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1

Sri Lanka: transition continues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sri Lanka has experienced a unique process of almost reaching replacement level fertility. Population amounts to about 18.7 million persons. The growth rate is low at about 1.2%. Life expectancy is about 73 years. The low dependency ratios allow for socioeconomic development. Sri Lanka has achieved its transition due to enlightened population and social development policies. Compared to other developing countries at the same level of per capita income, Sri Lanka has made greater progress in basic educational enrollment, literacy, mortality and fertility decline, and other socioeconomic development. Population momentum may result in a rise in total population to about 22.2 million by 2020. The government's Health Council adopted a new Population and Reproductive Health Policy in December 1997. One goal is gender equity, which will be achieved by promotion of equal participation of women and men in all areas of family and household responsibilities, including family planning and child care. PMID:12322097

1998-12-01

2

Sri Lanka Malaria Maps  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a relatively good national case reporting system in Sri Lanka, detailed maps of malaria distribution have not been publicly available. Methods In this study, monthly records over the period 1995 – 2000 of microscopically confirmed malaria parasite positive blood film readings, at sub-district spatial resolution, were used to produce maps of malaria distribution across the island. Also, annual malaria trends at district resolution were displayed for the period 1995 – 2002. Results The maps show that Plasmodium vivax malaria incidence has a marked variation in distribution over the island. The incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria follows a similar spatial pattern but is generally much lower than that of P. vivax. In the north, malaria shows one seasonal peak in the beginning of the year, whereas towards the south a second peak around June is more pronounced. Conclusion This paper provides the first publicly available maps of both P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria incidence distribution on the island of Sri Lanka at sub-district resolution, which may be useful to health professionals, travellers and travel medicine professionals in their assessment of malaria risk in Sri Lanka. As incidence of malaria changes over time, regular updates of these maps are necessary.

van der Hoek Wim

2003-07-01

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Anopheles culicifacies breeding in brackish waters in Sri Lanka and implications for malaria control  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles culicifacies is the major vector of both falciparum and vivax malaria in Sri Lanka, while Anopheles subpictus and certain other species function as secondary vectors. In Sri Lanka, An. culicifacies is present as a species complex consisting of species B and E, while An. subpictus exists as a complex of species A-D. The freshwater breeding habit of An. culicifacies is well established. In order to further characterize the breeding sites of the major malaria vectors in Sri Lanka, a limited larval survey was carried out at a site in the Eastern province that was affected by the 2004 Asian tsunami. Methods Anopheline larvae were collected fortnightly for six months from a brackish water body near Batticaloa town using dippers. Collected larvae were reared in the laboratory and the emerged adults were identified using standard keys. Sibling species status was established based on Y-chromosome morphology for An. culicifacies larvae and morphometric characteristics for An. subpictus larvae and adults. Salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH were determined at the larval collection site. Results During a six month study covering dry and wet seasons, a total of 935 anopheline larvae were collected from this site that had salinity levels up to 4 parts per thousand at different times. Among the emerged adult mosquitoes, 661 were identified as An. culicifacies s.l. and 58 as An. subpictus s.l. Metaphase karyotyping of male larvae showed the presence of species E of the Culicifacies complex, and adult morphometric analysis the presence of species B of the Subpictus complex. Both species were able to breed in water with salinity levels up to 4 ppt. Conclusions The study demonstrates the ability of An. culicifacies species E, the major vector of falciparum and vivax malaria in Sri Lanka, to oviposit and breed in brackish water. The sibling species B in the An. subpictus complex, a well-known salt water breeder and a secondary malaria vector in the country, was also detected at the same site. Since global warming and the rise in sea levels will further increase of inland brackish water bodies, the findings have significant implications for the control of malaria in Sri Lanka and elsewhere.

Surendran Sinnathamby N

2010-04-01

4

Tissue bank: Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human degenerative diseases and congenital defects are common throughout the world. Many people suffer also from burns, fractures and nerve damage resulting from traumatic accidents and outbreaks of violence which occur all too frequently, especially in poorer countries. Far too many people are impaired for life because they have no access to treatment or simply cannot afford it. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Division of Nuclear Medicine, to improve facilities at the Sri Lanka Tissue Bank. (IAEA)

5

Nuclear science training in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are two major levels of obtaining radiation or nuclear education and training in Sri Lanka : the University and training courses in nuclear related technology and radiation protection offered by the Atomic Energy Authority of the Ministry of Science and Technology . This paper summarizes the status, some of the activities and problems of radiation education in Sri Lanka. (author)

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Livelihoods in post-tsunami Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Livelihoods in Sri Lanka have been affected not only by the initial devastation of the tsunami but also by the policies and practices of the government and the humanitarian aid community’s post-disaster response.

Simon Harris

2005-07-01

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Percepción y protección en Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Una evaluación llevada a cabo en Sri Lanka durante 2008 reveló que los desplazados con discapacidad resultaban extremadamente vulnerables ante incidentes relacionados con la protección; una vulnerabilidad que se ha incrementado por su falta de voz.

Bombi, Francesca

2010-01-01

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Renewable Energy Supply Options for Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Sri Lanka energy sector is dominated by conventional energy sources as biomass, hydropower and petroleum. The electricity sector is dominated by hydropower supplying approximately while small component is supplied by oil fired thermal plants. Sri Lanka has a relatively low household electrification level with major variations among urban, suburban and rural areas of the country. Main renewable energy sources capable of offering a substantial contribution to the Sri Lanka electricity generation sector are micro-hydro, wind, biomass and solar. Penetration of RE in the electricity generation sector has been extremely limited by the constraints in financing mechanisms and financial viability. The only exception has been micro/minihydro sector due to its relatively low capital investment and recent opportunities for grid connection. Also the recent World Bank refunded Energy Services Delivery (ESD project has helped the resurgence of MH sector during the last few years. This paper examinations the feasibility of the use of these renewable sources particularly for electricity generation in Sri Lank along the incentives and barriers to their expansion.

Priyantha D. C. Wijayatunga

2001-01-01

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Climate change and agricultural adaptation in Sri Lanka: a review  

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Climate change is inevitable and will continue into the next century. Since the agricultural sector in Sri Lanka is one of the most vulnerable to climate change, a thorough understanding of climate transition is critical for formulating effective adaptation strategies. This paper provides an overview of the status of climate change and adaptation in the agricultural sector in Sri Lanka. The review clearly indicates that climate change is taking place in Sri Lanka in terms of rainfall varia...

Esham, Mohamed; Garforth, Chris

2012-01-01

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Sri Lanka: A guerra acabou, e agora?  

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Análise sobre o fim da guerra no Sri Lanka

e as perspectivas de “Peacebuilding” para uma

sustentável resolução do conflito.

IZABELA PEREIRA

2009-01-01

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Non-economic gains of Sri Lanka's FTAs with neighbours  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to answer the question: does a bilateral free trade agreement (FTA) lead to an improvement in the security of a member country and greater peace between two member countries in the developing world? Design/methodology/approach – This paper reviews existing literature and uses the idea of non-economic gains from regional trading agreements to explain how Sri Lanka managed to use FTAs to neutralise India and obtain military assistance from Pakistan using its FTAs with two countries during the recently concluded war. Findings – Even though political objectives were not explicitly outlined in Sri Lanka's two FTAs with its big rival neighbours (India and Pakistan), the FTAs helped Sri Lanka to successfully execute the war against the LTTE (the Tamil Tigers) by neutralising India on the one hand and gaining military assistance from Pakistan on the other. Research limitations/implications – The research approach is basically qualitative. However, there is needto develop a comprehensive theoretical model to capture non-economics gains from FTAs. Originality/value – Although there is a growing body of literature on the underlying political and strategic motivations of countries forming regional and bilateral trading arrangements, this paper adds to understanding of what motivates small developing countries to form trade agreements with big neighbours.

Bandara, Jayatilleke S.; Yu, Wusheng

2012-01-01

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Estrazione di Granato Grossularia (var Essonite) a Kamburupitiya, Sri lanka  

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Hessonite is a variety of grossular garnet. Its color ranges from yellow to orange (sometimes reddish) and it belongs to the same garnet class of the famous green tsavorite. The most important sources of gem-quality hessonite are Afghanistan and Sri Lanka. Kamburupitiya mine, in southern Sri Lanka, yeld exlusively hessonite.

Costa, Emanuele

2009-01-01

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The Gender impact in Earnings Inequality: Evidence from Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The Gender impact in Earnings Inequality: Evidence from Sri LankaAbstract: This paper estimates an earnings function for Sri Lanka, followed by a decomposition analysis of male-female earnings suggest that the gender disparity in earnings largely represents ‘discrimination’ against women. The findings showed that irrespective of their “inferior” labour market attributes, men had average earnings that were considerably higher than the female average and that this could be attributed entirely to discrimination in favour of male earners.

Thankom Arun

2011-08-01

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Iron deficiency anaemia in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The commonest cause of nutritional anaemia in the Sri Lankan population is iron deficiency. The diets of the population belonging to the lower socio-economic groups contain little food of animal origin. Thus, their diets are deficient in easily absorbable (haem) iron; and are also heavily cereal-based. Therefore interference in the absorption of dietary iron also occurs. Iron-deficiency anaemia is not restricted to the so-called ''vulnerable groups'' in Sri Lanka, however, their greater demands make the problem not only commoner but also more severe. Among pregnant and lactating women anaemia is often associated with folate deficiency. It must also be noted that the low availability of dietary iron is compounded in large population groups. Malaria, presently raging on an epidemic scale is also a major contributory factor to the incidence of anaemia. The purpose of this study was to examine the iron status of pre-school children and pregnant women; to establish normal levels of biochemical indices at different trimesters; to record the effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy; and to record the bioavailability of iron from weaning foods and common adult diets. 6 figs, 14 tabs

15

Sociopolitical Instability and Economic Growth Empirical Evidence from Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Sociopolitical instability severely affects economic growth in short and long run. This study analyzes that sociopolitical instability measured by proxy measure; annual growth rate of tourist arrivals in Sri Lanka during 1960-2005 adversely affects economic growth. Our empirical findings based on ordinary lease square econometric estimation, show that sociopolitical instability negatively and significantly affect economic growth. Reduction of economic growth rate (-0.032 due to the sociopolitical instability exceeds the improvement of economic growth (0.027 by increasing of physical capital accumulation. It also exceeds the improvement of economic growth (0.017 by increasing of human capital accumulation. Years which had more sociopolitical conflicts, violence within and between communities and war between government forces and Tamil tiger had lower economic growth than years which had peace talking between government and leaderships of minority, preparing political proposal for peace, effective peace or political agreements and none or less violence. Sociopolitical instability adversely affects economic growth in long runs with insignificant. Policy implications suggest that peace in Sri Lanka makes foundation for economic development based on economic growth. Sociopolitical stability plays major role in determination of economic growth.

Changsheng Xu

2007-01-01

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Living Up to the Ideal of Respectability : Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights Implications for Unmarried Migrant Workers, Single Mothers, and Women in Prostitution in Sri Lanka  

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This thesis aims to gain a deeper understanding of relationships and sexuality of women at risk of social exclusion in Sri Lanka and the risk of violations of their sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) that they might face. Individual qualitative interviews with migrant women workers (n=18) and men (n=18) in the Free Trade Zone (FTZ), women facing single motherhood (n=28) and women formerly involved in prostitution (n=15) were conducted. Conceptual approaches included gender, soci...

Jordal, Malin

2014-01-01

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Seroepidemiololgy of rickettsioses in Sri Lanka: a patient based study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Rickettsioses are emerging infections in Sri Lanka as shown by the increase in the number of clinically diagnosed rickettsial patients being reported to the Epidemiology Unit, Sri Lanka. However, mapping the disease for the whole island with laboratory confirmed cases has not been previously carried out. Methods 615 samples received from 23 hospital representing 8 provinces were tested using ELISA or IFA methods and clinical data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Results Rash was found among more spotted fever seropositive patients than scrub typhus seropositive patients while the opposite was true for the presence of eschar. Spotted fever and scrub typhus was found in a geographically restricted manner. Consistent temporal patterns were seen for the presentation of patients with rickettsioses in Kandy and Kurunegala districts for 2009 and 2010. Conclusions This study expanded knowledge on the distribution of rickettsioses in Sri Lanka and their clinical profiles which in turn helps in the clinical diagnosis of these infections.

Liyanapathirana Veranja

2011-11-01

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Yellow Oleander Poisoning and Suicide in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Intentional yellow oleander poisoning is a growing problem that is straining the health care services of Sri Lanka as it is a readily available method of suicide. The country remains to have one the highest suicide rates in the world, and the trend of oleander poisoning has been difficult to halt due to the lack of resources to manage the problem. As mental health issues are becoming a serious public health problem in Sri Lanka, it is timely to consider what efforts could be made to manage this unique phenomenon.

Shobitha Puvaneswaralingam

2012-05-01

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Yellow Oleander Poisoning and Suicide in Sri Lanka  

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Intentional yellow oleander poisoning is a growing problem that is straining the health care services of Sri Lanka as it is a readily available method of suicide. The country remains to have one the highest suicide rates in the world, and the trend of oleander poisoning has been difficult to halt due to the lack of resources to manage the problem. As mental health issues are becoming a serious public health problem in Sri Lanka, it is timely to consider what efforts could be made to manage th...

Shobitha Puvaneswaralingam

2012-01-01

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Entanglements of Politics and Education in Sri Lanka  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this article I argue that in Sri Lanka the field of education has been a constant and significant element in the relationship between population and politicians, and it plays an important role in most people's experiences and understandings of politics, just as it affects their own political participation.

SØrensen, Birgitte Refslund

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Learning Organization Dimensions of the Sri Lanka Army  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This study intends to investigate the extent to which the Sri Lanka Army can be described as a learning organization. Design/methodology/approach: The main tool of analysis used was the Dimensions of the Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) developed by Marsick and Watkins, with the exclusion of the sections on financial and…

Dahanayake, Nishada Dhananjaya; Gamlath, Sharmila

2013-01-01

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Water and wastewater related issues in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary problems concerning water resources in Sri Lanka are the depletion and degradation of the resource caused by various anthropogenic activities. Surface inland waters in urban areas are polluted heavily with domestic sewage and industrial effluents, and in rural areas with agricultural runoff. With regard to ground water in certain areas of the dry zone, there is a high fluoride content and in hard, rocky, alluvial areas, there is a high concentration of iron. In urban over-crowded cities, there is biological contamination of ground water. Over-utilization, particularly through tube wells, is another major problem affecting ground water resources in Sri Lanka. Oil spills, dumping of waste from ships, coral and sand mining, and activities are the main causes of marine pollution in the country. Except for pipe-borne water supply, irrigation and hydropower schemes, in general water resources in Sri Lanka are managed very poorly. Regulations are available to control most water related problems but enforcement of these regulations is lacking. The ultimate result of degradation and depletion of water resources is the increasing health hazards. Water-borne and vector-borne diseases are prevalent, particularly amongst urban low-income communities with poor sanitary facilities and drainage. Despite government initiatives and legislation, very slow progress has been made towards combating water pollution. This paper examines the most significant water and wastewater related issues in Sri Lanka and their controlling mechanisms. PMID:12926703

Bandara, N J G J

2003-01-01

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Hepatitis C virus in healthy blood donors in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Introduction : Hepatitis C virus (HCV is the etiological agent for the majority of cases of non-A, non-B hepatitis. As a blood-borne virus, HCV is widely recognized as a major causative agent of post-transfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis. The prevalence of HCV and the distribution of HCV genotypes in Sri Lanka in comparison with the rest of Asia are not well known. Materials and Methods: The blood samples collected from healthy blood donors at the National Blood Transfusion Centre of Sri Lanka were screened to determine the prevalence and the genotypes of HCV among blood donors in Sri Lanka. Results: HCV antibodies were found in 53 of 4980 blood donors. However, of the 53 only 8 positive results were confirmed by Reverse Transcription-PCR, which suggests frequent false-positive results or viral clearance. The PCR positive samples were genotyped by DNA sequencing of the Core/E1 regions of HCV genome, and all the HCV viruses belonged to genotype 3, of which 7 were 3a and 1 was 3b. Conclusion: HCV is relatively rare among blood donors in Sri Lanka and only genotype 3 was detected in the studied group.

Senevirathna Dammika

2011-01-01

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The development of micro-catchments in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper gives an informatory account of the development of micro-catchments in Sri Lanka for irrigation. Information for the paper comes from the experience of detailed investigation and preparation of technical proposals for the improvement of 170 existing micro-scale reservoir schemes in the Puttalam and Kurunegala districts, over a period of three years (January, 1982 through December, 1984), under a World Bank-financed project called "Integrated Rural Development (IRD) Project". Investigations were carried out by a private body called Planning Consultancy, a professional staff comprising a team of eight engineers from the Resources Development Consultants Ltd., Sir Lanka, under a contract with the Ministry of Plan Implementation and under the supervision of the Irrigation Department of Sri Lanka and a World Bank-recommended body called Supervisory Consultancy. The writer is a member of the Planning Consultancy team who personally investigated and designed 30 of these schemes.

Udawattage, U. D. S.

1985-10-01

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Then and Now: English in Sri Lanka’s Public Sector  

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Full Text Available English was the official language of Sri Lanka during British colonization but it was replaced by Sinhala and Tamil as independence neared. The public sector was directly affected by this change although English held sway here for some years. Yet, English was made the link language for the Sinhalese and Tamils in 1987 and the state has since taken many steps to promote and improve its use in the public sector. Such change in language policy did not happen in void. It resulted from different perceptions nationalism and nationism had about English. This paper tries to understand the changing fate of English in Sri Lanka’s public sector by placing it in the context of nationalism and nationism. It aims to do two things, namely to explain nationalism and nationism in relation to Sri Lanka and to explore the presence of English in the public sector from independence until today, affected by nationalism and nationism. This investigative approach shows the influence of local ideology on language policy. It is ultimately seen that language policy concerning English in the public sector is responsive to the volatile political and social contexts of Sri Lanka.

Kumaran Rajandran

2009-01-01

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Food Crops Breeding in Sri Lanka - Achievements and challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since Rice is the staple food in Sri Lanka strong emphasis has been given for the improvement of Rice in Sri Lanka. Over the last three decades 36 high yielding rice varieties have been developed. The present yield potential of Sri Lanka's best varieties have been recorded to be be around 10 mt/ha. At present more than 90% of the total paddy extent is grown with modern high yielding rice varieties and as a result the national paddy production has increased from 1.8 mt/ha to 3.5 mt/ha. Induced mutations is used in plant breeding. Use of radiation to produce haploids and for production of transitory sexuality in apomicts have been done. Under the coarse grains and millet varietal program, maize have recorded increasing attention owing to the fact that is is used for human consumption and as feed grain for poultry. Promising varieties of Soya bean, cowpea, mung bean, black gram and ground nut have been recommended for cultivation. Research attention has also been directed towards Root and Tuber crops which have great potential in providong food for the rapidly increasing population in Sri Lanka. Potato is the most important and popular tuber crop. A number of improved varieties with respect to a number of local fruit crops such as banana, sweet orange, lemonime, avocado, pineapple, rambutan, grapes.have been introduced. New improved varieties of indigenous vegetables such as tomato, brinjal etc. have been produced. Chillies and onions with desirable qualities also have bnions with desirable qualities also have been identified. Mutation breeding provides a novel approach to the plant breeders for raising the productivity of crop plants, thus complementing conventional methods. Any way the use of induced mutations in crop improvement has not been properly exploited in Sri Lanka as yet

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Where there is no information: IDP vulnerability assessments in Sri Lanka’s borderlands  

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Full Text Available A third of the estimated 600,000 IDPs in Sri Lanka live in areas controlled by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam (LTTE. Displaced people within these so-called ‘un-cleared’ or ‘liberated areas’ (termsused by the Sri Lankan government and the LTTE respectively are at especial risk. Their situation highlights the difficulties of assessing protection and assistance in the context of conflict.

Danesh Jayatilaka

2004-05-01

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Landmarks of History of Soil Science in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

Sri Lanka is a tropical Island in the Southern tip of Indian subcontinent positioned at 50 55' to 90 50' N latitude and 790 42' to 810 53' E longitude surrounded by the Indian Ocean. It is an island 435 km in length and 224 km width consisting of a land are of 6.56 million ha with a population of 20 million. In area wise it is ranked as 118th in the world, where at present ranked as 47 in population wise and ranked 19th in population density. The country was under colonial rule under Portuguese, Dutch and British from 1505 to 1948. The majority of the people in the past and present earn their living from activities based on land, which indicates the important of the soil resource. The objective of this paper is to describe the landmarks of the history of Soil Science to highlight the achievements and failures, which is useful to enrich our present understanding of Sri Lankan soils. The landmarks of the history of Soil Science in Sri Lanka can be divided to three phases namely, the early period (prior to 1956), the middle period (1956 to 1972) and the present period (from 1972 onwards). During the early period, detailed analytical studies of coffee and tea soils were compiled, and these gave mainly information on up-country soils which led to fertilizer recommendations based on field trials. In addition, rice and forest soils were also studied in less detail. The first classification of Sri Lankan soils and a provisional soil map based on parent material was published by Joachim in 1945 which is a major landmark of history of Soil Science in Sri Lanka. In 1959 Ponnamperuma proposed a soil classification system for wetland rice soils. From 1963 to 1968 valuable information on the land resource was collected and documented by aerial resource surveys funded by Canada-Ceylon Colombo plan aid project. This covered 18 major river basins and about 1/4th of Sri Lanka, which resulted in producing excellent soil maps and information of the areas called the Kelani Aruvi Ara and Walawe basins. The provisional soil map was updated by many other workers as Moorman and Panabokke in 1961 and 1972 using this information. The soil map produced by De Alwis and Panabokke in 1972 at a scale of 1:500,000 was the soil maps mostly used during the past years During the present era, the need for classification of Soils of Sri Lanka according to international methods was felt. A major leap forward in Soil Survey, Classification leading to development of a soil data base was initiated in 1995 with the commencement of the "SRICANSOL" project which was a twining project between the Soil Science Societies of Sri Lanka and Canada. This project is now completed with detail soil maps at a scale of 1:250,000 and soil classified according to international methods for the Wet, Intermediate and Dry zones of Sri Lanka. A digital database consisting of soil profile description and physical and chemical data is under preparation for 28, 40 and 51 benchmark sites of the Wet, Intermediate and Dry zones respectively. The emphases on studies on Soil Science in the country at present is more towards environmental conservation related to soil erosion control, reducing of pollution of soil and water bodies from nitrates, pesticide residues and heavy metal accumulation. Key words: Sri Lanka, Provisional soil map

Mapa, R.

2012-04-01

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Twelve Years of Rabies Surveillance in Sri Lanka, 1999–2010  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rabies is a public health concern in Sri Lanka. The incidence of dog rabies remains unchanged, but the incidence of suspect human rabies is decreasing gradually in Sri Lanka. This finding indicates the effects of improved access to postexposure prophylaxis by animal bite victims and increased rabies awareness. As in other rabies-endemic countries, in Sri Lanka, human rabies is transmitted mainly by dogs, although domestic and wild animals have been diagnosed rabid, and can pose a risk of expo...

Karunanayake, Dushantha; Matsumoto, Takashi; Wimalaratne, Omala; Nanayakkara, Susilakanthi; Perera, Devika; Nishizono, Akira; Ahmed, Kamruddin

2014-01-01

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USE OF AND ATTITUDES TOWARD TOBACCO AND ALCOHOL AMONG ADULTS IN SOUTHERN SRI LANKA  

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The adverse health effects of tobacco and alcohol are well known. Alcohol consumption is increasing in Sri Lanka, but few population studies have been conducted. The objective of this study was to document tobacco and alcohol consumption levels among adults in southern Sri Lanka and to identify the main reasons for using or refraining from alcohol and tobacco products. Tobacco and alcohol use within Sri Lanka is relatively common, particularly among adult males. Reasons given for smoking and ...

Lombardo, Sarah; Perera, Bilesha; Beaudry, Lauren; Grad, Jennifer; Maselko, Joanna; Østbye, Truls

2013-01-01

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A survey of odonate assemblages associated with selected wetland localities in southern Sri Lanka  

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The dragonflies and damselflies are a major insect group (Class Insecta; Order Odonata) associated with water courses. Odonate assemblages with reference to their habitat characters have not been widely studied in Sri Lanka. We have investigated odonate assemblages for a period of three months in selected localities in southern Sri Lanka with reference to the habitat characters. Bundala and Embillakala lagoons in Bundala National Park (A Ramsar wetland in Sri Lanka), “Kirala Kele” Eco-tou...

Chandana, E. P. S.; Rajapaksha, A. C. D.; Samarasekara, W. G. K. H.

2012-01-01

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Pass through Effect of Exchange Rate and Monetary Policy in Sri Lanka  

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This study examined the effectiveness of monetary policy in targeting exchange rate shock between different periods in Sri Lanka. After the trade liberalization in 1977, Sri Lanka became a small open economy. Therefore, monetary policy targeting the exchange rate also became an important issue. Sri Lanka introduced floating exchange rate system in 1990. A Vector Error Correction model and impulse response function were estimated to examine the effectiveness of monetary policy in targeting exc...

Sooriyakumar Krishnapillai; Henry Thompson

2012-01-01

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Demand for private tuition classes under the free education policy. Evidence based on Sri Lanka  

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Private tuition classes are growing phenomenon in Sri Lanka especially among students who prepare for competitive national school qualifying examinations. It is one of major education issues under the free education policy in Sri Lanka. It can tarnish the real purpose of free education policy. In this paper, we examine the demand for private tuition classes in Sri Lanka by using two waves of Household Income and Expenditure Surveys (HIES) conducted by the Department of Census and Statistics (...

Pallegedara, Asankha

2011-01-01

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Economic growth, employment, and decentralised development in Sri Lanka  

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This Working Paper describes the economic growth rate and patterns in Sri Lanka during the 1990s, showing the interrelationship between uneven sectorial growth and the unbalanced regional growth patterns. This is reflected in the regional distribution of unemployment and poverty. In addition, the ongoing war in the North and East has resulted in economic decline in affected areas. Secondly, the paper outlines policy measures aimed at stimulating economic activities in the regions, and underli...

Ofstad, Arve

2000-01-01

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Community psychiatry service in Sri Lanka: a successful model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the current practice of psychiatry there is a shift from hospital to community based care. Different models of community psychiatry have been tried in different countries. Though this concept is based on several core principles, each country has to find what is best suited for its population. In Sri Lanka too, community psychiatry projects have been initiated by psychiatrists. We describe below one such project started in a postal area in the capital, Colombo, by one of the authors. The pr...

Pushpa Ranasinghe; Jayan Mendis; Raveen Hanwella

2011-01-01

36

Menstrual problems and health seeking in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Menstruation is associated with some morbidity, although it is a normal physiological event. In this article, we draw on qualitative research conducted in Sri Lanka in 2006-2007, which included eight key informant interviews with healthcare providers, six focus group discussions with eight women in each, and five case studies. We describe and analyze women's perceptions of menstruation and menstrual problems, their help-seeking behaviors to reduce these health problems, and the consequences of them on their lives. The majority of women perceived menstruation as a physiological process and related problems to changes in hormone levels, pathological conditions of the uterus, and the side effects of contraceptive methods. Menstrual problems significantly affected their daily activities, mental well-being, social life, and sexual life, but few sought medical advice to resolve these problems. Implications of the findings included the need for health care providers and educators to provide accurate information on menstruation to girls and women to enable them to identify normal variation of menstruation and to take appropriate action regarding health care. PMID:19851945

Hemachandra, D K N N; Manderson, Lenore

2009-01-01

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GEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FOR PALEO-TSUNAMIS IN SRI LANKA  

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Full Text Available After the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami inundation event, thin sediment films of fining up sequences were located in several topographic depressions of the southern coastal belt of Sri Lanka. The films consisting of silty fine sand with particular microfossil assemblages were located also in closed containers, bottles and kitchen tables. Well preserved microfossils such as foraminifera, radiolarians as well as spicules of sponges were noted in these recent tsunami sediments.Random augur holes were drilled into some selected depressions in the southern coastal villages of Peraliya and Denuwala situated at locations separated by about 50km. In several such holes, at least two fining up sequences were located below the surface in soil horizons separated from each other by 35cm to 1m. These soil profiles were overlying older coral reefs developed on lateritic formations. The microscopic observations on particular size fractions of the soil horizons showed microfossil assemblages with textures, color and organic C contents strikingly comparable to those observed in the recent tsunami sediments of Sri Lanka. Our findings imply the occurrence of at least two paleo- tsunami events of different ages in Sri Lanka originating apparently from a common source.

Nayomi Kulasena

2008-01-01

38

The family and demographic change in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sri Lanka has almost completed the demographic transition with low mortality rates and fertility rates approaching replacement levels. Sri Lanka shares these characteristics with the South Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu in contrast to elsewhere in South Asia where mortality and especially fertility rates remain much higher. A key part of the explanation for these differences lies in the nature of the family. The Sri Lankan family is essentially the conjugal unit of husband, wife and dependent children whereas in northern South Asia agnatic relations between son and parents are central to family structure. Related to this family system the position of women in Sri Lankan society was relatively high in South Asian terms. Consequently women had a strong say in health and fertility behaviour. When required, for example, mothers take the initiative in seeking health care for themselves and their children. Importantly family structure has facilitated female education which is associated with both mortality and fertility decline. There are few concerns that the values imparted by secular education are contrary to the values of the family or to women's roles within it. The egalitarian family structure has also contributed to fertility decline by raising the costs of children and reducing the long-run benefits to be gained from them. Sri Lanka is particularly distinctive in the contribution of changes in female age at marriage to its fertility decline, marriage age having risen six years this century. This change has been accompanied in recent times by a shift from family-arranged to self-selected (love) marriage. The explanation lies in changes in the socio-economic system which have reduced the centrality of the family in wider social and economic relations, and placed a greater premium on an individual's own abilities and attributes. PMID:10165308

Caldwell, B

1996-01-01

39

Patterns of hospital transfer for self-poisoned patients in rural Sri Lanka: implications for estimating the incidence of self-poisoning in the developing world  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Most data on self-poisoning in rural Asia have come from secondary hospitals. We aimed to: assess how transfers from primary to secondary hospitals affected estimates of case-fatality ratio (CFR; determine whether there was referral bias according to gender or poison; and estimate the annual incidence of all self-poisoning, and of fatal self-poisoning, in a rural developing-world setting. METHODS: Self-poisoning patients admitted to Anuradhapura General Hospital, Sri Lanka, were reviewed on admission from 1 July to 31 December 2002. We audited medical notes of self-poisoning patients admitted to 17 of the 34 surrounding peripheral hospitals for the same period. FINDINGS: A total of 742 patients were admitted with self-poisoning to the secondary hospital; 81 died (CFR 10.9%. 483 patients were admitted to 17 surrounding peripheral hospitals. Six patients (1.2% died in peripheral hospitals, 249 were discharged home, and 228 were transferred to the secondary hospital. There was no effect of gender or age on likelihood of transfer; however, patients who had ingested oleander or paraquat were more likely to be transferred than were patients who had taken organophosphorus pesticides or other poisons. Estimated annual incidences of self-poisoning and fatal self-poisoning were 363 and 27 per 100 000 population, respectively, with an overall CFR of 7.4% (95% confidence interval 6.0-9.0. CONCLUSION: Fifty per cent of patients admitted to peripheral hospitals were discharged home, showing that CFRs based on secondary hospital data are inflated. However, while incidence of self-poisoning is similar to that in England, fatal self-poisoning is three times more common in Sri Lanka than fatal self-harm by all methods in England. Population based data are essential for making international comparisons of case fatality and incidence, and for assessing public health interventions.

Eddleston Michael

2006-01-01

40

Solar photovoltaics in Sri Lanka: a short history  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With a significant unelectrified rural population, Sri Lanka has followed the evolution of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology in the West very closely since the 1970s as terrestrial applications for photovoltaics were developed. It was not until 1980 that the Sri Lankan government embarked on the promotion of solar photovoltaics for rural domestic use when the Ceylon Electricity Board formed the Energy Unit. In addition, Australian and Sri Lankan government-funded pilot projects have given the local promoters further valuable insight into how and how not to promote solar photovoltaics. The establishment of community-based solar photovoltaic programmes by non-governmental organizations has developed a novel approach to bridge the gap between this state-of-the-art technology and the remotely located end-users. (author)

 
 
 
 
41

Delineation of Tsunami Risk Zones for Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

The coastal belts of several Indian Ocean countries including Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India and Thailand suffered massive loss of life and damage to property due to the tsunami unleashed by the great earthquake of moment magnitude 9.1-9.3 in the Andaman-Sunda subduction zone on December 26, 2004. In Sri Lanka, 13 of the 14 administrative districts lying along the coastal belt were affected: the death toll was over 35,000 with 20,000 injured and about 100,000 dwellings and other buildings either completely or partially damaged leaving half a million people homeless and causing massive disruption to livelihoods. However, it was clear in the immediate aftermath of the tsunami that the degree of damage along the coastal belt of Sri Lanka was not uniform: some areas suffered more damage, some less, and in certain other areas, often not far away, there was no damage at all. This suggests that the level of risk for coastal communities from future events of tsunami exhibits considerable variation even along a short stretch of the shoreline. The high cost and the scarcity of coastal lands in many areas demand an accurate assessment of the tsunami risk rather than arbitrary conservative zonation. Moreover, information relating to the spatial distribution of tsunami risk is essential in formulating post-tsunami coastal land use plans as well as in planning of evacuation of people during tsunami warnings. However, neither comprehensive probabilistic assessments of the tsunami hazard nor detailed information pertaining to the vulnerability of coastal communities are available at present for the coastal zone of Sri Lanka. Consequently, the methodology adopted in the present paper is to use field observations and numerical simulations of the December 2004 tsunami, which may be considered a worst-case scenario, in order to obtain the variation along the coastline of three parameters that quantify the tsunami impact. These three parameters are the tsunami height, the horizontal inundation distance and the degree of damage to housing as a result of the 2004 tsunami. The tsunami heights at a spatial resolution of 250 m along the coastal belt were computed by employing a numerical model based on shallow-water equations. The inundation distances were obtained from the points of maximum penetration of inundation measured by the author at 200-400 m intervals along the affected coast using a GPS. The percentage of the number of housing units either completely damaged or partially damaged but unusable in each locality was compiled from a large volume of data gathered by the Department of Census and Statistics of the Government of Sri Lanka in the aftermath of the 2004 tsunami. A 'relative risk index' was then computed by factoring the influence of each of these three parameters normalized with the respective mean value for the entire length of the coastal sector concerned. Accordingly, the relative risk index indicates whether the risk is lower or higher at a given location compared to the mean for the respective coastline. Note also that, all three parameters were given the same weight in the present analysis. Two separate curves depicting the spatial variation of the relative risk index at 250 m intervals were compiled in this way for the east and south coasts of Sri Lanka as the geomorphology of these two coastal sectors are essentially different. These curves of the relative risk index shows significant spatial variation with prominent peaks and troughs at several locations thereby indicating likely zones of comparatively higher as well as lower tsunami risk along the east and south coasts of Sri Lanka.

Wijetunge, J. J.

2008-12-01

42

BUILD BACK BETTER: LESSONS FROM SRI LANKA’S RECOVERY FROM THE 2004 INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The concept “Building Back Better” (BBB) was formally introduced following the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, which implies using a collaborative approach to improve the physical, social and economic conditions of a community during post-disaster reconstruction and recovery. This paper introduces eight BBB Principles which contribute towards achieving BBB. The post-tsunami recovery effort in Sri Lanka was examined using the BBB Principles to determine the extent to which BBB has been incorpor...

Sandeeka Mannakkara; Suzanne Wilkinson

2013-01-01

43

BUILD BACK BETTER: LESSONS FROM SRI LANKA’S RECOVERY FROM THE 2004 INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concept “Building Back Better” (BBB was formally introduced following the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, which implies using a collaborative approach to improve the physical, social and economic conditions of a community during post-disaster reconstruction and recovery. This paper introduces eight BBB Principles which contribute towards achieving BBB. The post-tsunami recovery effort in Sri Lanka was examined using the BBB Principles to determine the extent to which BBB has been incorporated in immediate and long-term disaster management practices. Reports, literature, and data collected from a site visit made to Sri Lanka in 2010/2011 were analysed to establish the findings. Although BBB concepts were recognized, failure in execution resulted in a non-BBB recovery. Lessons learnt from shortcomings have been understood and incorporated into current disaster management practices. Good BBB practices currently in effect include: hazard-based land-use planning and risk-based structural regulations; increased awareness; participatory approaches; and stakeholder training. The absence of legislative support to implement BBB initiatives is the only drawback preventing so far. Lessons from Sri Lanka can benefit disaster management practices worldwide.

Sandeeka Mannakkara

2013-11-01

44

Impact on Policy Responses to Food Price Crisis and Rural Food Security in Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Sri Lanka policy responses have direct impacts on rural dwellers. Over 80% of Sri Lanka’s population live in rural areas and 90% of them represent low income dwellers. Their production system may be hampered by fragmented landholding, poor economics of scale, low investment levels resulting from poor financial services as well as inappropriate or limited technology. They are vulnerable to price hikes of basic foods and food security issues due to fragmented landholding and poor financial...

Weerasekara, W. A. Permani Chandika

2013-01-01

45

In Pursuit of Hegemony: Politics and State Building in Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since the late colonial period, Sri Lanka has been subject to modern democratic state building experiments. The number of challenges this project has encountered is rising. Many of these challenges have been identified alongside the multi-ethnic character of Sri Lanka’s population, illuminating the antagonistic inter-ethnic relations between the majority Sinhalese and the minority Tamils. The various policy measures designed endogeneously and exogenously focused on building a...

Jayasundara-smits, S. M. S.

2013-01-01

46

ENSO relationship to the rainfall of Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

Each year during 1881-1990 was examined to check whether it had an El Niño (EN) and/or a Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) minimum (SO) and/or warm (W) or cold (C) equatorial eastern Pactfic sea surface temperatures SST. Several years were ENSOW, which were further subdivided into two groups namely, unambiguous ENSOW where El Niño existed and SOI minima and SST maxima were in the middle of the calendar year (May-August), and ambiguous ENSOW where El Niño existed but the SOI minima and SST maxima were in the early or late part of the calendar year, not in the middle. Other El Niño events were of the type ENSO, ENW, ENC and EN. Some years not having El Niño were of the types SOW, SOC, SO, W and C, the last one (C) containing all anti-El Niños, i.e. La Niñas. Remaining years were termed as non-events.For all these years, the normalized rainfall deviations from the mean were examined for seven rainfall series, three in India and four in Sri Lanka. For the all India summer monsoon rainfall and Indian southern peninsula summer monsoon rainfall, unambiguous ENSOW years showed a very good association with droughts. The Sri Lanka southwest monsoon rains also showed a similar tendency; but the Sri Lanka second intermonsoon season rainfall showed a strong opposite tendency (floods instead of droughts). For other types of El Niño years, results were generally obscure. For C type events, results were opposite to those of unambiguous events, as expected. It is suggested that for obtaining composite maps based on El Niño years, only the unambiguous ENSOW years may be used.

Kane, R. P.

1998-06-01

47

Exclusive breastfeeding among women on the plantations in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross-sectional questionnaire survey, using the current status method for the assessment of breastfeeding, was conducted among women working in the plantations in Sri Lanka. The exclusive breastfeeding rate was 32.4 per cent. The mothers' return to work and the feeling of having insufficient milk were significantly and negatively associated with exclusive breastfeeding. Women will sometimes start with powdered milk several weeks before going back to work, suggesting that work itself is not the only reason for introducing powdered milk. Although the health authorities have endorsed the concept of exclusive breastfeeding, further health education is needed for the full acceptance of exclusive breastfeeding in the population. PMID:9819499

Sørensen, E; Fernando, D N; Hettiarachchi, I; Durongdej, S; Podhipak, A; Skaara, B B

1998-10-01

48

Community psychiatry service in Sri Lanka: a successful model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the current practice of psychiatry there is a shift from hospital to community based care. Different models of community psychiatry have been tried in different countries. Though this concept is based on several core principles, each country has to find what is best suited for its population. In Sri Lanka too, community psychiatry projects have been initiated by psychiatrists. We describe below one such project started in a postal area in the capital, Colombo, by one of the authors. The project began in late 2008 and by 2010 was functioning independently and fulfilled the criteria for a community based mental health service.

Pushpa Ranasinghe

2011-06-01

49

After Five Years of Collaboration: The Benefits of University Based Eduaction for Nurses in Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A request from the nurses of Sri Lanka led to the establishment of the country’s first university nursing program. Delivered by distance, the program represented a collaborative, approach among a Sri Lankan university (The Open University of Sri Lanka), a Canadian university (Athabasca University) and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), who funded the project. The challenges facing this undertaking included the lack of available culturally appropriate course materials, the...

Cameron, Moira M.

2001-01-01

50

Characteristics of rural leptospirosis patients admitted to referral hospitals during the 2008 leptospirosis outbreak in sri lanka: implications for developing public health control measures.  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine the exposure risk factors of highly endemic rural leptospirosis in tropical setting, we conducted a prospective, hospital-based case control study in Sri Lanka. A conceptual hierarchy of variables was used to analyze the data. Case patients included 38 (34%) females and 73 (66%) males with a mean age of 36 yr (SD 12.7 yr). Using piped, chlorinated water for drinking/general purposes (odds ratio [OR] 0.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.67), paddy fields in the vicinity of home (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.06-2.97), sighting dogs at home yard/dog ownership (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.11-2.91), sighting cattle at home yard/cattle ownership (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.00-2.84), and work in a paddy field (OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.68, 5.41) were the main predictors of leptospirosis among febrile patients. In high endemic tropical settings with rural leptospirosis, risk factors in residential environments, rather than individual exposures, seemed to play a major role in leptospirosis disease transmission. PMID:25331809

Agampodi, Suneth B; Nugegoda, Dhanaseela B; Thevanesam, Vasanthi; Vinetz, Joseph M

2015-01-01

51

Research and development on radiation processing in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research on radiation processing of natural polymer such as polysaccharides of chitosan, cellulose, carrageenan has been carried out in Sri Lanka since the year 2004. The research group have been involving in development activities on application of chitin and chitosan for wound dressing, irradiated chitosan on shelf life extension of fruits such as papaya, banana, mangoes, radiation crosslinked super-absorbent hydrogel from sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by radiation processing. Hydrogels prepared with PVA/Carrageenan/Agar has been studied on guinea pigs to determine the wound healing effect. Irradiated chitosan powder and chitosan solution was studied in vitro and found chitosan solution (1%) directly subjected to irradiation dosages even at 5 kGy was highly effective in control of anthracnose causing organism of papaya. In vivo studies with irradiated 1% chitosan solution on Rathana and red lady variety of papaya shows better control of spoilage of papaya to a considerable extent. The government of Sri Lanka (Ministry of Science and Technology and Atomic Energy Authority) is in the process of establishing the first government owned Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility and it will be helpful to transfer the output of R and D in radiation processing. (author)

52

P-T evolution of a spinel + quartz bearing khondalite from the Highland Complex, Sri Lanka: Implications for non-UHT metamorphism  

Science.gov (United States)

Here, we report a natural field example for the coexistence of spinel + quartz as a non-UHT assemblage in spinel- and cordierite-bearing garnet-sillimanite-biotite-graphite gneiss (khondalite) interbedded with orthopyroxene-garnet-biotite bearing intermediate granulites from the Highland Complex (HC) in Sri Lanka. The khondalite contains Zn-rich spinel mainly in four textural assemblages namely: (a) spinel co-existing with tiny quartz (ZnO = 12.67-12.85 wt%), (b) spinel surrounded by sillimanite moates and in intergrowth with skeletal sillimanites (ZnO = 9.03-9.17 wt%), (c) symplectitic spinels at the margin of sillimanite (ZnO = 4.09-4.28 wt%) and (d) spinel co-existing with ilmenite or as isolated grains (ZnO = 7.61-7.97 wt% and Cr2O3 = 5.99-6.27 wt%). Assemblage (a) and (b) occur within garnet while assemblages of (c) and (d) are present within cordierite moates after garnet in the matrix. Pseudosections calculated in the NCKFMASHTMnO system and conventional geothermobarometry suggest that the metamorphic peak conditions attained by the spinel + quartz bearing khondalites and associated intermediate granulites did not exceed T of 900 °C and P of 7.5-8.5 kbar. Post-peak evolution was characterized by a stage of nearly-isobaric cooling down to T of 770 °C and P of 7.5 kbar, followed by a late stage of isothermal decompression down to P diagnostic of UHT metamorphism.

Dharmapriya, P. L.; Malaviarachchi, Sanjeewa P. K.; Galli, Andrea; Su, Ben-Xun; Subasinghe, N. D.; Dissanayake, C. B.; Nimalsiri, T. B.; Zhu, Bin

2014-12-01

53

Predicting Seasonal Precipitation Over Sri Lanka Using Statistical Downscaling  

Science.gov (United States)

October to November (ON) rains provide critical moisture for the growing period of the main rice cultivation season in Sri Lanka that lasts from October to March. Decisions on rice cultivation are made at a seasonal conference convened each year in September. Such decisions are presently based on climatological rainfall in the past 30 years, water levels in irrigation reservoirs and farmers' indigenous knowledge related to historical analogues of wind-direction in September. Past studies documented the skill in seasonal climate predictability in tropical regions in the boreal fall. In recent years there has been a proliferation of seasonal climate forecasts from Global Circulation Models (GCMs). Given the above facts, and the long record of precipitation observations at hundreds of rain gauges scattered across Sri Lanka, it is useful to examine whether statistical downscaling of precipitation could provide additional climate information that could be used for decision-making in agriculture and water resources management This paper analyzes the skill in ON precipitation totals over Sri Lanka by downscaling regional atmospheric variables, identified as affecting ON precipitation, from GCMs. A diagnostic analysis using historical precipitation observations at 145 rain gauges from 1961-2005 and reanalysis climate data reveals that ON precipitation is significantly correlated with September mean sea level pressure (MSLP) over the domain 40°E-270°E and 30°S-20°N and contemporaneous geopotential height anomalies at 200hPa and 850hPa over the domain 40°-270°E and 30°S-45°N. The Model Output Statistics (MOS) approach is utilized to develop seasonal predictions from hindcasts of September MSLP and October-November geopotential height anomalies at 200hPa and 850hPa from the ECHAM4.5 GCM (two versions: forced with constructed analogue SSTs; and persisted anomalies) and the fully-coupled NCEP-CFS GCM. ON precipitation forecasts are derived using cross validated Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA). Precipitation skill assessments are made by computing Hit Skill Scores based on downscaled tercile - i.e. whether above-normal, near-normal or below-normal - precipitation.

Fernando, D. N.; Robinson, D. A.

2008-12-01

54

The Spectrum of Intermediate Syndrome Following Acute Organophosphate Poisoning: A Prospective Cohort Study from Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Jayawardane and colleagues evaluate a cohort of 78 patients with organophosphate poisoning from Sri Lanka, and identify changes in repetitive nerve stimulation that precede, and may help predict, the onset of intermediate syndrome.

Jayawardane, Pradeepa; Dawson, Andrew H.; Weerasinghe, Vajira; Karalliedde, Lakshman; Buckley, Nicholas A.; Senanayake, Nimal

2008-01-01

55

Surveillance for antibodies to Leishmania spp. in dogs from Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

The global distribution of leishmaniasis is rapidly expanding into new geographic regions. Dogs are the primary reservoir hosts for human visceral leishmaniasis caused by infection with Leishmania infantum. Natural infections with other Leishmania spp. can occur in dogs, but their role as reservoir hosts for other species of Leishmania is uncertain. Leishmania donovani is traditionally considered a visceralizing anthroponotic species; however, cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. donovani has been reported in Sri Lanka. In the present study, sera from 114 dogs in Sri Lanka were examined for antibodies to visceralizing Leishmania spp. Sera were tested by the canine immunochromatographic strip assays based on recombinant K39 antigen. Anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies were detectable in 1 of 114 (0.9%) dogs from Sri Lanka. Nonetheless, serological evidence suggests that leishmaniasis may be an emerging zoonosis in Sri Lanka. PMID:19803542

Rosypal, A C; Tripp, S; Kinlaw, C; Hailemariam, S; Tidwell, R R; Lindsay, D S; Rajapakse, R P V J; Sreekumar, C; Dubey, J P

2010-02-01

56

Post-Tsunami Reconstruction in Sri Lanka: Houses or Housing?  

Science.gov (United States)

Reconstruction can be an opportunity to address longer-term livelihood vulnerability within poor communities and households, and to empower the most vulnerable. The post-tsunami reconstruction efforts in Sri Lanka can be seen on two disconnected scales. On a local scale there seems to be a growing recognition by district-level government and NGOs on the importance of households in creating social, human and financial capital, as demonstrated by many programs targeted at rebuilding livelihoods and income-generating activities. On a national scale, however, programs have revealed an emphasis on houses as the physical capital rather than housing as the arena of social and economic life. The aim of national-scale programs is to deliver tangible and quantifiable products, in the form of houses built, often without regard of whether this complements or disrupts livelihoods. One example of such a directive is the implementation of a coastal buffer zone which will ban any new construction within a 100 to 200 meter band from the ocean and allowing only structures that sustained less than 40 percent damage to remain and rebuild. In general these kind of surviving structures along the coast are businesses such as hotels and restaurants. In an island nation such as Sri Lanka, where beach front property is by and large considered low-income housing, typically inhabited by fishermen who rely on the ocean for their livelihoods, the buffer zone constitutes a drastic oversight of local processes shaping these households. The product-oriented solution on the national scale has resulted in building permanent houses for fishery communities in resettlement sites kilometers away from the ocean. The focus of this presentation will be on reconciling the need for immediate shelter needs with a long-term perspective of livelihood rehabilitation using Sri Lanka as a case study. Houses themselves are often not an immediate priority for local people, whose first need is likely to resume income-generating activities. In normal times, building houses is seen as a multi-stage process often fitted around the local economic calendar: annual farming or fishing cycles for example. Disaster victims may choose to stay in makeshift shelters in the short term, hoping to have more time, money or materials for rebuilding later. A major challenge for the tsunami-stricken areas in Sri Lanka is to find ways of widening public participation in what to date has been a governmental framework that operates on two disconnected scales in its reconstruction efforts. There is a general absence of mechanisms for incorporating community participation into the governmental decision-making process. Local governments might have also been expected to play a larger role in recovery decision making, but frequently lack both the resources and the authority to become actively involved. Lack of participation in the construction process, has led on an over-reliance on outsiders, reinforcing an attitude of raised expectations.

Khazai, B.; Franco, G.; Ingram, J. C.; Rumbaitis del Rio, C.

2005-12-01

57

Nuclear Knowledge Management Implementation Issues In Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

About Knowledge Management: Process of organizing and distributing an Organization’s collective wisdom so the right information gets to the right people at the right time. NKM Implementation Problems in Sri Lanka: • Difficulty of identifying nuclear knowledge holders; • NKM has not been given considerable importance; • Many nuclear science experts are in retirement age; • No proper mechanism is available to replace young personnel for their positions; • Unawareness of general public about his technology. • Capacity building through training and education and transferring knowledge from centers of knowledge to centers of growth are key issues. • Development of new courses related to nuclear science is a key issue to be highly considered. • The tendency towards the training and educations of nuclear personnel in the country is becoming less and less

58

Distribution Pattern of Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine Transporter (pfcrt) Gene Haplotypes in Sri Lanka 1996–2006  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Widespread antimalarial resistance has been a barrier to malaria elimination efforts in Sri Lanka. Analysis of genetic markers in historic parasites may uncover trends in the spread of resistance. We examined the frequency of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter (pfcrt; codons 72–76) haplotypes in Sri Lanka in 1996–1998 and 2004–2006 using a high-resolution melting assay. Among 59 samples from 1996 to 1998, we detected the SVMNT (86%), CVMNK (10%), and CVIET (2%) haplotypes, wi...

Zhang, Jenny J.; Senaratne, Tharanga N.; Daniels, Rachel; Valim, Clarissa; Alifrangis, Michael; Amerasinghe, Priyanie; Konradsen, Flemming; Rajakaruna, Rupika; Wirth, Dyann F.; Karunaweera, Nadira D.

2011-01-01

59

Genesis of metasomatic sapphirine-corundum-spinel-bearing granulites in Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of the present study is to understand the mechanism of mass transfer, the composition and the role of fluids during crustal metasomatism in high-temperature metamorphic terranes. A well constrained case study, a locality at Rupaha, Sri Lanka was selected. It is located in the Highland Complex of Sri Lanka, which represents a small, but important fragment of the super-continent Gondwana. Excellent exposures of ultramafic rocks, which are embedded in granulites, were found at 10 locali...

Fernando, G. W. A. Rohan

2001-01-01

60

Malaria Eradication and Educational Attainment: Evidence from Paraguay and Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mid-twentieth century malaria eradication campaigns largely eliminated malaria from Paraguay and Sri Lanka. Using these interventions as quasi-experiments, I estimate malaria’s effect on lifetime female educational attainment through the combination of pre-existing geographic variation in malarial intensity and cohort exposure based on the timing of the national anti-malaria campaigns. The estimates from Sri Lanka and Paraguay are similar and indicate that malaria eradication increased year...

Lucas, Adrienne M.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescent students; a perspective from Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Sri Lanka recorded an extraordinary high suicide rate for adolescents aged 15 - 19 in the early 1990s (46.5/100,000). With this in perspective, the Ministry of Health in Sri Lanka recommends school programmes for adolescents by mental health units of local hospitals. Methods We conducted cross sectional surveys to screen for symptoms of anxiety and depression among students aged 14 - 18 during school mental health programmes. Two schools were...

