Sri Lanka (United States)

The Palk Strait separates India (upper left) from Sri Lanka (center). This true-color image from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on May 20, 2002, shows the strait filled with bright sediment, while off the northeast tip of Sri Lanka, a dark stain in the waters could be a phytoplankton bloom. On Sri Lanka, much of the native forests have been cleared, but small pockets remain in preserves, such as that seen in the southeastern portion of the island, where dense green vegetation can be seen.



Engaging Military in Post-War Reconciliation: A Case Study of Implications for the Consolidation of Democracy in Sri Lanka. (United States)

Engaging military in post war reconciliation: A case study of implications for the consolidation of democracy in Sri Lanka was prompted by post-war developments in Sri Lanka related to Civil-Military relations. The longest fought civil war in South East A...

C. Wickramaratne



Tissue bank: Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human degenerative diseases and congenital defects are common throughout the world. Many people suffer also from burns, fractures and nerve damage resulting from traumatic accidents and outbreaks of violence which occur all too frequently, especially in poorer countries. Far too many people are impaired for life because they have no access to treatment or simply cannot afford it. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Division of Nuclear Medicine, to improve facilities at the Sri Lanka Tissue Bank. (IAEA)



Sri Lanka, Colored Height (United States)

The topography of the island nation of Sri Lanka is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. For this special view heights below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored red. These low coastal elevations extend 5 to 10 km (3.1 to 6.2 mi) inland on Sri Lanka and are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges, rising sea level, or, as in the aftermath of the earthquake of December 26, 2004, tsunami. These so-called tidal waves have occurred numerous times in history and can be especially destructive, but with the advent of the near-global SRTM elevation data planners can better predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events. Sri Lanka is shaped like a giant teardrop falling from the southern tip of the vast Indian subcontinent. It is separated from India by the 50km (31mi) wide Palk Strait, although there is a series of stepping-stone coral islets known as Adam's Bridge that almost form a land bridge between the two countries. The island is just 350km (217mi) long and only 180km (112mi) wide at its broadest, and is about the same size as Ireland, West Virginia or Tasmania. The southern half of the island is dominated by beautiful and rugged hill country, and includes Mt Pidurutalagala, the islandaE(TM)s highest point at 2524 meters (8281 ft). The entire northern half comprises a large plain extending from the edge of the hill country to the Jaffna peninsula. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C. Location: 8.0 degrees North latitude, 80.7 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 275.6 by 482.4 kilometers (165.4 by 299.0 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000



War Termination in Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article has a central aim of explaining the catastrophic loss of civilian life in the last five months of the civil war in Sri Lanka. The article proposes that both the government of Sri Lanka (GoSL) and the LTTE are culpable for civilian deaths; the LTTE in an effort to stave off defeat so it might be able to re-constitute itself at a later time, and the GoSL in a determination not to allow the LTTE as an organization to survive the conflict. The article also argues that a prel...

Albert Wesley Harris



Development Information in Sri Lanka. (United States)

Describes the status of activities relating to development information in Sri Lanka and the role of the Centre for Development Information. The discussion covers the generation of development information; the infrastructure devised for the collection, organization, and dissemination of information; and resource sharing programs at national,…

Karunanayake, C. I.



Renewable Energy Supply Options for Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sri Lanka energy sector is dominated by conventional energy sources as biomass, hydropower and petroleum. The electricity sector is dominated by hydropower supplying approximately while small component is supplied by oil fired thermal plants. Sri Lanka has a relatively low household electrification level with major variations among urban, suburban and rural areas of the country. Main renewable energy sources capable of offering a substantial contribution to the Sri Lanka electricity generatio...

Wijayatunga, Priyantha D. C.



GNF - Mangrove Reforestation in Sri Lanka  

... Mangrove, Reforestation, Lakes, Sri Lanka, Nagenahiru, Foundation, Maduganga, Madampe, Wetland, flood, wave, deforestation,...tree, nursery, seedling, Bolgoda, Maella, Malal, Lungamwehera, education, Living, Lakes, networ GNF - Mangrove Reforestation in Sri Lanka deutsch english Search Contact Imprint Sitemap HOME ...Constance Agriculture East Africa Baikal Seal Slow Tour Sea Buckthorn Farming Mongolia Mangrove Swamps Sri Lanka Strengthering of structures LED / CF lamps ... Mangroves India Coffee Cultivation Irrawaddy Dolphin Macaw Species Fishery Green Filter Living Fences Mangroves Sri Lanka Workshop Eco Tourism Umeme Kwa Wote Gardens for ...


MIT: Letters from Sri Lanka (United States)

Charles Harvey, an associate professor from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's (MIT) Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering has kept a log of the findings from a recent visit to Sri Lanka. Harvey and colleagues Tissa Illagasekera from the Colorado School of Mines and Jayantha Obeysekera from the South Florida Water District went to Sri Lanka to investigate the impact of the recent Indian Ocean tsunami on local drinking wells. Excepts from his notes and photographs are posted on this website from the MIT News Office. The letters describe his four-day fact-finding trip and conclude that, based on the group's limited observations, "the condition of the wells depends on their location and the level of post-tsunami interference."


Chronic kidney diseases of uncertain etiology (CKDue) in Sri Lanka: geographic distribution and environmental implications. (United States)

The increase in the number of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients from the north central region of Sri Lanka has become a environmental health issue of national concern. Unlike in other countries where long-standing diabetes and hypertension are the leading causes of renal diseases, the majority of CKD patients from this part of Sri Lanka do not show any identifiable cause. As the disease is restricted to a remarkably specific geographical terrain, particularly in the north central dry zone of the country, multidisciplinary in-depth research studies are required to identify possible etiologies and risk factors. During this study, population screening in the prevalent region and outside the region, analysis of geoenvironmental and biochemical samples were carried out. Population screening that was carried out using a multistage sampling technique indicated that the point prevalence of CKD with uncertain etiology is about 2-3% among those above 18 years of age. Drinking water collected from high-prevalent and non-endemic regions was analyzed for their trace and ultratrace element contents, including the nephrotoxic heavy metals Cd and U using ICP-MS. The results indicate that the affected regions contain moderate to high levels of fluoride. The Cd contents in drinking water, rice from affected regions and urine from symptomatic and non-symptomatic patients were much lower indicating that Cd is not a contributing factor for CKD with uncertain etiology in Sri Lanka. Although no single geochemical parameter could be clearly and directly related to the CKD etiology on the basis of the elements determined during this study, it is very likely that the unique hydrogeochemistry of the drinking water is closely associated with the incidence of the disease. PMID:20853020

Chandrajith, Rohana; Nanayakkara, Shanika; Itai, Kozuyoshi; Aturaliya, T N C; Dissanayake, C B; Abeysekera, Thilak; Harada, Kouji; Watanabe, Takao; Koizumi, Akio



Radioisotopes and medical imaging in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article deals with the use of X-rays and magnetic resonance imaging in medical diagnosis in its introduction. Then it elaborates on the facilities in the field of medical imaging for diagnosis, in Sri Lanka. The use of Technetium-99m in diagnostic medicine as well as the future of medical imaging in Sri Lanka is also dealt with



eHealth Sri lanka 2010 Conference  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available eHealth Sri lanka 2010 - International Conference on eHealth15 & 16 September 2010at Waters Edge – Battaramulla - Sri LankaThe closing date for submission of Abstracts is 31st of July 2010.For more details, visit

Roshan Hewapathirana



Vanilla Industry Development in Sri Lanka. (United States)

Vanilla, a crop with almost no cultivation costs and a healthy, stable world market, holds great potential as an export crop in Sri Lanka. This report discusses the status of the vanilla industry in Sri Lanka and offers a strategic plan for developing a p...

R. C. Flick



War Termination in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available

This article has a central aim of explaining the catastrophic loss of civilian life in the last five months of the civil war in Sri Lanka. The article proposes that both the government of Sri Lanka (GoSL and the LTTE are culpable for civilian deaths; the LTTE in an effort to stave off defeat so it might be able to re-constitute itself at a later time, and the GoSL in a determination not to allow the LTTE as an organization to survive the conflict. The article also argues that a preliminary explanation for the origins of the Sri Lankan civil war can be found in the GoSL program of transferring members of the Sinhalese population into the Northern and Eastern provinces of the country, regions held by the Tamil population to be their homeland territory.

Key words: Population; Tamil; Sinhalese insurgency; Civilian; Territory

Albert Wesley Harris



Exploratory drilling to begin offshore Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Marathon Petroleum Sri Lanka agreed to spend about $5.6 million on two offshore Sri Lanka wells this year. The tests are part of a farm in agreement with Pexamin Pacific Inc. involving 2,700 square miles offshore north and south of Mannar Island. The Sri Lankan government has divided its northwest continental shelf into 12 blocks and expects to conclude more production sharing contracts soon.

Perera, L.A.B.



Sri Lanka drops leading condom. (United States)

Sri Lanka's Family Planning Association has stopped selling its Preethi Regular condom, the backbone of its social marketing program for nearly a decade. Last year nearly 7 times as many Preethi condoms were sold as all other brands combined. The decision was reported to be caused by budget constraints following the International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) new policy of limiting the number of Preethi Regular condoms supplied to Sri Lanka. IPPF's Asian Regional Officer reported that the Preethi condom is a costly product, and that as many as needed of a US Agency for International Development (USAID) supplied product will be sent to Sri Lanka. The Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) program has devised a new sales strategy, based partly on the introduction of a high-priced condom to fill the gap left by the discontinuation of the Preethi Regular. The new Preethi Gold condom is expected to help the project become more financially self-reliant while taing advantage of Preethi's marketplace popularity. Preethi Gold is manufactured by the Malaysia Rubber Company and costs the project US $4.85/gross. It is sold for US $.14 for 3, about 3 times the price of a Preethi Regular. The project is also pushing the Panther condom, donated to IPPF by USAID. 2 Panther condoms sell for about 3.6U, about the cost of Preethi Regulars. The project also sells Moonbeam, Rough Rider, and Stimula condoms, the latter 2 at full commercial prices. A smooth transfer of demand from Preethi to Panther had been desired, but by the end of 1983 some retailers were hesitating to make the product switch because some Preethi Regulars were still available. Total condom sales in 1983 were down by nearly 590,000 from the approximately 6,860,000 sold in 1982. Total condom sales for the 1st quarter of 1984 were slightly over 1,218,000 pieces, compared to about 1,547,000 for the same quarter in 1983, a decline of 21%. The Family Planning Association is gearing up to reverse the downward trend. Panther sales increased from, 38,000 condoms in the 1st quarter of 1983 to 462,000 in the same period of 1984. The project is intensifying its market coverage by increasing the number of sales divisions from 5 to 7 to help maintain sales momentum for the new product. PMID:12266328



Livelihoods in post-tsunami Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Livelihoods in Sri Lanka have been affected not only by the initial devastation of the tsunami but also by the policies and practices of the government and the humanitarian aid community’s post-disaster response.

Simon Harris



Hydrodynamic implications of textural trends in sand deposits of the 2004 tsunami in Sri Lanka (United States)

Field observations and sediment samples at a coastal-plain setting in southeastern Sri Lanka were used to document the erosional and depositional impacts of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and to interpret the hydrodynamic processes that produced an extensive sand-sheet deposit. Tsunami deposit thicknesses ranged from 6 to 22??cm with thickness being controlled partly by antecedent topography. The deposit was composed of coarse to medium sand organized into plane-parallel laminae and a few laminasets. Vertical textural trends showed an overall but non-systematic upward fining and upward thinning of depositional units with an upward increase in heavy-mineral laminations at some locations. Repeated patterns in the vertical textural trends (upward fining, upward coarsening, uniform) were used to subdivide and correlate the deposit into five hydro-textural stratigraphic units. The depositional units were linked to hydrodynamic processes and upcurrent conditions, such as rates of sediment supply and composition of the sediment sources. Vertical changes in grain-size distributions recorded the depositional phases associated with flow acceleration, initial unsteady pulsating flow, relatively stable and uniform flow, flow deceleration, slack water, and return flow or flow redirection. Study results suggest that vertical textural trends from multiple cross-shore sections can be used to interpret complex tsunami flow histories, but at the location examined, interpretation of the lateral textural trends did not provide a basis for identifying the correct sediment transport pathways because flow near the landward boundary was multidirectional.

Morton, R. A.; Goff, J. R.; Nichol, S. L.



Rhinosporidiosis in Sri Lanka: An overview  

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Full Text Available Rhinosporidiosis, an enigmatic disease, is present in 90 countries world-wide. Sri Lanka has the highest prevalence per capita, while India has the largest number of reported cases. It is now appearing in Europe. Since its discovery in 1892, unresolved enigmas of the disease and its causative pathogen, still remain. This overview highlights these enigmas to encourage Sri Lankan researchers to investigate them.

SN Arseculeratne



The dawn of the personal genome era in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The first Sri Lankan Personal Genome was successfully sequenced by scientists and bioinformaticians from the University of Colombo, Sri Lanka and the Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, New Delhi, India. This project was initiated by the Specialty Board in Biomedical Informatics of the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka.

BJC Perera



77 FR 16670 - Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Sri Lanka (United States)

...International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Sri Lanka AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION...the license denial policy toward Sri Lanka. This change allows for exports to Sri Lanka for assistance for aerial and...



Sarendib’s Sorrow: Sri Lanka’s Continued Conflict  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, the author studies the conflict in Sri Lanka, and identifies and describes two sources of its intractability: fractured fronts and maximalist goals. The article seeks to reveal that while the Sri Lankan government’s recent military onslaught against the LTTE has been surprisingly successful, history is clear that a meaningful solution to the con...

Abhayraj Naik



Renewable Energy Supply Options for Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Sri Lanka energy sector is dominated by conventional energy sources as biomass, hydropower and petroleum. The electricity sector is dominated by hydropower supplying approximately while small component is supplied by oil fired thermal plants. Sri Lanka has a relatively low household electrification level with major variations among urban, suburban and rural areas of the country. Main renewable energy sources capable of offering a substantial contribution to the Sri Lanka electricity generation sector are micro-hydro, wind, biomass and solar. Penetration of RE in the electricity generation sector has been extremely limited by the constraints in financing mechanisms and financial viability. The only exception has been micro/minihydro sector due to its relatively low capital investment and recent opportunities for grid connection. Also the recent World Bank refunded Energy Services Delivery (ESD project has helped the resurgence of MH sector during the last few years. This paper examinations the feasibility of the use of these renewable sources particularly for electricity generation in Sri Lank along the incentives and barriers to their expansion.

Priyantha D. C. Wijayatunga



Adaptation Planning in Sri Lanka under Shifting Rainfall Patterns (United States)

Long term planning for adaptation by countries requires assessing the adequacy of current and future plans for handling observed and projected climate change. The uncertainties surrounding changes in the monsoons and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation cycle complicate planned adaptation in South Asia. Sri Lanka is a nation that is in the midst of executing a large development program and subject to the climate uncertainties that surround South Asia. Using exploratory principal component analysis and factor analysis, we analyze the spatial patterns of temporal variability and the spatial patterns of rainfall, respectively, for Sri Lanka. Our results show changes in the timings of the monsoons and slight shifts in the spatial rainfall patterns. The spatial changes are unlikely to affect the success of the development plan, but changes in the timing have important implications for water management strategies.

Perrone, D.; Jacobi, J. H.; Hornberger, G. M.



New Dengue Virus Type 1 Genotype in Colombo, Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The number of cases and severity of disease associated with dengue infection in Sri Lanka has been increasing since 1989, when the first epidemic of dengue hemorrhagic fever was recorded. We identified a new dengue virus 1 strain circulating in Sri Lanka that coincided with the 2009 dengue epidemic.

Tissera, Hasitha A.; Ooi, Eng Eong; Gubler, Duane J.; Tan, Ying; Logendra, Barathy; Wahala, Wahala M. P. B.; Silva, Aravinda M.; Abeysinghe, M. R. Nihal; Palihawadana, Paba; Gunasena, Sunethra; Tam, Clarence C.; Amarasinghe, Ananda; Letson, G. William; Margolis, Harold S.; Silva, Aruna Dharshan



Recent Isotope Applications in Hydrology and Sedimentology in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this Article some of the applications of naturally occuring and artificial isotopes in the study of hydrological problems in Sri Lanka, are discussed. They are the water balance of a small catchment, origin of leakage to the graphite mines at Bogola in Sri Lanka, origin of thermal springs, origin of tropical monsoons and recharge study at Bandarakoswatte are discussed



Sri Lanka: In Peace or in Pieces? A Critical Approach to Peace Education in Sri Lanka (United States)

This article seeks to explore the "two faces of education" through a critical analysis of peace education in Sri Lanka. It aims to contribute to the wider debate on the complex role of education in situations of conflict. The article starts with an overview of what peace education is, or should be. This leads to the conclusion that peace education…

Cardozo, Mieke T. A. Lopes



The Fourth Eelam War in Sri Lanka and Its Impact  

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Full Text Available The multiracial Sri Lankan society shows the roots of conflicts. The number of migrants from the south-east of Asia and India to Sri Lanka is quite high. The Sri Lankan society is made up of 74% of Sinhalese, 12.7% of Sri Lankan Tamils, 5.5% of Indian Tamils, 7.3% Muslims and people from other races.(www.govlk. All these social sections of the Lankan society have given rise to different myths regarding their races involving Tamil, Dravidian and Muslim religions. There has been a conflict over the historical issue: the first migration to Sri Lanka among the Sinhalese and Tamil. Since the independence of Sri Lanka on 4th February 1948 there has been witnessed this conflict.

Mohan Chougule



77 FR 59899 - U.S. Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka (United States)

...Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka AGENCY: International Trade Administration...Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka Chennai and Cochin, India and Colombo, Sri Lanka February 3-8, 2013, to add...



77 FR 69592 - U.S. Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka (United States)

...Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka AGENCY: International Trade Administration...India (Chennai and Cochin) and Sri Lanka (Colombo) February 3-8, 2013...and Cochin, India and Colombo, Sri Lanka on February 3-8, 2013,...



Nuclear power generation of electricity in Sri Lanka?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brief description of how nuclear power is used to generate electricity, advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power, and the main factors that should be taken into consideration in dividing to use nuclear power in Sri Lanka



Determinants of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka: Study Protocol  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Leptospirosis is becoming a major public health threat in Sri Lanka as well as in other countries. We designed a case control study to determine the factors associated with local transmission of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka, in order to identify major modifiable determinants of leptospirosis. The purpose of this paper is to describe the study protocol in detail prior to the publishing of the study results, so that the readership will be able to understand an...

Agampodi Suneth B; Nugegoda Dhanaseela B; Thevanesam Vasanthi



The Gender impact in Earnings Inequality: Evidence from Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The Gender impact in Earnings Inequality: Evidence from Sri LankaAbstract: This paper estimates an earnings function for Sri Lanka, followed by a decomposition analysis of male-female earnings suggest that the gender disparity in earnings largely represents ‘discrimination’ against women. The findings showed that irrespective of their “inferior” labour market attributes, men had average earnings that were considerably higher than the female average and that this could be attributed entirely to discrimination in favour of male earners.

Thankom Arun



Climate change mitigation studies in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Sri Lanka, Climate Change Mitigation Studies have received low priority and have been limited to an ADB-sponsored preliminary study followed by an initial assessment of some mitigation options in the energy and agricultural sectors, with technical assistance from the US Country Studies Program. The major focus was on options of the mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector. Owing to funding constraints, only the potential for reduction of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the various mitigation options were quantified; analysis of monetary costs and benefits or policy/programs for adoption of the options were not undertaken. For the non-energy sector, a very limited study on mitigation of methane emissions from rice fields was carried out. (au)



Molecular epidemiology of human rabies viruses in Sri Lanka. (United States)

Rabies is a lethal zoonotic disease caused by the rabies virus, which is transmitted by rabid animals to humans. Rabies is prevalent in all continents, with over 60% of human deaths occurring in Asia. Sri Lanka is a rabies-endemic country. This study shows that rabies afflicted more older individuals than children in Sri Lanka between 2008 and 2010. This novel finding indicates that older people in Sri Lanka should be more aware of the risk of rabies. Phylogenetic analyses of the rabies N and G genes showed that the Sri Lankan rabies viruses are distinct and probably originated from a single clone. The G-L noncoding region is highly diverse, and is suitable for the analysis of virus evolution within a country. A phylogenetic analysis of this region showed high diversity in the currently circulating Sri Lankan rabies viruses, which can be divided into seven clades. Some clades are unique to a specific geographic region, whereas others occur at multiple locations. This indicates that the movement of dogs, the main rabies-transmitting animal in Sri Lanka, is restricted in some areas but less limited in others. These data may help to formulate a more efficient rabies control program in Sri Lanka. PMID:23722023

Matsumoto, Takashi; Ahmed, Kamruddin; Karunanayake, Dushantha; Wimalaratne, Omala; Nanayakkara, Susilakanthi; Perera, Devika; Kobayashi, Yuji; Nishizono, Akira



A Profile of Biomass Stove Use in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available A large body of evidence has confirmed that the indoor air pollution (IAP from biomass fuel use is a major cause of premature deaths, and acute and chronic diseases. Over 78% of Sri Lankans use biomass fuel for cooking, the major source of IAP in developing countries. We conducted a review of the available literature and data sources to profile biomass fuel use in Sri Lanka. We also produced two maps (population density and biomass use; and cooking fuel sources by district to illustrate the problem in a geographical context. The biomass use in Sri Lanka is limited to wood while coal, charcoal, and cow dung are not used. Government data sources indicate poor residents in rural areas are more likely to use biomass fuel. Respiratory diseases, which may have been caused by cooking emissions, are one of the leading causes of hospitalizations and death. The World Health Organization estimated that the number of deaths attributable to IAP in Sri Lanka in 2004 was 4300. Small scale studies have been conducted in-country in an attempt to associate biomass fuel use with cataracts, low birth weight, respiratory diseases and lung cancer. However, the IAP issue has not been broadly researched and is not prominent in Sri Lankan public health policies and programs to date. Our profile of Sri Lanka calls for further analytical studies and new innovative initiatives to inform public health policy, advocacy and program interventions to address the IAP problem of Sri Lanka.

Kibri H. Everett



Art Therapy with Child Tsunami Survivors in Sri Lanka (United States)

This paper details art therapy with children affected by the December 2004 tsunami in Sri Lanka. Over 30,000 Sri Lankans lost their lives when the tsunami decimated coastal areas. The child survivors witnessed horrific traumatic events and the loss of loved ones, but had not been given opportunity to express their grief and pain. A 4-week art…

Chilcote, Rebekah L.



A retrospective analysis of cannabis use in a cohort of mentally ill patients in Sri Lanka and its implications on policy development  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Several epidemiological studies have shown that cannabis; the most widely used illegal drug in the world, is associated with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD. Aims To assess the characteristics of cannabis use and its association with SSD in a cohort of psychiatrically ill patients and discuss the implications for policy development Methods This is a retrospective analytical study of a cohort of psychiatric patients who received treatment in the psychiatry unit of the Provincial General Hospital, Ratnapura, Sri Lanka over five years (2000 - 2004. The schizophrenia spectrum disorders defined in this article include schizophrenia and the schizoaffective disorders. Results A total of 3644 patient records were analyzed. The percentage of self reported life time cannabis (LTC use was 2.83% (103, all males. Sixteen percent (576 of the total cohort was diagnosed with SSD by 2009. Male sex and LTC use were significantly associated with SSD (p Conclusions Self reported LTC use was strongly associated with being diagnosed with SSD. However we could not identify a particular subgroup of users that are at increased risk to recommend targeted primary prophylaxis. The policy implications of this observation are discussed.

Maithripala Chinthaka



The Asian Tsunami in Sri Lanka: A Personal Experience (United States)

AGU Fellow Chris Chapman experienced the devastating Asian tsunami firsthand in Sri Lanka. The following is his account, written in the immediate aftermath of the disaster; the footnotes were added later. Chapman is a scientific advisor at Schlumberger Cambridge Research and a specialist in theoretical seismology. At 9:30 A.M. local time (0330 GMT) on Boxing Day, 26 December, my wife, Lillian, and I were eating breakfast at the beachside Triton Hotel1 in Ahungalla, Sri Lanka (about 30 km north of Galle). The previous week we had toured Sri Lanka, ending our trip traveling through Yala National Park and Galle. These were places we hardly knew of before, but now images of them are indelibly imprinted on the world. Of about 150 staying at the Yala Safari Game Lodge, only 11 survived. The center of Galle, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, a sixteenth- to seventeenth-century Portuguese/Dutchfort and port, is essentially gone.

Chapman, Chris



Yellow Oleander Poisoning and Suicide in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Intentional yellow oleander poisoning is a growing problem that is straining the health care services of Sri Lanka as it is a readily available method of suicide. The country remains to have one the highest suicide rates in the world, and the trend of oleander poisoning has been difficult to halt due to the lack of resources to manage the problem. As mental health issues are becoming a serious public health problem in Sri Lanka, it is timely to consider what efforts could be made to manage this unique phenomenon.

Shobitha Puvaneswaralingam



Computer modelling of multipurpose multireservoir systems of Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As in many other countries, the development of hydro resources in Sri Lanka is associated with multiple purposes, including the generation of electricity. Because of the importance of this resource, it is necessary to optimize the characteristics of the associated reservoirs, not only in terms of installed capacity, but also with regard to the use of water for power generation and the other purposes involved. This paper describes the experience of Sri Lanka in the use of the WASP-III computer program and several computer programs that have been developed in the country for simulating the operation of multipurpose reservoirs. (author). 5 refs, 25 figs



Patterns of rhinosporidiosis in Sri Lanka: comparison with international data. (United States)

One hundred forty-three cases of rhinosporidiosis, confirmed by smear or biopsy, treated in two major General Hospitals in Sri Lanka over a 14 year period (1995-2009) were analyzed in regard to their epidemiological, clinical, clinicopathological, immunological and microbiological features. Regional variations in incidence, age and sex distribution, bathing history, and histopathology were seen. Lacustrine waters were the commonest probable source of infection (84%). Rivers were a source of Rhinosporidium seeberi in Sri Lanka (11%) and domestic well water was a probable source in 5%. The epidemiological features, clinical presentations and histopathology were similar to those in other series. The antirhinosporidial antibody (mean) titers were IgM--142.1 and IgG--178.5, compatible with rhinosporidiosis of long duration. Mantoux positivity to PPD was found in 65% of normal Sri Lankans, by only 35% of patients with rhinosporidiosis. No outbreaks have been reported in Sri Lanka or India. No animal cases of rhinosporidiosis have been reported in Sri Lanka, although rhinosporidiosis in animals has been repeatedly documented in India. PMID:20578497

Arseculeratne, S N; Sumathipala, S; Eriyagama, N B



Zirconolites from Sri Lanka, South Africa and Brazil  

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Zirconolites, CaZrTi/sub 2/O/sub 7/, from Sri Lanka and Pala Bora, South Africa, and a calzirtite, CaZr/sub 3/TiO/sub 9/, from Jacupiranga, Brazil, were examined using the electron microprobe, x-ray diffraction (annealing study), transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy. The x-ray data indicate that all three zirconolites are metamict. Both Sri Lanka zirconolites are amorphous to the limits of resolution of the electron microscope (approx. 10 A). The Pala Bora zirconolite is largely amorphous but contains isolated domains (50 to 200 A) of crystalline material which may be the result of post-metamict recrystallization and alteration. The only other significant evidence for chemical alteration was the lower ThO/sub 2/ concentration (1 to 2 weight percent) and slightly lower analytic totals for the rims of the Sri Lanka zirconolites. Upon annealing at 1130/sup 0/C for 5 hours, all three zirconolites recrystallized as microcrystalline aggregates. Refined unit cell parameters and volumes are consistent with published data for synthetic zirconolites. Both Sri Lanka zirconolites contain microvoids, spherical in shape, and 200 Angstroms to 2 microns in size. This porosity may be the result of helium accumulation arising from the decay of U and Th. The calzirtite was highly crystalline, exhibited no porosity, and was unchanged by the annealing treatment.

Ewing, R.C.; Haaker, R.F.; Headley, T.J.; Hlava, P.F.



Post-Graduate Peace Education in Sri Lanka (United States)

This paper summarises the rationale, development, content, and delivery of a Post Graduate Diploma in Conflict Resolution and Peace Preparedness in Sri Lanka, a country that has experienced a violent and protracted social conflict over the last 25 years. It also describes the methodology which is being used to measure the peace impact of the…

Harris, Simon; Lewer, Nick



Zirconolites from Sri Lanka, South Africa and Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zirconolites, CaZrTi_2O_7, from Sri Lanka and Pala Bora, South Africa, and a calzirtite, CaZr_3TiO_9, from Jacupiranga, Brazil, were examined using the electron microprobe, x-ray diffraction (annealing study), transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy. The x-ray data indicate that all three zirconolites are metamict. Both Sri Lanka zirconolites are amorphous to the limits of resolution of the electron microscope (approx. 10 A). The Pala Bora zirconolite is largely amorphous but contains isolated domains (50 to 200 A) of crystalline material which may be the result of post-metamict recrystallization and alteration. The only other significant evidence for chemical alteration was the lower ThO_2 concentration (1 to 2 weight percent) and slightly lower analytic totals for the rims of the Sri Lanka zirconolites. Upon annealing at 1130"0C for 5 hours, all three zirconolites recrystallized as microcrystalline aggregates. Refined unit cell parameters and volumes are consistent with published data for synthetic zirconolites. Both Sri Lanka zirconolites contain microvoids, spherical in shape, and 200 Angstroms to 2 microns in size. This porosity may be the result of helium accumulation arising from the decay of U and Th. The calzirtite was highly crystalline, exhibited no porosity, and was unchanged by the annealing treatment



An American Montessori Teacher's Experience in Sri Lanka (United States)

What can Montessorians learn from teaching in a war-torn country, and what can they hope to share with others in the process? These questions were much on the author's mind when she went to Sri Lanka in the summer of 2003. This article contains excerpts from e-mails the author sent home, chronicling her experience teaching two high school English…

Baker, Irene



The development of atomic energy in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article was written by the Institution's overseas representative Professor P.P.G.L. Siriwardene, Chairman of the Atomic Energy Authority of Sri Lanka, with the express purpose of conveying to members of the Institution a broad outline of his country's interest in the peaceful uses of atomic energy. (author)



Recent isotope applications in hydrology and sedimentology in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the applications of naturally occurring and artificial isotopes in the study of hydrological problems in Sri Lanka are discussed, namely the water balance of a small catchment, origin of leakage to the graphite mines at Bogala, origin of thermal springs, origin of tropical monsoons and recharge study at Bandarakoswatte



Entanglements of Politics and Education in Sri Lanka  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this article I argue that in Sri Lanka the field of education has been a constant and significant element in the relationship between population and politicians, and it plays an important role in most people's experiences and understandings of politics, just as it affects their own political participation.

Sørensen, Birgitte Refslund



A jurassic-cretaceous dolerite dike from Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A dolerite dike from southwestern Sri Lanka gave whole-rock K-Ar ages of 152.6 ± 7.6 Ma and 143.3 ± 7.2 Ma. Many of the other dolerite dikes of Sri Lanka are considered to be of Mesozoic ages judging from the present age data and tectonometamorphic history of Sri Lanka. Petrographic similarities should not be used for age correlations, because dolerites of different age may have the same petrography. Preliminary natural remanent magnetization (NRM) after AF and thermal demagnetization gave a mean inclination of 24.6deg and declination of 67.5deg with ?95=21.7deg. A virtual geomagnetic pole position calculated from the mean NRM was rotated relative to Antarctica so as to fit with that obtained from the Jurassic Ferrar dolerite of Antarctica. This rotation results in the location and attitude of Sri Lanka to attach with Antarctica at Lutzow-Holm Bay as suggested by Barron et al. (1978). (author). 18 refs



Hepatitis C virus in healthy blood donors in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Introduction : Hepatitis C virus (HCV is the etiological agent for the majority of cases of non-A, non-B hepatitis. As a blood-borne virus, HCV is widely recognized as a major causative agent of post-transfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis. The prevalence of HCV and the distribution of HCV genotypes in Sri Lanka in comparison with the rest of Asia are not well known. Materials and Methods: The blood samples collected from healthy blood donors at the National Blood Transfusion Centre of Sri Lanka were screened to determine the prevalence and the genotypes of HCV among blood donors in Sri Lanka. Results: HCV antibodies were found in 53 of 4980 blood donors. However, of the 53 only 8 positive results were confirmed by Reverse Transcription-PCR, which suggests frequent false-positive results or viral clearance. The PCR positive samples were genotyped by DNA sequencing of the Core/E1 regions of HCV genome, and all the HCV viruses belonged to genotype 3, of which 7 were 3a and 1 was 3b. Conclusion: HCV is relatively rare among blood donors in Sri Lanka and only genotype 3 was detected in the studied group.

Senevirathna Dammika



The Labour Market Experience of University Graduates in Sri Lanka (United States)

Graduate unemployment has been a major socio-politico-economic problem in the small open economy of Sri Lanka for the past 35 years. The nature of the problem, causal factors and policy responses are examined in this paper with a special focus on the role of higher education within a highly competitive and knowledge-based economic environment. The…

Chandrasiri, Sunil



Problems of Illiteracy in a Literate Developing Society: Sri Lanka. (United States)

Focuses on a recent study conducted on the incidence of illiteracy in specific disadvantaged communities in Sri Lanka. Indicates that in the present era of technological advancement, lack of literacy will continue to affect the life-chances of people in these communities. Policy issues are also discussed. Contains 20 references and 11 tables. (AMA)

Gunawardena, Chandra



Changing trends in maternity care in Sri Lanka. (United States)

Sri Lanka's health policy calls for health services to be accessible to all people, which requires appropriate training of physicians, nurses, and paramedicals. Increasing the training and cadre of public health midwives allows Sri Lanka to make free domiciliary and field health services available to all parts of the country. Sri Lanka must adopt realistic measures to improve guidance and supervision of midwives to derive maximum benefits. Sri Lanka first instituted primary health care (PHC) in 1926 (Health Unit at Kalutara). PHC provides 3 stages of maternal and child health care through home and/or clinic visits: prenatal care, trained assistance during delivery, and postpartum care. In most parts of Sri Lanka, 1 family health worker is available for every 3000 people. Yet, maternal mortality is rather high. A UNICEF study shows that family health workers register only about 50% of pregnant women. A lack of personnel to provide maternal health services is a main reason for high maternal mortality. Many medical officers (1979, 52%) have not done an internship in gynecology and obstetrics. Many (1979, 38%) are assigned to peripheral facilities where they practice obstetrics without any help from experienced physicians. They are reluctant to do simple obstetric measures, e.g., removal of a retained placenta. This reluctance keeps some physicians from admitting mothers in labor, so they transfer them to upper-level hospitals. The Postgraduate Institute of Medicine needs to implement courses in obstetrics and gynecology so the district hospitals can have competent obstetricians on staff. The leading causes of maternal death are, in order of frequency, hemorrhage, abortion complications, eclampsia, sepsis, and obstructed labor. Anemia and retained placenta are the reasons for hemorrhage. Insufficient access to life-saving treatment in emergencies is the single most critical weakness in the maternal health care system, indicating a need to establish intensive care units. PMID:8370090

Perera, W S



Food Crops Breeding in Sri Lanka - Achievements and challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since Rice is the staple food in Sri Lanka strong emphasis has been given for the improvement of Rice in Sri Lanka. Over the last three decades 36 high yielding rice varieties have been developed. The present yield potential of Sri Lanka's best varieties have been recorded to be be around 10 mt/ha. At present more than 90% of the total paddy extent is grown with modern high yielding rice varieties and as a result the national paddy production has increased from 1.8 mt/ha to 3.5 mt/ha. Induced mutations is used in plant breeding. Use of radiation to produce haploids and for production of transitory sexuality in apomicts have been done. Under the coarse grains and millet varietal program, maize have recorded increasing attention owing to the fact that is is used for human consumption and as feed grain for poultry. Promising varieties of Soya bean, cowpea, mung bean, black gram and ground nut have been recommended for cultivation. Research attention has also been directed towards Root and Tuber crops which have great potential in providong food for the rapidly increasing population in Sri Lanka. Potato is the most important and popular tuber crop. A number of improved varieties with respect to a number of local fruit crops such as banana, sweet orange, lemonime, avocado, pineapple, rambutan, grapes.have been introduced. New improved varieties of indigenous vegetables such as tomato, brinjal etc. have been produced. Chillies and onions with desirable qualities also have been identified. Mutation breeding provides a novel approach to the plant breeders for raising the productivity of crop plants, thus complementing conventional methods. Any way the use of induced mutations in crop improvement has not been properly exploited in Sri Lanka as yet



Variations in salinity tolerance of malaria vectors of the Anopheles subpictus complex in Sri Lanka and the implications for malaria transmission  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles subpictus sensu lato, a widespread vector of malaria in Asia, is reportedly composed of four sibling species A-D based on distinct cytogenetic and morphological characteristics. However An. subpictus species B specimens in Sri Lanka are termed An. subpictus B/ An. sundaicus because of recent genetic data. Differences in salinity tolerance and coastal/inland prevalence of An. subpictus sibling species that were not previously established in Sri Lanka are presented here. Results Specimens with morphological characteristics of all four Indian An. subpictus sibling species were found in Sri Lanka. Sibling species A, C and D tended to be predominant in inland, and An. subpictus species B/An. sundaicus, in coastal localities. Sibling species C was predominant in both adult and larval inland collections. Larvae of An. subpictus B/An. sundaicus were found in inland and coastal sites, including a lagoon, with salinity varying from 0 to 30 ppt. An. subpictus sibling species A, C and D larvae were present in water of salinity between 0 to 4 ppt. An. subpictus C, D and An. subpictus B/An. sundaicus larvae showed compatible differential salinity tolerance in laboratory tests. The first instar larvae of An. subpictus B/An. sundaicus showed 100% survival up to 15 ppt in comparison to species C and D where the corresponding values were 3 ppt and 6 ppt respectively. However all third instar larvae of An. subpictus B/An. sundaicus survived up to 30 ppt salinity whereas An. subpictus C and D tolerated up to 4 ppt and 8 ppt salinity respectively. Conclusions The results suggest that An. subpictus species B/An. sundaicus breed in fresh, brackish and nearly saline water while An. subpictus species C and D do so in fresh and less brackish waters in Sri Lanka, as in India. Because of the established role of An. sundaicus s.l. and An. subpictus s.l. as malaria vectors, the findings indicate a need for greater monitoring of brackish water breeding habitats in Asia. Tolerance to 15 ppt salinity may also constitute a simple method for differentiating An. subpictus B/An. sundaicus larvae from those of An. subpictus species C and D in field studies.

Jude Pavillupillai J



The Asian Tsunami and Problem-Based Learning for Postgraduate Students in Sri Lanka (United States)

The Asian Tsunami struck Sri Lanka on December 26, 2004. Sri Lanka was the second worst affected country after Indonesia, and this natural disaster killed in excess of 35,000 people and displaced over 1 million. The article explores the Tsunami Disaster Management Program developed by one Sri Lankan university: the Postgraduate Institute of…

Jayawardana, A. K. L.; O'Donnell, Michael



Landmarks of History of Soil Science in Sri Lanka (United States)

Sri Lanka is a tropical Island in the Southern tip of Indian subcontinent positioned at 50 55' to 90 50' N latitude and 790 42' to 810 53' E longitude surrounded by the Indian Ocean. It is an island 435 km in length and 224 km width consisting of a land are of 6.56 million ha with a population of 20 million. In area wise it is ranked as 118th in the world, where at present ranked as 47 in population wise and ranked 19th in population density. The country was under colonial rule under Portuguese, Dutch and British from 1505 to 1948. The majority of the people in the past and present earn their living from activities based on land, which indicates the important of the soil resource. The objective of this paper is to describe the landmarks of the history of Soil Science to highlight the achievements and failures, which is useful to enrich our present understanding of Sri Lankan soils. The landmarks of the history of Soil Science in Sri Lanka can be divided to three phases namely, the early period (prior to 1956), the middle period (1956 to 1972) and the present period (from 1972 onwards). During the early period, detailed analytical studies of coffee and tea soils were compiled, and these gave mainly information on up-country soils which led to fertilizer recommendations based on field trials. In addition, rice and forest soils were also studied in less detail. The first classification of Sri Lankan soils and a provisional soil map based on parent material was published by Joachim in 1945 which is a major landmark of history of Soil Science in Sri Lanka. In 1959 Ponnamperuma proposed a soil classification system for wetland rice soils. From 1963 to 1968 valuable information on the land resource was collected and documented by aerial resource surveys funded by Canada-Ceylon Colombo plan aid project. This covered 18 major river basins and about 1/4th of Sri Lanka, which resulted in producing excellent soil maps and information of the areas called the Kelani Aruvi Ara and Walawe basins. The provisional soil map was updated by many other workers as Moorman and Panabokke in 1961 and 1972 using this information. The soil map produced by De Alwis and Panabokke in 1972 at a scale of 1:500,000 was the soil maps mostly used during the past years During the present era, the need for classification of Soils of Sri Lanka according to international methods was felt. A major leap forward in Soil Survey, Classification leading to development of a soil data base was initiated in 1995 with the commencement of the "SRICANSOL" project which was a twining project between the Soil Science Societies of Sri Lanka and Canada. This project is now completed with detail soil maps at a scale of 1:250,000 and soil classified according to international methods for the Wet, Intermediate and Dry zones of Sri Lanka. A digital database consisting of soil profile description and physical and chemical data is under preparation for 28, 40 and 51 benchmark sites of the Wet, Intermediate and Dry zones respectively. The emphases on studies on Soil Science in the country at present is more towards environmental conservation related to soil erosion control, reducing of pollution of soil and water bodies from nitrates, pesticide residues and heavy metal accumulation. Key words: Sri Lanka, Provisional soil map

Mapa, R.



Integration of mental health into primary care in Sri Lanka. (United States)

Introduction Sri Lanka has one of the highest suicide rates in the world, with recent protracted conflict and the tsunami aggravating mental health needs. This paper describes a project to establish a systematic "train the trainers" programme to integrate mental health into primary care in Sri Lanka's public health system and private sector.Methods A 40 hour training programme was delivered to curriculum and teaching materials were adapted for Sri Lanka, and delivered to 45 psychiatrists, 110 medical officers of mental health and 95 registered medical practitioners, through five courses, each in a different region (Colombo, Kandy, Jaffna, Galle and Batticola). Participants were selected by the senior psychiatrist of each region, on the basis of ability to conduct subsequent roll out of the training. The course was very interactive, with discussions, role plays and small group work, as well as brief theory sessions.Results Qualitative participant feedback was encouraging about the value of the course in improving patient assessments and treatments, and in providing a valuable package for roll out to others. Systematic improvement was achieved between pre- and post-test scores of participants at all training sites. The participants had not had prior experience in such interactive teaching methods, but were able to learn these new techniques relatively quickly.Conclusions The programme has been conducted in collaboration with the Sri Lankan National Institute of Mental Health and the Ministry of Health, and this partnership has helped to ensure that the training is tailored to Sri Lanka and has the chance of long term sustainability. PMID:23277794

Jenkins, Rachel; Mendis, Jayan; Cooray, Sherva; Cooray, Marius



Surface circulation and upwelling patterns around Sri Lanka (United States)

Sri Lanka occupies a unique location within the equatorial belt in the northern Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea on its western side and the Bay of Bengal on its eastern side. The region is characterised by bi-annually reversing monsoon winds resulting from seasonal differential heating and cooling of the continental land mass and the ocean. This study explored elements of the dynamics of the surface circulation and coastal upwelling in the waters around Sri Lanka using satellite imagery and the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) configured to the study region and forced with ECMWF interim data. The model was run for 2 yr to examine the seasonal and shorter term (?10 days) variability. The results confirmed the presence of the reversing current system in response to the changing wind field: the eastward flowing Southwest Monsoon Current (SMC) during the Southwest (SW) monsoon transporting 11.5 Sv and the westward flowing Northeast Monsoon Current (NMC) transporting 9.5 Sv during the Northeast (NE) monsoon, respectively. A recirculation feature located to the east of Sri Lanka during the SW monsoon, the Sri Lanka Dome, is shown to result from the interaction between the SMC and the Island of Sri Lanka. Along the eastern and western coasts, during both monsoon periods, flow is southward converging along the south coast. During the SW monsoon the Island deflects the eastward flowing SMC southward whilst along the east coast the southward flow results from the Sri Lanka Dome recirculation. The major upwelling region, during both monsoon periods, is located along the south coast and is shown to be due to flow convergence and divergence associated with offshore transport of water. Higher surface chlorophyll concentrations were observed during the SW monsoon. The location of the flow convergence and hence the upwelling centre was dependent on the relative strengths of wind driven flow along the east and west coasts: during the SW (NE) monsoon the flow along the western (eastern) coast was stronger and hence the upwelling centre was shifted to the east (west). The presence of upwelling along the south coast during both monsoon periods may explain the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) aggregations in this region.

de Vos, A.; Pattiaratchi, C. B.; Wijeratne, E. M. S.



Surface circulation and upwelling patterns around Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Sri Lanka occupies a unique location within the equatorial belt in the northern Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea on its western side and the Bay of Bengal on its eastern side. The region is characterised by bi-annually reversing monsoon winds resulting from seasonal differential heating and cooling of the continental land mass and the ocean. This study explored elements of the dynamics of the surface circulation and coastal upwelling in the waters around Sri Lanka using satellite imagery and the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS configured to the study region and forced with ECMWF interim data. The model was run for 2 yr to examine the seasonal and shorter term (?10 days variability. The results confirmed the presence of the reversing current system in response to the changing wind field: the eastward flowing Southwest Monsoon Current (SMC during the Southwest (SW monsoon transporting 11.5 Sv and the westward flowing Northeast Monsoon Current (NMC transporting 9.5 Sv during the Northeast (NE monsoon, respectively. A recirculation feature located to the east of Sri Lanka during the SW monsoon, the Sri Lanka Dome, is shown to result from the interaction between the SMC and the Island of Sri Lanka. Along the eastern and western coasts, during both monsoon periods, flow is southward converging along the south coast. During the SW monsoon the Island deflects the eastward flowing SMC southward whilst along the east coast the southward flow results from the Sri Lanka Dome recirculation. The major upwelling region, during both monsoon periods, is located along the south coast and is shown to be due to flow convergence and divergence associated with offshore transport of water. Higher surface chlorophyll concentrations were observed during the SW monsoon. The location of the flow convergence and hence the upwelling centre was dependent on the relative strengths of wind driven flow along the east and west coasts: during the SW (NE monsoon the flow along the western (eastern coast was stronger and hence the upwelling centre was shifted to the east (west. The presence of upwelling along the south coast during both monsoon periods may explain the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus aggregations in this region.

A. de Vos



Pass through Effect of Exchange Rate and Monetary Policy in Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined the effectiveness of monetary policy in targeting exchange rate shock between different periods in Sri Lanka. After the trade liberalization in 1977, Sri Lanka became a small open economy. Therefore, monetary policy targeting the exchange rate also became an important issue. Sri Lanka introduced floating exchange rate system in 1990. A Vector Error Correction model and impulse response function were estimated to examine the effectiveness of monetary policy in targeting exc...

