two pelitic gneisses contain detrital zircons with ages up to 2.04 Ga and also record an approx. = 1100 Ma event that is also apparent from metamorphic rims around old cores and new zircon growth. A granite intrusive into the Highland Group granulites records an emplacement age of 1000-1100 Ma as well as metamorphic disturbance some 550 Ma ago but also contains older, crustally derived xenocrysts. Zircons from a metaquartzite xenolith within the granitoid Vijayan Complex are not older than approx. 1100 Ma; therefore the Vijayan is neither Archean in age nor acted as basement to the Highland Group, as previously proposed. The authors suggest that the Vijayan Complex formed significantly later than the Highland Group and that the two units were brought into contact through post-1.1 Ga thrusting. Although the granulitization phenomena in India and Sri Lanka are similar, the granulite event in Sri Lanka is not Archean in age but took place in the late Proterozoic.

  4. Implementation of national radiation safety regulations in Sri Lanka: A beginning to conform to international standards

    The Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) of Sri Lanka was established in 1970 by the legislation Atomic Energy Authority Act No.19 of 1969. Since the act was enacted 03 decades ago, the recent advances and needs were not identified. The AEA was empowered to carry out promotional activities of nuclear technology as well as regulatory activities. Under the provisions made in the act the Atomic Energy Regulations of 1975 were promulgated to regulate the activities related to radiation in the country until year 2000. Having realized that these regulations are not sufficient to meet the current international requirements with the technological advances in the fields 'Ionizing Radiation Protection Regulations' which conforms to the IAEA's Basic Safety Standards-115 were promulgated in year 2000. Even though the new regulations were made under the same act, the AEA could achieve a positive improvement in regulatory activities in use of ionizing radiation in the country by establishing a good system for implementation of a notification, licensing, and inspection programmes to conform to the International requirements. Three codes of practices have been drafted and are under review and few manuals have been printed for distribution among the radiation users. Two regulations on safe transport of radioactive material and radioactive waste management have to be promulgated and steps have been initiated in this regard. Assistance from the IAEA was received to strengthen the regulatory infrastructure in Sri Lanka under the model project in radiation protection. Also IAEA has carried out several missions to assess the regulatory effectiveness in Sri Lanka. These missions state the successful achievement of milestones I and II of the IAEA model project on Strengthening and Harmonization of Radiation Protection. However it is identified that amendment of the act is a timely requirement for the effective independence of the regulatory activities carried out by the AEA. (author)

  5. Failing Adolescents: Social Control, Political Economy & Human Development in post-war Sri Lanka

    Sarala Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In post-war societies adolescents occupy liminal spaces – where social, political, economic, spatial and biological boundaries are still fluid and undetermined – and present a particular challenge for post-war communities as well as service providers.  Drawing on a study from two war-affected villages in Sri Lanka, this paper examines the multi-faceted challenges that adolescents face in communities attempting to retain and redefine boundaries, identities, and social and moral regulation in a post-war context. It explores the dynamics of post-war change, especially in the social and moral regulation of sexuality, and its implications for adolescent girls and boys grappling with biological and social transformation—from internalizing gender norms to taking on adult economic roles. A second key concern of this paper is to underline how the post-war political economic context within which their communities are embedded shapes adolescents’ negotiation with personal and social transformation. A third key concern is to highlight the legacies of war in the form of surveillance, silences and complex psychosocial problems that adolescents are confronted in post-war contexts and the risk of cycles of inter-generational violence. Finally, the paper examines the role and relevance of formal services in areas such as education, reproductive health, community mobilization, or psychosocial support in the lives of adolescents.  It also considers the often overlooked but fundamental support from families and communities in bolstering the resilience of adolescents as they go through this challenging life phase in difficult and complex circumstances.

  6. Baseline Evaluation of a Participatory Mobile Health Intervention for Dengue Prevention in Sri Lanka.

    Lwin, May O; Vijaykumar, Santosh; Lim, Gentatsu; Fernando, Owen Noel Newton; Rathnayake, Vajira Sampath; Foo, Schubert

    2016-08-01

    Challenges posed by infectious disease outbreaks have led to a range of participatory mobile phone-based innovations that use the power of crowdsourcing for disease surveillance. However, the dynamics of participatory behavior by crowds in such interventions have yet to be examined. This article reports results from a baseline evaluation of one such intervention called Mo-Buzz, a mobile-based crowdsource-driven socially mediated system developed to address gaps in dengue surveillance and education in Colombo, Sri Lanka. We conducted a 30-minute cross-sectional field survey (N = 404) among potential users of Mo-Buzz in Colombo. We examined individual, institutional, and cultural factors that influence their potential intention-to-use Mo-Buzz and assessed if these factors varied by demographic factors. Descriptive analysis revealed high perceived ease-of-use (PEOU; M = 3.81, SD = 0.44), perceived usefulness (PU; M = 4.01, SD = 0.48), and intention-to-use (PI; M = 3.91, SD = 0.46) among participants. Analysis of variance suggested participants in the 31 to 40 years age group reported highest PEOU, whereas the oldest group reported high perceived institutional efficacy (M = 3.59, SD = 0.64) and collectivistic tendencies. Significant differences (at the p < .05 level) were also found by education and income. Regression analysis demonstrated that PU, behavioral control, institutional efficacy, and collectivism were significant predictors of PI. We concluded that despite high overall PI, future adoption and use of Mo-Buzz will be shaped by a complex mix of factors at different levels of the public health ecology. Implications of study findings from theoretical and practical perspectives related to the future adoption of mobile-based participatory systems in public health are discussed and ideas for a future research agenda presented. PMID:26377525

  7. A waste heat recovery steam power generation system for ACE Power Embilipitiya (Pvt) Ltd, Sri Lanka

    Weerasiri, Udayani Priyadarshana

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the heat recovery from exhaust gas at the ACE Power Embilipitiya (Pvt) Ltd (APE) in Sri Lanka was conceptually proposed and evaluated. APE has an installed capacity of 100 MW comprising 14 units of 7.5MW medium speed diesel engines fired with heavy fuel oil. There is only a minimum recovery of waste heat in the plant at the moment, only for fuel preheating, whereas waste heat recovery (WHR) boilers of 750kWth are equipped on eight engines. The larger portion of the waste heat i...

  8. Resources and Entrepreneurial Orientation : Empirical findings from the software industry of Sri Lanka

    Thunberg, Nils; Eriksson, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Background: There are different types of firms in the world. Those that lead change and those who follow change. In this thesis, the authors have chosen to see if a dynamic industry in a developing nation can be the leaders of change, or if they are stuck as the ones following developments in the west. Sri Lanka is a developing nation with a rapidly growing software industry. Like its neighbour, India, the country and region has been known for its cheap, yet highly skilled labour. This study ...

  9. Rainfall distributions in Sri Lanka in time and space : an analysis based on daily rainfall data.

    T. P. Burt; K.D.N. WEERASINGHE

    2014-01-01

    Daily rainfall totals are analyzed for the main agro-climatic zones of Sri Lanka for the period 1976–2006. The emphasis is on daily rainfall rather than on longer-period totals, in particular the number of daily falls exceeding given threshold totals. For one station (Mapalana), where a complete daily series is available from 1950, a longer-term perspective on changes over half a century is provided. The focus here is particularly on rainfall in March and April, given the sensitivity of agric...

  10. The Ireland of Asia: trends in marriage timing in Sri Lanka.

    De Silva, W I

    1997-06-01

    This study examines marriage patterns among ever married women in Sri Lanka. Data are obtained from the 1987 and 1993 Sri Lanka Demographic and Health Surveys and population censuses during 1946-81. The greatest change in marriage patterns in Sri Lanka is the shift from arranged marriages to individual choice of partners. The individual attributes of the nuclear family have replaced household attributes, such the primacy of the family and hard work. Increased educational levels are desired for a marriage partner. Premarital sex behavior resulted in premarital first births among 1 in 6 married women 20-24 years old at the time of the survey. The singulate mean age of marriage increased from 18.3 years to 25.1 years during 1901-75, which means a long exposure to potential sexual activity. During 1975-80, SMAM has declined for both sexes, and then increased by 1 year. Rates of divorce and widowhood were quite low. The proportion of never married steadily increased over the decades. During 1946-93, the proportion of never married among women 15-19 years old increased from 75% to 93%. Among women 20-24 years old, the proportion increased from 29% to 61%. Marriage timing patterns in Sri Lanka are dissimilar to other South Asian countries and similar to Ireland's patterns. The age at first marriage increased from 20.8 years in the oldest cohort to 24.3 years in the cohort 35-39 years old. Cohorts younger than 35 years show a declining trend in marriage age. It is argued that marriage was delayed during the mid-1970s due to dowry, housing, and wedding expenses. Late marriage was due to the marriage squeeze and socioeconomic change. Mortality declined during the anti-malarial campaign of the late 1940s, with the result that more females were born during 1947-51 than males were born during 1942-46. First marriage ages range from 15 to 29 years for females and from 20 to 34 years for males. PMID:12348099

  11. Initial water repellency affected organic matter depletion rates of manure amended soils in Sri Lanka

    Leelamanie, D.A.L.

    2014-01-01

    The wetting rate of soil is a measure of water repellency, which is a property of soils that prevents water from wetting or penetrating into dry soil. The objective of the present research was to examine the initial water repellency of organic manure amended soil, and its relation to the soil organic matter (SOM) depletion rates in the laboratory. Soil collected from the Wilpita natural forest, Sri Lanka, was mixed with organic manure to prepare soil samples with 0, 5, 10, 25, and 50% organic...

  12. Indian flying fox Pteropus giganteus colony in Peradeniya Botanical Gardens, Sri Lanka

    Boris Krystufek

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A colony of Indian flying foxes in Peradeniya Botanical Gardens near Kandy, Sri Lanka, was spread over 20 hectares and numbered 24,480 bats in September 2002. The number of bats per tree varied between ten and 1200. The median value was low (= 50 bats per tree and half of the trees contained between 30 and 100 bats. The mean density was c. 1200 bats per hectare, but was significantly higher along the western margin of the colony (3250 bats per hectare. Peradeniya possibly supports the largest aggregation of the Indian flying fox known currently.

  13. Do cold, low salinity waters pass through the Indo-Sri Lanka Channel during winter?

    Rao, R.R.; Girishkumar, M.S.; Ravichandran, M.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Pankajakshan, T.

    also noticed in the intense localized mini-cold pool observed south of the ISLC, primarily driven by the surface wind and net heat flux fields during winter (Rao et al. 2008). These cooling episodes also show strong interannual variability... International Journal of Remote Sensing Vol. 32, No. 22, 20 November 2011, 7383–7398 Do cold, low salinity waters pass through the Indo-Sri Lanka Channel during winter? R. R. RAO†‡, M. S. GIRISHKUMAR§, M. RAVICHANDRAN*§, V. V. GOPALAKRISHNA¶ and P. THADATHIL...

  14. Do cold, low salinity waters pass through the Indo-Sri Lanka Channel during winter?

    Rao, R.R.; Girishkumar, M.S.; Ravichandran, M.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Pankajakshan, T.

    Author version: Int. J. Remote Sens., vol.32(22); 2011; 7383-7398 Do the cold and low salinity waters pass through the Indo-Sri Lanka Channel during winter? R. R. Rao 1 , M. S. Girish Kumar 2 , M. Ravichandran 2 , V.V.Gopalakrishna 3 and P... in intense localized sea surface cooling which is primarily attributed to wind driven mixing and the associated turbulent heat losses (Kawamura, 2000, Luis and Kawamura, 2001 and 2002, Rao et al., 2008). However, no direct current measurements are available...