Wijeratne Thilina; Gurusinghe Jayantha; Welgama Srina; Rodrigo Chaturaka; Jayananda Gamini; Rajapakse Senaka

2010-01-01

62

Dynamic relationships between stock market performance and short term interest rate Empirical evidence from Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines the dynamic relationships between stock market performance and the interest rates in Sri Lanka during June 2004 to April 2011. We use all share price index in the Colombo stock exchange as a measure of stock market performance indicator and Sri Lanka interbank offer rate as a measure of interest rate. We employ some conventional time series econometric techniques namely Unit root test, cointegration test, vector auto correction model (VECM), Granger-Causality test and Impu...

Pallegedara, Asankha

2012-01-01

63

Spatiotemporal Hydrological Modelling with GIS for the Upper Mahaweli Catchment, Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sustainability of water resources is imperative for the continued prosperity of Sri Lanka where the economy is dependent upon agriculture. The Mahaweli river is the longest in Sri Lanka, with the upper catchment covering an area of 3124 sq .km .. The Mahaweli Development programme, a major undertaking in the upper catchment has been implemented with the aims of providing Mahaweli water to the dry zone of the country through a massive diversion scheme and also for generating hyd...

Premalal Silva, Ranjith

1997-01-01

64

Policies and Effectiveness of Foreign Aid: The Case of Sri Lanka  

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This empirical study investigates foreign aid’s effectiveness in stimulating growth by considering economic policies and the factors that influenced aid flow in Sri Lanka during the period of 1980-2008. For both analyses, a single-equation instrumental variable estimation method is employed. The results derived from this study suggest that aid is positively associated with growth in a good policy environment in Sri Lanka. Regarding determinants, in terms of trade openness and budget deficit...

Bhavan, T.

2013-01-01

65

Supporting elephant conservation in Sri Lanka through MODIS imagery  

Science.gov (United States)

The latest national elephant survey of Sri Lanka (2011) revealed Sri Lanka has 5,879 elephants. The total forest cover for these elephants is about 19,500 sq km (2012 estimation) and estimated forest area is about 30% of the country when smaller green patches are also counted. However, studies have pointed out that a herd of elephants need about a 100 sq km of forest patch to survive. With a high human population density (332 people per sq km, 2010), the pressure for land to feed people and elephants is becoming critical. Resent reports have indicated about 250 elephants are killed annually by farmers and dozens of people are also killed by elephants. Under this context, researchers are investigating various methods to assess the elephant movements to address the issues of Human-Elephant-Conflict (HEC). Apart from various local remedies for the issue, the conservation of elephant population can be supported by satellite imagery based studies. MODIS sensor imagery can be considered as a successful candidate here. Its spatial resolution is low (250m x 250m) but automatically filters out small forest patches in the mapping process. The daily imagery helps to monitor temporal forest cover changes. This study investigated the background information of HEC and used MODIS 250m imagery to suggest applicability of satellite data for Elephant conservations efforts. The elephant movement information was gathered from local authorities and potentials to identify bio-corridors were discussed. Under future research steps, regular forest cover monitoring through MODIS data was emphasized as a valuable tool in elephant conservations efforts.

Perera, Kithsiri; Tateishi, Ryutaro

2012-10-01

66

Indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka: production systems and genetic diversity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Production status, farming systems and genetic diversity of indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka were evaluated using six geographically distinct populations. The indigenous cattle population of the country is considered as a nondescript mixture of genotypes, and represents more than half of the total cattle population of 1.2 million heads. Five distinct indigenous populations were investigated for morphological analysis, and four were included in evaluating genetic differences. Farming systems were analysed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. The genetic variation was assessed within and between populations using 15 autosomal and two Y-specific microsatellite markers, and compared with two indigenous populations from the African region. Farming system analysis revealed that indigenous cattle rearing was based on traditional mixed-crop integration practices and operates under limited or no input basis. The contribution of indigenous cattle to total tangible income ranged from zero to 90% reflecting the high variation in the purpose of keeping. Morphometric measurements explained specific phenotypic characteristics arising from geographical isolation and selective breeding. Though varying according to the region, the compact body, narrow face, small horns and humps with shades of brown and black coat colour described the indigenous cattle phenotype in general. Genetic analysis indicated that indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka have high diversity with average number of ave high diversity with average number of alleles per locus ranging from 7.9 to 8.5. Average heterozygosity of different regions varied within a narrow range (0.72 ± 0.04 to 0.76 ± 0.03). Genetic distances between regions were low (0.085 and 0.066) suggesting a similar mixture of genotypes across regions. Y-specific analysis indicated a possible introgression of Taurine cattle in one of the cattle populations. (author)

67

Neurological manifestations of snake bite in Sri Lanka.  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Snake bite is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in certain parts of Sri Lanka. This study was designed to determine the offending snakes, neurological manifestations, disease course, and outcome in neurotoxic envenomation. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Fifty six consecutive patients admitted with neurological manifestations following snake bite were studied prospectively. Data were obtained regarding the offending snakes, neurological symptoms, time taken for onset of symptoms, neurological signs, and time taken for recovery. RESULTS: The offending snake was Russell?s viper in 27(48.2%, common and Sri Lankan krait in 19(33.9%, cobra in 3(5.4%, and unidentified in 7(12.5%. Ptosis was the commonest neurological manifestation seen in 48(85.7% followed by ophthalmoplegia (75%, limb weakness (26.8%, respiratory failure (17.9%, palatal weakness (10.7%, neck muscle weakness (7.1%, and delayed sensory neuropathy (1.8%. Neurological symptoms were experienced usually within 6 hours after the bite. Following administration of antivenom, the signs of recovery became evident within a few hours to several days. The duration for complete recovery ranged from four hours to two weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Complete recovery of neuromuscular weakness was observed in all patients except for one who died with intracerebral haemorrhage shortly after admission.

Seneviratne U

2002-10-01

68

The Kingdom of Sri Lanka: high literacy is a good sign.  

Science.gov (United States)

This discussion of Sri Lanka focuses on population growth, regions and cities, ethnicity and religion, age distribution of the population, households and families, housing, education, labor force and income, communication, and sources of information. The country's 1981 census recorded 14.8 million people, up from 12.7 million in 1971. The population grew by 17% during the decade between censuses, and its average annual rate of growth is presently 2.2%. If the country continues at its current growth rate and minimal level of immigration, the population will double in 32 years. Sri Lanka is divided into 24 administrative districts, ranging in size from 77,500 persons in the northeastern district of Mullaitivu to almost 1.7 million in the southwestern district of Colombo. 4 districts have a million or more persons each. All municipal, urban, and town council areas make up the urban sector of Sri Lanka. All other areas, including estates, are classified as rural. The major ethnic groups are the Sinhala, Sri Lanka Tamil, Indian Tamil, Sri Lanka Moor, Burgher, and Malays. The largest ethnic group in 1981 was Sinhalese, which accounted for 74% of the population. 70% of all Sri Lankans are Buddhists. In 1981, 35% of Sri Lankans were under age 15 versus 23% of Americans. A falling birthrate is reflected in a slight decline in the proportion of the population under 15, which was 39% in 1971. Just over 4% of the populationwas aged 65 and over both 1971 and 1981. There were 2.7 million households in 1981, with an average size of 5.4 persons/household. 70% of all households were extended beyond the nuclear family with a relative other than spouse or children, and 14% of households contained a nonrelative. Therewere 2.8 million occupied housing units counted in 1981, up 27% since 1971. Housing units increased 10% more than population during the decade. In Sri Lanka there are 3 types of housing: permanent, semipermanent, and improvised. Sri Lanka has one of asia's highest literacy rates, with 86% of the population literate in at least 1 language in 1981. This is an increase over the 78% literacy rate in 1971. Males have a higher literacy rate than females at every age. There are about 5.6 million persons in Sri Lanka's labor force, or 62% of all those aged 15-64. Agriculture employs 46% of all workers. Per capita income in 1981 was Us $302. Newspapers, radio, and television are primarily government controlled. Preliminary results from the 1981 census are available from the Department of Census and Statistics, Ministry of Planning Implementation, P. O. Box 563, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. PMID:12313041

Spain, D

1984-02-01

69

Present status of nuclear science education and training in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Like others Sri Lankans too have fear of nuclear radiation, probably because of the weak system of proper radiation education. Some National Institutes and few Universities are involved in nuclear science teaching and research. There are two major levels of obtaining radiation or nuclear education and training in Sri Lanka : the University and training courses in nuclear related technology and radiation protection offered by the Atomic Energy Authority of the Ministry of Science and Technology. This paper summarizes the status, some of the activities and problems of radiation education in Sri Lanka. (author)

70

Non-cognitive characteristics predicting academic success among medical students in Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background To identify non-cognitive and socio-demographic characteristics determining academic success of Sri Lankan medical undergraduates. Methods A retrospective study among 90 recently graduated students of the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka. Students were stratified into two equal groups; ‘High-achievers’ (honours degree at the final MBBS examination) and ‘Low-achievers’ (repeated one or more subj...

Ranasinghe Priyanga; Ellawela Amaya; Gunatilake Saman B

2012-01-01

71

Imposing restrictions on pornography: its potential impact and effectiveness in Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The government of Sri Lanka recently introduced many measures to limit the accessibility and availability of pornography in the country including censorship of websites containing sexually explicit material and active prosecution of Sri Lankans who appeared on such websites Available evidence suggests that pornographic consumption among Sri Lankan adolescents is considerable and such exposure may influence sexual attitudes and activity including sexual aggression in youth. However the current...

Ranmali Waduge; Asiri Rodrigo; Upali Peris

2011-01-01

72

INDIA’S UNWARRANTED INTERVENTION IN AN ISLAND’S ETHNIC QUESTION: THE ROLE OF THE LIBERATION TIGERS OF TAMIL EELAM IN INDO-SRI LANKA RELATIONS  

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Full Text Available The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE was a terrorist organization that ravaged the island nation of Sri Lanka for three decades. In their quest for a separate state for Tamils within Sri Lanka, the LTTE received much help from India. Why did the subcontinent aid a rising terrorist organization to wage war against an immediate neighbor and a longtime ally? Indo-Lanka relations regarding the LTTE have developed along bitter lines defined by a curious mixture of friendship, misunderstandings, unanswered questions and unasked questions. This paper evaluates the shifts and dynamics of Indo-Lanka relations shaped by the LTTE factor, the play of international actors in this major exchange, and the implications of these developments for South Asia.

Hasini M. Lecamwasam

2014-02-01

73

Indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka: Production systems and genetic diversity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The production status, farming systems and genetic diversity of indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka were evaluated using six geographically distinct populations in Sri Lanka, which is a small island located below the southern tip of Indian subcontinent. The indigenous cattle population of the country is considered as a non-descript type mixture of genotypes, and represent more than the half of total cattle population of 1.2 million heads. Six distinct indigenous populations (NE, NC, So, No, TK and Th) were investigated for morphological and genetic differences. The respective farming systems were also evaluated to complete the requirement in developing conservation and utilization strategies. The sampling was carried out based on the non-existence of artificial insemination facilities to assure the target populations are indigenous. The six populations were assumed genetically isolated from each other in the absence of nomadic pattern of rearing and regular cattle migration. The farming systems were analyzed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire by single visits to each location. Single visits were practiced, as there is no variation in farming system according to the period of the year. Morphometric measurements were taken during the visit and the genetic variation was assessed within and between five populations using 15 autosomal and two Y-specific microsatellite markers. The farming system analysis revealed that indigenous cattle are reared as a traditt indigenous cattle are reared as a traditional practice in all the regions of the country under limited or no input situations. Since the low productivity masks its real contribution to the rural livelihood, the level of utilization was confounded within the attributes of respective farming systems. The contribution of indigenous cattle to total tangible income ranged from 0% to 90% in different regions reflecting the high variation in the purpose of keeping indigenous cattle. Integration with crop, especially with paddy was the common feature in systems across the regions. Morphometric measurements identified the specific phenotypic characteristics resulted by geographical isolation and selective breeding. Though vary according to the regional preferences, the compact body, narrow face, small horns and humps with shades of brown and black coat colour described the indigenous cattle phenotype in general. The diversity analysis based on microsatellite genotyping indicated that indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka has a high genetic diversity with average number of alleles per locus ranging from 7.9 to 8.5. Average heterozygosity of different regions varied within a narrow range (0.72 ± 0.04 to 0.76 ± 0.03). The genetic distances (DA) between regions were low (ranged between 0.085 and 0.066) suggesting a similar mixture of genotypes across regions despite the geographical isolation. However, two genetic clusters were visible though no relationship of those clusters with the geographical distribution of different regions could be observed. Introgression of taurine cattle was evidenced in one of the cattle populations (NC) as suggested by the Y-specific microsatellite analysis (author)

74

Anaemia among Female Undergraduates Residing in the Hostels of University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaemia is a major public health problem that has affected around 25% of the world's population. An analytical cross-sectional study was performed on 313 female undergraduates residing in hostels of University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka, during year 2011. Objective of this study was to determine prevalence and contributing factors to anaemia among the study population. Haemoglobin concentration was assayed using cyanomethaemoglobin method. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used to retrieve information regarding dietary habits and personal factors of participants. Descriptive statistical methods, chi-square test, and independent sample t-test were used to analyze data. Of the 302 females, 17.5% (n = 53) had mild anaemia and 7.9% (n = 24) had moderate anaemia. Severely anaemic individuals were not observed. Participants' dietary habits and personal factors were not significantly associated with prevalence of anaemia (whether a participant is a vegetarian or not (P = 0.525), drinking tea within one hour of a meal (P = 0.775), frequency of consumption of red meat, fish, and eggs (P = 0.499), antihelminthic treatment within past year (P = 0.792), and menorrhagia (P = 0.560)). Anaemia in the study population is below the average for Sri Lankan data. Diet and selected medical conditions were not a causative factor for anaemia in this population. PMID:25328694

Balasuriya, Thushara

2014-01-01

75

Adolescents perception of reproductive health care services in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent health needs, behaviours and expectations are unique and routine health care services are not well geared to provide these services. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived reproductive health problems, health seeking behaviors, knowledge about available services and barriers to reach services among a group of adolescents in Sri Lanka in order to improve reproductive health service delivery. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in a semi urban setting in Sri Lanka. A convenient sample of 32 adolescents between 17–19 years of age participated in four focus group discussions. Participants were selected from four midwife areas. A pre-tested focus group guide was used for data collection. Male and female facilitators conducted discussions separately with young males and females. All tape-recorded data was fully transcribed and thematic analysis was done. Results Psychological distresses due to various reasons and problems regarding menstrual cycle and masturbation were reported as the commonest health problems. Knowledge on existing services was very poor and boys were totally unaware of youth health services available through the public health system. On reproductive Health Matters, girls mainly sought help from friends whereas boys did not want to discuss their problems with anyone. Lack of availability of services was pointed out as the most important barrier in reaching the adolescent needs. Lack of access to reproductive health knowledge was an important reason for poor self-confidence among adolescents to discuss these matters. Lack of confidentiality, youth friendliness and accessibility of available services were other barriers discussed. Adolescents were happy to accept available services through public clinics and other health infrastructure for their services rather than other organizations. A demand was made for separate youth friendly services through medical practitioners. Conclusions and recommendations Adolescent health services are inadequate and available services are not being delivered in an acceptable manner. Proper training of health care providers on youth friendly service provision is essential. A National level integrated health care program is needed for the adolescents.

Agampodi Thilini C

2008-05-01

76

Oestrus detection and reproductive performance of cattle in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficiency of oestrus detection in pure Bos taurus and Bos taurus x Bos indicus breeds on two large farms and on smallholdings in the mid-country region of Sri Lanka was studied. Milk samples were collected on the day of insemination (D0), and at 7 days (D7) and 23 days (D23) after insemination for the measurement of progesterone concentrations. Of a total of 228 inseminations performed on large farms, ovulatory oestrus was confirmed by progesterone measurement in only 144 animals, giving a correct oestrus detection rate of 63.2%. Of a total of 1317 inseminations performed on smallholdings, oestrus was correctly detected in 805 animals, giving an accuracy of 61.1%. The number of services per conception on large farms and on smallholdings was found to be 3.2 and 2.9, respectively. Most of the incorrect timings of service were due to inseminations being performed during the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle: 28.9% in large farms and 23.1% under smallholder conditions; and on smallholdings, 15.5% of the services were given to anoestrous cows or to cows which failed to ovulate. The percentage of cows in oestrus served by private inseminators (71.3%) was found to be significantly higher (P<0.025) than that in cows served by government technicians (53.8%). The accuracy of diagnosing pregnancy and non-pregnancy on the basis of progesterone concentrations 23 days after insemination, as confirmed by subsequent rectal examination after eighy subsequent rectal examination after eight weeks, was found to be 72.5% and 96.4%, respectively. In post-partum cows, the involution of the uterus was found to be complete within 28 ± 8.0 days in 95% of the animals studied. The calving to first service interval was 155 ± 77 days on smallholder farms. In this study, the major causes for lowered reproductive efficiency in cattle in Sri Lanka were found to be delayed onset of post-partum ovarian activity and incorrect timing of service. (author). 33 refs, 9 tabs

77

Ethics Review Committee approval and informed consent: an analysis of biomedical publications originating from Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background International guidelines on research have focused on protecting research participants. Ethical Research Committee (ERC approval and informed consent are the cornerstones. Externally sponsored research requires approval through ethical review in both the host and the sponsoring country. This study aimed to determine to what extent ERC approval and informed consent procedures are documented in locally and internationally published human subject research carried out in Sri Lanka. Methods We obtained ERC approval in Sri Lanka and the United Kingdom. Theses from 1985 to 2005 available at the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine (PGIM library affiliated to the University of Colombo were scrutinised using checklists agreed in consultation with senior research collaborators. A Medline search was carried out with MeSH major and minor heading 'Sri Lanka' as the search term for international publications originating in Sri Lanka during 1999 to 2004. All research publications from CMJ during 1999 to 2005 were also scrutinized. Results Of 291 theses, 34% documented ERC approvals and 61% documented obtaining consent. From the international journal survey, 250 publications originated from Sri Lanka of which only 79 full text original research publications could be accessed electronically. Of these 38% documented ERC approval and 39% documented obtaining consent. In the Ceylon Medical Journal 36% documented ERC approval and 37% documented obtaining consent. Conclusion Only one third of the publications scrutinized recorded ERC approval and procurement of informed consent. However, there is a positive trend in documenting these ethical requirements in local postgraduate research and in the local medical journal.

Siriwardhana Chesmal

2008-02-01

78

Sri Lanka : de la lutte contre le terrorisme à la catastrophe humanitaire  

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Full Text Available La volonté du gouvernement sri lankais d’en finir militairement avec le LTTE a abouti à une catastrophe humanitaire. L’armée et les Tigres se rendent coupables de crime de guerre et de crime contre l’humanité à l’encontre des civils tamouls, qui sont piégés dans la zone de combat ou enfermés dans des camps de détention. La perception différenciée de l’opération militaire selon les communautés nécessiterait la création d’un Tribunal Pénal International pour Sri Lanka.The will of Sri Lankan government to finish militarily with LTTE has ended with an humanitarian catastrophe. Both the Sri Lankan Army and the Tigers are guilty of international war and humanitarian crimes against Tamil civilians, who are trapped in the war zone or locked in detention camps. The different perceptions of the military operation according to the communities should need the creation of an International Penal Court for Sri Lanka

Delon Madavan

2009-04-01

79

Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) among welders in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of persistent organic pollutants with the ability to cause adverse impacts on human health and the environment. This study describes the indiscriminate use of PCB-contaminated transformer oil as a coolant in informal welding shops in Kalutara, Sri Lanka. Sixty-three welders, one each from a convenience sample of 63 welding workshops participated in the study. We administered a questionnaire and observed work practices. Sixty-two (98%) workplaces used transformer oil as the coolant in the welding equipment, 60 (95%) claiming that it was the only one available. Sixty-two (98%) did not use any protective measures when refilling coolant oil, while none of them safely disposed of the empty coolant oil containers. Only four (6%) were aware of the possible health effects of PCB-contaminated coolant oil. Health and safety measures in the work places studied were very poor. Coolant oil samples from a sub-sample of 30 welding workshops were tested for PCBs; 19 (63%) were positive. PCB-contaminated coolant oil is widely used by the welders in Kalutara without adequate precautions or safety measures. PMID:22762490

Lankatilake, Kantha; Samaranayake, Dulani; Piyathunga, Kasun

2012-01-01

80

Temporal correlation between malaria and rainfall in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Rainfall data have potential use for malaria prediction. However, the relationship between rainfall and the number of malaria cases is indirect and complex. Methods The statistical relationships between monthly malaria case count data series and monthly mean rainfall series (extracted from interpolated station data over the period 1972 – 2005 in districts in Sri Lanka was explored in four analyses: cross-correlation; cross-correlation with pre-whitening; inter-annual; and seasonal inter-annual regression. Results For most districts, strong positive correlations were found for malaria time series lagging zero to three months behind rainfall, and negative correlations were found for malaria time series lagging four to nine months behind rainfall. However, analysis with pre-whitening showed that most of these correlations were spurious. Only for a few districts, weak positive (at lags zero and one or weak negative (at lags two to six correlations were found in pre-whitened series. Inter-annual analysis showed strong negative correlations between malaria and rainfall for a group of districts in the centre-west of the country. Seasonal inter-annual analysis showed that the effect of rainfall on malaria varied according to the season and geography. Conclusion Seasonally varying effects of rainfall on malaria case counts may explain weak overall cross-correlations found in pre-whitened series, and should be taken into account in malaria predictive models making use of rainfall as a covariate.

Galappaththy Gawrie NL

2008-05-01

 
 
 
 
81

Climatic change in Asia: Sri Lanka country report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report focuses on the impacts of climate change on water resources, agriculture and the coastal zone and investigates measures to reduce greenhouse gases through changes in future energy investments. Climate change scenarios indicate significant changes in temperature and rainfall in Sri Lanka in the year 2070. The study shows the most adverse impacts of climate change will be caused by sea level rise and the increased frequency of extreme rainfall and storms causing beach erosion, damage to coastal eco-systems such as mangroves and salinity intrusion and affecting the tourist and fisheries industries. Impacts on agriculture and on water resources will be adverse, but need further study of these and also of the severity of climate change. A `no regrets` policy for climate change mitigation is advocated, promoting energy efficiency and energy markets, preventing deforestation, enhancing the ability of eco-systems to respond to sea level rise and enabling the inhabitants to respond to climate change. Greater reliance on industrialization to reduce the dependence on agriculture is included in the national response strategy. Regional cooperation, for example to research the sea level rise problem and cope with natural disasters, is necessary. 122 refs., 23 figs., 103 tabs.

NONE

1994-07-01

82

Parasitic infections in freshwater ornamental fish in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 1520 ornamental fish of 13 species from 26 export farms in Sri Lanka were collected between October 1999 and March 2000 and examined for parasites. Fish species examined were guppy Poecilia reticulata, goldfish Carassius auratus, platy Xiphophorus maculatus, molly Poecilia sphenops, angel Pterophyllum scalare, swordtail Xiphophorus helleri, tetras Hyphessobrycon species, barbs Capeota and Puntius spp., gourami Colisa sp., carp Cyprinus carpio, fighters Betta spelendens and others (Brachydanio and Astronotus spp.). Nine species of monogenean trematodes (Dactylogyrus extensus, Dactylogyrus cf. extensus, D. vastator, Dactylogyrus cf. vastator Dactylogyrus spp., Gyrodactylus turnbulli, G. katherineri, Gyrodactylus cf. katherineri, Gyrodactylus spp.), 7 protozoan species (Trichodina nigra, Trichodina spp., Tetrahymena corlissi, T. pyriformis, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Ichthyobodo necator, Piscinoodinium spp.), 3 species of copepod arthropods (Lernaea cyprinacea, Ergasilus ceylonensis, Argulus foliaceus), 1 metacercarial stage of a digenean trematode (Centrocestus spp.) and 1 nematode (Capillaria spp.) were identified. Parasites were found in fish from 23 of the 26 farms with an overall prevalence of parasitism in 45.3% of fish. The variation in farm prevalence among different parasites was significant (p Fish infection rates with monogenean trematodes, protozoans, copepod crustaceans, digenean trematodes and nematodes were 28.3, 18.4, 4.8, 0.8 and 0.4%, respectively. In all, 50 out of 590 (50/590) guppies were infected with Tetrahymena, compared with 13/930 for all other species, which is a statistically significant result (p fish (3/92) while Centrocestus spp. was found in goldfish (12/153) only. PMID:12747641

Thilakaratne, I D S I P; Rajapaksha, G; Hewakopara, A; Rajapakse, R P V J; Faizal, A C M

2003-03-31

83

Motivations and Usage Patterns of Social Networking Sites: Exploring Cultural Differences Between United States & Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Cybernetics has experienced a major breakthrough and led to the utilization of computers at nearly all parts of daily life including social networking. Even though Social Networking Sites (SNS is a global phenomenon, it is constrained by local conditions such as culture. Thus, the purpose of the study is to incorporate cultural dimensions to the motivations and usage patterns of the SNS considering SNS as a collection of features. Present study replicates a study made in the United States in Sri Lanka, and identified differences, trace them to cultural reasons. Findings revealed that while patterns of SNS usage do not differ across cultures, some of the motivations behind them do differ. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings, possible cultural reasons for differences and directions for further research are discussed.

T. R. Wijesundara

2014-09-01

84

Use of and attitudes toward tobacco and alcohol among adults in southern Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

The adverse health effects of tobacco and alcohol are well known. Alcohol consumption is increasing in Sri Lanka, but few population studies have been conducted. The objective of this study was to document tobacco and alcohol consumption levels among adults in southern Sri Lanka and to identify the main reasons for using or refraining from alcohol and tobacco products. Tobacco and alcohol use within Sri Lanka is relatively common, particularly among adult males. Reasons given for smoking and drinking frequently relate to social and image-based motivators. Women may be especially susceptible to the influence of peer pressure in social situations. Public health efforts should consider the use of demographic-specific anti-tobacco and anti-alcohol messages, as the motivators driving behavior appear to differ across gender and age groups. PMID:24437324

Lombardo, Sarah; Perera, Bilesha; Beaudry, Lauren; Grad, Jennifer; Maselko, Joanna; Ostbye, Truls

2013-09-01

85

Preliminary report on safety aspects on nuclear power generation in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document is intended as background information on nuclear energy to contribute to Sri Lanka's comparative study of alternative sources of energy. This study has considered the safety and environmental effects of nuclear power reactors. Basic concepts of nuclear physics are introduced and providing and appreciation of safety considerations and safety aspects of nuclear power plants and the personnel. Radioactive waste management, storage and disposal are also discussed. Natural radiation levels in Sri Lanka are provided as well as information on biological effects of radiation especially occupational exposure licensing procedures for nuclear power plants are outlined strategy for public awareness of nuclear power is proposed

86

Are consultants in Colombo, Sri Lanka satisfied with their job?  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Job stress and job satisfaction play a key role in the work environment of an organization. These influence the behaviour of a doctor towards his or her co-workers, administration and, most importantly towards the patients. Objective: To assess job stress among consultants working in Colombo group of hospitals and to identify the factors that affect job satisfaction. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted by using postal questionnaire on 262 consultants working in Colombo group of hospitals. Hospital consultants job stress and job satisfaction questionnaire developed by Amanda Ramirez et al. was used with their permission. Results: Of the 262 questionnaires mailed 171 were returned. Of total responded 84.6% reported extremely satisfied or satisfied with their work. Nearly 92% agreed intellectual stimulation by teaching contributed to their job satisfaction. Nearly 80% reported having a high level of responsibility, being perceived to do the job well by the colleagues, being able to bring about positive changes to the unit, having a high level of autonomy contributed to their job satisfaction. Poor administration and lack of facilities e.g. computers, filing procedures caused job stress in 73%. Threat of being sued for malpractice or having to deal with distressed relatives did not contribute to stress in nearly 80%. Conclusion: In Sri Lanka nearly 85% consultants reported they were satisfied with their job and teaching medical undergraduates and post graduates was one of the major contributory factors. However 73% indicated factors such as lack of resources, and poor administration cause stress at work. Providing computers and basic stationery for patient documentation and efficient and effective administration will improve the work output of consultants by reducing their stress levels.

S. Cooray

2012-10-01

87

Corporate Governance Practices and Capital Structure: A Case in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to find out the significant mean difference in the capital structure among thecorporate governance practices, and secondary objective of the study is to suggest the listed Manufacturingcompanies in the Sri Lankan context to adopt corporate governance practices towards the capital structure. Inthis view, Twenty eight manufacturing companies listed on Colombo Stock Exchange in Sri Lanka wereselected as sample size for the periods, 2009, 2010 and 2011. The one–way Anova (f-test and independentsample t-test were used to find out the out the significant difference in capital structure among corporategovernance practices. Findings revealed that, Corporate Governance Practices contributes significantly toCapital Structure. Board Committee in the Corporate Governance Practices contributes significantly to CapitalStructure. And also Capital Structure is not contributed significantly by Board composition, Board Size, BoardMeeting, and Leadership Structure in Corporate Governance Practices. Meantime, there is no significantdifference in the capital structure in terms of leverage among corporate governance practices of the listedmanufacturing companies in Sri Lanka. Due to that, further study should focus on the determinants of capitalstructure in the listed manufacturing companies to take cues in the financial leverage of the particular companies.Further, suggestion was made that corporate governance rules should be strictly mandated by the Securities andExchange Commission of Sri Lanka. In addition, political, economic, technological and social & cultural aspectsof the Sri Lanka should be considered in the policy framework of the corporate governance.

Sivapalan Achchuthan

2013-10-01

88

Home gardens and Dioscorea species – A case study from the climatic zones of Sri Lanka  

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Home gardens are considered as vital units for enhancing food security particularly in developing nations of South Asia, such as Sri Lanka. Although the yam crop Dioscorea spp. constitute a popular but still minor component in Sri Lankan home gardens, they have the potential of producing large quantities of edible material with minimal inputs. However, their real value in South Asian home gardens is not yet reported. Hence, this study was carried out to get insights into home garden character...

Ravi Sangakkara; Emmanuel Frossard

2014-01-01

89

Development of a Community Based Web-Mobile Platform (CBWMP) for diabetes care in Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diabetes is a chronic disease with no permanent cure. Sri Lanka is placed among the countries with the highest diabetes prevalence rates in the world (ie. 2.8 million Sri Lankans have diabetes or pre-diabetes, and most importantly, a significant proportions of the population is yet to be diagnosed). Patients with diabetes need lifelong care to prevent complications which further impose a significant burden on the country’s expenditure on healthcare. Moreover, patients need to maintain const...

Nishan Siriwardena; Sudarshana Wickramasinghe; Dussantha Perera; Rohana Marasinghe; Lanka Katulanda; Roshan Hewapathirana

2013-01-01

90

A cost effectiveness analysis of the preferred antidotes for acute paracetamol poisoning patients in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute paracetamol poisoning is a rapidly increasing problem in Sri Lanka. The antidotes are expensive and yet no health economic evaluation has been done on the therapy for acute paracetamol poisoning in the developing world. The aim of this study is to determine the cost effectiveness of using N-acetylcysteine over methionine in the management of acute paracetamol poisoning in Sri Lanka. Methods Economic analysis was applied using public healthcare system payer perspective. Costs were obtained from a series of patients admitted to the National Hospital of Sri Lanka with a history of acute paracetamol overdose. Evidence on effectiveness was obtained from a systematic review of the literature. Death due to hepatotoxicity was used as the primary outcome of interest. Analysis and development of decision tree models was done using Tree Age Pro 2008. Results An affordable treatment threshold of Sri Lankan rupees 1,537,120/death prevented was set from the expected years of productive life gained and the average contribution to GDP. A cost-minimisation analysis was appropriate for patients presenting within 10 hours and methionine was the least costly antidote. For patients presenting 10-24 hours after poisoning, n-acetylcysteine was more effective and the incremental cost effectiveness ratio of Sri Lankan rupees 316,182/life saved was well under the threshold. One-way and multi-way sensitivity analysis also supported methionine for patients treated within 10 hours and n-acetylcysteine for patients treated within 10-24 hours as preferred antidotes. Conclusions Post ingestion time is an important determinant of preferred antidotal therapy for acute paracetamol poisoning patients in Sri Lanka. Using n-acetylcysteine in all patients is not cost effective. On economic grounds, methionine should become the preferred antidote for Sri Lankan patients treated within 10 hours of the acute ingestion and n-acetylcysteine should continue to be given to patients treated within 10-24 hours.

Senarathna S M D K Ganga

2012-02-01

91

Lest the World Forget: Sri Lanka's Educational Needs after the 2004 Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

This qualitative study strives to provide a greater understanding of the past, current, and future state of education in Sri Lanka after the 2004 tsunami. The researchers' key objectives are to provide additional insight to educators of the far-reaching impact of the tsunami via a website they created. Rather than concentrate on the same sort of…

Cashman, Timothy G.; Asing-Cashman, Joyce G.

2006-01-01

92

Air pollution and health in Sri Lanka: a review of epidemiologic studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Air pollution is increasingly documented as a threat to public health in most developing countries. Evaluation of current air quality levels, regulatory standards and scientific literature on outdoor and indoor air pollution, and health effects are important to identify the burden, develop and implement interventions and to fill knowledge gaps in Sri Lanka. Methods PUBMED and Medline databases, local journals and conference proceedings were searched for epidemiologic studies pertaining to air pollution and health effects in Sri Lanka. All the studies pertaining to air pollution and health effects were considered. Results Sixteen studies investigated the association between exposure to ambient or indoor air pollution (IAP and various health outcomes ranging from respiratory symptoms, low birth weight and lung cancers. Of the sixteen, three used a case control design. Half of the studies collected exposure data only through questionnaires. There were positive associations between air pollution and adverse health effects in all studies. Methodological limitations in most of the studies resulted in poor quantification of risk estimates. Conclusion A limited number of epidemiological studies in Sri Lanka have investigated the health effects of air pollution. Based on findings of studies and reported air quality levels, air pollution may be considered a neglected public health problem in Sri Lanka.

Sathiakumar Nalini

2010-06-01

93

Rainfall Distributions in Sri Lanka in Time and Space: An Analysis Based on Daily Rainfall Data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Daily rainfall totals are analyzed for the main agro-climatic zones of Sri Lanka for the period 1976–2006. The emphasis is on daily rainfall rather than on longer-period totals, in particular the number of daily falls exceeding given threshold totals. For one station (Mapalana, where a complete daily series is available from 1950, a longer-term perspective on changes over half a century is provided. The focus here is particularly on rainfall in March and April, given the sensitivity of agricultural decisions to early southwest monsoon rainfall at the beginning of the Yala cultivation season but other seasons are also considered, in particular the northeast monsoon. Rainfall across Sri Lanka over three decades is investigated in relation to the main atmospheric drivers known to affect climate in the region: sea surface temperatures in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, of which the former are shown to be more important. The strong influence of El Niño and La Niña phases on various aspects of the daily rainfall distribution in Sri Lanka is confirmed: positive correlations with Pacific sea-surface temperatures during the north east monsoon and negative correlations at other times. It is emphasized in the discussion that Sri Lanka must be placed in its regional context and it is important to draw on regional-scale research across the Indian subcontinent and the Bay of Bengal.

T. P. Burt

2014-09-01

94

Molecular Detection and Partial Characterization of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV is an important plant virus on one of the economically most important vegetable crops; tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.. This had not been molecularly detected before, in Sri Lanka. TYLCV-GN-SL was isolated from apparently infected tomato plants using modified Cetyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB method in Gannoruwa. Associated Begomoviruses were detected using Deng 541/Deng 540 and AV 494/AC 1048 primer pairs. TYLCV was detected for the first time in tomato in Sri Lanka using P1V/P4C, TYLCV specific primer pair. Nucleotide sequence of coat protein of isolated TYLCV-GN-SL proved that the Indian strain of ToLC virus was closely related to Tomato Leaf Curl Sri Lanka Virus (TLCV-SL: 97% and Tomato leaf curl Geminivirus (TLCGV: 93% through direct sequencing data. TLCV-SL was confirmed as TYLCV isolate. TYLCV was molecularly detected from major tomato growing districts like Badulla, Nuwara-Eliya, Kandy and Matale in Sri Lanka.

R.G.A.S. Rajapaksha

2012-01-01

95

Feasibility of an appliance energy testing and labeling program for Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A feasibility study evaluated the costs and benefits of establishing a program for testing, labeling and setting minimum efficiency standards for appliances and lighting in Sri Lanka. The feasibility study included: refrigerators, air-conditioners, flourescent lighting (ballasts & CFls), ceiling fans, motors, and televisions.

Biermayer, Peter; Busch, John; Hakim, Sajid; Turiel, Issac; du Pont, Peter; Stone, Chris

2000-04-01

96

Dengue Virus Transmission by Blood Stem Cell Donor after Travel to Sri Lanka; Germany, 2013  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Dengue Virus Transmission by Blood Stem Cell Donor after Travel to Sri Lanka; Germany, 2013.  Created: 9/22/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/8/2014.

2014-09-22

97

Des truites sous climat subéquatorial ? (Les possibilités de Sri-Lanka)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Trouts on subequatorial climate ? (Possibilities of Sri Lanka). Though climatic and other factors have reduced wildlife's role in the life of Sereer villagers, hunting for food is still practised, especially by younger peuple. Thanks to a field study, this activity is examined and its future envisaged in the context of rural development.

Reizer, C.

1985-01-01

98

Traumabehandlung für Kriegskinder. Der Aufbau eines evidenzbasierten Interventionsprojekts in Nord-Ost Sri Lanka.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nord-Ost Sri Lanka wird seit mehr als zwei Jahrzehnten von bewaffneten Konflikten heimgesucht. Die Zivilbevölkerung, Kinder und Erwachsene, sind ständiger Bedrohung und traumatischem Stress durch Bombardierungen, Granatenhagel, Folter, Verfolgung, erzwungener Migration and einer Vielzahl anderer kriegsbedingter Stressoren ausgesetzt. Die vorliegende Arbeit beschreibt den Aufbau einer Mental Health Versorgungsstruktur für die am schwersten betroffenen Kinder im Nord-Osten dieser Region. Fr...

Schauer, Elisabeth

2008-01-01

99

Grassroots Empowerment of Women: Portraits of Four Villages in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a participatory research (PR) project encompassing a capacity-development programme and advocacy skill-building initiative for rural women. The project actively engaged four prominent women's non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Sri Lanka: Agromart Foundation, Centre for Women's Research (CENWOR), Sarvodaya Women's…

Jeris, Laurel; Gajanayake, Jaya; Ismail, Jesima; Ebert, Seela; Peris, Amara; Wanasundara, Leelangi; Diyadawagamage, Nalika

2006-01-01

100

Duty and Service: Life and Career of a Tamil Teacher of English in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses the life and career of a Tamil teacher of English working in the government education system in northern Sri Lanka. Based on data gathered in an extended life history interview, the article explores the teacher's own experiences of schooling, his reasons for entering teaching as a profession, his professional training, and…

Hayes, David

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Is Marriage Delay a Multiphasic Response to Pressures for Fertility Decline? The Case of Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigated causes for rise in female age of marriage in Sri Lanka, studying 10,964 persons from 1,974 households. Found that rise in marriage age was not primarily a response to social pressure for fertility decline, but rather a result of urbanization, higher levels of education, unemployment, and consequent decline in parentally arranged early…

Caldwell, John; And Others

1989-01-01

102

Women and Management in Higher Education. CHESS Workshop (Colombo, Sri Lanka, January 5-11, 1997).  

Science.gov (United States)

The Commonwealth Higher Education Support Scheme (CHESS) 1997 Workshop was designed to promote the professional development of women in leadership positions in higher education. Participants were drawn from senior university academics and administrators from five countries: Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Specific objectives…

University Grants Commission (Sri Lanka).

103

Family planning performance at a major hospital in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

862 men attending the family health clinic, General Hospital, Kurunegala, Sri Lanka for sterilization over the October 1, 1982-March 1983 period were interviewed to study the characteristics of the men attending the clinic and to assess the popularity of vasectomy over other methods of family planning. For the study to be more comprehensive, the figures of the family planning activities of the hospital from 1977-82 also were examined. 438 (55.5%) of the study subjects were paddy cultivators. 71 of the men were in the 16-25 age group, 422 in the 26-35 age group, 272 in the 36-45 age group, and 97 in the 46 and older age group. 725 (85%) of the men were literate. Middle income groups comprised the major segment of men in this series. In 544 (63.1%) the vasectomy was motivated by friends and relatives; only 15 (2.0%) were motivated by health staff. 821 of the men (95.3%) belonged to the 16-39 age group. A table summarizes the relationship between age of the last living child and vasectomy performance. For 279 of the men, the age of their last living child was less than 1 year; it was 1-2 years for 218 men, 2-3 years for 180 men, and 3 or more years for 185 men. Study observations indicate that a consensus is becoming established about the role played by the male partner in family planning. The incentive scheme, acceptability and safety of the method, and a change in life styles should be considered. In the 862 vasectomies performed, there were no major complications or failures in contraception. Some pertinent factors for the favorable trend in vasectomy at this clinic are: health education talks delivered by a trained staff nurse at this clinic, outpatient department, and wards of the hospital; motivation activities of the community development social workers in the field; this clinic being the leading clinic of the limited number of institutions in Kurunegala conducting regular male sterilization clinics, and personality characteristics of the medical officer, staff, and the facilities available at the clinic. The middle months and the latter part of the year were the most popular periods at this clinic. These months represent the nonharvesting season. The study shows that the small family norm has been preferred by the majority; only 111 had more than 3 living children. Better education, better communication, and better approach methods may improve vasectomy acceptance rates. PMID:6680335

Tennakoon, S

1983-12-01

104

Genus-level phylogeny of snakes reveals the origins of species richness in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Snake diversity in the island of Sri Lanka is extremely high, hosting at least 89 inland (i.e., non-marine) snake species, of which at least 49 are endemic. This includes the endemic genera Aspidura, Balanophis, Cercaspis, Haplocercus, and Pseudotyphlops, which are of uncertain phylogenetic affinity. We present phylogenetic evidence from nuclear and mitochondrial loci showing the relationships of 40 snake species from Sri Lanka (22 endemics) to the remaining global snake fauna. To determine the phylogenetic placement of these species, we create a molecular dataset containing 10 genes for all global snake genera, while also sampling all available species for genera with endemic species occurring in Sri Lanka. Our sampling comprises five mitochondrial genes (12S, 16S, cyt-b, ND2, and ND4) and five nuclear genes (BDNF, c-mos, NT3 RAG-1, and RAG-2), for a total of up to 9582bp per taxon. We find that the five endemic genera represent portions of four independent colonizations of Sri Lanka, with Cercaspis nested within Colubrinae, Balanophis in Natricinae, Pseudotyphlops in Uropeltidae, and that Aspidura+Haplocercus represents a distinct, ancient lineage within Natricinae. We synonymize two endemic genera that render other genera paraphyletic (Haplocercus with Aspidura, and Cercaspis with Lycodon), and discover that further endemic radiations may be present on the island, including a new taxon from the blindsnake family Typhlopidae, suggesting a large endemic radiation. Despite its small size relative to other islands such as New Guinea, Borneo, and Madagascar, Sri Lanka has one of the most phylogenetically diverse island snake faunas in the world, and more research is needed to characterize the island's biodiversity, with numerous undescribed species in multiple lineages. PMID:23261713

Pyron, R Alexander; Kandambi, H K Dushantha; Hendry, Catriona R; Pushpamal, Vishan; Burbrink, Frank T; Somaweera, Ruchira

2013-03-01

105

Bartonella infection in urban and rural dogs from the tropics: Brazil, Colombia, Sri Lanka and Vietnam.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dogs can be infected by a wide range of Bartonella spp., but limited studies have been conducted in tropical urban and rural dog populations. We aimed to determine Bartonella antibody prevalence in 455 domestic dogs from four tropical countries and detect Bartonella DNA in a subset of these dogs. Bartonella antibodies were detected in 38 (8·3%) dogs, including 26 (10·1%) from Colombia, nine (7·6%) from Brazil, three (5·1%) from Sri Lanka and none from Vietnam. DNA extraction was performed for 26 (63%) of the 41 seropositive and 10 seronegative dogs. Four seropositive dogs were PCR positive, including two Colombian dogs, infected with B. rochalimae and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, and two Sri Lankan dogs harbouring sequences identical to strain HMD described in dogs from Italy and Greece. This is the first detection of Bartonella infection in dogs from Colombia and Sri Lanka and identification of Bartonella strain HMD from Asia. PMID:22459880

Brenner, E C; Chomel, B B; Singhasivanon, O-U; Namekata, D Y; Kasten, R W; Kass, P H; Cortés-Vecino, J A; Gennari, S M; Rajapakse, R P; Huong, L T; Dubey, J P

2013-01-01

106

Sri Lanka president lubab sõjalõksus riiki tänapäeva tuua / Allan Espenberg  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Presidendivalimistest Sri Lankal. Uus president Mahinda Rajapaksa on valmis kohtuma tamilite mässu juhtidega ning arutama rahu taastamise võimalusi. Presidendi eesmärgid. Lisa: Pommirünnakud poliitikute vastu

Espenberg, Allan

2005-01-01

107

77 FR 59899 - U.S. Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

...India and Sri Lanka AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department...Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration, U...to attract 2.5 million tourist arrivals by 2016 and the...Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration,...

2012-10-01

108

Challenging knowledge hierarchies: working toward sustainable development in Sri Lanka's energy sector  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyzes sustainable development practices within Sri Lanka’s energy sector. It directs attention to how expertise functions in development decision making in ways that can unintentionally inhibit sustainable development. Understanding expertise as merely specialized knowledge clouds its role as a social activity. In practice, expertise is a combination of knowledge and authority, and expert knowledge exists within a hierarchically ordered authority structure of diverse knowledge domains—what is referred to here as “knowledge hierarchies.” Knowledge hierarchies exclude the participation of some relevant knowledge domains, and thereby preclude the possibility of local sustainable development. The Energy Forum of Sri Lanka, a small renewable energy advocacy organization, strives to enable sustainability by going beyond facile calls for greater inclusion to confront the mechanisms of exclusion. The paper documents three of the Energy Forum’s development interventions intended to level out the knowledge hierarchy that inhibits sustainable energy development in Sri Lanka. Drawing insights from the Energy Forum’s approach, the paper argues that experts who wish to contribute to sustainable development must attend to the knowledge hierarchies in which they operate to ensure that their own authority does not exclude other relevant knowledge domains.

Dean Nieusma

2007-02-01

109

Structure and rheology of the lithosphere below southeastern margin of India and Sri Lanka, and its conjugate segment of the east Antarctica: Implications on early breakup history and margin formation  

Science.gov (United States)

The eastern continental margin of India has evolved as a consequence of rifting and breakup between India and east Antarctica during the early Cretaceous. Plate reconstruction models for the breakup of eastern Gondwanaland by many earlier workers have unambiguously placed the southeast margin of Sri Lanka and India together as a conjugate segment with the east Antarctica margin that extends from Gunnerus Ridge in the west to western Enderby basin in the east. In this study, we present results of integrated analysis of gravity, geoid, magnetic and seismic data from these two conjugate portions in order to examine the lithosphere structure and early seafloor spreading, style of breakup, continent-ocean boundary (COB) and rheological characteristics at these margins. The interpreted COB lies at a distance of 55-140 km on the side of southeast margin of Sri Lanka and India, whereas, it lies at a distance of 190-550 km on the side of east Antarctica margin. The seismic profiles and the constrained potential field models across these two segments do not show the existence of seaward dipping reflector sequences or magmatic underplating suggesting that these segments have not encountered major magmatic activity. While, significant crustal thinning/stretching is observed at the east Antarctic margin, the Cauvery offshore had experienced limited stretching with faulted Moho interface. Further, the conspicuous residual geoid low in the Cauvery offshore basin is inferred to be due to a continental crustal block. The modelled Lithosphere-Astenosphere Boundary (LAB) in these two margins is located around 110-120 km depth with slightly thicker lithosphere at the east Antarctica margin. In addition, the interpretation of magnetic anomalies provided structure of the oceanic crust generated through seafloor spreading processes with age and magnetization data constrained from the identified magnetic anomalies in the respective margins. Using the Bouguer coherence method, we computed spatial variations in effective elastic thickness (Te) at these margin segments. The estimated Te values at the Indian margin ranges between 5-8 km in the southeast of Sri Lanka to around 10-12 km in the Cauvery offshore which decrease further north to < 5 km in the Cauvery-Palar basin. Along the east Antarctic margin, the Te values ranges between 5-10 km in the Gunnerus ridge region, 35-40 km in the western Enderby basin which decrease further towards the central Enderby basin up to 20 km. In this study, the above results have been analyzed in terms of early breakup mechanism and subsequent evolution of these two conjugate segments.

Rao Gangumalla, Srinivasa; Radhakrishna, Munukutla

2014-05-01

110

Traumatization by domestic violence, war and Tsunami: An investigation of mental health of children in Sri Lankas North  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bereits vor der Tsunami-Katastrophe Ende 2004 waren traumatische Erfahrungen vor allem im Nord-Osten Sri Lankas an der Tagesordnung. Seit 20 Jahren herrscht ein Bürgerkrieg im Land, der bisher über 60 000 Todesopfer gefordert hat. Das Ziel der vorliegenden epidemiologischen Studie bestand darin, die Prävalenz und Prädiktoren verschiedener Formen von traumatischem Stress bei Kindern im Nord-Osten Sri Lankas zu bestimmen. 296 tamilische Schulkinder im Alter von 9 bis 15 Jahren nahmen an...

Jacob, Nadja

2007-01-01

111

EXPLORING GOOD PRACTICE KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER RELATED TO POST TSUNAMI HOUSING (RE-CONSTRUCTION IN SRI LANKA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sri Lanka was badly affected by the tsunami that occurred on 26th December 2004. The tsunami destroyed about two-thirds of the Sri Lankan coastline and affected more than 1,000,000 people. It does not only affected the lives of the community, but also had a devastating effect on their housing and livelihoods. The overall loss of 100,000 or more houses due to the tsunami proved to be a major challenge to the emergency response teams and disaster planners. Although several major disasters of varying magnitudes have occurred in the world, the body of knowledge related to post-disaster housing reconstruction and rehabilitation appears fragmented and poorly integrated. This paper attempts to fill this theoretical gap by focusing on the extent to which good practice knowledge transfer helps in overcoming this problem for more effective and efficient delivery of post-tsunami housing in Sri Lanka. The paper applied knowledge transfer principles within the context of the two housing reconstruction strategies employed in post-tsunami housing reconstruction in Sri Lanka; namely donor-driven housing and owner driven housing. The results of this study reveal that the knowledge transfer within this context cannot be simply copied and inserted from one context without any localisation. Therefore, the paper proposes a high-level abstraction of the core principles of community engagement through participatory techniques associated with appropriate capacity and capability building techniques that will enable the various stakeholders to create a new application to suit the appropriate context of the transfer destination (post-tsunami context in Sri Lanka.

Bingunath Ingirige

2008-12-01

112

Preliminary investigation of genetic characterization of native and endemic fowl types of Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus gallus) is generally considered to be main ancestor of the domestic fowl (Callus domesticus). However, it is also believed that other wild Callus species might have contributed to the modern genetic make-up of the domestic fowl, one wild species being the Ceylon Jungle Fowl (Gallus lafayetti), endemic to Sri Lanka, which could have contributed to the domestic stock of Sri Lankan native poultry. The present study was conducted in order to investigate the origin of native fowl in Sri Lanka and to establish genetic relationships among them and the Ceylon Jungle Fowl. Morphological characters of endemic, indigenous and exotic fowl types were recorded. These included Ceylon Jungle fowl; eleven types of native chicken from Sri Lanka; and two exotic chicken breeds (Cornish and Rhode Island Red). Blood samples were collected for DNA extraction. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was carried out using sixteen non-specific primers. The results of morphological characterization revealed many variations in plumage and colour pattern. Single and pea comb types were found in both native and exotic types of chicken. A prominent yellow colour marking on a red comb was a unique feature in Ceylon Jungle fowl. The presence of white spots in red earlobes was a distinguishing feature of all native chicken types. Sixteen non-specific primers were used in the study, and produced 22 polymorphic bands ranging from 500 to 1960 bp. Genetic similarity g from 500 to 1960 bp. Genetic similarity indices ranged from 0.5 to 1.1 in average genetic distance scale, indicating a broad genetic base in the samples studied. Cluster analysis revealed a clear separation of Ceylon Jungle Fowl from all other types studied, indicating that contribution in data analysis, and the Director and staff, National Zoological Gardens, Sri Lanka, for their help in sampling Ceylon Jungle Fowl. (author)

113

Staging of lung cancer in a tertiary care setting in Sri Lanka, using TNM 7th edition. A comparison against TNM6  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in Sri Lanka and throughout the world. The latest staging system for lung cancer is the tumor node metastasis (TNM) 7th edition in which there are major changes to the previous version. The objective of our study was to find out the implications of TNM7th edition on lung cancer staging in a resource limited setting, and to compare it with the previous TNM 6th editio...

