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1

Contraceptive Use in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study analyzes data from the Sri Lanka Fertility Survey not published in the Survey's First Report in order to identify the determinants of contraceptive use and to estimate the births averted by female sterilization, Sri Lanka's main contraceptive m...

G. Immerwahr

1981-01-01

2

Sri Lanka power profile  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sri Lanka relies on hydropower as its main source of electricity. If present plans are completed the country expects to have developed 200 MW of hydropower potential by the end of this century. However, the transmission and distribution network still requires a great deal of extension to realise the Ceylon Electricity Board's ambition of bringing power to the whole country. (author).

Breeze, P.

1986-02-01

3

Sri Lanka Malaria Maps  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a relatively good national case reporting system in Sri Lanka, detailed maps of malaria distribution have not been publicly available. Methods In this study, monthly records over the period 1995 – 2000 of microscopically confirmed malaria parasite positive blood film readings, at sub-district spatial resolution, were used to produce maps of malaria distribution across the island. Also, annual malaria trends at district resolution were displayed for the period 1995 – 2002. Results The maps show that Plasmodium vivax malaria incidence has a marked variation in distribution over the island. The incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria follows a similar spatial pattern but is generally much lower than that of P. vivax. In the north, malaria shows one seasonal peak in the beginning of the year, whereas towards the south a second peak around June is more pronounced. Conclusion This paper provides the first publicly available maps of both P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria incidence distribution on the island of Sri Lanka at sub-district resolution, which may be useful to health professionals, travellers and travel medicine professionals in their assessment of malaria risk in Sri Lanka. As incidence of malaria changes over time, regular updates of these maps are necessary.

Briët Olivier JT; Gunawardena Dissanayake M; van der Hoek Wim; Amerasinghe Felix P

2003-01-01

4

Sri Lanka inaugurates Kotmale  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of Kotmale, Sri Lanka's hydroelectric power project inaugurated in August 1985, is described. The final scheme will supply 200 MW to the country's grid when the third unit is finally commissioned in 1987. Information is given on the site layout, the main underground works, the dam and power station sites, the switchyard and the control equipment. Sixty per cent of the project was financed with Swedish aid and the main civil and electrical contractors were Swedish. (U.K.).

Breeze, P.

1985-10-01

5

REDD+ readiness implications for Sri Lanka in terms of reducing deforestation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Any system to compensate countries for reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) requires a historical reference level against which future performance can be measured. Here we examine the possibilities Sri Lanka, a small forest country with limited data on forest carbon stocks, has to get ready for REDD+. We construct a historical reference level using available forest inventory data combined with updated 2008 and 2009 in situ carbon density data for Sri Lankan forests. Furthermore, we use a combination of qualitative and quantitative data to attribute the clearing of Sri Lankan forests in the latest years for which national forest inventory data are available, 1992-1996, to various proximate drivers and to estimate the opportunity cost of forest conservation. We estimate that baseline deforestation emissions in Sri Lanka amounted to 17MtCO(2)yr(-1) in the 1992-1996 period, but conclude that it is challenging for Sri Lanka to produce a robust and accurate reference level due to the lack of nationally based inventories. We find that the majority of forest clearing (87%) is due to small-scale, rainfed farming, with the two other major drivers being rice and tea cultivation. Further, Sri Lankan revenues from REDD+ participation could be substantial, but they are sensitive to REDD+ policy transaction cost, highly uncertain timber revenues, and particularly the carbon price paid for emission reductions. The latter needs to be higher than $5-10/tCO(2) if there are to be substantial incentives for Sri Lanka to participate in REDD+. There is, however, a large gap in the knowledge of deforestation drivers that needs to be filled if Sri Lanka is to formulate an effective policy response to forest degradation in REDD+. For successful REDD+ implementation in Sri Lanka to happen, technological assistance, readiness assistance, and continued political momentum are crucial.

Mattsson E; Persson UM; Ostwald M; Nissanka SP

2012-06-01

6

Energy planning in Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy supplies for industry and a growing demand for electricity are the focus of energy planning in Sri Lanka. Imported fuels will be necessary because of a lack of indigenous fossil fuels and the depleted state of hydro and forest resources. 5 tables. (DCK)

Peranumetilleke, T.B.