  15. Health changes in Sri Lanka: benefits of primary health care and public health.

    Karunathilake, Indika Mahesh

    2012-07-01

    The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is an island in the Indian Ocean that has achieved a unique status in the world with health indicators that are comparable with those of developed countries. This is illustrated, among others, by the reduction in both child and maternal mortality in the country. This achievement is the result of a range of long-term interventions, including providing education and health care free of charge, training of health care workers, developing public health infrastructure in rural areas, and adopting steps to improve sanitation, nutrition, and immunization coverage. PMID:22815304

  16. Religious beliefs, possession States, and spirits: three case studies from sri lanka.

    Hanwella, Raveen; de Silva, Varuni; Yoosuf, Alam; Karunaratne, Sanjeewani; de Silva, Pushpa

    2012-01-01

    We describe three patients from different religious backgrounds in Sri Lanka whose possession states were strongly influenced by their religious beliefs. Patient A was a Buddhist who claimed to have special powers given by a local deity named Paththini. Patient B was a Catholic who experienced spirits around her whom she believed were sent by Satan. Patient C was a Muslim and believed she was possessed by spirits. The religious beliefs also influenced the help-seeking behaviour and the rituals or treatments to which they responded. PMID:22970398

  17. Religious Beliefs, Possession States, and Spirits: Three Case Studies from Sri Lanka

    Raveen Hanwella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe three patients from different religious backgrounds in Sri Lanka whose possession states were strongly influenced by their religious beliefs. Patient A was a Buddhist who claimed to have special powers given by a local deity named Paththini. Patient B was a Catholic who experienced spirits around her whom she believed were sent by Satan. Patient C was a Muslim and believed she was possessed by spirits. The religious beliefs also influenced the help-seeking behaviour and the rituals or treatments to which they responded.

  18. Road traffic crashes, injury and fatality trends in Sri Lanka: 1938–2013

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To analyse trends in road traffic crashes, injuries and fatalities over 75 years in Sri Lanka. Methods Data on road traffic crashes, injuries and fatalities between 1938 and 2013 were obtained from the Police Statistics Unit. Rates per 100 000 population were calculated and trends were analysed using joinpoint regression analysis. Findings Road traffic crashes and injuries rose substantially between 1938 and 2013: annual crashes increased from 61.2 to 183.6 per 100 000 peop...

  19. Desiccated coconut industry of Sri Lanka: opportunities for energy efficiency and environmental protection

    The desiccated coconut (DC) industry is one of the major export oriented food processing industries in Sri Lanka. This paper discusses the production processes, types of fuel used, energy use pattern and the overall specific thermal and electrical energy consumption in the DC sector. An analysis of the energy use highlights the inefficient processes and the key energy loss areas. Options for energy conservation in the DC mills have been discussed, and carbon dioxide emissions from this sector and its mitigation potential are estimated. Other options to improve efficiency and reduce other pollution and policy aspects have been presented

  20. A village treatment center for malaria: community response in Sri Lanka

    Konradsen, F; Amerasinghe, P H; Perera, D;

    2000-01-01

    communities, it is important to know the rationale for people's malaria treatment-seeking behavior. The present study provides insights into the reasons for people's preferences for different types of healthcare facilities and describes variation of these preferences within a rural community in Sri Lanka. The...... government facilities. The treatment center did not improve the response time in seeking treatment for young children, but the delay for adults was reduced by 1-2 days. Mothers with small children often preferred the government facilities since they wanted a more qualified opinion than available from the...

  1. Household responses to malaria and their costs: a study from rural Sri Lanka

    Konradsen, F; Hoek, Wim van der; Amerasinghe, P H;

    1997-01-01

    A study of the cost of malaria at the household level, community perceptions, preventive measures and illness behaviour linked to the disease was undertaken in 5 villages in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The surveyed community had a high knowledge of malaria, although side effects of antimalarial...... families) and special leaves (69% of families), and 93% of the families had their houses sprayed with insecticides. Average direct expenditure on a single malaria episode was $3 US, with some families spending more than 10% of the annual household net income per episode. The highest expenditure was on...

  2. Factors controlling January-April rainfall over southern India and Sri Lanka

    Vialard, J.; Terray, P.; Duvel, J.-P.; Nanjundiah, R. S.; Shenoi, S. S. C.; Shankar, D.

    2011-08-01

    Most of the annual rainfall over India occurs during the Southwest (June-September) and Northeast (October-December) monsoon periods. In March 2008, however, Southern peninsular India and Sri Lanka received the largest rainfall anomaly on record since 1979, with amplitude comparable to summer-monsoon interannual anomalies. This anomalous rainfall appeared to be modulated at intraseasonal timescale by the Madden Julian Oscillation, and was synchronous with a decaying La Niña event in the Pacific Ocean. Was this a coincidence or indicative of a teleconnection pattern? In this paper, we explore factors controlling rainfall over southern India and Sri Lanka between January and April, i.e. outside of the southwest and northeast monsoons. This period accounts for 20% of annual precipitation over Sri Lanka and 10% over the southern Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Interannual variability is strong (about 40% of the January-April climatology). Intraseasonal rainfall anomalies over southern India and Sri Lanka are significantly associated with equatorial eastward propagation, characteristic of the Madden Julian Oscillation. At the interannual timescale, we find a clear connection with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO); with El Niños being associated with decreased rainfall (correlation of -0.46 significant at the 98% level). There is also a significant link with local SST anomalies over the Indian Ocean, and in particular with the inter-hemispheric sea surface temperature (SST) gradient over the Indian Ocean (with colder SST south of the equator being conducive to more rainfall, correlation of 0.55 significant at the 99% level). La Niñas/cold SSTs south of the equator tend to have a larger impact than El Niños. We discuss two possible mechanisms that could explain these statistical relationships: (1) subsidence over southern India remotely forced by Pacific SST anomalies; (2) impact of ENSO-forced regional Indian Ocean SST anomalies on convection. However, the

  3. Laboratory studies of Miocene limestone for the use of construction industry in Sri Lanka

    de Silva Jayawardena, Upali

    2016-04-01

    Geologically ten percent of Sri Lanka is made up of Miocene limestone which covers northern and north-western coastal belt of the Island. It is used as a raw material for various industries but only cement and lime are being used for the construction industry. Except its chemical composition there is no available literature to study about other properties. Therefore the author carried out a series of laboratory tests to find out the mechanical properties of limestone in Sri Lanka. The objective of this paper is to make a note on the various properties of Miocene limestone and describe its suitability to use as an aggregate for the construction industry in Sri Lanka. Borehole samples (NX size) of limestone were obtained from various drilling sites in Northern Province of Sri Lanka and selected samples were prepared for different laboratory tests after visual observations. The tests were carried out according to ASTM Standards at the geotechnical and materials testing laboratories. The number of samples per each test was different. The range (and average result) for each property can be mentioned here as bulk density 2213-2643 (2452) kg/m3, water absorption 2.2-4.5 (1.91)%, porosity 1-15 (6.5)%, specific gravity 2.58-2.68(2.62), ultrasonic pulse velocity P wave 4480-6338 (5668) m/s and S wave 2688-3802 (3400) m/s, uniaxial compressive strength 11-92 (35)MPa, point load strength 1.2-7.1 (3.7)MPa, aggregate impact value, AIV 25-30 (28)%, LAAV 35-38 (36)%, and Brazilian tensile strength 2.1-4.4 (3.2)MPa. Poisson's ratio 0.12-0.68 (0.22) and modulus of elasticity 42-85 (62) GPa were obtained by using P and S ultrasonic wave velocity values. According to LAAV and AIV this limestone may be suitable as the base course material for road construction but may not be suitable for surface material of highways and rail road ballasts. Ultrasonic velocity waves indicate that limestone is highly compacted and solid. According to the compressive strength of solid limestone rock a few

  4. Desiccated coconut industry of Sri Lanka: opportunities for energy efficiency and environmental protection

    Kumar, S. E-mail: kumar@ait.ac.th; Senanayake, G.; Visvanathan, C.; Basu, B

    2003-08-01

    The desiccated coconut (DC) industry is one of the major export oriented food processing industries in Sri Lanka. This paper discusses the production processes, types of fuel used, energy use pattern and the overall specific thermal and electrical energy consumption in the DC sector. An analysis of the energy use highlights the inefficient processes and the key energy loss areas. Options for energy conservation in the DC mills have been discussed, and carbon dioxide emissions from this sector and its mitigation potential are estimated. Other options to improve efficiency and reduce other pollution and policy aspects have been presented.

  5. Report on work done in Sri Lanka [Management of water hyacinth

    The main emphasis of the work in Sri Lanka during the period under review has been on: the collection of available information on the biology of the plant and attempts to gain a more complete understanding of the biology by direct observation and experimentation; the study of the ecology of the plant with special reference to its competition with the other prevalent aquatic weeds in this country, viz Salvinia molesta; the study of the fauna and flora associated with the plant with a view to isolating some organisms that may prove to be suitable agents for its biological control

  6. Diagenesis of sulphur in a peat forming environment: a case study from Sri Lanka

    Senaratne, A.; Tobschall, H.J.; Dissanayake, C.B. (Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Geowissenschaften)

    1990-03-01

    The sulphur geochemistry of the Muthurajawela peat deposit in Sri Lanka was studied. Due to the reducing conditions prevailing within the peat bog, sulphur was mainly in the sulphide form and almost all of the iron in the peat was in the form of iron sulphide. By releasing organically bound sulphur, the organic matter contributed significantly to the content of sulphur required for pyrite formation. It was found that the pyrite distribution in the peat bog did not depend on the depth of the organic matter, but on the state of decomposition. 20 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Home grown power plants - the case for wood-based energy systems in Sri Lanka

    Kapadia, K. [University of California, Berkeley (United States). Energy and Resources Group

    2002-12-01

    The article is essentially an overview of the case for wood-based energy systems for Sri Lanka. Such systems are attractive in terms of being local, low-cost, and sustainable. However, development of such systems is hampered by insufficient political support, and concern over deforestation and waste in the context of the proposed large-scale biomass gasification. The article discusses benefits of the system, how it works, costs and economics and biomass potential. Other renewable energy systems discussed include solar, wind and hydro.

  8. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Sri Lanka 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Sri Lanka carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  9. ADVANCES OF BASIC MOLECULAR BIOLOGY TECHNIQUES: POTENTIAL TO APPLY IN PLANT VIROID DETECTION IN SRI LANKA

    Yapa M.A.M. Wijerathna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Viroids are the smallest pathogens of plants. They are the cause of serious diseases on economic plants worldwide. Prevention and detection of the pathogens are the best method to reduce the economic loss from viroid infection. During last decade, genetics and molecular biology techniques have gained an increasing presence in plant pathology research. The purpose of this review is to highlight the most upgrade molecular biology techniques that have been used and studied recently. Most relevant published reports and hand skilled techniques have presented here with emphasis on suitable Viroid detection technique should be used for Sri Lanka.

  10. Concessional Sales, Open Market Demand and Consumption of Rice in Sri Lanka, 1953-1989

    Guanwardana, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of concessional sales of rice under public food distribution schemes on the open market demand and total consumption of rice in Sri Lanka from 1953 to 1989. The results show that, on average, 73 per cent of the concessional issues of rice under the non-targeted (universal) rationing scheme during 1953-1977 has served to replace a potential quantity that would have otherwise been demanded by consumers in the open market. The remaining 27 per cent has served as an...

  11. A geochemical reconnaissance survey of Sri Lanka using panned mineral concentrates of stream sediments

    Thirteen elements (Au, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn, Th, U and Zn) were determined in 120 heavy mineral concentrates from Sri Lankan stream sediments of the Highland Group of rocks in central Sri Lanka. The data indicate sporadic occurrences of gold, notably in the north of the region where this metal had not previously been found. The possibility of the existence of a previously unknown area of ultramafic rocks near Balangoda close to the plate boundary with the Vijayan Complex was indicated by high levels of chromium and nickel in the sediments. Background levels of uranium (8 μg/g) were relatively high and three anomalies (>35 μg/g) were detected in stream sediment concentrates. The project has pinpointed several areas where localized intensive exploration for specific minerals should be undertaken. Background levels have also been established for thirteen elements in stream sediment concentrates derived from the Highland Group of rocks. (orig.)