Lb, Dassanayake Dinesh; Muthunayake Thushara M; Hmp, Senevirathna Kapila; Siribaddana Anoma

2012-01-01

114

Home gardens and Dioscorea species – A case study from the climatic zones of Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Home gardens are considered as vital units for enhancing food security particularly in developing nations of South Asia, such as Sri Lanka. Although the yam crop Dioscorea spp. constitute a popular but still minor component in Sri Lankan home gardens, they have the potential of producing large quantities of edible material with minimal inputs. However, their real value in South Asian home gardens is not yet reported. Hence, this study was carried out to get insights into home garden characteristics, gardener demography as well as current management practices within 300 Sri Lankan home garden systems that are located along a climatic gradient. By using interviews and field observations, gardeners, who cultivated in particular Dioscorea species, were studied within 10 of the 25 administrative districts distributed in the wet, intermediate and dry climatic zone of Sri Lanka. Furthermore, current management practices of yams cultivation were analyzed on local scale and compared afterwards with management recommendations published in the year 2006 by the Department of Agriculture. Dioscorea species were found in a majority of home gardens, especially in wet and intermediate zones of Sri Lanka. D. alata was the most prominent species and was managed at a subsistence level and not as per recommendations developed by the Department of Agriculture. Our results revealed that Dioscorea alata is an essential component of Sri Lankan home gardens in rural areas and can yield substantial quantities of edible tubers with low input, especially during times of food scarcities, and has therefore the potential to enhance food security and rural development.

Ravi Sangakkara

2014-08-01

115

Taxonomic characters of the male endosomal structure in the genus Rheumatogonus Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Gerridae), with descriptions of four new species from Borneo and Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The species of Rheumatogonus (Gerridae: Ptilomerinae) from Thailand, Borneo, Mindanao and Sri Lanka are revised. Four new species, collected from northern Borneo and Sri Lanka, are described: R. esakii spec. nov. from Brunei, R. vantoli spec. nov. and R. inusitatus spec. nov., both from Sabah, and R. cheliforus spec. nov. from Sri Lanka. Redescriptions of the genus and the four known species assigned to this paper are provided. A key to species with diagnostic illustrations is presented. The ...

Chen, P. -p; Nieser, N.

2002-01-01

116

Distribution pattern of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter (pfcrt) gene haplotypes in Sri Lanka 1996-2006  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract. Widespread antimalarial resistance has been a barrier to malaria elimination efforts in Sri Lanka. Analysis of genetic markers in historic parasites may uncover trends in the spread of resistance. We examined the frequency of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter (pfcrt; codons 72-76) haplotypes in Sri Lanka in 1996-1998 and 2004-2006 using a high-resolution melting assay. Among 59 samples from 1996 to 1998, we detected the SVMNT (86%), CVMNK (10%), and CVIET (2%) haplotypes, with a positive trend in SVMNT and a negative trend in CVMNK frequency (P = 0.004) over time. Among 24 samples from 2004 to 2006, we observed only the SVMNT haplotype. This finding indicates selection for the SVMNT haplotype over time and its possible fixation in the population.

Zhang, Jenny J; Senaratne, Tharanga N

2011-01-01

117

Distribution pattern of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter (pfcrt) gene haplotypes in Sri Lanka 1996-2006.  

Science.gov (United States)

Widespread antimalarial resistance has been a barrier to malaria elimination efforts in Sri Lanka. Analysis of genetic markers in historic parasites may uncover trends in the spread of resistance. We examined the frequency of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter (pfcrt; codons 72-76) haplotypes in Sri Lanka in 1996-1998 and 2004-2006 using a high-resolution melting assay. Among 59 samples from 1996 to 1998, we detected the SVMNT (86%), CVMNK (10%), and CVIET (2%) haplotypes, with a positive trend in SVMNT and a negative trend in CVMNK frequency (P = 0.004) over time. Among 24 samples from 2004 to 2006, we observed only the SVMNT haplotype. This finding indicates selection for the SVMNT haplotype over time and its possible fixation in the population. PMID:22049031

Zhang, Jenny J; Senaratne, Tharanga N; Daniels, Rachel; Valim, Clarissa; Alifrangis, Michael; Amerasinghe, Priyanie; Konradsen, Flemming; Rajakaruna, Rupika; Wirth, Dyann F; Karunaweera, Nadira D

2011-11-01

118

Distribution Pattern of Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine Transporter (pfcrt) Gene Haplotypes in Sri Lanka 1996–2006  

Science.gov (United States)

Widespread antimalarial resistance has been a barrier to malaria elimination efforts in Sri Lanka. Analysis of genetic markers in historic parasites may uncover trends in the spread of resistance. We examined the frequency of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter (pfcrt; codons 72–76) haplotypes in Sri Lanka in 1996–1998 and 2004–2006 using a high-resolution melting assay. Among 59 samples from 1996 to 1998, we detected the SVMNT (86%), CVMNK (10%), and CVIET (2%) haplotypes, with a positive trend in SVMNT and a negative trend in CVMNK frequency (P = 0.004) over time. Among 24 samples from 2004 to 2006, we observed only the SVMNT haplotype. This finding indicates selection for the SVMNT haplotype over time and its possible fixation in the population. PMID:22049031

Zhang, Jenny J.; Senaratne, Tharanga N.; Daniels, Rachel; Valim, Clarissa; Alifrangis, Michael; Amerasinghe, Priyanie; Konradsen, Flemming; Rajakaruna, Rupika; Wirth, Dyann F.; Karunaweera, Nadira D.

2011-01-01

119

Sri Lanka : un pays qui s’enfonce de nouveau dans la guerre  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Le retrait unilatéral de l’accord de cessez-le-feu par le Président Rajapakse marque le retour officiel à l’état de guerre à Sri Lanka. L’île est meurtrie par les affrontements opposant l’armée gouvernementale aux militants séparatistes tamouls. Les civils se retrouvent encore prisonniers du cynisme des belligérants, qui préfèrent ignorer les répercussions de leurs actes pour arriver à leur fin, quitte à mettre en danger l’harmonie intercommunautaire dans l’île.  President Rajapakse’s decision to withdraw from the cease-fire agreement marks the official return to state of war in Sri Lanka. The island has immensely suffered by clashes between government forces and tamil separatist militants. Once again, the civilians are prisoners of cynicism of belligerents, those prefer ignoring the consequences of their acts to archieve their goal, even if it means endangering intercultural harmony in the island.

Delon Madavan

2008-04-01

120

Preliminary investigation on genetic characterization of native and endemic fowl types in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Sri Lanka is a tropical island, which shelters a large number and variety of wild as well as domesticated animals. As an oceanic island Sri Lanka has a high percentage of endemic species that have evolved because of the isolation, but they are particularly vulnerable. Its location, astride the sea routes between the east and west throughout the history, has exposed the country to be a recipient of variety of animal species transported throughout the world. This history had made the gene pool of native animals very unique and diverse. In this context native poultry species of Sri Lanka demonstrate an incomparable scenario in evolution of domestic poultry species. According to one of the hypotheses regarding the evolution of poultry, the Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus gallus) is considered as the main ancestor of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus). However, it is also believed that the domestic fowl descent from different ancestral groups, one of which is Ceylon Jungle Fowl. Ceylon Jungle Fowl (Gallus laffeyatti) is endemic to Sri Lanka. Nevertheless, different native fowl types found in Sri Lanka resemble varying characteristics of Asiatic fowl. However, except for the few studies on G. laffeyatti there is hardly any information available on the origin of Sri Lankan native fowl. Also there is only one investigation done so far on the relationship of the Ceylon Jungle Fowl and native fowl population in Sri Lanka. Therefore, the present study was conducted, in orde, the present study was conducted, in order to investigate the origin of native fowl in Sri Lanka and to find out the genetic relationship among them. Observations of morphological characters of endemic, indigenous and exotic fowl types were carried out using Ceylon Jungle fowl, eleven types of native chicken and two exotic chicken breeds (Cornish and Rhode Island Red). Blood samples for DNA extraction were collected from the above three categories of chicken. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis were carried out using sixteen non-specific primers. The results of morphological characterization revealed many variations in plumage color pattern. Single and pea comb types were found in both native and exotic types of chicken. A prominent yellow color marking on red color comb was a unique feature in Ceylon Jungle fowl. In the sample tested only one indigenous chicken type showed feathered shank character. Another distinguishing feature observed was the presence of white spot in red color earlobes of all native chicken types except naked neck type, which is believed to be a cross of exotic and indigenous. Sixteen non-specific primers used in the study produced 22 polymorphic bands ranging from 500 base pair (bp) to 1957.6 bp. There were two monomorphic bands common to all chicken types tested. Genetic similarity coefficient detected according to Noeingen Index ranged from 0.5 to 1.1 indicating a wide genetic base of tested samples of chicken. According to the results of cluster analysis there was a clear separation of Ceylon Jungle fowl from the other chicken types used in the study. This indicates that there was an early separation and divergent evolution of Ceylon Jungle fowl from all the other domestic chicken types tested. It appears that the contribution of Ceylon Jungle Fowl in development of Sri Lankan native chicken is minute or very marginal. However, the present study was carried out with limited sample size and from the present results it can be confirmed that RAPD is an effective method, though the repeatability is low, in genetic characterization of animal populations with wide genetic basis. (author)

 
 
 
 
121

Factors controlling January-April rainfall over southern India and Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most of the annual rainfall over India occurs during the Southwest (June-September) and Northeast (October-December) monsoon periods. In March 2008, however, Southern peninsular India and Sri Lanka received the largest rainfall anomaly on record since 1979, with amplitude comparable to summer-monsoon interannual anomalies. This anomalous rainfall appeared to be modulated at intraseasonal timescale by the Madden Julian Oscillation, and was synchronous with a decaying La Nina event in the Pacific Ocean. Was this a coincidence or indicative of a teleconnection pattern? In this paper, we explore factors controlling rainfall over southern India and Sri Lanka between January and April, i.e. outside of the southwest and northeast monsoons. This period accounts for 20% of annual precipitation over Sri Lanka and 10% over the southern Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Interannual variability is strong (about 40% of the January-April climatology). Intraseasonal rainfall anomalies over southern India and Sri Lanka are significantly associated with equatorial eastward propagation, characteristic of the Madden Julian Oscillation. At the interannual timescale, we find a clear connection with El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO); with El Ninos being associated with decreased rainfall (correlation of -0.46 significant at the 98% level). There is also a significant link with local SST anomalies over the Indian Ocean, and in particular with the inter-hemispheric sea surface temperature (SST) gradient over the Indian Ocean (with colder SST south of the equator being conducive to more rainfall, correlation of 0.55 significant at the 99% level). La Ninas/cold SSTs south of the equator tend to have a larger impact than El Ninos. We discuss two possible mechanisms that could explain these statistical relationships: (1) subsidence over southern India remotely forced by Pacific SST anomalies; (2) impact of ENSO-forced regional Indian Ocean SST anomalies on convection. However, the length of the observational record does not allow distinguishing between these two mechanisms in a statistically significant manner. (orig.)

Vialard, J. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), CNRS, IRD, Paris (France); National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa (India); Terray, P. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), CNRS, IRD, Paris (France); Duvel, J.P. [CNRS, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Paris (France); Nanjundiah, R.S. [IISc, Center of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Bangalore (India); Shenoi, S.S.C. [Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services, Hyderabad (India); Shankar, D. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa (India)

2011-08-15

122

Mapping mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, Sri Lanka, India and Lao PDR  

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Abstract Background Limited evidence about mental health finances in low and middle-income countries is a key challenge to mental health care policy initiatives. This study aimed to map mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, India (Kerala state), Sri Lanka and Lao PDR focusing on how much money is available for mental health, how it is spent, and how this impacts mental health services. Methods A researcher in each region reviewed public mental health-related ...

de Menil Victoria; Wood Sarah K; Raja Shoba; Mannarath Saju C

2010-01-01

123

Motivations for Alcohol Use among Men Aged 16–30 Years in Sri Lanka  

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Psychometric properties of a new scale that measures motivations towards alcohol use were examined using a sample of 412 male alcohol users in Sri Lanka aged 16-30 years. In addition, associations between drinking motives and drinking frequency were explored. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a 3-factor model consisting of the factors personal enjoyment, tension reduction, and social pressure fit the data well. Overall, tension-reduction motivation was found to be prominent in the cont...

Mohammad Torabi; Bilesha Perera

2009-01-01

124

Medical students’ willingness to work in post-conflict areas: A qualitative study in Sri Lanka  

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Background: The north-east (NE) region of Sri Lanka observed a critical health workers’ shortage after the long-lasting armed conflict. This study aimed to explore medical students’ attitudes towards working in the NE and to identify factors determining such attitudes. Methods: A semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted in two medical schools, one in the NE and the other near the capital, in October 2004. Data were qualitatively analysed using the framework ap...

Azeem Dad Gadi; Michiyo Higuchi; Narada Warnasuriya; Leo Kawaguchi; Atsuko Aoyama

2012-01-01

125

Migration due to the tsunami in Sri Lanka: analyzing vulnerability and migration at the household level  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Um die unterschiedlichen Ausprägungen von Vulnerabilität der verschiedenen sozialen Gruppen Sri Lankas, die im Dezember 2004 von einem Tsunami überrascht wurden, besser verstehen zu können, wurde eine Befragung von 500 Haushalten im eher städtisch geprägten Distrikt Galle durchgeführt. Koordiniert wurde die Befragung vom Institute of Environment and Human Security der United Nations University (UNU-EHS) in Kooperation mit verschiedenen Instituten. Erklärtes Ziel dieses Projektes ist e...

Grote, Ulrike; Engel, Stefanie; Schraven, Benjamin

2006-01-01

126

Developing tools to link environmental flows science and its practice in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

The term "Environmental Flows (EF)" may be defined as "the quantity, timing and quality of water flows required to sustain freshwater and estuarine ecosystems and the human livelihoods and well-being that depend on these ecosystems". It may be regarded as "water for nature" or "environmental demand" similar to crop water requirements, industrial or domestic water demand. The practice of EF is still limited to a few developed countries such as Australia, South Africa and the UK. In many developing countries EF is rarely considered in water resources planning and is often deemed "unimportant". Sri Lanka, being a developing country, is no exception to this general rule. Although the country underwent an extensive irrigation/water resources development phase during the 1960s through to the 1980s, the concept of EF was hardly considered. However, as Sri Lanka's water resources are being exploited more and more for human usage, ecologists, water practitioners and policymakers alike have realized the importance of EF in sustaining not only freshwater and estuarine ecosystems, but also their services to humans. Hence estimation of EF has been made mandatory in environmental impact assessments (EIAs) of all large development projects involving river regulation/water abstraction. Considering EF is especially vital under the rapid urbanization and infrastructure development phase that dawned after the end of the war in the North and the East of the country in 2009. This paper details simple tools (including a software package which is under development) and methods that may be used for coarse scale estimation of EF at/near monitored locations on major rivers of Sri Lanka, along with example applications to two locations on River Mahaweli. It is hoped that these tools will help bridge the gap between EF science and its practice in Sri Lanka and other developing countries.

Eriyagma, N.; Jinapala, K.

2014-09-01

127

Influence of pesticide regulation on acute poisoning deaths in Sri Lanka.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: To assess in a developing Asian country the impact of pesticide regulation on the number of deaths from poisoning. These regulations, which were implemented in Sri Lanka from the 1970s, aimed to reduce the number of deaths - the majority from self-poisoning - by limiting the availability and use of highly toxic pesticides. METHODS: Information on legislative changes was obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture, national and district hospital admission data were obtained from the ...

Roberts Darren M; Karunarathna Ayanthi; Buckley Nick A; Manuweera Gamini; Rezvi, Sheriff M. H.; Eddleston Michael

2003-01-01

128

Trophic interactions in the coastal ecosystem of Sri Lanka: An ECOPATH preliminary approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study attempts to assemble and summarize existing information in order to build a general representation of the trophic interactions within the shallow coastal ecosystem of Sri Lanka. A multispecific ecosystem-based approach on trophic relationships and their possible variations was performed using ECOPATH. Thirty-nine functional groups were considered representing all trophic levels in the food web. Time-dynamic simulation was carried out using the ECOSIM routine to evaluate the im...

Haputhantri, S.; Villanueva, Ching-maria; Moreau, J.

2008-01-01

129

Geographic Structure of Plasmodium vivax: Microsatellite Analysis of Parasite Populations from Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Genetic diversity and population structure of Plasmodium vivax parasites can predict the origin and spread of novel variants within a population enabling population specific malaria control measures. We analyzed the genetic diversity and population structure of 425 P. vivax isolates from Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Ethiopia using 12 trinucleotide and tetranucleotide microsatellite markers. All three parasite populations were highly polymorphic with 3–44 alleles per locus. Approximately 65% were...

Gunawardena, Sharmini; Karunaweera, Nadira D.; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Phone-kyaw, Myatt; Pollack, Richard J.; Alifrangis, Michael; Rajakaruna, Rupika S.; Konradsen, Flemming; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H.; Schousboe, Mette L.; Galappaththy, Gawrie N. L.; Abeyasinghe, Rabindra R.; Hartl, Daniel L.; Wirth, Dyann F.

2010-01-01

130

Evaluating Total Factor Productivity Growth of Commercial Banks in Sri Lanka: An Application of Malmquist Index  

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Full Text Available This study focuses on total factor productivity growth and its decomposition of commercial banks in Sri Lanka. For this purpose, two state banks , Bank of Ceylon and Peoples’ bank and four private banks,  namely, Commercial bank, Seylan bank, Hatton National Bank and Sampath  were selected over the period 2009- 2012.   By using Data envelopment analysis (DEA total factor productivity and its components were measured in terms of efficiency change, technical efficiency change, pure efficiency change and scale change.  The data related to interest income and amount of loans which were considered as two outputs and amount of deposits, total assets, number of staff and interest expenses considered as four inputs were collected from annual reports of Colombo Stock Exchange (CSE in Sri Lanka and  were analyzed on the assumption of output oriented method with constant returns to scale. It was found that, all six banks operate averagely at 87.2 percent of overall efficiency and it reveals the less performance of the banks. This less performance was achieved due to the less progress in technical change than efficiency change and the finding highlights that technical change has been the main constraint to achieve a high level of total factor productivity of commercial banks in Sri Lanka. Among the private banks, Seylan bank has the highest efficiency of 1.033 than other banks and among the state banks, Peoples’ bank have the values of 0.773than Bank of Ceylon. The overall results concluded that comparatively selected private banks are more efficient than state banks in the study period in Sri Lanka.

A. Thayaparan

2014-05-01

131

Evaluating Total Factor Productivity Growth of Commercial Banks in Sri Lanka: An Application of Malmquist Index  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study focuses on total factor productivity growth and its decomposition of commercial banks in Sri Lanka. For this purpose, two state banks , Bank of Ceylon and Peoples’ bank and four private banks,  namely, Commercial bank, Seylan bank, Hatton National Bank and Sampath  were selected over the period 2009- 2012.   By using Data envelopment analysis (DEA) total factor productivity and its components were measured in terms of efficiency change, technical efficiency change, pure ef...

Thayaparan, A.; Pratheepan, T.

2014-01-01

132

The geology, mineralogy and rare element geochemistry of the gem deposits of Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The gem deposits of Sri Lanka are studied from the point of view of their geology, mineralogy and geochemistry. Nearly all the gem formations are located in the central high-grade metamorphic terrain of the Highland Complex. The gem deposits are classified as sedimentary, metamorphic and magmatic; the sedimentary types being the most abundant. The mineralogy of the gem deposits varies widely with, among others, corundum, chrysoberyl, beryl, spinel, topaz,zircon, tourmaline, garnet and sphene ...

Dissanayake, C. B.; Rohana Chandrajith; Tobschall, H. J.

2000-01-01

133

Symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescent students; a perspective from Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Sri Lanka recorded an extraordinary high suicide rate for adolescents aged 15 - 19 in the early 1990s (46.5/100,000. With this in perspective, the Ministry of Health in Sri Lanka recommends school programmes for adolescents by mental health units of local hospitals. Methods We conducted cross sectional surveys to screen for symptoms of anxiety and depression among students aged 14 - 18 during school mental health programmes. Two schools were randomly selected within the Ratnapura municipality (urban population of approx. 50,000, Sri Lanka and all students aged 14-18 were assessed with self administered (pre tested, Sinhalese translations questionnaires [Center for epidemiologic studies depression scale, Anxiety screening test of suicide and mental health association international]. Results A total of 445 students were assessed (male-54.4%, female 45.6%. Thirty six percent screened positive for depression (mild depression-17%, severe depression-19% and 28% screened positive for severe anxiety. Females screened positive for depression and anxiety significantly more than the males (p = 0.0001, 0.005 respectively. Students in classes facing barrier examinations at the end of the year had the highest positivity rates. Examination related issues (36% were the most commonly cited problem. Recommendations It is recommended that: 1. School mental health development programmes in Sri Lanka concentrate more on reducing examination related stress, and in particular focus on the female students 2. Policy decisions are made to reduce competition for higher education 3. A nationally coordinated survey on mental health of adolescent students is carried out utilizing the island-wide network of medical officers of mental health.

Wijeratne Thilina

2010-03-01

134

Emergência Complexa no Sri Lanka: possibilidade de resolução ou perpetuação da violência?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

A abordagem de segurança da guerra civil

do Sri Lanka possibilita a construção da paz no longo

prazo?

Adalgisa Bozi Soares

2009-05-01

135

Trade agreements between developing countries: a case study of Pakistan - Sri Lanka free trade agreement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper assesses the pre and post Free Trade Agreement (FTA) pattern in bilateral trade between Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Besides the usual direction of trade analysis we also use general and partial equilibrium approaches in order to evaluate the true potential of this FTA. Our results reveal an increase in welfare and efficiency for both countries. However export basket has not changed much since pre-FTA period. This calls for creating awareness about the FTA and putting in place a consult...

Ahmed, Saira; Ahmed, Vaqar; Sohail, Safdar

2010-01-01

136

Informed consent in Sri Lanka: A survey among ethics committee members  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Approval of the research proposal by an ethical review committee from both sponsoring and host countries is a generally agreed requirement in externally sponsored research. However, capacity for ethics review is not universal. Aim of this study was to identify opinions and views of the members serving in ethical review and ethics committees in Sri Lanka on informed consent, essential components in the information leaflet and the consent form.

Siriwardhana Chesmal; Athukorale Manjula; Lekamwattage Manura; Hewage Suwin; Siribaddana Sisira; Sumathipala Athula; Murray Joanna; Prince Martin

2008-01-01

137

Letters From Batticaloa : TMVP's Emergence and the Transmission of Conflict in Eastern Sri Lanka  

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In March 2004 a man known as Karuna Amman announced his defection from the LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam), an armed group seeking the formation of an independent Tamil state in the north and east of Sri Lanka. Six months after his defection, Karuna launched a new political movement – the Tamil Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal (TMVP) [Tamil People Linberation Tigers] - entering mainstream politics while still engaged in counterinsurgency operations against his former rebel partners. Five y...

Sanchez Meertens, A.

2013-01-01

138

Countries in violent conflict and aid strategies:The case of Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In countries with an ongoing violent conflict aid donors are confronted by four sets of issues: How the volume and orientation of the program may influence a peace process; whether development efforts may be undertaken in rebel controlled territories; and how an early rehabilitation program may affect the long term process. In this article we analyze the strategies applied in Sri Lanka by donors applying a traditional development approach and those following a more comprehensive approach. Dil...

Ofstad, Arve

2000-01-01

139

Smallholder dairy production and markets: a comparison of production systems in Zambia, Kenya and Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three smallholder dairy production systems in Zambia, Sri Lanka and Kenya are analysed and compared. The focus is on the relationships between the animal production system, the farm household system, and the institutional environment. Attention is given to the valuation of marketed and non-marketed products and the intangible benefits of livestock in insurance, financing and status display. The comprehensive and comparative analysis of the production systems shows the direct relationship betw...

Moll, H. A. J.; Staal, S. J.; Ibrahim, M. N. M.

2007-01-01

140

Research on corruption in Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Tanzania and Uganda. What, who and where?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report provides an overview of corruption-related literature from five of Norway's priority partner countries in the developing world; i.e. Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Tanzania and Uganda. Both published and unpublished studies are included. The five countries have been selected on the basis of commonalties and differences with respect to: anti-corruption efforts, extent and scope of public sector reforms, socio-economic structure, and aid history. Furthermore, the report provides a ma...

Andvig, Jens Chr; Fjeldstad, Odd-helge

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Molecular Detection and Partial Characterization of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus in Sri Lanka  

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Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV) is an important plant virus on one of the economically most important vegetable crops; tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). This had not been molecularly detected before, in Sri Lanka. TYLCV-GN-SL was isolated from apparently infected tomato plants using modified Cetyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) method in Gannoruwa. Associated Begomoviruses were detected using Deng 541/Deng 540 and AV 494/AC 1048 primer pairs. TYLCV was detected for...

Rajapaksha, R. G. A. S.; Balasuriya, A.; Samarakoon, S. A. M. C.; Wickramarachchi, W. A. R. T.

2012-01-01

142

Acceptability and Effect of a Community-Based Alcohol Education Program in Rural Sri Lanka  

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Aims: To assess the effectiveness and acceptability of a brief community-based educational program on changing the drinking pattern of alcohol in a rural community. Methods: A longitudinal cohort study was carried out in two rural villages in Sri Lanka. One randomly selected village received a community education program that utilized street dramas, poster campaigns, leaflets and individual and group discussions. The control village had no intervention during this period. The Alcohol Use Diso...

Siriwardhana, P.; Dawson, A. H.; Abeyasinge, R.

2012-01-01

143

Application of structural geology in exploration for residual gem deposits of Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Geological investigations of some major gem-bearing areas of Sri Lanka have shown that the gem deposits are controlled by the geological structure. Corundum deposits are generally associated with axial plane areas of tight, doubly plunging synclinoria and anticlinoria where occurrences of crystalline limestones and pegmatites are observed. Corundum deposits also occur at sites of heavy structural disturbances such as discontinuities, faults, folds, joints, lensing and necking zones etc. if oc...

Mendis, D. P. J.; Rupasinghe, M. S.; Dissanayake, C. B.

1993-01-01

144

Inequalities and externalities of power sector. A case of Broadlands hydropower project in Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of the paper is to estimate environmental externalities related to a run of river project in Sri Lanka and to investigate inequity in distribution of impacts among different social groups. Diversion of the river resulted in loss of water sports (for high-income groups both local and remote), loss of historical monuments (for remote high-income groups) and recreation losses (for local poor). Removal of forest cover leads to loss of non-timber products (for local poor) and carbon storage (for remote high- and low-income groups). Loss of home garden productivity was borne by local poor groups. Benefit of the project, generation of 145 GWh annually, was a gain for the grid connected groups. The impacts were valued using various valuation methods. The base case of the cost benefit analysis resulted in NPV of US$ 11,335,730. When distributional weights are applied for different income groups, both the sign and magnitude of net benefits change. In order to be viable, the project needs diversion of at least 9% of generated electricity to the poorest households in the country. Implications for energy policy towards reducing externality and inequality impacts are also discussed. (author)

Gunawardena, U.A.D. Prasanthi [Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda (Sri Lanka)

2010-02-15

145

Inequalities and externalities of power sector: A case of Broadlands hydropower project in Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of the paper is to estimate environmental externalities related to a run of river project in Sri Lanka and to investigate inequity in distribution of impacts among different social groups. Diversion of the river resulted in loss of water sports (for high-income groups both local and remote), loss of historical monuments (for remote high-income groups) and recreation losses (for local poor). Removal of forest cover leads to loss of non-timber products (for local poor) and carbon storage (for remote high- and low-income groups). Loss of home garden productivity was borne by local poor groups. Benefit of the project, generation of 145 GWh annually, was a gain for the grid connected groups. The impacts were valued using various valuation methods. The base case of the cost benefit analysis resulted in NPV of US$ 11,335,730. When distributional weights are applied for different income groups, both the sign and magnitude of net benefits change. In order to be viable, the project needs diversion of at least 9% of generated electricity to the poorest households in the country. Implications for energy policy towards reducing externality and inequality impacts are also discussed.

Gunawardena, U.A.D. Prasanthi, E-mail: prasanthigunawardena@yahoo.co [Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda (Sri Lanka)

2010-02-15

146

Contemplating choice: attitudes towards intervening in human reproduction in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

To date, relatively little is known about the ethical, legal and social responses to recent advances in reproductive and genetic technology outside Europe and North America. This article reports on a survey carried out among doctors (n=278) and medical students (n=1256) in Sri Lanka to find out more about their responses to novel interventions in human reproduction such as In-Vitro Fertilization, Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis and genetic engineering. In the first part of the paper comparisons are drawn between this survey and a survey carried out in 1985 which also considered issues surrounding amniocentesis and therapeutic termination. The second part of the paper deals with more recent developments. The analysis reveals high levels of support for the use of new technologies in treating infertility and identifying genetic disorders. However, differences are apparent among the major religious communities represented in the sample and these are particularly in evidence in relation to prenatal genetic diagnosis. An important theme throughout both surveys is the continuing tension surrounding State policy and termination of pregnancy and the implications this has for the development of screening and counseling services where genetic disorders are concerned. PMID:16552923

Simpson, B; Dissanayake, V H W; Jayasekara, R W

2005-04-01

147

Occupational risk factors for low back pain among drivers of three-wheelers in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Approximately 5% of all households in Sri Lanka operate a three-wheeler as their primary source of income. However, very little is known about the occupational health risks associated with driving these vehicles. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess occupational risk factors, including the number of hours worked associated with the 4-week prevalence of low back pain (LBP) among drivers of three-wheelers. Methods: Questionnaires were administered to 200 full-time drivers of three-wheelers from the Galle District in Sri Lanka. Occupational, psychological, socio-demographic, lifestyle, and anthropometric variables were collected. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to investigate the correlation between occupational risk factors of the prevalence of LBP. Results: 15·5% of respondents reported experiencing LBP in the previous 4 months. Univariate analysis revealed that the number of hours worked per week, feeling pressure to compete with other drivers, and perceived stress scale scores were significantly associated with the 4-week prevalence of LBP. Multivariate analysis found that the number of hours worked per week and engine type were significantly associated with LBP. Conclusions: LBP is common among drivers of three-wheelers in Sri Lanka. Long work hours and two-stroke engines were significantly associated with LBP. Results from this study point towards a role for educational, behavioral health, and policy interventions to help prevent and reduce LBP among these drivers. PMID:25133353

Noda, Misa; Malhotra, Rahul; DeSilva, Vijitha; Sapukotana, Pasindu; DeSilva, Asela; Kirkorowicz, Jacob; Allen, John; Ostbye, Truls

2014-08-18

148

A survey of odonate assemblages associated with selected wetland localities in southern Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The dragonflies and damselflies are a major insect group (Class Insecta; Order Odonata associated with water courses. Odonate assemblages with reference to their habitat characters have not been widely studied in Sri Lanka. We have investigated odonate assemblages for a period of three months in selected localities in southern Sri Lanka with reference to the habitat characters. Bundala and Embillakala lagoons in Bundala National Park (A Ramsar wetland in Sri Lanka, “Kirala Kele” Eco-tourism Zone-Matara, Bandaththara marshland system-Matara, “Kirala Kele” Biological Garden-Ambalanthota and Kosgahadola stream which belongs to Mulatiyana Rain forest reserve were selected as study sites since these sites are important in conservation of biodiversity. A total of 28 species were identified during the study period. Our data reveals odonate assemblages specific to the studied habitats such as bushlands, marshlands, lagoons, flowing water bodies, stagnant water bodies and vegetation type (wet zone and dry zone. These data will be useful in future studies and conservation of biodiversity in the studied habitats.

Chandana, E.P.S.

2012-12-01

149

Pass through Effect of Exchange Rate and Monetary Policy in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available This study examined the effectiveness of monetary policy in targeting exchange rate shock between different periods in Sri Lanka. After the trade liberalization in 1977, Sri Lanka became a small open economy. Therefore, monetary policy targeting the exchange rate also became an important issue. Sri Lanka introduced floating exchange rate system in 1990. A Vector Error Correction model and impulse response function were estimated to examine the effectiveness of monetary policy in targeting exchange rate shock for whole period from 1977 to 2007 and also separately for the periods from 1977 to 1990 and from 1990 to 2007. The results show that monetary policy is targeting exchange rate much for recent period but not targeting inflation. Inflation rate was high in the recent period. Central bank was purchasing bonds issued by the government to monetize defense spending and to increase the salaries of government employees in this period for political purpose, hence, leading to inflation and monetary policy distortion. Economic growth may be declined in long term if monetary policy is not operating optimally on targeting inflation and exchange rate.

Sooriyakumar Krishnapillai

2012-01-01

150

The Global Financial Crisis Impact on Ethnic Diversity of Sri Lanka Boards  

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This study investigates the link between ethnic minority directors and agency conflict in Sri Lankan listed companies during a global financial crisis.  Due to social and economic pressures in recent decades, ethnic minorities now make up a larger proportion of directors on corporate boards in Sri Lanka. In addition, the global financial crisis has increased demand for boards to strengthen their ethnic diversity in workplaces.  This study shows that while Sri Lankan boards increased the number of ethnic minority directors during the global financial crisis, heterogeneous boards increased company agency costs.  This evidence provides insights for governments and policy makers as they consider board ethnic diversification in an emerging and highly uncertain environment.

Stuart Locke

2012-01-01

151

Imposing restrictions on pornography: its potential impact and effectiveness in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The government of Sri Lanka recently introduced many measures to limit the accessibility and availability of pornography in the country including censorship of websites containing sexually explicit material and active prosecution of Sri Lankans who appeared on such websites Available evidence suggests that pornographic consumption among Sri Lankan adolescents is considerable and such exposure may influence sexual attitudes and activity including sexual aggression in youth. However the current evidence on the beneficial effects of censorship of pornography is less than convincing. The authors believe that warm, communicative parent-child relationship and open discussion about sexual matters at home and at school could be more effective than restrictive measures such as censorship and punitive legislation.

Ranmali Waduge

2011-06-01

152

Viper bites complicate chronic agrochemical nephropathy in rural Sri Lanka  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Snakebite is a common occupational health hazard among Sri Lankan agricultural workers, particularly in the North Central Province. Viperine snakes, mainly Russell’s viper envenomation, frequently lead to acute renal failure. During the last two decades, an agrochemical nephropathy, a chronic tubulo [...] interstitial disease has rapidly spread over this area leading to high morbidity and mortality. Most of the epidemiological characteristics of these two conditions overlap, increasing the chances of co-occurrence. Herein, we describe four representative cases of viperine snakebites leading to variable clinical presentations, in patients with chronic agrochemical nephropathy, including two patients presented with acute and delayed anuria. These cases suggest the possibility of unusual manifestations of snakebite in patients with Sri Lankan agrochemical nephropathy, of which the clinicians should be aware. It could be postulated that the existing scenario in the Central America could also lead to similar clinical presentations.

Anjana, Silva; Rivikelum, Samarasinghe; Senaka, Pilapitiya; Niroshana, Dahanayake; Sisira, Siribaddana.

2014-09-02

153

Viper bites complicate chronic agrochemical nephropathy in rural Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

Snakebite is a common occupational health hazard among Sri Lankan agricultural workers, particularly in the North Central Province. Viperine snakes, mainly Russell’s viper envenomation, frequently lead to acute renal failure. During the last two decades, an agrochemical nephropathy, a chronic tubulointerstitial disease has rapidly spread over this area leading to high morbidity and mortality. Most of the epidemiological characteristics of these two conditions overlap, increasing the chances of co-occurrence. Herein, we describe four representative cases of viperine snakebites leading to variable clinical presentations, in patients with chronic agrochemical nephropathy, including two patients presented with acute and delayed anuria. These cases suggest the possibility of unusual manifestations of snakebite in patients with Sri Lankan agrochemical nephropathy, of which the clinicians should be aware. It could be postulated that the existing scenario in the Central America could also lead to similar clinical presentations. PMID:25136354

2014-01-01

154

Genetic characterization of Babesia and Theileria parasites in water buffaloes in Sri Lanka.  

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Water buffaloes are thought to be the reservoir hosts for several hemoprotozoan parasites that infect cattle. In the present study, we surveyed Sri Lankan bred water buffaloes for infections with Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis using parasite-specific PCR assays. When 320 blood-derived DNA samples from water buffaloes reared in three different districts (Polonnaruwa, Mannar, and Mullaitivu) of Sri Lanka were PCR screened, B. bovis, B. bigemina, and T. orientalis were detected. While T. orientalis was the predominant parasite (82.5%), low PCR-positive rates were observed for B. bovis (1.9%) and B. bigemina (1.6%). Amplicons of the gene sequences of the Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 (RAP-1) of B. bovis, the Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA-1) of B. bigemina, and the Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) of T. orientalis were compared with those characterized previously in Sri Lankan cattle. While the B. bigemina AMA-1 sequences from water buffaloes shared high identity values with those from cattle, B. bovis RAP-1 sequences from water buffaloes diverged genetically from those of cattle. For T. orientalis, none of the MPSP sequence types reported previously in Sri Lankan cattle (types 1, 3, 5, and 7) were detected in the water buffaloes, and the MPSP sequences analyzed in the present study belonged to types N1 or N2. In summary, in addition to reporting the first PCR-based survey of Babesia and Theileria parasites in water buffaloes in Sri Lanka, the present study found that the predominant variants of water buffalo-derived B. bovis RAP-1 and T. orientalis MPSP sequences were different from those previously described from cattle in this country. PMID:24365246

Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Fukushi, Shintaro; Hayashida, Kyoko; Kothalawala, Hemal; Silva, Seekkuge Susil Priyantha; Vimalakumar, Singarayar Caniciyas; Kanagaratnam, Ratnam; Meewewa, Asela Sanjeewa; Suthaharan, Kalpana; Puvirajan, Thamotharampillai; de Silva, Weligodage Kumarawansa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

2014-02-24

155

After Five Years of Collaboration: The Benefits of University Based Eduaction for Nurses in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available A request from the nurses of Sri Lanka led to the establishment of the country’s first university nursing program. Delivered by distance, the program represented a collaborative, approach among a Sri Lankan university (The Open University of Sri Lanka, a Canadian university (Athabasca University and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA, who funded the project. The challenges facing this undertaking included the lack of available culturally appropriate course materials, the English language proficiency of prospective students, the unavailability of nursing and related literature and the student lack of ready accessibility to communications technology. The lack of nurses qualified to assume university faculty positions was an additional challenge. Seven years after the firsty intake of students, the OUSL BScN remains the country’s nursing degree program. In spite of small number of graduates, evaluation reveals that graduates are making a contribution to improving the nursing care of citizens while re-defining the traditional expectations of nurses. Success bring new challenges; among them is the need for educators and health planners to increase collaboration in order to further raise the levels of health care by continuing to improve the quality of nursing education.

Moira M. Cameron

2001-01-01

156

Food of larval Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles varuna in a stream habitat in Sri Lanka.  

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No previous studies have been conducted on the natural food of larval Anopheles culicifacies s.l. (the major malaria vector) and An. varuna (a secondary vector) in Sri Lanka. The present study analyzed the contents of guts dissected from larvae collected from pools in a natural stream-cum-irrigation conveyance channel in the Upper Yan Oya watershed in the North Central Province of the country during August-September 1997 and July 1998. Determinations of physicochemical and biological parameters of the pools and their water were done at the same time. A fluorochromatic stain, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, was used to stain larval gut contents. Quantitative estimates of different categories of food types were made by analyzing the gut contents of 95 An. culicifacies (26 second instars and 69 fourth instars) and 52 An. varuna (21 second instars and 31 fourth instars). Detritus was the most frequent food type, comprising >74% of the gut contents in both species. Other food types included bacteria (cocci and rods), filamentous algae, diatoms, and desmids. Overall, bacteria constituted a significantly higher proportion of the gut contents in An. culicifacies than in An varuna. Significantly more detritus, bacteria, and total particulate matter occurred in 4th instars of An. culicifacies than in An. varuna, indicating a greater food intake in the former species. Second instars of An. culicifacies and An. varuna did not differ significantly in any parameter. A significant increase in food intake between 2nd and 4th instars was seen for An. culicifacies, but not An. varuna. Food indices were lower in An. varuna than in An. culicifacies when the 2 species co-occurred, indicating competition for food, and the implications of this to adult body size, survival, and fecundity are discussed. PMID:16506563

Piyaratne, M K; Amerasinghe, P H; Amerasinghe, F P; Konradsen, F

2005-12-01

157

Oral hypoglycaemic activity of some medicinal plants of Sri Lanka.  

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Investigations were carried out to evaluate the oral hypoglycaemic activity of some Sri Lankan medicinal plants. Approximately 40 plants available locally are reputed to have oral hypoglycaemic activity. Of these, the mostly widely used are (a) Salacia reticulata (Celastraceae) (b) Aegle marmelos (Rutaceae) and (c) Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae). Aqueous decoctions of these plants were investigated for their ability to lower the fasting blood glucose level and improve the glucose tolerance in laboratory animals. The results indicate that the aqueous decoctions of all three plants possess significant hypoglycaemic effect. The magnitude of this effect showed time related variation with the three plants. The highest oral hypoglycaemic activity and the maximum improvement of the oral glucose tolerance were associated with the extract of Momordica charantia while the least but significant effects were shown by Salacia reticulata. PMID:6492834

Karunanayake, E H; Welihinda, J; Sirimanne, S R; Sinnadorai, G

1984-07-01

158

Sociodemographic factors associated with aggressive driving behaviors of 3-wheeler taxi drivers in Sri Lanka.  

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Little is known about the nature and scope of aggressive driving in developing countries. The objective of this study is to specifically examine the sociodemographic factors associated with aggressive driving behavior among 3-wheeler taxi drivers in Sri Lanka. Convenience samples of 3-wheeler taxi drivers from Rathnapura, Ahaliyagoda, Sri Lanka were surveyed from June to August 2006. Analyses included bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Drivers with less than high school education were 3.5 times more likely to drive aggressively (odds ratio [OR] = 3.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 11.1). Single drivers were 9 times more likely to run red lights (OR = 8.74; 95% CI = 2.18, 35.0), and being single was a major risk factor for drunk driving (OR = 4.80; 95% CI = 1.23, 18.7). Furthermore, high school completers were 4 times more likely to bribe a policeman (OR = 4.27; 95% CI = 1.23, 14.9) when caught violating the road rules. Aggressive driving and risk-taking behavior are amenable to policy initiatives, and preventive programs targeted at key groups could be used to improve road safety in Sri Lanka. This study demonstrates that aggressive driving behavior is associated with sociodemographic factors, including the level of education, marital status, and other socioeconomic factors. Hence, economic factors should be addressed to find solutions to traffic-related issues. It will be the government's and policy makers' responsibility to try and understand the economic factors behind risky road behavior and bribe-taking behavior prior to legislating or enforcing new laws. PMID:20685667

Akalanka, Ediriweera Chintana; Fujiwara, Takeo; Desapriya, Ediriweera; Peiris, Dinithi C; Scime, Giulia

2012-01-01

159

Geomagnetic field variations at the equatorial electrojet station in Sri Lanka, Peredinia  

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Full Text Available The paper discusses the variations of the horizontal (H, vertical (Z and eastward (Y components of the geomagnetic field at Peredinia (PRD, an electrojet station in Sri Lanka, with the time of the day, season, sudden commencement (SSC and during geomagnetic storms. The daily variation of H showed a large peak around midday. The daily variation of Z appeared to be almost a time gradient curve of the daily variation of H, showing a maximum around 09:00 LT (75° EMT when the H field was increasing fastest and not at noon when ? H was the maximum. Storm time variation of H resembled the variation of the Dst index but that of Z showed a large minimum about 2-3h before the time of minimum Dst or at the time of maximum time gradient of Dst variation. These features are compared with corresponding variations at the equatorial stations Trivandrum (TRD in India, and remarkable similarity in all observations is noticed at PRD and TRD. It is suggested that the observed abnormal features of Z variations at electrojet stations in India-Sri Lanka are due to (i direct effect of the ionospheric electrojet current (ii the induction effect of the image current by the average spatially extended conductivity region and (iii the induction current in the local subsurface conductor. It is suggested that the conductor responsible for the observed features in Z in India and Sri Lanka has to have extended spatial domain to latitudes well south of India, rather than confined to narrow Palk Strait.

R. G. Rastogi

2004-09-01

160

Breastfeeding practices in a public health field practice area in Sri Lanka: a survival analysis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Exclusive breastfeeding up to the completion of the sixth month of age is the national infant feeding recommendation for Sri Lanka. The objective of the present study was to collect data on exclusive breastfeeding up to six months and to describe the association between exclusive breastfeeding and selected socio-demographic factors. Methods A clinic based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Medical Officer of Health area, Beruwala, Sri Lanka in June 2006. Mothers with infants aged 4 to 12 months, attending the 19 child welfare clinics in the area were included in the study. Infants with specific feeding problems (cleft lip and palate and primary lactose intolerance were excluded. Cluster sampling technique was used and consecutive infants fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled. A total of 219 mothers participated in the study. The statistical tests used were survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional Hazard model. Results All 219 mothers had initiated breastfeeding. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was four months (95% CI 3.75, 4.25. The rates of exclusive breastfeeding at 4 and 6 months were 61.6% (135/219 and 15.5% (24/155 respectively. Bivariate analysis showed that the Muslim ethnicity (p = 0.004, lower levels of parental education (p Conclusion The rate of breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding up to the fourth month is very high in Medical Officer of Health area, Beruwala, Sri Lanka. However exclusive breastfeeding up to six months is still low and the prevalence of inappropriate feeding practices is high.

Agampodi Thilini C

2007-10-01

 
 
 
 
161

An alternative approach for Chemical Restraint of Domesticated Elephants in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The Asian elephant (Elephas maximus represents one of the most seriousendangered species. Capturing and domestication of these wild elephantscan be considered as one of the measures of elephant conservation.Domesticated elephants play a major role during festival processions in SriLanka. However, there is always a risk of getting panic and disobeying ofthese animals to the mahout's order. Self-Tranquilizer was invented toovercome the constraint such as difficulty of reaching and targeting theelephant in a crowded area, prolong loading time of the tranquilizer drug etc,experienced when palmer cap-chur gun is used. Current study was mainlybased on data collected through primary survey and experimental form.Target people of the study were, elephant owners and senior officersattached to Wild Life Department of Sri Lanka. Data were collected usingstructural questionnaire which included general information about captiveelephant management. Survey was concluded that approximately 115 oftamed elephants were rared in the Sri Lanka. Objective of this study was todo a feasibility assessment about Self-Tranquilizer as a safe, reliable anduser friendly method to tranquilize elephants during festive processions.Novel device of the “Self- Tranquilizer was experimented by using the deadelephant's skin. Mechanical background of this machine was fullytelephone operated. Major important part of this machine was auto-plunger.The auto-plunger can be used as a proper “Intramuscular drugadministrating” device. This machine was prepared to fix on the neck of theelephant. In any elephant was out of control, the veterinary surgeon cantranquilize the elephants just by dialing the secrete mobile number that isassigned to the particular elephant. “Self- Tranquilizer” found to beimportant to regain and safeguard the public confidence and safety,respectively.

Sumanasiri, W.G.C.S.B.

2009-06-01

162

Awareness and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS among residents of Kandy, Sri Lanka.  

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Currently, interventions for HIV/AIDS control in Sri Lanka are only carried out among the most-at-risk populations. This study was conducted to identify the level of awareness and stigma-related attitudes among the general population of Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 869 residents of 18-64 years of age in Kandy, Sri Lanka. A self-administered questionnaire was utilised to obtain information about stigma, discrimination and HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. Chi-square test and multivariate analysis were applied to find possible associations between HIV-related variables and socio-demographic indicators. Response rate was 82.0%. Overall, 93.5% of the participants have heard of HIV/AIDS but the knowledge on HIV/AIDS was low with an average score of 51.7%, no statistically significant difference between genders (p = 0.352). Only 58.1% were aware that a condom was an effective tool for its prevention. There were many misconceptions related to epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. The participants showed more positive attitudes towards HIV/AIDS and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) for all questionnaire items except for those listed under shame and blame. Positive attitudes towards PLHIV were observed to be greater among those with a better HIV/AIDS-related knowledge score. There was no significant association between the attitudes towards PLHIV and socio-demographic characteristics such as ethnicity and religion. There is a greater need of making attempts towards educating the public regarding HIV/AIDS to eliminate misconceptions prevalent in the society. Stigma-related attitudes are mainly due to shame and blame associated with the disease. As the attitudes towards PLHIV were more positive among those with a better HIV/AIDS-related knowledge score, targeted HIV/AIDS-related health education interventions maybe recommended in this regard. PMID:25303094

Navaratna, Samidi; Kanda, Koji; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Tennakoon, Sampath; Jayasinghe, Ananda; Jayasekara, Niroshan; Nagano, Katsutoshi; Obayashi, Yoshihide; Arai, Asuna; Tamashiro, Hiko

2015-03-01

163

The Role and Perceptions of Middle Managers and Their Influence on Business Performance: The Case of Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available This paper investigates the role and perceptions of middle managers and how they influence business performance in Sri Lankan companies. The study presented here is based on a questionnaire survey of 121 middle managers regarding issues of communication, group decision making, and organizational leadership. Quantitative analysis of the responses suggests that organizations with collectivistic leaders achieve better performance. As a result, it is argued that collectivism, which includes middle management, can positively contribute to Sri Lanka’s business development and economic recovery.

Sriya Kumarasinghe

2010-09-01

164

Re-discovery of Pouch bearing sheath tailed bat Saccolaimus saccolaimus Temminck (Chiroptera: Emballonuridae from Sri Lanka after 75 years  

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Full Text Available Saccolaimus saccolaimus Temminck, 1838, was first collected by the Museum of Natural History of Sri Lanka in the year 1919 and the first published record of this bat was in 1935 by W.W.A. Philips, though specimens were collected at various times for the collection of the Natural History Museum of Sri Lanka. However, after 1936 there were no records of the species, though, several surveys were conducted on the bat fauna of the island. The species had not been reported since, and was considered as Data Deficient according to latest literature. Here we report on its re-discovery.

Ranil P. Nanayakkara

2012-12-01

165

Teachers’ Levels of Use of the 5E Instructional Model in the Implementation of Curriculum Reforms in Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The 5E instructional model is an innovative approach for constructive classroom instruction. First introduced in competency-based curriculum reforms in Sri Lanka, this is an inquiry-based model that allows students to engage in the self-learning process, in which teachers act as facilitators. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of teachers’ participation (through Levels of Use or LoU) in implementing the 5E instructional model in Sri Lanka. The Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM...

Fareed Mohamed Nawastheen; Sharifah Nor Puteh; Tamby Subahan Mohd Meerah

2014-01-01

166

Tales of the land: British geography and Kandyan resistance in Sri Lanka, c. 1803-1850  

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British expansion in Sri Lanka was halted by the mountains in the centre of the island. The kings of Kandy guarded knowledge about topography and this led in part to the British army’s defeat of 1803. Within the Kandyan kingdom, boundary books and verses provide evidence of a vibrant tradition of oral knowledge about the land, linked with piety and history. When the British took control of the interior in 1815 Governor Barnes urged the necessity of a road to Kandy in order to open up the hi...

Sivasundaram, Sujit

2007-01-01

167

Indian flying fox Pteropus giganteus colony in Peradeniya Botanical Gardens, Sri Lanka  

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A colony of Indian flying foxes in Peradeniya Botanical Gardens near Kandy, Sri Lanka, was spread over 20 hectares and numbered 24,480 bats in September 2002. The number of bats per tree varied between ten and 1200. The median value was low (= 50 bats per tree) and half of the trees contained between 30 and 100 bats. The mean density was c. 1200 bats per hectare, but was significantly higher along the western margin of the colony (3250 bats per hectare). Peradeniya possibly supports the large...

Boris Krystufek

2009-01-01

168

Indian flying fox Pteropus giganteus colony in Peradeniya Botanical Gardens, Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available A colony of Indian flying foxes in Peradeniya Botanical Gardens near Kandy, Sri Lanka, was spread over 20 hectares and numbered 24,480 bats in September 2002. The number of bats per tree varied between ten and 1200. The median value was low (= 50 bats per tree and half of the trees contained between 30 and 100 bats. The mean density was c. 1200 bats per hectare, but was significantly higher along the western margin of the colony (3250 bats per hectare. Peradeniya possibly supports the largest aggregation of the Indian flying fox known currently.

Boris Krystufek

2009-11-01

169

An econometric analysis of India-Sri Lanka free trade agreement  

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This paper investigates whether the India-Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement (ISLFTA) has had trade creation or trade diversion effects on the rest of the World. The method used resembles the one used by Romalis (2005) to study NAFTA. In order to use the variations in tariff at the product level, we use six digit HS classification of products. We construct seven panel data sets for the period 1996 to 2006. We use the commodity and time variation in the tariff preferences allowed under ISLFTA, to ...

Joshi, Vivek

2010-01-01

170

Early Iron and Steel production in Sri Lanka:A Scientific Perspective  

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Full Text Available This work investigates the nature of technological development and the viability of applying an evolutionary approach to the early development of iron production in Sri Lanka. The main objective of this paper is to use modern techniques in the fields of Physics and Engineering to investigate the wind-driven furnace used in early iron and steel producing industry dating to 300 B.C. In order to study the scientific aspects of the furnace, several theoretical calculations were carried out. Some of the crucial parameters and their optimal values are presented.

Prabath Hewageegana

2014-07-01

171

An Empirical Investigation on Stock Market Anomalies: The Evidence from Colombo Stock Exchange in Sri Lanka  

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The current study examines the Stock Market Anomalies in Colombo Stock Exchange (CSE); Sri Lanka during the period of 2004 to 2013. The existences of both Day of the Week Effect and Monthly Effect have been tested using daily and monthly data respectively. The Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) method and GARCH (1, 1) model were employed to capture the Day of the Week effects and Monthly Effects along with the daily volatility behavior. The sample period was divided in to two periods as War Peri...