1983-07-01

7

Sri Lanka - energy situation 1983  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy situation of Sri Lanka is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Some remarks on the country's national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in petroleum, petroleum products, and electric power generation. Important figures are presented on external trade and the balance of payments.

1985-01-01

8

MIT: Letters from Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

Charles Harvey, an associate professor from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's (MIT) Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering has kept a log of the findings from a recent visit to Sri Lanka. Harvey and colleagues Tissa Illagasekera from the Colorado School of Mines and Jayantha Obeysekera from the South Florida Water District went to Sri Lanka to investigate the impact of the recent Indian Ocean tsunami on local drinking wells. Excepts from his notes and photographs are posted on this website from the MIT News Office. The letters describe his four-day fact-finding trip and conclude that, based on the group's limited observations, "the condition of the wells depends on their location and the level of post-tsunami interference."

9

Charcoal stove from Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The government of Sri Lanka is encouraging greater use of charcoal for domestic cooking. The prototype stove described consists of a clay cylinder with a narrow waist and a 50-cm/sup 2/ side opening at the base. There is no provision for heat regulation and no method for extinction before the full charge of charcoal is burnt out. A 30% efficiency was achieved, although heat losses could be further reduced by insulating the sides and base. 4 references.

de Silva, D.

1981-01-01

10

Swine influenza in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

To study influenza viruses in pigs in Sri Lanka, we examined samples from pigs at slaughterhouses. Influenza (H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses were prevalent during 2004-2005 and 2009-2012, respectively. Genetic and epidemiologic analyses of human and swine influenza viruses indicated 2 events of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus spillover from humans to pigs. PMID:23621918

Perera, Harsha K K; Wickramasinghe, Geethani; Cheung, Chung L; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Smith, David K; Poon, Leo L M; Perera, Aluthgama K C; Ma, Siu K; Sunil-Chandra, Narapiti P; Guan, Yi; Peiris, Joseph S M

2013-03-01

11

Swine influenza in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To study influenza viruses in pigs in Sri Lanka, we examined samples from pigs at slaughterhouses. Influenza (H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses were prevalent during 2004-2005 and 2009-2012, respectively. Genetic and epidemiologic analyses of human and swine influenza viruses indicated 2 events of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus spillover from humans to pigs.

Perera HK; Wickramasinghe G; Cheung CL; Nishiura H; Smith DK; Poon LL; Perera AK; Ma SK; Sunil-Chandra NP; Guan Y; Peiris JS

2013-03-01

12

Energy alternatives in Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy needs of Sri Lanka have been largely met by petroleum products. About 34% of investments in the government programme for 1981 to 1985 are in the energy sector. The cost of energy imports during this 5-year period is estimated to be $3.5 billion. The commercial sources of energy in Sri Lanka are oil, electricity, and relatively small quantities of coal. The latter has recently been slowly phased out. In terms of total energy, the consumption in 1979 has been estimated at 3.5 million tonnes of oil equivalent. Of this, 60% came from petroleum products and 13% from hydroelectricity. In 1980, hydroelectric plants generated 1666 GWh, while the peak demand was 368.5 MW. Electricity needs of industry have increased by 8% during 1980. About two-thirds of the non-renewable energy is supplied by fuel-wood while a third comes from agricultural residues; these fuels, including bagasse, are also used in small industries. The production of fuel-wood has involved illicit felling of forests. Total consumption has amounted to 5 x 10/sup 6/ mt of fuel-wood and agricultural residues. In 1980, petroleum products required about 36% of total export earnings. The transport sector consumed 50% of the imported oil. Favourable experiments have been performed with biogas and fertilizer production by recycling animal, agricultural and municipal wastes. More than 300 biogas generators have been installed in Sri Lanka.

Peramunetilleke, T.B.