  12. A Comprehensive Assessment of Lymphatic Filariasis in Sri Lanka Six Years after Cessation of Mass Drug Administration

    Ramakrishna U Rao; Nagodavithana, Kumara C.; Sandhya D Samarasekera; Wijegunawardana, Asha D.; Welmillage D Y Premakumara; Samudrika N Perera; Settinayake, Sunil; Miller, J. Phillip; Weil, Gary J

    2014-01-01

    Background The Sri Lankan Anti-Filariasis Campaign conducted 5 rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) with diethycarbamazine plus albendazole between 2002 and 2006. We now report results of a comprehensive surveillance program that assessed the lymphatic filariasis (LF) situation in Sri Lanka 6 years after cessation of MDA. Methodology and Principal Findings Transmission assessment surveys (TAS) were performed per WHO guidelines in primary school children in 11 evaluation units (EUs) in all...

  13. Spontaneously resolving cerebellar syndrome as a sequelae of dengue viral infection: a case series from Sri Lanka.

    Weeratunga, Praveen N; Caldera, H P Manjula C; Gooneratne, I Kishara; Gamage, Ranjanie; Perera, W Sujith P; Ranasinghe, Gayan V; Niraj, Mahboob

    2014-06-01

    Sri Lanka is hyperendemic for dengue viral infection. Dengue has a wide spectrum of neurological manifestations including previously reported Sri Lankan cases with a 6th nerve palsy and a cerebellar syndrome from a co-infection with dengue and Epstein-Barr virus. This series describes a spontaneously resolving cerebellar syndrome following a dengue viral infection. Dengue is potentially an important cause of cerebellar syndromes in countries hyperendemic for the disease; patients need further studies to identify the responsible serotypes. PMID:23840070

  14. Incidences and clinical outcomes of acute kidney injury in ICU: a prospective observational study in Sri Lanka

    Wijewickrama, Eranga S; Ratnayake, Gowri M; Wikramaratne, Chaminda; Sheriff, Rezvi; Rajapakse, Senaka

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and a serious complication among patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs), and has been the focus of many studies leading to recent advances in diagnosis and classification. The incidence and outcome of AKI in Sri Lankan ICUs is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, severity and outcome of AKI among patients admitted to the medical ICU, National Hospital, Colombo, Sri Lanka (NHSL). Methods Patients admitt...

  15. Molecular mechanisms of β-lactam resistance in carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae from Sri Lanka.

    Hall, Jarrad M; Corea, Enoka; Sanjeewani, H D Anusha; Inglis, Timothy J J

    2014-08-01

    Carbapenemases are increasingly important antimicrobial resistance determinants. Little is known about the carbapenem resistance mechanisms in Sri Lanka. We examined 22 carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae from Sri Lanka to determine their β-lactam resistance mechanisms. The predominant resistance mechanisms we detected in this study were OXA-181, NDM-1 carbapenemases and extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M-15. All isolates were then genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, variable-number tandem repeat sequence analysis and multilocus sequence typing, and seven distinct genotypes were observed. Five OXA-181-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were genotypically related to an isolate of Indian origin. Multilocus sequence typing found that these related isolates belong to ST-14, which has been associated with dissemination of OXA-181 from the Indian subcontinent. Other genotypes we discovered were ST-147 and ST-340, also associated with intercontinental spread of carbapenemases of suspected subcontinental origin. The major porin genes ompK35 and ompK36 from these isolates had insertions, deletions and substitutions. Some of these were exclusive to strains within single pulsotypes. We detected one ompK36 variant, ins AA134-135GD, in six ST-14- and six ST-147, blaOXA-181-positive isolates. This porin mutation was an independent predictor of high-level meropenem resistance in our entire Sri Lankan isolate collection (P=0.0030). Analysis of the Sri Lankan ST-14 and ST-147 ins AA134-135GD-positive isolates found ST-14 was more resistant to meropenem than other isolates (mean MIC: 32±0 µg ml(-1) and 20±9.47 µg ml(-1), respectively, P=0.0277). The likely international transmission of these carbapenem resistance determinants highlights the need for regional collaboration and prospective surveillance of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:24855071

  16. Seroprevalence of varicella zoster virus infections in Colombo District, Sri Lanka

    Liyanage NPM

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Varicella Zoster virus (VZV infections occur worldwide, the epidemiology is remarkably different in tropical and temperate climates. VZV infections result in significant morbidity and mortality among adults in Sri Lanka. Aims : For future VZV vaccination strategies, we set to determine the age-specific seroprevalence rate of VZV infections in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Materials and methods : The study was carried out from 1999 to 2000. Multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used to collect 913 blood samples, which were tested for the presence of VZV-specific IgG antibodies. Results :0 VZV seroprevalence rates were markedly lower in all age groups when compared to temperate climates. The seroprevalence rates increased with age in both the rural and urban populations. Of those aged 60 years, only 50% in the rural population and 78.9% in the urban population were immune to VZV. Seroprevalence rates of VZV infections were significantly different between the urban and rural populations (P< 0.001, with VZV-specific IgG antibodies detected in 47.5% in the urban population and 27.9% in the rural population. It was found that 56.2% (131 of females of childbearing age were nonimmune to VZV. Conclusions : These findings highlight the need for a VZV vaccination program, which is likely to have a huge impact on the incidence of chickenpox and its associated morbidity and mortality.

  17. Reproductive phenology of Calophyllum inophyllum in Yeppoon Australia and Meegoda Western Province, Sri Lanka

    Subhash Hathurusingha; Nanjappa Ashwath; Kolitha Wijesekara; David Midmore

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive phenology of multiple use native plant Calophyllum inophyllum L.was studied in Yeppoon (23°7'60″ S,150°43′60″E),northern Australia (southern hemisphere) and in Meegoda (6°18′51″N,80°31′3″E),Sri Lanka (northern hemisphere).C.inophyllum trees in Yeppoon,Australia had relatively shorter flowering periods,shorter floral life spans,longer fruit life spans,smaller flowers and larger fruits compared to those in Meegoda,Sri Lanka.Although the number of flower buds/ inflorescence was comparatively higher in Meegoda,C.inophyllum trees in both locations had similar mean number of mature fruits/cluster due to the higher floral abscission in C.inophyllum trees at Meegoda.Despite having a comparatively lower fruit yield (664 000 fruts·ha-1·a-1),C.inophyllum trees in Yeppoon had higher kernel weights (2988.0±853.2 kg·ha-1·a-1) and oil yields (1 332.6±380.5 kg·ha-1·a-1)compared to those in Meegoda.

  18. Mapping mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, Sri Lanka, India and Lao PDR

    de Menil Victoria

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited evidence about mental health finances in low and middle-income countries is a key challenge to mental health care policy initiatives. This study aimed to map mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, India (Kerala state, Sri Lanka and Lao PDR focusing on how much money is available for mental health, how it is spent, and how this impacts mental health services. Methods A researcher in each region reviewed public mental health-related budgets and interviewed key informants on government mental health financing. A total of 43 key informant interviews were conducted. Quantitative data was analyzed in an excel matrix using descriptive statistics. Key informant interviews were coded a priori against research questions. Results National ring-fenced budgets for mental health as a percentage of national health spending for 2007-08 is 1.7% in Sri Lanka, 3.7% in Ghana, 2.0% in Kerala (India and 6.6% in Uganda. Budgets were not available in Lao PDR. The majority of ring-fenced budgets (76% to 100% is spent on psychiatric hospitals. Mental health spending could not be tracked beyond the psychiatric hospital level due to limited information at the health centre and community levels. Conclusions Mental health budget information should be tracked and made publically accessible. Governments can adapt WHO AIMS indicators for reviewing national mental health finances. Funding allocations work more effectively through decentralization. Mental health financing should reflect new ideas emerging from community based practice in LMICs.

  19. Poverty and growth impacts of high oil prices: Evidence from Sri Lanka

    The sharp rise in oil and food prices in 2007 and 2008 caused negative impacts on poverty and economic growth in many oil and food importing developing countries. Some analysts believe that these countries are under stress again due to a rise in crude oil prices, to a two-and-a-half year high in March 2011, which has also been partly responsible for higher food prices in recent months. However, there is a limited body of empirical evidence available from developing countries on the impact of high oil prices on growth in general and household poverty in particular. In this study, Sri Lanka is used as a case study and a computable general equilibrium (CGE) approach is adopted as an analytical framework to explore the growth and poverty impacts of high oil prices. The results suggest that urban low income households are the group most adversely affected by high global oil prices, followed by low income rural households. In contrast, estate low income households are the least affected out of all low income households. The energy intensive manufacturing sector and services sector are affected most compared to the agricultural sector. - Highlights: ► Using a general equilibrium model we find poverty and oil price link for Sri Lanka. ► Urban low income households are the group most adversely affected. ► Energy intensive manufacturing and services sectors are affected most.

  20. Seasonal variability of seasurface chlorophyll-a of waters around Sri Lanka

    Kanthi K A S Yapa

    2000-12-01

    Remotely sensed data on ocean colour of waters surrounding Sri Lanka received from the Coastal Zone Colour Scanner (CZCS) are processed and analyzed. Raw data of 1 km resolution on relatively cloud free days during 1978-1986 are processed to produce sea surface chlorophyll maps within latitudes 4.5N-11N and longitudes 78E-85E, a region in the Indian Ocean surrounding Sri Lanka. The processed data include about 110 single day maps and composite averages for each month and season. The months of July, August and September are omitted in the calculation of averages due to insufficient data. The waters in the Gulf of Mannar and Palk Bay areas show high chlorophyll-a concentrations throughout the year. However, these high values may represent other suspended particles and dissolved organic matter besides chlorophyll-a as this region is shallow (< 100 m). Regions with high chlorophyll concentrations (>0:5 mg m-3) along the coast and western ocean region can be seen in the months of October and November, after the southwest monsoon period. As high surface chlorophyll concentrations may indicate high productivity, these regions need extensive measurements of primary production and also continuous monitoring of fish catches, during and after the southwest monsoon. Studies of particle composition in shallow water areas, in particular waters in Palk Bay and Gulf of Mannar, should be carried out in order to elucidate the effect of non-phytogenic.

  1. A descriptive profile of β-thalassaemia mutations in India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

    Black, M L; Sinha, S; Agarwal, S; Colah, R; Das, R; Bellgard, M; Bittles, A H

    2010-09-01

    Thalassaemia is a common and debilitating autosomal recessive disorder affecting many populations in South Asia. To date, efforts to create a regional profile of β-thalassaemia mutations have largely concentrated on the populations of India. The present study updates and expands an earlier profile of β-thalassaemia mutations in India, and incorporates comparable data from Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Despite limited data availability, clear patterns of historical and cultural population movements were observed relating to major β-thalassaemia mutations. The current regional mutation profiles of β-thalassaemia have been influenced by historical migrations into and from the Indian sub-continent, by the development and effects of Hindu, Buddhist, Muslim and Sikh religious traditions, and by the major mid-twentieth century population translocations that followed the Partition of India in 1947. Given the resultant genetic complexity revealed by the populations of India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, to ensure optimum diagnostic efficiency and the delivery of appropriate care, it is important that screening and counselling programmes for β-thalassaemia mutations recognise the underlying patterns of population sub-division throughout the region. PMID:22460247

  2. Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology in Sri Lanka: is cadmium a likely cause?

    Peiris-John Roshini J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD and subsequent end stage renal failure necessitating renal replacement therapy has profound consequences for affected individuals and health care resources. This community based study was conducted to identify potential predictors of microalbuminuria in a randomly selected sample of adults from the North Central Province (NCP of Sri Lanka, where the burden of CKD is pronounced and the underlying cause still unknown. Methods Exposures to possible risk factors were determined in randomly recruited subjects (425 females and 461 males from selected areas of the NCP of Sri Lanka using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Sulphosalicylic acid and the Light Dependent Resister microalbumin gel filtration method was used for initial screening for microalbuminuria and reconfirmed by the Micral strip test. Results Microalbumnuria was detected in 6.1% of the females and 8.5% of the males. Smoking (p Conclusions Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, UTI, and smoking are known risk factors for microalbuminuria. The association between microalbuminuria and consumption of well water suggests an environmental aetiology to CKD in NCP. The causative agent is yet to be identified. Investigations for cadmium as a potential causative agent needs to be initiated.