Ravindra Deyshappriya, N. P.

2014-01-01

172

Use of illicit substances among schoolchildren in colombo district, Sri Lanka.  

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OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to understand the usage patterns and correlates of illicit drug use among schoolchildren in Colombo district, Sri Lanka. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among grade 10 and 12 students using a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: From the 6000 students selected, 5353(89.22%) responded. Betel chewing with tobacco was seen in 28.48% males and 10.44% females. Substances such as Barbul, Madana Modaka, and cough syrups that are not established as il...

Liyanage, Ik; Wickramasinghe, K.; Ratnayake, He; Palmer, P.; Matthews, Dr; Katulanda, P.

2013-01-01

173

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus among nurses in a tertiary care hospital in northern Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in the hands among 109 nursing staffs of Teaching Hospital, Jaffna, Sri Lanka was screened. Of those screened, 43 (39.44%) strains of S. aureus were isolated and among that one third were MRSA. Antibiotic resistant pattern of MRSA strains were found to be highly variable. Resistance to ampicillin, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin, netilmicin and amikacin were found to be 76.9%, 76.9%, 53.8%, 23% and 23% respectively. More than one tenth of the nursing staff were at risk of transmitting the infection and therefore standard infection control precautions should be followed to minimise carriage and transmission. PMID:24977426

Mahalingam, U; Thirunavukarasu, K; Murugananthan, K

2014-06-01

174

ADVANCES OF BASIC MOLECULAR BIOLOGY TECHNIQUES: POTENTIAL TO APPLY IN PLANT VIROID DETECTION IN SRI LANKA  

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Full Text Available Viroids are the smallest pathogens of plants. They are the cause of serious diseases on economic plants worldwide. Prevention and detection of the pathogens are the best method to reduce the economic loss from viroid infection. During last decade, genetics and molecular biology techniques have gained an increasing presence in plant pathology research. The purpose of this review is to highlight the most upgrade molecular biology techniques that have been used and studied recently. Most relevant published reports and hand skilled techniques have presented here with emphasis on suitable Viroid detection technique should be used for Sri Lanka.

Yapa M.A.M. Wijerathna

2012-12-01

175

Resources and Entrepreneurial Orientation : Empirical findings from the software industry of Sri Lanka  

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Background: There are different types of firms in the world. Those that lead change and those who follow change. In this thesis, the authors have chosen to see if a dynamic industry in a developing nation can be the leaders of change, or if they are stuck as the ones following developments in the west. Sri Lanka is a developing nation with a rapidly growing software industry. Like its neighbour, India, the country and region has been known for its cheap, yet highly skilled labour. This study ...

Thunberg, Nils; Eriksson, Joel

2006-01-01

176

A waste heat recovery steam power generation system for ACE Power Embilipitiya (Pvt) Ltd, Sri Lanka  

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In this study, the heat recovery from exhaust gas at the ACE Power Embilipitiya (Pvt) Ltd (APE) in Sri Lanka was conceptually proposed and evaluated. APE has an installed capacity of 100 MW comprising 14 units of 7.5MW medium speed diesel engines fired with heavy fuel oil. There is only a minimum recovery of waste heat in the plant at the moment, only for fuel preheating, whereas waste heat recovery (WHR) boilers of 750kWth are equipped on eight engines. The larger portion of the waste heat i...

Weerasiri, Udayani Priyadarshana

2014-01-01

177

International trends in health science librarianship part 12: South Asia (India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka).  

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This is the 12th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship. This issue describes developments in health science librarianship in the first decade of the 21st century in South Asia. The three contributors report on challenges facing health science librarians in India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. There is consensus as to the need for education, training and professional development. Starting in the next issue, the focus will turn to Africa, starting with countries in southern Africa. JM. PMID:25443029

Joshi, Medha; Ali Anwar, Mumtaz; Ullah, Midrar; Kuruppu, Chandrani

2014-12-01

178

Den levende Buddha i Dalada Maligava:tilbedelse av Buddhas tannrelikvie på Sri Lanka  

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Summary A relic is a corporal remain or an object which is worshipped because it has been in physical contact with a holy person. What is common to all relics is that they bring devotees in contact with holy people, even though they are dead. Relics are regarded as powerful and miraculous, and in addition they often legitimate the rulers of a country. It has been said that one of Buddha?s teeth is kept in the Temple of the Tooth, Dalada Maligava, in Kandy in Sri Lanka, and this tooth is said...

Johanson, Anette Cecilie

2006-01-01

179

The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Sri Lanka 1983-1993 country programme summaries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Sri Lanka carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

180

The Ireland of Asia: trends in marriage timing in Sri Lanka.  

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This study examines marriage patterns among ever married women in Sri Lanka. Data are obtained from the 1987 and 1993 Sri Lanka Demographic and Health Surveys and population censuses during 1946-81. The greatest change in marriage patterns in Sri Lanka is the shift from arranged marriages to individual choice of partners. The individual attributes of the nuclear family have replaced household attributes, such the primacy of the family and hard work. Increased educational levels are desired for a marriage partner. Premarital sex behavior resulted in premarital first births among 1 in 6 married women 20-24 years old at the time of the survey. The singulate mean age of marriage increased from 18.3 years to 25.1 years during 1901-75, which means a long exposure to potential sexual activity. During 1975-80, SMAM has declined for both sexes, and then increased by 1 year. Rates of divorce and widowhood were quite low. The proportion of never married steadily increased over the decades. During 1946-93, the proportion of never married among women 15-19 years old increased from 75% to 93%. Among women 20-24 years old, the proportion increased from 29% to 61%. Marriage timing patterns in Sri Lanka are dissimilar to other South Asian countries and similar to Ireland's patterns. The age at first marriage increased from 20.8 years in the oldest cohort to 24.3 years in the cohort 35-39 years old. Cohorts younger than 35 years show a declining trend in marriage age. It is argued that marriage was delayed during the mid-1970s due to dowry, housing, and wedding expenses. Late marriage was due to the marriage squeeze and socioeconomic change. Mortality declined during the anti-malarial campaign of the late 1940s, with the result that more females were born during 1947-51 than males were born during 1942-46. First marriage ages range from 15 to 29 years for females and from 20 to 34 years for males. PMID:12348099

De Silva, W I

1997-06-01

 
 
 
 
181

Patterns of hospital transfer for self-poisoned patients in rural Sri Lanka: implications for estimating the incidence of self-poisoning in the developing world / Modalités d'hospitalisation des cas d'autoempoisonnement délibéré en milieu rural au Sri Lanka: ce qu'elles impliquent pour l'estimation de l'incidence des autoempoisonnements dans le monde en développement / Perfil de traslados interhospitalarios de pacientes autointoxicados en una zona rural de Sri Lanka: implicaciones para la estimación de la incidencia de autointoxicaciones en el mundo en desarrollo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVOS: La mayoría de los datos sobre autointoxicaciones en las zonas rurales de Asia proceden de hospitales secundarios. Nuestros objetivos fueron los siguientes: evaluar cómo influyen los traslados de hospitales primarios a hospitales secundarios en las estimaciones de la tasa de letalidad; det [...] erminar si había algún sesgo de derivación según el sexo o el tipo de intoxicación; y estimar la incidencia anual de todos los tipos de autointoxicación, así como de las autointoxicaciones mortales, en un entorno rural del mundo en desarrollo. MÉTODOS: Entre el 1 de julio y el 31 de diciembre de 2002 se examinó en el momento del ingreso a los autointoxicados llegados al Hospital General de Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. Revisamos además las notas médicas correspondientes a los pacientes autointoxicados ingresados en 17 de los 34 hospitales periféricos de los alrededores durante el mismo periodo. RESULTADOS: En total fueron ingresadas en el hospital secundario 742 víctimas de autointoxicaciones, de las cuales fallecieron 81 (tasa de letalidad: 10,9%). Un total de 483 pacientes fueron ingresados en 17 hospitales periféricos de los alrededores. Seis pacientes (1,2%) murieron en esos hospitales, 249 fueron dados de alta, y 228 fueron trasladados al hospital secundario. No se observó ningún efecto del sexo o la edad sobre la probabilidad de traslado; sin embargo, los pacientes que habían ingerido adelfa o paraquat tenían más probabilidades de ser trasladados que los que habían tomado plaguicidas organofosforados u otros productos tóxicos. La incidencia anual estimada de autointoxicaciones y de autointoxicaciones mortales fue de 363 y 27 por 100 000 habitantes, respectivamente, con una tasa de letalidad global del 7,4% (intervalo de confianza del 95%: 6,0-9,0). CONCLUSIÓN: Un 50% de los pacientes ingresados en hospitales periféricos fueron dados de alta, lo que demuestra que las tasas de letalidad basadas en los datos de hospitales secundarios están infladas. No obstante, si bien la incidencia de autointoxicaciones es semejante a la de Inglaterra, en Sri Lanka las autointoxicaciones mortales son tres veces más frecuentes que las autolesiones mortales por cualquier método registradas en Inglaterra. Los datos basados en la población son esenciales para realizar comparaciones internacionales de la letalidad y la incidencia y para evaluar las intervenciones de salud pública. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: Most data on self-poisoning in rural Asia have come from secondary hospitals. We aimed to: assess how transfers from primary to secondary hospitals affected estimates of case-fatality ratio (CFR); determine whether there was referral bias according to gender or poison; and estimate the a [...] nnual incidence of all self-poisoning, and of fatal self-poisoning, in a rural developing-world setting. METHODS: Self-poisoning patients admitted to Anuradhapura General Hospital, Sri Lanka, were reviewed on admission from 1 July to 31 December 2002. We audited medical notes of self-poisoning patients admitted to 17 of the 34 surrounding peripheral hospitals for the same period. FINDINGS: A total of 742 patients were admitted with self-poisoning to the secondary hospital; 81 died (CFR 10.9%). 483 patients were admitted to 17 surrounding peripheral hospitals. Six patients (1.2%) died in peripheral hospitals, 249 were discharged home, and 228 were transferred to the secondary hospital. There was no effect of gender or age on likelihood of transfer; however, patients who had ingested oleander or paraquat were more likely to be transferred than were patients who had taken organophosphorus pesticides or other poisons. Estimated annual incidences of self-poisoning and fatal self-poisoning were 363 and 27 per 100 000 population, respectively, with an overall CFR of 7.4% (95% confidence interval 6.0-9.0). CONCLUSION: Fifty per cent of patients admitted to peripheral hospitals were discharged home, showing that CFRs based on secondary hospital

Michael, Eddleston; K, Sudarshan; M, Senthilkumaran; K, Reginald; Lakshman, Karalliedde; Lalith, Senarathna; Dhammika de, Silva; MH, Rezvi Sheriff; Nick A, Buckley; David, Gunnell.

2006-04-01

182

Molecular mechanisms of ?-lactam resistance in carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae from Sri Lanka.  

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Carbapenemases are increasingly important antimicrobial resistance determinants. Little is known about the carbapenem resistance mechanisms in Sri Lanka. We examined 22 carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae from Sri Lanka to determine their ?-lactam resistance mechanisms. The predominant resistance mechanisms we detected in this study were OXA-181, NDM-1 carbapenemases and extended-spectrum ?-lactamase CTX-M-15. All isolates were then genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, variable-number tandem repeat sequence analysis and multilocus sequence typing, and seven distinct genotypes were observed. Five OXA-181-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were genotypically related to an isolate of Indian origin. Multilocus sequence typing found that these related isolates belong to ST-14, which has been associated with dissemination of OXA-181 from the Indian subcontinent. Other genotypes we discovered were ST-147 and ST-340, also associated with intercontinental spread of carbapenemases of suspected subcontinental origin. The major porin genes ompK35 and ompK36 from these isolates had insertions, deletions and substitutions. Some of these were exclusive to strains within single pulsotypes. We detected one ompK36 variant, ins AA134-135GD, in six ST-14- and six ST-147, blaOXA-181-positive isolates. This porin mutation was an independent predictor of high-level meropenem resistance in our entire Sri Lankan isolate collection (P=0.0030). Analysis of the Sri Lankan ST-14 and ST-147 ins AA134-135GD-positive isolates found ST-14 was more resistant to meropenem than other isolates (mean MIC: 32±0 µg ml(-1) and 20±9.47 µg ml(-1), respectively, P=0.0277). The likely international transmission of these carbapenem resistance determinants highlights the need for regional collaboration and prospective surveillance of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:24855071

Hall, Jarrad M; Corea, Enoka; Sanjeewani, H D Anusha; Inglis, Timothy J J

2014-08-01

183

Participatory development approach in local governance - its relevance for economic development: a case study of Sri Lanka  

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This research paper seeks to examine to what extent local governance iseffective in alleviating the vicious circle of poverty. Furthermore, traditional social relationships in Sri Lankan society are relatively and critically discussed in the notion of social capital. In Sri Lanka, local government institutions, administrative divisional secretaries, the Gramaseva division, civil society and the business community are the entities of local governance at the grass roots governance level that di...

Withanachchi, Sisira Saddhamangala

2011-01-01

184

Mapping mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, Sri Lanka, India and Lao PDR  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited evidence about mental health finances in low and middle-income countries is a key challenge to mental health care policy initiatives. This study aimed to map mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, India (Kerala state, Sri Lanka and Lao PDR focusing on how much money is available for mental health, how it is spent, and how this impacts mental health services. Methods A researcher in each region reviewed public mental health-related budgets and interviewed key informants on government mental health financing. A total of 43 key informant interviews were conducted. Quantitative data was analyzed in an excel matrix using descriptive statistics. Key informant interviews were coded a priori against research questions. Results National ring-fenced budgets for mental health as a percentage of national health spending for 2007-08 is 1.7% in Sri Lanka, 3.7% in Ghana, 2.0% in Kerala (India and 6.6% in Uganda. Budgets were not available in Lao PDR. The majority of ring-fenced budgets (76% to 100% is spent on psychiatric hospitals. Mental health spending could not be tracked beyond the psychiatric hospital level due to limited information at the health centre and community levels. Conclusions Mental health budget information should be tracked and made publically accessible. Governments can adapt WHO AIMS indicators for reviewing national mental health finances. Funding allocations work more effectively through decentralization. Mental health financing should reflect new ideas emerging from community based practice in LMICs.

de Menil Victoria

2010-05-01

185

Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology in Sri Lanka: is cadmium a likely cause?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD and subsequent end stage renal failure necessitating renal replacement therapy has profound consequences for affected individuals and health care resources. This community based study was conducted to identify potential predictors of microalbuminuria in a randomly selected sample of adults from the North Central Province (NCP of Sri Lanka, where the burden of CKD is pronounced and the underlying cause still unknown. Methods Exposures to possible risk factors were determined in randomly recruited subjects (425 females and 461 males from selected areas of the NCP of Sri Lanka using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Sulphosalicylic acid and the Light Dependent Resister microalbumin gel filtration method was used for initial screening for microalbuminuria and reconfirmed by the Micral strip test. Results Microalbumnuria was detected in 6.1% of the females and 8.5% of the males. Smoking (p Conclusions Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, UTI, and smoking are known risk factors for microalbuminuria. The association between microalbuminuria and consumption of well water suggests an environmental aetiology to CKD in NCP. The causative agent is yet to be identified. Investigations for cadmium as a potential causative agent needs to be initiated.

Peiris-John Roshini J

2011-07-01

186

Update on uncertain etiology of chronic kidney disease in Sri Lanka's north-central dry zone  

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Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: This manuscript updates a review previously published in a local journal in 2012, about a new form of chronic kidney disease that has emerged over the past two decades in the north-central dry zone of Sri Lanka, where the underlying causes remain undetermined. Disease burden is higher [...] in this area, particularly North Central Province, and affects a rural and disadvantaged population involved in rice-paddy farming. Over the last decade several studies have been carried out to estimate prevalence and identify determinants of this chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology. OBJECTIVE: Summarize the available evidence on prevalence, clinical profile and risk factors of chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology in the north-central region of Sri Lanka. METHODS: PubMed search located 16 manuscripts published in peer-reviewed journals. Three peer-reviewed abstracts of presentations at national scientific conferences were also included in the review. RESULTS: Disease prevalence was 5.1% - 16.9% with more severe disease seen in men than in women. Patients with mild to moderate stages of disease were asymptomatic or had nonspecific symptoms; urinary sediments were bland; 24-hour urine protein excretion was

Kamani, Wanigasuriya.

2014-04-01

187

International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sri Lanka is essentially a detached portion of the Deccan Plateau of south India and like it, is underlain almost everywhere by hard old Precambrian rocks. Prior to 1940 there was no systematic organised geological survey work on the island. Between 1957 and 1962 a partial aerial survey and field traverses were conducted in a search for radio- active minerals. Since then a modest programme has continued. Thorianite was first discovered in placer deposits in 1903 and prospecting has found many other refractory radioactive minerals probably derived from the weathering of pegmatites. Monazite is found as an important constituent of beach placer deposits and it is estimated to have an average content of 8-10%ThO2 and 0.3 - 0.5% U3O8. Up to 1000 tons monazite per year could be produced from the beach sand industry. Sri Lanka has had very little systematic exploration for uranium and as it is largely composed of Precambrian rocks it deserves closer attention. On the other hand it is part of a thorium rich province and there is a body of technical opinion that believes that thorium rich provinces are unlikely to contain significant uranium deposits. For these reasons it is estimated that the Speculative Potential may be within the range of 1000 to 10,000 tonnes uranium. In addition it maybe possible to produce up to 5 tonnes uranium and 100 tonnes thorium from the beach sand industry on an annual basis. (author)

188

The geology, mineralogy and rare element geochemistry of the gem deposits of Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The gem deposits of Sri Lanka are studied from the point of view of their geology, mineralogy and geochemistry. Nearly all the gem formations are located in the central high-grade metamorphic terrain of the Highland Complex. The gem deposits are classified as sedimentary, metamorphic and magmatic; the sedimentary types being the most abundant. The mineralogy of the gem deposits varies widely with, among others, corundum, chrysoberyl, beryl, spinel, topaz,zircon, tourmaline, garnet and sphene being common.Rare element concentrations in sediments from the three main gem fields of Sri Lanka, namely Ratnapura, Elahera and Walawe, were studied. It was found that some sediments are considerably enriched in certain elements compared to their average continental crustal abundances. The Walawe Ganga sediments show anomalous enrichments of the high field strength and associated elements, particularly Zr, Hf, W and Ti. This is attributed to the presence of accessory mineralssuch as zircon, monazite and rutile. Some of these heavy minerals comprise as much as 50 wt% of sediment. The geochemical enrichment of some trace elements compared to their average crustal abundances indicates that highly differentiated granites and associated pegmatites have provided the source materials for enrichment.

C. B. Dissanayake

2000-01-01

189

Poverty and growth impacts of high oil prices: Evidence from Sri Lanka  

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The sharp rise in oil and food prices in 2007 and 2008 caused negative impacts on poverty and economic growth in many oil and food importing developing countries. Some analysts believe that these countries are under stress again due to a rise in crude oil prices, to a two-and-a-half year high in March 2011, which has also been partly responsible for higher food prices in recent months. However, there is a limited body of empirical evidence available from developing countries on the impact of high oil prices on growth in general and household poverty in particular. In this study, Sri Lanka is used as a case study and a computable general equilibrium (CGE) approach is adopted as an analytical framework to explore the growth and poverty impacts of high oil prices. The results suggest that urban low income households are the group most adversely affected by high global oil prices, followed by low income rural households. In contrast, estate low income households are the least affected out of all low income households. The energy intensive manufacturing sector and services sector are affected most compared to the agricultural sector. - Highlights: ? Using a general equilibrium model we find poverty and oil price link for Sri Lanka. ? Urban low income households are the group most adversely affected. ? Energy intensive manufacturing and services sectors are affected most.

190

An Overview: Vaccination to control fowl typhoid in Commercial layers, Sri Lanka.  

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Full Text Available Poultry production and consumption in Sri Lanka, has been dramatically increased during last two decades and Salmonellosis was reported as one of the prevalent diseases in commercial layers. Both S.Gallianrum as well as S.Pullorum is causing severe economical impact to the industry, while S.Typhimurium and S.Enteritidis are also important in the public health aspects. Vaccination against Salmonellosis is widely practiced in several countries in the world to control the infection: In Sri Lanka, killed vaccine is permitted only for commercial layer, while breeder birds, commercial broilers are prohibited by regulation.Both Live attenuated and killed vaccine have many benefits, and proven results for controlling of none host- specific Salmonella in poultry and also in reducing the occurrence of human food born infections. Both vaccines were considered as potential to control the host specific Salmonella in poultry by reducing the mortality and feacal shedding to the environment. Evidencely, live vaccines are capable of controlling the human infections caused by non host specific Salmonella as a result of cross immunization in poultry. Since, Both vaccine given positive effect as well as negative effect to control the Salmonellsois in chicken and further studies are encouraged relevant to local situation.

M.A.R. Priyantha

2009-12-01

191

Factors influencing preventive behaviors for dengue infection among housewives in colombo, sri lanka.  

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Dengue is an infectious disease prevalent in Sri Lanka. Some factors may influence preventive behaviors. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude, and preventive behaviors associated with dengue and analyzed the factors influencing preventive behaviors among housewives in Colombo, Sri Lanka. The analytical study was designed, and data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The ?(2) test and binary logistic regression were used to analyze data. The mean age of housewives was 39.41 years, 91% were married, 52% were Buddhist, and 46.5% had a family monthly income of 15 000 to 25 000 rupees. The knowledge of dengue preventive behaviors was 69.2%. The majority (91.5%) had a positive attitude toward dengue prevention. Only 39.3% used a mosquito net, and 89.3% had water storage container covers. Overall, 58.5% were knowledgeable about preventive measures. Age, religion, family income, education, knowledge, and attitude were associated with preventive behaviors. These findings are useful for dengue control in Colombo. PMID:25155069

Chanyasanha, Charnchudhi; Guruge, Geethika Rathnawardana; Sujirarat, Dusit

2015-01-01

192

Anomalous short period geomagnetic variations at two stations in Sri Lanka  

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An analysis of the rates of change in the geomagnetic field components in the period range 20-600 sec recorded at Kondavil and Hikkaduwa, two stations in the equatorial electrojet belt near the northern and south western coasts respectively of Sri Lanka, shows anomalous variations. The results confirm induced current concentration in the Palk Strait and deflection of induced currents around the southerncoast of Sri Lanka postulated by earlier workers from observations of SSC and Bay events at Indian stations and from analogue and numerical model studies. At Kondavil, which is situated close to the geomagnetic equator, no appreciable difference in the night-time and day-time values of ?Z/?H and ?D/?H ratios was noticed while at Hikkaduwa, a station situated under the edge of the equatorial electrojet belt, a day-time enhancement of ?Z/?H ratios was found at all periods in the observed range. An enhancement of the H component at Colombo over that at Hikkaduwa was also found at short periods, the enhancement being greater at day-time. The day-time enhancement in the ?Z/?H ratios at Hikkaduwa and in the ratio of the H components at Colombo and Hikkaduwa could be due to the effect of the equatorial electrojet on the short period variations. (author)

193

Escalating chronic kidney diseases of multi-factorial origin in Sri Lanka: causes, solutions, and recommendations.  

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During the last two decades, Sri Lanka, located close to the equator, has experienced an escalating incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown aetiology (CKDue) in dry zonal areas. Similar incidences of unusual CKDs have been reported in the dry zonal, agricultural areas of several other equatorial countries. In Sri Lanka, the incidence of CKDue is highest in the North Central Province (NCP), where approximately 45 % of the country's paddy fields are located. However, in recent years, the disease has spread into areas adjacent to as well as distant from the NCP. The cause of CKD in Sri Lanka is unknown, and may likely due to interactions of different potential agents; thus, CKD is of multi-factorial origin (CKD-mfo). These factors include, the negative effects from overuse of agrochemicals. Nevertheless, the potential interactions and synergism between probable agents have not been studied. This systematic review discusses the proposed hypotheses and causes of CKD-mfo in Sri Lanka, and ways to decrease the incidence of this disease and to eradicate it, and provide some recommendations. During the past decade, a number of groups have investigated this disorder using different methodologies and reported various correlations, but failed to find a cause. Research has focussed on the contamination of water with heavy metals, agrochemicals, hard water, algae, ionicity, climate change, and so forth. Nevertheless, the levels of any of the pollutants or conditions reported in water in NPC are inconsistent not correlated with the prevalence of the disease, and are too low to be the sole cause of CKD-mfo. Meanwhile, several nephrotoxins prevalent in the region, including medications, leptospirosis, toxic herbs, illicit alcohol, locally grown tobacco, and petrochemicals, as well as the effects of changed habits occured over the past four decades have not been studied to date. Taken together, the geographical distribution and overall findings indicate that combinations of factors and/or their interactions are likely to precipitate CKD-mfo, which kills more than 5,000 people annually in Sri Lanka; most victims are middle-aged male farmers. Much anecdotal evidence from this region suggests that consumption of contaminated water is the most likely source of this deadly disease. Although the aetiology is unknown, prevention of this "environmentally acquired" disease seems relatively straightforward. Solutions include (a) preventing environmental pollution, (b) stopping the irresponsible use and decreasing the usage of agrochemicals, and encouraging the use of environmentally friendly agricultural methods, (c) taking proper precautions when using agrochemicals and safe disposal of their containers, (d) changing the risky behaviour of farmers and educating them to preserve the environment, and (e) providing clean potable water to all affected regions. Implementing a well-coordinated, in-depth, region-wide, broad-based research study together with a long-term effective surveillance programme across the country is essential to curbing this disease. Unless firm actions are taken promptly, more than three million healthy people in the country, live in agricultural regions, are at risk for contracting CKD-mfo and succumb to premature deaths, which are preventable. PMID:25239006

Wimalawansa, Sunil J

2014-11-01

194

Molecular Epidemiology of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus among Humans and Swine, Sri Lanka  

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After multiple discrete introductions of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus into Sri Lanka, the virus was transmitted among humans, then swine. The spread of virus between geographically distant swine farms is consistent with virus dispersal associated with a vehicle used for swine transportation, although this remains unproven. PMID:25417652

Perera, Harsha K.K.; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Premarathna, Akuratiya G.; Jayamaha, Chrishan J.S.; Wickramasinghe, Geethani; Cheung, Chung L.; Yeung, Ming F.; Poon, Leo L.M.; Perera, Aluthgama K.C.; Barr, Ian G.; Guan, Yi

2014-01-01

195

Sustainability and Local People's Participation in Coastal Aquaculture: Regional Differences and Historical Experiences in Sri Lanka and the Philippines  

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This article discusses environmental sustainability in aquaculture and its contribution to poverty alleviation, based on field studies in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. The aquaculture practices studied are the monoculture of the black tiger prawn ( Penneaus monodon) and milkfish ( Chanos chanos) and the polyculture of the two species together with the mud crab ( Scylla serrata). Factors affecting economic viability, social equity and environmental impacts in aquaculture are discussed and used to illuminate local and regional differences between aquaculture in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. Findings indicate that the most significant difference is the level of participation by local people (i.e., people originating ?10 km away from the farm location). In the Philippines, 84 % of the people involved in aquaculture are locals, whereas in Sri Lanka, 55% are outsiders. Whether differences between the two areas can be explained by analyzing regional conditions, which might have resulted in different aquaculture practices, is discussed. In Sri Lanka, semi-intensive shrimp monoculture is currently the most common practice, whereas in the Philippines, extensive shrimp/fish polyculture is more common. Previous studies, as well as fieldwork, indicate that extensive culture practices reduce environmental impacts and benefit local people more. Sustainability in aquaculture is, however, also dependent on the extent of mangrove conversion into ponds. As such, extensive and locally owned farms do not necessarily result in an all but sustainable situation. Keeping this in mind, it is discussed if extensive polyculture practices might result in a more sustainable aquaculture, both environmentally and socioeconomically.

Bergquist, Daniel A.

2007-11-01

196

Facilitating Long-Term Recovery from Natural Disasters: Psychosocial Programming for Tsunami-Affected Schools of Sri Lanka  

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This article reports the findings of a school-based intervention project conducted in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka 15 to 18 months after the December 2004 Tsunami. The work responds to the need for culturally relevant programming to address long-term psychosocial recovery of children and adolescents affected by large scale disasters. Program…

Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Jayasena, Asoka; Summerville, Meredith; Borja, Amanda P.

2011-01-01

197

Selenium and iodine in soil, rice and drinking water in relation to endemic goitre in Sri Lanka  

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Endemic goitre has been reported in the climatic wet zone of south-west Sri Lanka for the past 50 years, but rarely occurs in the northern dry zone. Despite government-sponsored iodised salt programmes, endemic goitre is still prevalent. In recent years, it has been suggested that Se deficiency may be an important factor in the onset of goitre and other iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). Prior to the present study, environmental concentrations of Se in Sri Lanka and the possible relationships between Se deficiency and endemic goitre had not been investigated. During the present study, chemical differences in the environment (measured in soil, rice and drinking water) and the Se-status of the human population (demonstrated by hair samples from women) were determined for 15 villages. The villages were characterised by low (<10%), moderate (10-25%) and high (>25%) goitre incidence (NIDD, MIDD and HIDD, respectively). Results show that concentrations of soil total Se and iodine are highest in the HIDD villages, however, the soil clay and organic matter content appear to inhibit the bioavailability of these elements. Concentrations of iodine in rice are low ({<=}58 ng/g) and rice does not provide a significant source of iodine in the Sri Lankan diet. High concentrations of iodine (up to 84 {mu}g/l) in drinking water in the dry zone may, in part, explain why goitre is uncommon in this area. This study has shown for the first time that significant proportions of the Sri Lankan female population may be Se deficient (24, 24 and 40% in the NIDD, MIDD and HIDD villages, respectively). Although Se deficiency is not restricted to areas where goitre is prevalent, a combination of iodine and Se deficiency could be involved in the pathogenesis of goitre in Sri Lanka. The distribution of red rice cultivation in Sri Lanka is coincident with the HIDD villages. Varieties of red rice grown in other countries contain anthocyanins and procyanidins, compounds which in other foodstuffs are known goitrogens. The potential goitrogenic properties of red rice in Sri Lanka are presently unknown and require further investigation. It is likely that the incidence of goitre in Sri Lanka is multi-factorial, involving trace element deficiencies and other factors such as poor nutrition and goitrogens in foodstuffs.

Fordyce, F.M. [British Geological Survey, West Mains Road, EH9 3LA Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Johnson, C.C.; Appleton, J.D. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, NG12 5GG Nottingham (United Kingdom); Navaratna, U.R.B.; Dissanayake, C.B. [Department of Geology, University of Peradeniya, Kandy (Sri Lanka)

2000-12-18

198

Molecular evidence for the presence of malaria vector species a of the Anopheles annularis complex in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles annularis s.l. is a wide spread malaria vector in South and Southeast Asia, including Sri Lanka. The taxon An. annularis is a complex of two sibling species viz. A and B, that are differentiated by chromosome banding patterns and ribosomal gene sequences in India. Only species A is reported to be a malaria vector in India while the occurrence of sibling species in Sri Lanka has not been documented previously. Findings Anopheline larvae were collected at a site in the Jaffna district, which lies within the dry zone of Sri Lanka, and reared in the laboratory. Emerged adults were identified using standard keys. DNA sequences of the D3 domain of 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA and the internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS-2 of the morphologically identified An. annularis were determined. BLASTn searches against corresponding An. annularis sequences in GenBank and construction of phylogenetic trees from D3 and ITS-2 rDNA sequences showed that the Sri Lankan specimens, and An. annularis s.l. specimens from several Southeast Asian countries were closely related to species A of the Indian An. annularis complex. Conclusions The results show the presence of the malaria vector An. annularis species A in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. Because An. annularis vectors have been long associated with malaria transmission in irrigated agricultural areas in the Sri Lankan dry zone, continued monitoring of An. annularis populations, and their sibling species status, in these areas need to be integral to malaria control and eradication efforts in the island.

Surendran Sinnathamby N

2011-12-01

199

Studies on prevalence of anopheline species and community perception of malaria in Jaffna district, Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives: Over two decades of civil unrest and the conflict situation have had detrimental effects on vector control activities and management of malaria in Jaffna district which is an endemic region for malaria in Sri Lanka. With the background that only a few small-scale studies on malaria and its vectors have been reported from this district, a study was designed to explore the current status of malaria in the Jaffna district in relation to vector and community aspects.Methods: Adults and larvae of anopheline mosquitoes were collected monthly from selected endemic localities. Species prevalence of the collected mosquitoes was studied while the collected adults of Anopheles subpictus, a potential vector in the district, was screened for sibling species composition based on morphological characteristics and exposed to common insecticides using WHO bioassay kits. Knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP of the community were tested using a pre-tested structured questionnaire in high-risk and low-risk localities in the district.Results: The anopheline mosquito species distribution in the district was An. culicifacies (0.5%, An. subpictus (46%, An. varuna (4%, An. nigerrimus (44% and An. pallidus (5.5%. Among the collected larvae the percent prevalence of An. culicifacies was 13% and other species follows as: An. subpictus (71%, An. varuna (4%, An. nigerrimus (10% and An. pallidus (2%. Sibling species B, C and D of An. subpictus were present in the district with the predominance of B in both coastal and inland areas, while all members showed both indoor and outdoor resting characteristics, they were highly resistant to DDT (4% and highly susceptible to malathion (5%. KAP study in the district showed a reasonable level of knowledge, positive attitude and practices towards malaria.Conclusion: An. subpictus, the reported major vector of Jaffna and a well-established secondary vector of malaria in the country, continues to be the predominant anopheline species. The distribution of sibling species of An. subpictus complex in the Jaffna district, revealed for the first time, has implications for future studies on its bionomics and malaria transmission pattern in this area and the planning of control strategies for this region. The community perception of disease, which revealed a satisfactory knowledge indicates the potential for better community participation in future malaria control activities in this region. As potential vectors are still present, health authorities need to be vigilant to prevent any future epidemics of malaria.

N.D. Karunaweera

2008-08-01

200

Influence of pesticide regulation on acute poisoning deaths in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess in a developing Asian country the impact of pesticide regulation on the number of deaths from poisoning. These regulations, which were implemented in Sri Lanka from the 1970s, aimed to reduce the number of deaths - the majority from self-poisoning - by limiting the availability and use of highly toxic pesticides. METHODS: Information on legislative changes was obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture, national and district hospital admission data were obtained from the Sri Lanka Health Statistics Unit, and individual details of deaths by pesticide poisoning were obtained from a manual review of patients' notes and intensive care unit records in Anuradhapura. FINDINGS: Between 1986 and 2000, the total national number of admissions due to poisoning doubled, and admissions due to pesticide poisoning increased by more than 50%. At the same time, the case fatality proportion (CFP fell for total poisonings and for poisonings due to pesticides. In 1991_92, 72% of pesticide-induced deaths in Anuradhapura were caused by organophosphorus (OP and carbamate pesticides - in particular, the WHO class I OPs monocrotophos and methamidophos. From 1991, the import of these pesticides was reduced gradually until they were banned for routine use in January 1995, with a corresponding fall in deaths. Unfortunately, their place in agricultural practice was taken by the WHO class II organochlorine endosulfan, which led to a rise in deaths from status epilepticus - from one in 1994 to 50 in 1998. Endosulfan was banned in 1998, and over the following three years the number of endosulfan deaths fell to three. However, at the end of the decade, the number of deaths from pesticides was at a similar level to that of 1991, with WHO class II OPs causing the most deaths. Although these drugs are less toxic than class I OPs, the management of class II OPs remains difficult because they are, nevertheless, still highly toxic, and their toxicity is exacerbated by the paucity of available facilities. CONCLUSION: The fall in CFP amidst a rising incidence of self-poisoning suggests that Sri Lanka's programmes of pesticide regulation were beneficial. However, a closer inspection of pesticide-induced deaths in one hospital revealed switching to other highly toxic pesticides, as one was banned and replaced in agricultural practice by another. Future regulation must predict this switching and bear in mind the ease of treatment of replacement pesticides. Furthermore, such regulations must be implemented alongside other strategies, such as integrated pest management, to reduce the overall pesticide availability for self-harm.

Roberts Darren M.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Establishment of antimicrobial residue monitoring programme for food of animal origin in Sri Lanka  

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Full text: Antibiotic drugs are often used both therapeutically and prophylactically in animal production, and are necessary for many production systems. However, the presence of unacceptable levels of antimicrobial residues in animal products may lead to direct effects on the consumer, such as allergies and toxicities such as dose-independent idiosyncratic reactions that can be triggered due to chloramphenicol residues. Indirect adverse reactions include the promotion of antimicrobial resistance. Further, the parent drugs and their metabolites of the nitrofuran group of antimicrobials are known to be carcinogens. In order to promote awareness on food safety and quality assurance, it is necessary to monitor antimicrobial residues in animal products. This can be done only by having well equipped laboratories and validated techniques. Sri Lanka, as an export country for cultured shrimp, needs to comply with EU regulations. The establishment of the residue monitoring programme in Sri Lanka was commenced in 2002 at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Peradeniya. Three techniques have been established in Sri Lanka for monitoring antimicrobial residues in food of animal origin. The modified EU Six Plate Test (SPT) is a bioassay technique, which screens six groups of antimicrobials, namely; penicillin, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, macrolides (erythromycin), tetracycline and sulphonamides. Food commodities are screened for chloramphenicoommodities are screened for chloramphenicol residues using a commercially available ELISA kit (Euro Diagnostica, Netherlands), which is a microtiter plate, based competitive enzyme immunoassay. A HPLC-DAD technique has been established to detect nitrofuran metobolites in shrimp including the primary metobolites of furazolidone, furaltadone, nitrofurantoin and nitrofurazon. Since July 2002 a total of 1712 samples including 900 chicken samples and 812 shrimp samples were screened for antimicrobial residues using the SPT. Since November 2002, 1027 shrimp samples from export consignments have been tested using ELISA. In 2007 the HPLC technique was established and 85 shrimp samples have been tested. Out of the 900 broiler meat samples tested by SPT, 52 samples (5.8 %) showed positive results while all the shrimp samples tested were negative. Out of the 1027 shrimp samples tested using ELISA, 2 samples (0.2 %) were positive. All the samples tested using by HPLC were negative for nitrofuran metabolites. There is clear evidence that the frequency of residues occurrence in the samples tested decreased as the project progressed due to increased awareness among farmers on restrictions imposed on using antimicrobial agents in animal production. Trace back procedures were adopted in situations where residue violations were observed in order to initiate action to prevent reoccurrence through the appropriate and responsible use of antimicrobials, and efforts were taken to ensure sustainability of the project. Further, steps are now being taken to comply with ISO 17025 Certification in order to obtain the status of laboratory accreditation. The laboratory established at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka is now recognized as an Independent Reference Laboratory for monitoring antimicrobial residues in food of animal origin. The laboratory service for the analysis of food samples for antimicrobial residue monitoring is now extended to producers and quality assurance divisions of regulatory authorities. (author)

202

Post-disaster community tourism recovery: the tsunami and Arugam Bay, Sri Lanka.  

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Tourism is highly vulnerable to external, non-controllable events. A natural disaster can affect the local tourism industry in numerous ways, and such events are particularly devastating for small communities whose local economy is heavily dependent on the sector. Loss of infrastructure plus negative media stories can have long-term ramifications for the destination. In spite of the economic importance of tourism, post-disaster recovery efforts in this sector are often overlooked by non-governmental organisations (NGOs), which focus on more traditional livelihoods such as agriculture or fishing. This paper describes Mercy Corps' support of tourism recovery activities in Arugam Bay, a remote village on the east coast of Sri Lanka, following the 2004 tsunami. The local economic base is built largely on two sectors: community tourism and fishing. As many other actors were supporting recovery in the local fishing industry, Mercy Corps concentrated on revitalising the tourism sector. PMID:18479472

Robinson, Lyn; Jarvie, Jim K

2008-12-01

203

A Comparative Approach to Multigrade Class Implementation: Examples of Vietnam, Peru, Sri Lanka and Colombia  

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Full Text Available This article compares and evaluates the implementation of multi-grade class teaching in Turkey with similar applications in countries such as Vietnam, Peru, Sri Lanka and Colombia. From the comparison it was revealed that all dimensions of teacher training related to the method applied in Turkey should be reviewed in detail and the related curricula should be restructured; the application should be improved; the problems of the teachers working in these schools should be solved. A review of the related literature was carried out and it was found that multi-grade class teaching was more common than had been assumed and it had an important place in first stage elementary schools in Turkey.

?brahim Ya?ar KAZU

2011-12-01

204

Instructors’ Perspective on E-Learning Adoption in Sri Lanka: A Preliminary Investigation  

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Full Text Available E-Learning has become an increasingly popular mode of instruction in higher education due to advances in the Internet and multimedia technologies. The purpose of the study is to gauge the perception and views of the lecturers at South Eastern University (SEUSL. As it is an exploratory study, the case study method was undertaken. The result of the study indicates that the lecturers are with positive attitude and supportive mindset to embark on e-learning initiative and it also identified a number of factors that could potentially influence the e-learning implementation in the university. Moreover the findings are instrumental and directing in undertaking a comprehensive study to understand the overall perception of lecturers towards e-learning implementation at the tertiary educational institutions in Sri Lanka.

Husnayati Hussin

2008-12-01

205

Application of structural geology in exploration for residual gem deposits of Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Geological investigations of some major gem-bearing areas of Sri Lanka have shown that the gem deposits are controlled by the geological structure. Corundum deposits are generally associated with axial plane areas of tight, doubly plunging synclinoria and anticlinoria where occurrences of crystalline limestones and pegmatites are observed. Corundum deposits also occur at sites of heavy structural disturbances such as discontinuities, faults, folds, joints, lensing and necking zones etc. if occurrences of marbles and/or intrusions of granite and pegmatites have taken place. Alluvial gem deposits do not necessarily exist close to the area where they originate, but most concentrations of alluvial gem beds still remain close to the source area. Detailed investigations of the geological structure of a gem-bearing area and the relationship of these structural elements with appropriate source rocks will yield vital clues to the existence of gem deposits.

Mendis, D.P.J.

1993-06-01

206

Factors associated with caregiver burden among caregivers of children with cerebral palsy in sri lanka.  

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A cross-sectional study was conducted among 375 caregivers of children with cerebral palsy attending a tertiary care setting in Sri Lanka, to identify factors associated with caregiver burden. Caregiver burden was defined as "caregiver's response to various stressors associated with caregiving" and was measured using Caregiver Difficulties Scale (CDS), developed specifically for this purpose. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess associations between sociodemographic, stressor, and coping factors and caregiver burden; and to examine whether coping reduces the effect of stressors on burden. Low income, rural residence, male sex, and number of functional deficits of the disabled child correlated significantly with higher caregiver burden, while spousal support correlated with lower burden. Seeking social support reduced the increased burden associated with greater functional impairments. Psychosocial interventions focused on evaluating and improving social support for caregivers may help families at high risk for caregiver distress, to minimize negative outcomes. PMID:25204802

Wijesinghe, Champa J; Cunningham, Natasha; Fonseka, Pushpa; Hewage, Chandanie G; Østbye, Truls

2015-01-01

207

Municipal solid waste management in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka: problems, issues and challenges.  

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This paper describes the problems, issues and challenges faced by Sri Lanka based on the outcome of a recent study conducted in the country's Southern Province. The study consists of a public survey, discussions with local authority staff involved in waste management, discussions with Provincial Council and Government officials, dialogue with local politicians, review of documents and field observations. The study revealed that only 24% of the households have access to waste collection and that in rural areas it was less than 2%. A substantial number of households in areas without waste collection expect local authorities to collect their waste. The study also showed that most sites in the province are under capacity to handle any increased demand. Urgent and immediate improvement of the waste disposal sites is necessary to meet the current demand for improved waste collection. The study also revealed that there is a high willingness of people for home composting. PMID:16298122

Vidanaarachchi, Chandana K; Yuen, Samuel T S; Pilapitiya, Sumith

2006-01-01

208

Occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Bolgoda and Beira Lakes, Sri Lanka.  

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The pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been widely used to assess the potential impact of anthropogenic activities on aquatic environments because their occurrence in water is closely tied to urban activities. Many PAHs possess mutagenic and carcinogenic properties (Menzie et al. 1992). PAH distribution and toxic potentials have therefore been the focus of numerous studies in waterways including the Great Lakes (USEPA Report 1994), Yanisei Bay (Dahle et al., 2003), and the Fraser River basin (Yunker et al., 2002). Sri Lanka, a small island nation with a dense population of about 20 million people, faces a multitude of environmental stresses ranging from deforestation to traffic congestion and the deterioration of water quality. This study was undertaken to understand the occurrence, sources, and potential impacts of PAHs in the waterways of Sri Lanka. Two lakes, Beira and Bolgoda, were selected for the study due to their economic value and high level of pollution. Beira Lake, situated in downtown Colombo, the capital city of Sri Lanka, is highly polluted. Sources of pollution are multifarious. For instance, clusters of communities have sprung up along the edges of the lake in recent times and many shacks have been built. These communities are generally not connected to municipal sewer systems and substantial quantities of domestic sewage and untreated wastewaters are discharged directly into the lake. Small industries have also grown rapidly around the lakes, most of which are not believed to have adequate facilities to treat industrial wastewater, especially organic wastes. In addition, Sri Lanka has experienced an upsurge of motor vehicles, including millions of three-wheelers and minivans that are powered by leaded gasoline and diesel fuels. Traffic congestion and severe air pollution due to vehicle emissions are now common daily occurrences and are considered a major potential source of PAHs in the lakes. Although Bolgoda Lake is situated some distance from Colombo, it is heavily polluted due to the growing number of towns with an attendant increase in small businesses and various industries along its shores. These new developments have undoubtedly impacted the lake through the discharge of PAHs and other anthropogenic chemicals present in industrial wastewater and from street runoffs. The lake, additionally, receives a large quantity of pollutants from the industrial zone in the north. The pollution caused by PAHs has led to various studies on the distribution and origin of PAHs in the environment (Yunker et al., 1996; Budzinski et al., 1997). Based on the proportions of different PAHs, most studies aim to distinguish PAHs of petrogenic sources from those of pyrolytic origins. The PAHs of petrogenic origin, prevalent in coals and fossil fuels, are formed from diagenesis of sedimentary organic material under low to moderate temperature and tend to consist of low-molecular-weight PAHs with two to three aromatic rings (Potter et al., 1998). The pyrolytic PAHs, on the other hand, are formed at much higher temperatures (greater than 500 degrees C for example) and consist mainly of four or more aromatic rings (Commins, 1969). Thus, an increase in the proportion of higher-molecular-weight PAHs is taken to be indicative of contaminations of mainly pyrolytic origin. The prevalence of high-molecular-weight PAHs in the urban dusts (Wise et al., 1988) and in atmospheric particles (Sicre et al., 1987) illustrates the chemistry of their formation at high temperature. The purpose of this study was to determine the PAH concentrations and distribution with respect to sampling location, origin and sources in two polluted lakes. PMID:17522750

Pathiratne, K A S; De Silva, O C P; Hehemann, David; Atkinson, Ian; Wei, Robert

2007-08-01

209

Municipal solid waste management in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka: Problems, issues and challenges  

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This paper describes the problems, issues and challenges faced by Sri Lanka based on the outcome of a recent study conducted in the country's Southern Province. The study consists of a public survey, discussions with local authority staff involved in waste management, discussions with Provincial Council and Government officials, dialogue with local politicians, review of documents and field observations. The study revealed that only 24% of the households have access to waste collection and that in rural areas it was less than 2%. A substantial number of households in areas without waste collection expect local authorities to collect their waste. The study also showed that most sites in the province are under capacity to handle any increased demand. Urgent and immediate improvement of the waste disposal sites is necessary to meet the current demand for improved waste collection. The study also revealed that there is a high willingness of people for home composting

210

Ultra-micro trace element contents in spices from Sri Lanka  

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Spices were analyzed by ICP-MS for determination of the ultra-micro trace elements in the human adult, Bi, Cd, Co, Ni, Pd, Pt, Se, Sn, Te, Tl, to complement previous results obtained by INAA and by EDXRF. The spices, originating from Sri Lanka, were curry, chilli powder and turmeric powders, coriander, cinnamon, black pepper, fennel, rampeh and curry leaves, and cumin. The analytical procedure was validated by analyzing the certified reference materials NIST SRM 1572 Citrus Leaves and NIST SRM 1573 Tomato Leaves. The results indicate that spices may contribute well to the daily optimal uptake of nutrients of a human adult. The adequacy of spices as a reference material with certified ultra micro trace elements is suggested. (author)

211

Real-Time Biosurveillance Pilot Programme in Sri Lanka: Lessons Learned  

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Full Text Available The latter parts of 2007 and early months of 2008 witnessed an alarming number of deaths due to a Leptospirosis outbreak in Sri Lanka(1. An unusual number of patients presenting with symptoms of fever, headache or myalgia concentrated in particular geographic areas (North Central and North Western Province in Sri Lanka could have signalled the epidemiologists of an abnormal event with the help of a quicker surveillance programme leading to possible implementation of optimal strategies which could possibly have minimized the early deaths and even prevented the progression of the outbreak. The present day paper-based disease surveillance and notification systems in Sri Lanka(2, confined to a set of notifiable diseases, often require 15-30 days to communicate data and for the central Epidemiology Unit to process it. This latency does not allow for timely detection of disease outbreaks and it limits the ability of the health system to effectively respond and mitigate their consequences. Therefore it negatively affects the health status of the work force and productivity of the country. The Real Time Bio-surveillance Program (RTBP is a pilot study aiming to introduce modern technology to the Health Department of Sri Lanka to complement the existing disease surveillance and notification systems. The processes involve digitizing all clinical health records and analysing them in near real-time to detect unusual events to forewarn health workers before the diseases reach epidemic states. Similar studies have been conducted on bio terrorism surveillance in Winnipeg, Canada(3, pandemic surveillance in Morocco(4 and North Carolina Disease Event Tracking and Epidemiologic Collection Tool (NC DETECT in North Carolina(5. The infrastructure of the project RTBP is composed of an interconnected network between health care workers via mHealthSurvey mobile phone application, T-Cube web interface (TCWI and Sahana Messaging/Alerting Module. Health records from health facilities, namely demographic information, symptoms, suspected and diagnosed diseases are collected through the mHealthSurvey, a mobile phone application(6, that feed in to the TCWI(7, a browser based software tool that detects adverse events; health officials are notified of the adverse events using the Sahana Alerting module that transports via Short Message Service (SMS, Email, and Web(10. Evaluation of the RTBP involves a replication study and parallel cohort study. This pilot study indicates the need for more robust mobile application for data collection with complete ontology, semantics and vocabulary in disease-syndrome information to reduce noise and increase reliability in the datasets. More rigorous capacity building and frequent use is required for health officials to take advantage of the full potential of TCWI. This paper discusses the technologies used in the pilot and the initial findings in relation to usability of the system.

Weerasinghe Gamachchige Chamindu Sampath

2010-07-01

212

Molecular evidence for the presence of malaria vector species a of the Anopheles annularis complex in Sri Lanka  

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Abstract Background Anopheles annularis s.l. is a wide spread malaria vector in South and Southeast Asia, including Sri Lanka. The taxon An. annularis is a complex of two sibling species viz. A and B, that are differentiated by chromosome banding patterns and ribosomal gene sequences in India. Only species A is reported to be a malaria vector in India while the occurrence of sibling species in Sri Lanka has not been documented previously. Findings...

Surendran Sinnathamby N; Gajapathy Kanapathy; Kumaran Vaitheki; Tharmatha Tharmasegaram; Jude Pavilupillai J; Ramasamy Ranjan

2011-01-01

213

Impact of distributed and independent power generation on greenhouse gas emissions: Sri Lanka  

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Sri Lanka has a hydropower dominated power system with approximately two thirds of its generation capacity based on large hydro plants. The remaining one third are based on oil fired thermal generation with varying technologies, such as oil steam, Diesel, gas turbines and combined cycle plants. A significant portion of this capacity is in operation as independent power plants (IPPs). In addition to these, Sri Lanka presently has about 40 MWs of mini-hydro plants, which are distributed in the highlands and their surrounding districts, mainly connected to the primary distribution system. Further, there are a few attempts to build fuel wood fired power plants of small capacities and connect them to the grid in various parts of the country. The study presented in this paper investigates the impact of these new developments in the power sector on the overall emissions and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in particular. It examines the resulting changes to the emissions and costs in the event of developing the proposed coal power plant as an IPP under different investment and operational conditions. The paper also examines the impact on emissions with 80 MWs of distributed power in different capacities of wind, mini-hydro and wood fired power plants. It is concluded that grid connected, distributed power generation (DPG) reduces emissions, with only a marginal increase in overall costs, due to the reduction in transmission and distribution network losses that result from tribution network losses that result from the distributed nature of generation. These reductions can be enhanced by opting for renewable energy based DPGS, as the case presented in the paper, and coupling them with demand side management measures. It is also concluded that there is no impact on overall emissions by the base load IPPs unless they are allowed to change over to different fuel types and technologies. (author)

214

Collective trauma in northern Sri Lanka: a qualitative psychosocial-ecological study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex situations that follow war and natural disasters have a psychosocial impact on not only the individual but also on the family, community and society. Just as the mental health effects on the individual psyche can result in non pathological distress as well as a variety of psychiatric disorders; massive and widespread trauma and loss can impact on family and social processes causing changes at the family, community and societal levels. Method This qualitative, ecological study is a naturalistic, psychosocial ethnography in Northern Sri Lanka, while actively involved in psychosocial and community mental health programmes among the Tamil community. Participatory observation, key informant interviews and focus group discussion with community level relief and rehabilitation workers and government and non-governmental officials were used to gather data. The effects on the community of the chronic, man-made disaster, war, in Northern Sri Lanka were compared with the contexts found before the war and after the tsunami. Results Fundamental changes in the functioning of the family and the community were observed. While the changes after the tsunami were not so prominent, the chronic war situation caused more fundamental social transformations. At the family level, the dynamics of single parent families, lack of trust among members, and changes in significant relationships, and child rearing practices were seen. Communities tended to be more dependent, passive, silent, without leadership, mistrustful, and suspicious. Additional adverse effects included the breakdown in traditional structures, institutions and familiar ways of life, and deterioration in social norms and ethics. A variety of community level interventions were tried. Conclusion Exposure to conflict, war and disaster situations impact on fundamental family and community dynamics resulting in changes at a collective level. Relief, rehabilitation and development programmes to be effective will need to address the problem of collective trauma, particularly using integrated multi-level approaches.