Sooriyakumar Krishnapillai; Henry Thompson



Awards for Sri Lankas tourism industry - Replicating sustainable SMEs in Asia  

...Awards for Sri Lankas tourism industry - Replicating sustainable SMEs in Asia Awards for Sri Lankas tourism industry - Replicating sustainable SMEs in Asia ...euSWITCH-Asia projectsProject NewsProject News August 2013Awards for Sri Lankas tourism industry Award scheme for outstanding environmental performance Srilal Miththapala, Project Director Applications have ...closed for the second ‘EU-SWITCH Asia Greening Hotels Awards - 2013’, organized by Greening Sri Lanka Hotels Project (GSLH) implemented by the Ceylon Chamber ...Awards serves as a yardstick for hotels to benchmark themselves against leading hospitality establishments in sustainable business practices. For the purpose of ...


The practice of mindfulness based behaviour therapy in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The Buddhist practice of cultivating mindfulness has been increasingly influencing psychotherapeutic work. However, in Sri Lanka, the documentation on the use of such practice in psychotherapy is scarce. This paper aims to discuss the influence of Buddhist mindfulness practice on psychotherapy; present a case of mixed anxiety-depressive disorder where mindfulness practice and behaviour therapy were used in its treatment and discuss issues that need to be considered in the use of mindfulness practice in psychotherapy. The combined use of Buddhist mindfulness practice and behaviour therapy yielded a favourable outcome in the case reported. In Sri Lanka, a culturally rooted method such as mindfulness practice, in combination with behaviour therapy, is useful in the treatment of mixed anxietydepressive disorder. The use of mindfulness practice in psychotherapy should be undertaken by those trained in psychological assessments and by those who have their personal mindfulness practice. Future studies on the use of mindfulness practice in other psychological disorders would be useful.

P de Zoysa



Sublineages of Beijing Strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Sri Lanka  

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Strains of the Beijing/W genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis have been responsible for large outbreaks of tuberculosis around the world, sometimes involving multi-drug resistance. It has been shown that more recently evolved Beijing sublineages are prone to cause outbreaks. Furthermore Beijing is the single predominant cluster in Sri Lanka. The present study identifies that recently evolved sublineages of Beijing strains are present in the study population. The majority of Beijing isolates...

Rajapaksa, U. S.; Perera, A. J.



Genetic and environmental contributions to depression in Sri Lanka  

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Background Susceptibility to depression results from genetic and non-familially shared environmental influences in high-income, western countries. Environments may play a different role for populations in different contexts. Aims To examine heritability of depression in the first large, population-based twin study in a low-income country. Method Lifetime depression and a broader measure of depression susceptibility (D-probe) were assessed in 3908 adult twins in Sri Lanka (the CoTASS study). R...

Ball, Harriet A.; Sumathipala, Athula; Siribaddana, Sisira H.; Kovas, Yulia; Glozier, Nick; Mcguffin, Peter; Hotopf, Matthew



Diversity of Snakes from the Jaffna Peninsula, Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available A herpetological survey was carried out to study the diversity of snakes from 2002 to 2004. The study revealed eighteen species of terrestrial snakes belonging to five families. Out of which four species were highly venomous species; two were mildly venomous and the rest of the twelve were non poisonous species. Two species were endemic to Sri Lanka and six out of the eighteen documented species were recorded for the first time from Jaffna Peninsula.

S. Abyerami



Ranging behavior of the Asian elephant in Sri Lanka  

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We studied the ranging patterns of 10 elephants in and around the Yala protected area complex, southern Sri Lanka, using VHF radio telemetry. All tracked elephants displayed similar ranging patterns. The observed home ranges were small (mean=115.2±64.0 km2) relative to reported home ranges in India, possibly in response to high habitat productivity and abundant perennial water sources. Elephants showed high fidelity to their ranges. Home ranges had relatively large core areas, suggesting int...

Fernando, P.; Wikramanayake, E. D.; Janaka, H. K.; Jayasinghe, L. K. A.; Gunawardena, M.; Kotagama, S. W.; Weerakoon, D.; Pastorini, J.



Economic growth, employment, and decentralised development in Sri Lanka  

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This Working Paper describes the economic growth rate and patterns in Sri Lanka during the 1990s, showing the interrelationship between uneven sectorial growth and the unbalanced regional growth patterns. This is reflected in the regional distribution of unemployment and poverty. In addition, the ongoing war in the North and East has resulted in economic decline in affected areas. Secondly, the paper outlines policy measures aimed at stimulating economic activities in the regions, and underli...

Ofstad, Arve



Mobile Phone–based Infectious Disease Surveillance System, Sri Lanka  

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Because many infectious diseases are emerging in animals in low-income and middle-income countries, surveillance of animal health in these areas may be needed for forecasting disease risks to humans. We present an overview of a mobile phone–based frontline surveillance system developed and implemented in Sri Lanka. Field veterinarians reported animal health information by using mobile phones. Submissions increased steadily over 9 months, with ?4,000 interactions between field veterinarian...

Robertson, Colin; Sawford, Kate; Daniel, Samson L. A.; Nelson, Trisalyn A.; Stephen, Craig



Lighting energy efficiency in office buildings: Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes a study conducted in the lighting sector of office buildings as a part of a broader research study aimed at developing building codes for Sri Lanka addressing lighting as well as thermal comfort in order to optimise the use of electricity within these buildings. The study covered different tasks performed in office buildings and the optimum lighting levels required to perform these tasks in the office environment in Sri Lanka. Also, it included assessing the visual performance of people involved in different activities under varying illumination levels in a controlled environment and a comparison of these optimum lighting levels with international standards. It can be seen that the required optimum lighting levels are generally lower in Sri Lanka in comparison to specified standard levels, and this scenario is likely to be similar in other developing countries too. These findings clearly emphasise the need to adopt lighting standards most appropriate to local conditions, in turn helping improve the energy efficiency within buildings



Prospects for a wind pump industry in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1977 considerable effort has been made in Sri Lanka to develop and disseminate wind pumping systems primarily in the small-scale agricultural sector in the island's dry zone. Through close cooperation with the Consultancy Services Wind Energy Developing Countries (CWD) in the Netherlands this programme has been successful in developing the necessary hardware but the broad objective of promoting wide spread use of wind pumping in Sri Lanka is yet to materialize. In analyzing probable reasons for this, the paper highlights that the basic arguments underlying the origin of the project in 1976, such as foreign exchange savings and local industrial development, became irrelevant to the post 1977 political and economic policies of the new government. Thus, the general economic framework adopted in Sri Lanka since 1977 does not seem to provide the necessary pre-conditions for development of a local industry for wind pumps. Due to this reason and the fact that kerosene oil used in conventional agriculturla pumps is subsidized, the ability of wind pumps to compete in the wind pump market seems highly constrained. It is concluded that under such conditions the prospects for the manufacturing and marketing of wind pumps on an industrial scale are not very favourable



Is leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka benign and be ignored?  

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Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis is now an endemic disease in Sri Lanka. Many studies have focussed on various aspects of this disease but the knowledge, particularly on epidemiological and vector aspects is still poor and the awareness among the general public and even medical/paramedical personnel regarding this disease remains grossly inadequate. The steady increase in the numbers and spread of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in Sri Lanka and the very close similarity (genotypic and phenotypic between the local parasite Leishmania donovani MON-37 and the parasite causing visceral leishmaniasis in India (L. donovani MON-2, considered together with the more recent case reports of autochthonous cases of visceral disease in this country, calls for urgent action for setting up of a surveillance programme to estimate the true disease burden and to implement an organized control strategy, combined with operational and epidemiological research to aid control efforts to avert a potentially major catastrophe of more virulent form of leishmaniasis, particularly the visceral type becoming endemic in Sri Lanka.

N.D. Karunaweera




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Full Text Available After the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami inundation event, thin sediment films of fining up sequences were located in several topographic depressions of the southern coastal belt of Sri Lanka. The films consisting of silty fine sand with particular microfossil assemblages were located also in closed containers, bottles and kitchen tables. Well preserved microfossils such as foraminifera, radiolarians as well as spicules of sponges were noted in these recent tsunami sediments.Random augur holes were drilled into some selected depressions in the southern coastal villages of Peraliya and Denuwala situated at locations separated by about 50km. In several such holes, at least two fining up sequences were located below the surface in soil horizons separated from each other by 35cm to 1m. These soil profiles were overlying older coral reefs developed on lateritic formations. The microscopic observations on particular size fractions of the soil horizons showed microfossil assemblages with textures, color and organic C contents strikingly comparable to those observed in the recent tsunami sediments of Sri Lanka. Our findings imply the occurrence of at least two paleo- tsunami events of different ages in Sri Lanka originating apparently from a common source.

Nayomi Kulasena



Groundwater overuse and farm-level technical inefficiency: evidence from Sri Lanka (United States)

Extraction of groundwater for onion and other cash crop production has been increasing rapidly during the last two decades in the dry zone areas of Sri Lanka. As a result of overuse, the quantity of available groundwater is gradually declining, while water quality is deteriorating. The deteriorating water quality has a negative impact on agricultural production, especially for crops (such as onions) that are sensitive to increases in salinity levels. This issue is examined with respect to onion production in Sri Lanka. A stochastic frontier production function (SFPF) is used, in which technical efficiency and the determinants of inefficiencies are estimated simultaneously. The results show that farmers are overusing groundwater in their onion cultivation, which has resulted in decreasing yields. Factors contributing to inefficiency in production are also identified. The results have important policy implications.

Athukorala, Wasantha; Wilson, Clevo



Psychological impact on parents of children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: a study from Sri Lanka. (United States)

Abstract Introduction: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of autosomal recessively inherited disorders with significant morbidity. The long-term implications result in immense psychological stress to the parents. This study assessing the psychological impact on the parents is a first in Sri Lanka and one of the few worldwide. Objective: Document the presence of depressive symptoms in parents of children with CAH. Design: Study participants were 37 parents of children diagnosed with CAH who were attending an endocrinology clinic of the largest children's hospital in Sri Lanka. Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D), a psychometrically sound scale for assessing depressive symptomatology, was used. Results: The study classified 59% of the parents as being affected, and the psychological impact on them did not reduce with time. Conclusion: Parents of children with CAH demonstrated symptoms of depression that did not abate with the passage of time. PMID:24468601

de Silva, K S H; de Zoysa, Piyanjali; Dilanka, W M S; Dissanayake, B S



Patterns of hospital transfer for self-poisoned patients in rural Sri Lanka: implications for estimating the incidence of self-poisoning in the developing world  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Most data on self-poisoning in rural Asia have come from secondary hospitals. We aimed to: assess how transfers from primary to secondary hospitals affected estimates of case-fatality ratio (CFR; determine whether there was referral bias according to gender or poison; and estimate the annual incidence of all self-poisoning, and of fatal self-poisoning, in a rural developing-world setting. METHODS: Self-poisoning patients admitted to Anuradhapura General Hospital, Sri Lanka, were reviewed on admission from 1 July to 31 December 2002. We audited medical notes of self-poisoning patients admitted to 17 of the 34 surrounding peripheral hospitals for the same period. FINDINGS: A total of 742 patients were admitted with self-poisoning to the secondary hospital; 81 died (CFR 10.9%. 483 patients were admitted to 17 surrounding peripheral hospitals. Six patients (1.2% died in peripheral hospitals, 249 were discharged home, and 228 were transferred to the secondary hospital. There was no effect of gender or age on likelihood of transfer; however, patients who had ingested oleander or paraquat were more likely to be transferred than were patients who had taken organophosphorus pesticides or other poisons. Estimated annual incidences of self-poisoning and fatal self-poisoning were 363 and 27 per 100 000 population, respectively, with an overall CFR of 7.4% (95% confidence interval 6.0-9.0. CONCLUSION: Fifty per cent of patients admitted to peripheral hospitals were discharged home, showing that CFRs based on secondary hospital data are inflated. However, while incidence of self-poisoning is similar to that in England, fatal self-poisoning is three times more common in Sri Lanka than fatal self-harm by all methods in England. Population based data are essential for making international comparisons of case fatality and incidence, and for assessing public health interventions.

Eddleston Michael



Incidence of physical injuries in a rural community in Sri Lanka: Results of the first community survey in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Background: Injuries account for approximately 11% of all hospital admissions in Sri Lanka. However, no published data are available with regard to the community incidence of injuries in Sri Lanka. Objectives: To determine the community incidence of major intentional and unintentional physical injuries in a rural community in Sri Lanka. Materials and Methods: A rural community consisting of 225 families with 1029 inhabitants was studied. Data on major injuries for a period of one year were collected retrospectively. Results: There were 85 major injuries in the community during the year of study. This gives a major injury incidence of 82.6 per 1000 person years. This is three times the incidence based on hospital-derived data. Animal bites being the most common cause of injury was noted in 2.3% of the population followed by falls in 1.6%, contact with objects in 1.5%, cut injuries in 1% and road trauma in 1%. Conclusions: This study shows a higher incidence of major physical injuries (both intentional and unintentional in the community than figures derived from hospital data. The prevention of injuries in a community such as the one studied here should be aimed at animal bites, falls, contacts with objects, cut injuries and road trauma.

Lamawansa M



Haemoglobin E beta thalassaemia in Sri Lanka.  

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Haemoglobin E beta thalassaemia is the commonest form of severe thalassaemia in many Asian countries, but little is known about its natural history, the reasons for clinical diversity, or its management. We studied 109 Sri Lankan patients with the disorder over 5 years. 25 patients were not receiving transfusion; transfusion was stopped with no deleterious effect in a further 37. We identified several genetic and environmental factors that might contribute to the phenotypic diversity of the d...

Premawardhena, A.; Fisher, Ca; Olivieri, Nf; Silva, S.; Arambepola, M.; Perera, W.; O Donnell, A.; Peto, Te; Viprakasit, V.; Merson, L.; Muraca, G.; Weatherall, Dj



Sri Lanka’s Post-Conflict Strategy: Restorative Justice for Rebels and Rebuilding of Conflict-affected Communities  

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Full Text Available Following the Sri Lankan Government’s military defeat of the internationally proscribed terrorist organisation, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE in May 2009, Sri Lanka embarked on an essential and long-term twofold post-conflict strategy: (i rehabilitation and reintegration of former LTTE combatants, and (ii the rebuilding of the conflict-affected Tamil communities of the Northern and Eastern Provinces. The rehabilitation program was by many counts a success, with demonstrated cognitive transformation in attitudes and behaviour of most of the (formerly radicalised combatants. Reconciliation initiatives were implemented to fulfill the urgent social, political, and economic needs of the conflict-affected communities of the North and East. These reconciliation efforts continue to be implemented and comprise different measures taken in: (1 resettlement and humanitarian assistance, (2 reconstruction of key transport, economic, health, and social infrastructure for reintegration, (3 political engagement, and (4 various types of peace-building work. Sri Lanka’s post-conflict strategy adopts a holistic approach, seeking the contribution of the public sector, private sector, community organisations, international organisations, NGOs, and private individuals from different segments of society in Sri Lanka. However, despite the many effective state-led and other reconciliation efforts undertaken by Sri Lanka, the author is able to present a number of recommendations to the government of Sri Lanka to overcome shortcomings in the rehabilitation and reconciliation programs adopted, as well as other challenges faced by Sri Lanka, such as the relentless disinformation campaign against the Sri Lankan state pursued by the remnant LTTE cells surviving internationally. To understand the complex nature of the Sri Lankan conflict and the skillful disinformation campaign pursued against the Sri Lankan state by the LTTE’s transnational network, a comprehensive introduction is provided as a part of this article.

Iromi Dharmawardhane



Novel sylvatic rabies virus variant in endangered golden palm civet, Sri Lanka. (United States)

Information is scarce about sylvatic rabies virus in Asia and about rabies in palm civets. We report a novel sylvatic rabies virus variant detected in a golden palm civet in Sri Lanka. Evolutionary analysis suggests the virus diverged from canine rabies viruses in Sri Lanka in ?1933 (range 1886-1963). PMID:22172202

Matsumoto, Takashi; Ahmed, Kamruddin; Wimalaratne, Omala; Nanayakkara, Susilakanthi; Perera, Devika; Karunanayake, Dushantha; Nishizono, Akira



The Role of UK Qualification Suppliers in Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe: A Comparative Evaluation (United States)

This paper is based on research on the role of UK qualifications suppliers in providing qualifications and accreditation in Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe in the context of rather different engagements with liberalisation, structural adjustment and globalisation. Sri Lanka's economic liberalisation and growth since the late 1970s has had a "de facto"…

Evans, J.; Little, A. W.



Equity in Education: Opportunities and Challenges In A Changing Sri Lanka (United States)

Equity is a major concern for all development actors. Although Sri Lanka has successfully addressed equity issues in education sector there are unresolved factors and variables those perpetuate inequity. There are emerging new equity issues those that Sri Lanka needs to address. The changing population dynamics and the huge middle class population…

Sedere, Upali M.



The Changing Times: General Education and the Vocational Training System in Sri Lanka (United States)

Sri Lanka is widening its scope for vocational education sub-sector. The emerging global trends and the aspirations of the emerging Sri Lanka after defeating terrorism demands the preparation of the graduating youth at different stages of the education system for employment. Vocational education faces many challenges. Though there are…

Sedere, Upali M.



Completed Suicide among Sinhalese in Sri Lanka: A Psychological Autopsy Study (United States)

Sri Lanka has the one of highest rates of suicide. Important factors associated with suicide were determined via the psychological autopsy approach (which had not been carried out previously in Sri Lanka). Over a 3-month period, in a catchment area, 31 suicides among Sinhalese were identified and 27 were investigated. Males were more likely to…

Samaraweera, Sudath; Sumathipala, Athula; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sivayogan, S.; Bhugra, Dinesh



Global Observatory for eHealth (GOe Survey in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The Global Observatory for eHealth (GOe, is an important initiative established in 2005 by the World Health Organization (WHO, designed to provide countries with strategic information and guidance on effective, practices, policies and standards in eHealth. The second eHealth survey was conducted in 2009 where Sri Lanka too participated. This short report is based on the findings of the GOe Survey for Sri Lanka. The second GOe survey had seven sections. The survey was completed with contributions from identified stakeholders of eHealth in Sri Lanka.The foundation for e-Sri Lanka is led by Information and Communication Technology Agency (ICTA of Sri Lanka. The country has favourable foundation and organization support to introduce eHealth activities. Many organizations and individuals has designed and implemented eHealth related activities but the efforts lack central coordination.

Rasika Rampatige



An annotated checklist and a family key to the pseudoscorpion fauna (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones) of Sri Lanka. (United States)

Sri Lanka is part of the Western Ghats & Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot. Thus, the conservation of Sri Lanka's unique biodiversity is crucial. The current study is part of an ongoing survey of pseudoscorpion fauna of Sri Lanka. We carried out an island-wide survey of pseudoscorpions using a range of collection methods to sample a diverse set of habitats around the country. This produced 32 species, four of which might be new to science, belonging to 25 genera. The family Cheiridiidae was discovered on the island for the first time. One new combination, Indogarypus ceylonicus (Beier, 1973) comb. nov., is proposed. Out of the 47 species now recorded, 20 (43 %) are potentially endemic to Sri Lanka. We provide a checklist of all known species, document their distribution and give a key to the families. PMID:24943412

Batuwita, Sudesh; Benjamin, Suresh P



Aetiological agents in chronic suppurative otitis media in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available BackgroundChronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM is assumed to be acomplication of acute otitis media (AOM, but the riskfactors for CSOM are not clear. Objectives: 1. To study theaetiological organisms for CSOM. 2. To identify the effect ofdemographic factors on disease manifestation.MethodThis retrospective study included a case series of 234patients who had been admitted to National Hospital of SriLanka (NHSL, with the complaint of ear discharge and fromwhom the specimens were sent for microscopy and cultureat Department Of Microbiology, NHSL. The period ofanalysis was 1 year extending from 1 January 2009 to 31December 2009.Consecutive patients who fulfilled theinclusion criteria were recruited to the retrospectiveanalysis.ResultsAmong 234 patients studied, 129 (55.1% were male and150 (64.1% were under 40 yrs old. The mean age was 39.5yrs (range 12 to 60 yrs, SD = 22.6. The mean duration of eardischarge was 1.2 yrs. (range 6 weeks to 20 yrs.Pseudomonas species (29.5% was the commonestmicrobial organism to cause ear discharge, followed bystaphylococcus (20.5% and coliform (16.7 % species.Among the fungal agents identified, candida was the mostcommon. 23.1% of the cultures did not reveal anymicrobiological agent. Eighteen patients (8% had a priorhistory of trauma to the affected ear and 51 patients(21.8% were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus.ConclusionThe commonest microbial agents implicated in CSOM waspseudomonas species followed by staphylococci andcoliforms. Demographic variables such as gender or age didnot seem to affect the disease manifestation significantly,though CSOM was less common among elderly and women.

Dayasena RP



Pesticide poisoning: a major health problem in Sri Lanka. (United States)

Acute pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in Sri Lanka. In several agricultural districts, it precedes all other causes of death in government hospitals. Most of the acute poisoning cases are intentional (suicide) and occur among young adults, mainly males. Poisoning due to occupational exposure is also common, but less well documented. In an irrigation area in Sri Lanka a very high incidence of serious pesticide poisoning was observed, with 68% due to intentional ingestion of liquid pesticides. It is argued that the easy availability and widespread use of highly hazardous pesticides is the most important reason for this high number of poisoning cases. The frequent application of highly hazardous pesticides in high concentrations was often irrational and posed serious health and financial risks to the farmers. Sales promotion activities and credit facilities promoted this excessive pesticide use, which was not counteracted by an agricultural extension service. Hazardous practices when spraying pesticides were due to the impossibility of applying recommended protective measures under the local conditions, rather than to lack of knowledge. Current emphasis on programs that promote the safe use of pesticides through education and training of farmers will be ineffective in Sri Lanka because knowledge is already high and most poisoning cases are intentional. Instead, enforcement of legislation to restrict availability of the most hazardous pesticides would result in an immediate health benefit. Improved agricultural extension services to promote alternative non-chemical methods of pest control is the most important strategy, in the long term, to prevent acute pesticide poisoning. PMID:9460829

Van der Hoek, W; Konradsen, F; Athukorala, K; Wanigadewa, T



Determinants of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka: Study Protocol  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptospirosis is becoming a major public health threat in Sri Lanka as well as in other countries. We designed a case control study to determine the factors associated with local transmission of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka, in order to identify major modifiable determinants of leptospirosis. The purpose of this paper is to describe the study protocol in detail prior to the publishing of the study results, so that the readership will be able to understand and interpret the study results effectively. Methods A hospital based partially matched case control design is proposed. The study will be conducted in three selected leptospirosis endemic districts in central Sri Lanka. Case selection will include screening all acute fever patients admitted to selected wards to select probable cases of leptospirosis and case confirmation using an array of standard laboratory criteria. Age and sex matched group of acute fever patients with other confirmed diagnosis will be used as controls. Case to control ratio will be 1:2. A minimum sample of 144 cases is required to detect 20% exposure with 95% two sided confidence level and 80% power. A pre tested interviewer administered structured questionnaire will be used to collect data from participants. Variables included in the proposed study will be evaluated using conceptual hierarch of variables in three levels; Exposure variables as proximal; reservoir and environmental variables as intermediate; socio-demographic variables as distal. This conceptual hierarch hypothesised that the distal and intermediate variables are mediated through the proximal variables but not directly. A logistic regression model will be used to analyse the probable determinants of leptospirosis. This model will evaluate the effect of same level and upper level variables on the outcome leptospirosis, using three blocks. Discussion The present national control programme of leptospirosis is hampered by lack of baseline data on leptospirosis disease transmission. The present study will be able to provide these essential information for formulation of better control strategies.

Thevanesam Vasanthi



The impact of population aging on the labor market: the case of Sri Lanka  

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Sri Lanka's population is predicted to age very fast during the next 50 years, bringing a slowdown of labor force growth and after 2030 its contraction. Based on an original, 2006 representative survey of old people in Sri Lanka conducted as a part of this study, the paper examines labor market consequences of this process, focusing on retirement pathways and the determinants of labor market withdrawal. The paper finds that a vast majority of Sri Lankan old workers are engaged in the informal...



After Five Years of Collaboration: The Benefits of University Based Eduaction for Nurses in Sri Lanka  

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A request from the nurses of Sri Lanka led to the establishment of the country’s first university nursing program. Delivered by distance, the program represented a collaborative, approach among a Sri Lankan university (The Open University of Sri Lanka), a Canadian university (Athabasca University) and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), who funded the project. The challenges facing this undertaking included the lack of available culturally appropriate course materials, the...

Cameron, Moira M.



A case study of the relationship between journalism and politics in Sri Lanka  

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This bachelor thesis is conducted as a Minor Field Study (MFS) in Colombo, Sri Lanka. The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between journalism and politics from three questions at issue: 1) What is the role of media according to the journalists? 2) How do journalists work with political reporting in the Sri Lankan print media? 3) How does print media and politics correspond to each other in Sri Lanka?. The theoretical framework consists of theories onmedia systems, democracy...



Community psychiatry service in Sri Lanka: a successful model  

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Full Text Available In the current practice of psychiatry there is a shift from hospital to community based care. Different models of community psychiatry have been tried in different countries. Though this concept is based on several core principles, each country has to find what is best suited for its population. In Sri Lanka too, community psychiatry projects have been initiated by psychiatrists. We describe below one such project started in a postal area in the capital, Colombo, by one of the authors. The project began in late 2008 and by 2010 was functioning independently and fulfilled the criteria for a community based mental health service.

Pushpa Ranasinghe



Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth: Evidence from Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Various international organizations and foreign advisors suggested that developing countries should focusprimarily on foreign direct investment (FDI as a source of external finance. In this context, the main purpose ofthe study is to find out the impact of foreign direct investment on economic growth in the Sri LankanPerspective. Data on the foreign direct investment and economic growth from the year 1990 to 2011 werecollected for the study purpose. Further, the results revealed that, there is no significant impact of FDI on theeconomic growth, which is in lowest level. Only 4.3 percent of the variance in the dependent variable has beenfound. In contrast, we found that, in the Sri Lankan context, there is a long run equilibrium relationship betweenFDI and economic growth rate. Statistical findings on the basic regression analysis, Co integration test andGranger causality test show the contradiction in terms of the findings. Meantime, scholars in the econometricsstated that, Co integration test generally is applied among time series data. Due to that, Co integration test givethe insights to the findings in terms of long run view. Finally, we have suggested that, the Sri LankanGovernment and Central Bank of Sri Lanka jointly should take the necessary action to focus on theinfrastructure development through the FDI to get the economic growth in the long term view. Meantime, FDIshould be directed to agricultural actives to get the food sufficient aspects in the local and globalized level.

Thirunavukkarasu Velnampy



Research and development on radiation processing in Sri Lanka  

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Research on radiation processing of natural polymer such as polysaccharides of chitosan, cellulose, carrageenan has been carried out in Sri Lanka since the year 2004. The research group have been involving in development activities on application of chitin and chitosan for wound dressing, irradiated chitosan on shelf life extension of fruits such as papaya, banana, mangoes, radiation crosslinked super-absorbent hydrogel from sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by radiation processing. Hydrogels prepared with PVA/Carrageenan/Agar has been studied on guinea pigs to determine the wound healing effect. Irradiated chitosan powder and chitosan solution was studied in vitro and found chitosan solution (1%) directly subjected to irradiation dosages even at 5 kGy was highly effective in control of anthracnose causing organism of papaya. In vivo studies with irradiated 1% chitosan solution on Rathana and red lady variety of papaya shows better control of spoilage of papaya to a considerable extent. The government of Sri Lanka (Ministry of Science and Technology and Atomic Energy Authority) is in the process of establishing the first government owned Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility and it will be helpful to transfer the output of R and D in radiation processing. (author)



Energy and street foods (Bangladesh and Sri Lanka)  

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Energy used by street food vendors is effectively replacing fuel consumption in the household, as studies have shown that street foods are often cheaper to buy than to prepare at home. Rapid urbanisation has led to a proliferation of these very small food outlets, particularly in the Asian subcontinent. Street foods provide employment and income to millions of people around the world, and provide low cost, affordable food to low income people. The project pilot tested improved biomass stoves with a selection of street food vendors. In Sri Lanka, laboratory tests were undertaken with the following three stoves: improved rice-husk burner, biomass gasifier, and double-mouth chimney stoves. From the pilot testing in Sri Lanka the key findings are that the efficient gasifier stove is not suitable for street food vendors, but there were some promising results from larger biomass stoves. In Bangladesh, the project piloted four types of biomass stove: single mouth, double mouth, bucket-type and institutional stove. As these were more established, the pilot focused on a method for reaching a larger number of beneficiaries, people were trained to make stoves in their own and in others' houses. Five workshops were held and over 540 stoves were built. Impact assessment exercises were undertaken in both countries. (author)




Corporate Ownership and Control Corporate Governance and Economic Development in Sri Lanka  

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The governance of companies is of importance to developing countries due to the link between effective corporate governance and economic development. Ownership and control of public companies, except in the US and UK, are often in the hands of a few individuals, families or corporate groups and impact on corporate governance and economic development. Using Sri Lanka as an illustrative example, this book sets out the implications of corporate ownership and control structures on the governance of companies, and suggests a reform agenda to meet the challenges posed by such structures. Any analysi

Perera, Shalini



International Intervention in Intra-State Conflicts: The Case in Sri Lanka. (United States)

This thesis attempts to understand various factors involved with the intervention of powerful countries in the affairs of weaker countries, taking the Indian intervention in Sri Lanka as a case study. It examines shifts in India s intervention decisions d...

A. I. De Silva



The Solar Orientation of the Lion Rock Complex in Sri Lanka  

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This paper discusses the solar orientation of the archaeological complex of Sigiriya, the Lion Rock, in Sri Lanka. We can see that the axis of this complex is oriented with the sunset of the zenithal sun

Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina



The Solar Orientation of the Lion Rock Complex in Sri Lanka  

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This paper discusses the solar orientation of the archaeological complex of Sigiriya, the Lion Rock, in Sri Lanka. We can see that the axis of this complex is oriented with the sunset of the zenithal sun.

Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina



Integration of a veterinary teaching project in the rural development of a valley in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available An ambulatory clinic for farm animals has been set up at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, with the aim of providing clinical training to the final year students. The authors describe the different development programmes on livestock production in a valley near Peradeniya and explain how the clinic has been integrated in the existing structures to ensure maximum opportunities for students to get acquainted with all aspects of veterinary work in Sri Lanka.

De Bont, J.



Rural financial savings mobilization in Sri Lanka: Bottlenecks and reform proposals  

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The objective of the following study is to evaluate rural deposit mobilization programmes in Sri Lanka, to identify major bottlenecks in the national savings system, and to provide recommendations for improving rural (financial) savings mobilization for financing rural development. Major trends in aggregate and financial savings of the economy of Sri Lanka are given in the following section of the Introduction. Chapter II reviews the incentive system and institutional framework for (rural) de...

Fischer, Bernhard



Multi-dimensional poverty among Samurdhi welfare recipients in Badulla district, Sri Lanka  

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This paper is an application of multidimensional poverty data to the policy need to improve the effectiveness of the national social protection programme, Samurdhi, in Sri Lanka. This paper argues that any programme aiming to promote people out of poverty, needs to be based on a good understanding of the nature of poverty among the target group. To this end, data from a pilot survey in the Badulla District, Sri Lanka, is used to compare Samurdhi households with non Samurdhi households in rel...



Influencing factors leading to adolescent pregnancy in tea estates in Sri Lanka  

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PROBLEM: Adolescent pregnancies are an emerging problem in Sri Lanka and particular among Indian Tamil adolescents (10-19 years) from the tea estates. The risks and consequences for health and socio-economical risks for mother and child such as increased risk for maternal and infant mortality are unacceptable large. THE RESEARCH QUESTION FOR THIS THESIS: what are the influencing factors for adolescents (10-19 years) in Sri Lanka, particularly in tea estates, that lead to pregnancy and STI inc...

Wisse, P.



Trends in malaria morbidity and mortality in Sri Lanka. (United States)

Trends since 1930 in malaria morbidity and mortality in Sri Lanka were analysed. The Malaria Control Programme, which began in 1945 with DDT spraying, was associated with a 100-fold reduction in morbidity and mortality over the following ten years, and gave way to the Malaria Eradication Programme in 1958. DDT spraying ceased in 1964 and a vivax malaria epidemic in 1968 returned to the island to 1952 morbidity levels, though with little mortality. After the discovery of DDT resistance in 1969, malathion spraying took over in 1973, and USAID-assisted control programme, involving case-detection and treatment, started in 1977. However, morbidity levels comparable to 1952 levels were observed in 1975 and 1986 when falciparum malaria morbidity levels were especially high. Mortality rates since 1960 have however remained lower than at any other previous time. PMID:8405594

Pinikahana, J; Dixon, R A



Post-Tsunami Reconstruction in Sri Lanka: Houses or Housing? (United States)

Reconstruction can be an opportunity to address longer-term livelihood vulnerability within poor communities and households, and to empower the most vulnerable. The post-tsunami reconstruction efforts in Sri Lanka can be seen on two disconnected scales. On a local scale there seems to be a growing recognition by district-level government and NGOs on the importance of households in creating social, human and financial capital, as demonstrated by many programs targeted at rebuilding livelihoods and income-generating activities. On a national scale, however, programs have revealed an emphasis on houses as the physical capital rather than housing as the arena of social and economic life. The aim of national-scale programs is to deliver tangible and quantifiable products, in the form of houses built, often without regard of whether this complements or disrupts livelihoods. One example of such a directive is the implementation of a coastal buffer zone which will ban any new construction within a 100 to 200 meter band from the ocean and allowing only structures that sustained less than 40 percent damage to remain and rebuild. In general these kind of surviving structures along the coast are businesses such as hotels and restaurants. In an island nation such as Sri Lanka, where beach front property is by and large considered low-income housing, typically inhabited by fishermen who rely on the ocean for their livelihoods, the buffer zone constitutes a drastic oversight of local processes shaping these households. The product-oriented solution on the national scale has resulted in building permanent houses for fishery communities in resettlement sites kilometers away from the ocean. The focus of this presentation will be on reconciling the need for immediate shelter needs with a long-term perspective of livelihood rehabilitation using Sri Lanka as a case study. Houses themselves are often not an immediate priority for local people, whose first need is likely to resume income-generating activities. In normal times, building houses is seen as a multi-stage process often fitted around the local economic calendar: annual farming or fishing cycles for example. Disaster victims may choose to stay in makeshift shelters in the short term, hoping to have more time, money or materials for rebuilding later. A major challenge for the tsunami-stricken areas in Sri Lanka is to find ways of widening public participation in what to date has been a governmental framework that operates on two disconnected scales in its reconstruction efforts. There is a general absence of mechanisms for incorporating community participation into the governmental decision-making process. Local governments might have also been expected to play a larger role in recovery decision making, but frequently lack both the resources and the authority to become actively involved. Lack of participation in the construction process, has led on an over-reliance on outsiders, reinforcing an attitude of raised expectations.

Khazai, B.; Franco, G.; Ingram, J. C.; Rumbaitis del Rio, C.



Survey of mycotic and bacterial keratitis in Sri Lanka. (United States)

Over a two-year period (1976-1977 and 1980-1981), 66 cases of bacterial and mycotic cases of keratitis were diagnosed in the Eye Clinic of the General Hospital in Kandy, Sri Lanka. The clinical and microbiologic aspects of these cases are described. Noteworthy was the first known human case caused by Paecilomyces farinosus, a geophilic species, commonly encountered as an insect parasite throughout the world. The bacterial and the other fungal etiologic agents isolated and identified were: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Fusarium oxysporum, and Lasiodiplodia theobromae. In vitro the fungi showed sensitivity in decreasing order to flucytosine, nystatin, amphotericin B and econazole. Due to the out-patient status of the patients, their in-vivo response to treatment was not assessable. PMID:7984216

Gonawardena, S A; Ranasinghe, K P; Arseculeratne, S N; Seimon, C R; Ajello, L



Cnemaspis rammalensis sp. nov., Sri Lanka's largest day-gecko (Sauria: Gekkonidae: Cnemaspis) from Rammalakanda Man and Biosphere Reserve in southern Sri Lanka. (United States)

A new species of rock dwelling gecko belonging to the genus Cnemaspis is described from Sri Lanka based on a suite of morphological features. The species is the largest of its genus described from Sri Lanka so far (snout-vent length 52-54 mm) and is the second largest of the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka Biodiversity Hotspot. It may be diagnosed in details of both scalation (ventrals186-207; mid-subcaudals large; absence of precloacal pores; 15 femoral pores on each side; 22-23 and 23-25 subdigital lamellae on finger IV and on toe IV, respectively; smooth scales on tail dorsum) and colouration (five prominent trilobate shaped cream markings pointing towards head and extending from neck to vent).The species is found in a unique habitat in the Rammalakanda Forest, where it is threatened by deforestation. PMID:24869821

Vidanapathirana, Dulan Ranga; Rajeev, M D Gehan; Wickramasinghe, Nethu; Fernando, Samantha Suranjan; Wickramasinghe, L J Mendis



Metal release from serpentine soils in Sri Lanka. (United States)

Ultramafic rocks and their related soils (i.e., serpentine soils) are non-anthropogenic sources of metal contamination. Elevated concentrations of metals released from these soils into the surrounding areas and groundwater have ecological-, agricultural-, and human health-related consequences. Here we report the geochemistry of four different serpentine soil localities in Sri Lanka by coupling interpretations garnered from physicochemical properties and chemical extractions. Both Ni and Mn demonstrate appreciable release in water from the Ussangoda soils compared to the other three localities, with Ni and Mn metal release increasing with increasing ionic strengths at all sites. Sequential extraction experiments, utilized to identify "elemental pools," indicate that Mn is mainly associated with oxides/(oxy)hydroxides, whereas Ni and Cr are bound in silicates and spinels. Nickel was the most bioavailable metal compared to Mn and Cr in all four soils, with the highest value observed in the Ussangoda soil at 168 ± 6.40 mg kg(-1) via the 0.01-M CaCl2 extraction. Although Mn is dominantly bound in oxides/(oxy)hydroxides, Mn is widely dispersed with concentrations reaching as high as 391 mg kg(-1) (Yudhaganawa) in the organic fraction and 49 mg kg(-1) (Ussangoda) in the exchangeable fraction. Despite Cr being primarily retained in the residual fraction, the second largest pool of Cr was in the organic matter fraction (693 mg kg(-1) in the Yudhaganawa soil). Overall, our results support that serpentine soils in Sri Lanka offer a highly labile source of metals to the critical zone. PMID:24464398

Vithanage, Meththika; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Oze, Christopher; Rajakaruna, Nishanta; Dissanayake, C B



X-ray fluorescence in IAEA Member States: Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An ED-XRF facility was established in the analytical laboratory of the Atomic Energy Authority of Sri Lanka in 2001 under the technical assistance received through a IAEA TC project. The facility comprises of a X ray tube (Rich - Seifert), a sample holder with secondary target assembly and a Si (Li) detector. The laboratory has also got the necessary facilities to analyze water samples by co-precipitating technique using APDC. Our XRF laboratory has already established analytical procedures to use emission transmission methods (AXIl-QAES, P. Kump), back-scatter fundamental parameter method (QXAS-BFP), APDC co-precipitation method and thin and thick sample analysis method. Selected activities carried out by the XRF Laboratory are: Research study on heavy metal concentration levels in crow feathers collected from different environments and in industrial effluents released to a main water body (i.e the Kelani River); Research study on hyper accumulating capacity of flora in Ussangoda area (Serpentine mineral deposited area); Study on the possibility of removing heavy metals in liquid waste by bricks (low cost waste water treatment method); Study on heavy metal contamination in soil collected from Tsunami affected areas; Elemental analysis of air particulate matter to identify pollutants and pollution sources; Provision of analytical services to archaeological studies; Alloy analysis for technical evaluations. In Sri Lanka, there is a rising demand for this analytical service as it can provide the customer relatively fast and reliable results at low cost. AEA has decided to upgrade the existing facility to TXRF through the IAEA technical assistance to meet the demand for the services to analyse water and other liquid samples. In addition, Quality Assurance and Quality control procedures have been implemented for validation of analytical methods and check of accuracy of analytical results obtained



Clinical features of chikungunya infection in Sri Lanka (United States)

Objective To investigate the clinical features of chikungunya fever (CHIKF) outbreak in Sri Lanka in 2006 and to estimate the relative risk for CHIKF for various demographic factors. Methods A total of 885 individuals belonging to 200 families were studied individually for surveillance of this disease, symptoms, contraction order within the family and means of treatments. Relative risks for CHIKF for demographic characters such as gender, age and educational levels were estimated. The associations of symptoms with age and gender were also studied. Results The estimated surveillance of CHIKF in the studied population was 89.2%. The duration of suffering due to this disease was 50.9 d (95% CI, 47.3, 53.9 d) with fever for 3.9 d (95% CI, 3.7, 4.1 d). 93% of the CHIKF patients felt at least one type of joint pain and 8% felt joint swellings. Rash was observed in 15.1% of the patients. Buccal bleeding and mouth ulcer were observed in 1.5% and 9.3% respectively. About 22.7% of the CHIKF patients had vomiting. Female had 1.48 folder higher relative risk for CHIKF infection. The duration suffered due to CHIKF, duration of fever and contraction order within family were highly associated with age (P<0.000). Female patients had more than one folder higher relative risks for the symptoms such as rash, vomiting, buccal bleeding and mouth ulcer (P<0.000). Conclusions The surveillance of CHIKF in Sri Lanka was a severe outbreak which infected much on female and caused more suffering on aged population. The symptoms such as rash, bleeding from mucosa, mouth ulcer and vomiting were highly associated with gender. The reasons for these observations need to be further explored.

Razmy, Athambawa Mohamed



Fossilized diatoms in meteorites from recent falls in Sri Lanka (United States)

On December 29, 2012, a bright yellow and green fireball was observed to disintegrate over the Polonnaruwa District of North Central, Sri Lanka. Many low density, black stones were recovered soon after the observed fall from rice paddy fields near the villages of Aralaganwila and Dimbulagala. These stones were initially studied by optical microscopy methods at the Medical Research Institute in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Soon thereafter, samples were sent to the UK and to the United States. More extensive Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy studies were then carried out at Cardiff University and the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center. The physico-chemical properties, elemental abundances, mineralogy and stable isotope data clearly indicate that these stones are non-terrestrial. Freshly fractured interior surfaces of the black stones have also been observed to contain the remains of fossilized diatom. Many of the diatom frustules are clearly embedded in the meteorite rock matrix and exhibit nitrogen levels below the EDX detection limits. Some of the fossil diatoms are araphid marine pennates and planktonic forms that are inconsistent with conditions associated with rice paddy fields. These observations indicate the fossilized diatoms are indigenous to the meteorites rather than post-arrival biological contaminants. The carbon content and mineralogy suggests that these stones may represent a previously ungrouped clan of carbonaceous meteorites. The extremely low density (~0.6) of the stones and their observed mineralogy was inconsistent with known terrestrial rocks (e.g., pumice, diatomite and fulgurites). The minerals detected suggest that the parent body of the Polonnaruwa stones may have been the nucleus of a comet. These observations are interpreted as supporting the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe Panspermia hypothesis and the hypothesis that diatoms and other microorganisms might be capable of living and growing in water ice and brines in comets.

Hoover, Richard B.; Wallis, Jamie; Wickramarathne, Keerthi; Samaranayake, Anil; Williams, George; Jerman, Gregory; Wallis, D. H.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.



Indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka: production systems and genetic diversity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Production status, farming systems and genetic diversity of indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka were evaluated using six geographically distinct populations. The indigenous cattle population of the country is considered as a nondescript mixture of genotypes, and represents more than half of the total cattle population of 1.2 million heads. Five distinct indigenous populations were investigated for morphological analysis, and four were included in evaluating genetic differences. Farming systems were analysed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. The genetic variation was assessed within and between populations using 15 autosomal and two Y-specific microsatellite markers, and compared with two indigenous populations from the African region. Farming system analysis revealed that indigenous cattle rearing was based on traditional mixed-crop integration practices and operates under limited or no input basis. The contribution of indigenous cattle to total tangible income ranged from zero to 90% reflecting the high variation in the purpose of keeping. Morphometric measurements explained specific phenotypic characteristics arising from geographical isolation and selective breeding. Though varying according to the region, the compact body, narrow face, small horns and humps with shades of brown and black coat colour described the indigenous cattle phenotype in general. Genetic analysis indicated that indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka have high diversity with average number of alleles per locus ranging from 7.9 to 8.5. Average heterozygosity of different regions varied within a narrow range (0.72 ± 0.04 to 0.76 ± 0.03). Genetic distances between regions were low (0.085 and 0.066) suggesting a similar mixture of genotypes across regions. Y-specific analysis indicated a possible introgression of Taurine cattle in one of the cattle populations. (author)



Carrier status of leptospirosis among cattle in Sri Lanka: a zoonotic threat to public health. (United States)

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance and one of the notifiable diseases in Sri Lanka. Recent studies on human leptospirosis have suggested that the cattle could be one of the important reservoirs for human infection in the country. However, there is a dearth of local information on bovine leptospirosis, including its implications for human transmission. Thus, this study attempted to determine the carrier status of pathogenic Leptospira spp in cattle in Sri Lanka. A total of 164 cattle kidney samples were collected from the meat inspection hall in Colombo city during routine inspection procedures conducted by the municipal veterinary surgeons. The DNA was extracted and subjected to nested PCR for the detection of leptospiral flaB gene. Amplicons were sequenced, and phylogenic distances were calculated. Of 164 samples, 20 (12.2%) were positive for flaB-PCR. Sequenced amplicons revealed that Leptospira species were deduced to L. borgpetersenii (10/20, 50%), L. kirschneri (7/20, 35%) and L. interrogans (3/20, 15%). The results indicate that a high proportion of the sampled cattle harbour a variety of pathogenic Leptospira spp, which can serve as important reservoirs for human disease. PMID:22998409

Gamage, C D; Koizumi, N; Perera, A K C; Muto, M; Nwafor-Okoli, C; Ranasinghe, S; Kularatne, S A M; Rajapakse, R P V J; Kanda, K; Lee, R B; Obayashi, Y; Ohnishi, M; Tamashiro, H



Non-cognitive characteristics predicting academic success among medical students in Sri Lanka  

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Abstract Background To identify non-cognitive and socio-demographic characteristics determining academic success of Sri Lankan medical undergraduates. Methods A retrospective study among 90 recently graduated students of the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka. Students were stratified into two equal groups; ‘High-achievers’ (honours degree at the final MBBS examination) and ‘Low-achievers’ (repeated one or more subj...