1983-03-01

13

eHealth Sri lanka 2010 Conference  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available eHealth Sri lanka 2010 - International Conference on eHealth15 & 16 September 2010at Waters Edge – Battaramulla - Sri LankaThe closing date for submission of Abstracts is 31st of July 2010.For more details, visit www.ehealth2010.hissl.org

Roshan Hewapathirana

2010-01-01

14

Management of Coastal Habitats in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Workshop on the Management of Coastal Habitats in Sri Lanka was held at the Sri Lanka Foundation Institute from 12th May to 15th May 1986. The purpose of the Workshop was to define management objectives, identify management issues and set priorities for...

1986-01-01

15

Radioisotopes and medical imaging in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The article deals with the use of X-rays and magnetic resonance imaging in medical diagnosis in its introduction. Then it elaborates on the facilities in the field of medical imaging for diagnosis, in Sri Lanka. The use of Technetium-99m in diagnostic medicine as well as the future of medical imaging in Sri Lanka is also dealt with

1993-01-01

16

Vanilla Industry Development in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vanilla, a crop with almost no cultivation costs and a healthy, stable world market, holds great potential as an export crop in Sri Lanka. This report discusses the status of the vanilla industry in Sri Lanka and offers a strategic plan for developing a p...

R. C. Flick

1994-01-01

17

Integrated biogas systems. [Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Integrated biogas systems as alternatives to fossil fuels in Sri Lanka are considered from standpoints of population growth, land availability, and employment opportunities. Agricultural practices would be improved by use of chemical fertilizers, and health/nutrition problems be alleviated by using biogas systems. Fuel for cooking and rural industries will become more easily available water weeds, such as water hyacinth and salvinia which pose a threat to waterways and rice paddy lands could be used for the production of biogas and fertilizers. A concept of an integrated biogas system comprising photosynthesis and anaerobic degradation processes to produce food and energy is presented.

Amaratunga, M.

1980-01-01

18

Sri Lanka: modèle d'île  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cinq chorèmes rendent compte de l’essentiel de l’organisation spatiale de Sri Lanka. Ils permettent de discerner le jeu simultané de deux logiques aboutissant à un modèle spatial théorique.

Michel NEYROUD

1993-01-01

19

Perception and protection in Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An assessment conducted in Sri Lanka in 2008 revealed that displaced people with disabilities were extremely vulnerable to protection incidents and their vulnerability was increased by their lack of voice.

Francesca Bombi

2010-01-01

20

Livelihoods in post-tsunami Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Livelihoods in Sri Lanka have been affected not only by the initial devastation of the tsunami but also by the policies and practices of the government and the humanitarian aid community’s post-disaster response.

Simon Harris

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Chronic folliculitis in Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chronic folliculitis (CF) is a chronic infection of hair follicles leading to atrophy and loss of the affected hairs. This study was done on 51 patients with CF presenting at the Dermatology Clinic at General Hospital Matara, Sri Lanka, to identify specific clinical features and aetiological factors, and to study histopathology. Pus cultures were done on 25 cases. Biopsies were done on 6 patients. CF was commoner in males (59%); 76% were under 34 years, and 39% had occupational exposure to possible irritants. Thirty five precent admitted of scrubbing legs with rough objects. Ichthyosis vulgaris was evident in 47%. All pus cultures revealed Staphylococcus aureus. Clinical features and histopathological features were similar to those described by Harman (1968). Rough scrubbing, ichthyosis and occupational exposure to irritants may be aetiologically relevant.

Kumarasinghe S; Kumarasinghe M

1996-01-01

22

Hydrodynamic implications of textural trends in sand deposits of the 2004 tsunami in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

Field observations and sediment samples at a coastal-plain setting in southeastern Sri Lanka were used to document the erosional and depositional impacts of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and to interpret the hydrodynamic processes that produced an extensive sand-sheet deposit. Tsunami deposit thicknesses ranged from 6 to 22??cm with thickness being controlled partly by antecedent topography. The deposit was composed of coarse to medium sand organized into plane-parallel laminae and a few laminasets. Vertical textural trends showed an overall but non-systematic upward fining and upward thinning of depositional units with an upward increase in heavy-mineral laminations at some locations. Repeated patterns in the vertical textural trends (upward fining, upward coarsening, uniform) were used to subdivide and correlate the deposit into five hydro-textural stratigraphic units. The depositional units were linked to hydrodynamic processes and upcurrent conditions, such as rates of sediment supply and composition of the sediment sources. Vertical changes in grain-size distributions recorded the depositional phases associated with flow acceleration, initial unsteady pulsating flow, relatively stable and uniform flow, flow deceleration, slack water, and return flow or flow redirection. Study results suggest that vertical textural trends from multiple cross-shore sections can be used to interpret complex tsunami flow histories, but at the location examined, interpretation of the lateral textural trends did not provide a basis for identifying the correct sediment transport pathways because flow near the landward boundary was multidirectional.