Somasundaram Daya

2007-10-01

215

Board Leadership Structure, Audit Committee and Audit Quality: Evidence from Manufacturing Companies in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Purpose: This paper aims to analyze whether the corporate governance attributes such as board leadershipstructure, audit committee meetings held, size of independent non-executive directors and size of non-executivedirectors have significant impact on audit quality of manufacturing companies listed on Colombo Stock Exchange,Sri Lanka during 2011 to 2013.Research Design: The study takes 32 manufacturing companies listed in Sri Lanka out of 36 as sample andemploys binary logistic regression method for modeling the association between a binary dependent variable suchas audit quality and multiple independent variables such as board leadership structure, audit committee meetingsheld, size of independent non-executive directors, and size of non-executive directors.Findings: The study finds the logistic regression model for overall evaluation, statistical tests of individualpredictors and goodness-of-fit. As per the output, Hosmer and Lemeshow test reveals the model for goodness offit with chi-square of 17.503 and with probability value of 0.008, which is significant at five percent levels. Cox &Snell R Square reveal 56.2 % of the variance in audit quality. Whereas board leadership structure and auditcommittee meetings held have significant relationship with audit quality, size of non-executive directors and sizeof independent non-executive directors have shown insignificant association.Research Limitation-As sample size is relatively small, there may be a challenge to generalize the results ofthis study widely.Originality-This research contributes to the literature by adding the significant association between somecorporate governance variables and audit quality. The findings from this research could be generalized to thecompanies similar to this category.

Thirunavukarasu Velnampy

2014-03-01

216

A deterministic analysis of tsunami hazard and risk for the southwest coast of Sri Lanka  

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This paper describes a multi-scenario, deterministic analysis carried out as a pilot study to evaluate the tsunami hazard and risk distribution in the southwest coast of Sri Lanka. The hazard and risk assessment procedure adopted was also assessed against available field records of the impact of the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004. An evaluation of numerically simulated nearshore tsunami amplitudes corresponding to ‘maximum-credible' scenarios from different subduction segments in the Indian Ocean surrounding Sri Lanka suggests that a seismic event similar to that generated the tsunami in 2004 can still be considered as the ‘worst-case' scenario for the southwest coast. Furthermore, it appears that formation of edge waves trapped by the primary waves diffracting around the southwest significantly influences the nearshore tsunami wave field and is largely responsible for relatively higher tsunami amplitudes in certain stretches of the coastline under study. The extent of inundation from numerical simulations corresponding to the worst-case scenario shows good overall agreement with the points of maximum penetration of inundation from field measurements in the aftermath of the 2004 tsunami. It can also be seen that the inundation distribution is strongly influenced by onshore topography. The present study indicates that the mean depth of inundation could be utilised as a primary parameter to quantify the spatial distribution of the tsunami hazard. The spatial distribution of the risk of the tsunami hazard to the population and residential buildings computed by employing the standard risk formula shows satisfactory correlation with published statistics of the affected population and the damage to residential property during the tsunami in 2004.

Wijetunge, J. J.

2014-05-01

217

Emplacement and Evolution History of Pegmatites and Hydrothermal Deposits, Matale District, Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Excellent outcrops in Matale Sri Lanka provide unique insight into the emplacement and evolution history of hydrothermal and pegmatitic rocks in the central highlands of Sri Lanka. Field, structural, petrological, thermo-barometric studies in the metamorphic basement rocks in the central highlands and related hydrothermal deposits are presented in this study. Detailed petrographic and mineralogical data reveal peak metamorphic conditions for the crustal unit in the study area as 854 ± 44oC at 10.83 ± 0.86 kbar. Hydrothermal veins consisting of quartz and mica are closely related to cross-cutting pegmatites, which significantly post-date the peak metamorphic conditions of the crustal unit. Field relations indicate that the veins originated as ductile-brittle fractures have subsequently sealed by pegmatites and hydrothermal crystallization. Geological, textural and mineralogical data suggest that most enriched hydrothermal veins have evolved from a fractionated granitic melt progressively enriched in H2O, F, etc. Quartz, K-feldspar, mica, tourmaline, fluorite and topaz bear evidence of multistage crystallization that alternated with episodes of resorption. It was suggested that the level of emplacement of pegmatites of the Matale District was middle crust, near the crustal scale brittle-ductile transition zone at a temperature of about 600oC. For this crustal level and temperature range, it is considered very unlikely that intruding pegmatitic melts followed pre-existing cracks. As such the emplacement temperatures of the pegmatites could be well below the peak metamorphic estimates in the mafic granulites. The metamorphic P-T strategy and position of formation of hydrothermal deposits and pegmatites is summarized in the modified P-T-t-D diagrams.

G.W.A.R Fernando

2011-08-01

218

Poverty Incidence and its Determinants in the Estate Sector of Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Poverty measurement and analysis are needed to identify the poor, the nature and extent of poverty and its determinants, and to assess the impact of policies and programmes on the poor. The government of Sri Lanka has been spending huge sums of money for poverty alleviation and social welfare since its independence. Yet, poverty is still severe and widespread in Sri Lanka, especially in the estate and rural areas .The objective of this study is to find out and analyze the significant determinants of the incidence of poverty in the estate sector where the highest level of chronic poverty and unemployment exist. The national and regional poverty survey data and other official socio economic cross sectional data from selected provinces were used to analyze the extent of poverty in plantation sector in which 89 Divisional Secretariat from provinces such as Subaragamuva, Central and Uva were considered for the analysis. The econometric model were fitted and estimated in this study. Furthermore, Log transformation was conducted and heteroskedasticity problem was detected with the use of statistical software. The Ordinary Least Square (OLS regression analysis clearly indicates that, variables such as industrial employment, education, access to market and infrastructure significantly and negatively affect the poverty incidence of the estate sector. Also, agricultural employment has a negative impact but not significant. The R2 of 0.82 explains the statistical fitness of the model and the Prob (F-statistics also confirms it. Analysis with the Durbin–Watson stat confirms that, there is no auto correlation between the variables. The results emphasize the need for adapting policies for regional infrastructural improvement as well as market and educational development in the plantation sector.

B?ezinová Olga

2012-03-01

219

Informed consent in Sri Lanka: A survey among ethics committee members  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Approval of the research proposal by an ethical review committee from both sponsoring and host countries is a generally agreed requirement in externally sponsored research. However, capacity for ethics review is not universal. Aim of this study was to identify opinions and views of the members serving in ethical review and ethics committees in Sri Lanka on informed consent, essential components in the information leaflet and the consent form. Methods We obtained ethical approval from UK and Sri Lanka. A series of consensus generation meetings on the protocol were conducted. A task oriented interview guide was developed. The interview was based on open-ended questionnaire. Then the participants were given a WHO checklist on informed consent and requested to rate the items on a three point scale ranging from extremely important to not important. Results Twenty-nine members from ethics committees participated. Majority of participants (23, believed a copy of the information leaflet and consent form, should accompany research proposal. Opinions about the items that should be included in the information leaflets varied. Participants identified 18 criteria as requirements in the information leaflet and 19 for the consent form. The majority, 20 (69%, believed that all research need ethical approval but identified limited human resource, time and inadequate capacity as constraints. Fifteen (52% believed that written consent is not required for all research. Verbal consent emerged as an alternative to written consent. The majority of participants rated all components of the WHO checklist as important. Conclusion The number of themes generated for the consent form (N = 18 is as many as for the information leaflet (N = 19 and had several overlaps. This suggests that the consent form should be itemized to reflect the contents covered in the information leaflet. The participants' opinion on components of the information leaflets and consent forms proved to be similar with WHO checklist on informed consent.

Siriwardhana Chesmal

2008-05-01

220

Muslim Demand for Territorial Autonomy in the Eastern Sri Lanka: An Analysis of Its Origin, Accommodation and the Present Stance  

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Full Text Available Since Sri Lankan ethnic conflict was considered as a confrontation between the majority Sinhalese and the minority Tamils, the impact of conflict and civil war on other [minority] ethnic groups has always been sidetracked by major parties involved in resolving conflict. One of the communities severely impacted but always forgotten in the discourse of resolution process is the Muslims who ever resorted to violent agitations and arm rebellion to resolve their problem and achieve their political objectives. However, the constant impact of ethnic conflict and civil war on the lives and livelihoods of the community caused them to search for political and institutional mechanism to protect them. Muslim autonomy demand has emerged on this backdrop in the middle of 1980s and has been advocated by Muslim parties and public in the discourse of ethnic politics in Sri Lanka. There has been changing dynamics, phases of acceleration and sidetracks on the advocacy of the demand. This paper aims to examine the changing dynamics of the Muslim demand for territorial autonomy in the eastern part of Sri Lanka. The study was conducted using both primary and secondary data collected from desk analysis and field survey conducted in three years. Analysis of the study is interpretive and descriptive in nature. Findings reveal that the fragmentation of Muslims politics, demerge of north-eastern province, and the new political context in eastern Sri Lanka not only caused to sidetrack the demand but also made the demand politically contested and irrelevant.

Mohammad Agus Yusoff

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

Convictions Beyond the Bomb: Interplays Between Violence, Religion and Development in Sri Lanka (abstract  

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Full Text Available Prior to the conclusion of 30 years of civil war, many ordinary Sri Lankans were caught in bombings intended to disrupt daily life. This occurred not only in the war zone, but also in urban areas, primarily the capital of Colombo. While many lost their lives, others survived – scarred, disabled and traumatised. This chapter explores the meaning of ‘survival’ as experienced in newly-formed role of ‘bomb victim’. In doing so, this chapter questions the capacity of survivors to be productive as breadwinners and/or deal with the severe economic dislocations resulting from the drastic changes in their lives’ trajectories. Overall, the chapter finds that the loss of income and inability to fully participate in the market economy isolating the survivors from the main discourses of development, and purported opportunities offered therein. The end of hostilities has marked a clear drive to develop Sri Lanka, and in this important post-war stage, it is important to note the various ways in which religion is used to address survival needs. This chapter thus highlights the dynamic interplay between religion, political violence and development. In doing so, the chapter examines religious responses to (neo liberal, market-driven globalisation, the experience of terror and violence, and the interaction thereof.

Indika Bulankulame

2013-02-01

222

Constipation in children: an epidemiological study in Sri Lanka using Rome III criteria.  

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Constipation is a common paediatric problem, but its prevalence in Asia is unknown. A cross-sectional survey using a previously validated, self-administered questionnaire was conducted in randomly selected children aged 10-16 years, in five randomly selected schools in Sri Lanka. Two schools were in Eastern Province, which has been affected by the separatist war. Constipation was defined using Rome III criteria. Of 2694 children included in the analysis, 416 (15.4%) had constipation. Symptoms independently associated with constipation were straining (71.6% vs 28.4% of controls), bleeding per rectum (14.2% vs 2.2%) and abdominal pain (55% vs 35.2%). The prevalence of constipation was significantly higher in those with a family history of constipation (49% vs 14.8%), living in a war affected area (18.1% vs 13.7%) and attending an urban school (16.7% vs 13.3%). In conclusion, chronic constipation is a significant problem affecting 15% of Sri Lankan school children and adolescents. PMID:20573735

Rajindrajith, Shaman; Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Adhikari, Chandralatha; Pannala, Waruni; Benninga, Marc A

2012-01-01

223

Non-cognitive characteristics predicting academic success among medical students in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify non-cognitive and socio-demographic characteristics determining academic success of Sri Lankan medical undergraduates. Methods A retrospective study among 90 recently graduated students of the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka. Students were stratified into two equal groups; ‘High-achievers’ (honours degree at the final MBBS examination and ‘Low-achievers’ (repeated one or more subjects at the same examination. A revised version of the Non-cognitive Questionnaire (NQ with additional socio-demographic data was the study instrument. Academic performance indicator was performance at the final MBBS examinations. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed using the dichotomous variable ‘Honours degree at final MBBS’ as the dependant factor. Results Males were 56.7%. Mean age?±?SD was 26.4?±?0.9?years. ‘High-achievers’ were significantly younger than ‘Low-achievers’. Significant proportion of ‘High-achievers’ were from the Western province and selected to university from Colombo district. A significant majority of ‘High-achievers’ entered medical school from their first attempt at GCE A/L examination and obtained ‘Distinctions’ at the GCE A/L English subject. ‘High-achievers’ demonstrated a significantly higher mean score for the following domains of NQ; Positive self-concept and confidence, realistic self-appraisal, leadership, preference of long range goals and academic familiarity. The binary logistic regression indicates that age, being selected to university from Colombo district, residency in Western province, entering university from GCE A/L first attempt, obtaining a ‘Distinction’ for GCE A/L English subject, higher number of patient-oriented case discussions, positive self-concept and confidence, leadership qualities, preference of long range goals and academic familiarity all significantly increased the odds of obtaining a Honours degree. Conclusion A combined system incorporating both past academic performance and non-cognitive characteristics might help improve the selection process and early recognition of strugglers.

Ranasinghe Priyanga

2012-08-01

224

TSUNAMI ON 26 DECEMBER 2004: SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF TSUNAMI HEIGHT AND THE EXTENT OF INUNDATION IN SRI LANKA  

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Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of the massive tsunami of 26 December 2004 on Sri Lanka bytracing the tsunami height, the extent of inundation and the level of damage along the affectedcoastal belt. The results of an extensive field survey that was carried out in the east, south andwest coasts to record the evidence of water levels left behind by the tsunami clearly indicate non-uniform spatial distribution of inundation along the affected coastline of the country. Thetsunami inundation had been significantly greater for most parts of the east and the south-eastcoastal areas than the south, south-west and the west coasts of Sri Lanka. The results alsoindicate the possible influence of the coastal geomorphology on the extent of inundation. On theother hand, the measurements suggest maximum tsunami heights of 3 m – 7 m along the eastcoast, 3 m – 11 m on the south coast, and 1.5 m – 6 m on the west coast.

Janaka J. Wijetunge

2006-01-01

225

Socio-Environmental Impact of Water Pollution on the Mid-canal (Meda Ela, Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Unplanned urban population growth in developing countries such as Sri Lanka exert pressures on the sectors of water supply, sewage disposal, waste management, and surface drainage in the cities as well as their surrounding areas. The Mid-canal is considered the most polluted surface water body in the Kandy district of Sri Lanka and contributes significantly to pollution of the Mahaweli River. Health problems in the nearby population may well be associated with environmental degradation and related to deteriorated water quality. The overall objectives of this study were to identify the socio-economic status of the community settled along the Meda Ela banks, and to examine the current water quality status of the Meda Ela and possible impacts of the nearby residents on water quality. Additionally, we propose remedial measures concerning wastewater and solid waste disposal to improve environmental conditions in this area.

Jing Yuan Wang

2012-07-01

226

Using focus groups to investigate service quality determinants for customer satisfaction in selected university libraries in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available This study aimed at establishing service quality determinants which may affect customer satisfaction in university libraries in Sri Lanka. Using the literature, 113 service quality determinants were identified. These were then reviewed by eight focus groups in four different universities. Forty of the determinants were perceived to be applicable to their context. The participants also added 14 quality requirements which they thought were not provided for in the list. Finally, the content and face validity of the 54 determinants were evaluated by a panel of experts who ultimately reduced them to 50. This study recommends the use of the identified quality determinants by library administrators and policymakers in the higher education sector in Sri Lanka to gauge the levels of customer satisfaction and assure quality of service.

Chaminda Jayasundara

2010-01-01

227

An Early Historic Assemblage Offshore of Godawaya, Sri Lanka: Evidence for Early Regional Seafaring in South Asia  

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Investigations in 2010 by an international team of maritime archaeologists yielded a concentration of artefacts identified here by the authors as the remains of a shipwreck off the southern coastal village of Godawaya, Sri Lanka. The major findings from this site include many quern stones, various types of ceramics, and glass ingots. The comparative study of the artefacts from the Godawaya site and terrestrial sites of Sri Lanka and India suggest that the ship might have originated from the southern part of the Indian subcontinent. Based on analysis of the artefacts and radiocarbon dating of wood fragments from the site, a broad date of 2nd BCE to 2nd centuries CE is assigned to the assemblage, placing it within the early historical period. Thus, this is the earliest known and as-yet investigated shipwreck in South Asia. The survey findings are discussed and the assemblage is contextualised within the present lack of evidence for early vessels and seafaring in the region.

Muthucumarana, R.; Gaur, A. S.; Chandraratne, W. M.; Manders, M.; Ramlingeswara Rao, B.; Bhushan, Ravi; Khedekar, V. D.; Dayananda, A. M. A.

2014-06-01

228

Analysis of patients admitted with history of road traffic accidents to surgical unit B Teaching Hospital Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka  

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Background Road Traffic Accidents (RTA) is a leading cause of morbidity, mortalityand disability in Sri Lanka. Identification of factors associated with RTA in local settings is essential in redusing the burden of this conditionMethods We analyzed consecutive patients admitted with RTA toSurgical Unit-B,Teaching Hospital Anuradhapura from 01/10/ 2012 to 31/03/2013. Epidemiology, injury pattern, vehicle type, cause for accident and contributory factors were noted.Results Altogether, 214 consec...

Wak, Weerawardena; Tdb, Illanagasingha; Ij, Piyadasa; Sm, Rathnayaka; Wtdupl, Subaweera; Gal, Niroshana

2013-01-01

229

Environmental and human risks of pesticide use in Thailand and Sri Lanka; results of a preliminary risk assessment  

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Currently, a major difficulty facing the establishment of sustainable management plans in complex agricultural systems in the tropics is the lack of sufficient relevant information on important ecological, hydrological and land use processes that underpin the various values generated by natural resources. By applying baseline information from two study sites in Thailand and Sri Lanka, the MAMAS project aims at developing cost-effective tests and other environmental diagnostic tools that can u...

Brink, P. J.; Sureshkumar, N.; Daam, M. A.; Domingues, I.; Milwain, G. K.; Beltman, W. H. J.; Perera, M. W. P.; Satapornvanit, K.

2003-01-01

230

Homegardens as a multi-functional land-use strategy in Sri Lanka with focus on carbon sequestration.  

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This paper explores the concept of homegardens and their potential functions as strategic elements in land-use planning, and adaptation and mitigation to climate change in Sri Lanka. The ancient and locally adapted agroforestry system of homegardens is presently estimated to occupy nearly 15 % of the land area in Sri Lanka and is described in the scientific literature to offer several ecosystem services to its users; such as climate regulation, protection against natural hazards, enhanced land productivity and biological diversity, increased crop diversity and food security for rural poor and hence reduced vulnerability to climate change. Our results, based on a limited sample size, indicate that the homegardens also store significant amount of carbon, with above ground biomass carbon stocks in dry zone homegardens (n = 8) ranging from 10 to 55 megagrams of carbon per hectare (Mg C ha(-1)) with a mean value of 35 Mg C ha(-1), whereas carbon stocks in wet zone homegardens (n = 4) range from 48 to 145 Mg C ha(-1) with a mean value of 87 Mg C ha(-1). This implies that homegardens may contain a significant fraction of the total above ground biomass carbon stock in the terrestrial system in Sri Lanka, and from our estimates its share has increased from almost one-sixth in 1992 to nearly one-fifth in 2010. In the light of current discussions on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+), the concept of homegardens in Sri Lanka provides interesting aspects to the debate and future research in terms of forest definitions, setting reference levels, and general sustainability. PMID:23456780

Mattsson, Eskil; Ostwald, Madelene; Nissanka, S P; Marambe, Buddhi

2013-11-01

231

Optimization of the performance ofdown-draft biomass gasifier installedat National Engineering Research &Development (NERD) Centre ofSri Lanka  

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Using biomass gasification to produce combustible gas is one of the promising sustainable energy optionsavailable for many countries. At present, a few small scale community based power generation systemsusing biomass gasifiers are in operation in Sri Lanka. However, due to the lack of proper knowledge, thesesystems are not being operated properly in full capacity. This stands as an obstacle for further expansionof the use of gasifier technology.The objective of this study was to identify the...

Gunarathne, Duleeka

2012-01-01

232

Diversity and Population status of Bats in Pilikuttuwa ancient cave temple in the Gampaha District, Sri Lanka  

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Due to two unique specializations - echolocation and flight, bats have become one of the most successful groups of extant mammals in the world. Pilikuttuwa rajamaha viharaya, an ancient meditation monastery complex is a one of best places for bats which gives protection in Sri Lanka. In the present study, we evaluate the species diversity and population status of bats in Pilikuttuwa ancient meditation monastery complex with regard to their roosting ecology. Six species of bats including Tapho...

Tharaka Kusuminda, T. G.; Edirisinghe, W. G. M.; Nanayakkara, Ranil P.; Nilantha Vishvanath

2013-01-01

233

Armed Conflict Termination in Sri Lanka: An Opportunity to End Displaced Life and Renew Tamil-Muslim Relations  

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Full Text Available The 30 years of local armed conflict in Sri Lanka that broke out between the state security forces and Liberation Tigers of Tamil Ealam (LTTE in early 1980s came to an end after Sri Lankan government demolished the LTTE in 2009. A termination of such civil war was highly hoped by the people displaced by the same armed conflict, mainly Tamils and Muslims, to be an opportunity to return to their homes ending their protracted displaced live. The termination was also widely interpreted by Tamil and Muslim communities as an opportunity to renew their onetime ethnic relations, which today remained vulnerably damaged after this armed conflict. The return and the renewal of Tamil-Muslim relations have been two most notable aspects that have received a dominant position in social development programme and Tamil-Muslim public discourse of the post-conflict Sri Lanka. This paper is an attempt to examine if the Sri Lanka’s conflict termination has really served to end the displaced life and to bring Tamil-Muslim relations back. The paper focuses only on Muslims. This is a qualitative study. 11 Muslims, five from north and six from east, were recruited with purposive sample. The data was collected by one-on-one interviews with respondents and analysed with a descriptive method. The findings suggested that the conflict termination has hardly satisfied people’s hope to end their displaced live and renew their former ethnic relations. The paper, therefore, proposed some recommendations that need to be effectively advanced by government, civil communities and even non-governmental actors.

Salithamby Abdul Rauff

2013-01-01

234

The role of private drug vendors as malaria treatment providers in selected malaria endemic areas of Sri Lanka  

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Background & objectives: The involvement of private drug vendors in malaria treatment isparticularly high in developing countries and understanding their practices and knowledge aboutantimalarials and malaria treatment will aid in devising strategies to increase the correct use ofantimalarials and improve adherence to the government’s malaria drug policy. Results of a study onthe knowledge and practices of the private drug vendors conducted in seven districts in Sri Lanka,mostly in malariou...

R S Rajakaruna, M. Weerasinghe

2006-01-01

235

Epidemic of self-poisoning with seeds of the yellow oleander tree (Thevetia peruviana) in northern Sri Lanka.  

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Deliberate self-harm is an important problem in the developing world. Ingestion of yellow oleander seeds (Thevetia peruviana) has recently become a popular method of self-harm in northern Sri Lanka -- there are now thousands of cases each year. These seeds contain cardiac glycosides that cause vomiting, dizziness, and cardiac dysrhythmias such as conduction block affecting the sinus and AV nodes. This paper reports a study of the condition's mortality and morbidity conducted in 1995 in Anurad...

Eddleston, M.; Ariaratnam, Ca; Meyer, Wp; Perera, G.; Kularatne, Am; Attapattu, S.; Sheriff, Mh; Warrell, Da

1999-01-01

236

Mental Health and the Role of Cultural and Religious Support in the Assistance of Disabled Veterans in Sri Lanka  

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This study examined the prevalence of PTSD and CES-D depressive symptoms, their association with previously untested supportive resources such as Buddhist religious activities, Buddhist bodhipuja rituals and horoscope readings for 45 recently wounded veterans in Sri Lanka. The results revealed an 85.4% prevalence rate of clinical levels of CES-D depression and a 42.2% prevalence rate of clinical levels of PTSD. The results of this study provide unique evidence for the significant role of Bu...

Thulitha Wickrama; Piyanjali de Zoysa

2011-01-01

237

Quality change and mass loss of paddy during airtight storage in a ferro-cement bin in Sri Lanka  

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In Sri Lanka, prices for paddy fluctuate severely showing a minimum price at harvest. To benefit from higher prices, farmers strive to store paddy, but lack of facilities and poor storage management cause quantitative and qualitative losses by rodents, insects and microbial deterioration. To overcome these problems an airtight storage system, based on a ferro-cement bin, has been developed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the storage system in terms of paddy quality and mass loss....

Adhikarinayake, T. B.; Palipane, K. B.; Mu?ller, J.

2006-01-01

238

Analysis of Forensic Medicine questions in the undergraduate medical curriculum of the University of Peradeniya , Sri Lanka  

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Introduction Forensic Medicine is a subject in the undergraduate medical curriculum in Sri Lanka. Several evaluations comprising of essay and structured essay types of questions are used for the evaluation of students. Since recent trends in medical education stresses the importance of promoting higher order thinking, such as analyzing and evaluating, rather than just remembering facts it was decided to conduct a study with a view to determining the cognitive level of the essay and struct...

Dh, Edussuriya; Marambe, K.; Abeysekara, Y.

2014-01-01

239

Impact of Economic Labour Migration: A Qualitative Exploration of Left-Behind Family Member Perspectives in Sri Lanka.  

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Sri Lanka is a major labour sending country in Asia, with a high proportion of female labour migrants employed as domestic housemaids in the Middle East with increasing remittances. Despite such financial gains for families and national economy, health and social effects on the left-behind families have had limited exploration. This qualitative study was carried out across five districts with high labour migration rates in Sri Lanka. Twenty in-depth interviews were conducted with participants recruited through purposive sampling. Data was analysed using content and thematic analysis and emerging themes were mapped. Pre-migration socio-economic situation, economic difficulties and higher earning possibilities abroad were considered to be the major push and pull factors for labour migration. Post-migration periods were shown to be of mixed benefit to left-behind families and children suffer the negative effects of parental absence. The absence of support mechanisms for dealing with adverse events such as serious injury, death, abuse or imprisonment were cited as major concerns. Post-migration periods affect the health, well-being and family structures of left-behind families. Promoting economic prosperity while ensuring health and social protection is a formidable policy challenge for 'labour sending' countries such as Sri Lanka. PMID:24242226

Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Wickramage, Kolitha; Jayaweera, Kaushalya; Adikari, Anushka; Weerawarna, Sulochana; Van Bortel, Tine; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sumathipala, Athula

2013-11-17

240

A theoretical model to predict customer satisfaction in relation to service quality in selected university libraries in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available University library administrators in Sri Lanka have begun to search for alternative ways to satisfy their clientele on the basis of service quality. This article aims at providing a theoretical model to facilitate the identification of service quality attributes and domains that may be used to predict customer satisfaction from a service quality perspective. The effectiveness of existing service quality models such as LibQUAL, SERVQUAL and SERVPREF have been questioned. In that regard, this study developed a theoretical model for academic libraries in Sri Lanka based on the disconfirmation and performance-only paradigms. These perspectives were considered by researchers to be the core mechanism to develop service quality/customer satisfaction models. The attributes and domain identification of service quality was carried out with a stratified sample of 263 participants selected from postgraduate and undergraduate students and academic staff members from the faculties of Arts in four universities in Sri Lanka. The study established that responsiveness, supportiveness, building environment, collection and access, furniture and facilities, technology, Web services and service delivery were quality domains which can be used to predict customer satisfaction. The theoretical model is unique in its domain structure compared to the existing models. The model needs to be statistically tested to make it valid and parsimonious.

Chaminda Jayasundara

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Use of dietary diversity score as a proxy indicator of nutrient adequacy of rural elderly people in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Macro and micro nutrient deficiencies are public health concerns in most developing countries including Sri Lanka, partly due to monotonous, cereal-based diet that lacks diversity. The objective of the study was to assess validity of food variety score (FVS, dietary diversity score (DDS and dietary serving score (DSS as indicators of nutrient adequacy of rural elderly people in Sri Lanka. Findings A sample of 200 apparently healthy elderly people >60y of age were studied. A single 24?h recall was performed to compute dietary diversity indicators. Pearson’s correlation was used to assess the utility of FVS, DDS and DSS as indicators of nutrient adequacy. Sensitivity (Se and specificity (Spe analysis were done to determine the most appropriate cut-off points for using FVS and DDS to categorize elderly people with adequate nutrient intake. The average (standard deviation of the food variety score, dietary diversity score and dietary serving score was 8.4 (2, 4.4 (0.9 and 11.4 (2.5, respectively. Mean adequacy ratio (MAR of 12 nutrients was 0.39 (39%. Pearson’s correlation coefficients between MAR and FVS was 0.45 (P?P?P? Conclusion In conclusion, FVS, DDS and DSS were useful proxy indicators of nutrient adequacy of rural elderly people in Sri Lanka. Indeed, the performance of the indicators is improved when considering the quantities of food consumed.

Rathnayake Kumari

2012-08-01

242

A new species of the genus Calotes (Squamata: Agamidae) from high elevations of the Knuckles massif of Sri Lanka.  

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A new species of agamid lizard, of the genus Calotes, is described based on morphological evidence. This species is restricted to the Knuckles massif (>900 m elevation) of Sri Lanka. The genus Calotes consists of seven species in Sri Lanka, five of which appear to form an endemic radiation. The new species most closely resembles C. liocephalus Günther, 1872 which has an isolated population in the central highlands and is only known from Pundaluoya (~1000m), Dickoya (~1200m), Upcot (~1400m), Agrapatanas (1665m) and Peak Wilderness (Sri Pada) (>1400m). The populations from Pundaluoya and Dickoya appear to be locally extinct from the wild and are known only from museum specimens collected over 120 years ago. Males of the new species are different from males of C. liocephalus because of the absence of a gular pouch; by having mid gular scales smaller in size than those of its counterpart; scales on the snout which are larger in size than those on the occipital and forehead; pectoral scales which are not enlarged; elongated subcaudal scales; slightly carinate and acuminate abdominal scales; and scales on venter which are somewhat larger in size than those on dorsum at the same level. Finally, we also redescribe Calotes liocephalus, and provide a key to the Sri Lankan species of genus Calotes. PMID:24872171

Amarasinghe, A A Thasun; Karunarathna, D M S Suranjan; Hallermann, Jakob; Fujinuma, Junichi; Grillitsch, Heinz; Campbell, Patrick D

2014-01-01

243

Role of Possible Soil toxicity in Die back of Montane Forests in Sri Lanka.  

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Rapid dying back of Tropical Upper Montane Rain forests of Sri Lanka which are considered as "Biodiversity Hotspots" is a nationally as well as globally important environmental issue. Although various hypotheses were tested during recent past, nothing could be proved except the possible involvement of soil toxicity due to excess levels of certain elements. This study investigated the extractable soil trace and major element levels in 3 pilot plots situated in dieback and healthy forests. Based on the results, Al, Mn, Fe and Pb concentrations in 30 individuals of 08 most susceptible plant species at different dieback stages and in soils in the immediate vicinity in Hakgala Strict Nature Reserve of Sri Lanka were determined in order to recognize the contribution of these element in forest die back. Collected Plant leaves were analyzed for total element levels and soils were analyzed for the extractable element levels. This study reveals the presence of high DTPA extractable Pb (0.6 - 2.4 ppm), Mn (1.7-57.2ppm), Fe (48.1- 372.1ppm) and KCl extractable Al (0.7-390.8 ppm) in soils. The most important observation was the presence of high accumulations of Pb (2.2-36.3 ppm) and Al (18.9 - 20047.6 ppm) in plant leaves which are high above the normal range. Acidic conditions in soils (pH 4.2-5.6) may increase Al+3 from Al bearing feldspar rich soils. Increased soil acidity due to lowering the pH of precipitation by air pollution may also contribute in dissolution of toxic Al+3. Extractable Soil Pb levels are higher on wind exposed slope areas. Increased Pb levels in soils on slope areas, differences between total and extractable soil Pb levels, amounts of washable Pb on leaves before and after the banning of Pb containing gasoline usage and comparisons of Pb levels in plants with known Pb polluted areas of the country prove that air pollution could be the main Pb source in this montane forests soils. Although no direct relationship could be recognized between element levels in plants and die back stage, possibly due to physiological factors of plants, high concentration of Al and Pb might impose stresses on plants facilitating die back.

Ranasinghe, P. N.; Fernando, R.; Wimalasena, R. N.; Ekanayake, S. P.

2008-12-01

244

Policy Debate | Humanitarian Protection in the Midst of Civil War: Lessons from Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Editor’s note: This paper is a contribution to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy-makers and practioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, the initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from scholars and/or policy-makers.Authored by Norah Niland, the initial paper addresses the protection dimension of humanitarian action in the Sri Lankan Civil War. The end phase of this long-standing war and subsequent internment of survivors illustrate the limited capacity of the international relief system to adequately protect civilians. The author argues that the failure of intergovernmental crisis management and the human rights machinery was exacerbated by the relief system’s lack of agency in safeguarding humanitarian space and the protected status of civilians. According to Norah Niland, relief actors largely ignored the instrumentalisation of humanitarianism and the use of sovereignty and Global War on Terror (GWOT narratives to rationalise the slaughter of thousands. The lack of accountability for and reflection on the humanitarian  operation  in Sri Lanka will likely complicate future relief efforts and add to the suffering of  civilians in other crisis settings. The paper  is followed by critical comments by Sir John Holmes, Former UN Under-Secretary General and Emergency Relief Coordinator, Head of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, and Miriam Bradley, Postdoctoral Researcher, Programme for the Study of International Governance, the Graduate Institute, Geneva.This debate can be pursued on the eJournal’s blog http://devpol.hypotheses.org/69Download the full debate in .pdf

Norah Niland

2014-05-01

245

Student Perceptions of an Online Post Graduate Course in Family Medicine in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available BackgroundThe online Diploma course in Family Medicine (DFM of the Post Graduate Institute of Medicine (PGIM of the University of Colombo is one of the pioneering online post graduate medical courses in Sri Lanka.ObjectivesTo describe student perceptions on the online DFM course.MethodsThe study population comprised of all the students (19 of the first batch of the course. Pre- tested self administered questionnaires were administered to all students. A Likert scale was used to assess the domains of teaching, learning, levels of understanding, and technical problems. The scale ranged from 1= ["poor / not useful/did not understand"] to 5= ["excellent/ very useful/ understood very well"]. A focus group discussion was carried out to strengthen the student perceptions, based on the themes which emerged.ResultsResponse rate was 98.4%. Levels of understanding the lessons were perceived to be high with an average of 4.8. Students were of the opinion that discussions and assignments helped them to engage in active learning. Online discussions were found to be the most useful form of learning. 88% commented that they are able to link clinical work to their online course work.ConclusionsThis online course has been useful in improving student knowledge and the levels of understanding of individual lessons are satisfactory. The most useful form of learning appeared to be online discussions.

D. R. N. Sumanasekera

2010-12-01

246

No evidence of chikungunya virus and antibodies shortly before the outbreak on Sri Lanka.  

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A massive outbreak of chikungunya disease occurred on Sri Lanka in 2006. Reasons for the explosive nature of the epidemic are being intensively discussed. According to recognised and anecdotal concepts, absence of human population immunity against chikungunya virus (CHIKV) might have supported virus amplification. However, formal proof of concept is lacking. This study determined the prevalence of anti-CHIKV IgG antibodies as well as CHIKV RNA shortly before the outbreak. Two hundred and six human sera were collected from patients with acute febrile illness in 2004/2005. Validated indirect immunofluorescence and real-time RT-PCR assays for dengue as well as CHIKV were employed. Laboratory evidence of dengue virus infection was seen in 67% of patients, indicating virus activity and exposure to Aedes spp. vectors. These vectors are the same as for chikungunya. However, no evidence of acute or previous chikungunya infection could be demonstrated in the same cohort. This study gives formal evidence that the absence of human population immunity correlated with a large chikungunya epidemic. PMID:19224245

Panning, Marcus; Wichmann, Dominic; Grywna, Klaus; Annan, Augustina; Wijesinghe, Sriyal; Kularatne, S A M; Drosten, Christian

2009-05-01

247

Self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka: small-area variations in incidence  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-poisoning is one of the most common methods of suicide worldwide. The intentional ingestion of pesticides is the main contributor to such deaths and in many parts of rural Asia pesticide self-poisoning is a major public health problem. To inform the development of preventive measures in these settings, this study investigates small-area variation in self-poisoning incidence and its association with area-based socioeconomic and agricultural factors. Methods Ecological analysis of intentional self-poisoning in a rural area (population 267,613 of Sri Lanka in 2002. The geographic distribution of cases was mapped to place of residence. Using administrative division (GN, median population size 1416, as unit of analysis, associations with socioeconomic and agricultural indicators were explored using negative binomial regression models. Results The overall incidence of intentional self-poisoning in the study area was 315 per 100,000 (range: 0 – 2168 per 100,000 across GNs. Socioeconomic disadvantage, as indexed by poor housing quality (p = 0.003 and low levels of education (p Conclusion Considerable small-area variation in incidence rates of intentional self-poisoning was found. The noteworthy concentration of cases in certain areas and the inverse association with socioeconomic deprivation merit attention and should be investigated using individual-level exposure data.

Dawson Andrew

2008-01-01

248

Trophic interactions in the coastal ecosystem of Sri Lanka: An ECOPATH preliminary approach  

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This study attempts to assemble and summarize existing information in order to build a general representation of the trophic interactions within the shallow coastal ecosystem of Sri Lanka. A multispecific ecosystem-based approach on trophic relationships and their possible variations was performed using ECOPATH. Thirty-nine functional groups were considered representing all trophic levels in the food web. Time-dynamic simulation was carried out using the ECOSIM routine to evaluate the impact of the 1998 El Niño event on key functional groups. Results show that the time needed for any impacted functional group to recover to its initial abundance increased with the trophic level. Two time-series data sets derived from commercial catch and effort statistics were used for validation of ECOSIM results. The El Niño simulation results validated by the time-series data confirmed the ability of the proposed multispecies model to describe the sudden environmental changes. Possible impacts due to increase of fishing effort were also simulated by separately considering frequently used fishing gears. The analysis revealed that small-mesh gillnet fishery operates independently from the other existing developing fisheries in the same area and can be managed accordingly. Fishing-effort simulations suggest that the increase of fishing intensity by small-mesh gillnets would contribute to the decline of small pelagic catch. This was also found to influence the overall catch. The present level of exploitation of small pelagic fishery resources does not seem sustainable.

Haputhantri, S. S. K.; Villanueva, M. C. S.; Moreau, J.

2008-01-01

249

Modelling and observations of tidal wave propagation, circulation and residence times in Puttalam Lagoon, Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

Tidal measurements and a depth-averaged 2D model are used to examine wave progression and circulation in a long, shallow, micro-tidal lagoon in Sri Lanka. Ranges and phase lags for different tidal constituents are used to calibrate the model. A single drag coefficient, Cd = 0.0032, gives almost perfect agreement with data. Current measurements are used for validation of the model. The lagoon tide consists of a combination of progressive and standing waves, where progressive waves dominate in the outer part and standing waves in the inner. A Lagrangian based particle-tracking method is developed to study tidally and wind induced residence times. If tides were the only factor affecting the residual circulation, the residence time inside the narrowest section would be approximately 100 days. Steady winds (of typical monsoon average) decrease the residence times to 60-90 days. Estuarine forcing due to net freshwater supply is not modelled (due to lack of reliable runoff data), but independent, long-term salinity observations and calculations based on volume and salt conservation during periods of negligible freshwater supply (the lagoon is seasonally hypersaline) indicate residence times ranging from 40 to 80 days. Model derived residence times based on tides alone represent a minimum exchange. Even weak forcing, through winds, excess evaporation or freshwater supply efficiently reduces residence times.

Wijeratne, E. M. S.; Rydberg, L.

2007-09-01

250

Characterization of the Temporal and Spatial Dynamics of the Dengue Epidemic in Northern Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

Dengue outbreaks are affected by biological, ecological, socio-economic and demographic factors that vary over time and space. These factors have been examined separately, with limited success, and still require clarification. The present study aimed to investigate the spatial and temporal relationships between these factors and dengue outbreaks in the northern region of Sri Lanka. Remote sensing (RS) data gathered from a plurality of satellites: TRMM TMI, Aqua AMSR-E, GCOM-W AMSR2, DMSP SSM/I, DMSP SSMIS, NOAA-19 AMSU, MetOp-A AMSU and GEO IR were used to develop an index comprising rainfall. Humidity (total precipitable water, or vertically integrated water vapor amount) and temperature (surface temperature) data were acquired from the JAXA Satellite Monitoring for Environmental Studies (JASMES) portal which were retrieved and processed from the Aqua/MODIS and Terra/MODIS data. RS data gathered by ALOS/AVNIR-2 were used to detect urbanization, and a digital land cover map was used to extract land cover information. Other data on relevant factors and dengue outbreaks were collected through institutions and extant databases. The analyzed RS data and databases were integrated into geographic information systems, enabling both spatial association analysis and spatial statistical analysis. Our findings show that the combination of ecological factors derived from RS data and socio-economic and demographic factors is suitable for predicting spatial and temporal patterns of dengue outbreaks.

Anno, S.; Imaoka, K.; Tadono, T.; Igarashi, T.; Sivaganesh, S.; Kannathasan, S.; Kumaran, V.; Surendran, S.

2014-11-01

251

Zebu cattle farming in Sri Lanka: Production systems and reproductive characteristics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zebu cattle (Bos indicus) constitute 72.3% of the cattle population in Sri Lanka and consist of indigenous exotic and crosses. Indigenous Zebu cattle were primarily found in the dry and the intermediate zones with the remainder in the wet zone. In the latter two zones the indigenous Zebu have been gradually replaced by dairy-type exotic genotypes. In the dry zone Zebu cattle farming is done as a traditional village system (DTVS) and irrigated settlement system (DISS). The DTVS is the most prevalent system and 24% of small holdings within this system rear cattle. In 91.4% of these households cattle farming is either a primary or secondary occupation. Zebu cattle farming provides a modest income with meat, milk, draught and manure contribution 45%, 34%, 9% and 12%, respectively to the total income. Scarcity of grazing lands, high incidence of crop damages by cattle, an inadequate veterinary service and poor milk collecting network are having adverse effects on the sustainability of the system. The objective of the present study were to assess the distribution, production systems and reproductive patterns of cattle with special reference to indigenous Zebu cattle in traditional management systems. 39 refs, 4 figs, 7 tabs

252

Seroepidemiology of rinderpest in bovines in Sri Lanka using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is the first inland wide study on seroprevalence of rinderpest in Sri Lanka. This study shows the advantages of using a serologically sensitive test, such as ELISA, in studying the seroepidemiology of a disease with low prevalence. The prevalence was highest in the northern, eastern and north-central provinces. The spread of rinderpest from the first location of the outbreak, which was in the eastern province in 1987, is attributed to the movement of bovines for slaughtering purposes. It appears that the spread of rinderpest could be reduced by controlling animal movement. Apparently, rinderpest had shifted from an epidemic form in the 1987-1989 period to an epidemic form from 1990 onwards, towards areas with high bovine density (>0.3 bovines/hectare). Furthermore, the extensive management system mostly practiced in the DL regions, in which animal-to-animal contact is more frequent, had contributed to the spread of rinderpest. The prevalence was higher in older bovines, probably because of exposure to natural infection during the last epidemic

253

Challenging epilepsy with antiepileptic pharmacotherapy in a tertiary teaching hospital in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The goal of antiepileptic drug (AED therapy is to achieve a seizure-free state and eliminate the medical and psychosocial risks of recurrent seizures. Burden of epilepsy on the economy of a country may be largely due to the expenditure on AEDs. The adverse effects may influence the compliance to AEDs and effective control of epilepsy. We determined the pattern of AED use, the degree of epileptic control achieved and the adverse effects experienced by the epileptics in a Tertiary Teaching Hospital in Sri Lanka. Carbamazepine was found to be the most frequently used AED. Monotherapy was used on 70.8% of subjects. 86.27% of the study sample had achieved effective control of epilepsy with a 50% or more reduction in seizure frequency. Of them 72.64% were on monotherapy and they were either on carbamazepine, sodium valproate, phenytoin sodium or phenobarbitone. None of the new AEDs were prescribed to these patients. 50.9% on monotherapy and 51.5% on polytherapy reported adverse effects. Somnolence followed by headache was found to be the most frequently reported adverse effects by those on monotherapy and polytherapy both. This study shows that most epileptics can be effectively managed with the conventional AEDs with clinical monitoring.

Kariyawasam S

2004-04-01

254

L’économie politique du désir dans le rituel et le militantisme au SriLanka  

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Full Text Available Le désir est au cœur des interactions complexes entre le développement et la religion. Cet article examine ses différentes expressions, comme étant une des préoccupations fondamentales de nombreuses religions, qui motivent à la fois le développement et les alternatives au développement. Au SriLanka, face au changement social, la forme néolibérale et mondialisée du développement est comprise et réinterprétée à travers des idiomes et des formations locales du désir. L’économie néolibérale cultive le désir et mène à un accroissement présumé de la présence des preta (fantômes affamés et avides qui se manifestent parfois au moment de la mort d’une personne. Les fantômes affamés, en tant que formations fétichisées du désir, trouvent un écho chez les consommateurs et les entrepreneurs, qui montrent unappétit insatiable vis-à-vis d’une richesse matérielle en constante croissance. Ainsi, l’apaisement ritualisé des fantômes affamés et le militantisme social de groupes tels que le Movement for National Land and Agricultural Reform (MONLAR sont clairement liés par leur préoccupation mutuelle face à l’insécurité existentielle des êtres humains et non humains, causée par un désir excessif et déséquilibré. L’action rituelle et le militantisme social divergent toutefois dans la formulation explicite de leurs préoccupations spécifiques concernant le désir. Le rituel matérialise et condense l’angoisse liée au désir, alors que le militantisme social décrit la fétichisation du désir en termes économiques, politiques et scientifiques plus abstraits.

Wim Van Daele

2013-03-01

255

Estimating short and long-term residential demand for electricity. New evidence from Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study investigates the short-run dynamics and long-run equilibrium relationship between residential electricity demand and factors influencing demand - per capita income, price of electricity, price of kerosene oil and price of liquefied petroleum gas - using annual data for Sri Lanka for the period, 1960-2007. The study uses unit root, cointegration and error-correction models. The long-run demand elasticities of income, own price and price of kerosene oil (substitute) were estimated to be 0.78, - 0.62, and 0.14 respectively. The short-run elasticities for the same variables were estimated to be 0.32, - 0.16 and 0.10 respectively. Liquefied petroleum (LP) gas is a substitute for electricity only in the short-run with an elasticity of 0.09. The main findings of the paper support the following (1) increasing the price of electricity is not the most effective tool to reduce electricity consumption (2) existing subsidies on electricity consumption can be removed without reducing government revenue (3) the long-run income elasticity of demand shows that any future increase in household incomes is likely to significantly increase the demand for electricity and (4) any power generation plans which consider only current per capita consumption and population growth should be revised taking into account the potential future income increases in order to avoid power shortages in the country. (author)

Athukorala, P.P.A Wasantha; Wilson, Clevo [School of Economics and Finance, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia)

2010-09-15

256

The Political Economy of Desire in Ritual and Activism in SriLanka (abstract  

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Full Text Available Amidst the complexity of the development-religion nexus, this chapter examines desire and its varying expressions as fundamental concerns of many religions motivating both development and alternatives to development. In Sri Lanka, as people deal with social change, the neoliberal and globalised development is understood and re-interpreted through local idioms and formations of desire. The neoliberal economy cultivates desire and, as such, leads to a perceived increase in the presence of pretas (greedy, hungry ghosts that occasionally emerge when people die. The hungry ghosts, as fetishised formations of desire, resonate with consumers and entrepreneurs, who exhibit an insatiable hunger for ever more material wealth. Hence, the ritual appeasement of hungry ghosts and the social activism of groups such as the Movement for National Land and Agricultural Reform are clearly linked by their mutual concern with the existential insecurity of fellow human and non-human beings caused by excessive and unbalanced desire. However, the explicit articulation of specific concerns regarding desire diverges between ritual action and social activism. Ritual materialises and condenses the anxiety related to desire, whereas social activism describes the fetishisation of desire in more abstract economic, political and scientific terms.

Wim Van Daele

2013-02-01

257

The effects of the 2004 tsunami on a coastal aquifer in Sri Lanka  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

On December 26, 2004, the earthquake off the southern coast of Sumatra in the Indian Ocean generated far-reaching tsunami waves, resulting in severe disruption of the coastal aquifers in many countries of the region. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of the tsunami on groundwater in coastal areas. Field investigations on the east coast of Sri Lanka were carried out along a transect located perpendicular to the coastline on a 2.4 km wide sand stretch bounded by the sea and a lagoon. Measurements of groundwater table elevation and electrical conductivity (EC) of the groundwater were carried out monthly from October 2005 to August 2007. The aquifer system and tsunami saltwater intrusion were modeled using the variable-density flow and solute transport code HST3D to understand the tsunami plume behavior and estimate the aquifer recovery time. EC values reduced as a result of the monsoonal rainfall following the tsunami with a decline in reduction rate during the dry season. The upper part of the saturated zone (down to 2.5 m) returned to freshwater conditions (EC < 1000 µS/cm) 1 to 1.5 years after the tsunami, according to field observations. On the basis of model simulations, it may take more than 15 years for the entire aquifer (down to 28 m) to recover completely, although the top 6 m of the aquifer may become fresh in about 5 years

Vithanage, Meththika Suharshini; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard

2012-01-01

258

An investigation into the role of alcohol in self-harm in rural Sri Lanka: a protocol for a multimethod, qualitative study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Introduction: Sri Lanka has one of the highest suicide and self-harm rates in the world and although alcohol has been found to be a risk factor for self-harm in Sri Lanka, we know little about the connection between the two. This paper comprises a protocol for a qualitative study investigating alcohol’s role in selfharm in rural Sri Lanka at three levels: the individual, community and policy level. The analysis will bring new understanding of the link between alcohol and self-harm in Sri Lanka, drawing on structural, cultural and social concepts. It will equip researchers, health systems and policy makers with vital information for developing strategies to address alcohol-related problems as they relate to self-harm. Methods and analysis: To capture the complexity of the link between alcohol and self-harm in the Anuradhapura district in the North Central Province in Sri Lanka, qualitative methods will be utilised. Specifically, the data will consist of serial narrative life-story interviews with up to 20 individuals who have non-fatally selfharmed and where alcohol directly or indirectly was involved in the incidence as well as with their significant others; observations in communities and families; six focus group discussions with community members; and key-informant interviews with 15–25 stakeholders who have a stake in alcohol distribution, marketing, policies, prevention and treatment as they relate to self-harm. Ethics and dissemination: The study has received ethical approval from the Ethical Review Committee of the Faculty of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka. A sensitive data collection technique will be used and ethical issues will be considered throughout the study. Results: The results will be disseminated in scientific peer-reviewed articles in collaboration with Sri Lankan and other international research partners.

Rheinländer, Thilde; SØrensen, Jane Brandt

2014-01-01

259

Malathion resistance and prevalence of the malathion carboxylesterase mechanism in populations of mosquito vectors of disease in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels of malathion resistance and prevalence of the malathion carboxylesterase mechanism among mosquitoes in Sri Lanka. METHODS: Bioassays were carried out using WHO-recommended methods on samples of the following Sri Lankan mosquito vectors: Culex quinquefasciatus, C. tritaeniorhynchus, C. gelidus; Anopheles culicifacies B, A. subpictus; Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. FINDINGS: Malathion-specific carboxylesterase mechanisms were found in A. culicifacies and A. subpictus, both giving high rates of insecticide metabolism. In contrast, malathion resistance in C. quinquefasciatus and C. tritaeniorhynchus is linked to broad-spectrum resistance to organophosphorus compounds due to elevated levels of esterases that sequester malaoxon, but are unable to metabolize malathion. CONCLUSIONS: Resistance among the Anopheles spp. must have occurred as a direct result of antimalarial activities, since malathion use in Sri Lanka is limited to public health treatments. In contrast, resistance among Culex spp. has resulted from large-scale use of the organophosphorus insecticide group as larvicides for filariasis control and on rice paddy, where C. tritaeniorhynchus predominantly breeds, for agricultural purposes.

Karunaratne S.H.P.P.