Ranasinghe Priyanga; Ellawela Amaya; Gunatilake Saman B



The Global Financial Crisis Impact on Ethnic Diversity of Sri Lanka Boards  

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This study investigates the link between ethnic minority directors and agency conflict in Sri Lankan listed companies during a global financial crisis.  Due to social and economic pressures in recent decades, ethnic minorities now make up a larger proportion of directors on corporate boards in Sri Lanka. In addition, the global financial crisis has increased demand for boards to strengthen their ethnic diversity in workplaces.  This study shows that while Sri Lankan boards increase...

Nirosha Hewa Wellalage; Stuart Locke; Frank Scrimgeour



Indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka: Production systems and genetic diversity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The production status, farming systems and genetic diversity of indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka were evaluated using six geographically distinct populations in Sri Lanka, which is a small island located below the southern tip of Indian subcontinent. The indigenous cattle population of the country is considered as a non-descript type mixture of genotypes, and represent more than the half of total cattle population of 1.2 million heads. Six distinct indigenous populations (NE, NC, So, No, TK and Th) were investigated for morphological and genetic differences. The respective farming systems were also evaluated to complete the requirement in developing conservation and utilization strategies. The sampling was carried out based on the non-existence of artificial insemination facilities to assure the target populations are indigenous. The six populations were assumed genetically isolated from each other in the absence of nomadic pattern of rearing and regular cattle migration. The farming systems were analyzed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire by single visits to each location. Single visits were practiced, as there is no variation in farming system according to the period of the year. Morphometric measurements were taken during the visit and the genetic variation was assessed within and between five populations using 15 autosomal and two Y-specific microsatellite markers. The farming system analysis revealed that indigenous cattle are reared as a traditional practice in all the regions of the country under limited or no input situations. Since the low productivity masks its real contribution to the rural livelihood, the level of utilization was confounded within the attributes of respective farming systems. The contribution of indigenous cattle to total tangible income ranged from 0% to 90% in different regions reflecting the high variation in the purpose of keeping indigenous cattle. Integration with crop, especially with paddy was the common feature in systems across the regions. Morphometric measurements identified the specific phenotypic characteristics resulted by geographical isolation and selective breeding. Though vary according to the regional preferences, the compact body, narrow face, small horns and humps with shades of brown and black coat colour described the indigenous cattle phenotype in general. The diversity analysis based on microsatellite genotyping indicated that indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka has a high genetic diversity with average number of alleles per locus ranging from 7.9 to 8.5. Average heterozygosity of different regions varied within a narrow range (0.72 ± 0.04 to 0.76 ± 0.03). The genetic distances (DA) between regions were low (ranged between 0.085 and 0.066) suggesting a similar mixture of genotypes across regions despite the geographical isolation. However, two genetic clusters were visible though no relationship of those clusters with the geographical distribution of different regions could be observed. Introgression of taurine cattle was evidenced in one of the cattle populations (NC) as suggested by the Y-specific microsatellite analysis (author)



Positioning Muslims in Ethnic Relations, Ethnic Conflict and Peace Process in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Sri Lankan Muslims, the second largest minority ethnic group with 9.4 per cent (2012 of the total population has been victimized in the cause of ethnic politics, ethno-nationalism, and ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka. Like other ethnic groups in Sri Lanka, the Muslims also have a historical origin that follows a set of distinctive ethno-centric cultural and religious practices. They have contributed much to the communal harmony, socio-economic and political development of the country throughout the history of Sri Lanka. However, the ethnic distinctiveness of Sri Lankan Muslims has always been questioned and the community has been violently targeted in the cause of time. The ethnic politics and ethno-nationalism of both major ethnic groups, the Sinhalese and the Tamils have impacted a lot on the Muslims of Sri Lanka. Furthermore, most of the initiatives adopted to resolve the ethnic conflict have also failed to address the grievances and to accommodate the interests and demands of the Muslims. The devastating effects of the conflict on Muslim community and the continuous neglect of their interests in the discourses of peace process pushed them to politically mobilize for advocacy politics. On this backdrop, this paper pays attention on the historical survival of Muslim community, their position in ethnic politics and peace process in Sri Lanka. The main objective of this paper is to record the historical incidents related with the Muslims in Sri Lanka without pointing fingers at any party in these processes. The analysis of this paper is descriptive and interpretive in nature and only the secondary data is used for the analysis.

Mohammad Agus Yusoff



Historical evolution and present status of family medicine in sri lanka. (United States)

Sri Lankan health system consists of Allopathic, Ayurvedic, Unani, and several other systems of medicine and allopathic medicine is catering to the majority of the health needs of the people. As in many other countries, Sri Lankan health system consists of both the state and the private sector General practitioners, MOs in OPDs of hospitals and MOs of central dispensaries, provide primary medical care in Sri Lanka. Most of the general practices are solo practices. One does not need postgraduate qualification or training in general practice to start a general practice. There is no registered population for any particular health care institution in the state sector or in the private sector and there is no strict referral procedure from primary care to secondary or tertiary care. Family doctors have been practicing in Sri Lanka for well over 150 years. The first national organization of general practitioners was Independent Medical Practitioner (IMPA)'s organization which was founded in 1929 and the College of General Practitioners of Sri Lanka was founded in 1974. College conducts its own Membership Course and Examination (MCGP) since 1999. Family Medicine was introduced to undergraduate curriculum in Sri Lanka in early 1980s and now almost all the medical faculties in the country have included Family Medicine in their curricula. In 1979, General Practice/Family Medicine was recognized as a specialty in Sri Lanka by the postgraduate institute of Medicine. Diploma in Family Medicine (DFM) and MD Family Medicine are the pathways for postgraduate training in Sri Lanka. At present 50 to 60 doctors enroll for DFM every year and the country has about 20 specialists (with MD) in Family Medicine. The author's vision for the future is that all the primary care doctors to have a postgraduate qualification in Family Medicine either DFM, MD, or MCGP which is a far cry from the present status. PMID:24479065

Ramanayake, R P J C



Oestrus detection and reproductive performance of cattle in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficiency of oestrus detection in pure Bos taurus and Bos taurus x Bos indicus breeds on two large farms and on smallholdings in the mid-country region of Sri Lanka was studied. Milk samples were collected on the day of insemination (D0), and at 7 days (D7) and 23 days (D23) after insemination for the measurement of progesterone concentrations. Of a total of 228 inseminations performed on large farms, ovulatory oestrus was confirmed by progesterone measurement in only 144 animals, giving a correct oestrus detection rate of 63.2%. Of a total of 1317 inseminations performed on smallholdings, oestrus was correctly detected in 805 animals, giving an accuracy of 61.1%. The number of services per conception on large farms and on smallholdings was found to be 3.2 and 2.9, respectively. Most of the incorrect timings of service were due to inseminations being performed during the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle: 28.9% in large farms and 23.1% under smallholder conditions; and on smallholdings, 15.5% of the services were given to anoestrous cows or to cows which failed to ovulate. The percentage of cows in oestrus served by private inseminators (71.3%) was found to be significantly higher (P<0.025) than that in cows served by government technicians (53.8%). The accuracy of diagnosing pregnancy and non-pregnancy on the basis of progesterone concentrations 23 days after insemination, as confirmed by subsequent rectal examination after eight weeks, was found to be 72.5% and 96.4%, respectively. In post-partum cows, the involution of the uterus was found to be complete within 28 ± 8.0 days in 95% of the animals studied. The calving to first service interval was 155 ± 77 days on smallholder farms. In this study, the major causes for lowered reproductive efficiency in cattle in Sri Lanka were found to be delayed onset of post-partum ovarian activity and incorrect timing of service. (author). 33 refs, 9 tabs



Adolescents perception of reproductive health care services in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent health needs, behaviours and expectations are unique and routine health care services are not well geared to provide these services. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived reproductive health problems, health seeking behaviors, knowledge about available services and barriers to reach services among a group of adolescents in Sri Lanka in order to improve reproductive health service delivery. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in a semi urban setting in Sri Lanka. A convenient sample of 32 adolescents between 17–19 years of age participated in four focus group discussions. Participants were selected from four midwife areas. A pre-tested focus group guide was used for data collection. Male and female facilitators conducted discussions separately with young males and females. All tape-recorded data was fully transcribed and thematic analysis was done. Results Psychological distresses due to various reasons and problems regarding menstrual cycle and masturbation were reported as the commonest health problems. Knowledge on existing services was very poor and boys were totally unaware of youth health services available through the public health system. On reproductive Health Matters, girls mainly sought help from friends whereas boys did not want to discuss their problems with anyone. Lack of availability of services was pointed out as the most important barrier in reaching the adolescent needs. Lack of access to reproductive health knowledge was an important reason for poor self-confidence among adolescents to discuss these matters. Lack of confidentiality, youth friendliness and accessibility of available services were other barriers discussed. Adolescents were happy to accept available services through public clinics and other health infrastructure for their services rather than other organizations. A demand was made for separate youth friendly services through medical practitioners. Conclusions and recommendations Adolescent health services are inadequate and available services are not being delivered in an acceptable manner. Proper training of health care providers on youth friendly service provision is essential. A National level integrated health care program is needed for the adolescents.

Agampodi Thilini C



Geophysical Investigation of Lithosphere Structure Beneath Sri Lanka Using Surface and Internal Load Variations (United States)

This paper describes a method for interpreting the lateral changes in the geological structure of the lithosphere by iteratively calculating the spatial variation of a bottom-to-top loading ratio. We use Forsyth's coherence method, based on multi-taper spectral analysis on overlapping window areas. We discuss the geological findings and their comparison with existing geological interpretations for the Sri Lankan region. The low thickness of the elastic plate in the Sri Lankan region suggests a high geothermal gradient. The lithospheric geological structure beneath the Sri Lankan region is consistent with the main crustal units of Sri Lanka, which belong to different ancient plates. Together with interpretations based on metamorphic rock units, our findings support the existence of thrust contact in the central highlands of Sri Lanka.

Prasanna, H. M. I.; Chen, W.; Gómez-Ortiz, D.



Sri Lanka : de la lutte contre le terrorisme à la catastrophe humanitaire  

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Full Text Available La volonté du gouvernement sri lankais d’en finir militairement avec le LTTE a abouti à une catastrophe humanitaire. L’armée et les Tigres se rendent coupables de crime de guerre et de crime contre l’humanité à l’encontre des civils tamouls, qui sont piégés dans la zone de combat ou enfermés dans des camps de détention. La perception différenciée de l’opération militaire selon les communautés nécessiterait la création d’un Tribunal Pénal International pour Sri Lanka.The will of Sri Lankan government to finish militarily with LTTE has ended with an humanitarian catastrophe. Both the Sri Lankan Army and the Tigers are guilty of international war and humanitarian crimes against Tamil civilians, who are trapped in the war zone or locked in detention camps. The different perceptions of the military operation according to the communities should need the creation of an International Penal Court for Sri Lanka

Delon Madavan



Ethics Review Committee approval and informed consent: an analysis of biomedical publications originating from Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background International guidelines on research have focused on protecting research participants. Ethical Research Committee (ERC approval and informed consent are the cornerstones. Externally sponsored research requires approval through ethical review in both the host and the sponsoring country. This study aimed to determine to what extent ERC approval and informed consent procedures are documented in locally and internationally published human subject research carried out in Sri Lanka. Methods We obtained ERC approval in Sri Lanka and the United Kingdom. Theses from 1985 to 2005 available at the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine (PGIM library affiliated to the University of Colombo were scrutinised using checklists agreed in consultation with senior research collaborators. A Medline search was carried out with MeSH major and minor heading 'Sri Lanka' as the search term for international publications originating in Sri Lanka during 1999 to 2004. All research publications from CMJ during 1999 to 2005 were also scrutinized. Results Of 291 theses, 34% documented ERC approvals and 61% documented obtaining consent. From the international journal survey, 250 publications originated from Sri Lanka of which only 79 full text original research publications could be accessed electronically. Of these 38% documented ERC approval and 39% documented obtaining consent. In the Ceylon Medical Journal 36% documented ERC approval and 37% documented obtaining consent. Conclusion Only one third of the publications scrutinized recorded ERC approval and procurement of informed consent. However, there is a positive trend in documenting these ethical requirements in local postgraduate research and in the local medical journal.

Siriwardhana Chesmal



Re-integration of Former Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Combatants into Civilian Society in Post-War Sri Lanka. (United States)

The entire nation paid a high price militarily, politically, economically and socially during the twenty-six-year-old conflict in Sri Lanka. However, May 18, 2009, marked a significant milestone in the written history of Sri Lanka. The three-year-long Hum...

M. K. De Silva



Natural radioactivity in bricks used in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the present study was to determine the specific radioactivity concentrations of Ra sup 226, Th sup 232 and K sup 40 in brick samples collected from different areas and compare with the corresponding results for bricks of different countries.Sixteen clay and four cement brick samples were collected from kilns in different areas in Sri Lanka. The gamma ray spectra of the prepared samples were measured using a typical high resolution gamma spectrometer based on a shielded HpGe detector.The spectrometer was calibrated for energy and efficiency over the experimental energy range 186-2700 keV using IAEA reference material RGU-1, RGTH-1 and RGK-1.GANAAS software was used to analyse the photopeaks. The measured average specific radioactivity concentrations of Ra sup 226, Th sup 232, K sup 40 in the clay bricks were 35, 69 and 604 Bq per kg respectively. For cement bricks these values were 17, 42, 525 Bq per kg. The corresponding world average values are 50,50 and 500 Bq per kg for the said radionuclides.All three radionuclides were greater than the world average in clay bricks measured from Mahiyangana. Clay bricks from Ampitiya, Anuradhapura and Nikaweratiya measured values are less than the world average for all three radionuclides. Data on concentrations of natural radionuclides can be used to determine dose rates in relation to building materials



Malaria outbreaks in new foci in Sri Lanka. (United States)

During its Malaria Eradication Programme (1958-1964) Sri Lanka spectacularly reduced its malaria incidence from around half a million per year to 17. Regrettably, this magnificent achievement could not be maintained, and malaria once again reached epidemic proportions in some areas. Of particular concern however, has been the emergence of new foci of malaria around the hill capital, Kandy, discussed here by Manel Wijesundera. The new outbreaks seem intimately related to hydrological changes brought about by major irrigation and hydroelectric schemes on the Mahaweli river. The priority for such schemes is not, of course, to flush out the pools where mosquito larvae thrive, but to divert water for irrigation and power generation. In parallel, human migration between malaria endemic and non-endemic areas - stimulated by the resettlement required by the dam reservoirs - has contributed to increased malaria transmission. In a sense therefore, this story is a classic of health impact overlooked in favour of agricultural and industrial development. But whereas most documented cases relate to extensive flooding causing an increase in vector breeding sites and so exacerbating disease transmission, this story is just the opposite. Here, it is reduction in water flow that has promoted an increase in vector breeding. PMID:15463072

Wijesundera, M de S



Telehealth - bringing healthcare to one's doorstep: how ready is Sri Lanka?  

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Full Text Available Provision of healthcare at a distance is not a new concept. However, with the advancement of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT, the term ‘Telehealth’ has been cited frequently in the health/medical literature. Similar terms such as ‘Online Health’, ‘eHealth’ and Telemedicine’ are also begining to appear. The purpose of this article is to provide readers with an understanding of telehealth with special reference to Sri Lanka. First, different terms and definitions related to telehealth will be reviewed. Then, the history of telehealth and evolutionary milestones of telecommunication activities will be examined. Next, telecommunication activities in Sri Lanka and its trend will be explored. Later, telehealth effectiveness will be examined briefly. Finally, a brief overview of telehealth activities related to Sri Lanka will be presented before suggesting a way forward.

Rohana Basil Marasinghe



Use of x-ray fluorescence and diffraction techniques in studying ancient ceramics of Sri Lanka (United States)

Ceramics were produced for centuries in Sri Lanka for various purposes. Ancient ceramic articles such as pottery, bricks, tiles, sewer pipes, etc, were made from naturally occurring raw materials. Use of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in characterizing of two ancient ceramic samples from two different archaeological sites in Sri Lanka is presented. The information obtained in this manner is used to figure out the ancient ceramic technology, particularly to learn about the raw materials used, the source of raw materials, processing parameters such as firing temperature or binders used in ceramic production. This information then can be used to explore the archaeometric background such as the nature and extent of cultural and technological interaction between different periods of history in Sri Lanka.

Karunaratne, B. S. B.



Use of x-ray fluorescence and diffraction techniques in studying ancient ceramics of Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ceramics were produced for centuries in Sri Lanka for various purposes. Ancient ceramic articles such as pottery, bricks, tiles, sewer pipes, etc, were made from naturally occurring raw materials. Use of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in characterizing of two ancient ceramic samples from two different archaeological sites in Sri Lanka is presented. The information obtained in this manner is used to figure out the ancient ceramic technology, particularly to learn about the raw materials used, the source of raw materials, processing parameters such as firing temperature or binders used in ceramic production. This information then can be used to explore the archaeometric background such as the nature and extent of cultural and technological interaction between different periods of history in Sri Lanka.



Policies and Effectiveness of Foreign Aid: The Case of Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available This empirical study investigates foreign aid’s effectiveness in stimulating growth by considering economic policies and the factors that influenced aid flow in Sri Lanka during the period of 1980-2008. For both analyses, a single-equation instrumental variable estimation method is employed. The results derived from this study suggest that aid is positively associated with growth in a good policy environment in Sri Lanka. Regarding determinants, in terms of trade openness and budget deficits the results suggest that aid was transferred into Sri Lanka under a conditional policy environment. Inflation is positively associated with aid flow. Unrest in the country and per capita growth negatively influenced aid, whereas commercial interests, natural disasters, political stability, and poverty are positively associated with aid inflow.

T. Bhavan



Parasites of selected reptiles of the National Zoological Garden, Sri Lanka. (United States)

The National Zoological Garden plays a vital role in conservation of reptiles in Sri Lanka. Since parasitic infestations of captive reptiles can impact their health, a survey for intestinal parasites and ectoparasites was conducted on 19 selected reptilian species (14 snakes, four chelonians, and one crocodilian) housed at the National Zoological Garden, Sri Lanka. Of the reptiles screened, 62% (N = 139) were infected with parasites; 66% and 24% exclusively harbored intestinal and ecto parasites, respectively, while 10% carried both types of parasites. Three ticks (Ixodidae), two adult cestodes, plerocercoid larvae, and four nematode species were recovered during this survey. Three types of nematode ova and a single type of digenian ova, protozoan cysts, L3 nematode larvae, and a protozoan were detected in the feces. In this first systematic survey of reptilian parasites in Sri Lanka, four new host-parasite records are documented. PMID:19569473

Fernando, Saminda P; Udagama-Randeniya, Preethi V



The assistant medical officer in Sri Lanka: mid-level health worker in decline. (United States)

The history of Assistant Medical Officers (AMOs) in Sri Lanka can be traced back to the 1860s. Their training from the beginning followed an allopathic, 'evidence based' model. AMOs have played a key role in rural and peripheral health care, through staffing of government central dispensaries and maternity homes and may have contributed to Sri Lanka's favorable health outcomes. While there are currently approximately 2000 AMOs, their training course was discontinued in 1995. It was argued that the quality of care provided by the AMOs is substandard relative to that of physicians. The success, rapid expansion and integration of physician assistant programs into the US health care system have recently spurred other countries to introduce similar programs. This paper reviews Sri Lanka's move in the opposite direction, phasing out the AMO profession, without any research into their contributions to access to interprofessional primary health care and positive health outcomes. PMID:23659623

De Silva, Vijitha; Strand de Oliveira, Justine; Liyanage, Mahinda; Østbye, Truls



Clinical and epidemiological studies on the cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani in Sri Lanka. (United States)

Sri Lanka is the newest reported focus of human leishmaniasis within the Indian subcontinent. Over the last 8 years, more than 2000 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), apparently caused by Leishmania donovani (a species usually associated with the visceral form of the disease), have been passively identified in the country. The clinical profiles of 401 suspected cases of CL in Sri Lanka were recently explored and some of the cases' immunological responses were investigated, in antibody-detection assays based on the rk39 antigen. These studies were followed by cross-sectional surveys, involving active case detection, in three areas of Sri Lanka, two of them known to be at relatively high risk for CL, with the aims of estimating the local prevalences of the disease and identifying the main risk factors for its acquisition. This appears to be the first detailed report on the prevalence, risk factors and human serological response associated with human leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka. Although the data collected indicated that the transmission of the parasite causing CL was mostly outdoor (and possibly zoonotic) in the north of the country, most of the transmission in the south seemed to be peridomestic. The CL was found to affect a wide age range, in both male and female subjects. Curiously, the 24 cases of CL that were investigated in the rk39 assays gave negative results whereas the single cases of mucosal or visceral leishmaniasis that were studied were found positive for antibodies reacting with the rk39 antigen. More programmes of active case detection need to be launched across Sri Lanka before the true national burden posed by human leishmaniasis can be accurately evaluated. General awareness of leishmaniasis needs to be raised. Hopefully, continued research and disease monitoring will allow the effective control of leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka. PMID:20507695

Siriwardana, H V Y D; Thalagala, N; Karunaweera, N D



Policies and regulations affecting biomass-related energy sector development in Sri Lanka  

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The future predictions of energy demand, limitations of hydro expansion and inadequate fossil fuel supplies in Sri Lanka suggest the requirement for a diversity of power sources in the future. It has been recognized that renewable energy (particularly biomass, hydro, wind and solar) will have an important role in meeting future energy demands. The main objective of this policy brief is to discuss the current status of the biomass energy sector of Sri Lanka and to lay a foundation for a process of further studies and consultations leading towards a well-integrated energy policy.




Motivations for Alcohol Use among Men Aged 16-30 Years in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Psychometric properties of a new scale that measures motivations towards alcohol use were examined using a sample of 412 male alcohol users in Sri Lanka aged 16-30 years. In addition, associations between drinking motives and drinking frequency were explored. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a 3-factor model consisting of the factors personal enjoyment, tension reduction, and social pressure fit the data well. Overall, tension-reduction motivation was found to be prominent in the context of young males’ drinking behavior in Sri Lanka. Associations between stress and alcohol use among young males warrant further investigations.

Mohammad Torabi



Spices as a source of lead exposure: a market-basket survey in Sri Lanka. (United States)

We performed a laboratory analysis of spices sold in Sri Lanka for lead content. Samples of curry powder, chili powder and turmeric powder from seven provinces, collected using the market basket survey method, underwent atomic absorption spectrometry. Blanks and standards were utilised for instrument calibration and measurement accuracy. The results were validated in two different laboratories. All samples were found to have lead levels below the US Food and Drug Administration's action level of 0.5 ?g/g. Spices sold in Sri Lanka contain lead concentrations that are low and within the stipulated safety standards. PMID:24385059

Senanayake, M P; Perera, R; Liyanaarachchi, L A; Dassanayake, M P



Estimates of Dengue Force of Infection in Children in Colombo, Sri Lanka  

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Dengue is the most important vector-borne viral disease worldwide and a major cause of childhood fever burden in Sri Lanka, which has experienced a number of large epidemics in the past decade. Despite this, data on the burden and transmission of dengue virus in the Indian Subcontinent are lacking. As part of a longitudinal fever surveillance study, we conducted a dengue seroprevalence survey among children aged <12 years in Colombo, Sri Lanka. We used a catalytic model to estimate the risk o...

Tam, Clarence C.; Tissera, Hasitha; Silva, Aravinda M.; Silva, Aruna Dharshan; Margolis, Harold S.; Amarasinge, Ananda



Preliminary report on safety aspects on nuclear power generation in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document is intended as background information on nuclear energy to contribute to Sri Lanka's comparative study of alternative sources of energy. This study has considered the safety and environmental effects of nuclear power reactors. Basic concepts of nuclear physics are introduced and providing and appreciation of safety considerations and safety aspects of nuclear power plants and the personnel. Radioactive waste management, storage and disposal are also discussed. Natural radiation levels in Sri Lanka are provided as well as information on biological effects of radiation especially occupational exposure licensing procedures for nuclear power plants are outlined strategy for public awareness of nuclear power is proposed



Heavy metals in Ratnapura alluvial gem sediments, Sri Lanka (United States)

The valuable gems in Sri Lanka are found from the sedimentary gem deposits in Ratnapura District, which are found as alluvial deposits some are about >50 m deep. Gem bearing gravel layer is taken out from the mine, washed by panning to recover the gem minerals in the heavy mineral fraction, is a common practice in the gem mining area. Gem bearing sediment layer is associated with different heavy minerals in which different trace metals as Co, Cr, Cu, Al, Zr, Pb and As also can be present. During panning, the sediment is washed away and the heavy metals attached to the sediments are released into the environment. Hence we studied the lability and bioavailability of arsenic and other heavy metals from the gem sediments. Sediment samples were collected from 15 small scale gem mines (3 soil layers- top, gem mineral layer and layer below gem bearing gravel layer), air dried and sieved to obtain 150 mg/kg), Cu (>150 mg/kg), Pb (>400 mg/kg), Zn (>600 mg/kg) and Co ions (>100 mg/kg). Arsenite in the gem sediments were low and recorded as Co>Zn>Mn>Ni>Cu>Pb. Sediments from few gem pits showed considerably high concentrations of metals analyzed. In some places Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn reported high in bioavailable fractions 70, 25, 20, 10 mg/kg respectively. Mobilization of these metals may increase due to changes in the pH and the presence of other ions in the environment. High concentrations of toxic metals in exchangeable and bioavailable fractions indicate the risk on plant and animals as well as the open water bodies and groundwater sources.

Vithanage, M. S.; Hettiarachchi, J. K.; Rajapaksha, A. U.; Wijesekara, H.; Hewawasam, T.



Introduction of Web based Continuous Professional Development to Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Continuous Professional Development (CPD can be described as a continuous process which begins on the day a person start practicing as a doctor. Continuous Medical Education (CME concentrates on improving individual professional knowledge by education and training in areas determined by experts. But in CPD, professionals play an active role in defining the knowledge which they see as relevant to their own professional needs and learning takes place not only at individual level but also at organisational level. CPD is becoming a popular mode of learning worldwide by which doctors keep their practice up to-date. CPD is seen as essential for effective practice and for professional development. Even though the standard format of CPD for many years has been formal, there is no specific method in operation. Over the last decade there has been increasing interest in the use of computers to facilitate collaborative learning between healthcare professionals for CPD. Web-based learning is an attractive methodology for medical education and offers some advantages over traditional methods. There is improved clinical practice and improved clinical decision making as a result of web based learning. Professionals are satisfied with the ?exibility and the convenience offered in Web-based mode of CPD delivery as it saves time and money. Web based CPD programmes will fulfil the educational requirements of health professionals in the peripheral parts of Sri Lanka who have difficulty in attending formal education sessions due to their geographical isolation. Meeting the educational needs of professionals already in practice remains a challenge and web based online CPD can play a major role in proving the high demand.

Gumindu Garuka Kulatunga



Molecular characterization of cyanobacterial diversity in Lake Gregory, Sri Lanka (United States)

Eutrophication or the process of nutrient enrichment of stagnant waters due to excessive use of fertilizer is becoming a critical issue worldwide. Lake Gregory, an artificial lake situated in Nuwara Eliya, Sri Lanka was once a very attractive landscape feature and recreational area attracting a large number of visitors. Rapid urbanization in surrounding areas and the consequent intensification of agricultural and industrial activities led to eutrophication and siltation in the lake. Present study was conducted to detect cyanobacterial diversity and their ability to produce hepatotoxic microcystins using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. Twenty five water samples (surface and bottom) were collected from the lake and total nitrogen and total carbon were estimated. Cyanobacterial cultures were grown in appropriate media and microscopic observations were used to determine the morphological diversity of cyanobacteria isolated from different sites. Genomic DNA was isolated and purified from cyanobacteria using Boom's method. DNA samples were analyzed by PCR with oligonucleotide primers for 16S rRNA gene and mcyA gene of the operon that encodes a microcystin synthetase. The 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed the presences of cyanobacteria belong to Synechococcus sp., Microcystis aeruginosa, Calothrix sp., Leptolyngbya sp., Limnothrix sp., order Oscillatoriales and order Chroococcales. The sequences obtained from this study were deposited in the database under the accession numbers (GenBank: GU368104-GU368116). PCR amplification of mcyA primers indicated the potential for toxin formation of isolated M. aeruginosa from Lake Gregory. This preliminary study shows that the Lake Gregory is under the potential risk of cyanobacterial toxicity. Clearly more work is needed to extend this finding and clarify if other cyanobacterial isolates have genetic potential to produce microcystin since this lake is utilized for recreational activities.

Magana-Arachchi, Dhammika; Wanigatunge, Rasika; Liyanage, Madhushankha



Studying current status of intensive care services in Sri Lanka (United States)

Objective: To describe intensive care unit (ICU) facilities in Sri Lanka; to describe the pattern of admissions, case-mix and mortality; compare patient outcome against the various types of ICUs; and determine the adequacy and standards of training received by medical and nursing staff. Materials and Methods: Observational study of multidisciplinary (general) and adult speciality ICUs in government sector hospitals. Results: Hospitals studied had 1 ICU bed per 100 hospital beds. Each bed catered to 70-90 patients over a year. Death rates were comparable in each level of hospital/ICU despite differences in resource allocation. Fifty to 60% of patients had their original problems related to medicine, while only 35% - 45% were surgical. Thirty two percent of medical patients and 15% of surgical patients died. More than 90% of ICUs had a multi-monitor for each bed. Seventy seven percent of ICUs had one or more ventilators for each bed. Arterial blood gas (ABG) facilities were available in 83% of ICUs. There were serious inadequacies in the availability of facilities of 24 hour physiotherapy (available only in 36.7%), 24 hour in hospital Ultra Sonography (22.4%), electrolyte analyser in ICU (54.2%), haemodialysis / continuous renal replacement therapy (HD/CRRT) (41.7%), and Echocardiography. Medical Officers’ training was anaesthetics dominated as opposed to a multidisciplinary training. There was a severe shortage of critical care trained nurses. Conclusions: Only limited evolution has taken place in intensive care over the past 5 years. The reasons for higher death rates in medical patients should be investigated further. Moving towards a multidisciplinary approach for training and provision of care for ICU patients is recommended.

Fernando, JLIN; Wickramaratne, CP; Dissanayake, RSB; Kolambage, SH; Aminda, MAU; Cooray, NH; Hamzahamed, K; Haridas, PM; Jayasinghe, JML; Mowjood, MS; Muthukudaarachchi, AD; Pathirana, PCR; Peduruarachchi, NP; Peiris, KLK; Perera, JAPC; Puvanaraj, V; Rathnakumara, KML; Ratwatte, SN; Suresh, R; Thevathasan, KN; Thiyagesan, K; Weerasena, OVDSH; Wijesiri, HNH; Rajapakse, Senaka



Are consultants in Colombo, Sri Lanka satisfied with their job?  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Job stress and job satisfaction play a key role in the work environment of an organization. These influence the behaviour of a doctor towards his or her co-workers, administration and, most importantly towards the patients. Objective: To assess job stress among consultants working in Colombo group of hospitals and to identify the factors that affect job satisfaction. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted by using postal questionnaire on 262 consultants working in Colombo group of hospitals. Hospital consultants job stress and job satisfaction questionnaire developed by Amanda Ramirez et al. was used with their permission. Results: Of the 262 questionnaires mailed 171 were returned. Of total responded 84.6% reported extremely satisfied or satisfied with their work. Nearly 92% agreed intellectual stimulation by teaching contributed to their job satisfaction. Nearly 80% reported having a high level of responsibility, being perceived to do the job well by the colleagues, being able to bring about positive changes to the unit, having a high level of autonomy contributed to their job satisfaction. Poor administration and lack of facilities e.g. computers, filing procedures caused job stress in 73%. Threat of being sued for malpractice or having to deal with distressed relatives did not contribute to stress in nearly 80%. Conclusion: In Sri Lanka nearly 85% consultants reported they were satisfied with their job and teaching medical undergraduates and post graduates was one of the major contributory factors. However 73% indicated factors such as lack of resources, and poor administration cause stress at work. Providing computers and basic stationery for patient documentation and efficient and effective administration will improve the work output of consultants by reducing their stress levels.

S. Cooray



Migration due to the tsunami in Sri Lanka: analyzing vulnerability and migration at the household level  

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To achieve a better understanding of the diverse vulnerabilities of different social groups affected by the tsunami in December 2004 in Sri Lanka, a survey of 500 households in the Sri Lankan urban area of Galle has been conducted in cooperation with several institutes under the direction of the Institute of Environment and Human Security of the United Nations University (UNU-EHS). An important aim of the project is to analyze the determinants and effects of the migration decision at the hous...

Grote, Ulrike; Engel, Stefanie; Schraven, Benjamin



Coastal risks in Sri-Lanka - GIS, scenario and modelling approaches  

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The impact of the tsunami of December 26, 2004 in Sri Lanka clearly showed the importance of a thorough knowledge of coastal risks and of taking these into account in order to reduce their impacts. We present here a project funded by French Government (Ministère des Affaires Etrangères) and BRGM Research Division including both Sri Lankan and French institutions. The aims of this project are to implement an effective tool designed to reduce the impact of coastal natural hazards and to antic...

Garcin, Manuel; Desprats, Jean-franc?ois; Pedreros, Rodrigo; Fontaine, Me?lanie; Sedan, Olivier; Lenotre, Nicole; Attanayake, Nishantha; Silva, Udaya; Fernando, Starin; Siriwardana, Cher



A cost effectiveness analysis of the preferred antidotes for acute paracetamol poisoning patients in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute paracetamol poisoning is a rapidly increasing problem in Sri Lanka. The antidotes are expensive and yet no health economic evaluation has been done on the therapy for acute paracetamol poisoning in the developing world. The aim of this study is to determine the cost effectiveness of using N-acetylcysteine over methionine in the management of acute paracetamol poisoning in Sri Lanka. Methods Economic analysis was applied using public healthcare system payer perspective. Costs were obtained from a series of patients admitted to the National Hospital of Sri Lanka with a history of acute paracetamol overdose. Evidence on effectiveness was obtained from a systematic review of the literature. Death due to hepatotoxicity was used as the primary outcome of interest. Analysis and development of decision tree models was done using Tree Age Pro 2008. Results An affordable treatment threshold of Sri Lankan rupees 1,537,120/death prevented was set from the expected years of productive life gained and the average contribution to GDP. A cost-minimisation analysis was appropriate for patients presenting within 10 hours and methionine was the least costly antidote. For patients presenting 10-24 hours after poisoning, n-acetylcysteine was more effective and the incremental cost effectiveness ratio of Sri Lankan rupees 316,182/life saved was well under the threshold. One-way and multi-way sensitivity analysis also supported methionine for patients treated within 10 hours and n-acetylcysteine for patients treated within 10-24 hours as preferred antidotes. Conclusions Post ingestion time is an important determinant of preferred antidotal therapy for acute paracetamol poisoning patients in Sri Lanka. Using n-acetylcysteine in all patients is not cost effective. On economic grounds, methionine should become the preferred antidote for Sri Lankan patients treated within 10 hours of the acute ingestion and n-acetylcysteine should continue to be given to patients treated within 10-24 hours.

Senarathna S M D K Ganga



Feasibility of an appliance energy testing and labeling program for Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A feasibility study evaluated the costs and benefits of establishing a program for testing, labeling and setting minimum efficiency standards for appliances and lighting in Sri Lanka. The feasibility study included: refrigerators, air-conditioners, flourescent lighting (ballasts & CFls), ceiling fans, motors, and televisions.

Biermayer, Peter; Busch, John; Hakim, Sajid; Turiel, Issac; du Pont, Peter; Stone, Chris



Screening of Anopheles culicifacies population of Sri Lanka for sibling species A. (United States)

A total of 1119 Anopheles culicifacies mosquitoes collected from various malaria endemic regions in Sri Lanka were examined using two DNA probes Rp217 and Rp234, which enable the differentiation of sibling species A from B and C species of An. culicifacies. Sibling species A was found to be absent. PMID:10319555

De Silva, B G; Gunasekera, M B; Abeyewickreme, W; Abhayawardana, T A; Karunanayake, E H



Education Policy Reform in Sri Lanka: The Double-Edged Sword of Political Will (United States)

In 1997, the Government of Sri Lanka launched a comprehensive set of education reforms designed to promote equitable access to basic education and improvements in learning outcomes. The package of reforms arose as a political response to widespread youth unrest in the late 1980s and attracted considerable "political will", a vague but much vaunted…

Little, Angela W.



The Growth of Foreign Qualification Suppliers in Sri Lanka: "de facto" Decentralisation? (United States)

Based mainly on a study of newspaper adverts for qualifications and tuition courses in Sri Lanka over a period from 1965 to 2000, this paper describes a decentralisation of control over the supply of qualifications. It is argued that this has occurred not through a deliberate policy mechanism to decentralise qualifications, but rather by default,…

Little, Angela W.; Evans, Jane



Use of induced mutations for crop improvement programmes in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of radiation induced mutations is an effective additional tool for plant breeding work in Sri Lanka. Mutation Breeding could be effectively utilized to create favourable specific changes such as short culms, 90o resistance to pests and diseases, improvement in grain quality etc



Peace Education in Conflict Zones--Experience from Northern Sri Lanka (United States)

In September 2005, adult students from Kilinochchi, located in the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)-controlled Wanni region of northern Sri Lanka, were awarded University of Bradford, UK, validated postgraduate certificates or diplomas in conflict resolution and peace preparedness. The diploma is, we think, a landmark in peace education…

Harris, Simon; Lewer, Nick



Education Participation in Sri Lanka--Why All Are Not in School (United States)

Despite Sri Lanka's 1990 commitment to provide 10-11 years of free education to all, only 93% of children in the 5-14-year-old age group were in school by the year 2000. Moreover, the education participation rates are not equitable across the country, varying by socio-economic groups. This paper examines the determinants of school…

Arunatilake, Nisha



Grassroots Empowerment of Women: Portraits of Four Villages in Sri Lanka (United States)

This paper describes a participatory research (PR) project encompassing a capacity-development programme and advocacy skill-building initiative for rural women. The project actively engaged four prominent women's non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Sri Lanka: Agromart Foundation, Centre for Women's Research (CENWOR), Sarvodaya Women's…

Jeris, Laurel; Gajanayake, Jaya; Ismail, Jesima; Ebert, Seela; Peris, Amara; Wanasundara, Leelangi; Diyadawagamage, Nalika



Mathematics Performance and Principal Effectiveness: A Case Study of Some Coastal Primary Schools in Sri Lanka (United States)

This mixed method research study is situated in the school effectiveness research paradigm to examine the correlation between the effectiveness of urban, primary school principals and their students' performance in mathematics. Nine, urban, primary schools from Negombo, a coastal fishing area in Sri Lanka, were selected; their student achievements…

Egodawatte, Gunawardena



Greenhouse gas emission mitigation in the Sri Lanka power sector supply side and demand side options  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sri Lanka has had a hydropower dominated electricity generation sector for many years with a gradually decreasing percentage contribution from hydroresources. At the same time, the thermal generation share has been increasing over the years. Therefore, the expected fuel mix in the future in the large scale thermal generation system would be dominated by petroleum products and coal. This will result in a gradual increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) and other environmental emissions in the power sector and, hence, require special attention to possible mitigation measures. This paper analyses both the supply side and demand side (DSM) options available in the Sri Lanka power sector in mitigating emissions in the sector considering the technical feasibility and potential of such options. Further, the paper examines the carbon abatement costs associated with such supply side and DSM interventions using an integrated resource planning model, which is not used in Sri Lanka at present. The sensitivities of the final generation costs and emissions to different input parameters, such as discount rates, fuel prices and capital costs, are also presented in the paper. It is concluded that while some DSM measures are economically attractive as mitigation measures, all the supply side options have a relatively high cost of mitigation, particularly in the context of GHG emission mitigation. Further it is observed that when compared with the projected price of carbon under different global carbon trading scenarios, these supply side options cannot provide economically beneficial CO2 mitigation in countries like Sri Lanka



Exploring the Lives of Non-Native Speaking English Educators in Sri Lanka (United States)

This paper uses in-depth interview data to explore aspects of the lives of non-native speaking English educators working in the state education system in Sri Lanka. In so doing the research focus is on the educators themselves and the paper will discuss such issues as: careers as English teachers--motives for entering teaching, career progression,…

Hayes, David



Des truites sous climat subéquatorial ? (Les possibilités de Sri-Lanka  

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Full Text Available Trouts on subequatorial climate ? (Possibilities of Sri Lanka. Though climatic and other factors have reduced wildlife's role in the life of Sereer villagers, hunting for food is still practised, especially by younger peuple. Thanks to a field study, this activity is examined and its future envisaged in the context of rural development.

Reizer, C.



Duty and Service: Life and Career of a Tamil Teacher of English in Sri Lanka (United States)

This article discusses the life and career of a Tamil teacher of English working in the government education system in northern Sri Lanka. Based on data gathered in an extended life history interview, the article explores the teacher's own experiences of schooling, his reasons for entering teaching as a profession, his professional training, and…

Hayes, David



Organising Hindu traditions in Europe, the case of Tamil Migrants from Sri Lanka  

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This paper provides a case study of a transplanted religious tradition and the tradition's endeavours to reconstruct organisational patterns in a socio-culturally different environment. The author looks at Hindu traditions from Sri Lanka which in cause of the flight of Tamil people came during the last two decades to Europe.

Baumann, Martin



Beta-orcinol depsidones from the lichen Usnea sp. from Sri Lanka. (United States)

Two beta-orcinol depsidone lactones, the methyl ethers of menegazziaic acid and stictic acid were isolated along with glyceryl trilinolate and usnic acid from an Usnea sp. new to Sri Lanka growing on rotting trees of Acacia decurrans. Usnic acid exhibited potent antitermite activity against a common pest of tea, Glyptotermes dilatatus, at low elevations. PMID:16076641

Kathirgamanathar, Selvaluxmy; Williams, David E; Andersen, Raymond J; Bombuwela, Karunananda; De Silva, Dilip; Karunaratne, Veranja



Molecular detection and partial characterization of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus in Sri Lanka. (United States)

Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV) is an important plant virus on one of the economically most important vegetable crops; tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). This had not been molecularly detected before, in Sri Lanka. TYLCV-GN-SL was isolated from apparently infected tomato plants using modified Cetyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) method in Gannoruwa. Associated Begomoviruses were detected using Deng 541/Deng 540 and AV 494/AC 1048 primer pairs. TYLCV was detected for the first time in tomato in Sri Lanka using P1V/P4C, TYLCV specific primer pair. Nucleotide sequence of coat protein of isolated TYLCV-GN-SL proved that the Indian strain of ToLC virus was closely related to Tomato Leaf Curl Sri Lanka Virus (TLCV-SL: 97%) and Tomato leaf curl Geminivirus (TLCGV: 93%) through direct sequencing data. TLCV-SL was confirmed as TYLCV isolate. TYLCV was molecularly detected from major tomato growing districts like Badulla, Nuwara-Eliya, Kandy and Matale in Sri Lanka. PMID:24205755

Samarakoon, S A M C; Balasuriya, A; Rajapaksha, R G A S; Wickramarachchi, W A R T



Molecular Detection and Partial Characterization of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV is an important plant virus on one of the economically most important vegetable crops; tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.. This had not been molecularly detected before, in Sri Lanka. TYLCV-GN-SL was isolated from apparently infected tomato plants using modified Cetyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB method in Gannoruwa. Associated Begomoviruses were detected using Deng 541/Deng 540 and AV 494/AC 1048 primer pairs. TYLCV was detected for the first time in tomato in Sri Lanka using P1V/P4C, TYLCV specific primer pair. Nucleotide sequence of coat protein of isolated TYLCV-GN-SL proved that the Indian strain of ToLC virus was closely related to Tomato Leaf Curl Sri Lanka Virus (TLCV-SL: 97% and Tomato leaf curl Geminivirus (TLCGV: 93% through direct sequencing data. TLCV-SL was confirmed as TYLCV isolate. TYLCV was molecularly detected from major tomato growing districts like Badulla, Nuwara-Eliya, Kandy and Matale in Sri Lanka.

R.G.A.S. Rajapaksha



Livestock farming in coconut plantations in Sri Lanka: Constraints and opportunities  

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A study was carried out to identify biological and socio-economic constraints and opportunities for livestock development in coconut plantations in Sri Lanka. One part of the study focussed on the use of participatory rural appraisal to establish felt needs of different farmer categories in terms of feeding practices. Small coconut land holders ( 6 ha) kept livestock for indirect (secon...



Implementation of District Health Information Software 2 (DHIS2 in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available District Health Information Software (DHIS 2 is a tool for collection, validation, analysis, and presentation of aggregate and transactional data, tailored (but not limited to integrated health information management activities ( In this paper we describe the introduction of DHIS2 to Sri Lanka and share our views on challenges and opportunities.

Subodha Manoj



A road map to the end of displacement in Sri Lanka?  

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Full Text Available The Consortium of Humanitarian Agencies (CHA is anon-profit agency representing those working in thehumanitarian sector in Sri Lanka. Our work on internaldisplacement, the knowledge we have gained and thecapacity we have developed owe much to collaborationwith Roberta Cohen and her Brookings colleagues.

Jeevan Thiagarajah



Is Marriage Delay a Multiphasic Response to Pressures for Fertility Decline? The Case of Sri Lanka. (United States)

Investigated causes for rise in female age of marriage in Sri Lanka, studying 10,964 persons from 1,974 households. Found that rise in marriage age was not primarily a response to social pressure for fertility decline, but rather a result of urbanization, higher levels of education, unemployment, and consequent decline in parentally arranged early…

Caldwell, John; And Others



Proposed Water Management Program for Major Irrigation Schemes in Sri Lanka. (United States)

Because of poor irrigation management, much of Sri Lanka's agricultural lands can be farmed only occasionally or only during the Maha season--despite the fact that sufficient rainfall exists for one or more crops per year. The purpose of this study is to ...

E. Lance R. Willsie M. Moore M. Hagood D. Kemper



Lest the World Forget: Sri Lanka's Educational Needs after the 2004 Tsunami (United States)

This qualitative study strives to provide a greater understanding of the past, current, and future state of education in Sri Lanka after the 2004 tsunami. The researchers' key objectives are to provide additional insight to educators of the far-reaching impact of the tsunami via a website they created. Rather than concentrate on the same sort of…

Cashman, Timothy G.; Asing-Cashman, Joyce G.



Political Economy of Poverty, Equity, and Growth: Sri Lanka and Malaysia. (United States)

The study provides a critical evaluation of the economic history of Sri Lanka and Malaysia in 1950-85. It explores the processes that yielded different levels of growth, poverty, and equity in these countries, depending on each country's initial resource ...