Morton, R. A.; Goff, J. R.; Nichol, S. L.

2008-01-01

23

Sri Lanka: Background and U.S. Relations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sri Lanka is a constitutional democracy with relatively high educational and social standards. Under Sri Lanka's hybrid parliamentary model, an elected president appoints the cabinet in consultation with the prime minister. The country's political, social...

K. A. Kronstadt

2006-01-01

24

The Language Planning Situation in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

|This monograph examines the language planning situation in Sri Lanka with particular emphasis on the planning of Sinhala as an official language of the country. It explores the historical, social, ideological and political processes, changes in language policy decisions, as well as the complexities of the language policy and planning situation in…

Coperahewa, Sandagomi

2009-01-01

25

Marketing Sri Lanka as an International Tourist Destination  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Masteroppgave i økonomi og administrasjon 2007 - Høgskolen i Agder, Kristiansand , Within the last two decades Sri Lanka’s tourism industry has grown dramatically as one of the main foreign exchange earners and employment provider. Since Sri Lanka depends enormously on tourism for its growth and develo...

Laksiri, Weerawanse Mudiyanselage Rohan

26

77 FR 16670 - Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Sri Lanka AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION...the license denial policy toward Sri Lanka. This change allows for exports to Sri Lanka for assistance for aerial and...

2012-03-22

27

The dawn of the personal genome era in Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The first Sri Lankan Personal Genome was successfully sequenced by scientists and bioinformaticians from the University of Colombo, Sri Lanka and the Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, New Delhi, India. This project was initiated by the Specialty Board in Biomedical Informatics of the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka.

BJC Perera

2011-01-01

28

Renewable Energy Supply Options for Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sri Lanka energy sector is dominated by conventional energy sources as biomass, hydropower and petroleum. The electricity sector is dominated by hydropower supplying approximately while small component is supplied by oil fired thermal plants. Sri Lanka has a relatively low household electrification level with major variations among urban, suburban and rural areas of the country. Main renewable energy sources capable of offering a substantial contribution to the Sri Lanka electricity generation sector are micro-hydro, wind, biomass and solar. Penetration of RE in the electricity generation sector has been extremely limited by the constraints in financing mechanisms and financial viability. The only exception has been micro/minihydro sector due to its relatively low capital investment and recent opportunities for grid connection. Also the recent World Bank refunded Energy Services Delivery (ESD) project has helped the resurgence of MH sector during the last few years. This paper examinations the feasibility of the use of these renewable sources particularly for electricity generation in Sri Lank along the incentives and barriers to their expansion.

Priyantha D. C. Wijayatunga

2001-01-01

29

Diesel IPP is first for Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In December this year, the first of eight diesel powered generating sets will be delivered to the site of Sri Lanka`s first major independent power project (IPP). Sapugaskanda plant is being developed and constructed by a European joint venture new to the IPP market and has won the support of major international investors. The 51 MW installation will provide a much needed injection of power into the hydropower-dominated system, and will serve as an example for further private investment in the country. (Author)

Green, Sian

1997-10-01

30

Abortion in Sri Lanka: the double standard.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Sri Lanka, women do not have access to legal abortion except under life-saving circumstances. Clandestine abortion services are, however, available and quite accessible. Although safe specialist services are available to women who can afford them, others access services under unsafe and exploitative conditions. At the time of this writing, a draft bill that will legalize abortion in instances of rape, incest, and fetal abnormalities awaits approval, amid opposition. In this article, I explore the current push for legal reform as a solution to unsafe abortion. Although a welcome effort, this amendment alone will be insufficient to address the public health consequences of unsafe abortion in Sri Lanka because most women seek abortions for other reasons. Much broader legal and policy reform will be required.