  3. Environmental, economic and social analysis of materials for doors and windows in Sri Lanka

    Abeysundra, U.G. Yasantha; Babel, Sandhya; Sharp, Alice [Environmental Technology Program, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology (SIIT), Thammasat University, P.O. Box 22, Pathumthani 12121 (Thailand); Gheewala, Shabbir [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology, School of Energy and Materials Building, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2007-05-15

    This paper compares the environmental, economic and social impacts of two types of doors and windows (elements), namely timber and aluminum taking into consideration the life cycle perspective. These elements are widely used for the buildings in Sri Lanka. Thus, it will help in the decision-making process when selecting materials for these elements. Major materials used for these elements are timber, brass, glass, paint, aluminum, rubber, steel and PVC boards. Environmental burdens associated with these materials are analyzed in terms of embodied energy, and environmental impacts that are relevant to Sri Lanka, such as global warming (GWP), acidification (ACP) and nutrient enrichment (NEP). Economic analysis is done using market prices of materials and affordability for those materials. Social concerns such as thermal comfort, good interior (aesthetics), ability to construct fast, and durability are analyzed based on the data collected through the questionnaires and also, interviews with the stakeholders of the buildings such as engineers, architects, building contractors and building users. It was found that timber elements are superior to aluminum elements in environmental scores (GWP, ACP and NEP). On economic score, also, timber elements are better. But on social score, aluminum elements are better than timber. It was also found that the higher the recycling percentage of aluminum, the higher the environmental favorability of the aluminum. (author)

  4. The impact of electricity supply on economic growth in Sri Lanka

    Morimoto, R. [Toulouse Business School, Toulouse (France); Hope, C. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    World net electricity consumption is expected to double over the next two decades. With increasing demand, electricity shortages will be prevalent, particularly in developing countries. An adequate and regular power supply would support economic growth in developing countries. Previous studies have demonstrated a strong correlation between electricity use and economic development. Studies have shown that there is a bi-directional causal relationship between gross domestic product and electricity consumption in Taiwan for the period 1954 to 1997. In order to examine the impact of electricity supply on economic growth in Sri Lanka, this paper presented the results of a study that applied Yang's model, using a simple regression analysis. The paper presented the methodology and estimation results. The study incorporated a cost benefit analysis model which assessed the economic, social and environmental impacts of dam projects in Sri Lanka. It was concluded that the application of Yang's regression analysis is one possible approach to estimate a better range for the expected increase in economic output parameter. 14 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  5. Human disturbances on coral reefs in Sri Lanka: A case study

    Oehman, M.C.; Linden, O. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Zoology); Rajasuriya, A. (NARA, Crow Island, Colombo (Sri Lanka))

    1993-01-01

    The degradation of coral reefs in Sri Lanka has increased substantially over the last decades. Human activities causing this degradation include: mining for lime production, sewage discharges, discharges of oil and other pollutants in connection with shipping and port activities, destructive fishing practices, land and mangrove destruction, tourism and the collecting of fauna such as fish, shells and corals. In this study, three adjacent coral reefs; Bar Reef, Talawila Reef, and Kandakuliya Reef, which are widely scattered patch reefs off Kalpitiya Peninsula, northwestern Sri Lanka, were surveyed and compared in terms of their fish and coral diversity and abundance as well as human and natural disturbances. Information was gathered by snorkeling in visual overview surveys and by scuba diving in detailed transect surveys. When each reef was ranked according to the extent of live coral cover, and chaetodontid diversity, the results indicated that Bar Reef was in excellent condition, Talawila Reef was intermediate, and Kandakuliya Reef was in poor condition. The diversity of coral genera, the topographic relief and the proportion of coral rubble, did not follow the same pattern. The number of coral genera found was 49, while 283 fish species belonging to 51 families were recorded. Human disturbance factors on the reefs were found to be net fishing, boat anchoring and ornamental fish collection for the aquarium trade. Bottom.set nylon nets in particular were found to have a very destructive impact on the bottom fauna. 33 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  6. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Sri Lanka

    Sri Lanka is essentially a detached portion of the Deccan Plateau of south India and like it, is underlain almost everywhere by hard old Precambrian rocks. Prior to 1940 there was no systematic organised geological survey work on the island. Between 1957 and 1962 a partial aerial survey and field traverses were conducted in a search for radio- active minerals. Since then a modest programme has continued. Thorianite was first discovered in placer deposits in 1903 and prospecting has found many other refractory radioactive minerals probably derived from the weathering of pegmatites. Monazite is found as an important constituent of beach placer deposits and it is estimated to have an average content of 8-10%ThO2 and 0.3 - 0.5% U3O8. Up to 1000 tons monazite per year could be produced from the beach sand industry. Sri Lanka has had very little systematic exploration for uranium and as it is largely composed of Precambrian rocks it deserves closer attention. On the other hand it is part of a thorium rich province and there is a body of technical opinion that believes that thorium rich provinces are unlikely to contain significant uranium deposits. For these reasons it is estimated that the Speculative Potential may be within the range of 1000 to 10,000 tonnes uranium. In addition it maybe possible to produce up to 5 tonnes uranium and 100 tonnes thorium from the beach sand industry on an annual basis. (author)

  7. The impact of electricity supply on economic growth in Sri Lanka

    World net electricity consumption is expected to double over the next two decades. With increasing demand, electricity shortages will be prevalent, particularly in developing countries. An adequate and regular power supply would support economic growth in developing countries. Previous studies have demonstrated a strong correlation between electricity use and economic development. Studies have shown that there is a bi-directional causal relationship between gross domestic product and electricity consumption in Taiwan for the period 1954 to 1997. In order to examine the impact of electricity supply on economic growth in Sri Lanka, this paper presented the results of a study that applied Yang's model, using a simple regression analysis. The paper presented the methodology and estimation results. The study incorporated a cost benefit analysis model which assessed the economic, social and environmental impacts of dam projects in Sri Lanka. It was concluded that the application of Yang's regression analysis is one possible approach to estimate a better range for the expected increase in economic output parameter. 14 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  8. Sri Lanka : un pays qui s’enfonce de nouveau dans la guerre

    Delon Madavan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Le retrait unilatéral de l’accord de cessez-le-feu par le Président Rajapakse marque le retour officiel à l’état de guerre à Sri Lanka. L’île est meurtrie par les affrontements opposant l’armée gouvernementale aux militants séparatistes tamouls. Les civils se retrouvent encore prisonniers du cynisme des belligérants, qui préfèrent ignorer les répercussions de leurs actes pour arriver à leur fin, quitte à mettre en danger l’harmonie intercommunautaire dans l’île.  President Rajapakse’s decision to withdraw from the cease-fire agreement marks the official return to state of war in Sri Lanka. The island has immensely suffered by clashes between government forces and tamil separatist militants. Once again, the civilians are prisoners of cynicism of belligerents, those prefer ignoring the consequences of their acts to archieve their goal, even if it means endangering intercultural harmony in the island.

  9. Physics of the environment: possible Sumatra Tsunami warning times for large animals in Sri Lanka

    Browning, David G.; Scheifele, Peter M.; Vonwinkle, William A.

    2005-04-01

    There has previously been significant anecdotal evidence that animals can anticipate or sense seismic events. It is known that large animals, specifically elephants, sense and utilize low frequency sound. The object of this paper is to estimate the possible warning times that large animals in Sri Lanka could have had of the Sumatra Tsunami, assuming they could sense low frequency wave transmission from the initial earthquake arriving by either atmospheric, ocean, or bottom paths. The atmospheric path appears to be the least efficient due to relatively high attenuation and poor coupling to the source. It would also give the shortest warning time: approximately 30 minutes. The ocean path via the deep sound channel, which has been shown by a previous Bermuda experiment to be an efficient means of coupling seismic energy to an island, would give a warning time of more than 1.5 hours. The bottom path(s), which gave strong received signals at a Sri Lanka seismic station, would give a warning time of about 2 hours. These estimates should provide a context for animal behavior reports.

  10. The prevalence of previous self-harm amongst self-poisoning patients in Sri Lanka

    Mohamed, Fahim; Perera, Aravinda; Wijayaweera, Kusal;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the most important components of suicide prevention strategies is to target people who repeat self-harm as they are a high risk group. However, there is some evidence that the incidence of repeat self-harm is lower in Asia than in the West. The objective of this study was to...... investigate the prevalence of previous self-harm among a consecutive series of self-harm patients presenting to hospitals in rural Sri Lanka. METHOD: Six hundred and ninety-eight self-poisoning patients presenting to medical wards at two hospitals in Sri Lanka were interviewed about their previous episodes of...... self-harm. RESULTS: Sixty-one (8.7%, 95% CI 6.7-11%) patients reported at least one previous episode of self-harm [37 (10.7%) male, 24 (6.8%) female]; only 19 (2.7%, 95% CI 1.6-4.2%) patients had made more than one previous attempt. CONCLUSION: The low prevalence of previous self-harm is consistent...

  11. The Nursing Shortage Impact on Job Outcome (The Case in Sri Lanka

    Kumari Shammika Senani Mudihanselage Hellerawa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The nursing shortage is a common problem throughout the world. Nurses form the largest proportion of the healthcare system and play a significant role in providing direct patient care. Considering the importance of the role of nurses in the healthcare system, it is important to investigate how nursing shortage effects the quality of patient care, nurses’ job satisfaction and their work stress. A study was conducted to investigate the correlation between these at the Polonnaruwa District General Hospital in Sri Lanka with a random sample of nurses working in the hospital and using a self-administered questionnaire. This study uses an explanatory research design. The statistical analysis confirmed a positive relationship between nurse shortage and workload. It also shows a significant positive relationship between workload and the quality of patient care. Furthermore, a negative relationship was observed between workload and the quality of patient care. In addition, this study calculates the mean effect of emotional intelligence of these factors, and a significant correlation is found between emotional intelligence and workload as well as work stress. There is a firm evidence that in Sri Lanka, nursing shortage influences the workload of the employee, finally affecting the quality of patient care. In addition, the study recognized the capability of nurses to manage their emotions as well as emotions of others, which has increased their tolerance to control psychological stress in performing their duty. This study confirms that nurse’s emotional intelligence act as a partial oderating variable for job outcomes of nurses.

  12. Wives' Attitudes toward Gender Roles and Their Experience of Intimate Partner Violence by Husbands in Central Province, Sri Lanka

    Jayatilleke, Achini; Poudel, Krishna C.; Sakisaka, Kayako; Yasuoka, Junko; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jimba, Masamine

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a community based, cross-sectional study to describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) by husbands and the association between wives' attitudes toward gender roles and their experience of IPV in Central Province, Sri Lanka. This article included a representative sample of 624 wives between 15 and 49 years of…

  13. A Comparative Study of Student Support Services of Allama Iqbal Open University and the Open University of Sri Lanka

    Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed; Chaudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Chaudhry, Amtul Hafeez

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to compare the availability, quality, similarities and differences in student support services offered by the Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Pakistan and The Open University of Sri Lanka (OUSL). It also aims to identify and report the deficiencies that students of both the institutions face in the student support services.…

  14. Impact of an AI heifer calf rearing scheme on dairy stock development in the Western province of Sri Lanka.

    Nettisinghe, A.M.P.; Udo, H.M.J.; Steenstra, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of an AI heifer calf rearing scheme on dairy stock development, in a coconut grazing and a peri-urban smallholder dairy production system in the Western Province of Sri Lanka. The heifer rearing scheme included free advice on calf rearing, drugs, acaricides, minerals

  15. Molecular characterization of banana bunchy top virus isolate from Sri Lanka and its genetic relationship with other isolates.