H. J. Bruton G. Abeysekera N. Sanderatne Z. A. Yusof



Pesticide selection pressure on Anopheles subpictus in Sri Lanka: comparison with two other Sri Lankan anophelines. (United States)

Adult Anopheles subpictus from Sri Lanka show a broad spectrum of resistance towards organophosphate insecticides but not to carbamates in contrast to the broad resistance to organophosphates and carbamates reported earlier for An. nigerrimus. In both species the frequency of resistance to malathion and fenitrothion increased between 1980 and 1987, despite the ban on agricultural use of these two compounds and the restriction of malathion to indoor residual spraying in malaria control since 1977. In contrast, An. culicifacies shows only low level specific resistance to malathion at a very low frequency. As An. subpictus breeds to a large extent in paddy fields which are highly contaminated by agricultural pesticides, and is highly endophilic, selection for resistance theoretically could occur through both agricultural and anti-malarial pesticide use. However, the anti-malarial use of malathion may have been less important, taking into consideration the low level of resistance of An. culicifacies which is also highly endophilic but breeds to a negligible extent in paddy fields. PMID:2617615

Herath, P R; Joshi, G P



Temporal variation of microbiological and chemical quality of noncarbonated bottled drinking water sold in Sri Lanka. (United States)

Use of bottled water in Sri Lanka has increased over the last decade, while new brands of bottled water are often introduced to the market. However, the manufacturers' adherence to bottled water regulations is questionable, raising concerns regarding the quality of bottled water. The objective of the current study was to investigate the microbiological and chemical quality of bottled water in Sri Lanka. Thirty bottled water brands were sampled and their chemical and microbiological parameters were analyzed. Microbiological analysis was carried out within 1 to 3, 3 to 6, 6 to 9, and 9 to 12 mo after the date of manufacture. The results indicated that 63% of brands tested exceeded the levels permitted by the Sri Lanka Standards Institution (SLSI) for presumptive total coliforms (TC) (fecal coliforms (FC) (0 cfu per 100 mL in accordance with WHO permitted levels, SLSI and the Sri Lanka Health Ministry requirement). Eighty percent of brands showed higher heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) which exceeded the WHO guidelines for bottled drinking water. Throughout their shelf life, the counts of TC, FC, and HPC bacteria decreased. Bacteria identified were Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pasteurella haemolytica, the most frequently being P. aeruginosa. The dominant fungi identified were Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. Inorganic chemical parameters were within permitted levels for all brands except for initial content of ammonia. The results of this study show the need for the bottling industry to be monitored closely by relevant authorities, in order to provide safe bottled drinking water to consumers in Sri Lanka. PMID:22384963

Herath, A T; Abayasekara, C L; Chandrajith, Rohana; Adikaram, N K B



Comparative Assessment of Irrigation Water Quality in Sri Lanka's Tank-Cascade and Mahaweli Irrigation Schemes (United States)

Two distinct irrigation systems dominate the landscape in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The tank-cascade system, which originates from third century BC, is a small-scale system that has been the traditional method for communities to meet their farming water needs. The Mahaweli reservoir system, in contrast, is a large-scale irrigation scheme initiated in the 1970s that diverts water across hundreds of kilometers from the headwaters of the Mahaweli River to farmers. Although approximately equal amounts of paddy land are irrigated under these two systems, very little comparative analysis has been conducted on the spatial variation of irrigation water quality in Sri Lanka. An exploratory study was conducted in June 2013 in Anuradhapura district, an area that experiences the highest level of paddy production instability and has had long-standing irrigation water quality issues. A total of 30 water samples from both cascade systems and Mahaweli system H-7 were analyzed for pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, and chromatic dissolved organic matter using field instruments. A subset of these samples was further analyzed for nitrate and ammonia using colorimetric methods. While the sparse data from our study revealed some interesting trends, it is difficult to extrapolate in detail. Therefore, we compare inferences drawn about the Sri Lanka data to a more detailed analysis of chromatic dissolved organic matter in a Tennessee watershed. This comparison will provide insight into possible interpretations relative to the water quality data collected in Sri Lanka. As Sri Lanka continues to develop its irrigation resources, water quality assessments such as this one are critical for identifying factors limiting paddy production in the country.

Gunda, T.; Hornberger, G. M.



Assessing sloth bears as surrogates for carnivore conservation in Sri Lanka (United States)

Bears are large, charismatic mammals whose presence often garners conservation attention. Because healthy bear populations typically require large, contiguous areas of habitat, land conservation actions often are assumed to benefit co-occurring species, including other mammalian carnivores. However, we are not aware of an empirical test of this assumption. We used remote camera data from 2 national parks in Sri Lanka to test the hypothesis that the frequency of detection of sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) is associated with greater richness of carnivore species. We focused on mammalian carnivores because they play a pivotal role in the stability of ecological communities and are among Sri Lanka's most endangered species. Seven of Sri Lanka's carnivores are listed as endangered, vulnerable, or near threatened, and little empirical information exists on their status and distribution. During 2002–03, we placed camera traps at 152 sites to document carnivore species presence. We used Poisson regression to develop predictive models for 3 categories of dependent variables: species richness of (1) all carnivores, (2) carnivores considered at risk, and (3) carnivores of least conservation concern. For each category, we analyzed 8 a priori models based on combinations of sloth bear detections, sample year, and study area and used Akaike's information criterion (AICc) to test our research hypothesis. We detected sloth bears at 55 camera sites and detected 13 of Sri Lanka's 14 Carnivora species. Species richness of all carnivores showed positive associations with the number of sloth bear detections, regardless of study area. Sloth bear detections were also positively associated with species richness of carnivores at risk across both study years and study areas, but not with species richness of common carnivores. Sloth bears may serve as a valuable surrogate species whose habitat protection would contribute to conservation of other carnivores in Sri Lanka.

Ratnayeke, Shyamala; van Manen, Frank T.



Revised morphological identification key to the larval anopheline (Diptera: Culicidae) of Sri Lanka (United States)

Objective To revise morphological identification keys to the anophelines in Sri Lanka. Method Samples were collected from selected entomological sites in different districts in the country. Stage III and IV larvae were identified under a light microscope with an objective (×10) using standard larval keys developed for Sri Lankan anophelines. Key larval characters were recorded for each species based on original observations and previous usage in literature. Results This manuscript describes an illustrated key for the identification of 22 of 23 mosquitoes which are currently recognized as local anopheline species in Sri Lanka, as a guide to workers engaged in malaria surveillance and control in the country. Conclusions Revised morphological keys to the larval of these species may be helpful in easy and accurate identification at the field level.

Gunathilaka, Nayana; Fernando, Thilan; Hapugoda, Menaka; Abeyewickreme, Wimaladharma; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha



Sri Lanka president lubab sõjalõksus riiki tänapäeva tuua / Allan Espenberg  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Presidendivalimistest Sri Lankal. Uus president Mahinda Rajapaksa on valmis kohtuma tamilite mässu juhtidega ning arutama rahu taastamise võimalusi. Presidendi eesmärgid. Lisa: Pommirünnakud poliitikute vastu

Espenberg, Allan



Current Status of Marine Snakes from Jaffna Peninsula, Sri Lanka with Description of Hitherto Unrecorded Hydrophis fasciatus fasciatus (Schneider, 1799  

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Full Text Available As only a few study reported on sea snakes of Sri Lanka, a study was undertaken from June 2003 to November 2004 in the coast of Jaffna Peninsula which lies in the Northern part of Sri Lanka. Out of the 121 specimens examined, 9 species under 5 genera in two families were documented in the coastal waters of both Valvettiturai to Point Pedro and the Jaffna lagoon waters. This includes Hydrophis fasciatus fasciatus which is no longer known in Sri Lanka increased the number of Hydrophis species to 8, thus the total number of sea snakes inhabiting the coastal waters of Sri Lanka become 14 in Hydrophiidae. Of the sea snakes collected, Lapemis curtus (33.88% and Praescutata viperina (23.97% were the commonly recorded species. Least recorded species were H. lapemoides, H. fasciatus fasciatus, Kerilia jerdonii jerdonii and Acrochordus granulatus (0.83, 0.83, 2.47 and 2.47%, respectively.

K. Sivashanthini



Structure and rheology of the lithosphere below southeastern margin of India and Sri Lanka, and its conjugate segment of the east Antarctica: Implications on early breakup history and margin formation (United States)

The eastern continental margin of India has evolved as a consequence of rifting and breakup between India and east Antarctica during the early Cretaceous. Plate reconstruction models for the breakup of eastern Gondwanaland by many earlier workers have unambiguously placed the southeast margin of Sri Lanka and India together as a conjugate segment with the east Antarctica margin that extends from Gunnerus Ridge in the west to western Enderby basin in the east. In this study, we present results of integrated analysis of gravity, geoid, magnetic and seismic data from these two conjugate portions in order to examine the lithosphere structure and early seafloor spreading, style of breakup, continent-ocean boundary (COB) and rheological characteristics at these margins. The interpreted COB lies at a distance of 55-140 km on the side of southeast margin of Sri Lanka and India, whereas, it lies at a distance of 190-550 km on the side of east Antarctica margin. The seismic profiles and the constrained potential field models across these two segments do not show the existence of seaward dipping reflector sequences or magmatic underplating suggesting that these segments have not encountered major magmatic activity. While, significant crustal thinning/stretching is observed at the east Antarctic margin, the Cauvery offshore had experienced limited stretching with faulted Moho interface. Further, the conspicuous residual geoid low in the Cauvery offshore basin is inferred to be due to a continental crustal block. The modelled Lithosphere-Astenosphere Boundary (LAB) in these two margins is located around 110-120 km depth with slightly thicker lithosphere at the east Antarctica margin. In addition, the interpretation of magnetic anomalies provided structure of the oceanic crust generated through seafloor spreading processes with age and magnetization data constrained from the identified magnetic anomalies in the respective margins. Using the Bouguer coherence method, we computed spatial variations in effective elastic thickness (Te) at these margin segments. The estimated Te values at the Indian margin ranges between 5-8 km in the southeast of Sri Lanka to around 10-12 km in the Cauvery offshore which decrease further north to < 5 km in the Cauvery-Palar basin. Along the east Antarctic margin, the Te values ranges between 5-10 km in the Gunnerus ridge region, 35-40 km in the western Enderby basin which decrease further towards the central Enderby basin up to 20 km. In this study, the above results have been analyzed in terms of early breakup mechanism and subsequent evolution of these two conjugate segments.

Rao Gangumalla, Srinivasa; Radhakrishna, Munukutla



A morphologically distinct Phlebotomus argentipes population from active cutaneous leishmaniasis foci in central Sri Lanka  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Although the reported aetiological agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sri Lanka is Leishmania donovani, the sandfly vector remains unknown. Ninety-five sandflies, 60 females and 35 males, collected in six localities in the district of Matale, central Sri Lanka, close to current active transmis [...] sion foci of CL were examined for taxonomically relevant characteristics. Eleven diagnostic morphological characters for female sandflies were compared with measurements described for Indian and Sri Lankan sandflies, including the now recognised Phlebotomus argentipes sensu lato species complex. The mean morphometric measurements of collected female sandflies differed significantly from published values for P. argentipes morphospecies B, now re-identified as Phlebotomus annandalei from Delft Island and northern Sri Lanka, from recently re-identified P. argentipes s.s. sibling species and from Phlebotomus glaucus. Furthermore, analysis of underlying variation in the morphometric data through principal component analysis also illustrated differences between the population described herein and previously recognised members of the P. argentipes species complex. Collectively, these results suggest that a morphologically distinct population, perhaps most closely related to P. glaucus of the P. argentipess. I. species complex, exists in areas of active CL transmission. Thus, research is required to determine the ability of this population of flies to transmit cutaneous leishmaniasis.

Shalindra, Ranasinghe; Rhaiza DC, Maingon; Daniel P, Bray; Richard D, Ward; Chandani, Udagedara; Manel, Dissanayake; Vathsala, Jayasuriya; Nissanka K de, Silva.


Preliminary investigation of genetic characterization of native and endemic fowl types of Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus gallus) is generally considered to be main ancestor of the domestic fowl (Callus domesticus). However, it is also believed that other wild Callus species might have contributed to the modern genetic make-up of the domestic fowl, one wild species being the Ceylon Jungle Fowl (Gallus lafayetti), endemic to Sri Lanka, which could have contributed to the domestic stock of Sri Lankan native poultry. The present study was conducted in order to investigate the origin of native fowl in Sri Lanka and to establish genetic relationships among them and the Ceylon Jungle Fowl. Morphological characters of endemic, indigenous and exotic fowl types were recorded. These included Ceylon Jungle fowl; eleven types of native chicken from Sri Lanka; and two exotic chicken breeds (Cornish and Rhode Island Red). Blood samples were collected for DNA extraction. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was carried out using sixteen non-specific primers. The results of morphological characterization revealed many variations in plumage and colour pattern. Single and pea comb types were found in both native and exotic types of chicken. A prominent yellow colour marking on a red comb was a unique feature in Ceylon Jungle fowl. The presence of white spots in red earlobes was a distinguishing feature of all native chicken types. Sixteen non-specific primers were used in the study, and produced 22 polymorphic bands ranging from 500 to 1960 bp. Genetic similarity indices ranged from 0.5 to 1.1 in average genetic distance scale, indicating a broad genetic base in the samples studied. Cluster analysis revealed a clear separation of Ceylon Jungle Fowl from all other types studied, indicating that contribution in data analysis, and the Director and staff, National Zoological Gardens, Sri Lanka, for their help in sampling Ceylon Jungle Fowl. (author)




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Full Text Available Sri Lanka was badly affected by the tsunami that occurred on 26th December 2004. The tsunami destroyed about two-thirds of the Sri Lankan coastline and affected more than 1,000,000 people. It does not only affected the lives of the community, but also had a devastating effect on their housing and livelihoods. The overall loss of 100,000 or more houses due to the tsunami proved to be a major challenge to the emergency response teams and disaster planners. Although several major disasters of varying magnitudes have occurred in the world, the body of knowledge related to post-disaster housing reconstruction and rehabilitation appears fragmented and poorly integrated. This paper attempts to fill this theoretical gap by focusing on the extent to which good practice knowledge transfer helps in overcoming this problem for more effective and efficient delivery of post-tsunami housing in Sri Lanka. The paper applied knowledge transfer principles within the context of the two housing reconstruction strategies employed in post-tsunami housing reconstruction in Sri Lanka; namely donor-driven housing and owner driven housing. The results of this study reveal that the knowledge transfer within this context cannot be simply copied and inserted from one context without any localisation. Therefore, the paper proposes a high-level abstraction of the core principles of community engagement through participatory techniques associated with appropriate capacity and capability building techniques that will enable the various stakeholders to create a new application to suit the appropriate context of the transfer destination (post-tsunami context in Sri Lanka.

Bingunath Ingirige



Evaluation of physical activity among adults with diabetes mellitus from Sri Lanka (United States)

We evaluated the patterns of physical activity (PA) and the prevalence of physical inactivity among Sri Lankan adults with diabetes mellitus. Data were collected as part of a wider cross-sectional national study on diabetes in Sri Lanka. PA during the past week was assessed using the short version of the IPAQ. Overall prevalence of physical inactivity was 13.9%. Females (3091?±?2119) had a significantly higher mean weekly total MET minutes than males (2506?±?2084) (p?Moor ethnicity were more inactive compared to others. Adults who were physically active had significantly low waist and hip circumferences, BMI and systolic blood pressure.



Voormalige kindsoldaten in Sri Lanka, een onopgeloste erfenis van een bloedig conflict  

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Lucien Stopler & Georg Frerks discuss the plight of the Tamil ex-child soldiers in Sri Lanka, an unresolved heritage of a bloody war. In the wake of the defeat of the LTTE, the Sri Lankan government has not shown much effort in addressing the root causes of the conflict and in building peace. It has also largely ignored the re-integration of ex-child soldiers in society. In the period between 2002 till the end of 2007 there were over 6,200 reported cases of child recruitment in the LTTE and t...



"Education Is All about Opportunities, Isn't It?": A Biographical Perspective on Learning and Teaching English in Sri Lanka (United States)

In this article, David Hayes explores the language learning and teaching experiences of a teacher of English in Sri Lanka. He shows how the acquisition of English enabled the teacher to access the social capital available to speakers of English, which holds a divisive place in postcolonial Sri Lankan society. In his reflections on his career, this…

Hayes, David



Firm Size and Profitability: A Study of Listed Manufacturing Firms ed Manufacturing Firms in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of firm size on profitability of quoted manufacturing firms inSri Lanka. In this study, data of 15 companies which were active in Colombo Stock Exchange (CSE betweenthe years 2008 to 2012 has been used. As indicators of firm profitability, Return on Assets and Net Profit havebeen used whereas Total Assets and Total Sales have been utilized as indicators of firm size. Correlation andregression methods have been used in the empirical analysis. There is no indicative relationship between firmsize and profitability of listed manufacturing firms, the findings reveal. In addition, the results showed that firmsize has no profound impact on profitability of the listed manufacturing firms in Sri Lanka.

J. Aloy Niresh



Sri Lanka : un pays qui s’enfonce de nouveau dans la guerre  

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Full Text Available Le retrait unilatéral de l’accord de cessez-le-feu par le Président Rajapakse marque le retour officiel à l’état de guerre à Sri Lanka. L’île est meurtrie par les affrontements opposant l’armée gouvernementale aux militants séparatistes tamouls. Les civils se retrouvent encore prisonniers du cynisme des belligérants, qui préfèrent ignorer les répercussions de leurs actes pour arriver à leur fin, quitte à mettre en danger l’harmonie intercommunautaire dans l’île.  President Rajapakse’s decision to withdraw from the cease-fire agreement marks the official return to state of war in Sri Lanka. The island has immensely suffered by clashes between government forces and tamil separatist militants. Once again, the civilians are prisoners of cynicism of belligerents, those prefer ignoring the consequences of their acts to archieve their goal, even if it means endangering intercultural harmony in the island.

Delon Madavan



A preliminary geochemical study of sedimentary gem deposits of Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The geochemical abundances of 22 elements from the < 0.63 ?m fraction of gem-bearing alluvial gravel from the main gem fields of Sri Lanka have been studied. These abundances are compared with those in the probable source rocks. Be and Zr are generally enriched in the gem-bearing sediments compared with most alkali and alkaline earths, which are depleted. When compared to the metal contents of average shales, the < 0.63 ?m fraction of the gem sediments of Sri Lanka is enriched in Be, Zr, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn. The charnockites and the gneisses of the area are rich in most of these elements and in the gem-bearing sediments, they are presumably found in diadochic substitution in minerals, or adsorbed by a variety of clay minerals, secondary Fe and Mn hydroxides and oxides and primary minerals. (author)



Distribution pattern of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter (pfcrt) gene haplotypes in Sri Lanka 1996-2006  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract. Widespread antimalarial resistance has been a barrier to malaria elimination efforts in Sri Lanka. Analysis of genetic markers in historic parasites may uncover trends in the spread of resistance. We examined the frequency of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter (pfcrt; codons 72-76) haplotypes in Sri Lanka in 1996-1998 and 2004-2006 using a high-resolution melting assay. Among 59 samples from 1996 to 1998, we detected the SVMNT (86%), CVMNK (10%), and CVIET (2%) haplotypes, with a positive trend in SVMNT and a negative trend in CVMNK frequency (P = 0.004) over time. Among 24 samples from 2004 to 2006, we observed only the SVMNT haplotype. This finding indicates selection for the SVMNT haplotype over time and its possible fixation in the population.

Zhang, Jenny J; Senaratne, Tharanga N



The impact of electricity supply on economic growth in Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Yang (Energy Econ. 22 (2000) 309) has found a bi-directional causal relationship between gross domestic product and electricity consumption in Taiwan, ROC. This study applies Yang's model to examine the impact of electricity supply on economic growth in Sri Lanka. Morimoto and Hope (An extended CBA model of hydro projects in Sri Lanka (2001)) have found that the expected increase in economic output due to increased electricity supply (parameter EO) plays a crucial role in their cost benefit analysis model. This study shows that the application of Yang's regression analysis is one possible approach to estimate a better range for the parameter EO. The estimated figure is that an extra output of Rs. 88000-137000 ($US1120-1740) for every 1 MWh increase in electricity supply.

Morimoto, Risako; Hope, Chris [Judge Institute of Management Studies, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1AG (United Kingdom)



Local endemism within the Western Ghats-sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot. (United States)

The apparent biotic affinities between the mainland and the island in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot have been interpreted as the result of frequent migrations during recent periods of low sea level. We show, using molecular phylogenies of two invertebrate and four vertebrate groups, that biotic interchange between these areas has been much more limited than hitherto assumed. Despite several extended periods of land connection during the past 500,000 years, Sri Lanka has maintained a fauna that is largely distinct from that of the Indian mainland. Future conservation programs for the subcontinent should take into account such patterns of local endemism at the finest scale at which they may occur. PMID:15486298

Bossuyt, Franky; Meegaskumbura, Madhava; Beenaerts, Natalie; Gower, David J; Pethiyagoda, Rohan; Roelants, Kim; Mannaert, An; Wilkinson, Mark; Bahir, Mohomed M; Manamendra-Arachchi, Kelum; Ng, Peter K L; Schneider, Christopher J; Oommen, Oommen V; Milinkovitch, Michel C



Preliminary investigation on genetic characterization of native and endemic fowl types in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Sri Lanka is a tropical island, which shelters a large number and variety of wild as well as domesticated animals. As an oceanic island Sri Lanka has a high percentage of endemic species that have evolved because of the isolation, but they are particularly vulnerable. Its location, astride the sea routes between the east and west throughout the history, has exposed the country to be a recipient of variety of animal species transported throughout the world. This history had made the gene pool of native animals very unique and diverse. In this context native poultry species of Sri Lanka demonstrate an incomparable scenario in evolution of domestic poultry species. According to one of the hypotheses regarding the evolution of poultry, the Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus gallus) is considered as the main ancestor of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus). However, it is also believed that the domestic fowl descent from different ancestral groups, one of which is Ceylon Jungle Fowl. Ceylon Jungle Fowl (Gallus laffeyatti) is endemic to Sri Lanka. Nevertheless, different native fowl types found in Sri Lanka resemble varying characteristics of Asiatic fowl. However, except for the few studies on G. laffeyatti there is hardly any information available on the origin of Sri Lankan native fowl. Also there is only one investigation done so far on the relationship of the Ceylon Jungle Fowl and native fowl population in Sri Lanka. Therefore, the present study was conducted, in order to investigate the origin of native fowl in Sri Lanka and to find out the genetic relationship among them. Observations of morphological characters of endemic, indigenous and exotic fowl types were carried out using Ceylon Jungle fowl, eleven types of native chicken and two exotic chicken breeds (Cornish and Rhode Island Red). Blood samples for DNA extraction were collected from the above three categories of chicken. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis were carried out using sixteen non-specific primers. The results of morphological characterization revealed many variations in plumage color pattern. Single and pea comb types were found in both native and exotic types of chicken. A prominent yellow color marking on red color comb was a unique feature in Ceylon Jungle fowl. In the sample tested only one indigenous chicken type showed feathered shank character. Another distinguishing feature observed was the presence of white spot in red color earlobes of all native chicken types except naked neck type, which is believed to be a cross of exotic and indigenous. Sixteen non-specific primers used in the study produced 22 polymorphic bands ranging from 500 base pair (bp) to 1957.6 bp. There were two monomorphic bands common to all chicken types tested. Genetic similarity coefficient detected according to Noeingen Index ranged from 0.5 to 1.1 indicating a wide genetic base of tested samples of chicken. According to the results of cluster analysis there was a clear separation of Ceylon Jungle fowl from the other chicken types used in the study. This indicates that there was an early separation and divergent evolution of Ceylon Jungle fowl from all the other domestic chicken types tested. It appears that the contribution of Ceylon Jungle Fowl in development of Sri Lankan native chicken is minute or very marginal. However, the present study was carried out with limited sample size and from the present results it can be confirmed that RAPD is an effective method, though the repeatability is low, in genetic characterization of animal populations with wide genetic basis. (author)



Unmarried women’s ways of facing single motherhood in Sri Lanka – a qualitative interview study  

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Background: In Sri Lanka, motherhood within marriage is highly valued. Sex out of wedlock is socially unacceptable and can create serious public health problems such as illegal abortions, suicide and infanticide, and single motherhood as a result of premarital sex is considered shameful. The way unmarried women facing single motherhood reflect on and make use of their agency in their social environments characterised by limited social and financial support has consequences for the health and ...

Jordal, Malin; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Olsson, Pia



Prevalence and insecticide susceptibility of dengue vectors in the district of Batticaloa in eastern Sri Lanka  

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Unprecedented incidences of dengue have been reported in Sri Lanka in recent years. The district of Batticaloa, which was devastated by the 2004 Asian tsunami, is one of the districts affected by dengue. One option to curtail this disease is to implement appropriate vector control measures. A nine-month study was carried out within the Batticaloa Municipal Council limit from April to December 2008. Larval collections were conducted fortnightly using conventional ovitraps for nine months cover...

Dharshini, Sangaralingam; Vinobaba, Muthuladchumy; Jude, Pavilupillai J.; Karunaratne, S. H. P. Parakrama; Surendran, Sinnathamby N.



Histopathological diagnosis of myocarditis in a dengue outbreak in Sri Lanka, 2009  

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Abstract Background In 2009, an outbreak of dengue caused high fatality in Sri Lanka. We conducted 5 autopsies of clinically suspected myocarditis cases at the General Hospital, Peradeniya to describe the histopathology of the heart and other organs. Methods The diagnosis of dengue was confirmed with specific IgM and IgG ELISA, HAI and RT-PCR techniques. The histology was done in tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Results Of the 31...

Gad, Weerakoon Kosala; Am, Kularatne Senanayake; Edussuriya Deepthika H; Ka, Kodikara Sarachchandra; Pg, Gunatilake Laxman; Pinto Vasanti G; Seneviratne Ashoka B; Gunasena Sunethra



Trade agreements between developing countries: a case study of Pakistan - Sri Lanka free trade agreement  

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This paper assesses the pre and post Free Trade Agreement (FTA) pattern in bilateral trade between Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Besides the usual direction of trade analysis we also use general and partial equilibrium approaches in order to evaluate the true potential of this FTA. Our results reveal an increase in welfare and efficiency for both countries. However export basket has not changed much since pre-FTA period. This calls for creating awareness about the FTA and putting in place a consult...



Factors influencing household nutritional status in relation to increasing food prices in Kandy, Sri Lanka  

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The food crisis of 2008 exacerbated the nutritional insecurity of poor people around the world. Still today, unprecedented numbers of people do not have access to food because of insufficient economic potential. Sri Lanka is a low income food deficit country which has, until recently experienced civil war, and has high numbers of malnourished people. The objective of this thesis was to identify factors that influence a households susceptibility to food insecurity and to determine how househo...

Nelson, Hana



Estimation of N-2 Fixation in four tropical leguminous trees in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DiNitrogen-fixing capacity of four species of leguminous trees of Sri Lanka (Abarema bigemina, Adenanthera bicolor, Humboldtia laurifolia and Pericopsis mooniana) by analyzing their xylem sap and by taking acetylene reducyion (AR) measurements of nodulated roots of all species, except A.bicolor which had no nodules. Based on the results of the study on P.mooniana, a method to determine the C2H2/N2 conversion factor by analysing the total NH2 compounds is being developed



Factors controlling January-April rainfall over southern India and Sri Lanka (United States)

Most of the annual rainfall over India occurs during the Southwest (June-September) and Northeast (October-December) monsoon periods. In March 2008, however, Southern peninsular India and Sri Lanka received the largest rainfall anomaly on record since 1979, with amplitude comparable to summer-monsoon interannual anomalies. This anomalous rainfall appeared to be modulated at intraseasonal timescale by the Madden Julian Oscillation, and was synchronous with a decaying La Niña event in the Pacific Ocean. Was this a coincidence or indicative of a teleconnection pattern? In this paper, we explore factors controlling rainfall over southern India and Sri Lanka between January and April, i.e. outside of the southwest and northeast monsoons. This period accounts for 20% of annual precipitation over Sri Lanka and 10% over the southern Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Interannual variability is strong (about 40% of the January-April climatology). Intraseasonal rainfall anomalies over southern India and Sri Lanka are significantly associated with equatorial eastward propagation, characteristic of the Madden Julian Oscillation. At the interannual timescale, we find a clear connection with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO); with El Niños being associated with decreased rainfall (correlation of -0.46 significant at the 98% level). There is also a significant link with local SST anomalies over the Indian Ocean, and in particular with the inter-hemispheric sea surface temperature (SST) gradient over the Indian Ocean (with colder SST south of the equator being conducive to more rainfall, correlation of 0.55 significant at the 99% level). La Niñas/cold SSTs south of the equator tend to have a larger impact than El Niños. We discuss two possible mechanisms that could explain these statistical relationships: (1) subsidence over southern India remotely forced by Pacific SST anomalies; (2) impact of ENSO-forced regional Indian Ocean SST anomalies on convection. However, the length of the observational record does not allow distinguishing between these two mechanisms in a statistically significant manner.

Vialard, J.; Terray, P.; Duvel, J.-P.; Nanjundiah, R. S.; Shenoi, S. S. C.; Shankar, D.



Letters From Batticaloa : TMVP's Emergence and the Transmission of Conflict in Eastern Sri Lanka  

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In March 2004 a man known as Karuna Amman announced his defection from the LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam), an armed group seeking the formation of an independent Tamil state in the north and east of Sri Lanka. Six months after his defection, Karuna launched a new political movement – the Tamil Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal (TMVP) [Tamil People Linberation Tigers] - entering mainstream politics while still engaged in counterinsurgency operations against his former rebel partners. Five y...

Sanchez Meertens, A.



Symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescent students; a perspective from Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Sri Lanka recorded an extraordinary high suicide rate for adolescents aged 15 - 19 in the early 1990s (46.5/100,000. With this in perspective, the Ministry of Health in Sri Lanka recommends school programmes for adolescents by mental health units of local hospitals. Methods We conducted cross sectional surveys to screen for symptoms of anxiety and depression among students aged 14 - 18 during school mental health programmes. Two schools were randomly selected within the Ratnapura municipality (urban population of approx. 50,000, Sri Lanka and all students aged 14-18 were assessed with self administered (pre tested, Sinhalese translations questionnaires [Center for epidemiologic studies depression scale, Anxiety screening test of suicide and mental health association international]. Results A total of 445 students were assessed (male-54.4%, female 45.6%. Thirty six percent screened positive for depression (mild depression-17%, severe depression-19% and 28% screened positive for severe anxiety. Females screened positive for depression and anxiety significantly more than the males (p = 0.0001, 0.005 respectively. Students in classes facing barrier examinations at the end of the year had the highest positivity rates. Examination related issues (36% were the most commonly cited problem. Recommendations It is recommended that: 1. School mental health development programmes in Sri Lanka concentrate more on reducing examination related stress, and in particular focus on the female students 2. Policy decisions are made to reduce competition for higher education 3. A nationally coordinated survey on mental health of adolescent students is carried out utilizing the island-wide network of medical officers of mental health.

Wijeratne Thilina



Peasant in transition : agrarian society in Western Sri Lanka under Dutch rule, 1740-1800  

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This thesis investigates the structural changes in the agrarian society in Western parts of Sri Lanka as seen in the mid and late eighteenth century in the context of the encounter with the Dutch United East India Company (VOC) administration. It attempts to understand the developments in the period from the vantage point of the peasantry, particularly by looking at the ways in which the peasants were affected by the Dutch colonial intervention and how they adjusted themselves to the changing...



A descriptive profile of ?-thalassaemia mutations in India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka  

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Thalassaemia is a common and debilitating autosomal recessive disorder affecting many populations in South Asia. To date, efforts to create a regional profile of ?-thalassaemia mutations have largely concentrated on the populations of India. The present study updates and expands an earlier profile of ?-thalassaemia mutations in India, and incorporates comparable data from Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Despite limited data availability, clear patterns of historical and cultural population movement...

Black, M. L.; Sinha, S.; Agarwal, S.; Colah, R.; Das, R.; Bellgard, M.; Bittles, A. H.



Human Parechovirus Infection in Children Hospitalized with Acute Gastroenteritis in Sri Lanka?  

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Of 362 fecal specimens collected from infants and children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Sri Lanka from September 2005 to August 2006, 30 (8.3%) were positive for human parechovirus (HPeV). Six different HPeV genotypes, including HPeV1, -3, -4, -5, -10, and -11, were identified, of these, HPeV11 was reported for the first time.

Pham, Ngan Thi Kim; Takanashi, Sayaka; Tran, Dinh Nguyen; Trinh, Quang Duy; Abeysekera, Chandra; Abeygunawardene, Asiri; Khamrin, Pattara; Okitsu, Shoko; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Ushijima, Hiroshi



Acceptability and Effect of a Community-Based Alcohol Education Program in Rural Sri Lanka  

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Aims: To assess the effectiveness and acceptability of a brief community-based educational program on changing the drinking pattern of alcohol in a rural community. Methods: A longitudinal cohort study was carried out in two rural villages in Sri Lanka. One randomly selected village received a community education program that utilized street dramas, poster campaigns, leaflets and individual and group discussions. The control village had no intervention during this period. The Alcohol Use Diso...

Siriwardhana, P.; Dawson, A. H.; Abeyasinge, R.



Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology in Sri Lanka: is cadmium a likely cause?  

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Abstract Background The rising prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and subsequent end stage renal failure necessitating renal replacement therapy has profound consequences for affected individuals and health care resources. This community based study was conducted to identify potential predictors of microalbuminuria in a randomly selected sample of adults from the North Central Province (NCP) of Sri Lanka, where the burden of CKD is pronounced and the underlying cause ...

Wanigasuriya Kamani P; Peiris-John Roshini J; Wickremasinghe Rajitha



Medical students’ willingness to work in post-conflict areas: A qualitative study in Sri Lanka  

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Background: The north-east (NE) region of Sri Lanka observed a critical health workers’ shortage after the long-lasting armed conflict. This study aimed to explore medical students’ attitudes towards working in the NE and to identify factors determining such attitudes. Methods: A semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted in two medical schools, one in the NE and the other near the capital, in October 2004. Data were qualitatively analysed using the framework ap...

Azeem Dad Gadi; Michiyo Higuchi; Narada Warnasuriya; Leo Kawaguchi; Atsuko Aoyama



Business training and female enterprise start-up, growth, and dynamics: Experimental evidence from Sri Lanka  

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We conduct a randomized experiment in Sri Lanka to measure the impact of the most commonly used business training course in developing countries, the Start-and-Improve Your Business (SIYB) program. In contrast to existing business training evaluations which are restricted to microfinance clients, we consider two more representative groups: a random sample of women operating subsistence enterprises, and a random sample of women who are out of the labor force but interested in starting a busine...



Soil moisture variability and its possible impact on the atmosphere : A case in Sri Lanka  

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Time series analyses of soil moisture, rainfall, air temperature and other hydrometeorological components observed at inland area of Sri Lanka in 1994 were carried out. Auto-correlation analysis gives a time scale from 10 to 30 days as persistency of soil moisture anomaly, which is considerably small relative to that under midlatitude temperate climate and is shorter than that for atmospheric temperature. Two dominant periodicities are detected from spectral analysis : 45-60-day period (espec...

Yamanaka, Tsutomu; Kaihotsu, Ichirow; Shimada, Jun; Nandakumar, Vythilingam; ??, ?.; ??, ??; ??, ?.



Unmarried women's ways of facing single motherhood in Sri Lanka : a qualitative interview study  

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Background: In Sri Lanka, motherhood within marriage is highly valued. Sex out of wedlock is socially unacceptable and can create serious public health problems such as illegal abortions, suicide and infanticide, and single motherhood as a result of premarital sex is considered shameful. The way unmarried women facing single motherhood reflect on and make use of their agency in their social environments characterised by limited social and financial support has consequences for the health and ...

Jordal, Malin; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Olsson, Pia



Countries in violent conflict and aid strategies:The case of Sri Lanka  

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In countries with an ongoing violent conflict aid donors are confronted by four sets of issues: How the volume and orientation of the program may influence a peace process; whether development efforts may be undertaken in rebel controlled territories; and how an early rehabilitation program may affect the long term process. In this article we analyze the strategies applied in Sri Lanka by donors applying a traditional development approach and those following a more comprehensive approach. Dil...

Ofstad, Arve



Environmental exposures and their genetic or environmental contribution to depression and fatigue: a twin study in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There is very little genetically informative research identifying true environmental risks for psychiatric conditions. These may be best explored in regions with diverse environmental exposures. The current study aimed to explore similarities and differences in such risks contributing to depression and fatigue. Methods Home interviews assessed depression (lifetime-ever, fatigue and environmental exposures in 4,024 randomly selected twins from a population-based register in the Colombo district of Sri Lanka. Results Early school leaving and standard of living showed environmentally-mediated effects on depression, in men. In women, life events were associated with depression partly through genetic pathways (however, the temporal order is consistent with life events being an outcome of depression, as well as the other way around. For fatigue, there were environmentally mediated effects (through early school leaving and life events and strong suggestions of family-environmental influences. Conclusions Compared to previous studies from higher-income countries, novel environmentally-mediated risk factors for depression and fatigue were identified in Sri Lanka. But as seen elsewhere, the association between life events and depression was partially genetically mediated in women. These results have implications for understanding environmental mechanisms around the world.

Kovas Yulia



Inequalities and externalities of power sector: A case of Broadlands hydropower project in Sri Lanka  

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The objective of the paper is to estimate environmental externalities related to a run of river project in Sri Lanka and to investigate inequity in distribution of impacts among different social groups. Diversion of the river resulted in loss of water sports (for high-income groups both local and remote), loss of historical monuments (for remote high-income groups) and recreation losses (for local poor). Removal of forest cover leads to loss of non-timber products (for local poor) and carbon storage (for remote high- and low-income groups). Loss of home garden productivity was borne by local poor groups. Benefit of the project, generation of 145 GWh annually, was a gain for the grid connected groups. The impacts were valued using various valuation methods. The base case of the cost benefit analysis resulted in NPV of US$ 11,335,730. When distributional weights are applied for different income groups, both the sign and magnitude of net benefits change. In order to be viable, the project needs diversion of at least 9% of generated electricity to the poorest households in the country. Implications for energy policy towards reducing externality and inequality impacts are also discussed.



Towards e-learning for all in Sri Lanka - progress and problems insome selected Sri Lankan 21st century initiatives  

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In the 21st century Sri Lanka and many other regions in Asia have shown a rapid but heterogeneous development in the field of Information and Communications Technology (ICT).The difference in impact on urban regions and rural areas has sometimes been described as the internal digital divide. At the same time as the gap has diminished between cities in developing countries and the developed world the internal development gap has increased in many Asian countries. How can this gap be bridged? I...

Mozelius, Peter; Hewagamage, K. P.; Hansson, Henrik



Ethics of cancer palliative care in Sri Lanka. A cross- cultural perspective.  

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Full Text Available The diagnosis of cancer is associated with an unexpected breakdown of the physical, psychological and social well being. In addition to cancer related physical outcomes, cross-cultural issues are known to hasten patients’ clinical deterioration and can impact upon orientation as a healthy human being in society. As members of a developing nation in the second world, to provide patient oriented quality care while maintaining high standards of ethical practice, health care workers in Sri Lanka have to be culturally competent. In Sri Lanka, the cross-cultural ethical issues related to patients with a diagnosis of cancer include, awareness of one’s own cultural identity, gaining knowledge of different cultural issues, verbal and non verbal communication skills, respect for patients’ autonomy, involvement of the family and the relatives, addressing moral and spiritual backgrounds, development of effective communication skills and provision of social support. Therefore in the management of cancer patients in Sri Lanka, cultural issues should be given a high priority to maintain ethical standards and quality in palliative care. Culturally competent Health care workers safeguard the rights of patients, as well as providing optimal medical and surgical care.

Dayasiri MBKC



Consultation liaison psychiatry in Sri Lanka: a case for sub-specialisation  

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Full Text Available Liaison psychiatry has not been established in Sri Lanka as a sub-speciality. However many psychiatrists who work in general hospital settings are required to do liaison work. Patterns of referrals to a university psychiatry liaison unit were studied in order to identify the requirements in training for liaison psychiatry in Sri Lanka. A retrospective analysis of records of all new patients registered during a six month period from 1st January 2010 in the liaison unit of the University Psychiatry Unit, Colombo was carried out. A total of 1079 patients were referred to the liaison unit during this period. The commonest reason for referral was assessment of patients who were admitted to medical or surgical wards after deliberate self harm. The variety of clinical conditions referred to liaison units highlight that psychiatry trainees need a broad knowledge of general medicine and a wide repertoire of clinical and other skills to effectively manage their patients. Specialised liaison units should be started in the general hospitals and should form the nucleus for training and establishing the field of consultationliaison psychiatry as a subspecialty in Sri Lanka.

Raveen Hanwella



Information and Communication Technology: A Comparison of Pakistan and Sri-Lanka  

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Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to examine the information and communication technology sector in Pakistan and Sri-Lanka because they are among top five countries in ICT in the South Asian region. The research is helpful for decision makers to channel ICT related resources where they are required the most. ICT oriented data have been collected by International Telecommunication Union but no comparison exists between the countries included in the research. Therefore, the sources of data are ITU who has identified twenty three parameters individually; they have been rearranged under three subjects: ICT infrastructure, usage and economic impact on the economies of the countries concerned. It is found that the infrastructure of Sri-Lanka is better than Pakistan while both countries are using their resources equally. However, the economic impacts are less visible in Pakistan than its counterpart. Overall the ICT score of Sri Lanka is better than Pakistan. It suggests that policy makers in both nations have to rethink to deploy their resources to take maximum benefit as par to the international standards.

Javed Iqbal



Aetiology of fatigue in Sri Lanka and its overlap with depression† (United States)

Background Fatigue is a common symptom in Western high-income countries but is often medically unexplained and little is known about its presentation in other populations. Aims To explore the epidemiology and aetiology of fatigue in Sri Lanka, and of its overlap with depression. Method A total of 4024 randomly selected twins from a population-based register in Sri Lanka (Colombo district) completed home interviews including the Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire. Results The prevalence of fatigue was similar to that in other countries, although prolonged fatigue may be less common. There was substantial comorbidity with a screen for lifetime depression. Non-shared environmental factors made the largest contributions, although genetic/family factors also contributed. The aetiology appeared consistent across the spectrum of severity. Conclusions The aetiology of fatigue is broadly similar in Sri Lanka and Western high-income countries. Abnormal experiences of fatigue appear to be the extreme form of more common fatigue, rather than representing independent entities with different genetic or environmental risk factors.

Ball, Harriet A.; Sumathipala, Athula; Siribaddana, Sisira H.; Kovas, Yulia; Glozier, Nick; McGuffin, Peter; Hotopf, Matthew



The economic, demographic, sociocultural and political setting for emigration from Sri Lanka. (United States)

This study of emigration from Sri Lanka is introduced by a brief review of the situation during the colonial period and an overview of recent migration experience. The second section of the paper deals with data collection and sources for labor migration, political migration, and estimates of total net migration. The third section looks at economic and demographic trends in terms of the growth of the economy, population growth and social well-being, the growth of the labor force, unemployment, the structure of the work force, internal migration and access to agricultural lands, and income distribution and poverty. The sociocultural setting is then explored by considering exposure to the international environment, ethnicity and cultural affinity, the formation of information and job placement networks, the supportive role of the family, and the impact of success and failure. Moving on the influence of the political setting, the paper then discusses the government policy of foreign employment promotion as well as the influence of political developments on migration. In conclusion, the paper notes that future demand for domestic service workers will likely increase, and that Sri Lanka will continue to have a surplus of workers to fill this demand until the end of the 1990s, when a tightening domestic labor market and increased real wages will ease the push for migration. Political factors will continue to favor migration, however, unless a liberal democratic regime becomes the governing force in Sri Lanka. PMID:12347013

Gunatilleke, G



Estimates of dengue force of infection in children in Colombo, Sri Lanka. (United States)

Dengue is the most important vector-borne viral disease worldwide and a major cause of childhood fever burden in Sri Lanka, which has experienced a number of large epidemics in the past decade. Despite this, data on the burden and transmission of dengue virus in the Indian Subcontinent are lacking. As part of a longitudinal fever surveillance study, we conducted a dengue seroprevalence survey among children aged <12 years in Colombo, Sri Lanka. We used a catalytic model to estimate the risk of primary infection among seronegative children. Over 50% of children had IgG antibodies to dengue virus and seroprevalence increased with age. The risk of primary infection was 14.1% per year (95% CI: 12.7%-15.6%), indicating that among initially seronegative children, approximately 1 in 7 experience their first infection within 12 months. There was weak evidence to suggest that the force of primary infection could be lower for children aged 6 years and above. We estimate that there are approximately 30 primary dengue infections among children <12 years in the community for every case notified to national surveillance, although this ratio is closer to 100:1 among infants. Dengue represents a considerable infection burden among children in urban Sri Lanka, with levels of transmission comparable to those in the more established epidemics of Southeast Asia. PMID:23755315

Tam, Clarence C; Tissera, Hasitha; de Silva, Aravinda M; De Silva, Aruna Dharshan; Margolis, Harold S; Amarasinge, Ananda



Liquidity Management and Profitability: A Case Study of Listed Manufacturing Companies in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available — Liquidity management and profitability are very important issues in the growth and survival of business and the ability to handle the trade-off between the two a source of concern for financial managers.The study is also aimed at finding the effect of changes in liquidity levels on profitability of manufacturing companies in Sri Lanka. The study covered listed manufacturing companies in Sri Lanka over a period of past 5 years from 2008 to 2012. Correlation and regression analysis were used in the analysis and findings suggest that there is a significant relationship exists between liquidity and profitability among the listed manufacturing companies in Sri Lanka. Suggested that Inventory Sales Period (ISP, Current Ratio (CRand are significantly correlated with Return on Asset (ROA, Operating Cash Flow Ratio (OCFRare significantly correlated with Return on Equity (ROE 5 percent level of significance. At the same time ISP and OCFR also are significantly correlated with ROA, Creditors Payment Period (CPP also is significantly correlated with ROE at 1 percent level of significance.




Farmers Characteristics and Its Influencing on Loans Resettlement Decision in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of socio-economic characteristics of the farmers and its impact on their loans resettlement behavior in the People’s Bank, Puttalam branch in Sri Lanka. Secondary data were collected from the bank officials and the data were analyzed with 100 applicants who are cultivating paddy as a major crop and other field crops during the Maha and Yala season 2011/2012. This study was analyzed using descriptive statistics, Tobit model and in addition to that elasticity of the loan repayment ratio also measured. The estimated Tobit regression model indicated that family members and secondary education were significantly positive influence on the farmers’ repayment behavior while loan disbursement has negative influence on their behavior in Sri Lanka. Other independent variables namely gender, age, civil status, major crops, income and higher level of education of the beneficiaries were not statistically significant influence on the farmers’ behavior in the above bank branch in Sri Lanka. The elasticity of the loan repayment performance for the variables also were calculated at the mean values and according to that number of family members, size of loans and secondary education were statistically significant. The overall results revealed that, the bank managers should considered the above characters of the borrowers to increase the probability of repayment ratio and thus it will help them to improve the efficiency of lending decision of the bank loans in future.