2001-01-01

260

Additional perspectives on chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka--lessons learned from the WHO CKDu population prevalence study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The recent emergence of an apparently new form of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDu) has become a serious public health crisis in Sri Lanka. CKDu is slowly progressive, irreversible, and asymptomatic until late stages, and is not attributable to hypertension, diabetes, or other known aetiologies. In response to the scope and severity of the emerging CKDu health crisis, the Sri Lanka Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization initiated a collaborative research project from 2009 through 2012 to investigate CKDu prevalence and aetiology. The objective of this paper is to discuss the recently published findings of this investigation and present additional considerations and recommendations that may enhance subsequent investigations designed to identify and understand CKDu risk factors in Sri Lanka or other countries. PMID:25069485

Redmon, Jennifer Hoponick; Elledge, Myles F; Womack, Donna S; Wickremashinghe, Rajitha; Wanigasuriya, Kamani P; Peiris-John, Roshini J; Lunyera, Joseph; Smith, Kristin; Raymer, James H; Levine, Keith E

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Sri Lanka in global medical research: a scientific analysis of the Sri Lankan research output during 2000-2009  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Scientific research is an essential component in guiding improvements in health systems. There are no studies examining the Sri Lankan medical research output at international level. The present study evaluated the Sri Lankan research performance in medicine as reflected by the research publications output between years 2000-2009. Methods This study was based on Sri Lankan medical research publication data, retrieved from the SciVerse Scopus<...

Ranasinghe Priyanga; Jayawardena Ranil; Katulanda Prasad

2012-01-01

262

Geochemical and isotope characterization of geothermal spring waters in Sri Lanka: Evidence for steeper than expected geothermal gradients  

Science.gov (United States)

SummarySeven geothermal springs from the Precambrian high-grade metamorphic terrain of Sri Lanka were investigated to assess their formation processes and to determine reservoir temperatures based on their chemical compositions. Silica-based geothermometric calculations for the Marangala and Nelumwewa springs showed the highest average reservoir temperatures of 122 °C and 121 °C, respectively. Samples of low temperature (thermal waters varied from 39-62 °C. These waters showed low concentrations of selected trace elements (Fe < 0.09; Mn < 0.04; Cu < 0.01; Cr < 0.01; As < 0.025 mg/L)) and were also comparable to that of non-geothermal groundwaters. Stable isotope compositions of geothermal waters ranged from -6.5 to -5.0‰ for ?18OH2O and between -39 ‰ to -28 ‰ for ?2HH2O. In the non-geothermal waters, the isotope values were almost identical within the analytical uncertainties of 0.1‰ and 1‰ for ?2HH2O and ?18OH2O, respectively. In addition, all isotope ratios of geothermal and non-geothermal water samples scattered around the local meteoric water lines for the dry and intermediate climatic regions of Sri Lanka, thus indicating origin from precipitation without further influences of evaporation or water rock interaction. This similarity to the local meteoric water lines also makes influences of seawater an unlikely factor. Close matches of geochemical and isotope data from geothermal and corresponding non-geothermal waters confirm the hypothesis of a common source. The proposed model for Sri Lanka subsurface waters is that rainfall from the dry and/or intermediate climatic zones percolates with little time delay downward through structurally weaker zones in high-grade metamorphic rocks. They are subsequently heated by steep or heterogeneous geothermal gradients that are most likely associated with the Highland-Vijayan thrust zone.

Chandrajith, Rohana; Barth, Johannes A. C.; Subasinghe, N. D.; Merten, Dirk; Dissanayake, C. B.

2013-01-01

263

Genetic evidence for malaria vectors of the Anopheles sundaicus complex in Sri Lanka with morphological characteristics attributed to Anopheles subpictus species B  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles subpictus sensu lato, a widespread malaria vector in Asia, is reportedly composed of four sibling species A - D. Mosquitoes morphologically identified as belonging to the Subpictus complex were collected from different locations near the east coast of Sri Lanka, and specific ribosomal DNA sequences determined to validate their taxonomic status. Methods Anopheles subpictus s.l. larvae and blood-fed adults were collected from different locations in the Eastern province and their sibling species status was determined based on published morphological characteristics. DNA sequences of the D3 domain of 28 S ribosomal DNA (rDNA and the internal transcribed spacer -2 (ITS-2 of mosquitoes morphologically identified as An. subpictus sibling species A, B, C and D were determined. Results Phylogenetic analysis based on D3 domain of rDNA resulted in two clades: one clade with mosquitoes identified as An. subpictus species A, C, D and some mosquitoes identified as species B, and another clade with a majority of mosquitoes identified as species B with D3 sequences that were identical to Anopheles sundaicus cytotype D. Analysis of ITS-2 sequences confirmed a close relationship between a majority of mosquitoes identified as An. subpictus B with members of the An. sundaicus complex and others identified as An. subpictus B with An. subpictus s.l. Conclusions The study suggests that published morphological characteristics are not specific enough to identify some members of the Subpictus complex, particularly species B. The sequences of the ITS-2 and D3 domain of rDNA suggest that a majority that were identified morphologically as An. subpictus species B in the east coast of Sri Lanka, and some identified elsewhere in SE Asia as An. subpictus s.l., are in fact members of the Sundaicus complex based on genetic similarity to An. sundaicus s.l. In view of the well-known ability of An. sundaicus s.l. to breed in brackish and fresh water and its proven ability to transmit malaria in coastal areas of many Southeast Asian countries, the present findings have significant implications for malaria control in Sri Lanka and neighbouring countries.

Jude Pavillupillai J

2010-11-01

264

Use of radioisotopes in studying iron metabolism in humans in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anaemia due to iron deficiency is the commonest haematological problem found in Sri Lankan pregnant women and pre-school children. The reported prevalence rates amongst pregnant and lactating women ranged from 60-80%. The present study revealed that 3% of pregnant women had satisfactory iron stores and 57% had virtually no iron stores. Routine iron supplementation is justified not only to correct the anaemia but also to build up the maternal iron stores. In a longitudinal study of 100 pregnant women a very high prevalence was observed in spite of the fact that the population studied was on iron supplementation. A very poor compliance on iron therapy was seen. The incidence of low birth weight observed was 32%, quite similar to that has been reported previously for Sri Lanka. Therefore, further longitudinal studies have been designed to find out the efficacy of the present supplementary programme. In Galle District 54.5% of the pre-school children were found clearly anaemic and another 20% had evidence of iron depletion. As the dietary intake of iron was marginal, the weaning foods that are in practice were tested for iron availability. Iron absorption/availability studies by in-vivo (extrinsic tag method) and in-vitro (using radioiron 59Fe tracer) methods have shown a very poor (less than 5%) availability in many of the commonly used weaning foods. A statistically significant decrease in iron availability was seen with increase in amount of polyphenols mainly in some of the preparations made with green leaves. Addition of ascorbic acid rich food items showed an increase in iron availability (by 2-6 times). Dietary zinc intake of 46 children (2-5 yrs) was found 2-4 mg/1000 kcal, relating to total energy intake. Mean plasma zinc concentration of these children was 13.8±0.8 ?mol/L. Therefore further studies on the improvement of zinc and iron availability in weaning foods have been designed to be done in future. (author). 3 refs, 1 fig

265

Degradation of 14C ring labelled pesticides in selected soils of Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ground water resources in Sri Lanka are largely derived from direct rainfall seepage and recharge from surface water bodies. Ground water contamination potential of pesticides is governed by many soil, pesticide and environmental factors. One of the critical factors that affects is the rate at which pesticides degrade in the soil. This is the process that eliminates the chemical from the environment. Therefore the knowledge of degradation rates of pesticides is essential for pollution control management. Degradation and dissipation rates of 14C ring labelled carbofuran and diazinon in selected Sri Lankan soils were studied under laboratory conditions. 0.1 Ci/10 g soil of ring labelled carbofuran and diazinon-were added to Nuwara Eliya (Red yellow podzolic), Pugoda (Alluvials) Kalpitiya and Negombo (Regosols) soils and incubated in 75% of maximum water holding capacity and 28 degree C of temperature for 13 hours light and 11 hours dark conditions. Liberated 14CO2 was collected after 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28, 36, 42 and 58 days to an alkaline solution and analyzed using Liquid Scintillation Counter. Carbofuran has a mineralization rate of 12.5% in Kalpitiya regosols, 7.5% in Pugoda alluvials and lower rates in other two soils after 20 days. After 40 days it increases over 20% in Kalpitiya and in other three soils it was less than 15%. After-58 days the mineralization was over 60% in Kalpitiya soils but less than 500/o in other three soils. but less than 500/o in other three soils. During the whole period the mineralization was less than 10% in Nuwara Eliya red yellow podzolic soils. Diazinon exhibited 25% mineralization in Nuwara Eliya and Kalpitiya soils after ten days but in Pugoda and Negombo soils it was less than 20%. After 40 days it was 80% in Kalpitiya soil and 60% in Nuwara Eliya. During the total period the mineralization is less than 25% in Negombo and Pugoda soils. Overall, the degradation rate of carbofuran is much lower than diazinon for all selected soils. Therefore the contamination risk by leaching of pesticide is much higher for carbofuran.

266

Effect of cooling charge air on the gas turbine performance and feasibility of using absorption refrigeration in the “Kelanitissa” power station, Sri Lanka  

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One of the drawbacks of the gas turbine is that performance drops rapidly when ambient air temperature increases. This is a major drawback for gas turbines operated in a tropical country like Sri Lanka. In Colombo, commercial capital of Sri Lanka where this study was carried out, the ambient temperature typically varies between 25 0C and 32 0C.   The Kelanitissa gas turbine plant has single shaft gas turbines (GE MS5001 R) operated in open cycle which use diesel as fuel (designed for dual f...

Kodituwakku, Dinindu

2014-01-01

267

Production systems and characteristics of indigenous small ruminants in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Farming operations of small ruminants is one of the most common features in the small-scale livestock farmers, which represents 99% of the total farming population in Sri Lanka. However, the distribution of native small ruminants; goats and sheep, are scattered. The goat population is distributed mostly (72%) in drier areas whereas sheep are concentrated mainly in northern area of the country. Therefore the management systems of these farm animal genetic resources are largely influenced by the socio cultural conditions of the respective areas. The data collection on farming systems and production characteristics were carried out during the years 2007 and 2008 from the areas in the north central, north-western and northern parts of the island. The farms were randomly chosen based on their representativeness of indigenous small ruminant populations, having confirmed that there was no introduction of exotic breeds within documented past. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used for data collection from 40 farm families for each small ruminant species. The production status of each species was analyzed separately as they belong to separate regional, social and ethnic categories. Native goats are kept mainly for meat and manure and rarely for milk under extensive management conditions. The input levels were low, ranging from sub-standard levels to zero level. According to farmers' perspective, native goats are hardy and resistant to common diseases. This was further tant to common diseases. This was further revealed by absence of disease incidence recorded during the survey. The herd size varies according to the area ranging from 1-2 goat on average in northern area and 6-7 on average in the north-central and north-western areas. The animals were recorded as small compact animals with varying coat colours either polled or horned. Females are prolific, however kids show low growth rates and high mortality before weaning. Breeding is done based on community arrangement using a hired buck. Low milk yield and low growth performance after weaning hinder their chances of being attracted as a genetic asset among rural community. This is mostly highlighted since the goat production is a part of mixed crop-livestock production system. The role-play of goat as an income generator was minimum (0%-20% of the total income) even in the areas, where the goat production is popular. Native sheep, know as Jaffna Local sheep are reared in very specific farming system prevailing in northern area of the island. The flock size of native sheep varies from 12-254 animals. There were only two farms having more than 200 animals. Animals are usually white with patches of various colours (brown and black), and have extremely short tails. Females usually have no horns but half of males do. Indigenous sheep are small animals with no production potential of wool. Breeding occurs naturally in a close system and no attention has paid for performance improvement but for the number. Single birth is most common though there were very few twinning (2.5%) recorded in the survey area. High lamb mortality rate could be seen due to harsh environmental conditions and lack of attention paid by the farmer s during lambing season. However, Jaffna Local is the hardy native sheep breed and it is the only local sheep breed in Sri Lanka. Majority of farmers kept sheep as a tradition and as an inherent property while few others (35%) recorded a family income born by selling manure and animals. Hence sheep production system is essentially a low-input, low-risk and low-return system specific to the area. (author)

268

Toward best-practice post-disaster mental health promotion for children: Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a pressing need for low-cost intervention models to promote mental health among children in the wake of natural disasters. This article describes an evaluation of one such model: the Happy/Sad Letter Box (HSLB) Project, a mental health promotion intervention designed to minimize trauma in children, resulting from the Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004. The HSLB Project was implemented in 68 schools in Sri Lanka's Hambantota District from April 2005 forward. Methods included questionnaires (n = 203), interviews, and group consultation with schoolchildren, teachers, teacher counsellors, principals, educational zone directors and parents. The HSLB intervention was seen as relevant and non-stigmatized, cost-effective if implemented after initial recovery steps, anecdotally effective in identifying and helping resolve trauma, accommodating the full range of children's daily stressors and sustainable. Gender, children's age, school size and the level of the tsunami impact for response were found to correlate with response differences. Along four dimensions previously identified in the literature (ability to triage, matching of intervention timing and focus, ability to accommodate a range of stressors and context compatibility), the HSLB Project is a promising intervention model (1) for children; (2) at group-level; (3) relating to natural disasters. The Nairobi Call to Action [WHO (2009) Nairobi Call to Action for Closing the Implementation Gap in Health Promotion. Geneva: World Health Organization] emphasized the importance of mainstreaming health promotion into priority programme areas, specifically including mental health. The HSLB Project represents the integration of health promotion practice into disaster preparedness mental health infrastructure. PMID:22952338

Commers, Matthew J; Morival, Marc; Devries, Marten W

2014-03-01

269

Prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in two districts of Sri Lanka: a hospital based survey  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is being increasingly diagnosed in Asia. However there are few epidemiological data from the region. Methods To determine prevalence and clinical characteristics of IBD, a hospital-based survey was performed in the Colombo and Gampaha districts (combined population 4.5 million in Sri Lanka. Patients with established ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn's disease (CD, who were permanent residents of these adjoining districts, were recruited from hospital registries and out-patient clinics. Clinical information was obtained from medical records and patient interviews. Results There were 295 cases of IBD (UC = 240, CD = 55, of which 34 (UC = 30, CD = 4 were newly diagnosed during the study year. The prevalence rate for UC was 5.3/100,000 (95% CI 5.0-5.6/100,000, and CD was 1.2/100,000 (95% CI 1.0-1.4/100,000. The incidence rates were 0.69/100,000 (95% CI 0.44-0.94/100,000 for UC and 0.09/100,000 (95% CI 0.002-0.18/100,000 for CD. Female:male ratios were 1.5 for UC and 1.0 for CD. Mean age at diagnosis was (males and females 36.6 and 38.1y for UC and 33.4 and 36.2y for CD. Among UC patients, 51.1% had proctitis and at presentation 58.4% had mild disease. 80% of CD patients had only large bowel involvement. Few patients had undergone surgery. Conclusions The prevalence of IBD in this population was low compared to Western populations, but similar to some in Asia. There was a female preponderance for UC. UC was mainly mild, distal or left-sided, while CD mainly involved the large bowel.

Satharasinghe Raveendra L

2010-03-01

270

Medical students’ willingness to work in post-conflict areas: A qualitative study in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Background: The north-east (NE region of Sri Lanka observed a critical health workers’ shortage after the long-lasting armed conflict. This study aimed to explore medical students’ attitudes towards working in the NE and to identify factors determining such attitudes. Methods: A semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted in two medical schools, one in the NE and the other near the capital, in October 2004. Data were qualitatively analysed using the framework approach. Results: Three main themes were identified: 1 Professional motives and career plans; 2 Students’ perceptions of the healthcare situation in the NE; and 3 Students’ choice of the NE as a future practice location. It was found that familiarity with the difficulties faced by the NE people was a major motivation for medical students to work in the NE in the future. For NE students, familiarity was linked to their sense of belonging. For non-NE students, their personal experience of the NE familiarized them with the difficult situation there, which positively influenced their willingness to work there. Demotivations to work in the NE were poor working and living conditions, fewer opportunities for postgraduate education, language differences, insecurity, and fear of an unpleasant social response from the NE communities. Conclusions: NE local medical students had a sense of belonging to the NE and compassion for the Tamil people as members of the ethnic group. They were willing to work in the NE if their concerns about difficult working and living conditions and postgraduate education could be solved. Non-NE students who were familiar with the NE situation through their personal experience also showed a willingness to work there; thus, early exposure programmes in medical education might help to increase the health workforce in the NE. It is also expected that non-NE physicians working for the NE people would facilitate reconciliation and the rebuilding of trust between two ethnic groups.

Azeem Dad Gadi

2012-10-01

271

Feeding of dairy cattle in the forest-garden farms of Kandy, Sri Lanka.  

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A survey on feeding practices was conducted with 60 farmers belonging to four categories (15 farmers in each): male farmers without off-farm income (M-), male farmers with off-farm income (M+), female farmers without off-farm income (W-), and female farmers with off-farm income (W+). Data on herd size, feeds offered, milk production, chest girth, reproduction and management were collected monthly over a period of 1 year. In addition, samples of fodder and concentrates were collected monthly and analysed for dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (OMD). Of the 550 rations analysed, grass was included in 99.8% of all rations, followed by gliricidia (65%), creepers (50%) and jak leaves (32%). Consequently, the rations were high in OMD (47-59%) and CP (7.8-23.5%). High-protein forage or coconut cake or both were also included as a supplement in 92% of the rations. Both M- and W- farmers had larger (p < 0.001) herds (mean 1.8 animal units (AU) per household) than their counterparts with off-farm income (mean 1.44 AU/household), but only the male farmers without off-farm income achieved higher feeding levels (84.4 vs 65.6 72.1 g digestible organic matter (DOM)/kg0.75 per day) and milk production (6.4 vs 5.3-5.7 L/lactating cow). The lower production of animals kept by female and M+ farmers was related to lower feeding levels. M- farmers realized higher feeding levels than their M+ counterparts. W- farmers did not collect extra feed in response to higher levels of production. It was concluded that dairy farming in the mid-country of Sri Lanka is particularly important for poorer households without income from off-farm employment. PMID:10509423

Zemmelink, G; Premaratne, S; Ibrahim, M N; Leegwater, P H

1999-10-01

272

Systematic relationships and taxonomy of Suncus montanus and S. murinus from Sri Lanka.  

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Here we use nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data, combined with morphometric analyses, to clarify the systematic relationships and taxonomy of two complex species of shrews, Suncus montanus and S. murinus, in Sri Lanka. We find that subspecies of S. murinus, Suncus murinus murinus from Anuaradhapura and S. m. caerulescens from Colombo, show little or no genetic difference in the mitochondrial (cytochrome-b and 16SrRNA) and nuclear (Rag 1, aldolase C and EF-1 alpha intron) genes, confirming their classification as a single species. However, two populations of S. murinus from Peradeniya and Udawalawe are identified as putative hybrids of S. murinus and S. montanus. Shrews collected from Peradeniya are best described as a population of S. murinus, but could be identified as S.m. kandianus using morphological features. Nuclear DNA sequence data places this population in a clade with other S. murinus, but mtDNA sequences of the population nests within a clade of S. montanus haplotypes. This discordant pattern of nuclear and mitochondrial genes suggests either hybridization between S. murinus and S. montanus or introgression of S. montanus mitochondrial DNA into S. m. kandianus. S. m. murinus from Udawalawe, which shows no distinct morphological difference from S. m. murinus from Anuradhapura, falls in the clade of S. murinus in both nuclear and mitochondrial trees. In the nuclear gene tree however, S. m.murinus from Udawalawe is placed as a sister taxon to the clade including other S. murinus. Rag 1 gene sequences in Udawalawe individuals suggest recombination of S. murinus and S. montanus DNA within the gene. However, additional nuclear genes are necessary to study the extent of the hybridization of S. murinus and S. montanus. PMID:20138225

Meegaskumbura, Suyama; Meegaskumbura, Madhava; Schneider, Christopher J

2010-05-01

273

Patient held medical record: solution to fragmented health care in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Sri Lanka has an extensive network of health care institutions, but there is no registered population for any particular health care institution. Patients are free to select which doctor to consult and which hospital to get admitted. Also there is no established referral and back referral system in practice. This free movement of patients within and between the primary, secondary and tertiary levels of care by patient's choice has given rise to a situation where each episode of an illness or disease process is managed by different doctors in differing specialties.As in most care settings, the patient's medical or health record is held by the health service or doctor that is providing care to the patient for a specific ailment. This leads to a gap in communication between multiple caregivers leading to poor co-ordination of care. These difficulties faced and lessons learnt suggest the use of a medical record that is kept with the patient.Patient Held Medical Records (PHMR are formal and structured records that are given to patients to enable the continuity and quality of care which he takes with him when he goes for medical consultations. PHMRs aim to improve communication between patients and the multiple clinicians and health care workers who are involved in patient management.The PHMR we propose comprises of a folder, clinical notes, problem list, flow sheet and other optional items. The PHMR can be used as a tool to empower and educate the patients. It will improve transparency and trust and facilitate continuity of care. Increased work load, cost, restriction of freedom in writing notes, confidentiality and retention of records by patients are the disadvantages which need consideration.

Ramanayake RPJC

2013-01-01

274

Explaining fish consumption in Sri-Lanka: The role of consideration set size, attitude, knowledge, convenience orientation, price consciousness, and variety seeking tendency  

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The primary purpose of this study to understand how the consideration set size affect for consumption frequency of fish in Sri-Lanka. Consideration set size of fish is considered to be affected by consumer attitude, convenience orientation, and consumer knowledge in Sri-Lankan context. Thus, the second objective was to investigate how consumer attitude, knowledge, convenience orientation, variety seeking tendency and price consciousness affect the formation of consideration set size. Based on...

Pethiyagoda, Niyomi Ayesha

2011-01-01

275

Explaining fish consumption in Sri-Lanka:The role of consideration set size, attitude, knowledge, convenience orientation, price consciousness, and variety seeking tendency  

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The primary purpose of this study to understand how the consideration set size affect for consumption frequency of fish in Sri-Lanka. Consideration set size of fish is considered to be affected by consumer attitude, convenience orientation, and consumer knowledge in Sri-Lankan context. Thus, the second objective was to investigate how consumer attitude, knowledge, convenience orientation, variety seeking tendency and price consciousness affect the formation of consideration set size. Based on...

Pethiyagoda, Niyomi Ayesha

2011-01-01

276

Caregiver strain and symptoms of depression among principal caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Data on caregiver strain and depression of principal caregivers of patients with mental illnesses are few in developing countries. Findings from developed countries cannot be applied directly to developing countries as culture specific factors may influence the outcome. Methods A prospective study was carried out in the University Psychiatry Unit of the National Hospital of Sri Lanka (NHSL to identify symptoms of depression, caregiver strain and dissatisfaction with life in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Participants were assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies – Depression Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Modified Caregiver Strain Index. Results and discussion Eighty caregivers were interviewed (males; 36, 45%. Symptoms of depression were significant in 37.5%, while 48.8% had unsatisfactory scores on the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Depression and higher caregiver strain were associated with spending more time with the patient, interruption to work, disputes with relations, being assaulted by patient and self admission of needing professional help to overcome mental stress. Conclusion This study identified several associations for depression and increased caregiver strain among caregivers in a subset of patients with mental disorder in Sri Lanka. These can be used as markers to screen and increase pretest probability to identify caregivers needing help rather than applying the cumbersome questionnaires to all.

Rodrigo Chaturaka

2013-01-01

277

Rapid assessment procedures to detect hidden endemic foci in areas not subjected to mass drug administration in Sri Lanka.  

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For the declaration of elimination of lymphatic filariasis, reliable epidemiological data in all parts of a country are required. In Sri Lanka, due to social disturbance, there are 3 provinces whose endemicity has been declared unknown. Further, a recent report revealed an endemic pocket, which is on the border with the district that was not covered by the national elimination program. These facts indicate the necessity of more extensive studies to discover hidden endemic foci. To facilitate such studies, we evaluated 2 methods of Rapid Assessment Procedure (RAP) in Hambantota district, where the filariasis endemicity was low: (1) indirect questioning by mailing a questionnaire to each local leader (IndQ), asking about the presence of clinical cases, and (2) focus group discussion (FGD) by villagers. The information given by people was validated with clinical examination by doctors (CE) and IgG4 ELISA using urine samples. In the results: there was a strong positive correlation between CE and ELISA rates. The hydrocele rates obtained by FGD or IndQ were associated significantly with CE rates. The rates by FGD or Cluster-IndQ ('modified' IndQ) were also associated significantly with ELISA rates. The IndQ was most cost-effective. Based on these findings, we have concluded that screening by IndQ and confirmation by the ELISA would be an effective and practical way in Sri Lanka to locate endemic foci in hitherto unsurveyed districts. PMID:24060539

Yahathugoda, Thishan C; Weerasooriya, Mirani V; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Kimura, Eisaku; Samarawickrema, Wilfred A; Itoh, Makoto

2014-02-01

278

Teachers’ Levels of Use of the 5E Instructional Model in the Implementation of Curriculum Reforms in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The 5E instructional model is an innovative approach for constructive classroom instruction. First introduced in competency-based curriculum reforms in Sri Lanka, this is an inquiry-based model that allows students to engage in the self-learning process, in which teachers act as facilitators. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of teachers’ participation (through Levels of Use or LoU in implementing the 5E instructional model in Sri Lanka. The Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM was used to identify teachers’ LoU. Using the qualitative method, 9 out of 305 secondary school Geography teachers from the Kalutara district were selected as respondents in this survey. We used the basic interview protocol adopted from CBAM instruments. Our results revealed that many teachers were either non-users or were at the initial stage of use. The overall results revealed that the use of innovation was unsatisfactory. Thus, these teachers must be engaged in training programs, provided with the necessary materials and resources and must be continuously monitored to help those who want to qualify for a user profile and those who want to move up into the higher user profiles.

Fareed Mohamed Nawastheen

2014-05-01

279

Public health risk associated with the co-occurrence of mycotoxins in spices consumed in Sri Lanka.  

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A quantitative risk assessment of mycotoxins due to the consumption of chilli (Capsicum annum L.) and black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) was performed in Sri Lanka. A food frequency questionnaire was administered in order to collect the data on consumption of spices by households in the Northern and Southern region (n?=?249). The mean chilli consumption in the North was significantly higher (p?citrinin due to spices were estimated. Margin of exposure estimations at the mean exposure to AFB1 were remarkably lower due to chilli (45-78) than for pepper (2315–10,857). Moreover, the hepato cellular carcinoma (HCC) risk associated with the mean AFB1 exposure through chilli at the lower bound was 0.046 and 0.028 HCC cases/year/100,000 based on the North and South consumption, respectively. AFB1 exposure via chilli should be considered as a great public health concern in Sri Lanka due to both high mycotoxin concentration and high consumption. PMID:25455891

Yogendrarajah, Pratheeba; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Lachat, Carl; Walpita, Chaminda Niroshan; Kolsteren, Patrick; De Saeger, Sarah; De Meulenaer, Bruno

2014-12-01

280

Identification, evaluation and change detection of highly sensitive wetlands in South-Eastern Sri Lanka using ALOS (AVNIR2, PALSAR) and Landsat ETM+ data  

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Sri Lanka is an island consists of numerous wetlands and many of these ecosystems have been indiscriminately exploited for a commercial, agricultural, residential and industrial development and waste dumping. Eastern River Basin Region in Sri Lanka is rapidly urbanizing, which leads more threats to the surrounding wetland ecosystems considerably. Therefore, it is important to identify and designated them as reserved areas where necessary in order to protect them under the National Environmental Act of Sri Lanka. Mapping and change detection of wetlands in the selected region is a key requirement to fulfill the above task. GIS and Remote Sensing techniques were used to identify and analyze the wetland eco systems. In this study Landsat ETM+, ALOS-AVNIR2, ALOS-PALSAR images were analyzed for identifying and change detection of wetlands. The secondary information and data were collected through a questionnaire survey to recognize the possible threats and benefits. The collected data and information were incorporated in identification, analyzing and ranking the wetlands. The final outcome of the project is to correlate the satellite data with the field observations to quantify the highly sensitive wetlands to declare as Environmental Protection Areas under the National Environment Act of Sri Lanka.

Gunawardena, Ajith; Fernando, Tamasha; Takeuchi, Wataru; Wickramasinghe, Chathura H.; Samarakoon, Lal

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
281

Artificial insemination of cattle in Sri Lanka: Status, performance and problems  

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Artificial insemination (AI) has been accepted as the primary breeding tool in genetic upgrading programmes of cattle in Sri Lanka. Three studies were conducted, to determine the coverage and performance of AI at national, provincial and district levels (Study 1), the success rate and factors affecting success rate of AI in wet zone mid-country smallholder farms (Study 2) and in wet zone up-country large multiplier farms (Study 3). The objective was to design, implement remedial measures and/or determine future studies necessary to improve the efficiency of AI services. Study 1 revealed that at national level the AI service reached less than 15% of the breedable cattle and accounted for less than 6% of estimated annual calvings. The coverage reached above 50% of the breedable cattle only in the wet zone while in the intermediate and dry zone areas it was negligible. Study 2 revealed that the mean calving to first service interval (CFSI) in cattle of the wet zone mid-country small holdings was 183 ± 87.1 days (n=211) and the calving to conception interval (CCI) was 194 ± 93.9 days (n=143). The first service conception rate (FSCR) was 45% and the overall conception rate (OCR) was 50.2%, with an average of 1.99 services per conception (S/C). Study 3 showed that the mean CFSI and CCI in wet zone upcountry multiplier farmers were 111.2 ± 74.2 days (n=133) and 156 ± 92.7 days (n=170) respectively. The average FSCR and OCR were 50.4% and 53.6% respectively and the average S/C was 1.9. Study 1 showed that the AI coverage of the island is very low and the proportion of calvings from AI is too low to have a significant impact on genetic composition of the national cow population. Studies 2 and 3 showed that the success rate of the AI service in the more favourable and extensively covered wet zone areas was also low. These studies revealed that factors associated with the chain of events from farmer, cow, semen to the technician contributed to poor fertility. (author)

282

Results of treatment of differentiated thyroid cancers using Iodine-131 at Sri Lanka's first private institution  

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Full text: This department was started in order to meet the urgent demand of iodine-131 treatment in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), as the waiting list in government hospitals was unduly long. Data obtained revealed that 52% of the patients had iodine-131 therapy within 4 months, 31% in 4 to 8 months and 17% over 8 months time. Institute received license to order, stock and administer iodine-131 from the AEA-Sri Lanka as its facilities were according to IAEA standards. Facility included three 'single bedded en-suit toilet rooms' with storage capacity for iodine-131 capsules. 115 cases (male: female ratio 1:4) of DTC were treated during the past one and half year and each received 100 GBq of radioactivity. 89 (77.3%) comprised papillary carcinoma, 25 (21.7%) follicular carcinoma and 1 case of mixed carcinoma. 52% of males and 60.8% of females were in the 26-45 years age group. Sixty cases of papillary carcinoma were sub-typed and grouped to observe the distribution of metastases and response to iodine-131. They were follicular variant (FV) in 28 (46%), micropaillary (MP) in 10 (20%), encapsulated (EP) in 8 (13.3%), tall cell (TC) in 3 (5%) and diffuse sclerosis (DS) in 9 (15%). TSH and Tg values were measured before therapy and four months afterwards. Activity readings were measured 30 min after ingestion and 4 days later and discharged when the values were less than 20 ?Sv / hour. Six of the nine (66%) DS cancer patients had metastasis in lymph nodes and lungs had metastasis in lymph nodes and lungs when referred for iodine-131 treatment. In 8 of these patients, Tg levels were raised. 36% (8/9) of the FC patients also had raised Tg levels indicating metastases and 4/5 were found to have bony metastases. In post iodine-131 therapy whole body scans, 3.3% had metastases in the lungs in PC and 20% of FC in skeleton. With a single dose of iodine-131 over 90% had drop in Tg levels to less than I ng/ml except in DS (23% drop) and TC (33% drop). The study shows that sub-typing of PC was useful and TC and DS types needed either a higher dose or a second dose of iodine-131. Administration of iodine-131 therapy within four months of surgery gave the best results. (author)

283

A Comprehensive Assessment of Lymphatic Filariasis in Sri Lanka Six Years after Cessation of Mass Drug Administration  

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Background The Sri Lankan Anti-Filariasis Campaign conducted 5 rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) with diethycarbamazine plus albendazole between 2002 and 2006. We now report results of a comprehensive surveillance program that assessed the lymphatic filariasis (LF) situation in Sri Lanka 6 years after cessation of MDA. Methodology and Principal Findings Transmission assessment surveys (TAS) were performed per WHO guidelines in primary school children in 11 evaluation units (EUs) in all 8 formerly endemic districts. All EUs easily satisfied WHO criteria for stopping MDA. Comprehensive surveillance was performed in 19 Public Health Inspector (PHI) areas (subdistrict health administrative units). The surveillance package included cross-sectional community surveys for microfilaremia (Mf) and circulating filarial antigenemia (CFA), school surveys for CFA and anti-filarial antibodies, and collection of Culex mosquitoes with gravid traps for detection of filarial DNA (molecular xenomonitoring, MX). Provisional target rates for interruption of LF transmission were community CFA <2%, antibody in school children <2%, and filarial DNA in mosquitoes <0.25%. Community Mf and CFA prevalence rates ranged from 0–0.9% and 0–3.4%, respectively. Infection rates were significantly higher in males and lower in people who denied prior treatment. Antibody rates in school children exceeded 2% in 10 study sites; the area that had the highest community and school CFA rates also had the highest school antibody rate (6.9%). Filarial DNA rates in mosquitoes exceeded 0.25% in 10 PHI areas. Conclusions Comprehensive surveillance is feasible for some national filariasis elimination programs. Low-level persistence of LF was present in all study sites; several sites failed to meet provisional endpoint criteria for LF elimination, and follow-up testing will be needed in these areas. TAS was not sensitive for detecting low-level persistence of filariasis in Sri Lanka. We recommend use of antibody and MX testing as tools to complement TAS for post-MDA surveillance. PMID:25393404

Rao, Ramakrishna U.; Nagodavithana, Kumara C.; Samarasekera, Sandhya D.; Wijegunawardana, Asha D.; Premakumara, Welmillage D. Y.; Perera, Samudrika N.; Settinayake, Sunil; Miller, J. Phillip; Weil, Gary J.

2014-01-01

284

Influence of pesticide regulation on acute poisoning deaths in Sri Lanka / Influence de la législation concernant les pesticides sur les décès par intoxication aiguë à Sri Lanka / Influencia de la regulación de los plaguicidas en las defunciones por intoxicación aguda en Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Evaluar en un país asiático en desarrollo la repercusión de la regulación de los plaguicidas en el número de defunciones por intoxicación. Estas normas¸ que entraron en vigor en Sri Lanka a partir de los años setenta, tenían por objeto reducir el número de defunciones por intoxicación -aut [...] ointoxicaciones deliberadas la mayoría de las veces- mediante la limitación de la disponibilidad y el uso de plaguicidas altamente tóxicos. MÉTODOS: La información sobre los cambios legislativos procede del Ministerio de Agricultura, los datos de ingreso en hospitales nacionales y de distrito se obtuvieron de la Unidad de Estadísticas Sanitarias de Sri Lanka, y los datos particulares sobre las defunciones por intoxicación con plaguicidas son el resultado de un examen manual de las notas de los pacientes y de los registros de la unidad de cuidados intensivos de Anuradhapura. RESULTADOS: Entre 1986 y 2000 se duplicó la cifra total de ingresos por intoxicación a nivel nacional, y los ingresos por intoxicación con plaguicidas aumentaron en más de un 50%. Al mismo tiempo, la tasa de letalidad descendió para las intoxicaciones totales y para las intoxicaciones por plaguicidas. En 1991-1992, el 72% de las defunciones por plaguicidas registradas en Anuradhapura se debieron a plaguicidas organofosforados (OF) y de carbamato -en particular a los productos monocrotofos y metamidofos, clasificados por la OMS como OF de tipo I. A partir de 1991, la importación de estos plaguicidas se redujo gradualmente hasta que se prohibieron para uso corriente en enero de 1995, con la correspondiente caída de las defunciones. Lamentablemente, su desaparición en las tareas agrícolas dio paso al endosulfán organoclorado, un OF de tipo II que causó un aumento de las defunciones por status epilepticus, de una en 1994 a 50 en 1998. El endosulfán fue prohibido en 1998, y durante los tres años siguientes el número de muertes por endosulfán se redujo a tres. Sin embargo, al final de la década el número de defunciones por plaguicidas había vuelto a ser similar al de 1991, atribuyéndose la mayoría de las defunciones a los OF de tipo II. Aunque estos productos son menos tóxicos que los OF de tipo I, su gestión sigue planteando problemas, pues son todavía muy tóxicos y su toxicidad se ve agravada por la escasez de servicios. CONCLUSIÓN: La caída de la tasa de letalidad en el contexto de una incidencia creciente de casos de autointoxicación indica que los programas de regulación de los plaguicidas en Sri Lanka fueron beneficiosos. Sin embargo, una inspección más atenta de la mortalidad por plaguicidas en un hospital reveló un desplazamiento hacia otros plaguicidas altamente tóxicos, pues al prohibirse el uso de uno de ellos en la agricultura no tardó en ser reemplazado por otro. En la futura reglamentación habría que prever tanto ese tipo de sustituciones como la posibilidad de tratar fácilmente las intoxicaciones por los plaguicidas de sustitución. Además, la regulación al efecto debe aplicarse al mismo tiempo que otras estrategias, como el manejo integrado de plagas, a fin de reducir la disponibilidad general de plaguicidas para autolesiones. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To assess in a developing Asian country the impact of pesticide regulation on the number of deaths from poisoning. These regulations, which were implemented in Sri Lanka from the 1970s, aimed to reduce the number of deaths - the majority from self-poisoning - by limiting the availability [...] and use of highly toxic pesticides. METHODS: Information on legislative changes was obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture, national and district hospital admission data were obtained from the Sri Lanka Health Statistics Unit, and individual details of deaths by pesticide poisoning were obtained from a manual review of patients' notes and intensive care unit records in Anuradhapura. FINDINGS: Between 1986 and 2000, the total national number of admissions due t

Darren M., Roberts; Ayanthi, Karunarathna; Nick A., Buckley; Gamini, Manuweera; M.H. Rezvi, Sheriff; Michael, Eddleston.

2003-11-01

285

Salinity-tolerant larvae of mosquito vectors in the tropical coast of Jaffna, Sri Lanka and the effect of salinity on the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis to Aedes aegypti larvae  

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Abstract Background Dengue, chikungunya, malaria, filariasis and Japanese encephalitis are common mosquito-borne diseases endemic to Sri Lanka. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, the major vectors of dengue, were recently shown to undergo pre-imaginal development in brackish water bodies in the island. A limited survey of selected coastal localities of the Jaffna district in northern Sri Lanka was carried out to identify mosquito species undergoing pre-imag...

Jude Pavilupillai J; Tharmasegaram Tharmatha; Sivasubramaniyam Gobika; Senthilnanthanan Meena; Kannathasan Selvam; Raveendran Selvarajah; Ramasamy Ranjan; Surendran Sinnathamby N

2012-01-01

286

Impact of Dividend Policy on Share Holders’ Wealth A Study of Listed Companies in Hotels and Travels Sector of Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available this research intends to study the impact of firm’s dividend policy on shareholders’ wealth. The objective of the company is to increase the wealth of its shareholders. It is therefore necessary, to understand the nature of the relationship between dividend and shareholders' wealth. Tourism remains the fastest growing service industry in the economies of most of developing countries. Sri Lanka entered the international tourism market in the 1960s. Since then, Hotel and Travel sector has been growing steadily as a promising sector. In particular, the contribution of Hotel and Travel sector to Gross Domestic Product was 2% in Sri Lankan economy. In attempt to fill this research gap the present study was initiated to find out the impact of dividend policy on shareholders’ wealth of top ten listed companies under hotel and travel sector in Sri Lanka during the period from 2008 to 2012. Secondary data is collected from company annual report. This research used the correlation, regression and descriptive statistics to evaluate the data collected from the top ten listed companies under hotel and travel sector. In addition the dividend policy has significant impact on shareholders' wealth. There are Positive relationship between Return on Equity, dividend per share and Dividend payout ratio and Shareholders’ wealth of top ten listed companies under hotel and travel sector in Sri Lanka and mean while there is a negative relationship between retention ratio and Shareholders’ wealth.

Sinthuja Kumaresan

2014-02-01

287

Public acceptance and trade development of irradiated food in Sri Lanka with special reference to spices and onions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sri Lankan spices, onion, shallots and dried chillies suffer considerable storage losses due to inadequate preservation method. Irradiation to a dose 7 kGy was found to be effective technique to reduce storage losses and improve quality of different spices. Preliminary results showed prospect of using irradiation for large scale preservation of dried chillis. But due to lack of irradiation, facility scaled- up irradiation and storage trials could not be undertaken. Based on study conducted by the Ceylon Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, a report was submitted to the Atomic Energy Authority of Sri Lanka on the current demand for a multi-purpose irradiation facility. The food items identified for irradiation processing include spices, desiccated coconut, shrimps for export; and onions, chillies and dried fish products, foliage plants and medical products for local trade. The volume of products for commercial processing has also been indicated in the survey report. Steps for approval of the Harmonised Regulations on Food Irradiation as adopted in the RCA Workshop in Seoul, 1998 are at the processing level for submission as a parliamentary bill. A consumer acceptance survey was carried out in 1997; the outcome showed a low acceptance for irradiated spices. About 200 participants comprising private exporters, govt. officials and students were made aware of the irradiation process and benefits of irradiation treatment through the training programmes on post-harvest management at the CISIR. (author)

288

Evidence of Sexual Selection for Evening Orientation in Human Males: A Cross Cultural Study in Italy and Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Previous research has established the existence of individual differences with regards to individuals’ optimum time of well-functioning; specifically in terms of being either morning or evening oriented. An association has also emerged between being more evening, as opposed to morning, oriented and having a greater number of sexual partners. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether "eveningness” in males is an evolved sexually dimorphic trait consistent across different cultures. A sample of 179 male Sri Lankan men residing in two different cultural and economic settings, Italy and Sri Lanka, were administered the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ followed by assessing their sexual behavior history. The results robustly portrayed a highly significant main effect of MEQ types highlighting the twofold sexual success enjoyed by the evening individuals in both regional locations. Morning oriented individuals, showed a stronger preferece for going out and partying than evening-types, suggesting that the higher mating success of evening types is not due to their different lifestyles allowing more opportunities to encounter females. However, evening types exhibited a preference for flirtatious behaviors in the later part of the day. Shoulder-to-hip and handgrip strength, as measures of testosterone levels, were not significantly associated with eveningness. The results are discussed in terms of sexual selection and its interplay with human cultural variation.

Davide Piffer

2011-10-01

289

Reaching for the bottle of pesticide--a cry for help. Self-inflicted poisonings in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

This long-term study in Sri Lanka explored the complexities behind self-inflicted pesticide poisonings by 166 Sri Lankans. Using or threatening to use pesticides for self-harm has become a response to stressful events and a powerful message towards a specific individual, or to the outside world in general, conveying misgiving, anger, sadness, hopelessness, frustration, or simply a way to manipulate a situation to one's own advantage. The effects of alcohol misuse are especially important in understanding self-harm at the community level in terms of the impact they have on the domestic environment. Also, issues around "love affairs," arranged marriages and domestic physical, sexual or psychological abuse in the domestic environment are referred to by many self-harmers or their relatives as a reason for ingesting poison. Clearly, easy access to lethal pesticides by impulsive individuals often living under economically or psychosocially stressful conditions, combined with insufficient treatment facilities and limited outreach programs, can be a deadly blend. A strategy aimed at reducing the availability of the most toxic pesticides and improving case management should be implemented, as it is likely to reduce death from pesticides although unlikely to impact on the number of episodes. Support to families plagued by domestic violence and male alcohol misuse is essential to improve the quality of life for the most vulnerable and to reduce the number of self-harm episodes in the long-term. PMID:16165259

Konradsen, Flemming; Hoek, Wim van der; Peiris, Pushpalatha

2006-04-01

290

Economy wide emission impacts of carbon and energy tax in electricity supply industry: A case study on Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results and analysis of a study conducted with the objective of investigating the impact on economy wide emissions due to carbon and energy taxes levied within the electricity generation sector of Sri Lanka. This exercise is mainly based on the input-output table developed by the national planning department. An input-output decomposition technique is used to analyze four types of effects that contribute to the overall reduction in equivalent carbon, NO x and SO2 emissions. These four effects are: fuel mix effect (i.e. the change in emissions due to variation I fuel mix), structural effect (i.e. change in emissions due to changes in technological coefficients with taxes compared to that without taxes), final demand effect (i.e. the change in emissions associated with changes in final demand) and joint effect (i.e. the interactive effect between or among the fuel mix, structural and final demand effects). The polluting fuel sources and low energy efficiency generation technologies are less preferred under these tax regimes. Of the four effects, a change in fuel mix in thermal electricity generation and a change final demand for electricity were found to be the main contributors in achieving economy wide emission reductions. It was found in the analysis that a minimum of US$ 50/tC tax or US$ 1.0/MBtu of energy tax is required to have a significant impact on economy wide emissions in the Sri Lankan context. This translates inthe Sri Lankan context. This translates into an overall increase in electricity generation cost of approximately USCts 0.9 kW-1 h-1 and USCts 0.6 kW-1 h-1 under the carbon and energy tax regimes, respectively. The reduction in emissions is also strongly coupled with the value of the price elasticity of electricity

291

Psychometric properties of the Sinhala version of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales in early adolescents in Sri Lanka  

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Abstract Background The concept Health related Quality of life (HRQOL) is increasingly recognized as an important health outcome measure in clinical and research fields. The present study attempted to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Sinhala version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0 (PedsQL™ 4.0) Generic Core Scales among adolescents in Sri Lanka. Methods The original US PedsQL™ was translated into Sinhala and conceptually validate...

Danansuriya Manjula; Rajapaksa Lalini C

2012-01-01

292

AN ANALYSIS OF AN INTERNATIONAL NGOS DESIGN DECISION-MAKING IN POST DISASTER DEVELOPING COUNTRY CONTEXT: A Sri Lanka Case Study  

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The purpose of this paper is to explore the current design and delivery approaches of a selected INGO operating in the field of post disaster housing design and delivery in developing country contexts and clearly map out their approach from inception to completion of a housing project. The research utilizes a case study analysis involving a leading European INGO operating in post disaster housing delivery in Sri Lanka in the aftermath of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The research highlights ...

John Bruen; Jason Von Meding; Karim Hadjri

2013-01-01

293

State as a development actor :evidence from case study of Gemidiriya community development and livelihood improvement project of Matara district, in Sri Lanka  

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This thesis about the state as a development actor drawing: - evidence from a case study of the Gamidiriya Community Development and Livelihood Improvement project of Matara district in Sri Lanka. The objective of this study is to identify to what extent the Gamidiriya project has been successful in improving household?s livelihoods. Livelihood development projects are designed by the state to help to improve the quality of life for rural people by providing them with access to livelihood o...

Hettiarachchi, Priyan Chandana

2011-01-01

294

An Assessment of the Contribution of an Analog Forest as a Sustainable Land-use Ecosystem for the Development of Rural Green Economy in Sri Lanka  

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Large scale clearing of natural forests for human settlements as well as in the form of tea, rubberand cinnamon plantations resulted forest fragmentation in most natural ecosystems in the wet zone of SriLanka which posed massive threats to both nature and the humans including the loss of biodiversity,environmental hazards and increasing poverty. This paper discusses about the potential to develop ruralgreen economy as a result of consolidating these agricultural lands into analog forests as a...

Liyanage, W. K. D. D.; Gamage, N. S.; Pushpa Kumara, G. D. C.; Xulong, L.

2013-01-01

295

Effect of Growth Rate on Wood Specific Gravity of Three Alternative Timber Species in Sri Lanka; Swietenia macrophylla, Khaya senegalensis and Paulownia fortunei  

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With increasing private sector investments in commercial forestry, it is apparent that plantationforestry in Sri Lanka is moving in the direction of managing fast growing timber species for shorterrotations. However, there’s a perceptionthat accelerated growth rates induced by improved forestmanagement practices can result in inferior wood quality. This study tested this perceptionby studyingthe effect of growth rate on the specific gravity, as a proxy for wood quality, of three alternative...

Priyan Perera; Hiran Amarasekera; Weerawardena, N. D. R.

2012-01-01

296

"No God and no Norway": collective resource loss among members of Tamil NGO's in Norway during and after the last phase of the civil war in Sri Lanka  

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Abstract Background Studies on the mental health of refugees have tended to focus upon the impact of traumatic experiences in the country of origin, and acculturation processes in exile. The effects of crises in the country of origin on refugees living in exile have been little studied. This article examines how the final stages of the civil war in Sri Lanka in 2009 influenced members of pro-LTTE Tamil NGO's in Norway. Method Ethnographic fieldwork methods were ...

Guribye Eugene

2011-01-01

297

Outcomes and moderators of a preventive school-based mental health intervention for children affected by war in Sri Lanka: a cluster randomized trial  

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We aimed to examine outcomes, moderators and mediators of a preventive school-based mental health intervention implemented by paraprofessionals in a war-affected setting in northern Sri Lanka. A cluster randomized trial was employed. Subsequent to screening 1,370 children in randomly selected schools, 399 children were assigned to an intervention (n=199) or waitlist control condition (n=200). The intervention consisted of 15 manualized sessions over 5 weeks of cognitive behavioral techniques ...

Tol, Wietse A.; Komproe, Ivan H.; Jordans, Mark J. D.; Vallipuram, Anavarathan; Sipsma, Heather; Sivayokan, Sambasivamoorthy; Macy, Robert D.; Jong, Joop T.

2012-01-01

298

Haemostatic dysfunction and acute renal failure following envenoming by Merrem's hump-nosed viper (Hypnale hypnale) in Sri Lanka: first authenticated case.  

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A five years old boy was bitten by a Merrem's hump-nosed viper (Hypnale hypnale) in Central Province, Sri Lanka. He developed local swelling, incoagulable blood, thrombocytopenia, bleeding into the gastrointestinal tract, and acute renal failure. Treatment with Serum Institute of Indian polyspecific antivenom (specific for venoms of cobra, common krait, Russell's viper and saw-scaled viper) had no effect on the coagulopathy, which persisted for more than a week. The boy recovered after 27 d i...

Silva, A.; Wijekoon, As; Jayasena, L.; Abeysekera, Ck; Bao, Cx; Hutton, Ra; Warrell, Da

1994-01-01

299

Quality management system of secondary standards dosimetry laboratory in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Application of Quality Management System (QMS) of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) of the Atomic Energy Authority (ALA) of Sri Lanka provides path of workflow and information on laboratory operations, management and competence of staff that would assist the laboratory in continual improvement of its processes and meeting accreditation requirements in compliance with IS017025. Thus provision of customers' satisfied accredited dosimetry calibration services is needed for the country. The SSDL currently possesses a reference electrometer (PTW Unidos) with protection level ion- chambers (NE2575, 600cc ion-chamber and PTW - lOLt ion-chamber) and therapy level ion-chambers (NE2571, 0.6cc thimble ion-chamber). Also the laboratory is also having measuring standards (NE2570 electrometer with NE2575, 600cc ion-chamber and NE2571, 0.6cc thimble ion-chamber) . A gamma irradiator which contains two gamma sources (Co-60 and Cs-137) and a X-ray system with six ISO 4037 beam qualities (narrow spectrum of energy range: 33keV - 118keV) are available for protection level X-ray calibrations. Stability of the electrometers with Ion- chambers is performed with Sr-90 check sources, which are specially designed for each type of chambers in order to fix the set-up maintaining the same geometry for every measurement. An average of reading of ten consecutive measurements of which each measurement was made for 300s is taken for stability measurement. Each reading is corrtability measurement. Each reading is corrected for ambient temperature and pressure. Acceptance of percentage deviation of stability results with respect to reference reading of respective chamber is ±1% for protection level and ± 0.5% for therapy level. All these equipments, when they are not in used are kept in a dry cabinet in order to control humidity. The SSDL of AEA has become a part of an international network of dosimetry laboratories established by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO). This network provides assistance for members to maintain consistency of Radiation Standard measurements in their dosimetry laboratories. Reference electrometer with ion-chambers has been calibrated from IAEA Radiation Standard Laboratory at Seibersdorf in Austria which is traceable to primary standards at BIPM. Measuring standards are calibrated using these reference standards. The SSDL also participates IAEA TLD dose audit program to ensure the accuracy of radiation standards and is firmly committed to achieve global harmonization wherever possible. Hence the QMS assures the quality and accuracy of the services provided to institutions such as hospitals, research institutes, industries for the safety of their radiation workers. Reference electrometer with ion-chambers is used to standardize the gamma radiation fields. Measurements are made from 1 m onwards from the source with 25 cm step increment along the beam axis. Ten consecutive readings are taken for the measurement of air-kerma rate at a point. Ambient temperature, pressure and humidity at the beginning and end of measurements of each measurement are taken by using calibrated ancillary instruments, which are traceable to national and international standards, for correction of density of air mass in the ion-chamber. This air-kerma rate is converted to ambient dose equivalent rate (ADER) for the calibration of area monitors and personal dose equivalent rate (PDER) for calibration of personal monitoring instruments/devices as recommended in IAEA Safety Report Series 16. Graphs, Distance Vs dose rate for ADER and PDER using power fitting formula are established. Decay correction is applied for each data point measured and a fresh graph, Distance Vs dose rate is prepared each day prior to calibration of instruments. Verification of dose given by the software program is done with manual calculation of three data points. Energies of X-ray beams used for protection level calibration are verified with first and second half-value thicknesses of each X-ray beam. Measure

300

Maps of the Sri Lanka malaria situation preceding the tsunami and key aspects to be considered in the emergency phase and beyond  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the tsunami, a detailed overview of the area specific transmission levels is essential in assessing the risk of malaria in Sri Lanka. Recent information on vector insecticide resistance, parasite drug resistance, and insights into the national policy for malaria diagnosis and treatment are important in assisting national and international agencies in their control efforts. Methods Monthly records over the period January 1995 – October 2004 of confirmed malaria cases were used to perform an analysis of malaria distribution at district spatial resolution. Also, a focused review of published reports and routinely collected information was performed. Results The incidence of malaria was only 1 case per thousand population in the 10 months leading up to the disaster, in the districts with the highest transmission. Conclusion Although relocated people may be more exposed to mosquito bites, and their capacity to handle diseases affected, the environmental changes caused by the tsunami are unlikely to enhance breeding of the principal vector, and, given the present low parasite reservoir, the likelihood of a malaria outbreak is low. However, close monitoring of the situation is necessary, especially as December – February is normally the peak transmission season. Despite some losses, the Sri Lanka public health system is capable of dealing with the possible threat of a malaria outbreak after the tsunami. The influx of foreign medical assistance, drugs, and insecticides may interfere with malaria surveillance, and the long term malaria control strategy of Sri Lanka, if not in accordance with government policy.