    Wickramaarachchi, W A R T; Shankarappa, K S; Rangaswamy, K T; Maruthi, M N; Rajapakse, R G A S; Ghosh, Saptarshi

    2016-06-01

    Bunchy top disease of banana caused by Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV, genus Babuvirus family Nanoviridae) is one of the most important constraints in production of banana in the different parts of the world. Six genomic DNA components of BBTV isolate from Kandy, Sri Lanka (BBTV-K) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers using total DNA extracted from banana tissues showing typical symptoms of bunchy top disease. The amplicons were of expected size of 1.0-1.1 kb, which were cloned and sequenced. Analysis of sequence data revealed the presence of six DNA components; DNA-R, DNA-U3, DNA-S, DNA-N, DNA-M and DNA-C for Sri Lanka isolate. Comparisons of sequence data of DNA components followed by the phylogenetic analysis, grouped Sri Lanka-(Kandy) isolate in the Pacific Indian Oceans (PIO) group. Sri Lanka-(Kandy) isolate of BBTV is classified a new member of PIO group based on analysis of six components of the virus. PMID:27366766

  16. Facilitating Long-Term Recovery from Natural Disasters: Psychosocial Programming for Tsunami-Affected Schools of Sri Lanka

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Jayasena, Asoka; Summerville, Meredith; Borja, Amanda P.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a school-based intervention project conducted in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka 15 to 18 months after the December 2004 Tsunami. The work responds to the need for culturally relevant programming to address long-term psychosocial recovery of children and adolescents affected by large scale disasters. Program…

  17. Comparative Study of Pre-Service Teacher Education Programme at Secondary Stage in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka

    Yadav, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    The present research work has studied and compared the different issues of pre-service teacher education programme in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Pakistan. The data were collected from 24 principals, 88 teacher educators and 157 student teachers from institutions and universities where Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) course were. The data were…

  18. Sri Lanka--Canada School Library & Information Services Programme Components: A School Library Study Tour. Final Report.

    Brown, Gerald R.

    This document reports on a study tour of Canadian schools conducted by the Sri Lanka Ministry of Education. The purposes of the tour were to: develop an awareness of the scope of modern school library programming; investigate the aspects of implementation of a modern school library program including staffing, facilities, educational programming,…

  19. Formula Funding and Decentralized Management of Schools--Has It Improved Resource Allocation in Schools in Sri Lanka?

    Arunatilake, Nisha; Jayawardena, Priyanka

    2010-01-01

    Using the experience of the Educational Quality Inputs (EQI) Scheme in Sri Lanka the paper examines the distributional aspects of formula-based funding and efficiency of decentralized management of education funds in a developing country setting. The study finds that the EQI fund distribution is largely pro-poor. However, results show that to…

  20. Understanding School Health Environment through Interviews with Key Stakeholders in Lao PDR, Mongolia, Nepal and Sri Lanka

    Park, Sohyun; Lee, Eun Young; Gittelsohn, Joel; Nkala, Denis; Choi, Bo Youl

    2015-01-01

    Studies on health promoting schools (HPS) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are scarce. To contribute to the development of HPS in these countries, we conducted formative research to understand the school environment in Lao PDR, Mongolia, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. Forty-three teachers, 10 government workers and 5 parents participated in…

  1. Sustainability and Local People's Participation in Coastal Aquaculture: Regional Differences and Historical Experiences in Sri Lanka and the Philippines

    Bergquist, Daniel A.

    2007-11-01

    This article discusses environmental sustainability in aquaculture and its contribution to poverty alleviation, based on field studies in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. The aquaculture practices studied are the monoculture of the black tiger prawn ( Penneaus monodon) and milkfish ( Chanos chanos) and the polyculture of the two species together with the mud crab ( Scylla serrata). Factors affecting economic viability, social equity and environmental impacts in aquaculture are discussed and used to illuminate local and regional differences between aquaculture in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. Findings indicate that the most significant difference is the level of participation by local people (i.e., people originating ≤10 km away from the farm location). In the Philippines, 84 % of the people involved in aquaculture are locals, whereas in Sri Lanka, 55% are outsiders. Whether differences between the two areas can be explained by analyzing regional conditions, which might have resulted in different aquaculture practices, is discussed. In Sri Lanka, semi-intensive shrimp monoculture is currently the most common practice, whereas in the Philippines, extensive shrimp/fish polyculture is more common. Previous studies, as well as fieldwork, indicate that extensive culture practices reduce environmental impacts and benefit local people more. Sustainability in aquaculture is, however, also dependent on the extent of mangrove conversion into ponds. As such, extensive and locally owned farms do not necessarily result in an all but sustainable situation. Keeping this in mind, it is discussed if extensive polyculture practices might result in a more sustainable aquaculture, both environmentally and socioeconomically.

  2. Population genetic structure of the Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite protein (Pvcsp) in Sri Lanka.

    Dias, Sajani; Wickramarachchi, Thilan; Sahabandu, Imeshi; Escalante, Ananias A; Udagama, Preethi V

    2013-04-15

    Molecular methods elucidate evolutionary and ecological processes in parasites, where interaction between hosts and parasites enlighten the evolution of parasite lifestyles and host defenses. Population genetics of Plasmodium vivax parasites accurately describe transmission dynamics of the parasites and evaluation of malaria control measures. As a first generation vaccine candidate against malaria, the Circumsporozoite Protein (CSP) has demonstrated significant potential in P. falciparum. Extensive polymorphism hinders the development of a potent malaria vaccine. Hence, the genetic diversity of Pvcsp was investigated for the first time in 60 Sri Lankan clinical isolates by obtaining the nucleotide sequence of the central repeat (CR) domain and examining the polymorphism of the peptide repeat motifs (PRMs), the genetic diversity indices and phylogenetic relationships. PCR amplicons determined size polymorphism of 610, 700 and 710 bp in Pvcsp of Sri Lanka where all amino acid sequences obtained were of the VK210 variant, consisting variable repeats of 4 different PRMs. The two most abundant PRMs of the CR domain, GDRADGQPA and GDRAAGQPA consisted ~2-4 repeats, while GNRAAGQPA was unique to the island. Though, different nucleotide sequences termed repeat allotypes (RATs) were observed for each PRM, these were synonymous contributing to a less polymorphic CR domain. The genetic diversity of Pvcsp in Sri Lanka was due to the number of repetitive peptide repeat motifs, point mutations, and intragenic recombination. The 19 amino acid haplotypes defined were exclusive to Sri Lanka, whereas the 194 Pvcsp sequences of global isolates generated 57 more distinct a.a. haplotypes of the VK210 variant. Strikingly, the CR domain of both VK210 and VK247 variants was under purifying selection interpreting the scarcity of CSP non-synonymous polymorphisms. Insights to the distribution of RATs in the CR region with geographic clustering of the P. vivax VK210 variant were revealed. The

  3. Selenium and iodine in soil, rice and drinking water in relation to endemic goitre in Sri Lanka

    Endemic goitre has been reported in the climatic wet zone of south-west Sri Lanka for the past 50 years, but rarely occurs in the northern dry zone. Despite government-sponsored iodised salt programmes, endemic goitre is still prevalent. In recent years, it has been suggested that Se deficiency may be an important factor in the onset of goitre and other iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). Prior to the present study, environmental concentrations of Se in Sri Lanka and the possible relationships between Se deficiency and endemic goitre had not been investigated. During the present study, chemical differences in the environment (measured in soil, rice and drinking water) and the Se-status of the human population (demonstrated by hair samples from women) were determined for 15 villages. The villages were characterised by low (25%) goitre incidence (NIDD, MIDD and HIDD, respectively). Results show that concentrations of soil total Se and iodine are highest in the HIDD villages, however, the soil clay and organic matter content appear to inhibit the bioavailability of these elements. Concentrations of iodine in rice are low (≤58 ng/g) and rice does not provide a significant source of iodine in the Sri Lankan diet. High concentrations of iodine (up to 84 μg/l) in drinking water in the dry zone may, in part, explain why goitre is uncommon in this area. This study has shown for the first time that significant proportions of the Sri Lankan female population may be Se deficient (24, 24 and 40% in the NIDD, MIDD and HIDD villages, respectively). Although Se deficiency is not restricted to areas where goitre is prevalent, a combination of iodine and Se deficiency could be involved in the pathogenesis of goitre in Sri Lanka. The distribution of red rice cultivation in Sri Lanka is coincident with the HIDD villages. Varieties of red rice grown in other countries contain anthocyanins and procyanidins, compounds which in other foodstuffs are known goitrogens. The potential

  4. Selenium and iodine in soil, rice and drinking water in relation to endemic goitre in Sri Lanka

    Fordyce, F.M. [British Geological Survey, West Mains Road, EH9 3LA Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Johnson, C.C.; Appleton, J.D. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, NG12 5GG Nottingham (United Kingdom); Navaratna, U.R.B.; Dissanayake, C.B. [Department of Geology, University of Peradeniya, Kandy (Sri Lanka)

    2000-12-18

    Endemic goitre has been reported in the climatic wet zone of south-west Sri Lanka for the past 50 years, but rarely occurs in the northern dry zone. Despite government-sponsored iodised salt programmes, endemic goitre is still prevalent. In recent years, it has been suggested that Se deficiency may be an important factor in the onset of goitre and other iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). Prior to the present study, environmental concentrations of Se in Sri Lanka and the possible relationships between Se deficiency and endemic goitre had not been investigated. During the present study, chemical differences in the environment (measured in soil, rice and drinking water) and the Se-status of the human population (demonstrated by hair samples from women) were determined for 15 villages. The villages were characterised by low (<10%), moderate (10-25%) and high (>25%) goitre incidence (NIDD, MIDD and HIDD, respectively). Results show that concentrations of soil total Se and iodine are highest in the HIDD villages, however, the soil clay and organic matter content appear to inhibit the bioavailability of these elements. Concentrations of iodine in rice are low ({<=}58 ng/g) and rice does not provide a significant source of iodine in the Sri Lankan diet. High concentrations of iodine (up to 84 {mu}g/l) in drinking water in the dry zone may, in part, explain why goitre is uncommon in this area. This study has shown for the first time that significant proportions of the Sri Lankan female population may be Se deficient (24, 24 and 40% in the NIDD, MIDD and HIDD villages, respectively). Although Se deficiency is not restricted to areas where goitre is prevalent, a combination of iodine and Se deficiency could be involved in the pathogenesis of goitre in Sri Lanka. The distribution of red rice cultivation in Sri Lanka is coincident with the HIDD villages. Varieties of red rice grown in other countries contain anthocyanins and procyanidins, compounds which in other foodstuffs are

  5. Nephrotoxic contaminants in drinking water and urine, and chronic kidney disease in rural Sri Lanka

    Rango, Tewodros, E-mail: tg67@duke.edu [Division of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Jeuland, Marc [Sanford School of Public Policy and Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Institute of Water Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Manthrithilake, Herath; McCornick, Peter [International Water Management Institute, Colombo (Sri Lanka)

    2015-06-15

    Chronic kidney disease of unknown (“u”) cause (CKDu) is a growing public health concern in Sri Lanka. Prior research has hypothesized a link with drinking water quality, but rigorous studies are lacking. This study assesses the relationship between nephrotoxic elements (namely arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and uranium (U)) in drinking water, and urine samples collected from individuals with and/or without CKDu in endemic areas, and from individuals without CKDu in nonendemic areas. All water samples – from a variety of source types (i.e. shallow and deep wells, springs, piped and surface water) – contained extremely low concentrations of nephrotoxic elements, and all were well below drinking water guideline values. Concentrations in individual urine samples were higher than, and uncorrelated with, those measured in drinking water, suggesting potential exposure from other sources. Mean urinary concentrations of these elements for individuals with clinically diagnosed CKDu were consistently lower than individuals without CKDu both in endemic and nonendemic areas. This likely stems from the inability of the kidney to excrete these toxic elements via urine in CKDu patients. Urinary concentrations of individuals were also found to be within the range of reference values measured in urine of healthy unexposed individuals from international biomonitoring studies, though these reference levels may not be safe for the Sri Lankan population. The results suggest that CKDu cannot be clearly linked with the presence of these contaminants in drinking water. There remains a need to investigate potential interactions of low doses of these elements (particularly Cd and As) with other risk factors that appear linked to CKDu, prior to developing public health strategies to address this illness. - Highlights: • Drinking water in rural Sri Lanka contains low levels of inorganic nephrotoxicants • Urinary nephrotoxicants are consistent with reference levels from