Thayaparan Aruppillai



Pass through Effect of Exchange Rate and Monetary Policy in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available This study examined the effectiveness of monetary policy in targeting exchange rate shock between different periods in Sri Lanka. After the trade liberalization in 1977, Sri Lanka became a small open economy. Therefore, monetary policy targeting the exchange rate also became an important issue. Sri Lanka introduced floating exchange rate system in 1990. A Vector Error Correction model and impulse response function were estimated to examine the effectiveness of monetary policy in targeting exchange rate shock for whole period from 1977 to 2007 and also separately for the periods from 1977 to 1990 and from 1990 to 2007. The results show that monetary policy is targeting exchange rate much for recent period but not targeting inflation. Inflation rate was high in the recent period. Central bank was purchasing bonds issued by the government to monetize defense spending and to increase the salaries of government employees in this period for political purpose, hence, leading to inflation and monetary policy distortion. Economic growth may be declined in long term if monetary policy is not operating optimally on targeting inflation and exchange rate.

Sooriyakumar Krishnapillai



Development of a Community Based Web-Mobile Platform (CBWMP for diabetes care in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic disease with no permanent cure. Sri Lanka is placed among the countries with the highest diabetes prevalence rates in the world (ie. 2.8 million Sri Lankans have diabetes or pre-diabetes, and most importantly, a significant proportions of the population is yet to be diagnosed. Patients with diabetes need lifelong care to prevent complications which further impose a significant burden on the country’s expenditure on healthcare. Moreover, patients need to maintain constant contact with the healthcare provider for the optimal management of diabetes. However, such arrangement is often costly and time consuming and therefore it ultimately aggravates the burden to patients, the healthcare system and the economy.With the development of telecommunication technologies, Telemedicine (i.e. the use of Information Communication Technology to provide healthcare at a distance has gained attention. Telemedicine can enhance communication between patient and healthcare provider without needing physical presence in one place. Telemedicine can link healthcare professionals from different corners of the globe to share knowledge and expertise. Moreover, evidence is surfacing to suggest that the telemedicine would be a viable alternative to conventional care.This article showcases a Sri Lankan study which describes the development of a Telemedicine system for Sri Lanka - Community Based Web-Mobile Platform (CBWMP. The concept of the platform is to maintain an electronic Personal Health Record (e-PHR in order to provide communication between different parties to optimise patient health information flow and also to coordinate the continuity of care at minimal cost. The CBWMP - integrated mobile phones and e-PHR - is capable of delivering diabetes education, co-ordinating effective management, and screening diabetes status. To avoid any cultural marginalisation, all the services can be accessed in the user’s preferred native language in Sri Lanka viz. Sinhala, Tamil, and English.

Nishan Siriwardena



Theorising the practice of language mixing in music: an interdisciplinary (linguistic and musicological) investigation of Sri Lanka’s leading genre of contemporary popular song and its community.  

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This thesis represents the first ever study of Sri Lanka’s leading genre of contemporary popular song covering a period of over twelve years, and how its artists and principal audience interpolate ‘global’ and ‘local’ (linguistic and musical) elements in their invention and negotiation of the genre. The central objective is to articulate the collective linguistic identity of the genre’s artists and principal audience. They are shown to constitute a community of over...

Ekanayaka, Tanya Nissani Ilangakkone



Application of Modis Data to Assess the Latest Forest Cover Changes of Sri Lanka (United States)

Assessing forest cover of Sri Lanka is becoming important to lower the pressure on forest lands as well as man-elephant conflicts. Furthermore, the land access to north-east Sri Lanka after the end of 30 years long civil war has increased the need of regularly updated land cover information for proper planning. This study produced an assessment of the forest cover of Sri Lanka using two satellite data based maps within 23 years of time span. For the old forest cover map, the study used one of the first island-wide digital land cover classification produced by the main author in 1988. The old land cover classification was produced at 80 m spatial resolution, using Landsat MSS data. A previously published another study by the author has investigated the application feasibility of MODIS and Landsat MSS imagery for a selected sub-section of Sri Lanka to identify the forest cover changes. Through the light of these two studies, the assessment was conducted to investigate the application possibility of MODIS 250 m over a small island like Sri Lanka. The relation between the definition of forest in the study and spatial resolution of the used satellite data sets were considered since the 2012 map was based on MODIS data. The forest cover map of 1988 was interpolated into 250 m spatial resolution to integrate with the GIS data base. The results demonstrated the advantages as well as disadvantages of MODIS data in a study at this scale. The successful monitoring of forest is largely depending on the possibility to update the field conditions at regular basis. Freely available MODIS data provides a very valuable set of information of relatively large green patches on the ground at relatively real-time basis. Based on the changes of forest cover from 1988 to 2012, the study recommends the use of MODIS data as a resalable method to forest assessment and to identify hotspots to be re-investigated. It's noteworthy to mention the possibility of uncounted small isolated pockets of forest, or sub-pixel size forest patches when MODIS 250 m x 250 m data used in small regions.

Perera, K.; Herath, S.; Apan, A.; Tateishi, R.



International Enterprise Education in Sri Lanka: A Blended Approach (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how enterprise education was adapted from a UK higher education institution (HEI) setting into an international context through collaboration with two Sri Lankan universities. It demonstrates the value of enterprise education in different cultures, and presents learning from the challenges faced by…

Kasturiratne, Dulekha; Lean, Jonathan; Phippen, Andy



Staffing Practices in the Private Sector in Sri Lanka (United States)

Purpose: This paper seeks to present and discuss the findings of a study of staffing practices in the Sri Lankan private sector with particular reference to junior level managerial jobs. The scope of staffing practices consisted of six major areas, namely the usage of information from job analysis in staffing, the sources of labour, selection…

Wickramasinghe, Vathsala



The Pearl of Great Price: Achieving Equitable Access to Primary and Secondary Education and Enhancing Learning in Sri Lanka. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 29 (United States)

The experience of public policy in Sri Lanka has had a profound impact on the thinking of the global development community in relation to the role of education in economic development. In particular, the example of Sri Lanka helped to persuade policy makers around the world that governments can successfully develop a general education system to…

Aturupane, Harsha



Diffusion of a Sustainable Farming Technique in Sri Lanka: An Agent-Based Modeling Approach (United States)

We live in a changing world - anthropogenic climate change is disrupting historic climate patterns and social structures are shifting as large scale population growth and massive migrations place unprecedented strain on natural and social resources. Agriculture in many countries is affected by these changes in the social and natural environments. In Sri Lanka, rice farmers in the Mahaweli River watershed have seen increases in temperature and decreases in precipitation. In addition, a government led resettlement project has altered the demographics and social practices in villages throughout the watershed. These changes have the potential to impact rice yields in a country where self-sufficiency in rice production is a point of national pride. Studies of the climate can elucidate physical effects on rice production, while research on social behaviors can illuminate the influence of community dynamics on agricultural practices. Only an integrated approach, however, can capture the combined and interactive impacts of these global changes on Sri Lankan agricultural. As part of an interdisciplinary team, we present an agent-based modeling (ABM) approach to studying the effects of physical and social changes on farmers in Sri Lanka. In our research, the diffusion of a sustainable farming technique, the system of rice intensification (SRI), throughout a farming community is modeled to identify factors that either inhibit or promote the spread of a more sustainable approach to rice farming. Inputs into the ABM are both physical and social and include temperature, precipitation, the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), community trust, and social networks. Outputs from the ABM demonstrate the importance of meteorology and social structure on the diffusion of SRI throughout a farming community.

Jacobi, J. H.; Gilligan, J. M.; Carrico, A. R.; Truelove, H. B.; Hornberger, G.



Investment in Post-Compulsory Education in Sri Lanka  

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In this paper, we have used the standard Human Capital model to describe the post-compulsory schooling behaviour of Sri Lankans. We assumed that there is no uncertainty in the education system or in the labour market. Therefore, inthe steady-state, the earnings profile of one generation is a replica of the earnings of the next generation. Then, we modeled and estimated the school enrolment and the length of schooling decisions.Our results show a very clear positive association between the fam...

Ranasinghe, Athula; Hartog, Joop



A Qualitative Assessment of the Health Information System in Sri Lanka using HMN assessment tool  

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Full Text Available Informed decisions are better decisions. Unfortunately, sound information is rarely available in low-income developing countries. Health Metrics Network (HMN is the first global health partnership that focuses on strengthening a country’s health information system (HIS. Sri Lanka is one of the countries that are supported by HMN to strengthen the health information system. To do this HMN has developed a framework that provides a comprehensive approach to improving the health information system and has developed tools to assess and plan a country’s health information system. Sri Lankan National Health Information System was assessed using the Health Information System (HIS assessment tool developed by the HMN. The assessments were conducted through national and provincial level stakeholder workshops and individual expert group interviews. The assessments identified gaps in the health information system in reference to HMN gold standards particularly in areas such as data management and resource available for the health information system. However in-depth analysis is needed to identify the gaps and the causes that contribute to it to develop a good health information systems strategic plan for Sri lanka.

Mohamed H Abusayeed



Breastfeeding practices in a public health field practice area in Sri Lanka: a survival analysis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Exclusive breastfeeding up to the completion of the sixth month of age is the national infant feeding recommendation for Sri Lanka. The objective of the present study was to collect data on exclusive breastfeeding up to six months and to describe the association between exclusive breastfeeding and selected socio-demographic factors. Methods A clinic based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Medical Officer of Health area, Beruwala, Sri Lanka in June 2006. Mothers with infants aged 4 to 12 months, attending the 19 child welfare clinics in the area were included in the study. Infants with specific feeding problems (cleft lip and palate and primary lactose intolerance were excluded. Cluster sampling technique was used and consecutive infants fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled. A total of 219 mothers participated in the study. The statistical tests used were survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional Hazard model. Results All 219 mothers had initiated breastfeeding. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was four months (95% CI 3.75, 4.25. The rates of exclusive breastfeeding at 4 and 6 months were 61.6% (135/219 and 15.5% (24/155 respectively. Bivariate analysis showed that the Muslim ethnicity (p = 0.004, lower levels of parental education (p Conclusion The rate of breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding up to the fourth month is very high in Medical Officer of Health area, Beruwala, Sri Lanka. However exclusive breastfeeding up to six months is still low and the prevalence of inappropriate feeding practices is high.

Agampodi Thilini C



An alternative approach for Chemical Restraint of Domesticated Elephants in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The Asian elephant (Elephas maximus represents one of the most seriousendangered species. Capturing and domestication of these wild elephantscan be considered as one of the measures of elephant conservation.Domesticated elephants play a major role during festival processions in SriLanka. However, there is always a risk of getting panic and disobeying ofthese animals to the mahout's order. Self-Tranquilizer was invented toovercome the constraint such as difficulty of reaching and targeting theelephant in a crowded area, prolong loading time of the tranquilizer drug etc,experienced when palmer cap-chur gun is used. Current study was mainlybased on data collected through primary survey and experimental form.Target people of the study were, elephant owners and senior officersattached to Wild Life Department of Sri Lanka. Data were collected usingstructural questionnaire which included general information about captiveelephant management. Survey was concluded that approximately 115 oftamed elephants were rared in the Sri Lanka. Objective of this study was todo a feasibility assessment about Self-Tranquilizer as a safe, reliable anduser friendly method to tranquilize elephants during festive processions.Novel device of the “Self- Tranquilizer was experimented by using the deadelephant's skin. Mechanical background of this machine was fullytelephone operated. Major important part of this machine was auto-plunger.The auto-plunger can be used as a proper “Intramuscular drugadministrating” device. This machine was prepared to fix on the neck of theelephant. In any elephant was out of control, the veterinary surgeon cantranquilize the elephants just by dialing the secrete mobile number that isassigned to the particular elephant. “Self- Tranquilizer” found to beimportant to regain and safeguard the public confidence and safety,respectively.

Sumanasiri, W.G.C.S.B.



Implementation of national radiation safety regulations in Sri Lanka: A beginning to conform to international standards  

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The Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) of Sri Lanka was established in 1970 by the legislation Atomic Energy Authority Act No.19 of 1969. Since the act was enacted 03 decades ago, the recent advances and needs were not identified. The AEA was empowered to carry out promotional activities of nuclear technology as well as regulatory activities. Under the provisions made in the act the Atomic Energy Regulations of 1975 were promulgated to regulate the activities related to radiation in the country until year 2000. Having realized that these regulations are not sufficient to meet the current international requirements with the technological advances in the fields 'Ionizing Radiation Protection Regulations' which conforms to the IAEA's Basic Safety Standards-115 were promulgated in year 2000. Even though the new regulations were made under the same act, the AEA could achieve a positive improvement in regulatory activities in use of ionizing radiation in the country by establishing a good system for implementation of a notification, licensing, and inspection programmes to conform to the International requirements. Three codes of practices have been drafted and are under review and few manuals have been printed for distribution among the radiation users. Two regulations on safe transport of radioactive material and radioactive waste management have to be promulgated and steps have been initiated in this regard. Assistance from the IAEA was received to strengthen the regulatory infrastructure in Sri Lanka under the model project in radiation protection. Also IAEA has carried out several missions to assess the regulatory effectiveness in Sri Lanka. These missions state the successful achievement of milestones I and II of the IAEA model project on Strengthening and Harmonization of Radiation Protection. However it is identified that amendment of the act is a timely requirement for the effective independence of the regulatory activities carried out by the AEA. (author)



Prolonged Internal Displacement and Common Mental Disorders in Sri Lanka: The COMRAID Study (United States)

Background Evidence is lacking on the mental health issues of internally displaced persons, particularly where displacement is prolonged. The COMRAID study was carried out in year 2011 as a comprehensive evaluation of Muslims in North-Western Sri Lanka who had been displaced since 1990 due to conflict, to investigate the prevalence and correlates of common mental disorders. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out among a randomly selected sample of internally displaced people who had migrated within last 20 years or were born in displacement. The total sample consisted of 450 adults aged 18–65 years selected from 141 settlements. Common mental disorders (CMDs) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalences were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire and CIDI sub-scale respectively. Results The prevalence of any CMD was 18.8%, and prevalence for subtypes was as follows: somatoform disorder 14.0%, anxiety disorder 1.3%, major depression 5.1%, other depressive syndromes 7.3%. PTSD prevalence was 2.4%. The following factors were significantly associated with CMDs: unemployment (odds ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval 1.6–4.9), widowed or divorced status (4.9, 2.3–10.1) and food insecurity (1.7, 1.0–2.9). Conclusions This is the first study investigating the mental health impact of prolonged forced displacement in post-conflict Sri Lanka. Findings add new insight in to mental health issues faced by internally displaced persons in Sri Lanka and globally, highlighting the need to explore broader mental health issues of vulnerable populations affected by forced displacement.

Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Adikari, Anushka; Pannala, Gayani; Siribaddana, Sisira; Abas, Melanie; Sumathipala, Athula; Stewart, Robert



Utilization of primary health care workers for early detection of oral cancer and precancer cases in Sri Lanka  

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Oral cancer presents a serious public health problem in south-east Asian countries. In Sri Lanka and India 35-40% of all cancers are reported to be oral cancers, which are curable if detected in the early stages. The idea that, in developing countries, one of the few practical approaches to early detection of these cases could be through the utilization of primary health care workers was tested in a field study carried out in Sri Lanka. In a control area the subjects with oral lesions were id...

Warnakulasuriya, K. A. A. S.; Ekanayake, A. N. I.; Sivayoham, S.; Stjernswa?rd, J.; Pindborg, J. J.; Sobin, L. H.; Perera, K. S. G. P.



Tele-Genetics: Using Low Cost Internet Technology to Provide Genetic Consultations to Rural Areas in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Tele-medicine is still in its infancy in Sri Lanka and its implementation in the country has been slow due to high cost of infrastructure. Tele-genetics is a simple tele-medicine project implemented in June 2006 using low cost feely available technology and infrastructure aimed at taking clinical genetic services confided to Colombo to rural areas of Sri Lanka. We report here the implementation of this project and its successes and failures over the past two years.

VHW Dissanayake



The Role and Perceptions of Middle Managers and Their Influence on Business Performance: The Case of Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available This paper investigates the role and perceptions of middle managers and how they influence business performance in Sri Lankan companies. The study presented here is based on a questionnaire survey of 121 middle managers regarding issues of communication, group decision making, and organizational leadership. Quantitative analysis of the responses suggests that organizations with collectivistic leaders achieve better performance. As a result, it is argued that collectivism, which includes middle management, can positively contribute to Sri Lanka’s business development and economic recovery.

Sriya Kumarasinghe



Humanitarian NGOs and Mediations of Political Order in Sri Lanka  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article argues that international and national humanitarian NGOs have a far more fundamental bearing on the social reconstitution of Sri Lankan society as a political, cultural, and moral entity than is usually acknowledged. Through their interventions, humanitarian agencies affect the power relationship between state and non-state actors and between local organizations and the war-affected populations that make up their constituencies. But NGOs also affect the political order by introducing new understandings of the citizen and providing alternative moral arguments to legitimize power and authority. What is taking place, the author contends, is best conceived of as mediations, since the global and the local, the modern and the traditional are coexistent as sources to be strategically drawn upon by the actors.

Sørensen, Birgitte



Predatory efficacy of Culex (Lutzia) fuscanus on mosquito vectors of human diseases in Sri Lanka. (United States)

Larvae of Culex (Lutzia) Fuscanus were collected from ovitraps in a natural breeding site. Collected larvae were used to establish a self-mating colony, and larval progeny were then used to determine their predatory efficacy on larvae of 3 vector mosquito species, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles subpictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. Statistical analysis revealed that Cx. fuscanus showed greater feeding efficacy for Ae. aegypti than for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. subpictus. The natural predatory role of this species can potentially be exploited for biological control of mosquito vectors in Sri Lanka. PMID:23923332

Surendran, Sinnathamby N; Jude, Pavilupillai J; Thavaranjit, Arulanantham Christie; Eswaramohan, Thampoe; Vinobaba, Muthuludchumy; Ramasamy, Ranjan



Fungal pathogens associated with banana fruit in Sri Lanka, and their treatment with essential oils. (United States)

The crown rot pathogens isolated from banana samples collected from 12 localities in Sri Lanka were Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium proliferatum and Colletotrichum musae. Fungal pathogens isolated were able to cause crown rot disease alone or in combination. Disease severity was higher when combinations of virulent pathogens were used. Cymbopogon nardus and Ocimum basilicum oils displayed fungicidal activity against C. musae and F. proliferatum between 0.2-0.6% (v/v) in a Poisoned food bioassay. Slightly lower concentrations of the test oils were needed for similar activity during liquid bioassays. The combination of Cymbopogon nardus and O. basilicum oils demonstrated synergistic action during both in-vivo bioassays. PMID:15008351

Anthony, Sulali; Abeywickrama, Krishanthi; Dayananda, Ranjith; Wijeratnam, Shanthi Wilson; Arambewela, Luxshmi



Dutch and British colonial intervention in Sri Lanka c. 1780 - 1815 : Expansion and reform.  

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The study examines the colonial intervention in Sri Lanka at the end of the Eighteenth century, when British rule replaced Dutch rule on the island. It focuses on the local reforms in the Dutch administration and policymaking on the island prior to the take-over and the various ways in which the British colonial government dealt with the Dutch legacy. Native agency in the colonial state-formation process, the influence of the revolutions tha swayed Europe at the time and changes in Dutch and ...

Schrikker, Alicia Frederika



Mental health legislation in Sri Lanka: the time for change is now  

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Full Text Available Despite a history of being subjected to mental health legislation for over a hundred years, Sri Lanka relies on these archaic laws to implement its present day services when most other countries in the region which have enacted recent reforms. This has resulted in discrepancies in service delivery and a less than optimum level of care. With the expansion of the country’s mental health services and other social changes, the need for immediate reforms, drafted a decade ago but not yet legislated, is convincing.

Rajiv Weerasundera



Report on work done in Sri Lanka [Management of water hyacinth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main emphasis of the work in Sri Lanka during the period under review has been on: the collection of available information on the biology of the plant and attempts to gain a more complete understanding of the biology by direct observation and experimentation; the study of the ecology of the plant with special reference to its competition with the other prevalent aquatic weeds in this country, viz Salvinia molesta; the study of the fauna and flora associated with the plant with a view to isolating some organisms that may prove to be suitable agents for its biological control



Health changes in Sri Lanka: benefits of primary health care and public health. (United States)

The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is an island in the Indian Ocean that has achieved a unique status in the world with health indicators that are comparable with those of developed countries. This is illustrated, among others, by the reduction in both child and maternal mortality in the country. This achievement is the result of a range of long-term interventions, including providing education and health care free of charge, training of health care workers, developing public health infrastructure in rural areas, and adopting steps to improve sanitation, nutrition, and immunization coverage. PMID:22815304

Karunathilake, Indika Mahesh



Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus among nurses in a tertiary care hospital in northern Sri Lanka. (United States)

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in the hands among 109 nursing staffs of Teaching Hospital, Jaffna, Sri Lanka was screened. Of those screened, 43 (39.44%) strains of S. aureus were isolated and among that one third were MRSA. Antibiotic resistant pattern of MRSA strains were found to be highly variable. Resistance to ampicillin, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin, netilmicin and amikacin were found to be 76.9%, 76.9%, 53.8%, 23% and 23% respectively. More than one tenth of the nursing staff were at risk of transmitting the infection and therefore standard infection control precautions should be followed to minimise carriage and transmission. PMID:24977426

Mahalingam, U; Thirunavukarasu, K; Murugananthan, K



Neighborhood Environment and Self-Rated Health among Adults in Southern Sri Lanka  

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The prevalence of different neighborhood environmental stressors and associations between the stressors and self-rated health are described in a representative sample of 2,077 individuals, aged 18–85 years, in southern Sri Lanka. Mosquito menace (69.4%), stray dog problems (26.8%), nuisance from neighbors (20.3%), and nuisance from drug users (18.7%) were found to be the most prevalent environmental stressors. None of the stressors investigated were associated with self-rated physical healt...

Perera, Bilesha; Østbye, Truls; Jayawardana, Chandramali



Factors affecting selection for multiple resistance in Anopheles nigerrimus in Sri Lanka. (United States)

Adult resting habits and breeding habits of Anopheles nigerrimus in Sri Lanka were investigated. This species is primarily exophilic, in contrast to endophilic An. culicifacies in the same areas. An. nigerrimus larvae were found in all habitat types sampled, in particular paddy fields where a large quantity of agricultural pesticides is used. This species was shown to be resistant to a range of insecticides including a number of organophosphates and carbamates. The adult resting behaviour precludes selection of resistance from indoor residual insecticide usage for malaria control and suggests selection from agricultural pesticide usage. PMID:3810798

Herath, P R; Joshi, G P



Indian flying fox Pteropus giganteus colony in Peradeniya Botanical Gardens, Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available A colony of Indian flying foxes in Peradeniya Botanical Gardens near Kandy, Sri Lanka, was spread over 20 hectares and numbered 24,480 bats in September 2002. The number of bats per tree varied between ten and 1200. The median value was low (= 50 bats per tree and half of the trees contained between 30 and 100 bats. The mean density was c. 1200 bats per hectare, but was significantly higher along the western margin of the colony (3250 bats per hectare. Peradeniya possibly supports the largest aggregation of the Indian flying fox known currently.

Boris Krystufek



An econometric analysis of India-Sri Lanka free trade agreement  

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This paper investigates whether the India-Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement (ISLFTA) has had trade creation or trade diversion effects on the rest of the World. The method used resembles the one used by Romalis (2005) to study NAFTA. In order to use the variations in tariff at the product level, we use six digit HS classification of products. We construct seven panel data sets for the period 1996 to 2006. We use the commodity and time variation in the tariff preferences allowed under ISLFTA, to ...



Resources and Entrepreneurial Orientation : Empirical findings from the software industry of Sri Lanka  

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Background: There are different types of firms in the world. Those that lead change and those who follow change. In this thesis, the authors have chosen to see if a dynamic industry in a developing nation can be the leaders of change, or if they are stuck as the ones following developments in the west. Sri Lanka is a developing nation with a rapidly growing software industry. Like its neighbour, India, the country and region has been known for its cheap, yet highly skilled labour. This study ...

Thunberg, Nils; Eriksson, Joel



The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Sri Lanka 1983-1993 country programme summaries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Sri Lanka carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation



Patterns of hospital transfer for self-poisoned patients in rural Sri Lanka: implications for estimating the incidence of self-poisoning in the developing world / Modalités d'hospitalisation des cas d'autoempoisonnement délibéré en milieu rural au Sri Lanka: ce qu'elles impliquent pour l'estimation de l'incidence des autoempoisonnements dans le monde en développement / Perfil de traslados interhospitalarios de pacientes autointoxicados en una zona rural de Sri Lanka: implicaciones para la estimación de la incidencia de autointoxicaciones en el mundo en desarrollo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVOS: La mayoría de los datos sobre autointoxicaciones en las zonas rurales de Asia proceden de hospitales secundarios. Nuestros objetivos fueron los siguientes: evaluar cómo influyen los traslados de hospitales primarios a hospitales secundarios en las estimaciones de la tasa de letalidad; det [...] erminar si había algún sesgo de derivación según el sexo o el tipo de intoxicación; y estimar la incidencia anual de todos los tipos de autointoxicación, así como de las autointoxicaciones mortales, en un entorno rural del mundo en desarrollo. MÉTODOS: Entre el 1 de julio y el 31 de diciembre de 2002 se examinó en el momento del ingreso a los autointoxicados llegados al Hospital General de Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. Revisamos además las notas médicas correspondientes a los pacientes autointoxicados ingresados en 17 de los 34 hospitales periféricos de los alrededores durante el mismo periodo. RESULTADOS: En total fueron ingresadas en el hospital secundario 742 víctimas de autointoxicaciones, de las cuales fallecieron 81 (tasa de letalidad: 10,9%). Un total de 483 pacientes fueron ingresados en 17 hospitales periféricos de los alrededores. Seis pacientes (1,2%) murieron en esos hospitales, 249 fueron dados de alta, y 228 fueron trasladados al hospital secundario. No se observó ningún efecto del sexo o la edad sobre la probabilidad de traslado; sin embargo, los pacientes que habían ingerido adelfa o paraquat tenían más probabilidades de ser trasladados que los que habían tomado plaguicidas organofosforados u otros productos tóxicos. La incidencia anual estimada de autointoxicaciones y de autointoxicaciones mortales fue de 363 y 27 por 100 000 habitantes, respectivamente, con una tasa de letalidad global del 7,4% (intervalo de confianza del 95%: 6,0-9,0). CONCLUSIÓN: Un 50% de los pacientes ingresados en hospitales periféricos fueron dados de alta, lo que demuestra que las tasas de letalidad basadas en los datos de hospitales secundarios están infladas. No obstante, si bien la incidencia de autointoxicaciones es semejante a la de Inglaterra, en Sri Lanka las autointoxicaciones mortales son tres veces más frecuentes que las autolesiones mortales por cualquier método registradas en Inglaterra. Los datos basados en la población son esenciales para realizar comparaciones internacionales de la letalidad y la incidencia y para evaluar las intervenciones de salud pública. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: Most data on self-poisoning in rural Asia have come from secondary hospitals. We aimed to: assess how transfers from primary to secondary hospitals affected estimates of case-fatality ratio (CFR); determine whether there was referral bias according to gender or poison; and estimate the a [...] nnual incidence of all self-poisoning, and of fatal self-poisoning, in a rural developing-world setting. METHODS: Self-poisoning patients admitted to Anuradhapura General Hospital, Sri Lanka, were reviewed on admission from 1 July to 31 December 2002. We audited medical notes of self-poisoning patients admitted to 17 of the 34 surrounding peripheral hospitals for the same period. FINDINGS: A total of 742 patients were admitted with self-poisoning to the secondary hospital; 81 died (CFR 10.9%). 483 patients were admitted to 17 surrounding peripheral hospitals. Six patients (1.2%) died in peripheral hospitals, 249 were discharged home, and 228 were transferred to the secondary hospital. There was no effect of gender or age on likelihood of transfer; however, patients who had ingested oleander or paraquat were more likely to be transferred than were patients who had taken organophosphorus pesticides or other poisons. Estimated annual incidences of self-poisoning and fatal self-poisoning were 363 and 27 per 100 000 population, respectively, with an overall CFR of 7.4% (95% confidence interval 6.0-9.0). CONCLUSION: Fifty per cent of patients admitted to peripheral hospitals were discharged home, showing that CFRs based on secondary hospital

Michael, Eddleston; K, Sudarshan; M, Senthilkumaran; K, Reginald; Lakshman, Karalliedde; Lalith, Senarathna; Dhammika de, Silva; MH, Rezvi Sheriff; Nick A, Buckley; David, Gunnell.


A geochemical reconnaissance survey of Sri Lanka using panned mineral concentrates of stream sediments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirteen elements (Au, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn, Th, U and Zn) were determined in 120 heavy mineral concentrates from Sri Lankan stream sediments of the Highland Group of rocks in central Sri Lanka. The data indicate sporadic occurrences of gold, notably in the north of the region where this metal had not previously been found. The possibility of the existence of a previously unknown area of ultramafic rocks near Balangoda close to the plate boundary with the Vijayan Complex was indicated by high levels of chromium and nickel in the sediments. Background levels of uranium (8 ?g/g) were relatively high and three anomalies (>35 ?g/g) were detected in stream sediment concentrates. The project has pinpointed several areas where localized intensive exploration for specific minerals should be undertaken. Background levels have also been established for thirteen elements in stream sediment concentrates derived from the Highland Group of rocks. (orig.)



Spontaneously resolving cerebellar syndrome as a sequelae of dengue viral infection: a case series from Sri Lanka. (United States)

Sri Lanka is hyperendemic for dengue viral infection. Dengue has a wide spectrum of neurological manifestations including previously reported Sri Lankan cases with a 6th nerve palsy and a cerebellar syndrome from a co-infection with dengue and Epstein-Barr virus. This series describes a spontaneously resolving cerebellar syndrome following a dengue viral infection. Dengue is potentially an important cause of cerebellar syndromes in countries hyperendemic for the disease; patients need further studies to identify the responsible serotypes. PMID:23840070

Weeratunga, Praveen N; Caldera, H P Manjula C; Gooneratne, I Kishara; Gamage, Ranjanie; Perera, W Sujith P; Ranasinghe, Gayan V; Niraj, Mahboob



Impacts of the 2004 tsunami on groundwater resources in Sri Lanka (United States)

The 26 December 2004 tsunami caused widespread destruction and contamination of coastal aquifers across southern Asia. Seawater filled domestic open dug wells and also entered the aquifers via direct infiltration during the first flooding waves and later as ponded seawater infiltrated through the permeable sands that are typical of coastal aquifers. In Sri Lanka alone, it is estimated that over 40,000 drinking water wells were either destroyed or contaminated. From February through September 2005, a team of United States, Sri Lankan, and Danish water resource scientists and engineers surveyed the coastal groundwater resources of Sri Lanka to develop an understanding of the impacts of the tsunami and to provide recommendations for the future of coastal water resources in south Asia. In the tsunami-affected areas, seawater was found to have infiltrated and mixed with fresh groundwater lenses as indicated by the elevated groundwater salinity levels. Seawater infiltrated through the shallow vadose zone as well as entered aquifers directly through flooded open wells. Our preliminary transport analysis demonstrates that the intruded seawater has vertically mixed in the aquifers because of both forced and free convection. Widespread pumping of wells to remove seawater was effective in some areas, but overpumping has led to upconing of the saltwater interface and rising salinity. We estimate that groundwater recharge from several monsoon seasons will reduce salinity of many sandy Sri Lankan coastal aquifers. However, the continued sustainability of these small and fragile aquifers for potable water will be difficult because of the rapid growth of human activities that results in more intensive groundwater pumping and increased pollution. Long-term sustainability of coastal aquifers is also impacted by the decrease in sand replenishment of the beaches due to sand mining and erosion. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

Illangasekare, T.; Tyler, S. W.; Clement, T. P.; Villholth, K. G.; Perera, A. P. G. R. L.; Obeysekera, J.; Gunatilaka, A.; Panabokke, C. R.; Hyndman, D. W.; Cunningham, K. J.; Kaluarachchi, J. J.; Yeh, W. W. -G.; Van Genuchten, M. T.; Jensen, K.



Ecology of vector mosquitoes in Sri Lanka--suggestions for future mosquito control in rice ecosystems. (United States)

Mosquito-borne diseases are a major public health threat in Asia. To explore effective mosquito control strategies in rice ecosystems from the ecological point of view, we carried out ecological analyses of vector mosquitoes in Sri Lanka. During the 18-month study period, 14 Anopheles, 11 Culex, 5 Aedes, 2 Mansonia, and 1 Armigeres species were collected, most of which are disease vectors for malaria, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, or dengue in Sri Lanka and elsewhere in Asia. The density and occurrence of Anopheles and Culex species were the highest in seepage pools and paddy fields, where the majority of niche overlaps between larval mosquito and aquatic insect species were observed. All 7 aquatic insect species, which are larval mosquito predators, overlapped their niche with both Anopheles and Culex larvae. This suggests that conserving these aquatic insect species could be effective in controlling mosquito vectors in the study site. Correlations between several climatic factors and mosquito density were also analyzed, and weather conditions, including higher temperature, lower relative humidity, and higher wind velocity, were found to affect mosquito oviposition, propagation, and survival. These findings deepen our understanding of mosquito ecology and will strengthen future mosquito control strategies in rice ecosystems in Asia. PMID:17883002

Yasuoka, Junko; Levins, Richard



Poverty and growth impacts of high oil prices: Evidence from Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sharp rise in oil and food prices in 2007 and 2008 caused negative impacts on poverty and economic growth in many oil and food importing developing countries. Some analysts believe that these countries are under stress again due to a rise in crude oil prices, to a two-and-a-half year high in March 2011, which has also been partly responsible for higher food prices in recent months. However, there is a limited body of empirical evidence available from developing countries on the impact of high oil prices on growth in general and household poverty in particular. In this study, Sri Lanka is used as a case study and a computable general equilibrium (CGE) approach is adopted as an analytical framework to explore the growth and poverty impacts of high oil prices. The results suggest that urban low income households are the group most adversely affected by high global oil prices, followed by low income rural households. In contrast, estate low income households are the least affected out of all low income households. The energy intensive manufacturing sector and services sector are affected most compared to the agricultural sector. - Highlights: ? Using a general equilibrium model we find poverty and oil price link for Sri Lanka. ? Urban low income households are the group most adversely affected. ? Energy intensive manufacturing and services sectors are affected most.



Opportunities and Challenges in Cultivating Underutilized Field Crops in Moneragala District of Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Cultivation and use of underutilized crops is gradually popularizing in many countries since they create several benefits for the man and the environment. Same as in many other countries, a large number of useful underutilized crop species are available in Sri Lanka as well. Although traditional people had used them in a great deal in many different aspects of their life, the present generation has moved away from using them due to lack of knowledge and interest. In this context, finding of the real potential of cultivating and using them in the country is timely important. Thus the aim of this research is to study the opportunities and challenges of cultivation of underutilized field crops in Sri Lanka. This research is based on the findings of the field survey using 120 farm families in Thanamalwila divisional secretariat division of the Moneragala district during January-October 2012. Results revealed that there are several opportunities such as availability of traditional knowledge, land resource, labor for cultivation etc. However, several constraints like unavailability of seeds and planting materials, lack of market infrastructure, lack of knowledge on processing and value addition, competition from modern crops, negative attitude of consumers are also affecting the cultivation and use of these crops.

Malkanthi, S. H. P.



Molecular taxonomic position of the elephant schistosome, Bivitellobilharzia nairi, newly discovered in Sri Lanka. (United States)

Bivitellobilharzia nairi (Mudaliar and Ramanujachar, 1945) Dutt and Srivastava, 1955 was first recorded in India. A number of adult worm specimens of this schistosome species were recovered from a domestic elephant, which died in 1999 in Sri Lanka. This is the first report of this schistosome from Sri Lanka. In the present study, in order to clarify the phylogenetic relationship with other species of schistosomes, sequences from the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of the ribosomal gene repeat, part of the 28S ribosomal RNA gene (28S), and part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene from B. nairi were analyzed. Two intraspecific variations were seen within 13 individuals in the ITS2 region. In the CO1 region of the mitochondrial DNA, there were four haplotypes in the nucleotide sequences and two haplotypes in the amino acid sequences. Phylogenetic analysis using the nuclear DNA showed that B. nairi was basal to all of species of the genus Schistosoma. The 28S tree also showed that the mammalian lineage was monophyletic. However, phylogenetic analysis using the mitochondrial DNA showed that B. nairi was nested within the genus Schistosoma. The taxonomical position for this species as well as the contradiction between the results from the nuclear and mitochondrial genes were discussed. PMID:14984837

Agatsuma, Takeshi; Rajapakse, R P V J; Kuruwita, V Y; Iwagami, Moritoshi; Rajapakse, R C



Measuring revealed and emergent vulnerabilities of coastal communities to tsunami in Sri Lanka. (United States)

This paper presents the important findings of a study undertaken in two selected tsunami-affected coastal cities in Sri Lanka (Batticaloa and Galle) to measure the revealed and emergent vulnerability of coastal communities. International risk studies have failed to demonstrate the high vulnerability of coastal communities to tsunami in Sri Lanka. Therefore, indirect assessment tools to measure pre-event vulnerability have to be complemented by assessment tools that analyse revealed and emergent vulnerability in looking at the aftermath and impact patterns of a real scenario, as well as in examining the dynamics of disaster recovery in which different vulnerabilities can be identified. The paper first presents a conceptual framework for capturing vulnerability within a process-oriented approach linked to sustainable development. Next, it highlights selected indicators and methods to measure revealed and emergent vulnerability at the local level using the examples of Batticaloa and Galle. Finally, it discusses the usefulness and application of vulnerability indicators within the framework of reconstruction. PMID:18217919

Birkmann, Jörn; Fernando, Nishara



Western imperialism and eastern accounting: the story of Chartered Institute of Management Accountants in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available El documento es el resultado de una investigación sobre el crecimiento de la profesión contable en Sri Lanka. La pregunta orientadora del mismo es si las prácticas constables de gestión occidental pueden ser efectivas aún sin tener en cuenta las necesidades locales. Este es un aspecto sin antecedentes en la literatura. El estudio se desarrolló mediante la ejecución de entrevistas semiestructuradas a miembros fundadores del Instituto de contadores de gestión y algunos practicantes de Sri Lanka. Los resultados evidencian una brecha entre las técnicas de contabilidad de gestión utilizadas en Occidente y la práctica de la contabilidad de gestión en Oriente. El documento anota algunas razones para explicar esta brecha, encontrando que el contexto es diferente, seguido que las prácticas occidentales no se ajustan a las exigencies de desarrollo de un país post-colonial. Mientras la teoría sigue los planteamientos occidentales, la práctica sigue las exigencias de oriente. El artículo contribuye al debate sobre si el imperialismo occidental, la contabilidad y dinámica comunidades de las comunidades contables locales. Finalmente, el papel hace un aporte a los trabajos que debaten la forma como los cuerpos profesionales en contaduría se van estructurando.

Bala Balachandran



The impact of electricity supply on economic growth in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

World net electricity consumption is expected to double over the next two decades. With increasing demand, electricity shortages will be prevalent, particularly in developing countries. An adequate and regular power supply would support economic growth in developing countries. Previous studies have demonstrated a strong correlation between electricity use and economic development. Studies have shown that there is a bi-directional causal relationship between gross domestic product and electricity consumption in Taiwan for the period 1954 to 1997. In order to examine the impact of electricity supply on economic growth in Sri Lanka, this paper presented the results of a study that applied Yang's model, using a simple regression analysis. The paper presented the methodology and estimation results. The study incorporated a cost benefit analysis model which assessed the economic, social and environmental impacts of dam projects in Sri Lanka. It was concluded that the application of Yang's regression analysis is one possible approach to estimate a better range for the expected increase in economic output parameter. 14 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs



International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sri Lanka is essentially a detached portion of the Deccan Plateau of south India and like it, is underlain almost everywhere by hard old Precambrian rocks. Prior to 1940 there was no systematic organised geological survey work on the island. Between 1957 and 1962 a partial aerial survey and field traverses were conducted in a search for radio- active minerals. Since then a modest programme has continued. Thorianite was first discovered in placer deposits in 1903 and prospecting has found many other refractory radioactive minerals probably derived from the weathering of pegmatites. Monazite is found as an important constituent of beach placer deposits and it is estimated to have an average content of 8-10%ThO2 and 0.3 - 0.5% U3O8. Up to 1000 tons monazite per year could be produced from the beach sand industry. Sri Lanka has had very little systematic exploration for uranium and as it is largely composed of Precambrian rocks it deserves closer attention. On the other hand it is part of a thorium rich province and there is a body of technical opinion that believes that thorium rich provinces are unlikely to contain significant uranium deposits. For these reasons it is estimated that the Speculative Potential may be within the range of 1000 to 10,000 tonnes uranium. In addition it maybe possible to produce up to 5 tonnes uranium and 100 tonnes thorium from the beach sand industry on an annual basis. (author)


Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology in Sri Lanka: is cadmium a likely cause?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD and subsequent end stage renal failure necessitating renal replacement therapy has profound consequences for affected individuals and health care resources. This community based study was conducted to identify potential predictors of microalbuminuria in a randomly selected sample of adults from the North Central Province (NCP of Sri Lanka, where the burden of CKD is pronounced and the underlying cause still unknown. Methods Exposures to possible risk factors were determined in randomly recruited subjects (425 females and 461 males from selected areas of the NCP of Sri Lanka using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Sulphosalicylic acid and the Light Dependent Resister microalbumin gel filtration method was used for initial screening for microalbuminuria and reconfirmed by the Micral strip test. Results Microalbumnuria was detected in 6.1% of the females and 8.5% of the males. Smoking (p Conclusions Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, UTI, and smoking are known risk factors for microalbuminuria. The association between microalbuminuria and consumption of well water suggests an environmental aetiology to CKD in NCP. The causative agent is yet to be identified. Investigations for cadmium as a potential causative agent needs to be initiated.

Peiris-John Roshini J



Human disturbances on coral reefs in Sri Lanka: A case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The degradation of coral reefs in Sri Lanka has increased substantially over the last decades. Human activities causing this degradation include: mining for lime production, sewage discharges, discharges of oil and other pollutants in connection with shipping and port activities, destructive fishing practices, land and mangrove destruction, tourism and the collecting of fauna such as fish, shells and corals. In this study, three adjacent coral reefs; Bar Reef, Talawila Reef, and Kandakuliya Reef, which are widely scattered patch reefs off Kalpitiya Peninsula, northwestern Sri Lanka, were surveyed and compared in terms of their fish and coral diversity and abundance as well as human and natural disturbances. Information was gathered by snorkeling in visual overview surveys and by scuba diving in detailed transect surveys. When each reef was ranked according to the extent of live coral cover, and chaetodontid diversity, the results indicated that Bar Reef was in excellent condition, Talawila Reef was intermediate, and Kandakuliya Reef was in poor condition. The diversity of coral genera, the topographic relief and the proportion of coral rubble, did not follow the same pattern. The number of coral genera found was 49, while 283 fish species belonging to 51 families were recorded. Human disturbance factors on the reefs were found to be net fishing, boat anchoring and ornamental fish collection for the aquarium trade. Bottom.set nylon nets in particular were found to have a very destructive impact on the bottom fauna. 33 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

Oehman, M.C.; Linden, O. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Zoology); Rajasuriya, A. (NARA, Crow Island, Colombo (Sri Lanka))



The geology, mineralogy and rare element geochemistry of the gem deposits of Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The gem deposits of Sri Lanka are studied from the point of view of their geology, mineralogy and geochemistry. Nearly all the gem formations are located in the central high-grade metamorphic terrain of the Highland Complex. The gem deposits are classified as sedimentary, metamorphic and magmatic; the sedimentary types being the most abundant. The mineralogy of the gem deposits varies widely with, among others, corundum, chrysoberyl, beryl, spinel, topaz,zircon, tourmaline, garnet and sphene being common.Rare element concentrations in sediments from the three main gem fields of Sri Lanka, namely Ratnapura, Elahera and Walawe, were studied. It was found that some sediments are considerably enriched in certain elements compared to their average continental crustal abundances. The Walawe Ganga sediments show anomalous enrichments of the high field strength and associated elements, particularly Zr, Hf, W and Ti. This is attributed to the presence of accessory mineralssuch as zircon, monazite and rutile. Some of these heavy minerals comprise as much as 50 wt% of sediment. The geochemical enrichment of some trace elements compared to their average crustal abundances indicates that highly differentiated granites and associated pegmatites have provided the source materials for enrichment.

C. B. Dissanayake



Anomalous short period geomagnetic variations at two stations in Sri Lanka  

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An analysis of the rates of change in the geomagnetic field components in the period range 20-600 sec recorded at Kondavil and Hikkaduwa, two stations in the equatorial electrojet belt near the northern and south western coasts respectively of Sri Lanka, shows anomalous variations. The results confirm induced current concentration in the Palk Strait and deflection of induced currents around the southerncoast of Sri Lanka postulated by earlier workers from observations of SSC and Bay events at Indian stations and from analogue and numerical model studies. At Kondavil, which is situated close to the geomagnetic equator, no appreciable difference in the night-time and day-time values of ?Z/?H and ?D/?H ratios was noticed while at Hikkaduwa, a station situated under the edge of the equatorial electrojet belt, a day-time enhancement of ?Z/?H ratios was found at all periods in the observed range. An enhancement of the H component at Colombo over that at Hikkaduwa was also found at short periods, the enhancement being greater at day-time. The day-time enhancement in the ?Z/?H ratios at Hikkaduwa and in the ratio of the H components at Colombo and Hikkaduwa could be due to the effect of the equatorial electrojet on the short period variations. (author)



Design of optimal power cogeneration for north-east Sri Lanka based on stand-alone renewable energy systems  

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This paper presents an optimal model to satisfy electricity needs of North-east Sri Lanka (NE-SL). With the absence of indigenous fossil fuel and large-scale hydrologic resources, NE-SL depends on the import of fossil fuel for electricity generation, causing economic and environmental hardships. This paper explores a sustainable power generation using a mix of renewable energy resources.



Comparative Study of Pre-Service Teacher Education Programme at Secondary Stage in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka (United States)

The present research work has studied and compared the different issues of pre-service teacher education programme in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Pakistan. The data were collected from 24 principals, 88 teacher educators and 157 student teachers from institutions and universities where Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) course were. The data were…

Yadav, S. K.