Konradsen Flemming

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Safe storage of pesticides in Sri Lanka – Identifying important design features influencing community acceptance and use of safe storage devices  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-poisoning with pesticides is the cause of an estimated 300,000 deaths annually in rural Asia. The great majority of these deaths are from impulsive acts of self-harm using pesticides that are readily available in the home. The secure storage of pesticides under lock has been emphasized as a possible answer to the problem. This aspect, however, has been poorly researched. In this paper, we report on the design and use, in rural Sri Lanka, of a variety of different lockable storage devices. Methods Following a baseline survey of pesticide storage practices, randomly selected households received a pesticide safe storage device. The study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase a total of 200 households in two villages were provided with in-house safe storage devices and two follow-up surveys were conducted seven and 24 months after distribution. The results of the seven month post-distribution survey have already been published. In the second phase, a further 168 households were selected in two additional villages and given a choice between an in-house and an in-field storage device and a follow-up survey conducted seven months after distribution. Both follow-up surveys aimed to assess the use of the device, obtain detailed user feedback on the different storage designs, and to identify problems faced with safeguarding the key. Twelve focus group discussions were held with representatives of households that received a storage device to derive from the community qualitative feedback on the design requirements for such devices. Results One hundred and sixty one of the 200 households selected during the first phase were using pesticides at the time of the follow-up survey, 24 months after distribution. Of these 161 households 89 (55% had the pesticides stored and locked in the provided device. Among the 168 households that were given a choice between an in-house and an in-field storage device 156 used pesticides at the time of survey and of these 103 (66% selected in-field storage devices and 34% chose in-house storage devices. Of the 156 households, 106 (68% stored all pesticides in a locked storage device at the time of the follow-up survey seven months after distribution. The majority of households that received an in-field storage device chose to install the device within their compound rather than in the field as they were concerned about the possibility of theft. The preferred design of the storage device was influenced by a number of occupational factors such as land size, crop patterns, types and the quantity of pesticides used. The presence of termites, perceived safety, material used to manufacture the device and ease of location influenced their choice. The study revealed that it was difficult to keep the key to the device hidden from children; and that the person in charge of the key would have easy access to the stored poison. Conclusion This study confirms the high acceptance of lockable storage devices by the community although the use of the device reduced over time. A large proportion of pesticides stored within the compound after the introduction of the device may have implications for accessibility to pesticides in the domestic environment. The ability of other household members, including children, to easily find the key is also worrying.

Dawson Andrew

2008-08-01

302

Social, cultural and economical determinants of diabetes mellitus in Kalutara district, Sri Lanka: a cross sectional descriptive study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Sri Lanka is a country that is expected to face a high burden of diabetes mellitus (DM. There is a paucity of data on social and demographic determinants of DM, especially in the plantation sector. Aims To describe social and economic correlates and inequalities of DM in Kalutara District. Methods A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among adults over the age of 35 years. A sample of 1300 individuals was selected using stratified random cluster sampling method from 65 Grama Niladari Divisions (GND, which were representative of urban, rural and plantation sectors. Twenty households were randomly selected from each division and one adult was randomly selected from each household. Data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Fasting plasma blood sugar of ?126mg/dl was used to define DM. Significance of prevalence of diseases and risk factors across different socio-economic strata were determined by chi square test for trend. Results Of 1234 adults who were screened (628 males, 202 (14.7% had DM. Higher DM proportions (16.1% were seen in the highest income quintile and in those educated up to Advanced Levels (AL and above (17.3%. Prevalence in the urban, rural and plantation sectors were 23.6%, 15.5% and 8.5% respectively. Prevalence among Sinhalese, Tamils and Muslims were 14.4%, 29.0% and 20.0% respectively. There was a gradient in prevalence according to the unsatisfactory basic needs index of the GND with the highest proportion (20.7% observed in the richest GND. The highest social status quintile demonstrated the highest proportion (17.4% with diabetes mellitus. Conclusion There is a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the more affluent and educated segments of society. There is also a higher prevalence among urban compared to rural and estates. Sri Lanka is in an early stage of the epidemic where the wealthy people are at a higher risk of DM.

Pubudu De Silva Ambepitiyawaduge

2012-12-01

303

Ethics of cancer palliative care in Sri Lanka. A cross- cultural perspective.  

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The diagnosis of cancer is associated with an unexpected breakdown of the physical, psychological and social well being. In addition to cancer related physical outcomes, cross-cultural issues are known to hasten patients’ clinical deterioration and can impact upon orientation as a healthy human being in society. As members of a developing nation in the second world, to provide patient oriented quality care while maintaining high standards of ethical practice, health care workers in Sri Lank...

Mbkc, Dayasiri

2010-01-01

304

Inequalities in the Financial Inclusion in Sri Lanka: An Assessment of the Functional Financial Literacy  

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This paper explores the existing pattern and the levels of disparity of the functional financial literacy in the Sri Lankan context. The study, mainly using quantitative data, selected the sample representing the three main settlement types: urban, rural and estate sector using multi-stage sampling technique related to cluster sampling. The analysis generated five ‘domains’ of financial literacy scores that capture respondent’s relative skills using factor analysis. Tobit regression an...

Heenkkenda, Shirantha

2014-01-01

305

The influence of urban design on outdoor thermal comfort in the hot, humid city of Colombo, Sri Lanka.  

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The outdoor environment is deteriorating in many tropical cities due to rapid urbanization. This leads to a number of problems related to health and well-being of humans and also negatively affects social and commercial outdoor activities. The creation of thermally comfortable microclimates in urban environments is therefore very important. This paper discusses the influence of street-canyon geometry on outdoor thermal comfort in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Five sites with different urban geometry, ground cover, and distance from the sea were studied during the warmest season. The environmental parameters affecting thermal comfort, viz. air temperature, humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation, were measured, and the thermal comfort was estimated by calculating the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The thermal comfort is far above the assumed comfort zone due to the combination of intense solar radiation, high temperatures, and low wind speeds, especially on clear days. The worst conditions were found in wide streets with low-rise buildings and no shade trees. The most comfortable conditions were found in narrow streets with tall buildings, especially if shade trees were present, as well as in areas near the coast where the sea breeze had a positive effect. In order to improve the outdoor comfort in Colombo, it is suggested to allow a more compact urban form with deeper street canyons and to provide additional shade through the use of trees, covered walkways, pedestrian arcades, etc. The opening up of the city's coastal strip would allow the sea breeze to penetrate further into the city. PMID:16855834

Johansson, Erik; Emmanuel, Rohinton

2006-11-01

306

Integrated school-based surveillance for soil-transmitted helminth infections and lymphatic filariasis in Gampaha district, Sri Lanka.  

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We explored the practicality of integrating surveillance for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH, assessed by Kato-Katz) with transmission assessment surveys for lymphatic filariasis (LF) in two evaluation units (EUs) in Gampaha district, Sri Lanka (population 2.3 million). The surveys were performed 6 years after five annual rounds of mass drug administration with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole. Each transmission assessment survey tested children (N = 1,462 inland EU; 1,642 coastal EU) sampled from 30 primary schools. Low filarial antigenemia rates (0% and 0.1% for the inland and coastal EUs) suggest that LF transmission is very low in this district. The STH rates and stool sample participation rates were 0.8% and 61% (inland) and 2.8% and 58% (coastal). Most STH detected were low or moderate intensity Trichuris trichiura infections. The added cost of including STH testing was ?$5,000 per EU. These results suggest that it is feasible to integrate school-based surveillance for STH and LF. PMID:24493672

Gunawardena, Sharmini; Gunawardena, Nipul K; Kahathuduwa, Ganga; Karunaweera, Nadira D; de Silva, Nilanthi R; Ranasinghe, Udaya B; Samarasekara, Sandhya D; Nagodavithana, Kumara C; Rao, Ramakrishna U; Rebollo, Maria P; Weil, Gary J

2014-04-01

307

Transitions in ancient inland freshwater resource management in Sri Lanka affect biota and human populations in and around coastal lagoons.  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing anthropogenic pressure on natural environments results in impacts that affect tropical forest areas and their biodiversity. Adverse impacts on terrestrial and oceanic environments often compound in the intertidal area, where mangrove forest ecosystems thrive. In tropical coastal areas of many developing countries where people depend on wood and other mangrove forest products and services, forest degradation leads to socioeconomic problems. At the same time, increasing freshwater needs in these areas are expected to cause additional problems. On the basis of remote sensing and ground truthing complemented by colonial archival material from the Dutch East India Company (1602-1800), we report that changes to the historic system of inland freshwater management have increased dramatically in recent times. Hydrological changes, such as interbasin transfers, have resulted in a qualitative ecological and socioeconomic degradation in three coastal lagoons in southern Sri Lanka. Variations in river hydrology have caused changes in the areas suitable as mangrove habitat and, thus, have resulted in an altered distribution. However, increases in mangrove area can mask the degradation of the site in terms of floristic composition, significance of the species, and biodiversity (this effect is termed "cryptic ecological degradation"). It is important that such changes be carefully monitored to ensure biological and socioeconomic sustainability. PMID:15797030

Dahdouh-Guebas, F; Hettiarachchi, S; Lo Seen, D; Batelaan, O; Sooriyarachchi, S; Jayatissa, L P; Koedam, N

2005-03-29

308

Identification and characterization of thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria strains isolated from coconut water vinegar in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

From the pellicle formed on top of brewing coconut water vinegar in Sri Lanka, three Acetobacter strains (SL13E-2, SL13E-3, and SL13E-4) that grow at 42 °C and four Gluconobacter strains (SL13-5, SL13-6, SL13-7, and SL13-8) grow at 37 °C were identified as Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii, respectively. Acetic acid production by the isolated Acetobacter strains was examined. All three strains gave 4% acetic acid from 6% initial ethanol at 37 °C, and 2.5% acetic acid from 4% initial ethanol at 40 °C. Compared with the two other strains, SL13E-4 showed both slower growth and slower acetic acid production. As well as the thermotolerant SKU1108 strain, the activities of the alcohol dehydrogenase and the aldehyde dehydrogenase of SL13E-2 and SL13E-4 were more stable than those of the mesophilic strain. The isolated strains were used to produce coconut water vinegar at higher temperatures than typically used for vinegar production. PMID:25036846

Perumpuli, P A B N; Watanabe, Taisuke; Toyama, Hirohide

2014-01-01

309

Theorising the 'human subject' in biomedical research: international clinical trials and bioethics discourses in contemporary Sri Lanka.  

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The global spread of clinical trials activity is accompanied by a parallel growth in research governance and human subject protection. In this paper we analyse how dominant ideas of the 'human subject' in clinical trials are played out in countries that are deemed to be scientifically under-developed. Specifically, we show how rhetorics of individualism, rationality and autonomy implicit in international ethical guidelines governing human subject research are operationalised and localised. We give insights into the ways in which new knowledge forms become embedded in practice. Using the recent upsurge in clinical trials in Sri Lanka as a case study, based on interviews with 23 doctors and researchers carried out during ethnographic fieldwork between 2008-2009, this article explores the tensions that arise for doctors involved with the promotion of bioethics and the attempts to bring local research governance up to international standards. The doctors and researchers intercept, interpret and critique the notions of human subject implicit in new forms of research governance. From their accounts we have identified two concerns. The first is a critique of dominant ideas of the 'human subject' that is informed by ideas of patiency rooted in paternalistic notions of the doctor-patient relationship. Second, 'human subjects' are seen as gendered, and located within family relationships. Both of these bring into question the research subjects' ability to give informed consent and compromise the ideal of an autonomous subject. PMID:21208703

Sariola, Salla; Simpson, Bob

2011-08-01

310

Analysis of Forensic Medicine questions in the undergraduate medical curriculum of the University of Peradeniya , Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Introduction Forensic Medicine is a subject in the undergraduate medical curriculum in Sri Lanka. Several evaluations comprising of essay and structured essay types of questions are used for the evaluation of students. Since recent trends in medical education stresses the importance of promoting higher order thinking, such as analyzing and evaluating, rather than just remembering facts it was decided to conduct a study with a view to determining the cognitive level of the essay and structured essay type of questions in Forensic Medicine Method Essay and structured essay types of questions of the first four years of the MBBS program from the year 2006 to 2012 were categorized according to the Bloom’s taxonomy. Results A majority of questions were knowledge based while a considerable number were of the comprehension and application types. The proportion of questions of the synthesis and analysis were less while there was a moderate number of the evaluation type of questions. Observations made between the years revealed that there was a tendency for a decrease in the proportion of knowledge-based questions from the 1st year to the 4th years with an increase in the proportion of synthesis type of questions. Conclusion A majority of questions in Forensic medicine require lower cognitive abilities. However, there is a tendency towards questions, which require higher cognitive abilities with progression in to the senior years of the medical course.

DH Edussuriya

2014-10-01

311

An Electronic Public Health Information System for Sri Lanka: a proposal to enhance current practice  

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Full Text Available Public health depends on timely collected, complete and accurate data. To achieve the public health goal of “collective action for sustained population-wide health improvement”, the ability to measure and monitor health indices of communities and populations is very important. The Sri Lankan public health system has been exemplary among developing countries and the system is well established. Yet the growing population, increased awareness and new health needs of the community have placed a great burden on the current public health system. Re-engineering of the current information system with incorporation of an Electronic Information System can be a solution for the difficulties faced by public the health staff.In this paper, I propose to present a conceptual framework and design for an Electronic Public Health Information System. The design was made by studying the current paper based system and other practical aspects of the system. Information was gathered from field staff, middle level managers and central administrative staff. The proposed system is designed to represent all aspects of the Sri Lankan Public Health System with the ability for integration with other systems.

G. R. M. P. Dharmawardhana

2013-06-01

312

Studies on reproductive endocrinology and factors influencing fertility in dairy and draught buffaloes in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of calving data on state farms and a field survey in village herds were used in conjunction with radioimmunoassay for plasma and milk progesterone, rectal palpation and other clinical observations to study reproductive functions of river type (Murrah) and indigenous (Lanka) buffaloes. A marked seasonality of calvings and conceptions was observed in both types, with the highest percentage of conceptions occurring 2-5 months after the annual peak in rainfall. In Murrah buffaloes on two state farms the mean ages at first calving were 51.0 and 52.1 months, and the calving interval 17.5 months. Progesterone profiles during the postpartum period showed ovarian inactivity to be the major problem. Most animals remained anoestrous for 100-200 days, but conceived at the first or second postpartum ovulation. Treatment with GnRH during anoestrus had no beneficial effect. Hormonal changes during normal and prostaglandin-synchronized oestrous cycles, pregnancy and the peripartal period were basically similar to those in cattle, with some differences in absolute values. Gestation length (mean+-SD) was 309.9+-8.8 days. In Lanka buffaloes under village conditions marked differences in fertility were evident between certain districts and agro-ecological zones. Mean ages at first calving ranged from 41.4-49 months, calving intervals from 13-23.5 months, and annual calving rates from 42-75%. Ovarian inactivity was the major problem in areas with poor fertility, and was influenceeas with poor fertility, and was influenced by suckling management and usage for draught and milk. At one village location with high fertility 70% of the animals had calving to first service intervals less than 60 days, first service conception rate of 65.5% and 1.4 services per conception. The mean (+-SD) interval from calving to first elevation of progesterone in milk was 55.2+-18.6 days, the calving interval 393.7+-79.8 days, and the gestation length 316.9+-9.9 days. (author)

313

Carotenoid content and in vitro bioaccessibility of lutein in some leafy vegetables popular in Sri Lanka.  

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Lutein is one of the major carotenoids in green leafy vegetables (GLVs), which show a marked antioxidant activity. The study was carried out to identify and quantify the carotenoid content of selected Sri Lankan GLVs. RP-HPLC with photodiode array detection method was followed for the separation, identification and quantification of carotenoids. Among the vegetables analyzed, Ipomoea batatas leaves showed the highest beta-carotene content (743.9+/-35.0 microg/g dry weight (DW)) while Syngonium angustatum leaves contained the highest amount of lutein (1,728.2+/-168.3 microg/g DW). Percentage in vitro bioaccessibility of lutein from cooked GLVs ranged from 10.1 to 48.0% in stir-fried preparations of Centella asiatica and Cucurbita maxima, respectively. Hence these GLVs can be exploited as a rich source of beta-carotene and lutein to overcome vitamin A deficiency and age-related macular degeneration. PMID:20651462

Chandrika, Udumalagala Gamage; Basnayake, Basnayake Mudiyanselage Lohitha Bandara; Athukorala, Indika; Colombagama, Pula Wahampurage Nilanka Madurangi; Goonetilleke, Anil

2010-01-01

314

Rostral horn evolution among agamid lizards of the genus ceratophora endemic to Sri Lanka  

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The first phylogenetic hypothesis for the Sri Lankan agamid lizard genus Ceratophora is presented based on 1670 aligned base positions (472 parsimony informative) of mitochondrial DNA sequences, representing coding regions for eight tRNAs, ND2, and portions of ND1 and COI. Phylogenetic analysis reveals multiple origins and possibly losses of rostral horns in the evolutionary history of Ceratophora. Our data suggest a middle Miocene origin of Ceratophora with the most recent branching of recognized species occurring at the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary. Haplotype divergence suggests that an outgroup species, Lyriocephalus scutatus, dates at least to the Pliocene. These phylogenetic results provide a framework for comparative studies of the behavioral ecological importance of horn evolution in this group.

Schulte II, James A.; Macey, J. Robert; Pethiyagoda, Rohan; Larson, Allan

2001-07-10

315

Personal and professional challenges in the management of deliberate self-poisoning patients in rural Sri Lanka: a qualitative study of rural hospital doctors' experiences and perceptions  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Deliberate self-poisoning is a major public heath issue in developing countries. In rural Sri Lanka deliberate self-poisoning is one of the leading causes of hospital death. The majority of patients with poisoning present to rural hospitals for initial treatment that are staffed by non-specialist and often relatively junior doctors. The treatment of self-poisoning patients poses numerous clinical challenges and further difficulties are experienced if patients are uncooperative and aggressive, intoxicated with alcohol or suffering mental illness. Previous research in developed countries has examined self-poisoning patients and their treatment but little is know about self-poisoning patient care in the context of rural health provision in developing countries. This study provides the first focused exploration of the experiences and perceptions of primary care rural hospital doctors in Sri Lanka toward the treatment of self-poisoning patients. Methods Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with fifteen doctors from rural hospitals in the North Central Province, Sri Lanka. All interviews were recorded and transcribed and subject to thematic analysis. Results Participating doctors did perceive that treating self-poisoning patients in a primary care rural hospital as potentially confidence-building. However, resource issues such as the lack of medication, equipment and staffing were seen as important challenges to treating self-poisoning patients. Other challenges identified included disparity with community and other staff members regarding expectations of care, a sense of professional isolation and a lack of continuing education programs. Conclusion Addressing professional isolation through educational and trainee programs for doctors and reducing the variance in expectations between professional groups and the community has the potential to improve delivery of care for self-poisoning patients.

Buckley Nick A

2008-10-01

316

Toad radiation reveals into-India dispersal as a source of endemism in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background High taxonomic level endemism in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot has been typically attributed to the subcontinent's geological history of long-term isolation. Subsequent out of – and into India dispersal of species after accretion to the Eurasian mainland is therefore often seen as a biogeographic factor that 'diluted' the composition of previously isolated Indian biota. However, few molecular studies have focussed on into-India dispersal as a possible source of endemism on the subcontinent. Using c. 6000 base pairs of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, we investigated the evolutionary history and biogeography of true toads (Bufonidae, a group that colonized the Indian Subcontinent after the Indo-Asia collision. Results Contrary to previous studies, Old World toads were recovered as a nested clade within New World Bufonidae, indicating a single colonization event. Species currently classified as Ansonia and Pedostibes were both recovered as being non-monophyletic, providing evidence for the independent origin of torrential and arboreal ecomorphs on the Indian subcontinent and in South-East Asia. Our analyses also revealed a previously unrecognized adaptive radiation of toads containing a variety of larval and adult ecomorphs. Molecular dating estimates and biogeographic analyses indicate that the early diversification of this clade happened in the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka during the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene. Conclusion Paleoclimate reconstructions have shown that the Early Neogene of India was marked by major environmental changes, with the transition from a zonal- to the current monsoon-dominated climate. After arrival in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka hotspot, toads diversified in situ, with only one lineage able to successfully disperse out of these mountains. Consequently, higher taxonomic level endemism on the Indian Subcontinent is not only the result of Cretaceous isolation, but also of invasion, isolation and radiation of new elements after accretion to the Eurasian mainland.

Bossuyt Franky

2009-06-01

317

Comparison of Technical Efficiency and Socio-economic Status in Animal-crop Mixed Farming Systems in Dry Lowland Sri Lanka  

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Pre-tested, structured questionnaires covered management aspects, inputs, outputs, socio-economic situations and constraints in dairy farming among Semi-intensive (SIFS) and Extensive farming systems (EFS) in dry-lowland Sri Lanka. Parametric data were analyzed using two-tailed‘t’ and ‘Z’ tests, and non-parametric values were analyzed using Chi-square and Fisher’s extract tests. Cobb-Douglas model was used to calculate meta-frontier and system-specific frontiers. Returns in SIFS are...

Upul Yasantha Nanayakkara Vithanage; Gunaratne, Lokugam H. P.; Kumara Mahipala M. B. P.; Hewa Waduge Cyril

2014-01-01

318

Effect of repeated application of fenthion as a mosquito larvicide on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) inhabiting selected water canals in Sri Lanka.  

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Health status of feral Nile tilapia following repeated applications of fenthion as a mosquito larvicide to selected water canals in Sri Lanka was assessed. With three spray applications of fenthion to the study sites at weekly intervals at the concentration recommended for mosquito control, condition factor and brain acetylcholinesterase activity of the fish were depressed in a time dependent manner. Prominent histopathological alterations displayed were gill hyperplasia and telangiectasis and vacoulation of hepatocytes. Observed ill health effects of fenthion on the fish demonstrate probable ecological risk to the fish populations inhabiting the water canals which receive repeated inputs of fenthion. PMID:18344014

Jayasundara, Viranga K; Pathiratne, Asoka

2008-04-01

319

Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Setaria digitata of Sri Lanka based on CO1 and 12S rDNA genes.  

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The aim of the present research is to determine the phylogenetic position of Setaria digitata of Sri Lanka in the evolutionary tree of filarial worms. DNA sequences of portions of the mitochondrial genes cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) and small subunit ribosomal RNA (12S rDNA) were analysed. Intra-specific variation was observed in CO1 but not in 12S rDNA. Phylogenetic trees inferred from these two genes resembled one another in recognizing monophyly of Setaria. S. digitata and Setaria labiatopapillosa appear to be sister species. PMID:17614204

Yatawara, Lalani; Wickramasinghe, Susiji; Nagataki, Mitsuru; Rajapakse, R P V J; Agatsuma, Takeshi

2007-09-01

320

A Simple Intervention to Prevent Cutaneous Larva Migrans among Devotees of the Nallur Temple in Jaffna, Sri Lanka  

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Background A cross sectional study conducted during the annual festival at Nallur temple in Jaffna, Sri Lanka, in 2010, showed that the prevalence of cutaneous larva migrants (CLM) among the devotees who performed the side roll ritual was 58.2% (95%CI: 51.2%–65.0%). Objective To test the hypothesis that the deworming stray dogs around the temple premises effectively reduces the prevalence of CLM among devotees. Methodology/Principal Findings All stray dogs (8) in the vicinity of the temple were treated, with mebendazole (100 mg) crushed and filled into sausages, 10 days before the commencement of festival in 2011. The same procedure was repeated a week later to ensure complete coverage. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 systematically selected devotees in August 2011 using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and the clinical examination of the skin. Baermann's technique was used for the recovery of nematode larvae from 40 soil samples collected from the temple premises. Ten samples of dog faeces collected from the same premises were also examined for nematode eggs. Prevalence of CLM among devotees in 2010 (Pre intervention) and 2011(Post intervention) were compared to test the hypothesis. Prevalence of CLM declined from 58% to 8% (Chi-square?=?112.90, p<0.001) following the intervention. None of the subjects practiced new precautionary measures compared to the previous year. Soil and fecal samples were negative for parasites. Conclusions/Significance Regular dog deworming is an important and effective method for the prevention of CLM among the devotees doing side roll ritual and represents a pragmatic intervention that municipal authorities could perform on annual basis. PMID:23613943

Kannathasan, Selvam; Murugananthan, Arumugam; Rajeshkannan, Nadarajah; de Silva, Nilanthi Renuka

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Effects of Sand Dune and Vegetation in the Coastal Area of Sri Lanka at the Indian Ocean Tsunami  

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This study explored the effects of coastal vegetation and sand dune on tsunami protection based on field observations carried out after the Indian Ocean tsunami on December 26, 2004. The representative vegetation was classified into six types according to their habitat and the stand structures of the trees. The impact of vegetation structure on drag forces was analyzed using the observed characteristics of the tree species. The drag coefficient, including the vertical stand structures of the trees, Cd-all, and the vegetation thickness in a unit area, dNu (d: reference diameter of trees, Nu: number of trees per unit area), varied greatly with the species classification. Based on the field survey and data analysis, Rhizophora apiculata and Rhizophora mucronata (Rhizophora apiculata-type), kinds of mangroves, and Pandanus odoratissimus, representative tree that grows in beach sand, were found to be especially effective in providing protection from tsunami-damage due to their complex aerial root structures. The breaking moment of the trees was investigated through a pulling test for the representative trees. The threshold value for breaking moment was compared to the drag-force moment acting on the trees located at the tsunami-damaged site. The breaking moment equation represents well the limitation of the representative species with the tsunami height. It arrives at a hypothesis about which species could better withstand the effects of a tsunami wave. Sand dune and lagoon is a typical landscape in most part of the coastal zone of Sri Lanka. The combination of the sand dune followed by vegetation toward landside played an important role in retarding tsunami. Two layers of forest in the vertical direction with P. odoratissimus and Casuarina equisetifolia and a horizontal forest structure of small and large diameter trees were also important for increasing drag, trapping floating objects, broken branches, houses, and people. These information should be considered in future coastal landscape planning, rehabilitation, and tsunami hazard mapping.

Tanaka, Norio; Sasaki, Yasushi; Mowjood, M. I. M.

322

Leachate plume delineation and lithologic profiling using surface resistivity in an open municipal solid waste dumpsite, Sri Lanka.  

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This study presents the use of direct current resistivity techniques (DCRT) for investigation and characterization of leachate-contaminated subsurface environment of an open solid waste dumpsite at Kandy, Sri Lanka. The particular dumpsite has no liner and hence the leachate flows directly to the nearby river via subsurface and surface channels. For the identification of possible subsurface flow paths and the direction of the leachate, DCRT (two-dimensional, three-dimensional and vertical electrical sounding) have been applied. In addition, the physico-chemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), alkalinity, hardness, chloride, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) of leachate collected from different points of the solid waste dumping area and leachate drainage channel were analysed. Resistivity data confirmed that the leachate flow is confined to the near surface and no separate plume is observed in the downstream area, which may be due to the contamination distribution in the shallow overburden thickness. The stratigraphy with leachate pockets and leachate plume movements was well demarcated inside the dumpsite via low resistivity zones (1-3 ?m). The recorded EC, alkalinity, hardness and chloride contents in leachate were averaged as 14.13?mS?cm(-1), 3236, 2241 and 320?mg?L(-1), respectively, which confirmed the possible causes for low resistivity values. This study confirms that DCRT can be effectively utilized to assess the subsurface characteristics of the open dumpsites to decide on corridor placement and depth of permeable reactive barriers to reduce the groundwater contamination. PMID:25209886

Wijesekara, Hasintha Rangana; De Silva, Sunethra Nalin; Wijesundara, Dharani Thanuja De Silva; Basnayake, Bendict Francis Antony; Vithanage, Meththika Suharshini

2014-10-01

323

Background levels of heavy metals in plants of different taxonomic groups from a montane rain forest in Sri Lanka.  

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An undisturbed natural reserve area iocated in a tropical montane rain forest at about 1800 m altitude in Sri Lanka served as a study site to investigate and assess the natural background concentration levels of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in plants representing different taxonomic groups (divisions) in the plant kingdom. The plants selected were: the lichen,Usnea barbata (old man's beard);Pogonatum sp. (a moss);Lycopodium selago (epiphytic lycopod);Polypodium lanceolatum (epiphytic fern);Bulbophyllum elliae (epiphytic orchid) andActinodaphne ambigua (dicotyledonous large tree). Degree of homogeneity with respect to Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in homogenised materials of all samples were within acceptable limits, whereasPogonatum sp. showed the highest degree of homogeneity for Pb. In addition to confirming extremely low levels of heavy metals in all plant species, the survey also found that generally the primitive plants,Usnea andPogonatum appear to have a greater tendency to accumulate As, Cd, Co and Pb; in particular,U. barbata appears to be an efficient accumulator for those heavy metals, suggesting its potential use in environmental studies.Actinodaphne ambigua was found to have a specific accumulating ability for nickel. Surface cleaning of theA. ambigua leaves resulted in a substantial decrease in the foliar contents of Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn. Variations in heavy metal contents observed in different plant genera are discussed in terms of their habits and place of growth in the forest. It is anticipated that the background levels presented in this paper from a remote, unpolluted tropical ecosystem will provide useful reference data for comparative environmental studies. PMID:24194375

Jayasekera, R; Rossbach, M

1996-06-01

324

Multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms involving metabolic changes and insensitive target sites selected in anopheline vectors of malaria in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The current status of insecticide resistance and the underlying resistance mechanisms were studied in the major vector of malaria, Anopheles culicifacies, and the secondary vector, Anopheles subpictus in five districts (Anuradhapura, Kurunegala, Moneragala, Puttalam and Trincomalee of Sri Lanka. Eight other anophelines, Anopheles annularis, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles jamesii, Anopheles nigerrimus, Anopheles peditaeniatus, Anopheles tessellatus, Anopheles vagus and Anopheles varuna from Anuradhapura district were also tested. Methods Adult females were exposed to the WHO discriminating dosages of DDT, malathion, fenitrothion, propoxur, ?-cyhalothrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, permethrin and etofenprox. The presence of metabolic resistance by esterase, glutathione S-transferase (GST and monooxygenase-based mechanisms, and the sensitivity of the acetylcholinesterase target site were assessed using synergists, and biochemical, and metabolic techniques. Results All the anopheline species had high DDT resistance. All An. culicifacies and An. subpictus populations were resistant to malathion, except An. culicifacies from Kurunegala, where there was no malathion carboxylesterase activity. Kurunegala and Puttalam populations of An. culicifacies were susceptible to fenitrothion. All the An. culicifacies populations were susceptible to carbamates. Both species were susceptible to the discriminating dosages of cypermethrin and cyfluthrin, but had different levels of resistance to other pyrethroids. Of the 8 other anophelines, only An. nigerrimus and An. peditaeniatus were resistant to all the insecticides tested, probably due to their high exposure to the insecticides used in agriculture. An. vagus showed some resistance to permethrin. Esterases, GSTs and monooxygenases were elevated in both An. culicifacies and An. subpictus. AChE was most sensitive to insecticides in Kurunegala and Trincomalee An. culicifacies populations and highly insensitive in the Trincomalee An. subpictus population. Conclusion The complexity of the resistance segregating in these field populations underlines the need for new molecular tools to identify the genomic diversity, differential upregulation and different binding specificities of resistance conferring genes, and the presence of different subspecies with different vectorial capacities.

Karunaratne SHP Parakrama

2008-08-01

325

Morphometric Analysis of the Mental Foramen in Adult Sri Lankan Mandibles / Análisis Morfométrico del Foramen Mental en Mandíbulas de Adultos de Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La evidencia muestra una variación racial clara en la posición del foramen mental. Por lo tanto, un conocimiento detallado de la morfometría del foramen mental en diferentes poblaciones es esencial en la odontología clínica cuando se administre la anestesia regional, y al realizar cirugía en la regi [...] ón periférica mental de la mandíbula. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar las características morfológicas y la posición anatómica exacta del foramen mental con referencia a puntos anatómicos que lo rodean, en una población adulta de Sri Lanka. Un total de 51 mandíbulas adultas secas fueron evaluadas para determinar el número, forma, orientación, diámetros vertical y transversal del foramen mental y la distancia entre el foramen mental y sínfisis mentoniana. La posición del foramen mental fue determinada en función de los dientes inferiores. Los datos fueron evaluados en género y lado. Los resultados indicaron que la posición más común para el forman mental estaba en línea con el eje longitudinal del segundo premolar inferior (52,94%), seguido por una posición entre primer y segundo premolares (26,47%). La media de los diámetros transversal y vertical del forman fueron 3,31 ± 0,76 y 2,50 ± 0,61 mm, respectivamente. El foramen mental se encontró 24,87 ± 6,07 mm (lado derecho) y 24,77 ± 6.07mm (lado izquierdo) lateral a la sínfisis mentoniana. En la mayoría de los casos, el foramen mental era de forma oval (59%) y la dirección habitual de su apertura tenía una dirección póstero-superior (49,01%). La incidencia de múltiples forámenes mentales fue de 3,92%. Los resultados de este estudio proporcionan información valiosa que facilitará la localización efectiva del paquete neurovascular que pasa por el formen mental, evitando así las complicaciones de la anestesia local de procedimientos invasivos, quirúrgicos entre otros. Abstract in english Evidence shows a clear racial variation in the position of the mental foramen. Therefore, detailed knowledge of the morphometry of the mental foramen in different populations is essential in clinical dentistry when administering regional anesthesia, and performing peripheral surgery in the mental re [...] gion of the mandible. The goal of this study was to elucidate the morphological features and precise anatomical position of the mental foramen with reference to surrounding anatomical landmarks in an adult Sri Lankan population. A total of fifty one adult dry mandibles were assessed to determine the number, shape, orientation, vertical and transverse diameters of the mental foramen and the distance between the mental foramen and symphysis menti. The position of the mental foramen was determined in relation to the mandibular teeth. Data were evaluated between gender and side. The findings indicated that the most common position for the mental foramen was in line with the longitudinal axis of the lower second premolar (52.94%) followed by a position between first and second premolar (26.47%). The mean transverse and vertical diameters of the foramen were 3.31 ± 0.76 and 2.50 ± 0.61 mm, respectively. The mental foramen was located 24.87 ± 6.07 mm (right side) and 24.77 ± 6.07mm (left side) lateral to the symphysis menti. In the majority of cases, the mental foramen was oval in shape (59%) and its usual direction of opening was in a postero-superior direction (49.01%). The incidence of multiple mental foramina was 3.92%. The results of this study provide valuable information that will facilitate effective localization of the neurovascular bundle passing through the mental foramen thus avoiding complications from local anesthetic, surgical and other invasive procedures.

Isurani, Ilayperuma; Ganananda, Nanayakkara; Nadeeka, Palahepitiya.

1019-10-01

326

Morphometric Evaluation of the Greater Palatine Foramen in Adult Sri Lankan Skulls / Evaluación Morfométrica del Foramen Palatino Mayor en Craneos Adultos de Sri Lanka  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La evidencia apoya una variación racial evidente en la posición del foramen palatino mayor. Así, el conocimiento de datos específicos de la población sobre las características biométricas de las aperturas palatinas facilitará la realización de tratamientos terapéuticos, anestésicos locales y manipul [...] aciones quirúrgicas en la región maxilofacial. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar las características morfológicas y la posición anatómica precisa del foramen palatino mayor con referencia a estructuras anatómicas circundantes en una población adulta de Sri Lanka. Un total de 136 cráneos secos, adultos, fueron evaluados para determinar el número, la forma, la dirección de apertura del foramen palatino mayor y la distancia recta a la línea mediana palatina, al margen posterior del paladar duro y la fosa incisiva. La posición del foramen palatino mayor se determinó en relación con los molares superiores. Los resultados indicaron que 82,35% de los forámenes palatinos mayores tenían un contorno ovalado y situado en línea con el eje largo del tercer molar superior (77,20%). El foramen palatino mayor se encontró 15,24 mm lateral del plano sagital del paladar duro y 4,51 mm por delante del margen posterior del paladar duro. En el 50% de los casos la apertura de los forámenes fue en dirección antero-medial. Los resultados señalan las diferencias raciales en la posición del foramen palatino mayor y apuntan a la necesidad de una evaluación preoperatoria minuciosa en los pacientes candidatos a cirugías maxilofaciales y anestesia de bloque regional. Abstract in english Evidence supports a clear racial variation in the position of the greater palatine foramen. Therefore detailed knowledge of the population specific data on biometric features of the greater palatine foramen will facilitate therapeutic, local anesthetic and surgical manipulations in the maxillo-facia [...] l region. The goal of this study was to elucidate the morphological features and precise anatomical position of the greater palatine foramen with reference to surrounding anatomical landmarks in an adult Sri Lankan population. A total of one hundred and thirty six adult dry skulls were assessed to determine the number, shape, direction of opening of the greater palatine foramen and straight distance from it to the palatine midline, posterior margin of the hard palate and incisive fossa. The position of the greater palatine foramen was determined in relation to the maxillary molars. The results indicated that 82.35% of the greater palatine foramina had an oval outline and located in line with the long axis of the upper third molar (77.20%). The greater palatine foramen was located 15.24 mm lateral to the median sagittal plane of the hard palate and 4.51 mm anterior to the posterior border of the hard palate. In 50% of the cases the greater palatine foramen opened in an antero-medial direction. The results of the current study further highlight the racial differences in the position of the greater palatine foramen and emphasize the need for meticulous preoperative evaluation of the greater palatine foramen in patients who are candidates for maxillo-facial surgeries and regional block anesthesia.

Isurani, Ilayperuma; Ganananda, Nanayakkara; Nadeeka, Palahepitiya.

1418-14-01

327

Supraorbital Notch/Foramen in Sri Lankan Skulls: Morphometry and Surgical Relevance / Escotadura/Foramen Supraorbitario en Cráneos de Sri Lanka: Morfometría y Relevancia Quirúrgica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La evidencia señala que existe dimorfismo étnico y sexual en la forma y posición del foramen supraorbitario. Por lo tanto, el conocimiento detallado de los datos específicos de una población sobre las características biométricas del foramen supraorbitario facilitará el diagnóstico, anestesia local y [...] procedimientos quirúrgicos en la región maxilofacial. El objetivo fue determinar las características morfológicas y posición anatómica exacta del foramen supraorbitario con referencia a los referencias anatómicas circundantes encontradas quirúrgicamente en una población adulta de Sri Lanka. Ciento ocho cráneos adultos secos de sexo conocido se evaluaron para determinar el número, forma, orientación, diámetros vertical y transversal del foramen supraorbitario, distancia transversal desde el foramen supraorbitario a la línea mediana nasal y sutura cigomático-maxilar y distancia vertical desde el foramen supraorbitario hasta el margen supraorbitario y foramen infraorbitario. La posición del foramen supraorbitario se determinó en relación al foramen infraorbitario. Los datos fueron evaluados según lado y sexo. La incisura supraorbitaria (64,81%) se encontró con mayor frecuencia que el foramen supraorbitario (35,19%). El 55,56% de las incisuras supraorbitarias y 20,37% de los forámenes supraorbitarios fueron bilaterales; mientras que el 24,07% de las incisuras fueron unilaterales con un foramen en el lado contralateral. La incidencia de los forámenes supraorbitarios múltiples fue del 6,48%. Se observaron variaciones sexuales en la posición relativa de la incisura/foramen supraorbitario respecto a la línea mediana nasal (hombres= 26,12±3,89; mujeres: 24,40±2,76), cresta temporal del hueso frontal (hombres= 32,74±3,94; mujeres: 30,87±4,18) y foramen infraorbitario (hombres= 44,86±3,35; mujeres= 43,26±3,63). La posición modal para el foramen infraorbitario fue lateral al margen lateral de la incisura/foramen supraorbitario (68,52 %), y los forámenes supraorbitario e infraorbitario se ubicaron en el mismo plano sagital sólo en el 24,07% de los cráneos. Los resultados muestran las diferencias raciales y sexuales y enfatizan la necesidad de una evaluación preoperatoria minuciosa del foramen supraorbitario para definir su posición en pacientes que son candidatos a cirugías maxilofaciales y bloqueo anestésico regional. Abstract in english Evidence supports the ethnic and sex variation in the form and position of the supraorbital foramen. Therefore, detailed knowledge of the population specific data on biometric features of the supraorbital foramen will facilitate diagnostic, local anesthetic and surgical manipulations in the maxillo- [...] facial region. The goal of this study was to elucidate the morphological features and precise anatomical position of the supraorbital foramen with reference to surrounding surgically encountered anatomical landmarks in an adult Sri Lankan population. A total of one hundred and eight adult dry skulls of known sex were assessed to determine the number, shape, orientation, vertical and transverse diameters of the supraorbital foramen, transverse distance from the supraorbital foramen to the nasal midline and the zygomatico-maxillary suture and the vertical distance from the supraorbital foramen to the supraorbital rim and infraorbital foramen. The position of the supraorbital foramen was determined in relation to the infraorbital foramen. Data were evaluated between sides and sex. The supraorbital notch (64.81%) was found more frequently than the supraorbital foramen (35.19%). Of the skulls investigated, 55.56% displayed bilateral supraorbital notches, whereas 20.37% had bilateral supraorbital foramina and 24.07% had a notch on one side and a foramen on the contralateral side. The incidence of multiple supraorbital foramina was 6.48%. Sex variations were observed in the relative position of supraorbital notch/foramen from nasal midline (male: 26.12±3.89; female: 24.40±2.76), temp

Isurani, Ilayperuma; Ganananda, Nanayakkara; Nadeeka, Palahapitiya.

2014-06-01

328

Risk factors for bovine mastitis in the Central Province of Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of the risk factors associated with mastitis in Sri Lankan dairy cattle was conducted to inform risk reduction activities to improve the quality and quantity of milk production and dairy farmer income. A cross-sectional survey of randomly selected dairy farms was undertaken to investigate 12 cow and 39 herd level and management risk factors in the Central Province. The farm level prevalence of mastitis (clinical and subclinical) was 48 %, similar to what has been found elsewhere in South and Southeast Asia. Five cow level variables, three herd level variables, and eight management variables remained significant (p?milk yield, milking practices, access to veterinary services, use of veterinary products, stall structure, and stall hygiene. Many of the risk factors could be addressed by standard dairy cattle management techniques, but implementation of mastitis control programs as a technical approach is likely to be insufficient to achieve sustainable disease control without consideration of the social and political realities of smallholder farmers, who are often impoverished. PMID:24894437

Gunawardana, Suraj; Thilakarathne, Dulari; Abegunawardana, Indra S; Abeynayake, Preeni; Robertson, Colin; Stephen, Craig

2014-10-01

329

Trace metal concentrations in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in three catchments, Sri Lanka.  

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Samples of the muscle and liver of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were obtained from a single reservoir in each of three Sri Lankan catchments (Kaudulla, Rajanganaya, and Udawalawe reservoirs in the Mahaweli, Kala Oya, and Walawe Ganga river basins, respectively) in 2002. The concentrations of 12 elements were consistently detected in the tilapia muscle and liver (Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Sr and Zn). However, a three factorial principal components analysis suggested that there were no differences in the metal profiles (range of elements and concentration) of the fish obtained from any of the three reservoirs, although the chemistries of each tissue (muscle and liver) were different. Metal concentrations were below WHO and Food Standards Australia and New Zealand guideline values, and substantial quantities of tilapia would need to be consumed each week on a regular basis to exceed intake limits (e.g. more than 1.5 kg to exceed intake lits for Cu), suggesting consumption of tilapia from these reservoirs poses little risk to human health. PMID:18949439

Allinson, G; Salzman, S A; Turoczy, N; Nishikawa, M; Amarasinghe, U S; Nirbadha, K G S; De Silva, S S

2009-03-01

330

Protective measure use and symptoms among agropesticide applicators in Sri Lanka.  

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Sri Lankan farmers use large amounts of pesticides to control the pests affecting their vegetable crops. Improper use of pesticides by farmers has resulted in poisoning of occupational origin. This paper examines the use of protective measures by pesticide applicators and its relationship to their illness symptoms. The data were collected by interviewing a stratified random sample of 150 farmers from predominantly vegetable growing areas of the Matale district during 1990/91 using structured questionnaires. These data were supplemented with secondary data and observation of all stages of pesticide application. Scales were constructed to measure the domains of material style of life, awareness and use of protective measures, and illness symptoms experienced by pesticide applicators. It was found that most of the farmers were aware of the protective measures to be used when applying pesticides. There was, however, no significant positive relationship between awareness and use of protective measures. The main reason for not using protective measures was discomfort. The most common symptoms reported by pesticide applicators were faintish feeling, headache and dizziness. A significant negative relationship was observed between use of protective measures and symptoms exhibited within four hours of application. It is recommended that protective materials adapted to the climate and socio-economic conditions of farmers be developed, and that farmers be encouraged to use these protective materials through appropriate educational efforts and incentives. PMID:7725116

Sivayoganathan, C; Gnanachandran, S; Lewis, J; Fernando, M

1995-02-01

331

Building Damage and Business Continuity Management in the Event of Natural Hazards: Case Study of the 2004 Tsunami in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The Sumatra Earthquake and Indian Ocean Tsunami event on the 26 December 2004 has provided a unique and valuable opportunity to evaluate the performance of various structures, facilities and lifeline systems during the tsunami wave attacks. There are especially meaningful observations concerning the structural changes due to the tsunami forces, which open up a wide area of research to develop the mitigation procedure. The business restoration process of business companies in terms of buildings, facilities and lifelines have shown greater research interest. In this study, we investigated the restoration process of business sectors in East and South coastal region in Sri Lanka after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. A field survey was conducted in East and South coast of Sri Lanka, in order to study the affecting parameters to damage assessment in the restoration process of the business companies. The results of the questionnaire-based field survey are then compared with the statistical analysis results. Finally, the factors affecting the restoration process after the tsunami are identified. As a main conclusion, financial support could be the most important reason for delays in restoration. Moreover, it has been observed that the tsunami inundation level of higher than one meter may have had more effect concerning the damage to the structures and requires additional time for restoration than other areas.

Masami Sugiura

2013-01-01

332

Development, evaluation and popularization of medicated and non-medicated urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks for ruminant livestock production under smallholder conditions of Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of laboratory and field experiments led to development of four suitable urea-molasses multi-nutrient block (UMMB) formulas to suit different agro-ecological zones of Sri Lanka, for improving livestock productivity. The formulas developed were based on the production potential of the target animals and the quality of available roughage feeds. Feeding of UMMB to dairy cattle and buffalo resulted in both 'catalytic' and 'supplementary' effects. These effects were demonstrated by improved feed intake and digestibility and increased live weight gain of cattle and buffalo calves. The body condition of adult cows was satisfactorily maintained with UMMB use. Supplementation with UMMB improved milk yield and butterfat content, and extended the persistency of the lactation curve compared to traditional concentrate feedings. Reproductive performance was also improved by reducing the number of days from parturition to first service. Benefit : cost ratio for UMMB use was variable between the management systems, basal feed on offer and the agro-ecological zones but the benefits were, overall, satisfactory. Medicated blocks for goats substantially reduced the parasitic burden as indicated by reduced faecal worm egg counts. Supplementation with molybdenum also significantly decreased the parasite burden of goats. For cattle, due to logistical reasons the medicated block was considered unsuitable under local conditions in Sri Lanka. (author)author)

333

Effect of Growth Rate on Wood Specific Gravity of Three Alternative Timber Species in Sri Lanka; Swietenia macrophylla, Khaya senegalensis and Paulownia fortunei  

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Full Text Available With increasing private sector investments in commercial forestry, it is apparent that plantationforestry in Sri Lanka is moving in the direction of managing fast growing timber species for shorterrotations. However, there’s a perceptionthat accelerated growth rates induced by improved forestmanagement practices can result in inferior wood quality. This study tested this perceptionby studyingthe effect of growth rate on the specific gravity, as a proxy for wood quality, of three alternative timberspecies grown in Sri Lanka; Swietenia macrophylla, Khaya senegalensis and Paulownia fortunei.Specific gravity remained more or less uniform from pith to bark regardless of the fluctuation of ringwidth in K. senegalensis while S. macrophylla exhibited a slight increase in specific gravity from pith tobark. This increasing trend was more prominent in P. fortunei. Results revealed growth rates representedby ring width showed poor correlations with specific gravity in both S. macrophylla, and K.senegalensis. Although P. fortunei showed a statistically significant positive correlation, regressionanalysis indicated a poor relationship between growth rate and specific gravity. Hence it is unlikely thatwood specific gravity of the studied species to be influenced by accelerated growth rates.

Priyan Perera

2012-05-01

334

Diagnosis and control of foot-and-mouth disease in Sri Lanka using ELISA-based technologies: Assessment of immune response to vaccination against FMD using ELISA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The policy for control of FMD since 1964 in Sri Lanka has been the vaccination of high quality stock in government farms and in places where stock improvement was in progress once a year. From 1993, a supplementary vaccination during February to March was adopted to cover the young stock in addition to the annual vaccination programme. However in the field this was not successful due to the shortage of vaccines and less co-operation from farmers. The focus of this study was to study the effectiveness of the national immunisation programme carefully and develop strategies to get the maximum benefit from limited resources. Vaccination coverage during 1995, 1996 and 1997 in SP was low (3.4%, 4.45% and 3.5% respectively). However, during the outbreak of the disease at Kalutara district in WP, vaccination was adopted in border areas to have a buffer zone to prevent the leak of FMD to SP. The mean protective antibody level in the whole district of Galle was found to be 42.4%. FMD control and eradication strategy in Sri Lanka no doubt has to focus on preventing the free movement of animals without Health Certificate, on continuous mass vaccination in areas bordering the endemic Provinces NWP, NCP and EP to maintain a high herd immunity of more than 80% to prevent future outbreaks and also to protect the improved breed in the field and in State farms. This study shows that this is yet to be achieved. (author)

335

Effect of promoting country of origin as an ethnocentric appeal in developing local brands: special reference to telecommunication industry of Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Sri Lanka is emerging as service sector driven economy with the GDP penetration of 50%-60% from service sector. After imposing the open economy policy in 1977, local brands had to gear ahead with intensive competition came from international brands. Telecommunication industry of Sri Lanka has been dominated by international brands, but local brands are strategically promoting the concept of country of origin (CO or being local as a motive for citizens to deliberately purchase locally originated brands. In this context researchers viewed this branding practice, and selected 200 respondents from four geographical areas under the stratified probability sampling method to investigate the effect of country of origin in terms of brand performance. Both descriptive and inferential statistical analysis executed by PCA (principal component analysis factor analysis accompanied with testing two hypotheses revealed that Country of Origin (CO or promoting as being local had impacted less significantly on brand awareness and recalled power development of telecommunication brands against the competitive foreign brands. However, it has a significant impact on brand recalling power.

Ravindra Dissanayake

2010-02-01

336

Situation Reports--Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data relating to population and family planning in 17 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, and…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

337

Farmer Resettlements and Water Energy Stresses Arising From Aggravating Drought Conditions in Mahaweli River Watershed, Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change is expected to cause significant changes in water quantity and water quality in river basins throughout the world, with particularly significant impacts in developing regions. Climate change effects are often exacerbated by other simultaneous activities in developing countries, such as population growth, reliance on subsistence agriculture, and expanding provision of electricity. Each of these activities requires access to readily-available freshwater. For example, population growth requires more water for irrigation as food production needs increase. Additionally, water is needed for generating electricity in hydropower facilities as well as other facilities, which require water to run steam turbines or to cool facilities. As such, many developing countries face the real and immediate need to anticipate and adapt to climatic stresses on water resources in both the agricultural and residential sectors. Water withdrawal in both of these sectors is largely driven by individual behaviors, such as electricity use in the home and irrigation practices on farmland, aggregated at the household, community, and regional level. Our ongoing project in Sri Lanka focuses on understanding aforementioned issues in coupled natural and human systems in the Mahaweli River Watershed (MWR) to inform decision-makers to streamline policies and strategies for effective adaptation to worsening drought conditions. MWR produces more than 60% of the rice demand and nearly 40% of the energy requirement of the country. Although irrigation is currently the sector that withdraws the most water, with government plans for resettling farmer communities and developing new urban centers in the region by 2030, electricity production is expected to compete for water against irrigation in the future. Thus, understanding the water-energy nexus is crucial to planning for conservation and efficiency. Through a pilot survey conducted by our interdisciplinary research team, in five locations in MWR, we collect information on household and farm level water and energy use, demand-side water management practices, and farmers' willingness and capacities to practice them. We use these self-reported pilot data together with water and energy utility company data to model increasing water-energy stresses in the watershed, and its effect on existing water allocation issues related to irrigation and power generation. Drawing upon the preliminary results of this work, this paper presents the emerging water-energy issues and plausible adaptation measures in MWR. This work will pave the way to understand the inherent interconnectivities of water energy stresses in multi-purpose watersheds in the developing world.