  6. Nephrotoxic contaminants in drinking water and urine, and chronic kidney disease in rural Sri Lanka

    Chronic kidney disease of unknown (“u”) cause (CKDu) is a growing public health concern in Sri Lanka. Prior research has hypothesized a link with drinking water quality, but rigorous studies are lacking. This study assesses the relationship between nephrotoxic elements (namely arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and uranium (U)) in drinking water, and urine samples collected from individuals with and/or without CKDu in endemic areas, and from individuals without CKDu in nonendemic areas. All water samples – from a variety of source types (i.e. shallow and deep wells, springs, piped and surface water) – contained extremely low concentrations of nephrotoxic elements, and all were well below drinking water guideline values. Concentrations in individual urine samples were higher than, and uncorrelated with, those measured in drinking water, suggesting potential exposure from other sources. Mean urinary concentrations of these elements for individuals with clinically diagnosed CKDu were consistently lower than individuals without CKDu both in endemic and nonendemic areas. This likely stems from the inability of the kidney to excrete these toxic elements via urine in CKDu patients. Urinary concentrations of individuals were also found to be within the range of reference values measured in urine of healthy unexposed individuals from international biomonitoring studies, though these reference levels may not be safe for the Sri Lankan population. The results suggest that CKDu cannot be clearly linked with the presence of these contaminants in drinking water. There remains a need to investigate potential interactions of low doses of these elements (particularly Cd and As) with other risk factors that appear linked to CKDu, prior to developing public health strategies to address this illness. - Highlights: • Drinking water in rural Sri Lanka contains low levels of inorganic nephrotoxicants • Urinary nephrotoxicants are consistent with reference levels from

  7. Muslims in Post-War Sri Lanka: An Opportunity Lost for Conflict Transformation

    Mohamed Imtiyaz Abdul Razak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the post-war Sri Lankan conditions among Sri Lanka Muslims, also known as Moors. The article will attempt to argue that state concessions to Muslim political leaders who supported the successive Sri Lanka’s ruling classes from independence through the defeat of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE in 2009, have meant an isolation of the community from the other two main ethnic communities. The concessions that the Muslim community has won actively helped the Muslim community to be proactive in their religious practices and thus paved the way for exclusive social and political choices. The rise of Islamic movements and mosques in the post-1977 period galvanized Muslims. In time this isolation has been reinforced by socio-religious revival among Muslims whose ethnic identity has been constructed along the lines of the Islamic faith by Muslim elites. Despite this revival it has been clear that the Muslim community has been reluctant to use Islamic traditions and principles for peace building, which could have helped to ease tensions, brought about by the 30 year old ethnic conflict. On the other hand this paper will briefly discuss some reactions from the majority Sinhalese to Islamic revival as well as some issues between the Tamils and Muslims and the reintegration of Muslims in the North. Finally, some pragmatic ways to ease tensions between Muslims and non-Muslims in the greater discipline of conflict resolution are explored using traditions within Islam.

  8. Genetic diversity of variants involved in drug response and metabolism in Sri Lankan populations: implications for clinical implementation of pharmacogenomics

    Chan, Sze Ling; Samaranayake, Nilakshi; Ross, Colin J.D.; Toh, Meng Tiak; Carleton, Bruce; Hayden, Michael R.; Teo, Yik Ying; Dissanayake, Vajira H.W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Interpopulation differences in drug responses are well documented, and in some cases they correspond to differences in the frequency of associated genetic markers. Understanding the diversity of genetic markers associated with drug response across different global populations is essential to infer population rates of drug response or risk for adverse drug reactions, and to guide implementation of pharmacogenomic testing. Sri Lanka is a culturally and linguistically diverse nation, but little is known about the population genetics of the major Sri Lankan ethnic groups. The objective of this study was to investigate the diversity of pharmacogenomic variants in the major Sri Lankan ethnic groups. Methods We examined the allelic diversity of more than 7000 variants in genes involved in drug biotransformation and response in the three major ethnic populations of Sri Lanka (Sinhalese, Sri Lankan Tamils, and Moors), and compared them with other South Asian, South East Asian, and European populations using Wright’s Fixation Index, principal component analysis, and STRUCTURE analysis. Results We observed overall high levels of similarity within the Sri Lankan populations (median FST=0.0034), and between Sri Lankan and other South Asian populations (median FST=0.0064). Notably, we observed substantial differentiation between Sri Lankan and European populations for important pharmacogenomic variants related to warfarin (VKORC1 rs9923231) and clopidogrel (CYP2C19 rs4986893) response. Conclusion These data expand our understanding of the population structure of Sri Lanka, provide a resource for pharmacogenomic research, and have implications for the clinical use of genetic testing of pharmacogenomic variants in these populations. PMID:26444257

  9. Studies on prevalence of anopheline species and community perception of malaria in Jaffna district, Sri Lanka

    N.D. Karunaweera

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Over two decades of civil unrest and the conflict situation have had detrimental effects on vector control activities and management of malaria in Jaffna district which is an endemic region for malaria in Sri Lanka. With the background that only a few small-scale studies on malaria and its vectors have been reported from this district, a study was designed to explore the current status of malaria in the Jaffna district in relation to vector and community aspects.Methods: Adults and larvae of anopheline mosquitoes were collected monthly from selected endemic localities. Species prevalence of the collected mosquitoes was studied while the collected adults of Anopheles subpictus, a potential vector in the district, was screened for sibling species composition based on morphological characteristics and exposed to common insecticides using WHO bioassay kits. Knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP of the community were tested using a pre-tested structured questionnaire in high-risk and low-risk localities in the district.Results: The anopheline mosquito species distribution in the district was—An. culicifacies (0.5%, An. subpictus (46%, An. varuna (4%, An. nigerrimus (44% and An. pallidus (5.5%. Among the collected larvae the percent prevalence of An. culicifacies was 13% and other species follows as: An. subpictus (71%, An. varuna (4%, An. nigerrimus (10% and An. pallidus (2%. Sibling species B, C and D of An. subpictus were present in the district with the predominance of B in both coastal and inland areas, while all members showed both indoor and outdoor resting characteristics, they were highly resistant to DDT (4% and highly susceptible to malathion (5%. KAP study in the district showed a reasonable level of knowledge, positive attitude and practices towards malaria.Conclusion: An. subpictus, the reported major vector of Jaffna and a well-established secondary vector of malaria in the country, continues to be the

  10. Effect of promoting country of origin as an ethnocentric appeal in developing local brands: special reference to telecommunication industry of Sri Lanka

    Ravindra Dissanayake; Sudath Weerasiri

    2010-01-01

    Sri Lanka is emerging as service sector driven economy with the GDP penetration of 50%-60% from service sector. After imposing the open economy policy in 1977, local brands had to gear ahead with intensive competition came from international brands. Telecommunication industry of Sri Lanka has been dominated by international brands, but local brands are strategically promoting the concept of country of origin (CO) or being local as a motive for citizens to deliberately purchase locally origina...

  11. Proportion of lower limb fungal foot infections in patients with type 2 diabetes at a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka

    Wijesuriya, T. M.; Weerasekera, M. M.; Kottahachchi, J.; K. N. P. Ranasinghe; M. S. S. Dissanayake; Prathapan, S.; T. D. C. P. Gunasekara; Nagahawatte, A.; L D Guruge; Bulugahapitiya, U.; Fernando, S. S. N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Superficial fungal foot infection (SFFI) in diabetic patients increases the risk of developing diabetic foot syndrome. Sixteen percent of urban population is suffering from diabetes in Sri Lanka. As the diabetes patients are more prone to get fungal foot infections, early intervention is advisable owing to the progressive nature of the infection. There is no data on the prevalence of SFFIs in diabetic patients in Sri Lanka. Objective: To determine the etiological agents causing SF...

  12. A determination of air pollution in Colombo and Kurunegala, Sri Lanka, using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry on Heterodermia speciosa

    GUNATHILAKA, Patikiri Arachchilage Don Hasantha Nayan

    2011-01-01

    Sri Lanka is facing severe environmental problems such as air and water pollution due to rapid industrialisation and urbanisation. Because there have not been many studies on heavy metal pollution in Sri Lanka, the present study attempts to contribute to the literature a determination of metal pollution using indicators found in lichen specimens. Our study utilised energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to determine element concentrations resulting from air pollution in the lichen ...

  13. Moore′s law, Dabbawalas, and pediatric cardiac care in Sri Lanka

    Duminda Samarasinghe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sri Lanka is an island nation in Indian Ocean that provides free healthcare to all citizens through government healthcare system. It has commendable health indices in the region. Pediatric cardiac services have rapidly progressed over past few years helping to further bring down infant and under-five mortality rates. Lady Ridgeway Hospital for Children (LRH is the only tertiary care referral center for children with heart disease in the country. Currently it performs approximately 1,000 cardiac catheterizations and 1,000 cardiac surgeries every year. Target is to double the surgical output to treat all children with heart diseases in a timely and appropriate manner. Being a middle-income country, this is not an easy task. Technology used in diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart diseases is rapidly advancing with its price tag. In such a setting, it is challenging to proceed to achieve this target in a resource-limited environment.

  14. An approach to delineate groundwater recharge potential sites in Ambalantota, Sri Lanka using GIS techniques

    I.P. Senanayake; D.M.D.O.K. Dissanayake; B.B. Mayadunna; W.L. Weerasekera

    2016-01-01

    The demand for fresh water in Hambantota District, Sri Lanka is rapidly increasing with the enormous amount of ongoing development projects in the region. Nevertheless, the district experiences periodic water stress conditions due to seasonal precipitation patterns and scarcity of surface water resources. Therefore, management of available groundwater resources is critical, to fulfil potable water re-quirements in the area. However, exploitation of groundwater should be carried out together with artificial recharging in order to maintain the long term sustainability of water resources. In this study, a GIS approach was used to delineate potential artificial recharge sites in Ambalantota area within Ham-bantota. Influential thematic layers such as rainfall, lineament, slope, drainage, land use/land cover, li-thology, geomorphology and soil characteristics were integrated by using a weighted linear combination method. Results of the study reveal high to moderate groundwater recharge potential in approximately 49%of Ambalantota area.

  15. Sri Lanka's Health Unit Program: A Model of "Selective" Primary Health Care

    Soma Hewa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the health unit program developed in Sri Lanka in the early twentieth century was an earlier model of selective primary health care promoted by the Rockefeller Foundation in the 1980s in opposition to comprehensive primary health care advocated by the Alma-Ata Declaration of the World Health Organization. A key strategy of the health unit program was to identify the most common and serious infectious diseases in each health unit area and control them through improved sanitation, health education, immunization and treatment with the help of local communities. The health unit program was later introduced to other countries in South and Southeast Asia as part of the Rockefeller Foundation's global campaign to promote public health.

  16. An evaluation of the undergraduate teaching programme in ophthalmology in Sri Lanka and Malaysia.

    Dias, P L

    1987-07-01

    The knowledge and clinical and minor surgical skills acquired by 257 medical students in three universities in Sri Lanka and Malaysia were assessed by a questionnaire after they had completed their training period in ophthalmology. This study showed that many medical students graduating from these universities lacked the basic clinical and minor surgical skills essential for a doctor practising in a community in south-east Asia. The responses also indicated that teaching by consultants in all three universities was inadequate and due to these inadequacies the students requested that the duration of their training period be doubled. Ophthalmology is an important component of clinical practice and proper education in this subject is important. An urgent revision of the aims and objectives of the curriculum in ophthalmology is essential to place greater emphasis on this important and much neglected subject, for which very little curricular time is allotted. PMID:3626901

  17. Conservation Value of Forest Plantations: A Study of Four Timber Species in Sri Lanka

    M. R. Wijesinghe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the potential of forest plantations in Sri Lanka consisting of teak, mahoganyand two species of eucalyptus, to facilitate the conservation of biodiversity using two taxonomic groups,the plants and birds. Their diversity in plantations at a harvestable age were compared with that of anatural forest. Enumerations of plants and dbh/height measurements were conducted in quadrates, whileavifauna was recorded along transects. Results show that plantation forests supported a reasonably richcommunity of both plants and birds, including natives and endemics. A large proportion of species werecommon to both plantations and natural forests indicating that plantations hold a subset of forest species.The presence of plants of various height and girth classes together with the high diversity and evennessvalues indicate that, although timber plantations are initially established as mono-cultivations, theyfacilitate the colonization of additional species. These findings thus demonstrate that forest plantationscould make a significant contribution towards biodiversity conservation.