A Comparative Study of Student Support Services of Allama Iqbal Open University and the Open University of Sri Lanka (United States)

This paper attempts to compare the availability, quality, similarities and differences in student support services offered by the Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Pakistan and The Open University of Sri Lanka (OUSL). It also aims to identify and report the deficiencies that students of both the institutions face in the student support services.…

Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed; Chaudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Chaudhry, Amtul Hafeez



Wives' Attitudes toward Gender Roles and Their Experience of Intimate Partner Violence by Husbands in Central Province, Sri Lanka (United States)

The authors conducted a community based, cross-sectional study to describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) by husbands and the association between wives' attitudes toward gender roles and their experience of IPV in Central Province, Sri Lanka. This article included a representative sample of 624 wives between 15 and 49 years of…

Jayatilleke, Achini; Poudel, Krishna C.; Sakisaka, Kayako; Yasuoka, Junko; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jimba, Masamine



Facilitating Long-Term Recovery from Natural Disasters: Psychosocial Programming for Tsunami-Affected Schools of Sri Lanka (United States)

This article reports the findings of a school-based intervention project conducted in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka 15 to 18 months after the December 2004 Tsunami. The work responds to the need for culturally relevant programming to address long-term psychosocial recovery of children and adolescents affected by large scale disasters. Program…

Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Jayasena, Asoka; Summerville, Meredith; Borja, Amanda P.



The Politics, Policies and Progress of Basic Education in Sri Lanka. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 38 (United States)

Sri Lanka is hailed internationally for her achievements in literacy, access to education and equality of educational opportunity. However, progress has not been straightforward due to the complex interactions between politics, policy formulation, and the implementation of reforms. This dynamic process has often led to contradictory outcomes. This…

Little, Angela W.



Sri Lanka--Canada School Library & Information Services Programme Components: A School Library Study Tour. Final Report. (United States)

This document reports on a study tour of Canadian schools conducted by the Sri Lanka Ministry of Education. The purposes of the tour were to: develop an awareness of the scope of modern school library programming; investigate the aspects of implementation of a modern school library program including staffing, facilities, educational programming,…

Brown, Gerald R.


Formula Funding and Decentralized Management of Schools--Has It Improved Resource Allocation in Schools in Sri Lanka? (United States)

Using the experience of the Educational Quality Inputs (EQI) Scheme in Sri Lanka the paper examines the distributional aspects of formula-based funding and efficiency of decentralized management of education funds in a developing country setting. The study finds that the EQI fund distribution is largely pro-poor. However, results show that to…

Arunatilake, Nisha; Jayawardena, Priyanka



Multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms involving metabolic changes and insensitive target sites selected in anopheline vectors of malaria in Sri Lanka  

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Abstract Background The current status of insecticide resistance and the underlying resistance mechanisms were studied in the major vector of malaria, Anopheles culicifacies, and the secondary vector, Anopheles subpictus in five districts (Anuradhapura, Kurunegala, Moneragala, Puttalam and Trincomalee) of Sri Lanka. Eight other anophelines, Anopheles annularis, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles jamesii, Anopheles nigerrimus, Anopheles peditaeniatus, Anop...



Leishmanization revisited: immunization with a naturally attenuated cutaneous Leishmania donovani isolate from Sri Lanka protects against visceral leishmaniasis. (United States)

Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by Leishmania protozoa and associated with three main clinical presentations: cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis is the second most lethal parasitic disease after malaria and there is so far no human vaccine. Leishmania donovani is a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in South East Asia and Eastern Africa. However, in Sri Lanka, L. donovani causes mainly cutaneous leishmaniasis, while visceral leishmaniasis is rare. We investigate here the possibility that the cutaneous form of L. donovani can provide immunological protection against the visceral form of the disease, as a potential explanation for why visceral leishmaniasis is rare in Sri Lanka. Subcutaneous immunization with a cutaneous clinical isolate from Sri Lanka was significantly protective against visceral leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice. Protection was associated with a mixed Th1/Th2 response. These results provide a possible rationale for the scarcity of visceral leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka and could guide leishmaniasis vaccine development efforts. PMID:23219435

McCall, Laura-Isobel; Zhang, Wen-Wei; Ranasinghe, Shanlindra; Matlashewski, Greg



Regional Differences of Leptospirosis in Sri Lanka: Observations from a Flood-Associated Outbreak in 2011 (United States)

Leptospirosis is known to be an important cause of weather disaster-related infectious disease epidemics. In 2011, an outbreak of leptospirosis occurred in the relatively dry district of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka where diagnosis was resisted by local practitioners because leptospirosis was not known in the area and the clinical presentation was considered atypical. To identify the causative Leptospira associated with this outbreak, we carried out a cross-sectional study. Consecutive clinically suspected cases in this district were studied during a two-and-a-half-month period. Of 96 clinically suspected cases, 32 (33.3%) were confirmed by qPCR, of which the etiological cause in 26 cases was identified using 16S rDNA sequencing to the species level. Median bacterial load was 4.1×102/mL (inter-quartile range 3.1–6.1×102/mL). In contrast to a 2008 Sri Lankan leptospirosis outbreak in the districts of Kegalle, Kandy, and Matale, in which a predominance of Leptospira interrogans serovars Lai and Geyaweera was found, most cases in the 2011 outbreak were caused by Leptospira kirschneri. Seven (21.9%) confirmed cases had acute renal failure; five (15.6%) had myocarditis; severe thrombocytopenia (leptospirosis in the relatively dry zone of Sri Lanka due primarily to L. kirschneri was characterized by markedly different clinical presentations and low leptospiremia. These observations and data demonstrate the public health relevance of molecular diagnostics in such settings, possibly related to the microgeographic variations of different Leptospira species, but of particular value to public health intervention in what appears to have been a regionally neglected tropical disease.

Agampodi, Suneth B.; Dahanayaka, Niroshan J.; Bandaranayaka, Anoma K.; Perera, Manoj; Priyankara, Sumudu; Weerawansa, Prasanna; Matthias, Michael A.; Vinetz, Joseph M.



El Niño-southern oscillation influences on rice production in Sri Lanka (United States)

Despite advances in the capacity to predict the evolution of the El Niño-southern oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon and advances in understanding the influence of ENSO on rainfall in tropical regions such as Sri Lanka, there has been limited use of climate predictions for agricultural decision-making. Climatic fluctuations have a profound influence on the cultivation of crops such as rice, which is the staple food in Sri Lanka. Here, the relationship between the sea-surface temperature-based ENSO index of NINO3.4, rainfall and the departure of Sri Lankan rice production from long-term trends, is analysed for the Maha (October to March) and Yala (April to September) cultivation seasons between 1952 and 1997.During the El Niño phase, the Maha rice production frequently increased (10 out of 15 seasons) and the Yala production frequently decreased (10 out of 14 seasons). Conversely, during the La Niña phase, the Maha production decreased (seven out of ten seasons) and Yala production increased (six out of eight seasons). Floods, state interventions, civil disturbances, fertilizer price hikes and extreme anomalies in the previous season were noted in the majority of seasons in which these ENSO-production linkages were violated. The correlation of the Maha rice production anomaly with the average NINO3.4 from October to December was significant at the 5% level and that with the aggregate October to December rainfall was significant at the 1% level. Yala rice production showed a significant relationship with concurrent NINO3.4 and a strong correlation (r = 0.60) with the previous season's rainfall. Yala cultivation is water constrained, and carryover storage from the previous season is often used to determine the extent of planting. The relationships between ENSO and seasonal rice production and the relationship between Yala rice production and previous Maha rainfall could be used for agricultural management and policy formulation.

Zubair, Lareef



Selenium and iodine in soil, rice and drinking water in relation to endemic goitre in Sri Lanka  

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Endemic goitre has been reported in the climatic wet zone of south-west Sri Lanka for the past 50 years, but rarely occurs in the northern dry zone. Despite government-sponsored iodised salt programmes, endemic goitre is still prevalent. In recent years, it has been suggested that Se deficiency may be an important factor in the onset of goitre and other iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). Prior to the present study, environmental concentrations of Se in Sri Lanka and the possible relationships between Se deficiency and endemic goitre had not been investigated. During the present study, chemical differences in the environment (measured in soil, rice and drinking water) and the Se-status of the human population (demonstrated by hair samples from women) were determined for 15 villages. The villages were characterised by low (<10%), moderate (10-25%) and high (>25%) goitre incidence (NIDD, MIDD and HIDD, respectively). Results show that concentrations of soil total Se and iodine are highest in the HIDD villages, however, the soil clay and organic matter content appear to inhibit the bioavailability of these elements. Concentrations of iodine in rice are low ({<=}58 ng/g) and rice does not provide a significant source of iodine in the Sri Lankan diet. High concentrations of iodine (up to 84 {mu}g/l) in drinking water in the dry zone may, in part, explain why goitre is uncommon in this area. This study has shown for the first time that significant proportions of the Sri Lankan female population may be Se deficient (24, 24 and 40% in the NIDD, MIDD and HIDD villages, respectively). Although Se deficiency is not restricted to areas where goitre is prevalent, a combination of iodine and Se deficiency could be involved in the pathogenesis of goitre in Sri Lanka. The distribution of red rice cultivation in Sri Lanka is coincident with the HIDD villages. Varieties of red rice grown in other countries contain anthocyanins and procyanidins, compounds which in other foodstuffs are known goitrogens. The potential goitrogenic properties of red rice in Sri Lanka are presently unknown and require further investigation. It is likely that the incidence of goitre in Sri Lanka is multi-factorial, involving trace element deficiencies and other factors such as poor nutrition and goitrogens in foodstuffs.

Fordyce, F.M. [British Geological Survey, West Mains Road, EH9 3LA Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Johnson, C.C.; Appleton, J.D. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, NG12 5GG Nottingham (United Kingdom); Navaratna, U.R.B.; Dissanayake, C.B. [Department of Geology, University of Peradeniya, Kandy (Sri Lanka)



Thermochronological dating of brittle structures in basement rocks: A case study from the onshore passive margin of SW Sri Lanka (United States)

The brittle structural inventory of southern and southwestern Sri Lanka has been studied by kinematic, mineralogical and thermochronological techniques. Thermochronological analyses of faults comprise apatite and zircon fission track (FT) data and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He ages from fault planes and undisturbed host rocks, and range between ˜65 and ˜230 Ma. The ages of both settings are undistinguishable for topographic altitudes below ˜100 m, while fault planes from higher elevations are significantly younger than the corresponding host rocks. Thermal history modeling and qualitative interpretation of the thermochronological data identify at least five episodes of thermal overprint associated with faulting activity occurring at 159 ± 18, 144 ± 14, 120 ± 10, 94 ± 8, and 70 ± 10 Ma. The kinematic, mineralogical and thermochronological data collectively show that Sri Lanka was subjected to major N-S oriented extension subsequent to the Gondwana breakup. The resulting brittle structures exert primary control on the island's geomorphology, especially on the Southern Escarpment of the Sri Lankan Highlands.

Emmel, B.; Lisker, F.; Hewawasam, T.



Molecular evidence for the presence of malaria vector species a of the Anopheles annularis complex in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles annularis s.l. is a wide spread malaria vector in South and Southeast Asia, including Sri Lanka. The taxon An. annularis is a complex of two sibling species viz. A and B, that are differentiated by chromosome banding patterns and ribosomal gene sequences in India. Only species A is reported to be a malaria vector in India while the occurrence of sibling species in Sri Lanka has not been documented previously. Findings Anopheline larvae were collected at a site in the Jaffna district, which lies within the dry zone of Sri Lanka, and reared in the laboratory. Emerged adults were identified using standard keys. DNA sequences of the D3 domain of 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA and the internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS-2 of the morphologically identified An. annularis were determined. BLASTn searches against corresponding An. annularis sequences in GenBank and construction of phylogenetic trees from D3 and ITS-2 rDNA sequences showed that the Sri Lankan specimens, and An. annularis s.l. specimens from several Southeast Asian countries were closely related to species A of the Indian An. annularis complex. Conclusions The results show the presence of the malaria vector An. annularis species A in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. Because An. annularis vectors have been long associated with malaria transmission in irrigated agricultural areas in the Sri Lankan dry zone, continued monitoring of An. annularis populations, and their sibling species status, in these areas need to be integral to malaria control and eradication efforts in the island.

Surendran Sinnathamby N



Studies on prevalence of anopheline species and community perception of malaria in Jaffna district, Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives: Over two decades of civil unrest and the conflict situation have had detrimental effects on vector control activities and management of malaria in Jaffna district which is an endemic region for malaria in Sri Lanka. With the background that only a few small-scale studies on malaria and its vectors have been reported from this district, a study was designed to explore the current status of malaria in the Jaffna district in relation to vector and community aspects.Methods: Adults and larvae of anopheline mosquitoes were collected monthly from selected endemic localities. Species prevalence of the collected mosquitoes was studied while the collected adults of Anopheles subpictus, a potential vector in the district, was screened for sibling species composition based on morphological characteristics and exposed to common insecticides using WHO bioassay kits. Knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP of the community were tested using a pre-tested structured questionnaire in high-risk and low-risk localities in the district.Results: The anopheline mosquito species distribution in the district was—An. culicifacies (0.5%, An. subpictus (46%, An. varuna (4%, An. nigerrimus (44% and An. pallidus (5.5%. Among the collected larvae the percent prevalence of An. culicifacies was 13% and other species follows as: An. subpictus (71%, An. varuna (4%, An. nigerrimus (10% and An. pallidus (2%. Sibling species B, C and D of An. subpictus were present in the district with the predominance of B in both coastal and inland areas, while all members showed both indoor and outdoor resting characteristics, they were highly resistant to DDT (4% and highly susceptible to malathion (5%. KAP study in the district showed a reasonable level of knowledge, positive attitude and practices towards malaria.Conclusion: An. subpictus, the reported major vector of Jaffna and a well-established secondary vector of malaria in the country, continues to be the predominant anopheline species. The distribution of sibling species of An. subpictus complex in the Jaffna district, revealed for the first time, has implications for future studies on its bionomics and malaria transmission pattern in this area and the planning of control strategies for this region. The community perception of disease, which revealed a satisfactory knowledge indicates the potential for better community participation in future malaria control activities in this region. As potential vectors are still present, health authorities need to be vigilant to prevent any future epidemics of malaria.

N.D. Karunaweera



Influence of pesticide regulation on acute poisoning deaths in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess in a developing Asian country the impact of pesticide regulation on the number of deaths from poisoning. These regulations, which were implemented in Sri Lanka from the 1970s, aimed to reduce the number of deaths - the majority from self-poisoning - by limiting the availability and use of highly toxic pesticides. METHODS: Information on legislative changes was obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture, national and district hospital admission data were obtained from the Sri Lanka Health Statistics Unit, and individual details of deaths by pesticide poisoning were obtained from a manual review of patients' notes and intensive care unit records in Anuradhapura. FINDINGS: Between 1986 and 2000, the total national number of admissions due to poisoning doubled, and admissions due to pesticide poisoning increased by more than 50%. At the same time, the case fatality proportion (CFP fell for total poisonings and for poisonings due to pesticides. In 1991_92, 72% of pesticide-induced deaths in Anuradhapura were caused by organophosphorus (OP and carbamate pesticides - in particular, the WHO class I OPs monocrotophos and methamidophos. From 1991, the import of these pesticides was reduced gradually until they were banned for routine use in January 1995, with a corresponding fall in deaths. Unfortunately, their place in agricultural practice was taken by the WHO class II organochlorine endosulfan, which led to a rise in deaths from status epilepticus - from one in 1994 to 50 in 1998. Endosulfan was banned in 1998, and over the following three years the number of endosulfan deaths fell to three. However, at the end of the decade, the number of deaths from pesticides was at a similar level to that of 1991, with WHO class II OPs causing the most deaths. Although these drugs are less toxic than class I OPs, the management of class II OPs remains difficult because they are, nevertheless, still highly toxic, and their toxicity is exacerbated by the paucity of available facilities. CONCLUSION: The fall in CFP amidst a rising incidence of self-poisoning suggests that Sri Lanka's programmes of pesticide regulation were beneficial. However, a closer inspection of pesticide-induced deaths in one hospital revealed switching to other highly toxic pesticides, as one was banned and replaced in agricultural practice by another. Future regulation must predict this switching and bear in mind the ease of treatment of replacement pesticides. Furthermore, such regulations must be implemented alongside other strategies, such as integrated pest management, to reduce the overall pesticide availability for self-harm.

Roberts Darren M.



Produccion de Mandioca en Ceilan y la Republica Dominicana: Resultados de Investigaciones (Cassava Production in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and the Dominican Republic: Research Results). (United States)

Sri Lanka (then called Ceylon) was the site of a pilot project to demonstrate ways to increase and improve cassava production, and especially processing. Prototype equipment for processing different parts of the plant into starch, meal and baked goods, is...



Numerical Simulation of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami: Case Study of Effect of Sand Dunes on the Spatial Distribution of Inundation in Hambantota, Sri Lanka  

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The megathrust earthquake of moment magnitude 9.1 – 9.3 on December 26, 2004 unleashed a massive tsunami which devastated the coastal belts of Sri Lanka as well as several other countries bordering the Indian Ocean. Extensive field observations carried out in Sri Lanka in the aftermath of the tsunami clearly showed that the spatial variation of the degree of destruction along the coastal belt was highly non-uniform. The coastal geomorphology, for instance, the presence o...



Numerical Simulation of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami: Case Study of Effect of Sand Dunes on the Spatial Distribution of Inundation in Hambantota, Sri Lanka  

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The megathrust earthquake of moment magnitude 9.1 – 9.3 on December 26, 2004 unleashed a massive tsunamiwhich devastated the coastal belts of Sri Lanka as well as several other countries bordering the Indian Ocean.Extensive field observations carried out in Sri Lanka in the aftermath of the tsunami clearly showed that the spatialvariation of the degree of destruction along the coastal belt was highly non-uniform. The coastal geomorphology, forinstance, the presence of sand dunes in some par...



Municipal solid waste management in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka: Problems, issues and challenges  

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This paper describes the problems, issues and challenges faced by Sri Lanka based on the outcome of a recent study conducted in the country's Southern Province. The study consists of a public survey, discussions with local authority staff involved in waste management, discussions with Provincial Council and Government officials, dialogue with local politicians, review of documents and field observations. The study revealed that only 24% of the households have access to waste collection and that in rural areas it was less than 2%. A substantial number of households in areas without waste collection expect local authorities to collect their waste. The study also showed that most sites in the province are under capacity to handle any increased demand. Urgent and immediate improvement of the waste disposal sites is necessary to meet the current demand for improved waste collection. The study also revealed that there is a high willingness of people for home composting



Instructors’ Perspective on E-Learning Adoption in Sri Lanka: A Preliminary Investigation  

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Full Text Available E-Learning has become an increasingly popular mode of instruction in higher education due to advances in the Internet and multimedia technologies. The purpose of the study is to gauge the perception and views of the lecturers at South Eastern University (SEUSL. As it is an exploratory study, the case study method was undertaken. The result of the study indicates that the lecturers are with positive attitude and supportive mindset to embark on e-learning initiative and it also identified a number of factors that could potentially influence the e-learning implementation in the university. Moreover the findings are instrumental and directing in undertaking a comprehensive study to understand the overall perception of lecturers towards e-learning implementation at the tertiary educational institutions in Sri Lanka.

Husnayati Hussin



Impacts of the 2004 Indian ocean tsunami on the southwest coasts of Sri Lanka (United States)

The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused major landscape changes along the southwest coasts of Sri Lanka that were controlled by the flow, natural topography and bathymetry, and anthropogenic modifications of the terrain. Landscape changes included substantial beach erosion and scouring of return-flow channels near the beach, and deposition of sand sheets across the narrow coastal plain. In many areas tsunami deposits also included abundant building rubble due to the extensive destruction of homes and businesses in areas of dense development. Trim lines and flow directions confirmed that shoreline orientation and wave refraction from embayments and rock-anchored headlands locally focused the flow and amplified the inundation. Tsunami deposits were 1 to 36 cm thick but most were less than 25 cm thick. Deposit thickness depended partly on antecedent topography. The deposits were composed of coarse to medium sand organized into a few sets of plane parallel laminae that exhibited overall upward fining and landward thinning trends.

Morton, R. A.; Goff, J. R.; Nichol, S. L.



Effect of soil carbohydrates on nutrient availability in natural forests and cultivated lands in Sri Lanka (United States)

Carbohydrates supply carbon sources for microbial activities that contribute to mineral nutrient production in soil. Their role on soil nutrient availability has not yet been properly elucidated. This was studied in forests and cultivated lands in Sri Lanka. Soil organic matter (SOM) fractions affecting carbohydrate availability were also determined. Soil litter contributed to sugars of plant origin (SPO) in croplands. The negative relationship found between clay bound organic matter (CBO) and glucose indicates higher SOM fixation in clay that lower its availability in cultivated lands. In forests, negative relationships between litter and sugars of microbial origin (SMO) showed that litter fuelled microbes to produce sugars. Fucose and glucose increased the availability of Cu, Zn and Mn in forests. Xylose increased Ca availability in cultivated lands. Arabinose, the main carbon source of soil respiration reduced the P availability. This study showed soil carbohydrates and their relationships with mineral nutrients could provide vital information on the availability of limiting nutrients in tropical ecosystems.

Ratnayake, R. R.; Seneviratne, G.; Kulasooriya, S. A.



Entrepreneurial Orientation and Business Performance of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises of Hambantota District Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Entrepreneurship has played an important role in economic growth, innovation, competitiveness and in poverty alleviation. This study investigated the degree of Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO of twenty five manufacturing Small and Medium scale Enterprises (SMEs in Hambantota District, Sri Lanka (HDSL and the effects of EO dimensions including proactiveness, innovativeness, and risk taking to business performance. Interviews were used as the main instrument for data collection. Qualitative and quantitative techniques were applied for data analysis. Findings showed about 52% of SMEs in HDSL represented moderate level of EO. Proactiveness, innovativeness, risk taking and overall EO were significantly correlated with market share growth. Results further indicated there were positive correlations among proactiveness and EO with business performance. This study could be useful for policy makers to plan their activities towards entrepreneurship development of SMEs in HDSL.

Fauzul Mafasiya Fairoz



Neighborhood Environment and Self-Rated Health among Adults in Southern Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The prevalenceof different neighborhood environmental stressors and associations between the stressors and self-rated health are described in a representative sample of 2,077 individuals, aged 18-85 years, in southern Sri Lanka. Mosquito menace (69.4%, stray dog problems (26.8%, nuisance from neighbors (20.3%, and nuisance from drug users (18.7% were found to be the most prevalent environmental stressors. None of the stressors investigated were associated with self-rated physical health, but nuisance from neighbors, nuisance from drug users, shortage of water and having poor water/ sewage drainage system were associated with self-rated mental health among the respondents.

Truls Østbye



Anopheline breeding in river bed pools below major dams in Sri Lanka. (United States)

Anopheline mosquito larval surveys were carried out from September 2000 to August 2002 in Mahaweli and Kelani river beds, below five major dams in the wet and intermediate zones of Sri Lanka, to study the prevalence of anopheline species in these areas. In each study site, all permanent and semi-permanent pools were surveyed fortnightly by dipping at 6 dips/m(2) surface area of water. Larvae were collected in separate containers, staged and identified at their third and fourth stages. During each survey, the surface area and depth of pools were recorded and each reading was considered as an individual observation. River bed pools below the dams contained stagnant clean water with a little or no aquatic vegetation. The majority of pools were nigerrimus, An. peditaeniatus, An. subpictus, An. tessellatus, An. vagus and An. varuna were found breeding in the river bed pools. PMID:16890181

Kusumawathie, P H D; Wickremasinghe, A R; Karunaweera, N D; Wijeyaratne, M J S; Yapabandara, A M G M



Ultra-micro trace element contents in spices from Sri Lanka  

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Spices were analyzed by ICP-MS for determination of the ultra-micro trace elements in the human adult, Bi, Cd, Co, Ni, Pd, Pt, Se, Sn, Te, Tl, to complement previous results obtained by INAA and by EDXRF. The spices, originating from Sri Lanka, were curry, chilli powder and turmeric powders, coriander, cinnamon, black pepper, fennel, rampeh and curry leaves, and cumin. The analytical procedure was validated by analyzing the certified reference materials NIST SRM 1572 Citrus Leaves and NIST SRM 1573 Tomato Leaves. The results indicate that spices may contribute well to the daily optimal uptake of nutrients of a human adult. The adequacy of spices as a reference material with certified ultra micro trace elements is suggested. (author)



Demand for road-fuel in a small developing economy: The case of Sri Lanka  

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This paper estimates the demand for road fuel (petrol and auto-diesel) in the context of a small developing economy-Sri Lanka. The data set covers a period of 39 years from 1964 to 2002 representing both close economy and open economy policy regimes. The estimation procedure is based on seemingly unrelated regression equation (SURE) methodology mainly to capture substitutability of petrol and diesel in road transportation. The effect of auto-fuel prices on vehicle demand is also analyzed as a part of the analysis. In addition to confirming existing evidence on road-fuel demand, the findings reveal some interesting evidence with respect to own-price elasticity, cross-price elasticity, lag effects, income and vehicle mix variables



Establishment of antimicrobial residue monitoring programme for food of animal origin in Sri Lanka  

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Full text: Antibiotic drugs are often used both therapeutically and prophylactically in animal production, and are necessary for many production systems. However, the presence of unacceptable levels of antimicrobial residues in animal products may lead to direct effects on the consumer, such as allergies and toxicities such as dose-independent idiosyncratic reactions that can be triggered due to chloramphenicol residues. Indirect adverse reactions include the promotion of antimicrobial resistance. Further, the parent drugs and their metabolites of the nitrofuran group of antimicrobials are known to be carcinogens. In order to promote awareness on food safety and quality assurance, it is necessary to monitor antimicrobial residues in animal products. This can be done only by having well equipped laboratories and validated techniques. Sri Lanka, as an export country for cultured shrimp, needs to comply with EU regulations. The establishment of the residue monitoring programme in Sri Lanka was commenced in 2002 at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Peradeniya. Three techniques have been established in Sri Lanka for monitoring antimicrobial residues in food of animal origin. The modified EU Six Plate Test (SPT) is a bioassay technique, which screens six groups of antimicrobials, namely; penicillin, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, macrolides (erythromycin), tetracycline and sulphonamides. Food commodities are screened for chloramphenicol residues using a commercially available ELISA kit (Euro Diagnostica, Netherlands), which is a microtiter plate, based competitive enzyme immunoassay. A HPLC-DAD technique has been established to detect nitrofuran metobolites in shrimp including the primary metobolites of furazolidone, furaltadone, nitrofurantoin and nitrofurazon. Since July 2002 a total of 1712 samples including 900 chicken samples and 812 shrimp samples were screened for antimicrobial residues using the SPT. Since November 2002, 1027 shrimp samples from export consignments have been tested using ELISA. In 2007 the HPLC technique was established and 85 shrimp samples have been tested. Out of the 900 broiler meat samples tested by SPT, 52 samples (5.8 %) showed positive results while all the shrimp samples tested were negative. Out of the 1027 shrimp samples tested using ELISA, 2 samples (0.2 %) were positive. All the samples tested using by HPLC were negative for nitrofuran metabolites. There is clear evidence that the frequency of residues occurrence in the samples tested decreased as the project progressed due to increased awareness among farmers on restrictions imposed on using antimicrobial agents in animal production. Trace back procedures were adopted in situations where residue violations were observed in order to initiate action to prevent reoccurrence through the appropriate and responsible use of antimicrobials, and efforts were taken to ensure sustainability of the project. Further, steps are now being taken to comply with ISO 17025 Certification in order to obtain the status of laboratory accreditation. The laboratory established at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka is now recognized as an Independent Reference Laboratory for monitoring antimicrobial residues in food of animal origin. The laboratory service for the analysis of food samples for antimicrobial residue monitoring is now extended to producers and quality assurance divisions of regulatory authorities. (author)



An Ethno medical Survey on the Traditional Medicines and Methods Using for the Treatment of Arshas (Haemorrhoids in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Arshas (Heamorrhoids is one of the most common ailments in Sri Lankan society. Most of the people suffering from Arshas have great faith in Ayurvedic and Traditional treatments. According to literature survey there are many preparations for the Arshas done by using herbs and materials which could be found from our natural surroundings. The traditional medical practitioners' select the drugs based on a rational theory and empirical knowledge obtained by trial and error. Some traditional physicians of Sri Lanka claim to have special treatments known only to them or to the trusted members of the family, or the most eminent and trusted of the physician. Objectives:  This survey conducted to find out the most using formulations, treatment methods and commonest drugs used for the disease of Arshas of the traditional physicians in Sri Lanka.   Methods: In this survey ethno medical data was collected from thirty four traditional physicians residing in Uva province in Sri Lanka by using a questioneer. Results: The main methods of treating the disease Arshas was Kashaya (Decoctions, Churna (Powders, Alepa (Pastes, Avagaha (Sitz baths, Arishta, Asava and Dhuma (fumes. The most common herbs of treating the Arshas were Gotukola (Centella asiatica L., Kohila (Lassia spinosa L., Mun (Vigna radiate, Umbalakada (Maldive fish and Ratu Araliya (Plumeria autifoloa P.

Kumudu Rupika Weerasekera



Impact of distributed and independent power generation on greenhouse gas emissions: Sri Lanka  

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Sri Lanka has a hydropower dominated power system with approximately two thirds of its generation capacity based on large hydro plants. The remaining one third are based on oil fired thermal generation with varying technologies, such as oil steam, Diesel, gas turbines and combined cycle plants. A significant portion of this capacity is in operation as independent power plants (IPPs). In addition to these, Sri Lanka presently has about 40 MWs of mini-hydro plants, which are distributed in the highlands and their surrounding districts, mainly connected to the primary distribution system. Further, there are a few attempts to build fuel wood fired power plants of small capacities and connect them to the grid in various parts of the country. The study presented in this paper investigates the impact of these new developments in the power sector on the overall emissions and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in particular. It examines the resulting changes to the emissions and costs in the event of developing the proposed coal power plant as an IPP under different investment and operational conditions. The paper also examines the impact on emissions with 80 MWs of distributed power in different capacities of wind, mini-hydro and wood fired power plants. It is concluded that grid connected, distributed power generation (DPG) reduces emissions, with only a marginal increase in overall costs, due to the reduction in transmission and distribution network losses that result from the distributed nature of generation. These reductions can be enhanced by opting for renewable energy based DPGS, as the case presented in the paper, and coupling them with demand side management measures. It is also concluded that there is no impact on overall emissions by the base load IPPs unless they are allowed to change over to different fuel types and technologies. (author)



Emplacement and Evolution History of Pegmatites and Hydrothermal Deposits, Matale District, Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Excellent outcrops in Matale Sri Lanka provide unique insight into the emplacement and evolution history of hydrothermal and pegmatitic rocks in the central highlands of Sri Lanka. Field, structural, petrological, thermo-barometric studies in the metamorphic basement rocks in the central highlands and related hydrothermal deposits are presented in this study. Detailed petrographic and mineralogical data reveal peak metamorphic conditions for the crustal unit in the study area as 854 ± 44oC at 10.83 ± 0.86 kbar. Hydrothermal veins consisting of quartz and mica are closely related to cross-cutting pegmatites, which significantly post-date the peak metamorphic conditions of the crustal unit. Field relations indicate that the veins originated as ductile-brittle fractures have subsequently sealed by pegmatites and hydrothermal crystallization. Geological, textural and mineralogical data suggest that most enriched hydrothermal veins have evolved from a fractionated granitic melt progressively enriched in H2O, F, etc. Quartz, K-feldspar, mica, tourmaline, fluorite and topaz bear evidence of multistage crystallization that alternated with episodes of resorption. It was suggested that the level of emplacement of pegmatites of the Matale District was middle crust, near the crustal scale brittle-ductile transition zone at a temperature of about 600oC. For this crustal level and temperature range, it is considered very unlikely that intruding pegmatitic melts followed pre-existing cracks. As such the emplacement temperatures of the pegmatites could be well below the peak metamorphic estimates in the mafic granulites. The metamorphic P-T strategy and position of formation of hydrothermal deposits and pegmatites is summarized in the modified P-T-t-D diagrams.

G.W.A.R Fernando



Mitigation of Sri Lanka Island Effects in Colombo Sounding Data during DYNAMO (United States)

During the Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) field campaign, upper-air soundings were launched at Colombo, Sri Lanka as part of the enhanced northern sounding array (NSA) of the experiment. The Colombo soundings were affected at low-levels by diurnal heating of this large island and by flow blocking due to elevated terrain to the east of the Colombo site. Because of the large spacing between sounding sites, these small-scale effects are aliased onto the larger scale impacting analyses and atmospheric budgets over the DYNAMO NSA. To mitigate these local island effects on the large-scale budgets, a procedure was designed which uses ECMWF-analyzed fields in the vicinity of Sri Lanka to estimate open-ocean conditions (i.e, as if this island were not present). These 'unperturbed' ECMWF fields at low-levels are then merged with observed Colombo soundings. This procedure effectively mutes the blocking effects and large diurnal cycle observed in the low-level Colombo fields. In westerly flow regimes, adjusted Colombo winds increase the low-level westerlies by 2-3 m/s with a similar increase of the low-level easterlies in easterly flow regimes. In general, over the NSA the impact of the adjusted Colombo winds results in more low-level divergence (convergence), more mid-level subsidence (rising motion) and reduced (increased) rainfall during the westerly (easterly) wind regimes. In comparison to independent TRMM rainfall estimates, both the mean budget-derived rainfall and its temporal correlation are improved by using the adjusted Colombo soundings. In addition, use of the 'unperturbed' fields result in a more realistic moisture budget analyses, both in its diurnal cycle and during the build-up phase of the November MJO when a gradual deepening of apparent drying was observed. Overall, use of the adjusted Colombo soundings appears to have a beneficial impact on the NSA analyses and budgets.

Ciesielski, P. E.; Johnson, R. H.; Yoneyama, K.



Informed consent in Sri Lanka: A survey among ethics committee members  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Approval of the research proposal by an ethical review committee from both sponsoring and host countries is a generally agreed requirement in externally sponsored research. However, capacity for ethics review is not universal. Aim of this study was to identify opinions and views of the members serving in ethical review and ethics committees in Sri Lanka on informed consent, essential components in the information leaflet and the consent form. Methods We obtained ethical approval from UK and Sri Lanka. A series of consensus generation meetings on the protocol were conducted. A task oriented interview guide was developed. The interview was based on open-ended questionnaire. Then the participants were given a WHO checklist on informed consent and requested to rate the items on a three point scale ranging from extremely important to not important. Results Twenty-nine members from ethics committees participated. Majority of participants (23, believed a copy of the information leaflet and consent form, should accompany research proposal. Opinions about the items that should be included in the information leaflets varied. Participants identified 18 criteria as requirements in the information leaflet and 19 for the consent form. The majority, 20 (69%, believed that all research need ethical approval but identified limited human resource, time and inadequate capacity as constraints. Fifteen (52% believed that written consent is not required for all research. Verbal consent emerged as an alternative to written consent. The majority of participants rated all components of the WHO checklist as important. Conclusion The number of themes generated for the consent form (N = 18 is as many as for the information leaflet (N = 19 and had several overlaps. This suggests that the consent form should be itemized to reflect the contents covered in the information leaflet. The participants' opinion on components of the information leaflets and consent forms proved to be similar with WHO checklist on informed consent.

Siriwardhana Chesmal



Predictability of stream flow and rainfall based on ENSO for water resources management in Sri Lanka (United States)

SummaryWe investigate the viability of using El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and sea surface temperature (SST) data to predict seasonal streamflow for one of the major rivers in Sri Lanka, the Kelani, using correlation analysis, contingency tables, and principal component analysis. The agricultural seasons in Sri Lanka are Yala (April-September) and Maha (October-March). The correlation between the Kelani River streamflow during Yala and ENSO indices ( r = -0.41) is significant at 99% level. In addition, the Kelani streamflow during Yala has a correlation with the Central Indian Ocean SST ( r = -0.40) that is also significant at the 99% level. The first principal component of the Indo-Pacific Ocean SST is reminiscent of the SST associated with the ENSO mode. A prediction scheme based on this mode for the streamflow during Yala has a skill characterized by a correlation of 0.5 in a cross-validated mode. The prediction of streamflow during Maha is best carried out separately for the two halves of the season. During the El Niño phase, the rainfall during Maha is enhanced during the first half of the season (October-December) and diminished in the second half (January-February). Rainfall rather than streamflow has a better relationship with ENSO from October to December. During the second half of the Maha season, rainfall declines with both warm and cold ENSO phases and any prediction scheme has to take into account this non-linear relationship. Overall, useful skill for seasonal streamflow predictions has been demonstrated for the Yala season and skill for seasonal rainfall predictions for the first and second half of the Maha season has been elucidated.

Chandimala, Janaki; Zubair, Lareef



A deterministic analysis of tsunami hazard and risk for the southwest coast of Sri Lanka (United States)

This paper describes a multi-scenario, deterministic analysis carried out as a pilot study to evaluate the tsunami hazard and risk distribution in the southwest coast of Sri Lanka. The hazard and risk assessment procedure adopted was also assessed against available field records of the impact of the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004. An evaluation of numerically simulated nearshore tsunami amplitudes corresponding to ‘maximum-credible' scenarios from different subduction segments in the Indian Ocean surrounding Sri Lanka suggests that a seismic event similar to that generated the tsunami in 2004 can still be considered as the ‘worst-case' scenario for the southwest coast. Furthermore, it appears that formation of edge waves trapped by the primary waves diffracting around the southwest significantly influences the nearshore tsunami wave field and is largely responsible for relatively higher tsunami amplitudes in certain stretches of the coastline under study. The extent of inundation from numerical simulations corresponding to the worst-case scenario shows good overall agreement with the points of maximum penetration of inundation from field measurements in the aftermath of the 2004 tsunami. It can also be seen that the inundation distribution is strongly influenced by onshore topography. The present study indicates that the mean depth of inundation could be utilised as a primary parameter to quantify the spatial distribution of the tsunami hazard. The spatial distribution of the risk of the tsunami hazard to the population and residential buildings computed by employing the standard risk formula shows satisfactory correlation with published statistics of the affected population and the damage to residential property during the tsunami in 2004.

Wijetunge, J. J.



Establishment of multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) technology for goats in Sri Lanka  

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Multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) has been done successfully in goats in some countries (Chen et al., 2008). It can be used to multiply the genetically superior animals and to make elite herds with increased production potential. There have been no previous reports on successful MOET in goats in Sri Lanka. Therefore, this study was carried out to establish techniques for in vivo production and transfer of goat embryos in Sri Lanka. Genetically superior does (n = 7) were subjected to super ovulation for in vivo embryo production using a protocol modified from that of Batt et al (1993). Progesterone releasing intravaginal pessaries (45 mg, Cronolone) was inserted on Day 1 of the programme. The does in group 1 (n = 3) were stimulated on Day 8 with injections of pure porcine Follicular Stimulating Hormone (pFSH), while those in group 2 (n = 4) were stimulated with pure ovine Follicular Stimulating Hormone (oFSH). Equine Chorionic Gonadotrophin (eCG) was given to all does in the evening of Day 8. Subsequent injections of pFSH (group 1) or oFSH (group 2) were given in the morning and evening on Day 9 and Day 10. All does were injected with prostaglandin analogue (263 ?g/ml cloprostenol sodium) in the morning of Day 9 and vaginal pessaries were removed in the evening of Day 10. On Day 11, pFSH or oFSH was injected in the morning and Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) was injected in the evening. Immediately after the GnRH injection does were exposed to breeding with a genetically superior Jamnapari buck for 48 hours. Embryos were collected surgically 7 d after oestrus, by flushing of the uterus with embryo flushing medium containing lactated Ringer's solution with 1% bovine serum albumin at 37 deg C through a mid ventral laparotomy. The quality of the embryos was assessed microscopically and those considered to be of good and excellent quality were transferred surgically to oestrus synchronized recipient goats (n = 6) 7 d post-oestrus. The ovarian parameters measured and mean numbers of embryos recovered after superovalation are given. The total number and the quality of the embryos recovered from each group of does are shown in Table II. Following embryo transplantation, 4 of the 6 recipient does were diagnosed pregnant by ultrasound at day 35. The first goat kid born (named 'Peradeniya Kumari') was a single healthy female with 3.6 kg birth weight at full term. Two more does kidded, resulting in four healthy kids with birth weights of 3.2 kg (female), 1.8 kg (female), 1.6 kg (male) and 1.2 kg (male), while an abortion was observed in one doe. During the first six weeks the average weight gains of the first two kids born were 152.3 and 149.2 g/d, respectively. The results showed that valuable, genetically superior female goats can be multiplied using embryo transfer. The superovulatory response, quality and quantity of the embryos were better with oFSH than with pFSH. Although the number of embryos recovered was high in both groups, only some of the embryos were transferred due to the lack of sufficient number of recipient goats. The resulting offspring showed high growth rates and good survivability. Further experiments are warranted to optimize the protocols under Sri Lankan conditions and to compare the data statistically. In conclusion, the birth of healthy goat offspring through MOET technology is reported for the first time in Sri Lanka, indicating the feasibility of multiplying superior goats through this technology. (author)



An Early Historic Assemblage Offshore of Godawaya, Sri Lanka: Evidence for Early Regional Seafaring in South Asia (United States)

Investigations in 2010 by an international team of maritime archaeologists yielded a concentration of artefacts identified here by the authors as the remains of a shipwreck off the southern coastal village of Godawaya, Sri Lanka. The major findings from this site include many quern stones, various types of ceramics, and glass ingots. The comparative study of the artefacts from the Godawaya site and terrestrial sites of Sri Lanka and India suggest that the ship might have originated from the southern part of the Indian subcontinent. Based on analysis of the artefacts and radiocarbon dating of wood fragments from the site, a broad date of 2nd BCE to 2nd centuries CE is assigned to the assemblage, placing it within the early historical period. Thus, this is the earliest known and as-yet investigated shipwreck in South Asia. The survey findings are discussed and the assemblage is contextualised within the present lack of evidence for early vessels and seafaring in the region.

Muthucumarana, R.; Gaur, A. S.; Chandraratne, W. M.; Manders, M.; Ramlingeswara Rao, B.; Bhushan, Ravi; Khedekar, V. D.; Dayananda, A. M. A.



On the road to eliminate malaria in Sri Lanka: lessons from history, challenges, gaps in knowledge and research needs (United States)

Malaria is one of the most important tropical diseases that has caused devastation throughout the history of mankind. Malaria eradication programmes in the past have had many positive effects but failed to wipe out malaria from most tropical countries, including Sri Lanka. Encouraged by the impressive levels of reduction in malaria case numbers during the past decade, Sri Lanka has launched a programme to eliminate malaria by year 2014. This article reviews the historical milestones associated with the malaria eradication programme that failed subsequently and the events that led to the launch of the ongoing malaria elimination plans at national-level and its strategies that are operational across the entire country. The existing gaps in knowledge are also discussed together with the priority areas for research to fill in these gaps that are posing as challenges to the envisaged goal of wiping out malaria from this island nation.



Socio-Environmental Impact of Water Pollution on the Mid-canal (Meda Ela, Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Unplanned urban population growth in developing countries such as Sri Lanka exert pressures on the sectors of water supply, sewage disposal, waste management, and surface drainage in the cities as well as their surrounding areas. The Mid-canal is considered the most polluted surface water body in the Kandy district of Sri Lanka and contributes significantly to pollution of the Mahaweli River. Health problems in the nearby population may well be associated with environmental degradation and related to deteriorated water quality. The overall objectives of this study were to identify the socio-economic status of the community settled along the Meda Ela banks, and to examine the current water quality status of the Meda Ela and possible impacts of the nearby residents on water quality. Additionally, we propose remedial measures concerning wastewater and solid waste disposal to improve environmental conditions in this area.

Jing Yuan Wang




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Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of the massive tsunami of 26 December 2004 on Sri Lanka bytracing the tsunami height, the extent of inundation and the level of damage along the affectedcoastal belt. The results of an extensive field survey that was carried out in the east, south andwest coasts to record the evidence of water levels left behind by the tsunami clearly indicate non-uniform spatial distribution of inundation along the affected coastline of the country. Thetsunami inundation had been significantly greater for most parts of the east and the south-eastcoastal areas than the south, south-west and the west coasts of Sri Lanka. The results alsoindicate the possible influence of the coastal geomorphology on the extent of inundation. On theother hand, the measurements suggest maximum tsunami heights of 3 m – 7 m along the eastcoast, 3 m – 11 m on the south coast, and 1.5 m – 6 m on the west coast.

Janaka J. Wijetunge



Revisiting Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) bite in Sri Lanka: is abdominal pain an early feature of systemic envenoming? (United States)

The Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) is responsible for 30-40% of all snakebites and the most number of life-threatening bites of any snake in Sri Lanka. The clinical profile of Russell's viper bite includes local swelling, coagulopathy, renal dysfunction and neuromuscular paralysis, based on which the syndromic diagnostic tools have been developed. The currently available Indian polyvalent antivenom is not very effective in treating Russell's viper bite patients in Sri Lanka and the decision regarding antivenom therapy is primarily driven by clinical and laboratory evidence of envenoming. The non-availability of early predictors of Russell's viper systemic envenoming is responsible for considerable delay in commencing antivenom. The objective of this study is to evaluate abdominal pain as an early feature of systemic envenoming following Russell's viper bites. We evaluated the clinical profile of Russell's viper bite patients admitted to a tertiary care centre in Sri Lanka. Fifty-five patients were proven Russell's viper bite victims who produced the biting snake, while one hundred and fifty-four were suspected to have been bitten by the same snake species. Coagulopathy (159, 76.1%), renal dysfunction (39, 18.7%), neuromuscular paralysis (146, 69.9%) and local envenoming (192, 91.9%) were seen in the victims, ranging from mono-systemic involvement to various combinations. Abdominal pain was present in 79.5% of these patients, appearing 5 minutes to 4 hours after the bite. The severity of the abdominal pain, assessed using a scoring system, correlated well with the severity of the coagulopathy (p<0.001) and the neurotoxicity (p<0.001). Its diagnostic validity to predict systemic envenoming is - Sensitivity 81.6%, Specificity 82.4%, Positive predictive value 91.2%. Thus, abdominal pain is an early clinical feature of systemic Russell's viper bite envenoming in Sri Lanka. However, it is best to judge abdominal pain together with other clinical manifestations on decision making. PMID:24587278

Kularatne, Senanayake A M; Silva, Anjana; Weerakoon, Kosala; Maduwage, Kalana; Walathara, Chamara; Paranagama, Ranjith; Mendis, Suresh



Quality change and mass loss of paddy during airtight storage in a ferro-cement bin in Sri Lanka  

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In Sri Lanka, prices for paddy fluctuate severely showing a minimum price at harvest. To benefit from higher prices, farmers strive to store paddy, but lack of facilities and poor storage management cause quantitative and qualitative losses by rodents, insects and microbial deterioration. To overcome these problems an airtight storage system, based on a ferro-cement bin, has been developed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the storage system in terms of paddy quality and mass loss....

Adhikarinayake, T. B.; Palipane, K. B.; Mu?ller, J.