Thabrew, L.

2012-12-01

338

Anthelmintic prescribing patterns of a sample of general practitioners from selected areas in the Colombo district of Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available General Practitioners (GPs provide first contact care of children and pregnant mothers in the community. This study ascertained the prescribing pattern of anthelmintics to children and pregnant women by a sample of GPs from the district of Colombo. Two hundred medical practitioners engaged in full-time General Practice (100 urban and 100 rural, were selected randomly. A pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. A total of 183 GPs aged between 26 and 72 years (median 38 participated with 94 coming from urban areas. Seventy percent of the GPs were male. Almost 13% of GPs from urban areas had a Postgraduate degree in comparison to 4.5% from the rural areas ( P < 0.05. Over 50% of GPs had 6-20 years of service and over 30% treated 16-30 patients daily. Seventy-three percent of GPs from rural areas accessed health-related reading material either daily or weekly in contrast to only 40% from urban areas ( P < 0.001. All GPs prescribed anthelmintics to children. Pyrantel pamoate was the preferred anthelmintic used for children by both groups. Approximately 55% and 64% of GPs from urban and rural areas, respectively, prescribed anthelmintics during pregnancy. A majority of GPs prescribed drugs after the first trimester. However, 25% from urban areas gave drugs during any trimester ( P < 0.001. Regression analysis revealed that GPs with postgraduate qualifications, those having frequent access to health-related material and those seeing more than 30 patients daily, prescribed anthelmintics to pregnant women more often. Although routine de-worming of pregnant women and children should occur through government antenatal and well-baby clinics, and through the schools de-worming programme, it may not happen due to various reasons. Thus, GPs play a vital role in achieving good coverage of anthelmintics among children and pregnant women. Making available clear national guidelines on prescribing anthelmintics in Sri Lanka would improve the prescribing patterns of anthelmintics among GPs.

Gunawardena GSA

2008-01-01

339

Food irradiation process control and acceptance. Regional UNDP project for Asia and the Pacific, mission undertaken in Sri Lanka. Food irradiation process control, regulation and acceptance RPFI-Phase 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the request of the Government of Sri Lanka, the FAO/IAEA expert undertook a one-week mission, between November 10th and 17th 1990, to the Sri Lankan Atomic Energy Authority at Colombo. This included the following: The expert advised and assisted on matters related to food irradiation relevant to Sri Lanka and its on-going programmes. He engaged in a question and answer discussion meeting with representatives of the spice, and ornamental plants exporting trade in the presence of the Atomic Energy Authority Chairman, its chief food technologist, and a food science professor who serves on the Government's Food Advisory Group. The expert assisted with the drafting of what should be the first national food irradiation regulation, and presented and discussed the draft at seminars presented separately to the National Food Advisory Group, and to the National food inspectors who would ultimately be responsible for implementing any such regulation. (author)

340

RCT of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in active suicidal ideation-as feasibility study in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Background and Objectives: With one of the highest rates of suicide in the world and high rates of suicidal ideation in the population, we set out to pilot a study to ascertain whether it is possible to conduct a randomised controlled trial. Secondly we aimed to study whether Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT for suicidal ideation is better than treatment as usual (TAU. Method: Those with suicidal ideation (identified by a population survey using GHQ-30 and Beck's suicidal ideation scale were randomly allocated to 3-6 sessions of structured Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. The CBT was provided using a manual in primary care settings. Results: Of the two groups (CBT = 5, TAU = 4 the group which had received CBT showed a greater reduction in Beck's Suicidal Intent Score (from mean 11.2 to 0.2 and in GHQ-30 (from 22.0 to 10.8 in three months. Conclusions: The pilot study indicates that it is possible to conduct CBT and RCT in developing countries. The implications of this are discussed.

Sudath Samaraweera

2007-09-01

 
 
 
 
341

Phylogenetic diversity of Sri Lankan freshwater crabs and its implications for conservation.  

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As part of a Global Biodiversity Hotspot, the conservation of Sri Lanka's endemic biodiversity warrants special attention. With 51 species (50 of them endemic) occurring in the island, the biodiversity of freshwater crabs is unusually high for such a small area (65,600 km(2)). Freshwater crabs have successfully colonized most moist habitats and all climatic and elevational zones in Sri Lanka. We assessed the biodiversity of these crabs in relation to the different elevational zones (lowland, upland and highland) based on both species richness and phylogenetic diversity. Three different lineages appear to have radiated simultaneously, each within a specific elevational zone, with little interchange thereafter. The lowland and upland zones show a higher species richness than the highland zone while--unexpectedly--phylogenetic diversity is highest in the lowland zone, illustrating the importance of considering both these measures in conservation planning. The diversity indices for the species in the various IUCN Red List categories in each of the three zones suggest that risk of extinction may be related to elevational zone. Our results also show that overall more than 50% of Sri Lanka's freshwater crab species (including several as yet undescribed ones), or approximately 72 million years of evolutionary history, are threatened with extinction. PMID:19943890

Beenaerts, Natalie; Pethiyagoda, Rohan; Ng, Peter K L; Yeo, Darren C J; Bex, Geert Jan; Bahir, Mohomed M; Artois, Tom

2010-01-01

342

Development and validation of a tool to assess the physical and social environment associated with physical activity among adults in Sri Lanka  

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Background Environmental characteristics are known to be associated with patterns of physical activity (PA). Although several validated tools exist, to measure the environment characteristics, these instruments are not necessarily suitable for application in all settings especially in a developing country. This study was carried out to develop and validate an instrument named the “Physical And Social Environment Scale – PASES” to assess the physical and social environmental factors associated with PA. This will enable identification of various physical and social environmental factors affecting PA in Sri Lanka, which will help in the development of more tailored intervention strategies for promoting higher PA levels in Sri Lanka. Methods The PASES was developed using a scientific approach of defining the construct, item generation, analysis of content of items and item reduction. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of key informant interviews, in-depth interviews and rating of the items generated by experts were conducted. A cross sectional survey among 180 adults was carried out to assess the factor structure through principal component analysis. Another cross sectional survey among a different group of 180 adults was carried out to assess the construct validity through confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability was assessed with test re-test reliability and internal consistency using Spearman r and Cronbach's alpha respectively. Results Thirty six items were selected after the expert ratings and were developed into interviewer administered questions. Exploration of factor structure of the 34 items which were factorable through principal component analysis with Quartimax rotation extracted 8 factors. The 34 item instrument was assessed for construct validity with confirmatory factor analysis which confirmed an 8 factor model (x2?=?339.9, GFI?=?0.90). The identified factors were infrastructure for walking, aesthetics and facilities for cycling, vehicular traffic safety, access and connectivity, recreational facilities for PA, safety, social cohesion and social acceptance of PA with the two non-factorable factors, residential density and land use mix. The PASES also showed good test re-test reliability and a moderate level of internal consistency. Conclusions The PASES is a valid and reliable tool which could be used to assess the physical and social environment associated with PA in Sri Lanka. PMID:24884525

2014-01-01

343

Study on the prevalence and the age at initial colonization of campylobacter in broiler flocks in central province of Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Campylobacter is considered one of the main causes of bacterial enteritis worldwide and poultry meat appears to act as a common source of infection (Vandeplas et al., 2008). In Sri Lanka, the available data to show the importance of campylobacter as a cause of diarrhoeal diseases is sparse and the involvement of poultry in relation to Campylobacter has not been identified. Therefore this study was carried out to investigate the association of campylobacter with broiler chicken. The Campylobacter isolation and identification procedure based on ISO standard was established and poultry meat samples collected from retail markets were tested. A considerable number of meat samples were contaminated with thermotolerant Campylobacter. As Campylobacter is a commensal in the chicken gut, though it is a pathogen to human, the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks was studied. Cloacal swabs collected at farms and caeca collected at slaughter in processing plants were analysed. Out of 59 samples collected from the Central Province 42 became positive for Campylobacter. The prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks is 71%. High prevalence indicated the importance of controlling the pathogen but there was no data available on the ecology of the pathogen in Sri Lanka. Previous studies elsewhere have shown that factors like geographical location, seasonality, farming system, bio-security measures as the key factors influencing the host pathogen relationship. However, most dost pathogen relationship. However, most data have been generated in nontropical countries with clear summer and winter seasons (Newell and Fearnley, 2003). The relative importance of these factors in Sri Lanka was questionable as it is a tropical country with no clear seasonality. To investigate the colonization of Campylobacter in broiler flocks twenty broiler flocks reared in two farms where different management practices in use, in the Central Province were monitored during one year. From each flock, cloacae swabs were collected from randomly selected ten birds every other day until the flock became positive for Campylobacter. According to the findings, all flocks became positive for Campylobcater and colonization was first seen at the age of 14-26 d. Irrespective of the absence of seasonality and low levels of bio security the age of colonization was in accordance with the literature. In this study there was no difference at the age of colonization in the farm A that practices all in all-out system and the farm B that practices multiple age production system. Quantitative analysis of Campylobacter in the chicken gut and effect of feed modifications on the level of the pathogen load in the gut is under investigation

344

What Can We Learn From Historical Trends and Distributions of Malaria? Historical Case Studies From the US, Italy, and Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria is currently prevalent in many countries and has been for centuries. Primary controllers of the distribution and incidence of malaria in the past have been economic, social, military, political etc. with a modest contribution from local climate variations. Studies of potential impacts of climate change on the epidemiology of diseases such as malaria have focused on the impact of changing environmental conditions on vector physiology but little attention has been paid to factors that explain historical variations in spatial and temporal distributions of the disease. This talk reports results of three historical case studies from the US, Italy and Sri Lanka that bring together a breadth of information from varied sources in order to illustrate the value of including such information in studies of disease-climate connections.

Matthews, E.

2008-12-01

345

Fatal acute pulmonary oedema and acute renal failure following multiple wasp/hornet (Vespa affinis) stings in Sri Lanka: two case reports  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Vespa affinis is a hornet widely distributed in Sri Lanka and it is responsible for the highest number of deaths related to Hymenoptera stings. Apart from the early reactions, victims often die in hospital many hours later due to complications such as myocardial infarction and multiple organ failure. Increased microvascular permeability and acute pulmonary oedema as the primary pathology is less known in hornet envenoming. Case presentation Here, we report clinical and postmortem findings of two Sinhalese patients, a 48-year-old husband and his 46-year-old wife, who both died following a massive attack by hornets 32 hours and 9 hours after the incidence respectively. At postmortem examination, both patients had pleural effusions, acute pulmonary oedema and red cell casts in their urine. Their coronary arteries and histology of myocardium were normal. Conclusion Early recognition of acute pulmonary oedema in hornet stings is needed with implementation of crucial treatments to avert deaths. PMID:24929921

2014-01-01

346

Variations in susceptibility to common insecticides and resistance mechanisms among morphologically identified sibling species of the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles subpictus s.l., an important malaria vector in Sri Lanka, is a complex of four morphologically identified sibling species A-D. Species A-D reportedly differ in bio-ecological traits that are important for vector control. We investigated possible variations that had not been reported previously, in the susceptibility to common insecticides and resistance mechanisms among the An. subpictus sibling species. Methods Adult An. subpictus were collected from localities in four administrative districts in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Single female isoprogeny lines were established and sibling species status determined according to reported egg morphology. World Health Organization's standard protocols were used for insecticide bioassays and biochemical assays to determine insecticide susceptibility and resistance mechanisms. Susceptibility of mosquitoes was tested against DDT (5%, malathion (4%, deltamethrin (0.05% and ?-cyhalothrin (0.05%. Biochemical basis for resistance was determined through assaying for esterase, glutathione-S-transferase and monooxygenase activities and the insensitivity of acetycholinesterase (AChE to propoxur inhibition. Results All sibling species were highly resistant to DDT. However there were significant differences among the sibling species in their susceptibility to the other tested insecticides. Few species A could be collected for testing, and where testing was possible, species A tended to behave more similarly to species C and D than to B. Species B was more susceptible to all the tested insecticides than the other sibling species. This difference may be attributed to the predominance of species B in coastal areas where selection pressure due to indoor residual spraying of insecticides (IRS was lower. However there were significant differences between the more inland species C and D mainly towards pyrethroids. Higher GST activities in species C and D might have contributed to their greater DDT resistance than species B. Malathion resistance in both species C and D may be caused by elevated GST activity and an altered insensitive target site in AChE. In addition, a carboxylesterase based malathion resistance mechanisms was also detected in species C and D. Elevated esterase levels in species C and D might have contributed to the low levels of pyrethroid resistance. However an absence of elevated activity of monooxygenases in species B, C and D indicates that monooxygenases are unlikely to be the cause of this partial resistance to pyrethroids. Conclusions The differences in insecticide susceptibility and insecticide resistance mechanism shown by An. subpictus sibling species are important considerations for developing the malaria control and eradication program in Sri Lanka. Similar studies on species complexes of other anopheline vectors of malaria are necessary for effective malaria control worldwide. The differential susceptibility findings are also consistent with most, if not all, morphologically identified An. subpictus species B in Sri Lanka belonging to the An. sundaicus complex. There is a need therefore to develop molecular techniques that can be used to differentiate morphologically similar anopheline species in field conditions for more effective vector control.

Surendran Sinnathamby N

2012-02-01

347

Seepage diagnosis in karstic environments and large-scale embankment dams through controlled source - audio frequency domain magnetics: case study in Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Traditional methods for seepage diagnosis are limited by the size of the embankment. Also, they are inefficient when dealing with complex subterranean environments, such as karstic systems. This paper investigated the development of a new diagnostic tool for seepage diagnosis in karstic environments and large-scale embankment dams. This new method uses electrodes which are strategically placed on the up and downstream sides of an earthen embankment dam. The electrodes are charged the electrical current gathers in areas of highest water concentration while emitting a distinctive magnetic field. The data collected by a tuned receiver is used to generate 2-D maps and 3-D models of the water flow. The developed method was used at the Samanalawewa Dam, an important and large hydroelectric power project on Sri Lanka's Walawe river. This case study proved the efficiency of this method on very large spaces.

Hughes, Andy [Atkins Global Epsom, Surrey, (United Kingdom); Kofoed, Val [Willowstick Technologies, Draper, (United States)

2010-07-01

348

Slow advance of the weathering front during deep, supply-limited saprolite formation in the tropical Highlands of Sri Lanka  

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Silicate weathering - initiated by major mineralogical transformations at the base of ten meters of clay-rich saprolite - generates the exceptionally low weathering flux found in streams draining the crystalline rocks of the mountainous and humid tropical Highlands of Sri Lanka. This conclusion is reached from a thorough investigation of the mineralogical, chemical, and Sr isotope compositions of samples within a regolith profile extending >10 m from surface soil through the weathering front in charnockite bedrock (a high-grade metamorphic rock), corestones formed at the weathering front, as well as from the chemical composition of the dissolved loads in nearby streams. Weatherable minerals and soluble elements are fully depleted at the top of the profile, showing that the system is supply-limited, such that weathering fluxes are controlled directly by the supply of fresh minerals. We determine the weathering rates using two independent means: (1) in situ-produced cosmogenic nuclides in surface soil and creek sediments in the close vicinity of the regolith combined with immobile element mass balance across the regolith and (2) river dissolved loads. Silicate weathering rates determined from both approaches range from 16 to 36 t km-2 y-1, corresponding to a weathering front advance rate of 6-14 mm ky-1. These rates agree across the 101 to 104 y time scales over which our rate metrics integrate, suggesting that the weathering system operates at steady state. Within error these rates are furthermore compatible with those obtained by modeling the advance rate of the weathering front from chemical gradients and mineral dissolution rates. The silicate weathering flux out of the weathering profile, measured on small creeks, amounts to 84% of the profile’s export flux; the remaining 16% is contributed by non-silicate, atmospheric-derived input. The silicate weathering flux, as measured by dissolved loads in large catchments, amounts to ca. 50% of the total dissolved flux; the remainder being contributed by dust, rain, and weathering of local marble bands. Spheroidal weathering is the key processes of converting the fresh bedrock into saprolite at the weathering front. The mineralogical composition of weathering rinds shows that the sequence of mineral decomposition is: pyroxene; plagioclase; biotite; K-feldspar. Observable biotite alteration does not appear to initiate spheroidal weathering within corestones; therefore, we infer that other processes than biotite oxidation, like pyroxene oxidation, clay formation from pyroxene and plagioclase decomposition, the development of secondary porosity by plagioclase dissolution, or even microbiologic processes at depth enable the coupling between slow advance of the weathering front and slow erosion at the surface. The comparison to tectonically more active tropical landscapes lets us conclude that the combination of hard rock with tightly interlocked mineral grains and slow erosion in the absence of tectonically-induced landscape rejuvenation lead to these exceptionally low weathering rates.

Hewawasam, Tilak; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm; Bouchez, Julien; Dixon, Jean L.; Schuessler, Jan A.; Maekeler, Ricarda

2013-10-01

349

A community-based cluster randomised trial of safe storage to reduce pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka : Study protocol  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background The WHO recognises pesticide poisoning to be the single most important means of suicide globally. Pesticide self-poisoning is a major public health and clinical problem in rural Asia, where it has led to case fatality ratios 20-30 times higher than self-poisoning in the developed world. One approach to reducing access to pesticides is for households to store pesticides in lockable "safe-storage" containers. However, before this approach can be promoted, evidence is required on its effectiveness and safety. Methods/Design A community-based cluster randomised controlled trial has been set up in 44,000 households in the North Central Province, Sri Lanka. A census is being performed, collecting baseline demographic data, socio-economic status, pesticide usage, self-harm and alcohol. Participating villages are then randomised and eligible households in the intervention arm given a lockable safe storage container for agrochemicals. The primary outcome will be incidence of pesticide self-poisoning over three years amongst individuals aged 14 years and over. 217,944 person years of follow-up are required in each arm to detect a 33% reduction in pesticide self-poisoning with 80% power at the 5% significance level. Secondary outcomes will include the incidence of all pesticide poisoning and total self-harm. Discussion This paper describes a large effectiveness study of a community intervention to reduce the burden of intentional poisoning in rural Sri Lanka. The study builds on a strong partnership between provincial health services, local and international researchers, and local communities. We discuss issues in relation to randomisation and contamination, engaging control villages, the intervention, and strategies to improve adherence. Trial Registritation The trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov ref: NCT1146496 (http://clinicaltrialsfeeds.org/clinical-trials/show/NCT01146496 webcite).

Pearson, Melissa; Konradsen, Flemming

2011-01-01

350

A community-based cluster randomised trial of safe storage to reduce pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka: study protocol  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The WHO recognises pesticide poisoning to be the single most important means of suicide globally. Pesticide self-poisoning is a major public health and clinical problem in rural Asia, where it has led to case fatality ratios 20-30 times higher than self-poisoning in the developed world. One approach to reducing access to pesticides is for households to store pesticides in lockable "safe-storage" containers. However, before this approach can be promoted, evidence is required on its effectiveness and safety. Methods/Design A community-based cluster randomised controlled trial has been set up in 44,000 households in the North Central Province, Sri Lanka. A census is being performed, collecting baseline demographic data, socio-economic status, pesticide usage, self-harm and alcohol. Participating villages are then randomised and eligible households in the intervention arm given a lockable safe storage container for agrochemicals. The primary outcome will be incidence of pesticide self-poisoning over three years amongst individuals aged 14 years and over. 217,944 person years of follow-up are required in each arm to detect a 33% reduction in pesticide self-poisoning with 80% power at the 5% significance level. Secondary outcomes will include the incidence of all pesticide poisoning and total self-harm. Discussion This paper describes a large effectiveness study of a community intervention to reduce the burden of intentional poisoning in rural Sri Lanka. The study builds on a strong partnership between provincial health services, local and international researchers, and local communities. We discuss issues in relation to randomisation and contamination, engaging control villages, the intervention, and strategies to improve adherence. Trial Registritation The trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov ref: NCT1146496 (http://clinicaltrialsfeeds.org/clinical-trials/show/NCT01146496.

Pearson Melissa

2011-11-01

351

Nuclear methods in soil-plant aspects of sustainable agriculture. Proceedings of an FAO/IAEA regional seminar for Asia and the Pacific held in Colombo, Sri Lanka, 5-9 April 1993  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The document contains 24 papers presented at the FAO/IAEA Regional Seminar for Asia and the Pacific organized by the Soil Fertility, Irrigation and Crop Production Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and agriculture and held in Colombo, Sri Lanka, between 5-9 April 1993. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper. Refs, figs and tabs

352

An overview of goat farming in the Hambantota district of Sri Lanka, with special reference to health aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey was carried out with the intention of gathering knowledge of local farmers (n=108) on goat husbandry practices and their health status in the Hambantota district in the Southern province of Sri Lanka. Information was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire by interviewing the farmers. Apart from general farm and herd data, also questions on mortality, medicinal treatments and feeding were included. Dairy goats in the district accounted for 62% of total goats, while kids and billy goats accounted for 30 and 8%, respectively. The overall mortality in the goat herds was found to be 20% per year. Kid mortality has become a serious threat to the goat farmers in the Hambantota district where 68% out of total deaths in goats were kids, while the proportions of billy goats and dairy goats were lower with 8 and 24%, respectively. Death of kids mainly happens because of the prevailing dry and harsh environment in this area. Hence, kids undergo a lot of environmental stress and therefore only the fittest survive. In addition, clean water and fresh feed often was not available due to prevailing high temperatures. Because of clean water scarcity dairy goats also do not produce enough milk to nurse their kids. Travelling long distances with the herd to find feed has also been identified as major cause of kid mortality. In addition, poor sanitation practices have facilitated the prevalence of several contagious diseases such as foot rot and pustular dermatitis (CPD). Phyoot rot and pustular dermatitis (CPD). Physiological disorders like bloating of the goats are common in both dry and wet seasons as well. According to the questionnaires' results, commercial medicine to treat their animals was used by 83% of the farmers while only 3% of the farmers applied indigenous medicine. This can be explained by the well-established veterinary service network in the Hambantota district to which almost all the farmers have access. Only few farmers are not satisfied with the veterinary services and rather use indigenous medicine. Another 14% of the farmers did not use any kind of medicinal treatment on their goats, ignoring their health status. Out of the farmers that used commercial medicine, 25% used anti-parasitic treatments, vaccination, antibiotics, or minerals and vitamins as health treatments (41%, 25%, 9%, or 8%, respectively). However, there is an increased risk of an epidemic outbreak in this district among goats due to their generally low health status. Employing bio-diversity-based concepts in goat feeding was more prominent among rural than periurban farmers in the Hambantota district. Shrub and tree species used for feeding cinerea (Andara), Flueggea leucopyrus (Katupila), Azadirachta indica (Neem), Tamarindus indica (Tamarind) and Leucaena leucocephala (Ipil ipil). Feeding supplements such as rice bran, coconut oil cake and salt was practiced by 44% of the farmers and thereof by the ones living in peri-urban areas where access to supplementary feeds was easier. Besides that kitchen waste and refused coconut scrapings were also used by farmers to feed their goats during dry season in order to overcome feed scarcity. Free-living goats in the urban area tended to consume market garbage, paper posters on walls, pieces of clothes, and papers to satisfy their appetite. Selling goats for breeding purposes or meat production is very popular among goat farmers in the Hambantota district. Billy goats (47%) and dairy goats (46%) were the most preferred categories to be sold for an increase in the farmers' monetary income. By contrast, selling goat kids seems uncommon as it accounted only for 7% of the total sales, and the kids sold were mainly of poor condition as rearing them would mean monetary loss to the farmer. The goat management system most prominent in the Hambantota district is of extensive nature. Around 97% of the farmers keep the animals on the farm free living during daytime and collect them in barns during night-time to protect them from thefts and unfavourable environmental conditions. The remaining 3% of the farmers a

353

Psychometric properties of the Sinhala version of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales in early adolescents in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept Health related Quality of life (HRQOL is increasingly recognized as an important health outcome measure in clinical and research fields. The present study attempted to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Sinhala version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0 (PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales among adolescents in Sri Lanka. Methods The original US PedsQL™ was translated into Sinhala and conceptually validated according to international guidelines. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 142 healthy school going adolescents (12-14 years, their parents (n?=?120 and a group of adolescents with asthma who attended asthma clinics (n?=?115. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha and validity by examining scale structure, exploring inter-scale correlations and comparing across known groups (healthy vs. chronically ill. Results The PedsQL™ Sinhala version was found to be acceptable with minimal missing responses. All scales demonstrated satisfactory reliability. Cronbach’s alpha for the total scale scores was 0.85 for adolescent self-report while for the parent proxy-report for the healthy group it was 0.86. No floor effects were observed. Ceiling effects were noticed in self-report and parent proxy-report for the healthy group. Overall results of the multi trait scaling analysis confirmed the scale structure with 74% item-convergent validity, 88% item-discriminant validity and an overall scaling success of 72%. Moderate to high correlations were shown among the domains of teen self-report (Spearman rho?=?.37-.54 and between teen self-report and parent proxy-reports (Spearman rho?=?.41-.57. The PedsQL™ tool was able to discriminate between the quality of life in healthy adolescents and adolescents with asthma. Conclusion The findings support the reliability and validity of the Sinhala version of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales as a generic instrument to measure HRQOL among early adolescents in Sri Lanka in a population setting.

Danansuriya Manjula

2012-09-01

354

Lõputu sõda Sri Lankal / Agu Karelsohn  

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Ülevaade Sri Lankal aastakümneid kestnud ja umbes 70 000 tapetut nõudnud kodusõjast, kus omavahel võitlevad võimul olevad singalid ja vähemuses olevad ning mässuliste organisatsiooniks Tamili Tiigrid koondunud tamilid. Kaart: Sri Lanka

Karelsohn, Agu

2008-01-01

355

Prevalence of Acanthosis Nigricans in an urban population in Sri Lanka and its utility to detect metabolic syndrome  

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Abstract Background Insulin resistance (IR) plays a major role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is an easily detectable skin condition that is strongly associated with IR. The aims of this study were, firstly, to investigate the prevalence of AN among adults in an urban Sri Lankan community and secondly, to describe its utility to detect metabolic syndrome. Findings In a community based investigation, 35-64 year adults who wer...

de Silva Arjuna P; Rajindrajith Shaman; Kalubovila Udaya; Niriella Madunil A; Kasturiratne Anuradhani; Dassanayake Anuradha S; Kato Norihiro; Rajitha, Wickremasinghe A.; Janaka, Silva H.

2011-01-01

356

Length-Weight Relationship and Growth Pattern of Sepioteuthis lessoniana Lesson 1830 (Cephalopoda:Teuthida from the Jaffna Lagoon, Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available In the present study, length-weight regression equations were derived for male and female S. lessoniana collected from the Jaffna lagoon, Sri Lanka in order to find out the regression parameters and growth pattern of this species. Sepioteuthis lessoniana (Lesson 1830 are one of the commercially important group of cuttlefishes and becoming an important model system for neurobiological and behavioral research. It appears to be the most adaptable species to the laboratory environment and there exist a need for detail study on length-weight relationship for this species. Such a mathematical equation enables conversion of one parameter in to another as is often required during monitoring field measurements. Regression coefficients were estimated by using the logarithms of the mantle lengths and the corresponding weights and the growth pattern of the species was also noticed. The curvilinear relationships of mantle length-weight relationships for male and female were TW = 0.200*ML2.477 and TW = 0.229*ML2.437, respectively. Covariance analysis for mantle length-weight relationships of males and females revealed that there is no significant difference (p>0.05 between male and female and hence a common formulae of TW = 0.213* TL2.459 was derived for S. lessoniana. The ‘b’ values 2.477 and 2.4347 obtained for male and female, respectively indicate that the growth rate significantly differ from the ideal value ‘3’ and its growth said to be negative allometry.

K. Sivashanthini

2009-01-01

357

Learning to lend for off-grid solar power: policy lessons from World Bank loans to India, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The World Bank has sought to advance the diffusion of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology for off-grid applications in the developing world. As these systems are fundamentally different to centralised power stations and conventional rural electrification, the World Bank has been learning how best to lend for such technology. This study seeks to highlight the lessons learnt from the World Bank's first loans for off-grid PV to India, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka. It uses lifetime cost analysis to justify continued intervention in this sector, and it draws on theories of innovation diffusion to guide analysis and ultimately policy recommendations. Because of the special role of entrepreneurial start up companies in the rural PV sector, the paper also uses a company cash flow model to demonstrate the efficacy of various supply-side policies. Finally, the study concludes with a checklist of policy lessons and a consideration of the role of the International Finance Corporation in this sector. (Author)

Miller, Damian; Hope, Chris [Cambridge Univ., Judge Inst. of Management Studies, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

2000-02-01

358

AN ANALYSIS OF AN INTERNATIONAL NGOS DESIGN DECISION-MAKING IN POST DISASTER DEVELOPING COUNTRY CONTEXT: A Sri Lanka Case Study  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the current design and delivery approaches of a selected INGO operating in the field of post disaster housing design and delivery in developing country contexts and clearly map out their approach from inception to completion of a housing project. The research utilizes a case study analysis involving a leading European INGO operating in post disaster housing delivery in Sri Lanka in the aftermath of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The research highlights the main challenges and opportunities in relation to the design and delivery of low cost sustainable housing in developing countries as identified in current literature on the subject. An in depth analysis of the selected INGO’s overall design and delivery approach was undertaken utilizing a causal mapping interview procedure with lead designers within the organization who were involved in the project’s design and implementation. The results identify and discuss the specific approaches, challenges and considerations that informed their decision-making as an INGO in a post disaster developing country context which. The results of this research study provide a concise insight into the design decision-making process and considerations of leading foreign INGO’s operating in developing countries and will be beneficial to policy makers, NGOs, government bodies and community organizations in practice as it offers unique evidence based insights into an international bodies housing design decision-making process.

John Bruen

2013-11-01

359

Major and trace elements in plants and soils in Horton Plains National Park, Sri Lanka: an approach to explain forest die back  

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Forest die back has been observed from 1980s in the montane moist forest of Horton Plains in the Central Sri Lanka for which the aetiology appears to be uncertain. The concentration levels of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, Zn and Pb in canopy leaves, bark and roots, which were collected from dying and healthy plants of three different endemic species, Calophyllum walkeri, Syzygium rotundifolium and Cinnamomum ovalifolium, from three different die back sites were studied. Soils underlying the plants were also analyzed for their extractable trace metals and total contents of major oxides. Analysis of dead and healthy plants does not show any remarkable differences in the concentrations of studied trace elements. The results show that there is a low status of pollution based on the concentrations of chemical elements of environmental concern. Extractable and total trace element analysis indicates a low content of Ca in soils due to high soil acidity that probably leads to Mg and Al toxicity to certain plants. Relatively high Al levels in the soil would affect the root system and hamper the uptake and transport of essential cations to the plant. It therefore seems that the forest declining appears to be a natural phenomenon, which occurs due to the imbalance of macro and micronutrients in the natural forest due to excessive weathering and the continuous leaching of essential elements.

Chandrajith, Rohana; Koralegedara, Nadeesha; Ranawana, K. B.; Tobschall, H. J.; Dissanayake, C. B.

2009-03-01

360

Clinically helpful rickettsial disease diagnostic IgG titers in relation to duration of illness in an endemic setting in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Although an initial IFA-IgG titer greater or equal to 1/64 or 1/128 is considered positive in presumptive diagnosis, in clinical practice in an endemic setting for rickettsioses in Sri Lanka, some patients with IFA-IgG titer of 1/128 for either spotted fever group (SFG or scrub typhus (ST did not respond to treatment. Findings To determine a clinically helpful diagnostic algorithm, IFA-IgG results of serologically confirmed treatment responders were analyzed in relation to duration of illness at sampling. Of 146 suspected SFG, 3 responders of 25 patients had titers ?1/128 with 7 days, the false negative and positive rates were 4.3% (3/59 and 11.3% (6/53. Of 115 suspected ST, false negative and positive rates with ?1/256 cutoff at 7 days, false negative and positive rates were 2% (1/51 and 0% (0/42. Conclusions For clinical decision making, duration of illness at sampling is important in interpreting serology results in an endemic setting. If sample is obtained ?7 day of illness, an IgG titer of ?1/128 requires a follow up sample in the diagnosis and > 7 days of illness, a single ?1/256 titer is diagnostic for all ST and 90% of SFG.

Premaratna Ranjan

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
361

Glyphosate, hard water and nephrotoxic metals: are they the culprits behind the epidemic of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in Sri Lanka?  

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The current chronic kidney disease epidemic, the major health issue in the rice paddy farming areas in Sri Lanka has been the subject of many scientific and political debates over the last decade. Although there is no agreement among scientists about the etiology of the disease, a majority of them has concluded that this is a toxic nephropathy. None of the hypotheses put forward so far could explain coherently the totality of clinical, biochemical, histopathological findings, and the unique geographical distribution of the disease and its appearance in the mid-1990s. A strong association between the consumption of hard water and the occurrence of this special kidney disease has been observed, but the relationship has not been explained consistently. Here, we have hypothesized the association of using glyphosate, the most widely used herbicide in the disease endemic area and its unique metal chelating properties. The possible role played by glyphosate-metal complexes in this epidemic has not been given any serious consideration by investigators for the last two decades. Furthermore, it may explain similar kidney disease epidemics observed in Andra Pradesh (India) and Central America. Although glyphosate alone does not cause an epidemic of chronic kidney disease, it seems to have acquired the ability to destroy the renal tissues of thousands of farmers when it forms complexes with a localized geo environmental factor (hardness) and nephrotoxic metals. PMID:24562182

Jayasumana, Channa; Gunatilake, Sarath; Senanayake, Priyantha

2014-02-01

362

Population dynamics of Aceria guerreronis (Acari: Eriophyidae) and its predatory mite, Neoseiulus baraki (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in two coconut growing areas in Sri Lanka.  

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Densities of coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) and its predatory mite, Neoseiulus baraki Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) were monitored on coconut fruits in two coconut mite infested areas, Kalpitiya and Madurankuliya, in Sri Lanka, over a period of 3 years and were compared with local rainfall records. Significant differences in A. guerreronis densities were observed among years and months of the year. Rainfall (amount and frequency, i.e. the total number of days with rainfall of >5 mm) was not significantly correlated with the variation of A. guerreronis densities. But the drought length (i.e. the number of days without rainfall of >5 mm) significantly influenced A. guerreronis densities. Generally, peak densities of A. guerreronis were observed during February-March and June-September in both areas. The differences in the N. baraki densities were significantly different between the two areas and among the 3 years but not among months of the year. Although the amount of rainfall was not significantly correlated with the population densities of N. baraki, frequency of rainfall showed a negative significant correlation and drought length showed a positive significant correlation with the population densities. The results of this experiment indicated that the application of control methods for A. guerreronis may be more advantageous if they are carried out at the onset and during the dry seasons. PMID:22327463

Aratchige, N S; Fernando, L C P; Waidyarathne, K P; Chandrasiri, K A S

2012-04-01

363

Glyphosate, Hard Water and Nephrotoxic Metals: Are They the Culprits Behind the Epidemic of Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Etiology in Sri Lanka?  

Science.gov (United States)

The current chronic kidney disease epidemic, the major health issue in the rice paddy farming areas in Sri Lanka has been the subject of many scientific and political debates over the last decade. Although there is no agreement among scientists about the etiology of the disease, a majority of them has concluded that this is a toxic nephropathy. None of the hypotheses put forward so far could explain coherently the totality of clinical, biochemical, histopathological findings, and the unique geographical distribution of the disease and its appearance in the mid-1990s. A strong association between the consumption of hard water and the occurrence of this special kidney disease has been observed, but the relationship has not been explained consistently. Here, we have hypothesized the association of using glyphosate, the most widely used herbicide in the disease endemic area and its unique metal chelating properties. The possible role played by glyphosate-metal complexes in this epidemic has not been given any serious consideration by investigators for the last two decades. Furthermore, it may explain similar kidney disease epidemics observed in Andra Pradesh (India) and Central America. Although glyphosate alone does not cause an epidemic of chronic kidney disease, it seems to have acquired the ability to destroy the renal tissues of thousands of farmers when it forms complexes with a localized geo environmental factor (hardness) and nephrotoxic metals. PMID:24562182

Jayasumana, Channa; Gunatilake, Sarath; Senanayake, Priyantha

2014-01-01

364

Married men with children may stop working when their wives emigrate to work: Evidence from Sri Lanka  

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We examine what happens to Sri Lankan men’s labour supply when their wives emigrate to work and leave the husbands and children at home—the effects of maternal migration on the husbands’ labour supply. Using sibling sex-composition of a household as an instrumental variable for the household’s number of children in three-stage least-square estimations, we find maternal migration reduces the husbands’ labour supply. The husbands are more likely to exit the labour market and become un...

Sarma, Vengadeshvaran; Parinduri, Rasyad

2014-01-01

365

TSUNAMI RISK MITIGATION THROUGH STRATEGIC LAND-USE PLANNING AND EVACUATION PROCEDURES FOR COASTAL COMMUNITIES IN SRI LANKA  

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Full Text Available Safety measures against the future disaster risk are considered as the main aspect of post disaster reconstructions. The majority of post-disaster villages/settlements and due projects on Sri Lankan coastline are apparently lacking behind the proper safety measures and adequate evacuation procedures. Therefore the immediate necessities of proper safety measures have to be emphasized in order to mitigate future tsunami risks. This paper introduces a number of post disaster coastal villages/settlements, which are in future coastline hazard risk, mainly in a future tsunami event. These include their location risk, land uses and housing designs defects and shortcomings of other safety measures. Furthermore few tsunami risk mitigation measures through land use planning strategies, which could be applied more easily in community level, are introduced. In addition to those the strategic development methods of functional networks of evacuation routes and shelters in different topographies are examined.

Woharika Kaumudi Weerasinghe

2011-01-01

366

Diurnal variation in probability of death following self-poisoning in Sri Lanka—evidence for chronotoxicity in humans  

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Background The absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of medicines are partly controlled by transporters and enzymes with diurnal variation in expression. Dose timing may be important for maximizing therapeutic and minimizing adverse effects. However, outcome data for such an effect in humans are sparse, and chronotherapeutics is consequently less practised. We examined a large prospective Sri Lankan cohort of patients with acute poisoning to seek evidence of diurnal variation in the probability of survival. Methods In all, 14?840 patients admitted to hospital after yellow oleander (Cascabela thevetia) seed or pesticide [organophosphorus (OP), carbamate, paraquat, glyphosate] self-poisoning were investigated for variation in survival according to time of ingestion. Results We found strong evidence that the outcome of oleander poisoning was associated with time of ingestion (P?chronotherapeutics should be given greater attention in drug development and clinical practice. PMID:23179303

Metcalfe, Chris; Gunnell, David; Mohamed, Fahim; Eddleston, Michael

2012-01-01

367

Applicability of a Surveillance Methodology for the Microbiological Safety of Well Water Supplies, in a Highly Vulnerable Hydrogeological Setting——A Case Study Based Findings from the West Coastal Area of Sri Lanka  

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A well surveillance study carried out in nine Divisional Secretariat Divisions on the west coast of Sri Lanka showed that 70.3% of 101 well sampling points were microbially contaminated with equal to, or greater than, faecal coliform grade C (11 - 100 cfu/100 mL). Due to the very vulnerable hydro-geological setting of the coastal sand, laterite and alluvium aquifers occurring in the study areas, the recommended safe separation distance between an on-site sanitation system and a well could not...

Shivasorupy Barthiban; Barry John Lloyd; Matthias Maier

2012-01-01

368

Clinico-epidemiology of stings and envenoming of Hottentotta tamulus (Scorpiones: Buthidae), the Indian red scorpion from Jaffna Peninsula in northern Sri Lanka.  

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In recent years, stings of a lethal scorpion species were recorded from Jaffna Peninsula in the northern dry zone of Sri Lanka. This species was identified as Hottentotta tamulus (Scorpiones: Buthidae) which is the Indian red scorpion commonly found in Maharashtra, India. The Teaching Hospital, Jaffna recorded 84 H. tamulus stings over a year in 2012 and of them, 23 cases provided offending scorpions (proven cases). Three localities in Jaffna were recorded as hotspots of scorpion stings namely Palali, Achchuvali and Karainagar. Of the proven cases, 13 (57%) and 10 (43%) were males and females respectively and had a mean age of 30 years (SD ± 20 years). Among them, 5 (22%) were children below 12 years. In 13 (57%) patients stings occurred inside their houses including two children (40%). Six (26%) stings occurred at night when the victims were in sleep. Median time taken to arrive at the hospital from the time of stinging was 58 min (range 8-550 min). Signs of over activation of autonomic nervous system predominated the clinical picture-tachycardia in 14 (61%), high blood pressure in 11 (48%), excessive sweating in 9 (39%), excessive salivation in 5 (22%), hypotension in 4 (17%) and piloerection in 3 (13%). Children showed higher predilection to develop tachycardia - 4 (80%) and excessive salivation - 3 (60%). Priapism was not observed and 17 (74%) patients have developed intense pain at the site of sting. The commonest ECG change was tachycardia (73%) and occasional T wave inversion. Prazosin as a treatment was given to 22 (96%) patients. All patients made recovery and 13 (57%) patients left the hospital within two days. In future, there is a potential risk of spreading this species to elsewhere in the country and may disturb the ecological balance. PMID:25450799

Kularatne, Senanayake A M; Dinamithra, Nandana P; Sivansuthan, Sivapalan; Weerakoon, Kosala G A D; Thillaimpalam, Bhanu; Kalyanasundram, Vithiya; Ranawana, Kithsiri B

2015-01-01

369

Use of nuclear techniques for improving livestock production and health in Sri Lanka: A review of studies conducted and strategies for technology transfer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of nuclear techniques for studies on livestock production in Sri Lanka commenced in the 1970's with the establishment of Radioimmunoassay(RIA) technique for measuring reproductive hormones in the blood and milk of buffaloes, cattle and goats. Progesterone measurement was used in a series of studies to monitor reproductive status of ruminants under small-holder farming conditions in different agro-ecological zones, to identify the major constraints and to test methods for improving fertility. Thereafter, other isotopic techniques were established and used together with conventional methods for studies on nutrition, environmental physiology and disease control. In the early 1980's the nuclear-related technique of Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was established and applied for studies on the immune response of buffaloes to Toxocara vitulorum infection. Subsequently, ELISA techniques were used for studies on sero-epidomology and control of important viral and bacterial disease of cattle and buffaloes (rotavirus infection, haemorrhagic specticaemia, brucellosis, rinderpest and foot-and-mouth disease). The most recent development has been the use of ELISA for diagnosing viral diseases of poultry. In order to transfer the findings from research to the end-users, a multi disciplinary programme was launched in 1995, with the focus on improving buffalo production. Selected farms in three regions of the country participated in the testing, modification and evalated in the testing, modification and evaluation of appropriate technology packages aimed at imroving the productivity and health of their animals in a sustainable and economically feasible manner. They were provided assistance to upgrade their operations to the status of farms, which are now serving as demonstration sites and training locations for other farmers (AU)

370

Comparison of low cost materials to remove fluoride from drinking water in Sri Lanka; Response to health problems associated with contiguous hydrogeochemistry  

Science.gov (United States)

Considering medical geology, Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), dental and skeletal fluorosis is emerging as major health problems in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. In the year of 2008, over 5,000 patients were under treatment for renal failure in the North Central Province. Large number of cases has been found with the dental fluorosis while few skeletal fluorosis is also reported. Recent research carried out in the CKD prevalent areas also demonstrated that there is a significant relationship between fluoride-rich areas and the high incidence of CKD. In some areas fluoride in drinking water reported as high as 9-10 ppm where the WHO maximum permissible limit is 1.5 ppm. Therefore, it is essential to remove excessive fluoride from water before drinking. This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of low cost and locally available filter materials to be used easily in household filters. Batch experiments were carried out for different fluoride loadings (10, 20 and 50 ppm) and time for diverse adsorbents such as laterite, bricks, charcoal, serpentine, tile, quartz, marble and white clay balls (impure kaolinite) based on the adsorption technique. It was found that untreated charcoal and quartz have no effect on defluoridation and local bricks as well as marble demonstrated less defluoridation ability i.e. 28.83% and 12.7% respectively. White clay and laterite showed higher adsorption efficiency than tile chips and serpentinite. When consider adsorption amounts white clay, laterite and serpentinite exhibited 96.0%, 94.25% and 93.54% % respectively for 10 ppm initial concentration of fluoride. For the rest adsorbate loadings it showed similar behavior with more than 90 % adsorption. Most of the materials attend to equilibrium after 60 minutes. The presence of aluminium and iron oxides would place these materials on top of the better adsorbent list. Column experiments, effect of temperature on the adsorbents and modeling are under investigation for white clay, laterite and serpentinite.

Vithanage, M. S.; Randiligama, S.

2010-12-01

371

Natural herbicide resistance (HR) to broad-spectrum herbicide, glyphosate among traditional and inbred-cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Weeds along with insect pests and plant diseases are sources of biotic stress in crop systems. Weeds are responsible for serious problems in rice worldwide affecting growth and causing a considerable reduction in quality and quantity in yield. High concentrations of pre-emergent-broad-spectrum systemic herbicide, Glyphosate is prevalently applied to control rice weeds which intern causes severe damages to cultivated rice varieties, susceptible to Glyphosate. However, there may be rice varieties with natural Herbicide Resistance (HR) which are so far, has not been evaluated. In this study Six traditional and eighteen developed-cultivated rice varieties (Bg, Bw, At and Ld series developed by Rice Research Development Institute, Sri Lanka) were used to screen their natural HR. RCBD with five replicates and three blocks in each treatment-combination was used as the experimental design. As observations, time taken-to seed germination, time taken to flowering; plant height and number of leaves at 12-weeks after sawing, leaf-length, breadth, panicle-length, number of seeds/panicle of resistant plants and controls were recorded. Plants with > or = 40% resistance were considered as resistant to Glyphosate. Ten inbred-cultivated rice varieties (Bg250, Bg94-1, Bg304, Bg359, Bg406, Bg379-2, Bg366, Bg300, Bw364, At362) and three traditional rice varieties ("Kalu Heenati", "Sudu Heenati", "Pachchaperumal") were naturally resistant to 0.25 g L(-1) Glyphosate concentration and when increased the concentration (0.5 g L(-1)) resistance was reduced. This study showed the usefulness of modern statistical method, classification and regression tree analysis (CART) in exploring and visualizing the patterns reflected by a large number of rice varieties (larger experimental database) on herbicide resistance in future. PMID:24498832

Weerakoon, S R; Somaratne, S; Wijeratne, R G D; Ekanyaka, E M S I

2013-08-15

372

Natural Herbicide Resistance (HR to Broad-spectrum Herbicide, Glyphosate among Traditional and Inbred-cultivated Rice (Oryza sativa L. Varieties in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Weeds along with insect pests and plant diseases are sources of biotic stress in crop systems. Weeds are responsible for serious problems in rice worldwide affecting growth and causing a considerable reduction in quality and quantity in yield. High concentrations of pre-emergent-broad-spectrum systemic herbicide, Glyphosate is prevalently applied to control rice weeds which intern causes severe damages to cultivated rice varieties, susceptible to Glyphosate. However, there may be rice varieties with natural Herbicide Resistance (HR which are so far, has not been evaluated. In this study Six traditional and eighteen developed-cultivated rice varieties (Bg, Bw, At and Ld series developed by Rice Research Development Institute, Sri Lanka were used to screen their natural HR. RCBD with five replicates and three blocks in each treatment-combination was used as the experimental design. As observations, time taken-to seed germination, time taken to flowering; plant height and number of leaves at 12-weeks after sawing, leaf-length, breadth, panicle-length, number of seeds/panicle of resistant plants and controls were recorded. Plants with ?40% resistance were considered as resistant to Glyphosate. Ten inbred-cultivated rice varieties (Bg250, Bg94-1, Bg304, Bg359, Bg406, Bg379-2, Bg366, Bg300, Bw364, At362 and three traditional rice varieties (“Kalu Heenati”, “Sudu Heenati”, “Pachchaperumal” were naturally resistant to 0.25 g L-1 Glyphosate concentration and when increased the concentration (0.5 g L-1 resistance was reduced. This study showed the usefulness of modern statistical method, classification and regression tree analysis (CART in exploring and visualizing the patterns reflected by a large number of rice varieties (larger experimental database on herbicide resistance in future.

R.G.D. Wijeratne

2013-01-01

373

Distribution Of Withaferin A, an Anticancer Potential Agent, In Different Parts of Two Varieties of Withania somnifera (L. Dunal. Grown in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Withania somnifera (L. Dunal. (Family: Solanaceae is a therapeutically important medicinal plant in traditional and Ayurveda systems of medicine in Sri Lanka. Witheferin A, is a potential anticancer compound found in W. somnifera. In the present study, attempts have been made to compare witheferin A content, in different parts of (root, stem, bark, leaf two varieties of (LC1 and FR1 W. somnifera grown in same soil and climatic conditions. Ground sample (1g of leaves, bark, stem and roots of two W. somnifera varieties were extracted with CHCl3 three times. Thin Layer Chromatographic analysis (TLC of withaferin A in both plant extracts were performed on pre-coated Silica gel 60 GF254 plates in hexane: ethyl acetate: methanol (2: 14: 1 mobile phase. Densitometer scanning was performed at ?max = 215 nm. HPLC of W. somnifera extracts was performed using Kromasil C18 reverse phase column. Both varieties of W. somnifera differed in withaferin A. After visualizing TLC plates with vanillin-sulphuric acid leaf and bark extracts of both varieties showed high intensity purple colour spots (Rf 0.14 than in stem and roots. The highest amount of withaferin A (3812 ppm was observed in leaves of variety LC1 while the lowest amount was observed in roots of variety FR1 (5 ppm. According to the results it could be concluded that content of Witheferin A was vary leaf> bark> stem > roots in both varieties. Therefore, there is a high potential of incorporation of leaves and bark of W. somnifera for the preparation of Ayurveda drug leading to anticancer activity instead of roots.

Kosala Samarasinghe

2013-01-01

374

Ministerial Presentation: Sri Lanka. Presentation by Tissa Vitarana [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thank you, Mr. Chairman for giving me the opportunity to address this distinguished audience at short notice. I would also like to thank the Government of China and the China Atomic Energy Authority together with the IAEA and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD for hosting and organizing this second ministerial meeting on nuclear energy. It takes place at a time when the world is faced with an energy crisis and also an environmental crisis. Besides cost considerations, dependence on fossil fuels is no longer feasible because of their impact on climate leading to global warming with all the adverse consequences for all forms of life on this planet. Therefore, from the point of view of generating electricity on a large scale without carbon emissions, nuclear energy is the need of the hour. This meeting is addressing the main issues that arise in expanding the use of nuclear energy as a source of power, such as fuel supply, waste management, infrastructure development, technology availability and environmental aspects. In addition by providing time for ministerial presentations the current experience and needs of the various countries are being surfaced and shared. Before discussing some issues pertaining to Sri Lanka, I wish to express my agreement with the statement made by the Vice Prime Minister of China who clearly emphasized the need for a total ban on nuclear weapons, which was supported by speakers from several other countries. The statement attributed to US Pruntries. The statement attributed to US President Barak Obama that he is prepared to work towards reducing nuclear arms in the USA is also welcome. Further, the right of every country to resort to peaceful use of nuclear energy for generating power should be respected so long as they conform to the regulations of the IAEA, including the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT). I wish to share with the learned delegates a few issues pertaining to Sri Lanka as a country which has not yet taken a firm decision to turn to nuclear energy as a part of its energy mix. Sri Lanka is a small island of 64,000 sq km with about 20 million people with an electricity generation of 6000 MWe, 60% of which is thermal and 38% hydropower and the balance 2% being provided by renewable sources including biomass. Clearly, the dependence on petroleum has to be reduced for both economic and environmental reasons. The hydropower potential has been largely exhausted and therefore the government has turned to coal which also raises environmental concerns. Therefore, resort to renewable energy is the main option and a target of 10% of the country's needs by 2015 is being aimed at. In this context, and as the terrorist problem is being successfully overcome, for the first time the nuclear option is being seriously considered by Sri Lanka (Target up to 1000 MWe). However, we need to carefully assess the feasibility and cost effectiveness in the Sri Lankan context before taking a final decision. Among the relevant issues, apart from safety and security, are the following: 1. With the limited availability of uranium in the world, the effect on future prices due to increasing demand is a factor that needs consideration. There is evidence that Sri Lanka has significant thorium deposits. Can our thorium deposits which need to be properly determined, adequately compensate for this? (Indian Sub continent ha around 30% of the world thorium reserves). Do we then need at the outset to go for a reactor that can utilize thorium? 2. Suitable sites for long term waste disposal need to be identified in Sri Lanka. It may be necessary to establish regional wast