  18. Post-disaster community tourism recovery: the tsunami and Arugam Bay, Sri Lanka.

    Robinson, Lyn; Jarvie, Jim K

    2008-12-01

    Tourism is highly vulnerable to external, non-controllable events. A natural disaster can affect the local tourism industry in numerous ways, and such events are particularly devastating for small communities whose local economy is heavily dependent on the sector. Loss of infrastructure plus negative media stories can have long-term ramifications for the destination. In spite of the economic importance of tourism, post-disaster recovery efforts in this sector are often overlooked by non-governmental organisations (NGOs), which focus on more traditional livelihoods such as agriculture or fishing. This paper describes Mercy Corps' support of tourism recovery activities in Arugam Bay, a remote village on the east coast of Sri Lanka, following the 2004 tsunami. The local economic base is built largely on two sectors: community tourism and fishing. As many other actors were supporting recovery in the local fishing industry, Mercy Corps concentrated on revitalising the tourism sector. PMID:18479472

  19. Dataset for an analysis of tourism and economic growth: A study of Sri Lanka.

    Kumar, Ronald Ravinesh; Stauvermann, Peter Josef

    2016-09-01

    We use the sample from 1978 to 2014 for the paper (doi:10.1016/j.tmp.2016.05.005). The data on GDP at constant 2005 USD (US dollar), and the gross fixed capital formation at constant 2005 USD are extracted from the World Bank (2015). The labour stock which includes direct and indirect employment and the tourism receipts (in USD) are sourced from the Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority (http://www.sltda.lk/statistics). Tourism receipts as a per cent of GDP is used to measure tourism demand. The capital stock data is computed using perpetual inventory method, where a depreciation rate of 8 per cent is assumed with the initial capital stock as 1.05 times the GDP of 1969 at constant 2005 USD. The output per worker and capital per worker is computed by dividing the GDP and capital stock by the labour stock, respectively. PMID:27508224

  20. Establishment of antimicrobial residue monitoring programme for food of animal origin in Sri Lanka

    Full text: Antibiotic drugs are often used both therapeutically and prophylactically in animal production, and are necessary for many production systems. However, the presence of unacceptable levels of antimicrobial residues in animal products may lead to direct effects on the consumer, such as allergies and toxicities such as dose-independent idiosyncratic reactions that can be triggered due to chloramphenicol residues. Indirect adverse reactions include the promotion of antimicrobial resistance. Further, the parent drugs and their metabolites of the nitrofuran group of antimicrobials are known to be carcinogens. In order to promote awareness on food safety and quality assurance, it is necessary to monitor antimicrobial residues in animal products. This can be done only by having well equipped laboratories and validated techniques. Sri Lanka, as an export country for cultured shrimp, needs to comply with EU regulations. The establishment of the residue monitoring programme in Sri Lanka was commenced in 2002 at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Peradeniya. Three techniques have been established in Sri Lanka for monitoring antimicrobial residues in food of animal origin. The modified EU Six Plate Test (SPT) is a bioassay technique, which screens six groups of antimicrobials, namely; penicillin, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, macrolides (erythromycin), tetracycline and sulphonamides. Food commodities are screened for chloramphenicol residues using a commercially available ELISA kit (Euro Diagnostica, Netherlands), which is a microtiter plate, based competitive enzyme immunoassay. A HPLC-DAD technique has been established to detect nitrofuran metobolites in shrimp including the primary metobolites of furazolidone, furaltadone, nitrofurantoin and nitrofurazon. Since July 2002 a total of 1712 samples including 900 chicken samples and 812 shrimp samples were screened for antimicrobial residues using the SPT. Since November 2002

  1. Anopheles culicifacies breeding in Sri Lanka and options for control through water management

    Konradsen, F; Matsuno, Y; Amerasinghe, F P;

    1998-01-01

    This paper assesses the options for control of malaria vectors through different water management practices in a natural stream in Sri Lanka. The association between water level in the stream and breeding of the immature stages of the primary vector Anopheles culicifacies was investigated and the...... feasibility of using existing irrigation infrastructure to reduce the breeding potential discussed. The most feasible option would be to implement a management routine where water is released periodically from an upstream reservoir to reduce the number of breeding sites downstream. This study indicates that...... by regulating the water level above 20 cm in the stream throughout the dry season the breeding of A. culicifacies could be significantly reduced. The intervention would have only limited impact on the water lost for agriculture and the management input would be minimal. However, for the intervention...

  2. Absolute alpha activity measurements of some plants growing in monazite bearing soils in Sri Lanka

    Mahawatte, P.; Hewamanna, R. (Colombo Univ. (Sri Lanka). Radioisotope Centre)

    1991-01-01

    Deposits of monazite bearing soils occur along the Southwest, West and East Coasts of Sri Lanka. High levels of gamma activity in some plant species growing in the West Coast have been reported. The high levels were due to the presence of the daughter nuclides of {sup 232}Th, most of which are alpha emitters. Absolute alpha activity measurements of ash samples of some plants growing in monazite bearing soils were carried out using the alpha sensitive polymeric nuclear track detector CR-39. The values ranged from 60-1900 mBq/g and were in good agreement with the values obtained from conventional scintillation counting method. The activity concentration of {sup 228}Th in the ash samples was also calculated by measuring the activity concentration of emanated thoron trapped inside a glass bottle with the use of a CR-39 track detector. (author).

  3. Perspective of trust towards e-government initiatives in Sri Lanka.

    Ranaweera, H M B P

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on understanding the antecedent conditions of trustworthiness of the users towards the use of e-government services and attempt to propose a model to assess the influences of the trustworthiness for the use of e-government services in Sri Lanka. Trustworthiness was considered as an additional construct along with the technology acceptance model (TAM) constructs. Structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was used to test the proposed model by utilizing the responses of 898 citizens. SEM results reveal that the proposed model is acceptable showing goodness of fit. The proposed model tested by SEM is appropriate to assess what extend trustworthiness of the users influence for the use of e-government services and this would be worth to pay more attention on trust when develop and implement e-government initiatives. PMID:26759761

  4. Demand for road-fuel in a small developing economy: The case of Sri Lanka

    Chandrasiri, Sunil [Department of Economics, University of Colombo, P.O. Box. 1490, Colombo 3 (Sri Lanka)]. E-mail: sunilch@sltnet.lk

    2006-09-15

    This paper estimates the demand for road fuel (petrol and auto-diesel) in the context of a small developing economy-Sri Lanka. The data set covers a period of 39 years from 1964 to 2002 representing both close economy and open economy policy regimes. The estimation procedure is based on seemingly unrelated regression equation (SURE) methodology mainly to capture substitutability of petrol and diesel in road transportation. The effect of auto-fuel prices on vehicle demand is also analyzed as a part of the analysis. In addition to confirming existing evidence on road-fuel demand, the findings reveal some interesting evidence with respect to own-price elasticity, cross-price elasticity, lag effects, income and vehicle mix variables.

  5. Environmental emission mitigation potential of efficient electrical appliances in Sri Lanka

    Shrestha, R.M.; Shrestha, R. [Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani (Thailand). Energy Program; Fernando, W.J.L.S. [Sri Lanka Energy Managers` Association, Colombo (Slovakia)

    1998-08-01

    This study assesses the techno-economic potential of selected efficient demand-side appliances to mitigate emission of air pollutants from the power sector of Sri Lanka. The study shows that through the use of the selected efficient appliances a total of about 38 646 GWh (i.e. 18.5% of total electricity generation) and about 25.6% (29 541,000 tons), 34.2% (293,000 tons) and 34.6% (374,000 tons) of the total COsub(2), SOsub(2) and NOsub(x) emission respectively could be avoided during 1997-2015 with the use of the efficient appliances from the technical and national economic perspectives. (author)

  6. Absolute alpha activity measurements of some plants growing in monazite bearing soils in Sri Lanka

    Deposits of monazite bearing soils occur along the Southwest, West and East Coasts of Sri Lanka. High levels of gamma activity in some plant species growing in the West Coast have been reported. The high levels were due to the presence of the daughter nuclides of 232Th, most of which are alpha emitters. Absolute alpha activity measurements of ash samples of some plants growing in monazite bearing soils were carried out using the alpha sensitive polymeric nuclear track detector CR-39. The values ranged from 60-1900 mBq/g and were in good agreement with the values obtained from conventional scintillation counting method. The activity concentration of 228Th in the ash samples was also calculated by measuring the activity concentration of emanated thoron trapped inside a glass bottle with the use of a CR-39 track detector. (author)

  7. Ultra-micro trace element contents in spices from Sri Lanka

    Spices were analyzed by ICP-MS for determination of the ultra-micro trace elements in the human adult, Bi, Cd, Co, Ni, Pd, Pt, Se, Sn, Te, Tl, to complement previous results obtained by INAA and by EDXRF. The spices, originating from Sri Lanka, were curry, chilli powder and turmeric powders, coriander, cinnamon, black pepper, fennel, rampeh and curry leaves, and cumin. The analytical procedure was validated by analyzing the certified reference materials NIST SRM 1572 Citrus Leaves and NIST SRM 1573 Tomato Leaves. The results indicate that spices may contribute well to the daily optimal uptake of nutrients of a human adult. The adequacy of spices as a reference material with certified ultra micro trace elements is suggested. (author)

  8. Municipal solid waste management in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka: Problems, issues and challenges

    This paper describes the problems, issues and challenges faced by Sri Lanka based on the outcome of a recent study conducted in the country's Southern Province. The study consists of a public survey, discussions with local authority staff involved in waste management, discussions with Provincial Council and Government officials, dialogue with local politicians, review of documents and field observations. The study revealed that only 24% of the households have access to waste collection and that in rural areas it was less than 2%. A substantial number of households in areas without waste collection expect local authorities to collect their waste. The study also showed that most sites in the province are under capacity to handle any increased demand. Urgent and immediate improvement of the waste disposal sites is necessary to meet the current demand for improved waste collection. The study also revealed that there is a high willingness of people for home composting

  9. Radioactivity of beach sand in the south western coast of Sri Lanka

    The activity concentrations and effective dose rates due to 232Th, 238U and 40K were determined for sand samples collected along the coastal strip from Crow Island to Beruwala, a part of south western coast of Sri Lanka, using a high-purity germanium detector. The ranges and the mean activity concentrations measured were (11-19 600, 2100), (7-3150, 450) and (14-1210, 220) Bq kg-1 for 232Th, 238U and 40K, respectively. The effective annual gamma dose in the area ranged from 0.004 to 16.8 mSv y-1. For 21 % of the locations, the annual effective dose determined from the activity concentrations exceeded the average worldwide exposure of 2.4 mSv y-1. (authors)

  10. Moore's law, Dabbawalas, and pediatric cardiac care in Sri Lanka

    Sri Lanka is an island nation in Indian Ocean that provides free healthcare to all citizens through government healthcare system. It has commendable health indices in the region. Pediatric cardiac services have rapidly progressed over past few years helping to further bring down infant and under-five mortality rates. Lady Ridgeway Hospital for Children (LRH) is the only tertiary care referral center for children with heart disease in the country. Currently it performs approximately 1,000 cardiac catheterizations and 1,000 cardiac surgeries every year. Target is to double the surgical output to treat all children with heart diseases in a timely and appropriate manner. Being a middle-income country, this is not an easy task. Technology used in diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart diseases is rapidly advancing with its price tag. In such a setting, it is challenging to proceed to achieve this target in a resource-limited environment

  11. Impacts of the 2004 Indian ocean tsunami on the southwest coasts of Sri Lanka

    Morton, Robert A.; Goff, John A.; Nichol, Scott L.

    2007-01-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused major landscape changes along the southwest coasts of Sri Lanka that were controlled by the flow, natural topography and bathymetry, and anthropogenic modifications of the terrain. Landscape changes included substantial beach erosion and scouring of return-flow channels near the beach, and deposition of sand sheets across the narrow coastal plain. In many areas tsunami deposits also included abundant building rubble due to the extensive destruction of homes and businesses in areas of dense development. Trim lines and flow directions confirmed that shoreline orientation and wave refraction from embayments and rock-anchored headlands locally focused the flow and amplified the inundation. Tsunami deposits were 1 to 36 cm thick but most were less than 25 cm thick. Deposit thickness depended partly on antecedent topography. The deposits were composed of coarse to medium sand organized into a few sets of plane parallel laminae that exhibited overall upward fining and landward thinning trends.