Armed Conflict Termination in Sri Lanka: An Opportunity to End Displaced Life and Renew Tamil-Muslim Relations  

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Full Text Available The 30 years of local armed conflict in Sri Lanka that broke out between the state security forces and Liberation Tigers of Tamil Ealam (LTTE in early 1980s came to an end after Sri Lankan government demolished the LTTE in 2009. A termination of such civil war was highly hoped by the people displaced by the same armed conflict, mainly Tamils and Muslims, to be an opportunity to return to their homes ending their protracted displaced live. The termination was also widely interpreted by Tamil and Muslim communities as an opportunity to renew their onetime ethnic relations, which today remained vulnerably damaged after this armed conflict. The return and the renewal of Tamil-Muslim relations have been two most notable aspects that have received a dominant position in social development programme and Tamil-Muslim public discourse of the post-conflict Sri Lanka. This paper is an attempt to examine if the Sri Lanka’s conflict termination has really served to end the displaced life and to bring Tamil-Muslim relations back. The paper focuses only on Muslims. This is a qualitative study. 11 Muslims, five from north and six from east, were recruited with purposive sample. The data was collected by one-on-one interviews with respondents and analysed with a descriptive method. The findings suggested that the conflict termination has hardly satisfied people’s hope to end their displaced live and renew their former ethnic relations. The paper, therefore, proposed some recommendations that need to be effectively advanced by government, civil communities and even non-governmental actors.

Salithamby Abdul Rauff



Impact of an AI heifer calf rearing scheme on dairy stock development in the Western province of Sri Lanka.  

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This study evaluated the impact of an AI heifer calf rearing scheme on dairy stock development, in a coconut grazing and a peri-urban smallholder dairy production system in the Western Province of Sri Lanka. The heifer rearing scheme included free advice on calf rearing, drugs, acaricides, minerals and subsidised concentrates for 30 months. The farmers in the coconut growing area integrate dairying with their plantation, they sell their milk to the main processors. The peri-urban farmers are ...



Pesticide resistance mechanisms produced by field selection pressures on Anopheles nigerrimus and A. culicifacies in Sri Lanka  

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In Sri Lanka, Anopheles nigerrimus is resistant to a range of organophosphate and carbamate insecticides at both the larval and adult stages. Biochemical studies indicate that an alteration in acetylcholinesterase is the basis of resistance rather than increased metabolic breakdown of the insecticides. In contrast, A. culicifacies is resistant only to malathion and closely related compounds containing a carboxylate ester bond. Agricultural pesticides are the sole source of selection pressure ...

Hemingway, J.; Jayawardena, K. G. I.; Herath, P. R. J.



Diel feeding periodicity, daily ration and relative food consumption in some fish populations in three reservoirs of Sri Lanka  

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Twelve diel surveys were carried out in three reservoirs of Sri Lanka viz. Minneriya, Udawalawe and Victoria, to investigate diel feeding patterns, daily ration and relative food consumption in fish populations. Stomach content weights of different size classes of various fish species in the three reservoirs in 12 diel surveys were analysed using an iterative method, MAXIMS. Predominantly herbivorous or detritivorous fish species such as Amblypharyngodon melettinus and Oreochromis niloticus e...

Weliange, Wasantha S.; Amarasinghe, Upali S.; Moreau, Jacques; Villanueva, Ching-maria



Status of organic agriculture in Sri Lanka with special emphasis on tea production systems (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze)  

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This study investigated a group of poor and isolated farmers from the mid country of Sri Lanka, Kandy District, Udapalatha Secretarial Division, which successfully developed plots of degraded former tea plantation land into productive and diverse home gardens by adapting organic agriculture practices. Here, former subsistence production was overcome by means of the concentration on the organic cultivation of tea as a cash crop facilitating market access. Direct marketing of an organic product...

Williges, Ute



Anopheline ecology and malaria infection during the irrigation development of an area of the Mahaweli Project, Sri Lanka. (United States)

A study on adult anopheline ecology and malaria vector incrimination was carried out from 1986 to 1989 during irrigation development in an area of the Mahaweli Project in eastern Sri Lanka. Eleven potential vector species were collected resting indoors or by using human or bovid bait, and from light trap catches. Overall, Anopheles vagus (Donitz), An. annularis (van der Wulp), and An. subpictus (Grassi) were the most prevalent, and An. culicifacies (Giles) and An. barbirostris (van der Wulp) were the least prevalent species. The abundance of An. aconitus (Donitz), An. jamesii (Theobald), An. pallidus (Theobald), and An. subpictus increased after irrigation development, while An. annularis, An. barbirostris, An. culicifacies and An. varuna (Iyengar) decreased. Populations of An. nigerrimus (Giles), An. tessellatus (Theobald), and An. vagus did not change substantially. Seven species were infected with malaria parasites, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) done on mosquito head-thorax triturates. The main species involved were An. annularis, at peak abundance during the 1986-1987 period of development leading to the onset of irrigation, and An. subpictus, during times of seasonal abundance in the post-irrigation period of 1988 to 1989. Although occurring at low abundance, An. culicifacies was involved in malaria transmission irregularly throughout the study period. While there was strong ELISA-based evidence implicating An. subpictus as a major post-irrigation vector, confirmation of its vector status must await dissection and ELISA-based evidence of P. vivax and P. falciparum sporozoite infection rates in salivary glands. PMID:1877717

Amerasinghe, F P; Amerasinghe, P H; Peiris, J S; Wirtz, R A



Energy access and transition to cleaner cooking fuels and technologies in Sri Lanka: Issues and policy limitations  

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Easy energy access is a trigger for human, social, and economic development. A research project was undertaken in Sri Lanka to broaden the understanding of human dimension of energy access and technologies. A questionnaire survey, covering 2269 households, gathered data on socio-economic contexts and issues influencing a transition towards clean cooking facilities. The findings reveal that the transition is impeded by four factors: the lack of motivation and the pressure for switching over to cleaner facilities, the lack of modern energy technology options, the financial risks, and the lack of financing and other support. The paper describes the delicate two-way interrelation between women earning wages and the transitions to cleaner cooking fuels and technologies. The findings suggest the need for a policy framework involving the stakeholders, financing and standardised technologies. To make a change it is proposed to introduce a national, integrated policy incorporating financing and energy governance. - Highlights: ? Households in Sri Lanka lack access to modern energy technology options for cooking. ? Cooking with fuel wood and residues is the norm in Sri Lanka, particularly in rural households. ? A survey of rural households revealed that most cannot afford to switch to cleaner cooking options. ? Most households have little awareness of the health impacts of biomass cooking. ? Women in regular formal employment are more likely to value cleaner cooking options that save time.



Home ranges and habitat use of sloth bears Melursus ursinus inornatus in Wasgomuwa National Park, Sri Lanka (United States)

We studied home ranges and habitat selection of 10 adult sloth bears Melursus ursinus inornatus at Wasgomuwa National Park, Sri Lanka during 2002-2003. Very little is known about the ecology and behaviour of M. u. inornatus, which is a subspecies found in Sri Lanka. Our study was undertaken to assess space and habitat requirements typical of a viable population of M. u. inornatus to facilitate future conservation efforts. We captured and radio-collared 10 adult sloth bears and used the telemetry data to assess home-range size and habitat use. Mean 95% fixed kernel home ranges were 2.2 km2 (SE = 0.61) and 3.8 km2 (SE = 1.01) for adult females and males, respectively. Although areas outside the national park were accessible to bears, home ranges were almost exclusively situated within the national park boundaries. Within the home ranges, high forests were used more and abandoned agricultural fields (chenas) were used less than expected based on availability. Our estimates of home-range size are among the smallest reported for any species of bear. Thus, despite its relatively small size, Wasgomuwa National Park may support a sizeable population of sloth bears. The restriction of human activity within protected areas may be necessary for long-term viability of sloth bear populations in Sri Lanka as is maintenance of forest or scrub cover in areas with existing sloth bear populations and along potential travel corridors. ?? Wildlife Biology 2007.

Ratnayeke, S.; Van Manen, F. T.; Padmalal, U. K. G. K.



Morphology and surface topography of the schistosome Bivitellobilharzia nairi from the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus maximus) in Sri Lanka. (United States)

Bivitellobilharzia nairi was first recorded from an Indian elephant (Elephas maximus) in Berlin. Infections with this parasite have become increasingly important in E. maximus maximus populations in Sri Lanka. The present work is the first morphological description of this schistosome from Sri Lanka. A number of adult worms were recovered from a dead Asian elephant near the elephant orphanage, Pinnawala, in Sri Lanka. The observed clinical features of the infected elephant included emaciation, subventral oedema and anaemia. Post-mortem results indicated that the liver was enlarged and adult schistosomes were found in the blood vessels of the liver parenchyma. The total number of worms recovered from a portion of the liver was 129,870, which is an average of 22 worms per 100 g of liver. The present study uses both light microscopic and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques for the morphological and topographical characterization of this parasite and to permit comparison with other species of schistosomes. Morphologically, these worms correspond very well to the description of B. nairi by Dutt & Srivastava (1955). Moreover, it is clear that B. nairi is a distinctive species easily differentiated from other schistosomes. The SEM study of the tegument of male worms shows that the surface of B. nairi is smoother than in other schistosomes. PMID:22989615

Rajapakse, R P V J; Iwagami, M; Wickramasinghe, S; Walker, S M; Agatsuma, T



Thrombotic microangiopathy and acute kidney injury in hump-nosed viper (Hypnale species) envenoming: a descriptive study in Sri Lanka. (United States)

Hump-nosed viper (Hypnale species) bites are common in Sri Lanka and a proportion of these bites lead to coagulation abnormalities and acute kidney injury (AKI). We observed thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) among some of these patients, but its contribution to severity of AKI and other morbidities remains unknown. Thus, we report a case series of TMA following hump-nosed viper bite addressing the complications and renal out comes in Sri Lanka. This was a prospective observational study carried out at the nephrology unit, Kandy in Sri Lanka from October 2010 to October 2011 and included 11 patients with AKI following hump-nosed viper bites. All eleven cases needed renal replacement therapy (RRT) with intermittent haemodialysis for a period of 1-5 weeks. Of them, 7 patients developed TMA with evidence of microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia (MAHA), thrombocytopenia and severe anaemia needing multiple blood transfusions. They needed longer duration of RRT (range 2-5 weeks); 2 patients developed chronic kidney disease and two died during acute stage. Autopsy study found thrombosis of micro-vessels. Thrombotic microangiopathy could be a causative pathology of AKI in hump-nosed viper bite carrying poor outcome. PMID:22483846

Herath, Nalaka; Wazil, Abdul; Kularatne, Senanayake; Ratnatunga, Neelakanthi; Weerakoon, Kosala; Badurdeen, Sadath; Rajakrishna, Premil; Nanayakkara, Nishantha; Dharmagunawardane, Dilantha



A theoretical model to predict customer satisfaction in relation to service quality in selected university libraries in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available University library administrators in Sri Lanka have begun to search for alternative ways to satisfy their clientele on the basis of service quality. This article aims at providing a theoretical model to facilitate the identification of service quality attributes and domains that may be used to predict customer satisfaction from a service quality perspective. The effectiveness of existing service quality models such as LibQUAL, SERVQUAL and SERVPREF have been questioned. In that regard, this study developed a theoretical model for academic libraries in Sri Lanka based on the disconfirmation and performance-only paradigms. These perspectives were considered by researchers to be the core mechanism to develop service quality/customer satisfaction models. The attributes and domain identification of service quality was carried out with a stratified sample of 263 participants selected from postgraduate and undergraduate students and academic staff members from the faculties of Arts in four universities in Sri Lanka. The study established that responsiveness, supportiveness, building environment, collection and access, furniture and facilities, technology, Web services and service delivery were quality domains which can be used to predict customer satisfaction. The theoretical model is unique in its domain structure compared to the existing models. The model needs to be statistically tested to make it valid and parsimonious.

Chaminda Jayasundara



Drought and the predictability of the October-November rains over Sri Lanka (United States)

Drought occurrence in Sri Lanka during the main cultivation season - the Maha - that lasts from October to March was analyzed using the 6-monthly standardized precipitation index (SPI) from 1961-2001. Two severe droughts (-1.99>SPI>-1.5), 10 moderate droughts (-1.49Sri Lanka from 1961-2005, using Canonical Correlation Analysis, revealed that the strength of the contemporaneous zonal (westerly) wind at 850hPa (U850) over the central Indian Ocean (5°S to 15°N and 40°E to 105°E) has a profound impact on the strength of ON rainfall. Temporal scores of the leading U850 mode were analyzed to identify salient characteristics of the U850 field in years when the ON rains failed. ON rain failure takes place under two scenarios: first, when the U850 is anomalously strong (anomaly = 0.32ms-1); and second, when U850 is relatively weak (anomaly = -0.44ms-1). Droughts associated with the first scenario occurred in 1964, 1971, 1980, 1981, 1988, 1995, 1996 and 2001 while droughts of the second scenario occurred in 1968, 1984, 1989 and 1991. The anomalously strong U850 field - associated with droughts of the first scenario - occurs most often (but not always) in conjunction with La Niña events. In all drought years, a combination of factors - including a strong vertical shear of the mean zonal wind; weak low-level vorticity; and anomalously low mid-tropospheric vertical velocity - suppress convection over Sri Lanka. This study demonstrates that ON rain failure can be predicted with good skill using predicted fields of contemporaneous U850 issued with a lag of one month in September. It uses retrospective forecasts of U850, for 1982-2002, from three GCM ensemble runs - NCEP’s fully-coupled Climate Forecast System (CFS); the ECHAM4.5 forced with persisted sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs); and the ECHAM4.5 forced with constructed analogues of SSTAs - to test whether such predictions could be generated on an operational basis. All three models perform well at capturing droughts of the first scenario. The only exception is the ambiguous signal represented in the NCEP_CFS’s tercile probability forecast for the severe drought of 1995. Droughts of the second scenario that occurred in 1984 and 1989 are clearly captured by the NCEP_CFS and the ECHAM4.5 forced with persisted SSTAs. The second-scenario drought of 1991 is not captured by any model. Causes of the 1991 drought are being investigated. Some factors under consideration include whether there was a role for internal atmospheric variability or the radiative influence of the 1991 Pinatubo eruption.

Fernando, D. N.; Robinson, D. A.; Ward, M. N.; Premalal, S. K.



Establishment of Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer (MOET) technology for goats in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was conducted to determine a suitable follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) preparation for superovulation in goats, establish techniques for embryo production and transfer in goats, and to examine the feasibility of applying such techniques in Sri Lanka. Two groups of genetically superior does were inserted with progesterone releasing intravaginal pessaries (45 mg Cronolone) on d 1 of the programme. On d 8, the does in Group 1 (n = 3) and Group 2 (n = 4) were given 2.5 mL injections of pure porcine FSH (pFSH, 20 mg/mL) or pure ovine FSH (oFSH, 0.88 mg/mL), respectively. On the same day, all animals were injected with 300 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG, 500 ?g/mL). Subsequent injections of 1.25 mL pFSH or oFSH were given in the morning and evening on d 9 and 10. Does were injected with 197 ?g prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?, 263 ?g/mL) in the morning of d 9 and vaginal pessaries were removed on the even- ing of d 10. On d 11, 1.25 mL of pFSH or oFSH and 1 mL of luteinising hormone releasing hormone (LHRH, 50 ?g/mL) injections were given in the morning and evening, respectively. On the same day, does in oestrus were bred to two Jamnapari bucks. Seven d post- oestrus, embryos were collected surgically, using embryo flushing medium. The quality of the embryos was assessed and the recovered embryos were transplanted surgically to oestrus synchronised goat recipients (n = 4/group) at 7 d post-oestrus. Following embryo transplantation, four does (Group 1, n = 1, Group 2, n = 3) were found to be pregnant by ultrasound scanning at 35 d into pregnancy. One healthy female offspring (Peradeniya Kumari) was born to Group 1. Another four goat kids were born to Group 2, while one kid died. In the same group, one abortion was reported. The results suggest that oFSH is better than pFSH for the superovulation of goats and that embryo transfer technology can be used in goats in Sri Lanka. (author)



Predicting and monitoring drought in the humid tropics: A case study on Sri Lanka (United States)

This dissertation develops an operational tool for predicting and monitoring drought applicable to the humid tropics. Using Sri Lanka as a case example, it examines whether droughts in the humid tropics are predictable on an operational basis, and investigates how moisture stress may be monitored as a season unfurls. Droughts in Sri Lanka occur when rainfall during the main cultivation season -- the Maha (October-March) -- fails. Such droughts profoundly impact rice production. From 1951-2008, there were 4 extreme [Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) Maha droughts can be operationally predicted by forecasting the failure of the two rainfall regimes during the season. The contemporaneous westerly zonal wind at 850hPa (U850), over 60°E-105°E and 5°S-15°N, controls the strength of the October-November convective rains -- with rain failure associated with anomalously strong U850. The contemporaneous northerly vertical shear of the mean meridional wind (V S ), over 80°E-90°E and 0°N-20°N, controls the strength of the December-February northeast monsoon rains -- with rain failure associated with an anomalously weak VS. Drought forecast skill was assessed for 1981-2002 using predicted fields of U850 issued in September, and VS, issued in November, from the NCEP Climate Forecast System and the ECHAM4.5 forced with two scenarios of prescribed sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. October-November rain failure can be predicted with good skill over the rice cultivation areas in the central and southeastern regions using forecast U850 from the two versions of the ECHAM4.5. December-February rain failure can be predicted with good skill in the rice cultivation areas in the eastern, central and north central regions with forecast VS from the ECHAM4.5 forced with constructed analogues of SST anomalies. The utility of the Vegetation Temperature Condition Index (VTCI) -- calculated with Terra-MODIS Land Surface Temperature and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index products -- as an indicator of abnormally wet or dry conditions was tested for the Maha season. Results show that the VTCI is a suitable metric for the near-real time monitoring of Maha drought because it captures the onset and progression of moisture stress as the season unfurls and complements the seasonal rainfall forecast.

Fernando, Dinali Nelun


Using the DREEM questionnaire to gather baseline information on an evolving medical school in Sri Lanka. (United States)

The recent introduction of the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) has fulfilled a long-felt need for a test instrument specifically meant to evaluate health professions education institutions. It was intended in this study to ascertain the overall DREEM score for the newly established Faculty of Medical Sciences of University of Sri Jayewardenepura (FMS/USJ), Sri Lanka and to compare the DREEM score of the students in the pre-, para- and clinical phases of the traditional curriculum practiced in this school. A total of 339 students belonging to the pre- (n = 147), para- (n = 116) and clinical (n = 76) phases of the medical course participated in this study. The DREEM questionnaire was administered face-to-face after one of their routine lectures to each group of students. The age of the students ranged from 20 to 28 years and the gender distribution was almost equal. The overall DREEM score was 108 (54%) for the pooled data for all three phases. There was no significant difference on the overall DREEM score obtained by each phase of students. The overall DREEM scores of pooled data and also for each domain indicated that the position of the FMS/USJ qualifies to be placed just on the third grade (one below the best) within the overall DREEM scale. However, on analysis of the responses for each domain, Students' Perception of Teachers (SPT), Students' Academic Self-Perceptions (SAP) and Students' Social Self-Perceptions (SSP) showed significant difference between the pre-, para- and clinical phases. Similarly, 22 out of the 50 items showed significant differences between the pre- and clinical phases. Overall, the DREEM demonstrated compatibility of its scores along with the gradual development that took place at this medical school over the last 10 years. Thus, the DREEM could be utilized in a variety of situations. PMID:16024419

Jiffry, M T M; McAleer, Sean; Fernando, Sirimali; Marasinghe, R B



A Historical Analysis of the Relationship Between Rice Production and PDSI Values in Sri Lanka (United States)

As world population grows, there are ever increasing demands being placed on the food production systems throughout the world. Climate change is complicating these stressors even further through more frequent severe weather events. In the developing world, where there are fewer resources to mitigate the effects of climate change, the combination of these two factors can have drastic consequences. In Sri Lanka, farmers in major rice production areas of the country are already struggling to produce enough rice, a staple food of the local diet, and a severe wet or dry spell could be ruinous. Faced with a changing climate and a growing demand for rice, it is important to be able to anticipate how climatic changes will affect rice production. By examining how extreme wet and dry spells have historically affected rice production, decision makers may be better able to predict and prepare for potential food shortages. We conducted an analysis of historic temperature, precipitation, and rice production statistics in order to determine the effects of extreme wet and dry spells on rice production. We also created a timeline of major developments in Sri Lankan agriculture in order to compare effects on rice production due to changes in agricultural practices with meteorological changes. Historical temperature and precipitation data were used to calculate the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for a number of stations distributed throughout the Mahaweli river basin. The basin, the largest in the country, contains three different climatic regions - dry, intermediate, and wet - that all receive different amounts of annual precipitation. The PDSI values were used to quantify drought and wetness during the Yala (April-September) and Maha (October-March) growing seasons. Analysis of historical PDSI values, agricultural advances, and rice production statistics shows great promise for anticipating and mitigating future food shortages.

Jacobi, J. H.; Hornberger, G. M.



Histopathological diagnosis of myocarditis in a dengue outbreak in Sri Lanka, 2009  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2009, an outbreak of dengue caused high fatality in Sri Lanka. We conducted 5 autopsies of clinically suspected myocarditis cases at the General Hospital, Peradeniya to describe the histopathology of the heart and other organs. Methods The diagnosis of dengue was confirmed with specific IgM and IgG ELISA, HAI and RT-PCR techniques. The histology was done in tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Results Of the 319 cases of dengue fever, 166(52% had severe infection. Of them, 149 patients (90% had secondary dengue infection and in 5 patients, DEN-1 was identified as the causative serotype. The clinical diagnosis of myocarditis was considered in 45(27% patients. The autopsies were done in 5 patients who succumbed to shock (3 females and 2 males aged 13- 31 years. All had pleural effusions, ascites, bleeding patches in tissue planes and histological evidence of myocarditis. The main histological findings of the heart were interstitial oedema with inflammatory cell infiltration and necrosis of myocardial fibers. One patient had pericarditis. The concurrent pulmonary abnormalities were septal congestion, pulmonary haemorrhage and diffuse alveolar damage; one case showed massive necrosis of liver. Conclusions The histology supports occurrence of myocarditis in dengue infection.

Gunatilake Laxman PG



Whole-genome analysis of a human rabies virus from Sri Lanka. (United States)

The complete genome sequence of a human rabies virus, strain H-08-1320, from Sri Lanka was determined and compared with other rabies viruses. The size of the genome was 11,926 nt, and it was composed of a 58-nucleotide 3' leader, five protein genes--N (1353 nt), P (894 nt), M (609 nt), G (1575 nt), and L (6387 nt)--and a 70-nt 5' trailer. The intergenic region G-L contained 515 nt. The sizes of the nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix-protein, glycoprotein and large-protein was 450, 296, 202, 524 and 2,128 residues, respectively. The phosphoprotein and large protein were one amino acid shorter and longer, respectively, than those of most rabies viruses. The glycoprotein of H-08-1320 had a unique amino acid substitution at antigenic site I. Whole-genome phylogenetic analysis showed that strain H-08-1320 formed an independent lineage and did not cluster with rabies viruses from other countries. PMID:21298456

Matsumoto, Takashi; Ahmed, Kamruddin; Wimalaratne, Omala; Yamada, Kentaro; Nanayakkara, Susilakanthi; Perera, Devika; Karunanayake, Dushantha; Nishizono, Akira



Impact of Corporate Governance on Firm Performance A Study on Financial Institutions in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Now corporate governance issues have received wide attention of researchers for more than three decades due to the increasing economic crisis around the world. This research study consider the impact of corporate governance on the performance of listed financial institutions in Sri Lanka as main objective and recommend a suitable corporate governance practices for improving performance of listed financial institutions. To achieve these objectives, the researcher use Return on equity, Return on assets, as the key variables that defined the performance of the firm. On the other hand, Board size, Meeting frequency and audit committee of the company are used as variables to measure the corporate governance. Twenty five listed financial institutions were selected as sample size for the sample period of 2008-2012. The data will be collected by using the secondary sources. According to the analysis, variables of corporate governance significantly impact on firm’s performance and board size and audit committee size have positive impact on firm’s performance. However, meeting frequency has negatively impact on firm’s performance.




Geologic impacts of the 2004 Indian ocean tsunami on Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives (United States)

The December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was generated by a large submarine earthquake (magnitude ???9.1) with an epicenter located under the seafloor in the eastern Indian Ocean near northern Sumatra, Indonesia. The resulting tsunami was measured globally and had significant geologic impacts throughout the Indian Ocean basin. Observations of tsunami impacts, such as morphologic change, sedimentary deposits, and water-level measurements, are used to reconstruct tsunamogenic processes. Data from Sumatra, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives provide a synoptic view of tsunami characteristics from a wide range of coastal environments both near- and far-field from the tsunami origin. Impacts to the coast as a result of the tsunami varied depending upon the height of the wave at impact, orientation of the coast with regard to direction of wave approach, and local topography, bathymetry, geology, and vegetation cover. Tsunami deposits were observed in all the countries visited and can be generally characterized as relatively thin sheets (<80 cm), mostly of sand. ?? 2006 Gebru??der Borntraeger.

Richmond, B. M.; Jaffe, B. E.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Morton, R. A.



Petrogenesis of the Eppawala carbonatites, Sri Lanka: A cathodoluminescence and electron microprobe study (United States)

Field and petrographic investigations, cathodoluminescence (CL) studies as well as microprobe analyses of major rock-forming minerals were conducted to establish the crystallization processes in the Eppawala carbonatites, Sri Lanka. The well preserved magmatic textures and crystal morphologies combined with the chemistry of apatite, calcite and dolomite indicate two major stages of crystal growth, which were accompanied by dynamic crystallization conditions. Initially, nucleation of apatite, ilmenite and possibly olivine was associated with rapid crystal growth during slow cooling of the carbonatite melt at depth. The heat loss through the roof and crystallization processes induced the development of turbulent convective currents, which in turn prevented further nucleation and growth of crystals and led to the dispersion of these earlier formed crystals within the magma chamber. Then, rapid upward movement of magma along structural weaknesses led to (i) the transport of mineral clusters, (ii) deformation of ilmenite, (iii) fracturing of apatite and (iv) the emplacement of the carbonatite melt as dykes. Here, the conditions were favourable for the simultaneous crystallization of magnetite, calcite and dolomite in a non-turbulent environment. Subsequent subsolidus alteration caused the hydrothermal overprint of the documented mineral assemblages, particularly along grain boundaries. The study demonstrates that detailed textural examinations of carbonatites combined with mineral chemical analyses and CL investigations can reveal the crystallization processes within carbonatite melts.

Pitawala, Amarasooriya; Lottermoser, Bernd G.



Zebu cattle farming in Sri Lanka: Production systems and reproductive characteristics  

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Zebu cattle (Bos indicus) constitute 72.3% of the cattle population in Sri Lanka and consist of indigenous exotic and crosses. Indigenous Zebu cattle were primarily found in the dry and the intermediate zones with the remainder in the wet zone. In the latter two zones the indigenous Zebu have been gradually replaced by dairy-type exotic genotypes. In the dry zone Zebu cattle farming is done as a traditional village system (DTVS) and irrigated settlement system (DISS). The DTVS is the most prevalent system and 24% of small holdings within this system rear cattle. In 91.4% of these households cattle farming is either a primary or secondary occupation. Zebu cattle farming provides a modest income with meat, milk, draught and manure contribution 45%, 34%, 9% and 12%, respectively to the total income. Scarcity of grazing lands, high incidence of crop damages by cattle, an inadequate veterinary service and poor milk collecting network are having adverse effects on the sustainability of the system. The objective of the present study were to assess the distribution, production systems and reproductive patterns of cattle with special reference to indigenous Zebu cattle in traditional management systems. 39 refs, 4 figs, 7 tabs



Estimating short and long-term residential demand for electricity. New evidence from Sri Lanka  

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This study investigates the short-run dynamics and long-run equilibrium relationship between residential electricity demand and factors influencing demand - per capita income, price of electricity, price of kerosene oil and price of liquefied petroleum gas - using annual data for Sri Lanka for the period, 1960-2007. The study uses unit root, cointegration and error-correction models. The long-run demand elasticities of income, own price and price of kerosene oil (substitute) were estimated to be 0.78, - 0.62, and 0.14 respectively. The short-run elasticities for the same variables were estimated to be 0.32, - 0.16 and 0.10 respectively. Liquefied petroleum (LP) gas is a substitute for electricity only in the short-run with an elasticity of 0.09. The main findings of the paper support the following (1) increasing the price of electricity is not the most effective tool to reduce electricity consumption (2) existing subsidies on electricity consumption can be removed without reducing government revenue (3) the long-run income elasticity of demand shows that any future increase in household incomes is likely to significantly increase the demand for electricity and (4) any power generation plans which consider only current per capita consumption and population growth should be revised taking into account the potential future income increases in order to avoid power shortages in the country. (author)



Species Composition of Odonate Fauna in Meegahawatta, a Wetland Area in Hanwella, Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Approximately 120 species of Odonata (Zygoptera and Anisoptera have been recorded in SriLanka to date. There are many gaps in our knowledge of Odonata taxonomy and distribution. The presentstudy, therefore, was carried out to investigate adult Odonata species present in Meegahawatta area(1000m2 in Hanwella. The study was carried out using two fixed quadrats (20m x 10m randomlyestablished in two selected sites. Total number of individuals belonging to each species was countedfortnightly by using binoculars. A total of 27 species, 11 Zygoptera and 16 Anisoptera representing eightfamilies were recorded. This comprised of three endemic Zygopteran species (Libellago adami,Pseudagrion rubiceps ceylonicum and Prodasineura sita and three endemic anisopteran species(Epopthalmia vittata cyanocephala, Cyclogomphus gynostylus and Macrogomphus lankanensis. Amongthose identified was one recently discovered and yet un-described Archibasis species. Of the threeendemic Anisopteran species recorded, C. gynostylus and M. lankanensis are listed as vulnerable speciesin the IUCN Redlist of 2010. Although the Zygopterans showed higher Diversity Index and EvennessIndex (H’= 1.99, E= 0.83 than the Anisopterans (H’=1.96, E= 0.32, their Richness Index (R=1.67 wasless than that of the Anisopterans (R= 2.49. The most common Zygopteran species recorded wasPseudagrion malabaricum whereas Neurothemis tulia tulia was the most common anisopteran species.

M.D.H. Lankika



An Empirical Investigation on Stock Market Anomalies: The Evidence from Colombo Stock Exchange in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The current study examines the Stock Market Anomalies in Colombo Stock Exchange (CSE; Sri Lanka during the period of 2004 to 2013. The existences of both Day of the Week Effect and Monthly Effect have been tested using daily and monthly data respectively. The Ordinary Least Squares (OLS method and GARCH (1, 1 model were employed to capture the Day of the Week effects and Monthly Effects along with the daily volatility behavior. The sample period was divided in to two periods as War Period and Post War Period in order to take the impacts of the War in to account. The results indicate the presence of negative Monday effect and the positive effects for all other days only for the war period. Further, the positive volatility effect on Monday and the negative volatility effect on Friday have been examined for both war period and the entire sample period with significant Wald F statistics. Despite, the positive January effects are common for all sample periods, the negative December effects cannot be identified for post war period. Hence, the study confirms the existence of Stock Market anomalies; both day of the week effect and monthly effect particularly during the war period. Moreover, these seasonality patterns limit the validity of Efficient Market Hypothesis in the context of Colombo Stock Exchange.

N. P. Ravindra Deyshappriya



The effects of the 2004 tsunami on a coastal aquifer in Sri Lanka  

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On December 26, 2004, the earthquake off the southern coast of Sumatra in the Indian Ocean generated far-reaching tsunami waves, resulting in severe disruption of the coastal aquifers in many countries of the region. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of the tsunami on groundwater in coastal areas. Field investigations on the east coast of Sri Lanka were carried out along a transect located perpendicular to the coastline on a 2.4 km wide sand stretch bounded by the sea and a lagoon. Measurements of groundwater table elevation and electrical conductivity (EC) of the groundwater were carried out monthly from October 2005 to August 2007. The aquifer system and tsunami saltwater intrusion were modeled using the variable-density flow and solute transport code HST3D to understand the tsunami plume behavior and estimate the aquifer recovery time. EC values reduced as a result of the monsoonal rainfall following the tsunami with a decline in reduction rate during the dry season. The upper part of the saturated zone (down to 2.5 m) returned to freshwater conditions (EC < 1000 µS/cm) 1 to 1.5 years after the tsunami, according to field observations. On the basis of model simulations, it may take more than 15 years for the entire aquifer (down to 28 m) to recover completely, although the top 6 m of the aquifer may become fresh in about 5 years

Vithanage, Meththika Suharshini; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard



Land use pattern and their impact on water quality in Bolgoda Lake basin- Sri Lanka (United States)

Water quality monitoring of a river can be used to define the existing conditions, detect trends and sources of pollution. The water quality of the Bolgoda river was studied by sampling the river water at eight locations along its course within Colombo district, Sri Lanka. Bolgoda basin has been mostly encroached grasslands and agricultural lands have been converted into commercial purposes due to urbanization. The Bolgoda river and lake receive water from rainfall. Water which falls within the catchment area accumulates in the Bolgoda basin and flows from the North Lake through the South Lake and finally into the Indian Ocean at Northern and Southern outfalls of the river. This water plays a role to reduce the pollution level and salinity level in the water body in the basin. Saline water intrusion in the river was studied to identify the variation of the salinity in the river during the 2008 August to 2009 January. The study revealed that the salinity and pH variation depends on the water flow direction in the basin and rainfall. Salinity intrusion and depletion of vegetation cover are the badly effect existence of endemic and rare species. It also affects the development of riverside community.

Piyadasa, Ranjana; Chandreasekara, Kanchana



A matrix in life cycle perspective for selecting sustainable materials for buildings in Sri Lanka  

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This paper presents a matrix to select sustainable materials for buildings in Sri Lanka, taking into consideration environmental, economic and social assessments of materials in a life cycle perspective. Five building elements, viz., foundations, roofs, ceilings, doors and windows, and floors are analyzed based on materials used for these elements. Environmental burdens associated with these elements are analyzed in terms of embodied energy and environmental impacts such as global warming, acidification and nutrient enrichment. Economic analysis is based on market prices and affordability of materials. Social factors that are taken into account are thermal comfort, interior (aesthetics), ability to construct quickly, strength and durability. By compiling the results of analyses, two building types with minimum and maximum impacts are identified. These two cases along with existing buildings are compared in a matrix of environmental, economic and social scores. Analysis of the results also indicates need for higher consideration of environmental parameters in decision-making over social and economic factors, as social and economic scores do not vary much between cases. Hence, this matrix helps decision-makers to select sustainable materials for buildings, meaningfully, and thus helps to move towards a more sustainable buildings and construction sector. (author)

Abeysundara, U.G. Yasantha [Ministry of Education, Isurupaya, Battaramulla (Sri Lanka); Babel, Sandhya [Environmental Technology Program, School of Biochemical Engineering and Technology, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasat University, P.O. Box 22, Pathumthani 12121 (Thailand); Gheewala, Shabbir [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)




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Full Text Available ABSTRACTChanges in water quality of a sand aquifer on the east coast of Sri Lanka due to the December 26, 2004 tsunami and subsequent disturbance due to well pumping and flushing by precipitation were investigated. Two closely spaced tsunami affected transects, spanning the ocean and an interior lagoon across a 2 km wide land strip were monitored from October, 2005 to September, 2006. Water samples were collected from 15 dug wells and 20 piezometers, from the disturbed and undisturbed sites respectively to evaluate the temporal and spatial trends in water quality.The EC values observed from the undisturbed area showed a significant decrease (3000 to 1200 ?S/cm with the rain from November 2005 to March 2006, while the values in the disturbed area appeared to have stabilized without further decline through the same period. The concentration range of EC, Ca, K, Na, alkalinity, total hardness and sulphate were higher in the disturbed site than in the undisturbed site. PHREEQC modeling showed that the mixed sea water fraction is higher in the disturbed site than in the undisturbed site, and this is likely due to the movement of the disturbed plume by water extraction through pumping and extensive well cleaning after the tsunami, causing forced diffusion and dispersion. No arsenic contamination was observed as all observed arsenic concentrations were below 10 ?g/L. For the sites investigated, there are clear indications of only a slow recovery of the aquifer with time in response to the onset of the monsoon.

Meththika Vithanage



Student Perceptions of an Online Post Graduate Course in Family Medicine in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available BackgroundThe online Diploma course in Family Medicine (DFM of the Post Graduate Institute of Medicine (PGIM of the University of Colombo is one of the pioneering online post graduate medical courses in Sri Lanka.ObjectivesTo describe student perceptions on the online DFM course.MethodsThe study population comprised of all the students (19 of the first batch of the course. Pre- tested self administered questionnaires were administered to all students. A Likert scale was used to assess the domains of teaching, learning, levels of understanding, and technical problems. The scale ranged from 1= ["poor / not useful/did not understand"] to 5= ["excellent/ very useful/ understood very well"]. A focus group discussion was carried out to strengthen the student perceptions, based on the themes which emerged.ResultsResponse rate was 98.4%. Levels of understanding the lessons were perceived to be high with an average of 4.8. Students were of the opinion that discussions and assignments helped them to engage in active learning. Online discussions were found to be the most useful form of learning. 88% commented that they are able to link clinical work to their online course work.ConclusionsThis online course has been useful in improving student knowledge and the levels of understanding of individual lessons are satisfactory. The most useful form of learning appeared to be online discussions.

D. R. N. Sumanasekera



Diesel generation as an option for generation expansion in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sri Lanka is to a certain extent largely dependent on hydroelectricity in order to meet its requirements for electrical energy of the country. Hydroelectric power at present contributes with about 80 percent of the total installed capacity of the country and with similar percentages of the total electricity generation, dependent on the year of rainfall. This situation is not expected to change drastically in the coming next years since the current expansion plans for the generating system envisage more additions of hydro power plants. These would be combined with the necessary additions of thermal power plants in order to prevent acute capacity and generation deficits in years of reduced rainfall. This paper reviews the thermal power plants being considered as candidates in system expansion planning studies for the country. Special emphasis is made on the analysis of how diesel powered plants can be economically considered to meet these needs and in the comparison of this type of plant with the available thermal power alternatives. (author). 4 refs, 3 figs, 11 tabs



Seroepidemiology of rinderpest in bovines in Sri Lanka using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is the first inland wide study on seroprevalence of rinderpest in Sri Lanka. This study shows the advantages of using a serologically sensitive test, such as ELISA, in studying the seroepidemiology of a disease with low prevalence. The prevalence was highest in the northern, eastern and north-central provinces. The spread of rinderpest from the first location of the outbreak, which was in the eastern province in 1987, is attributed to the movement of bovines for slaughtering purposes. It appears that the spread of rinderpest could be reduced by controlling animal movement. Apparently, rinderpest had shifted from an epidemic form in the 1987-1989 period to an epidemic form from 1990 onwards, towards areas with high bovine density (>0.3 bovines/hectare). Furthermore, the extensive management system mostly practiced in the DL regions, in which animal-to-animal contact is more frequent, had contributed to the spread of rinderpest. The prevalence was higher in older bovines, probably because of exposure to natural infection during the last epidemic



Socio-geographic perception in the diffusion of innovation: Solar energy technology in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Understandings of the diffusion process have tended to emphasize either the adoption perspective, which focuses on individual characteristics, or the market perspective, which focuses on institutional context. In this paper we bring these two perspectives together by recognizing that people are embedded in socio-geographic contexts that affect their perceptions of their situations, which in turn shape the innovativeness of individuals and places. Focusing on the diffusion of Solar Home Systems (SHS) in Sri Lanka, we explore the role of context at the village (by comparing adoption rates among villages) and individual (by comparing time-to-adoption among household decision makers in a case-study village) scales. At the village scale, we find that expectations of government policy based on interactions related to ethnicity and politicians' previous power-grid connection promises are significant drivers of SHS adoption, along with perceived tolerance levels in the village for non-conformist behavior. Among household decision makers within the case-study village, we analyze relative adoption time and the duration of the innovation-decision process and find that perceiving strong village-level social control inhibits SHS adoption decision making. The results add to innovation diffusion theory and provide policy recommendations for agencies promoting solar energy in developing countries



Heavy metal abundances in the Kandy lake - an environmental case study from Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Kandy lake, situated in the heart of Sri Lanka's second largest city with a population of nearly 120,000, has been monitored to probe the extent of heavy metal pollution. Although the lake is a source of drinking water to the city, a large number of effluent canals drain into the lake carrying a continuous flow of industrial and domestic waste matter. A total of 66 surface water samples were analyzed for their Fe{sup 2+}, total Fe, total V, SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, Cd{sup 2+}, and Pb{sup 2+} contents. Pb and Cd were found in high concentrations averaging 150 {mu}g/l and 77 {mu}g/l, respectively, and exhibit a marked positive correlation with each other (r = +0.94). Vehicular emissions and industrial waste matter contribute largely to the Pb and Cd contents of the lake, the anthropogenic influence outweighing the contributions made by geological materials. All field observations and laboratory experiments indicate a tendency of the Kandy lake towards eutrophicity.

Dissanayake, C.B.; Rohana Bandara, A.M.; Weerasooriya, S.V.R. (Univ. of Peradeniya, (Sri Lanka))



Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a rural, physically active, low income population in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is recognized as a metabolic disorder largely seen in urbanized populations. The purpose of this study was to assess prevalence and risk factors for NAFLD in a rural, physically active, economically deprived population in Sri Lanka. Methods By visiting individual households in the community, 35-64 year old adults resident in two selected estates in the Nuwara Eliya District of Sri Lanka, were invited to participate in the study. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were made on all participants. Blood samples were obtained for the assay of fasting glucose, serum lipids, serum insulin and alanine aminotransferase. NAFLD was diagnosed on established ultrasound criteria for fatty liver in the absence of hepatitis B and C markers and high alcohol consumption. Results Of those invited, 403 (65% participated in the study. Almost all participants were either Indian or Sri Lankan Tamils and 53% were females. Prevalence of NAFLD was 18% in this population. Twice as many males were diagnosed as having NAFLD compared to females. Male sex, high BMI, high waist circumference, high diastolic blood pressure and high plasma glucose levels were significant predictors of NAFLD. Conclusion Nearly one in five people in this predominantly Indian Tamil, rural, physically active, economically deprived population had NAFLD. The condition was associated with constituent features of the metabolic syndrome. These results support studies reporting ethnic variations in disease susceptibility and suggest that genetic factors may also play a role in determining disease risk.

Pinidiyapathirage M



Analysis of Polymorphisms in the Merozoite Surface Protein-3a Gene and Two Microsatellite Loci in Sri Lankan Plasmodium vivax: Evidence of Population Substructure in Sri Lanka  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract. The geographical distribution of genetic variation in Plasmodium vivax samples (N = 386) from nine districts across Sri Lanka is described using three markers; the P. vivax merozoite surface protein-3a (Pvmsp-3a) gene, and the two microsatellites m1501 and m3502. At Pvmsp-3a, 11 alleles were found with an expected heterozygosity (H(e)) of 0.81, whereas at m1501 and m3502, 24 alleles (H(e) = 0.85) and 8 alleles (H(e) = 0.74) were detected, respectively. Overall, 95 unique three locus genotypes were detected among the 279 samples positive at all three loci (H(e) = 0.95). Calculating the pairwise fixation index (F(ST)) revealed statistically significant population structure. The presence of identical 2-loci microsatellite genotypes in a significant proportion of samples revealed local clusters of closely related isolates contributing to strong linkage disequilibrium between marker alleles. The results show evidence of high genetic diversity and possible population substructure of P. vivax populations in Sri Lanka.

Schousboe, Mette L; Rajakaruna, Rupika S



Some characteristics of the larval breeding sites of Anopheles culicifacies species B and E in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives : Anopheles culicifacies Giles, the major malaria vector in Sri Lanka, existsas a species complex comprising two sympatric sibling species— species B and E. Species E is reportedto be the major vector of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum parasites in Sri Lanka, whilst speciesB is a poor or nonvector as in India. Knowledge of the breeding habits of the two sibling species canhelp in designing optimal vector control strategies. Hence, a survey was conducted in Sri Lanka tostudy the preferential breeding habitats of An. culicifacies species B and E.Methods: Immature forms of An. culicifacies were collected from identified breeding sites in malariousdistricts. Collected larvae were typed for their sibling species status based on mitotic Y-chromosomestructure. Data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science version 10.0.Results: An. culicifacies immature forms were found in 23 collection sites. Among these samples19 were found to have species E and four to have species B. All species B larvae were collected fromTonigala village in the Puttalam district. None of the 23 sites was found to have both species B and E.Species E, the major vector of malaria, appears to breed in variety of breeding sites which can be of anindication of its adaptive variation to exploit breeding sites with varying limnological characteristics.Interpretation & conclusion: The present findings have to be taken into account when formulatingmore effective larval control measures. They also show the need for a detailed study of possibledifferent preferences for larval breeding sites between species B and E.

S.N. Surendran & R. Ramasamy



Blending satellite data and RADAR tool for rapid flood damage assessment in Agriculture: A case study in Sri Lanka (United States)

During the catastrophic flooding it is critically important to estimate losses as it is essential for facilitating good decision making at the district, province and national levels of government and to appraise aid agencies for necessary assistance. Flood loss estimates can also be used to evaluate the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to strengthening flood control measures. In the case of Sri Lanka there were limited knowledge and application system exist for carrying out rapid damage assessment for Agriculture in Sri Lanka. FAO has developed the tool "Rapid Agricultural Disaster Assessment Routine" (RADAR) based on theoretical approach that uses simple tools for assessing the impact on agriculture of a disastrous event. There are two knowledge bases that contain information needed for calculation of the value loss or damage. The procedure of rapid impact assessment implies the use of knowledge-bases, database and GIS. In this study, the user friendly application of RADAR system has been developed. Three components were considered including agriculture, livestock and farmers asset to estimate the losses. The application will allow estimating flood damage at various scales and this being tested at district level and specific example for the 2011 floods in Sri Lanka. In order to understand flood inundation cycle, time-series optical MODIS satellite data (2000-2011) and microwave ALOS PALSAR (2006-2011) were used to derive annual flood extent, flood duration and recurrent areas to identify flood risk and impact of seasonal flooding on agriculture. This study demonstrates how RADAR & satellite-based flood products can be effectively used for rapid damage assessment and managing the floods.

Amarnath, Giriraj; Inada, Yoshiaki; Inoue, Ryosuke; Alahacoon, Niranga; Smakhtin, Vladimir



Irregular Migration as a Potential Source of Malaria Reintroduction in Sri Lanka and Use of Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests at Point-of-Entry Screening  

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Background. We describe an irregular migrant who returned to Sri Lanka after a failed people smuggling operation from West Africa. Results. On-arrival screening by Anti-Malaria Campaign (AMC) officers using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) (CareStart Malaria HRP2/PLDH) indicated a negative result. On day 3 after arrival, he presented with fever and chills but was managed as dengue (which is hyperendemic in Sri Lanka). Only on day 7, diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria was made by microcop...

Wickramage, Kolitha; Galappaththy, Gawrie N. L.; Dayarathne, D.; Peiris, Sharika L.; Basnayake, Rajeeka N.; Mosca, Davide; Jacobs, Jan



Degradation of 14C ring labelled pesticides in selected soils of Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ground water resources in Sri Lanka are largely derived from direct rainfall seepage and recharge from surface water bodies. Ground water contamination potential of pesticides is governed by many soil, pesticide and environmental factors. One of the critical factors that affects is the rate at which pesticides degrade in the soil. This is the process that eliminates the chemical from the environment. Therefore the knowledge of degradation rates of pesticides is essential for pollution control management. Degradation and dissipation rates of 14C ring labelled carbofuran and diazinon in selected Sri Lankan soils were studied under laboratory conditions. 0.1 Ci/10 g soil of ring labelled carbofuran and diazinon-were added to Nuwara Eliya (Red yellow podzolic), Pugoda (Alluvials) Kalpitiya and Negombo (Regosols) soils and incubated in 75% of maximum water holding capacity and 28 degree C of temperature for 13 hours light and 11 hours dark conditions. Liberated 14CO2 was collected after 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28, 36, 42 and 58 days to an alkaline solution and analyzed using Liquid Scintillation Counter. Carbofuran has a mineralization rate of 12.5% in Kalpitiya regosols, 7.5% in Pugoda alluvials and lower rates in other two soils after 20 days. After 40 days it increases over 20% in Kalpitiya and in other three soils it was less than 15%. After-58 days the mineralization was over 60% in Kalpitiya soils but less than 500/o in other three soils. During the whole period the mineralization was less than 10% in Nuwara Eliya red yellow podzolic soils. Diazinon exhibited 25% mineralization in Nuwara Eliya and Kalpitiya soils after ten days but in Pugoda and Negombo soils it was less than 20%. After 40 days it was 80% in Kalpitiya soil and 60% in Nuwara Eliya. During the total period the mineralization is less than 25% in Negombo and Pugoda soils. Overall, the degradation rate of carbofuran is much lower than diazinon for all selected soils. Therefore the contamination risk by leaching of pesticide is much higher for carbofuran.



Use of radioisotopes in studying iron metabolism in humans in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anaemia due to iron deficiency is the commonest haematological problem found in Sri Lankan pregnant women and pre-school children. The reported prevalence rates amongst pregnant and lactating women ranged from 60-80%. The present study revealed that 3% of pregnant women had satisfactory iron stores and 57% had virtually no iron stores. Routine iron supplementation is justified not only to correct the anaemia but also to build up the maternal iron stores. In a longitudinal study of 100 pregnant women a very high prevalence was observed in spite of the fact that the population studied was on iron supplementation. A very poor compliance on iron therapy was seen. The incidence of low birth weight observed was 32%, quite similar to that has been reported previously for Sri Lanka. Therefore, further longitudinal studies have been designed to find out the efficacy of the present supplementary programme. In Galle District 54.5% of the pre-school children were found clearly anaemic and another 20% had evidence of iron depletion. As the dietary intake of iron was marginal, the weaning foods that are in practice were tested for iron availability. Iron absorption/availability studies by in-vivo (extrinsic tag method) and in-vitro (using radioiron "5"9Fe tracer) methods have shown a very poor (less than 5%) availability in many of the commonly used weaning foods. A statistically significant decrease in iron availability was seen with increase in amount of polyphenols mainly in some of the preparations made with green leaves. Addition of ascorbic acid rich food items showed an increase in iron availability (by 2-6 times). Dietary zinc intake of 46 children (2-5 yrs) was found 2-4 mg/1000 kcal, relating to total energy intake. Mean plasma zinc concentration of these children was 13.8±0.8 ?mol/L. Therefore further studies on the improvement of zinc and iron availability in weaning foods have been designed to be done in future. (author). 3 refs, 1 fig



Helvolic acid, an antibacterial nortriterpenoid from a fungal endophyte, Xylaria sp. of orchid Anoectochilus setaceus endemic to Sri Lanka (United States)

An endophytic fungus was isolated from surface sterilized leaf segments of Anoectochilus setaceus, an orchid endemic to Sri Lanka, and was identified as Xylaria sp. by morphological characters and DNA sequencing. Bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionation of the organic extract of a laboratory culture of this fungus led to the isolation of the known antibacterial helvolic acid. Helvolic acid was active against the Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis [minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC), 2 ?g mL?1] and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC, 4 ?g mL?1).

Ratnaweera, Pamoda B.; Williams, David E.; de Silva, E. Dilip; Wijesundera, Ravi L.C.; Dalisay, Doralyn S.; Andersen, Raymond J.



Fatal injury in Eastern Sri Lanka, with special reference to cardenolide self-poisoning with Cerbera manghas fruits  

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Objective. Self-poisoning with plant seeds or fruits is a common method of self-harm in South Asia. While most deaths follow ingestion of Thevetia peruviana (yellow oleander) seeds, other plants are locally common. During review of fatal injuries seen in a teaching hospital in eastern Sri Lanka, we noted cases of fatal self-poisoning with Cerbera manghas (sea mango, pink eyed cerbera, odollam tree) fruits. Methods. We reviewed the post-mortem records of the Batticaloa Teaching Hospital and ex...

Eddleston, Michael; Haggalla, Sapumal



Pesticide resistance mechanisms produced by field selection pressures on Anopheles nigerrimus and A. culicifacies in Sri Lanka. (United States)

In Sri Lanka, Anopheles nigerrimus is resistant to a range of organophosphate and carbamate insecticides at both the larval and adult stages. Biochemical studies indicate that an alteration in acetylcholinesterase is the basis of resistance rather than increased metabolic breakdown of the insecticides. In contrast, A. culicifacies is resistant only to malathion and closely related compounds containing a carboxylate ester bond. Agricultural pesticides are the sole source of selection pressure for resistance in A. nigerrimus, while in A. culicifacies pressure arises predominantly from antimalarial spraying. PMID:3492309

Hemingway, J; Jayawardena, K G; Herath, P R



Determinants of environmental management systems (EMSs of manufacturing small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to identify the critical factors that affecting the implementation of environmental management systems (EMSs of manufacturing SMEs in Sri Lanka. Out of twelve factors, management commitment, professional expertise, financial resources, stakeholders and environmental information are identified as key factors. Based on the survey results, it is proposed that the government should play an important role in promoting environmental management in SMEs. It is necessary for the government to provide active support in the aspects including mandatory policy, encouraging policy and supporting policy.

Zhang Zhengang



Production systems and characteristics of indigenous small ruminants in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Farming operations of small ruminants is one of the most common features in the small-scale livestock farmers, which represents 99% of the total farming population in Sri Lanka. However, the distribution of native small ruminants; goats and sheep, are scattered. The goat population is distributed mostly (72%) in drier areas whereas sheep are concentrated mainly in northern area of the country. Therefore the management systems of these farm animal genetic resources are largely influenced by the socio cultural conditions of the respective areas. The data collection on farming systems and production characteristics were carried out during the years 2007 and 2008 from the areas in the north central, north-western and northern parts of the island. The farms were randomly chosen based on their representativeness of indigenous small ruminant populations, having confirmed that there was no introduction of exotic breeds within documented past. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used for data collection from 40 farm families for each small ruminant species. The production status of each species was analyzed separately as they belong to separate regional, social and ethnic categories. Native goats are kept mainly for meat and manure and rarely for milk under extensive management conditions. The input levels were low, ranging from sub-standard levels to zero level. According to farmers' perspective, native goats are hardy and resistant to common diseases. This was further revealed by absence of disease incidence recorded during the survey. The herd size varies according to the area ranging from 1-2 goat on average in northern area and 6-7 on average in the north-central and north-western areas. The animals were recorded as small compact animals with varying coat colours either polled or horned. Females are prolific, however kids show low growth rates and high mortality before weaning. Breeding is done based on community arrangement using a hired buck. Low milk yield and low growth performance after weaning hinder their chances of being attracted as a genetic asset among rural community. This is mostly highlighted since the goat production is a part of mixed crop-livestock production system. The role-play of goat as an income generator was minimum (0%-20% of the total income) even in the areas, where the goat production is popular. Native sheep, know as Jaffna Local sheep are reared in very specific farming system prevailing in northern area of the island. The flock size of native sheep varies from 12-254 animals. There were only two farms having more than 200 animals. Animals are usually white with patches of various colours (brown and black), and have extremely short tails. Females usually have no horns but half of males do. Indigenous sheep are small animals with no production potential of wool. Breeding occurs naturally in a close system and no attention has paid for performance improvement but for the number. Single birth is most common though there were very few twinning (2.5%) recorded in the survey area. High lamb mortality rate could be seen due to harsh environmental conditions and lack of attention paid by the farmer s during lambing season. However, Jaffna Local is the hardy native sheep breed and it is the only local sheep breed in Sri Lanka. Majority of farmers kept sheep as a tradition and as an inherent property while few others (35%) recorded a family income born by selling manure and animals. Hence sheep production system is essentially a low-input, low-risk and low-return system specific to the area. (author)



Medical students’ willingness to work in post-conflict areas: A qualitative study in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Background: The north-east (NE region of Sri Lanka observed a critical health workers’ shortage after the long-lasting armed conflict. This study aimed to explore medical students’ attitudes towards working in the NE and to identify factors determining such attitudes. Methods: A semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted in two medical schools, one in the NE and the other near the capital, in October 2004. Data were qualitatively analysed using the framework approach. Results: Three main themes were identified: 1 Professional motives and career plans; 2 Students’ perceptions of the healthcare situation in the NE; and 3 Students’ choice of the NE as a future practice location. It was found that familiarity with the difficulties faced by the NE people was a major motivation for medical students to work in the NE in the future. For NE students, familiarity was linked to their sense of belonging. For non-NE students, their personal experience of the NE familiarized them with the difficult situation there, which positively influenced their willingness to work there. Demotivations to work in the NE were poor working and living conditions, fewer opportunities for postgraduate education, language differences, insecurity, and fear of an unpleasant social response from the NE communities. Conclusions: NE local medical students had a sense of belonging to the NE and compassion for the Tamil people as members of the ethnic group. They were willing to work in the NE if their concerns about difficult working and living conditions and postgraduate education could be solved. Non-NE students who were familiar with the NE situation through their personal experience also showed a willingness to work there; thus, early exposure programmes in medical education might help to increase the health workforce in the NE. It is also expected that non-NE physicians working for the NE people would facilitate reconciliation and the rebuilding of trust between two ethnic groups.

Azeem Dad Gadi



Pattern of pesticide storage before pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides is the commonest means of suicide in rural Asia. It is mostly impulsive and facilitated by easy access to pesticides. The aim of this large observational study was to investigate the immediate source of pesticides used for self-harm to help inform suicide prevention strategies such as reducing domestic access to pesticides. Methods The study was conducted in a district hospital serving an agricultural region of Sri Lanka. Patients who had self-poisoned with pesticides and were admitted to the adult medical wards were interviewed by study doctors following initial resuscitation to identify the source of pesticides they have ingested. Results Of the 669 patients included in the analysis, 425 (63.5% were male; the median age was 26 (IQR 20-36. In 511 (76% cases, the pesticides had been stored either inside or immediately outside the house; among this group only eight patients obtained pesticides that were kept in a locked container. Ten percent (n = 67 of the patients used pesticides stored in the field while 14% (n = 91 purchased pesticides from shops within a few hours of the episode. The most common reasons for choosing the particular pesticide for self-harm were its easy accessibility (n = 311, 46% or its popularity as a suicide agent in their village (n = 290, 43%. Conclusion Three quarters of people who ingested pesticides in acts of self-harm used products that were available within the home or in close proximity; relatively few patients purchased the pesticide for the act. The study highlights the importance of reducing the accessibility of toxic pesticides in the domestic environment.

Eddleston Michael



Induced abortion in Sri Lanka: who goes to providers for pregnancy termination? (United States)

The sociodemographic characteristics of abortion seekers and the reasons they give for procuring termination were studied in 356 clients selected from two abortion clinics in the city of Colombo. Nearly 80% were Buddhists and about 10% were Christians. Almost all had some formal education but only 20% were employed outside the home. Over 95% were currently married and at the peak of their childbearing age. More than one-half were aged 30 years or over, while adolescents only constituted about 3%. Fourteen per cent were nulliparous and about two-thirds had one or two living children at the time of obtaining the abortion. A significantly high proportion also had a very young child. In total, the 356 women had had 1130 pregnancies, and the mean rate of abortion was 42 per 100 pregnancies. Over one-quarter had had more than one abortion and about 10% had had three or more. Almost all abortions were performed within the first trimester with a mean gestation period of 6 weeks. About one-third of the clients were using some method of contraception at the time they became pregnant. The most common reasons cited for the present abortion were 'pregnancy too soon after previous delivery', 'no more children desired' or 'curtailment of opportunity for foreign employment'. Unmarried women constitute a special group of abortion seekers who have different needs and behave differently from married women. Their needs are not currently being met by reproductive health programmes in Sri Lanka, and it is important that they should be given special attention in the future. An interesting finding is that a significant minority of the abortion seekers answered negatively to the question regarding providing medical facilities for abortions without difficulty. This underscores the ambivalence many people have to abortion. PMID:12117211

Ban, Deok Jin; Kim, Jinhyun; De Silva, W Indralal



Electronic Patient Record System for a Psychiatry Unit in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Electronic patient records improve the quality of patient care in psychiatry units. Many patients with long term illnesses have multiple patient encounters with psychiatric services. Although manual data gathering is available at present, data retrieval is time consuming as files have to be manually searched. Storage of past data is hampered by lack of space. We describe the first electronic patient record system developed for use in a psychiatry unit in Sri Lanka. The system facilitates an electronic storage of data and easy retrieval of information. The system identifies a patient by a unique number and allows different episodes of in-patient and out-patient care to be linked together.The systems' value is enhanced by the generation of reports to assist and improve health administration. Clinical care is enhanced by the ability to view the longitudinal history of a patient. Discharge reports, reports of out-patient attendance and reports of analysis of data are generated by the system.The follow up report identifies outpatients who default treatment enabling community follow up. This would help improve compliance and reduce relapses. This is not currently done as it is not feasible to identify all those who default using a manual record keeping system.Analysis of patients based on different criteria such as diagnosis and treatment will assist in identifying trends and provide a database for research.The system was developed using MySQL database and is hosted on Apache server. As this uses only open source software this can be deployed in both Linux and Windows environment allowing easy and low cost deployment. The system is web based and can be connected to a network expanding the access capabilities.

Shamali Dahanayake


Feeding of dairy cattle in the forest-garden farms of Kandy, Sri Lanka. (United States)

A survey on feeding practices was conducted with 60 farmers belonging to four categories (15 farmers in each): male farmers without off-farm income (M-), male farmers with off-farm income (M+), female farmers without off-farm income (W-), and female farmers with off-farm income (W+). Data on herd size, feeds offered, milk production, chest girth, reproduction and management were collected monthly over a period of 1 year. In addition, samples of fodder and concentrates were collected monthly and analysed for dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (OMD). Of the 550 rations analysed, grass was included in 99.8% of all rations, followed by gliricidia (65%), creepers (50%) and jak leaves (32%). Consequently, the rations were high in OMD (47-59%) and CP (7.8-23.5%). High-protein forage or coconut cake or both were also included as a supplement in 92% of the rations. Both M- and W- farmers had larger (p < 0.001) herds (mean 1.8 animal units (AU) per household) than their counterparts with off-farm income (mean 1.44 AU/household), but only the male farmers without off-farm income achieved higher feeding levels (84.4 vs 65.6 72.1 g digestible organic matter (DOM)/kg0.75 per day) and milk production (6.4 vs 5.3-5.7 L/lactating cow). The lower production of animals kept by female and M+ farmers was related to lower feeding levels. M- farmers realized higher feeding levels than their M+ counterparts. W- farmers did not collect extra feed in response to higher levels of production. It was concluded that dairy farming in the mid-country of Sri Lanka is particularly important for poorer households without income from off-farm employment. PMID:10509423

Zemmelink, G; Premaratne, S; Ibrahim, M N; Leegwater, P H



Burden of dengue infection and disease in a pediatric cohort in urban sri lanka. (United States)

Dengue is the most significant arthropod-borne viral infection of humans. Persons infected with dengue viruses (DENV) have subclinical or clinically apparent infections ranging from undifferentiated fever to dengue hemorrhagic fever/shock syndrome. Although recent studies estimated that the Indian subcontinent has the greatest burden of DENV infection and disease worldwide, we do not have reliable, population-based estimates of the incidence of infection and disease in this region. The goal of this study was to follow-up a cohort of 800 children living in a heavily urbanized area of Colombo, Sri Lanka to obtain accurate estimates of the incidence of DENV infection and disease. Annual blood samples were obtained from all children to estimate dengue seroprevalence at enrollment and to identify children exposed to new DENV infections during the study year. Blood was also obtained from any child in whom fever developed over the course of the study year to identify clinically apparent DENV infections. At enrollment, dengue seroprevalence was 53.07%, which indicated high transmission in this population. Over the study year, the incidence of DENV infection and disease were 8.39 (95% confidence interval = 6.56-10.53) and 3.38 (95% confidence interval = 2.24-4.88), respectively, per 100 children per year. The ratio of clinically inapparent to apparent infections was 1.48. These results will be useful for obtaining more accurate estimates of the burden of dengue in the region and for making decisions about testing and introduction of vaccines. PMID:24865684

Tissera, Hasitha; Amarasinghe, Ananda; De Silva, Aruna Dharshan; Kariyawasam, Pradeep; Corbett, Kizzmekia S; Katzelnick, Leah; Tam, Clarence; Letson, G William; Margolis, Harold S; de Silva, Aravinda M



The use of child soldiers in war with special reference to Sri Lanka. (United States)

Throughout history, the involvement of children in military operations has been extensively documented. The issue of child conscription is multi-faceted, with very few medical but more sociological aspects, including terrorism, politics, economics, history, culture and religion amongst other factors. Many United Nations Instruments as well as the International Criminal Court have documented that child conscription is detrimental to a child's development, violates Child Rights, and is a war crime. Efforts by international bodies to address conscription as child abuse have failed since the process is undertaken by groups rather than individuals, and because the law has no access to the perpetrators. The background to a conflict in Sri Lanka and various ethno-religious and political factors are discussed. The role of the diaspora community, the internet and various fund-raising mechanisms for war are discussed. The history of child conscription and studies examining reasons and the tasks assigned to them as conscripts as well as abusive aspects, especially in relation to emotional abuse, neglect and physical harm, are discussed. Documentation of conscription as child abuse needing a definition including a new definition of 'suicide by proxy' is stressed. The importance of culture and history, and the manipulation of the idealistic mind are discussed in the context of 'setting the stage' for child conscription. The toy weapon industry and the real arms industry, especially small arms, are important in maintaining conflicts, especially in the developing world. The conflicts of interests of members of the UN Security Council and the 'peace-keepers' of the world is discussed. PMID:24070161

Harendra de Silva, D G



Patient held medical record: solution to fragmented health care in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Sri Lanka has an extensive network of health care institutions, but there is no registered population for any particular health care institution. Patients are free to select which doctor to consult and which hospital to get admitted. Also there is no established referral and back referral system in practice. This free movement of patients within and between the primary, secondary and tertiary levels of care by patient's choice has given rise to a situation where each episode of an illness or disease process is managed by different doctors in differing specialties.As in most care settings, the patient's medical or health record is held by the health service or doctor that is providing care to the patient for a specific ailment. This leads to a gap in communication between multiple caregivers leading to poor co-ordination of care. These difficulties faced and lessons learnt suggest the use of a medical record that is kept with the patient.Patient Held Medical Records (PHMR are formal and structured records that are given to patients to enable the continuity and quality of care which he takes with him when he goes for medical consultations. PHMRs aim to improve communication between patients and the multiple clinicians and health care workers who are involved in patient management.The PHMR we propose comprises of a folder, clinical notes, problem list, flow sheet and other optional items. The PHMR can be used as a tool to empower and educate the patients. It will improve transparency and trust and facilitate continuity of care. Increased work load, cost, restriction of freedom in writing notes, confidentiality and retention of records by patients are the disadvantages which need consideration.

Ramanayake RPJC



Explaining fish consumption in Sri-Lanka: The role of consideration set size, attitude, knowledge, convenience orientation, price consciousness, and variety seeking tendency  

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The primary purpose of this study to understand how the consideration set size affect for consumption frequency of fish in Sri-Lanka. Consideration set size of fish is considered to be affected by consumer attitude, convenience orientation, and consumer knowledge in Sri-Lankan context. Thus, the second objective was to investigate how consumer attitude, knowledge, convenience orientation, variety seeking tendency and price consciousness affect the formation of consideration set size. Based on...

Pethiyagoda, Niyomi Ayesha



Caregiver strain and symptoms of depression among principal caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Data on caregiver strain and depression of principal caregivers of patients with mental illnesses are few in developing countries. Findings from developed countries cannot be applied directly to developing countries as culture specific factors may influence the outcome. Methods A prospective study was carried out in the University Psychiatry Unit of the National Hospital of Sri Lanka (NHSL to identify symptoms of depression, caregiver strain and dissatisfaction with life in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Participants were assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies – Depression Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Modified Caregiver Strain Index. Results and discussion Eighty caregivers were interviewed (males; 36, 45%. Symptoms of depression were significant in 37.5%, while 48.8% had unsatisfactory scores on the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Depression and higher caregiver strain were associated with spending more time with the patient, interruption to work, disputes with relations, being assaulted by patient and self admission of needing professional help to overcome mental stress. Conclusion This study identified several associations for depression and increased caregiver strain among caregivers in a subset of patients with mental disorder in Sri Lanka. These can be used as markers to screen and increase pretest probability to identify caregivers needing help rather than applying the cumbersome questionnaires to all.

Rodrigo Chaturaka



Trauma Treatment for Children in War : build-up of an evidence-based large-scale Mental Health Intervention in North-Eastern Sri Lanka  

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Nord-Ost Sri Lanka wird seit mehr als zwei Jahrzehnten von bewaffneten Konflikten heimgesucht. Die Zivilbevölkerung, Kinder und Erwachsene, sind ständiger Bedrohung und traumatischem Stress durch Bombardierungen, Granatenhagel, Folter, Verfolgung, erzwungener Migration and einer Vielzahl anderer kriegsbedingter Stressoren ausgesetzt. Die vorliegende Arbeit beschreibt den Aufbau einer Mental Health Versorgungsstruktur für die am schwersten betroffenen Kinder im Nord-Osten dieser Region. Fr...

Schauer, Elisabeth



Implementation of a Mental Health Care Package for Children in Areas of Armed Conflict: A Case Study from Burundi, Indonesia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Sudan  

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As one article in an ongoing series on Global Mental Health Practice, Mark Jordans and colleagues describe their work developing and evaluating a community-based psychosocial and mental health care package for children in five conflict affected countries: Burundi, Indonesia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Sudan.

Jordans, Mark J. D.; Tol, Wietse A.; Susanty, Dessy; Ntamatumba, Prudence; Luitel, Nagendra P.; Komproe, Ivan H.; Jong, Joop T. V. M.



Análisis del conflicto de los Tigres Tamil en Sri Lanka y su incidencia en la desestabilización de la región. (Periodo 2000-2008)  

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Análisis socio-político y económico del conflicto étnico de Sri Lanka, basado en la teoría de Nuevas Guerras, para la comprensión de las acciones del grupo guerrillero de los Tigres Tamil y el Gobierno cingalés que desestabilizan el país y la región.



Determinants of Tobacco Use among Students Aged 13-15 Years in Nepal and Sri Lanka: Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 2007 (United States)

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate tobacco use behaviours and their correlates among secondary school students in Nepal and Sri Lanka together with cross-country comparisons. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Methods and Settings: The data were obtained from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), 2007. Current tobacco use was considered as…

Kabir, M. A.; Goh, Kim-Leng



Prospective policy analysis: how an epistemic community informed policymaking on intentional self poisoning in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy analysis is often retrospective and not well suited to helping policy makers decide what to do; in contrast prospective policy analysis seeks to assist in formulating responses to challenging public policy questions. Suicide in Sri Lanka is a major public health problem, with ingestion of pesticides being the primary method. Previous policy interventions have been associated with reduced mortality through restricting access to the most toxic pesticides. Additional means of reducing access are still needed. Methods The prospective policy analysis comprised two stages. The first used a consensus activity within a well defined policy community to generate and frame policy options. The second broadened the analysis to include other stakeholders. We report the consensus activity with seven actors from agriculture, health, and academia. Policy options were identified through two rounds of discussion along with ratings by each participant on their degree of support for each option. Data were analysed quantitatively and discussions analysed with Nvivo 8 to code prominent and recurrent themes. Results The main finding was the strong support and consensus for two proposals: further regulation of pesticides and the novel idea of repackaging pesticides into non-lethal doses. Participants identified several factors that were supportive of future policy change including a strong legislative framework, good links between agriculture, health and academia, and a collaborative relationship with industry. Identified barriers and potential threats to policy change included political interference, difficulties of intersectoral collaboration, acceptability of options to the community, difficulty of implementation in rural communities and the challenge of reducing mortality. Conclusions The development and consideration of policy options within this epistemic community reflected an appreciation and understanding of many of the factors that can facilitate or thwart policy change. The understanding of context, evidence and ideas, implementation and impact influenced how the participants considered and rated the options. Use of epistemic community actors identified the level of support for each option, helped elaborate the particularities of context, as well as the power and influence of ideas. Further examination of the potential barriers and opportunities for these options will determine if broader consensus, involving a wider range of stakeholders, can be achieved and policy change promoted.

Anthony Zwi B



Results of treatment of differentiated thyroid cancers using Iodine-131 at Sri Lanka's first private institution  

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Full text: This department was started in order to meet the urgent demand of iodine-131 treatment in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), as the waiting list in government hospitals was unduly long. Data obtained revealed that 52% of the patients had iodine-131 therapy within 4 months, 31% in 4 to 8 months and 17% over 8 months time. Institute received license to order, stock and administer iodine-131 from the AEA-Sri Lanka as its facilities were according to IAEA standards. Facility included three 'single bedded en-suit toilet rooms' with storage capacity for iodine-131 capsules. 115 cases (male: female ratio 1:4) of DTC were treated during the past one and half year and each received 100 GBq of radioactivity. 89 (77.3%) comprised papillary carcinoma, 25 (21.7%) follicular carcinoma and 1 case of mixed carcinoma. 52% of males and 60.8% of females were in the 26-45 years age group. Sixty cases of papillary carcinoma were sub-typed and grouped to observe the distribution of metastases and response to iodine-131. They were follicular variant (FV) in 28 (46%), micropaillary (MP) in 10 (20%), encapsulated (EP) in 8 (13.3%), tall cell (TC) in 3 (5%) and diffuse sclerosis (DS) in 9 (15%). TSH and Tg values were measured before therapy and four months afterwards. Activity readings were measured 30 min after ingestion and 4 days later and discharged when the values were less than 20 ?Sv / hour. Six of the nine (66%) DS cancer patients had metastasis in lymph nodes and lungs when referred for iodine-131 treatment. In 8 of these patients, Tg levels were raised. 36% (8/9) of the FC patients also had raised Tg levels indicating metastases and 4/5 were found to have bony metastases. In post iodine-131 therapy whole body scans, 3.3% had metastases in the lungs in PC and 20% of FC in skeleton. With a single dose of iodine-131 over 90% had drop in Tg levels to less than I ng/ml except in DS (23% drop) and TC (33% drop). The study shows that sub-typing of PC was useful and TC and DS types needed either a higher dose or a second dose of iodine-131. Administration of iodine-131 therapy within four months of surgery gave the best results. (author)



The Impacts Of The Indian Ocean Tsunami On Coastal Ecosystems And Resultant Effects On The Human Communities Of Sri Lanka (United States)

The devastating tsunami that hit Sri Lanka on December 26, 2004 has demonstrated vividly the inter-connections between social and ecological resilience. Before the tsunami, the coastal zone of Sri Lanka was inhabited by predominantly poor populations, most of whom were directly dependent upon coastal natural resources, such as fisheries and coconut trees, for supporting their livelihoods. Many of these people have now lost their livelihoods through the destruction of their boats and nets for fishing, the contamination of drinking sources, homes, family members and assets. This presentation focuses on observations of the tsunami impacts on both social and ecological communities made along the affected coastline of Sri Lanka in April-May 2005. This assessment recorded patterns of ecological resistance and damage resulting from the tsunami in relation to damage on the human environment, with an exploration of the physical factors that may have contributed to vulnerability or resistance. This work also involved a preliminary assessment of the resilience and recovery of different natural resource based livelihood strategies following the disaster and an exploration of livelihood possibilities in proposed resettlement sites. From observations made in this and other recent studies, it is apparent that intact ecosystems played a vital role in protection from the impact of the tsunami and are vital for supporting people as they seek to rebuild their livelihoods. However, certain structural and biological characteristics appear to offer certain tree species, such as coconut (Cocos nucifera), an advantage in surviving such events and have been important for providing food and drink to people in the days after the tsunami. Areas where significant environmental damage had occurred prior to the tsunami or where there were few natural defenses present to protect human communities, devastation of homes and lives was extremely high. Although, there is evidence that many previously intact ecological systems were little affected or will recover from this large disturbance, major impacts on the natural environment may come in the aftermath of the tsunami during the rebuilding and reconstruction phase. The ability of communities to recover from disasters and to rebuild their lives is dependent on both an intact natural resource base and the maintenance of social networks for learning, adapting and managing resources. The potential impacts of rebuilding on the natural environment combined with policies on resettlement may influence the ability to learn, cope and manage such events and resources in the future.

Ingram, J.; Rumbaitis-del Rio, C.; Franco, G.; Khazai, B.



Salinity-tolerant larvae of mosquito vectors in the tropical coast of Jaffna, Sri Lanka and the effect of salinity on the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis to Aedes aegypti larvae  

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Abstract Background Dengue, chikungunya, malaria, filariasis and Japanese encephalitis are common mosquito-borne diseases endemic to Sri Lanka. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, the major vectors of dengue, were recently shown to undergo pre-imaginal development in brackish water bodies in the island. A limited survey of selected coastal localities of the Jaffna district in northern Sri Lanka was carried out to identify mosquito species undergoing pre-imag...




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Full Text Available Abstract:For the purpose of this study, the data was extracted from the branches of people’s bank operating within Jaffna peninsula, Sri Lanka. Here, we analysed the data by employing simple correlation analysis. In the analysis, it is found that there is a positive relationship between job satisfaction and employees’ work performance. That is high level of fair promotion, reasonable pay system appropriate work itself and good working condition leads to high level of employees’ performance. In other words, employee’s job satisfaction has positive impact on their performance. Moreover, outcome of the research would be helpful to the academicians, practitioners, researchers, planners, and policy makers who are involved in the concerned area.




Diversity and Population status of Bats in Pilikuttuwa ancient cave temple in the Gampaha District, Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Due to two unique specializations - echolocation and flight, bats have become one of the most successful groups of extant mammals in the world. Pilikuttuwa rajamaha viharaya, an ancient meditation monastery complex is a one of best places for bats which gives protection in Sri Lanka. In the present study, we evaluate the species diversity and population status of bats in Pilikuttuwa ancient meditation monastery complex with regard to their roosting ecology. Six species of bats including Taphozous melanopogon, Rhinolophus beddomei, Rhinolophus rouxii, Hipposideros galeritus, Hipposideros speoris and Megaderma spasma were recorded with the following conservation status, four in Vulnerable and two in Least Concerned. Taphozous melanopogon was the most abundant, and had the largest population with the widest distribution at the study site. A Natural predator of bats, Paradoxurus hermaphoditus was recorded in one roosting site.

T. G. Tharaka Kusuminda



Impact of Dividend Policy on Share Holders’ Wealth A Study of Listed Companies in Hotels and Travels Sector of Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available this research intends to study the impact of firm’s dividend policy on shareholders’ wealth. The objective of the company is to increase the wealth of its shareholders. It is therefore necessary, to understand the nature of the relationship between dividend and shareholders' wealth. Tourism remains the fastest growing service industry in the economies of most of developing countries. Sri Lanka entered the international tourism market in the 1960s. Since then, Hotel and Travel sector has been growing steadily as a promising sector. In particular, the contribution of Hotel and Travel sector to Gross Domestic Product was 2% in Sri Lankan economy. In attempt to fill this research gap the present study was initiated to find out the impact of dividend policy on shareholders’ wealth of top ten listed companies under hotel and travel sector in Sri Lanka during the period from 2008 to 2012. Secondary data is collected from company annual report. This research used the correlation, regression and descriptive statistics to evaluate the data collected from the top ten listed companies under hotel and travel sector. In addition the dividend policy has significant impact on shareholders' wealth. There are Positive relationship between Return on Equity, dividend per share and Dividend payout ratio and Shareholders’ wealth of top ten listed companies under hotel and travel sector in Sri Lanka and mean while there is a negative relationship between retention ratio and Shareholders’ wealth.

Sinthuja Kumaresan



Quantification of groundwater-seawater interaction in a coastal sandy aquifer system: a study from Panama, Sri Lanka (United States)

The Panama coastal aquifer system is an important water resource in the southeast coast of Sri Lanka that provides adequate supplies of water for agriculture and domestic uses. One of the biggest threats to these fragile aquifers is seawater intrusion. In this study [1], recharging mechanism and geochemical evaluation of groundwater in the coastal sandy aquifer of Panama were evaluated using chemical and stable isotope techniques. Thirty groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for their major ion concentrations and stable isotope ratios of oxygen (?18O) and hydrogen (?2H). All samples showed a decreasing order of concentrations for major anions in the order Cl- > HCO3- > SO42- > N-NO3- while cation concentrations decreased with Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+. Dominant hydrogeochemical characterizations of the groundwater were Na-Cl and mixed Ca-Mg-Cl types of water. Results of saturation index calculations indicate that the investigated groundwater body was mostly saturated with respect to calcite, dolomite and gypsum. In addition, stable isotope and geochemical data suggest that fresh groundwater in the aquifer is recharged mainly by local precipitation with only slight modification from evaporation and saline water intrusions. The communities in the study area depend almost exclusively on groundwater a better understanding of the hydrogeochemical characteristics of the aquifer system becomes increasingly important in the future for better local water resource management. References [1] Chandrajith, R., Chaturangani, D., Abeykoon, S., Barth, J.C., van Geldern, R., Edirisinghe, E.A.N.V. and Dissanayake, C.B. (in press): Quantification of groundwater-seawater interaction in a coastal sandy aquifer system: a study from Panama, Sri Lanka. - Environmental Earth Sciences, [doi:10.1007/s12665-013-3010-y].

Chandrajith, Rohana; Chaturangani, Dinusha; Abeykoon, Sumith; Barth, Johannes A. C.; van Geldern, Robert; Edirisinghe, Viraj; Dissanayake, Chandra B.



The role of private drug vendors as malaria treatment providers in selected malaria endemic areas of Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives: The involvement of private drug vendors in malaria treatment isparticularly high in developing countries and understanding their practices and knowledge aboutantimalarials and malaria treatment will aid in devising strategies to increase the correct use ofantimalarials and improve adherence to the government’s malaria drug policy. Results of a study onthe knowledge and practices of the private drug vendors conducted in seven districts in Sri Lanka,mostly in malarious areas are presented.Methods: Data on awareness of government’s malaria drug policy, practice of issuing antimalarials,knowledge about malaria and antimalarial drugs were collected from the drug vendors using pretestedquestionnaire in vernacular language. Data were statistically analysed using Stata 8.2. Chisquaretest was carried out for individual explanatory variables and a logistic regression model wasapplied taking all response variables as binary outcome.Results: Vendors’ knowledge on antimalarials was poor with 58% of the vendors being unaware ofthe government malaria drug policy in the country. Also, the advice provided to customers buyingantimalarials was limited. However, the majority of the private vendors emphasised that they wereaware of the importance of case confirmation before treatment as stressed in the national policy.Although, the vendors did not have a high awareness of national drug policies they were only foundselling chloroquine and primaquine as recommended by the Ministry of Health.Interpretation & conclusion: In recent years Sri Lanka, as a whole, has experienced very littlemalaria. The reduction in demand for antimalarials due to low incidence levels may have influencedthe knowledge and awareness on antimalarials and government drug policies. However, since lowlevels of malaria do not guarantee that epidemics will not occur, attempts to educate private drugvendors as a part of an organised control programmes are of major importance.

R.S. Rajakaruna, M. Weerasinghe, M. Alifrangis, P.H. Amerasinghe & F. Konradsen



Determinants of breastfeeding practices: an analysis of the Sri Lanka Demographic and Health Survey 2006-2007. (United States)

Identification of factors that predict a woman's infant feeding choice is important for breastfeeding promotion programmes. We analysed a subsample of children under 2 years of age from the most recent Sri Lanka Demographic and Health Survey (SLDHS) to assess breastfeeding practices and factors associated with suboptimal practices. SLDHS 2006-2007 used a stratified two-stage cluster sample of ever-married women aged 15-49 years. Breastfeeding indicators were estimated for the last-born children (n = 2735). Selected indicators were examined against independent variables through cross-tabulations and multivariate analyses. Of the sample, 83.3% initiated breastfeeding within 1 h of birth. Continuation rates declined from 92.6% in first year to 83.5% in second year. Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) rate under 6 months of age was 75.8%, with median duration being 4.8 months. Delayed initiation of breastfeeding was associated with low birthweight [odds ratio (OR) = 2.24] and caesarean delivery (OR = 3.30), but less likely among female infants (OR = 0.75), mothers from 'estate' sector (OR = 0.61) or richer wealth quintile (OR = 0.60). Non-EBF was associated with children from urban areas (OR = 1.72) and estate sector (OR = 4.48) and absence of post-natal visits by a public health midwife (OR = 1.89). A child was at risk for not currently breastfeeding if born in a private hospital (OR = 3.73), delivered by caesarean section (OR = 1.46) or lived in urban areas (OR = 2.80) or estate sector (OR = 3.23). Those living in estates (OR = 11.4) and not receiving post-natal home visits (OR = 2.62) were more likely to discontinue breastfeeding by 1 year. Breastfeeding indicators in Sri Lanka were higher compared with many countries and determined by socio-economic and health care system factors. PMID:21507202

Senarath, Upul; Siriwardena, Indika; Godakandage, Sanjeeva S P; Jayawickrama, Hiranya; Fernando, Dulitha N; Dibley, Michael J



Strategies to overcome barriers for cleaner generation technologies in small developing power systems: Sri Lanka case study  

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The penetration of cleaner and energy efficient technologies in small power systems such as the one in Sri Lanka has encountered many problems. This has caused major concerns among the policy makers, mainly in the context of the growing need to reduce harmful emissions in the electricity supply industry from the point of view of both local environmental pollution as well as the global warming concerns. This paper presents the outcome of a study involved in identifying and ranking the barriers to the promotion of cleaner and energy efficient technologies and strategies to overcome these barriers in Sri Lanka. Barriers for renewable energy based systems such as wind and wood fuel fired plants (dendro thermal power) and cleaner technologies such as liquefied natural gas (LNG) fired combined cycle and IGCC (coal) were identified based on a survey. A direct assessment multi-criteria decision making method called Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to rank the barriers. The most effective strategies are proposed to address the three major barriers for each of these technologies based on extensive discussions with all the stakeholders in the electricity industry. It was found that lack of financing instruments, high initial cost and lack of assurance of resource supply or availability are the main barriers for renewable technologies. As for cleaner fuel and technology options associated with conventional generation systems, the lack of a clear government policy, uncertainty of fuel supplies and their prices and the reliability of the technologies themselves are the major barriers. Strategies are identified to overcome the above barriers. Establishment of a proper feed in tariff, geographical diversification of installations and capacity building in commercial banks are suggested for wind power. Investment incentives, streamlining of wood production and research on site identification are proposed for wood fuel fired plants. Also the study suggests delayed implementation, combined planning with other sectors of the economy, incorporating environmental cost in planning and investment incentives as strategies for IGCC and LNG based technologies



From pesticides to medicinal drugs: time series analyses of methods of self-harm in Sri Lanka / De los pesticidas a los fármacos: análisis de series temporales de los métodos de autolesión en Sri Lanka / Des pesticides aux médicaments: analyses de séries chronologiques des méthodes d'automutilation au Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Examinar si los cambios recientes en los métodos de autolesión en Sri Lanka podrían explicar el descenso de la incidencia de suicidio en dicho país. MÉTODOS: Se llevaron a cabo análisis de series temporales de las tasas de suicidio y hospitalización por diferentes tipos de intoxicación. RE [...] SULTADOS: Entre 1996 y 2008, la incidencia anual de admisión hospitalaria provocada por intoxicación por sustancias farmacológicas o biológicas incrementó exponencialmente de 48,2 a 115,4 ingresos por cada 100 000 habitantes. Durante el mismo periodo, los ingresos anuales provocados por intoxicación con pesticidas se redujeron de 105,1 a 88,9 casos por cada 100 000 habitantes. La incidencia anual de suicidio se redujo exponencialmente, de un pico de 47,0 casos por cada 100 000 habitantes en 1995 a 19,6 por 100 000 habitantes en 2009. Las intoxicaciones fueron las responsables de 37,4 suicidios por cada 100 000 habitantes en 1995, pero en el año 2009 solo representaron 11,2 suicidios por cada 100 000 habitantes. La tasa de letalidad de las intoxicaciones por pesticidas presentó una reducción lineal, de 11,0 muertes por cada 100 casos de ingreso en el hospital en 1997 a 5,1 por cada 100 casos en el año 2008. CONCLUSIÓN: Desde mediados de la década de 1990 se ha experimentado una tendencia entre aquellas personas que pretenden autolesionarse en Sri Lanka que se aleja del uso inadecuado de los pesticidas (a pesar de que no se ha producido una reducción en la disponibilidad de los mismos) y que se acerca a un mayor uso de sustancias farmacológicas y de otro tipo. Estas tendencias unidas a una reducción de la mortalidad entre aquellos que sufrieron una intoxicación por pesticidas han dado como resultado un descenso global de la incidencia nacional de suicidio consumado. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To explore if recent changes in methods of self-harm in Sri Lanka could explain the decline in the incidence of suicide. METHODS: Time series analyses of suicide rates and hospitalization due to different types of poisoning were carried out. FINDINGS: Between 1996 and 2008 the annual inci [...] dence of hospital admission resulting from poisoning by medicinal or biological substances increased exponentially, from 48.2 to 115.4 admissions per 100 000 population. Over the same period, annual admissions resulting from poisoning with pesticides decreased from 105.1 to 88.9 per 100 000. The annual incidence of suicide decreased exponentially, from a peak of 47.0 per 100 000 in 1995 to 19.6 per 100 000 in 2009. Poisoning accounted for 37.4 suicides per 100 000 population in 1995 but only 11.2 suicides per 100 000 in 2009. The case fatality rate for pesticide poisoning decreased linearly, from 11.0 deaths per 100 cases admitted to hospital in 1997 to 5.1 per 100 in 2008. CONCLUSION: Since the mid 1990s, a trend away from the misuse of pesticides (despite no reduction in pesticide availability) and towards increased use of medicinal and other substances has been seen in Sri Lanka among those seeking self-harm. These trends and a reduction in mortality among those suffering pesticide poisoning have resulted in an overall reduction in the national incidence of accomplished suicide.

Silva, Varuni A de; Senanayake, SM; Dias, P; Hanwella, R.


Workshop to review waste inventory, waste characteristics and reference site candidates (RAS/4/016) 7-9 July 1997, Shanghai, China. Country report -Sri Lanka  

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The Atomic Energy Authority, which was formed in 1969, is the organization responsible for the regulatory and promotional activities in the use of nuclear technology in Sri Lanka. The Authority functions under the Minister of Science, Technology and Human Resources Development. The governing body of the Authority is appointed by the Minster of Science, Technology and Human Resources Development. As defined by the AEA Act, the main objectives of the Authority are: Radiation protection; the dissemination of information on use of isotopes and radiation techniques; the promotion of the use of isotopes and radiation methodologies. As Sri Lanka does not possess any Research or Power reactors, the regulatory and promotional activities are limited to uses of radioisotopes and radiation in Medicine, Industry, Research Teaching. 1 fig



An Assessment of the Contribution of an Analog Forest as a Sustainable Land-use Ecosystem for the Development of Rural Green Economy in Sri Lanka  

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Large scale clearing of natural forests for human settlements as well as in the form of tea, rubberand cinnamon plantations resulted forest fragmentation in most natural ecosystems in the wet zone of SriLanka which posed massive threats to both nature and the humans including the loss of biodiversity,environmental hazards and increasing poverty. This paper discusses about the potential to develop ruralgreen economy as a result of consolidating these agricultural lands into analog forests as a...

Liyanage, W. K. D. D.; Gamage, N. S.; Pushpa Kumara, G. D. C.; Xulong, L.



Effect of Growth Rate on Wood Specific Gravity of Three Alternative Timber Species in Sri Lanka; Swietenia macrophylla, Khaya senegalensis and Paulownia fortunei  

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With increasing private sector investments in commercial forestry, it is apparent that plantationforestry in Sri Lanka is moving in the direction of managing fast growing timber species for shorterrotations. However, there’s a perceptionthat accelerated growth rates induced by improved forestmanagement practices can result in inferior wood quality. This study tested this perceptionby studyingthe effect of growth rate on the specific gravity, as a proxy for wood quality, of three alternative...

Priyan Perera; Hiran Amarasekera; Weerawardena, N. D. R.



Distribution Of Withaferin A, an Anticancer Potential Agent, In Different Parts of Two Varieties of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. Grown in Sri Lanka  

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Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. (Family: Solanaceae) is a therapeutically important medicinal plant in traditional and Ayurveda systems of medicine in Sri Lanka. Witheferin A, is a potential anticancer compound found in W. somnifera. In the present study, attempts have been made to compare witheferin A content, in different parts of (root, stem, bark, leaf) two varieties of (LC1 and FR1) W. somnifera grown in same soil and climatic conditions. Ground sample (...

Siriwardane, A. S.; Dharmadasa, R. M.; Kosala Samarasinghe



Evaluation of acceptability and use of lockable storage devices for pesticides in Sri Lanka that might assist in prevention of self-poisoning  

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Abstract Background Self-poisoning with pesticides is a major reason for high suicide rates in rural areas of many developing countries. Safer storage of pesticides may be one means of prevention. We have conducted a study to assess the acceptability and use of lockable boxes for storing pesticides in rural Sri Lanka. Methods Four hundred lockable metal storage boxes were given to farming households, 100 in each of four villages. Assessment interviews were condu...



A preliminary study on the impact of changing shifting cultivation practices on dry season forage for Asian elephants in Sri Lanka  

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Shifting cultivation, in which fields are traditionally cultivated for two or three consecutive years and left fallow for four to five years, is an ancient practice still prevalent in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Traditionally, shifting agriculture is rain dependent and is limited to the wet season. However, traditional patterns are now changing due to