  12. Demand for road-fuel in a small developing economy: The case of Sri Lanka

    This paper estimates the demand for road fuel (petrol and auto-diesel) in the context of a small developing economy-Sri Lanka. The data set covers a period of 39 years from 1964 to 2002 representing both close economy and open economy policy regimes. The estimation procedure is based on seemingly unrelated regression equation (SURE) methodology mainly to capture substitutability of petrol and diesel in road transportation. The effect of auto-fuel prices on vehicle demand is also analyzed as a part of the analysis. In addition to confirming existing evidence on road-fuel demand, the findings reveal some interesting evidence with respect to own-price elasticity, cross-price elasticity, lag effects, income and vehicle mix variables

  13. Effect of soil carbohydrates on nutrient availability in natural forests and cultivated lands in Sri Lanka

    Ratnayake, R. R.; Seneviratne, G.; Kulasooriya, S. A.

    2013-05-01

    Carbohydrates supply carbon sources for microbial activities that contribute to mineral nutrient production in soil. Their role on soil nutrient availability has not yet been properly elucidated. This was studied in forests and cultivated lands in Sri Lanka. Soil organic matter (SOM) fractions affecting carbohydrate availability were also determined. Soil litter contributed to sugars of plant origin (SPO) in croplands. The negative relationship found between clay bound organic matter (CBO) and glucose indicates higher SOM fixation in clay that lower its availability in cultivated lands. In forests, negative relationships between litter and sugars of microbial origin (SMO) showed that litter fuelled microbes to produce sugars. Fucose and glucose increased the availability of Cu, Zn and Mn in forests. Xylose increased Ca availability in cultivated lands. Arabinose, the main carbon source of soil respiration reduced the P availability. This study showed soil carbohydrates and their relationships with mineral nutrients could provide vital information on the availability of limiting nutrients in tropical ecosystems.

  14. Weathering of Monuments at Jethawanaramaya Complex in North-Central, Sri Lanka

    Amila Sandaruwan RATNAYAKE; Amarasooriya PITAWALA

    2009-01-01

    Sri Lanka has the richest archaeological sites in Asia. Jethawanarama Complex, one of the valuable sites in the country, is suffering from deterioration due to weathering. Monuments were built mainly from stones (granitic gneiss and marble) and clay bricks. The present study aimed to categorize weathering forms and interpret the recently-developing weathering processes. The growing of lichens on surfaces and the development of saline conditions are the major threats on the survival of monuments other than the typical weathering processes of tropical climates Morinite (NaCa_2Al_2[PO_4)]_2 [F,OH]_5·2H_2O) is identified as a weathering product of monuments and is generated from lichens.

  15. Addressing domestic violence through antenatal care in Sri Lanka's plantation estates: Contributions of public health midwives.

    Infanti, Jennifer J; Lund, Ragnhild; Muzrif, Munas M; Schei, Berit; Wijewardena, Kumudu

    2015-11-01

    Domestic violence in pregnancy is a significant health concern for women around the world. Globally, much has been written about how the health sector can respond effectively and comprehensively to domestic violence during pregnancy via antenatal services. The evidence from low-income settings is, however, limited. Sri Lanka is internationally acknowledged as a model amongst low-income countries for its maternal and child health statistics. Yet, very little research has considered the perspectives and experiences of the key front line health providers for pregnant women in Sri Lanka, public health midwives (PHMs). We address this gap by consulting PHMs about their experiences identifying and responding to pregnant women affected by domestic violence in an underserved area: the tea estate sector of Badulla district. Over two months in late 2014, our interdisciplinary team of social scientists and medical doctors met with 31 estate PHMs for group interviews and a participatory workshop at health clinics across Badulla district. In the paper, we propose a modified livelihoods model to conceptualise the physical, social and symbolic assets, strategies and constraints that simultaneously enable and limit the effectiveness of community-based health care responses to domestic violence. Our findings also highlight conceptual and practical strategies identified by PHMs to ensure improvements in this complex landscape of care. Such strategies include estate-based counselling services; basic training in family counselling and mediation for PHMs; greater surveillance of abusive men's behaviours by male community leaders; and performance evaluation and incentives for work undertaken to respond to domestic violence. The study contributes to international discussions on the meanings, frameworks, and identities constructed at the local levels of health care delivery in the global challenge to end domestic violence. In turn, such knowledge adds to international debates on the roles

  16. Poverty Incidence and its Determinants in the Estate Sector of Sri Lanka

    Březinová Olga

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Poverty measurement and analysis are needed to identify the poor, the nature and extent of poverty and its determinants, and to assess the impact of policies and programmes on the poor. The government of Sri Lanka has been spending huge sums of money for poverty alleviation and social welfare since its independence. Yet, poverty is still severe and widespread in Sri Lanka, especially in the estate and rural areas .The objective of this study is to find out and analyze the significant determinants of the incidence of poverty in the estate sector where the highest level of chronic poverty and unemployment exist. The national and regional poverty survey data and other official socio economic cross sectional data from selected provinces were used to analyze the extent of poverty in plantation sector in which 89 Divisional Secretariat from provinces such as Subaragamuva, Central and Uva were considered for the analysis. The econometric model were fitted and estimated in this study. Furthermore, Log transformation was conducted and heteroskedasticity problem was detected with the use of statistical software. The Ordinary Least Square (OLS regression analysis clearly indicates that, variables such as industrial employment, education, access to market and infrastructure significantly and negatively affect the poverty incidence of the estate sector. Also, agricultural employment has a negative impact but not significant. The R2 of 0.82 explains the statistical fitness of the model and the Prob (F-statistics also confirms it. Analysis with the Durbin–Watson stat confirms that, there is no auto correlation between the variables. The results emphasize the need for adapting policies for regional infrastructural improvement as well as market and educational development in the plantation sector.

  17. Collective trauma in northern Sri Lanka: a qualitative psychosocial-ecological study

    Somasundaram Daya

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex situations that follow war and natural disasters have a psychosocial impact on not only the individual but also on the family, community and society. Just as the mental health effects on the individual psyche can result in non pathological distress as well as a variety of psychiatric disorders; massive and widespread trauma and loss can impact on family and social processes causing changes at the family, community and societal levels. Method This qualitative, ecological study is a naturalistic, psychosocial ethnography in Northern Sri Lanka, while actively involved in psychosocial and community mental health programmes among the Tamil community. Participatory observation, key informant interviews and focus group discussion with community level relief and rehabilitation workers and government and non-governmental officials were used to gather data. The effects on the community of the chronic, man-made disaster, war, in Northern Sri Lanka were compared with the contexts found before the war and after the tsunami. Results Fundamental changes in the functioning of the family and the community were observed. While the changes after the tsunami were not so prominent, the chronic war situation caused more fundamental social transformations. At the family level, the dynamics of single parent families, lack of trust among members, and changes in significant relationships, and child rearing practices were seen. Communities tended to be more dependent, passive, silent, without leadership, mistrustful, and suspicious. Additional adverse effects included the breakdown in traditional structures, institutions and familiar ways of life, and deterioration in social norms and ethics. A variety of community level interventions were tried. Conclusion Exposure to conflict, war and disaster situations impact on fundamental family and community dynamics resulting in changes at a collective level. Relief, rehabilitation and development

  18. Impact of distributed and independent power generation on greenhouse gas emissions: Sri Lanka

    Wijayatunga, P.D.C. [University of Moratuwa (Sri Lanka). Centre for Energy Studies; Fernando, W.J.L.S. [Sri Lanka Energy Managers Association, Colombo (Sri Lanka); Shrestha, R.M. [Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani (Thailand). Energy Program

    2004-12-01

    Sri Lanka has a hydropower dominated power system with approximately two thirds of its generation capacity based on large hydro plants. The remaining one third are based on oil fired thermal generation with varying technologies, such as oil steam, Diesel, gas turbines and combined cycle plants. A significant portion of this capacity is in operation as independent power plants (IPPs). In addition to these, Sri Lanka presently has about 40 MWs of mini-hydro plants, which are distributed in the highlands and their surrounding districts, mainly connected to the primary distribution system. Further, there are a few attempts to build fuel wood fired power plants of small capacities and connect them to the grid in various parts of the country. The study presented in this paper investigates the impact of these new developments in the power sector on the overall emissions and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in particular. It examines the resulting changes to the emissions and costs in the event of developing the proposed coal power plant as an IPP under different investment and operational conditions. The paper also examines the impact on emissions with 80 MWs of distributed power in different capacities of wind, mini-hydro and wood fired power plants. It is concluded that grid connected, distributed power generation (DPG) reduces emissions, with only a marginal increase in overall costs, due to the reduction in transmission and distribution network losses that result from the distributed nature of generation. These reductions can be enhanced by opting for renewable energy based DPGS, as the case presented in the paper, and coupling them with demand side management measures. It is also concluded that there is no impact on overall emissions by the base load IPPs unless they are allowed to change over to different fuel types and technologies. (author)

  19. Is Hiding Foot and Mouth Disease Sensitive Behavior for Farmers? A Survey Study in Sri Lanka.

    Gunarathne, Anoma; Kubota, Satoko; Kumarawadu, Pradeep; Karunagoda, Kamal; Kon, Hiroichi

    2016-02-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) has a long history in Sri Lanka and was found to be endemic in various parts of the country and constitutes a constant threat to farmers. In Sri Lanka, currently there is no regular, nationwide vaccination programme devised to control FMD. Therefore, improving farmers' knowledge regarding distinguishing FMD from other diseases and ensuring prompt reporting of any suspicion of FMD as well as restricting movement of animals are critical activities for an effective FMD response effort. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between farmers' knowledge levels and their behaviors to establish a strategy to control FMD. In our study, item count technique was applied to estimate the number of farmers that under-report and sell FMD-infected animals, although to do so is prohibited by law. The following findings were observed: about 63% of farmers have very poor knowledge of routes of FMD transmission; 'under-reporting' was found to be a sensitive behavior and nearly 23% of the farmers were reluctant to report FMD-infected animals; and 'selling FMD-infected animals' is a sensitive behavior among high-level knowledge group while it is a non-sensitive behavior among the low-level knowledge group. If farmers would understand the importance of prompt reporting, they may report any suspected cases of FMD to veterinary officials. However, even if farmers report honestly, they do not want to cull FMD-infected animals. Thus, education programs should be conducted not only on FMD introduction and transmission, but also its impact. Furthermore, consumers may criticize the farmers for culling their infected animals. Hence, not only farmers, but also consumers need to be educated on the economic impact of FMD and the importance of controlling an outbreak. If farmers have a high knowledge of FMD transmission, they consider selling FMD-infected animals as a sensitive behavior. Therefore, severe punishment should be levied for

  20. Assessment of economic impact of electricity supply interruptions in the Sri Lanka industrial sector

    This paper presents the outcome of the Sri Lanka case study on assessing the economic impact of power interruptions on industry in the South Asia region, comprising the countries of Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh and India. The technical assessment evaluates the cost to the country's economy in terms of the industrial loss due to supply interruptions and environmental impacts from standby generation used to supplement the power requirements of the industrial sector. The study found that the main economic impact of the power interruptions, both planned and unplanned, is the loss of output in the industrial sector. In a typical year of power shortages, such as 2001, arising from a deficit in generation capacity, these losses can be as high as approximately US$ 81 million a year, which is approximately 0.65% of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). Also, the economic impact due to unplanned outages can be around US$ 45 million (0.3% of GDP) in a typical year. On average, these values for planned and unplanned outages are US$ 0.66 and US$ 1.08 per kW h of energy loss, respectively. It is also observed that 92% of the sampled industries have standby generation facilities to satisfy either, in full or partially, their own power requirements, which produced approximately 146 GW h of energy in 2001. The serious economic and environmental impacts of power interruptions, both planned and unplanned, underlines the importance of timely implementation of the long term least cost generation expansion plan and proper maintenance of transmission and distribution networks to ensure their high reliability. Therefore, it is clear that the utility needs to take immediate steps to improve its supply reliability in order to retain consumers and justify the existence of a centralised generation facility