Kumar R

2013-03-01

31

Big dams rise in little Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A team of international consultants, dam builders, tunnelers and workers are putting together a $2-billion, four-dam hydropower and irrigation development ot the Mahaweli River in Sri Lanka, India. The 30-year project is to be completed in 7 years and will harness the Mahaweli and its tributaries, initially for irrigation 350,000 acres and developing over 400 Mw of electrical capacity.

1983-05-26

32

Smokeless tobacco use in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: To comprehensively review the issues of smokeless tobacco use in Sri Lanka . This review paper is based on a variety of sources including Medline, WHO documents, Ministry of Health and Nutrition, Colombo and from other sources. RESULTS: The prevalence of smokeless tobacco (SLT) use in Sri Lanka has been reported high, especially among rural and disadvantaged groups. Different smokeless tobacco products were not only widely available but also very affordable. An increasing popularity of SLT use among the youth and adolescents is a cause for concern in Sri Lanka. There were evidences of diverse benign, premalignant, and malignant oral diseases due to smokeless tobacco use in the country. The level of awareness about health risks related to the consumption of smokeless tobacco products was low, particularly among the people with low socio-economic status. In Sri Lanka various forms of smokeless tobacco products, some of them imported, are used. At the national level, 15.8% used smokeless tobacco products and its use is three-fold higher among men compared to women. Betel quid is by far the traditional form in which tobacco is a general component. Other manufactured tobacco products include pan parag/pan masala, Mawa, Red tooth powder, Khaini, tobacco powder, and Zarda. Some 8.6% of the youth are current users of smokeless tobacco. There are studies demonstrating the harmful effects of smokeless tobacco use, especially on the oral mucosa, however, the level of awareness of this aspect is low. The highest mean expenditure on betel quid alone in rural areas for those earning Rs. 5,000/month was Rs. 952. The core issue is the easy availability of these products. To combat the smokeless tobacco problem, public health programs need to be intensified and targeted to vulnerable younger age groups. Another vital approach should be to levy higher taxation.

Somatunga LC; Sinha DN; Sumanasekera P; Galapatti K; Rinchen S; Kahandaliyanage A; Mehta FR; Nishirani Lanka JD

2012-10-01

33

Shrimp farming practices in the puttallam district of sri lanka: implications for disease control, industry sustainability, and rural development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Shrimp farming has great potential to diversify and secure income in rural Sri Lanka, but production has significantly declined in recent years due to civil conflicts, some unsustainable practices and devastating outbreaks of disease. We examined management practices affecting disease prevention and control in the Puttalam district to identify extension services outputs that could support sustainable development of Sri Lankan shrimp farming. A survey on 621 shrimp farms (603 operational and 18 nonoperational) was conducted within the Puttalam district over 42 weeks comprising a series of three-day field visits from August 2008 to October 2009, covering two consecutive shrimp crops. Fundamental deficits in disease control, management, and biosecurity practices were found. Farmers had knowledge of biosecurity but the lack of financial resources was a major impediment to improved disease control. Smallholder farmers were disproportionately constrained in their ability to enact basic biosecurity practices due to their economic status. Basic breaches in biosecurity will keep disease as the rate limiting step in this industry. Plans to support this industry must recognize the socioeconomic reality of rural Sri Lankan aquaculture.

Munasinghe MN; Stephen C; Abeynayake P; Abeygunawardena IS

2010-01-01

34

Non-economic gains of Sri Lanka's FTAs with neighbours  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to answer the question: does a bilateral free trade agreement (FTA) lead to an improvement in the security of a member country and greater peace between two member countries in the developing world? Design/methodology/approach – This paper reviews existing literature and uses the idea of non-economic gains from regional trading agreements to explain how Sri Lanka managed to use FTAs to neutralise India and obtain military assistance from Pakistan using its FTAs with two countries during the recently concluded war. Findings – Even though political objectives were not explicitly outlined in Sri Lanka's two FTAs with its big rival neighbours (India and Pakistan), the FTAs helped Sri Lanka to successfully execute the war against the LTTE (the Tamil Tigers) by neutralising India on the one hand and gaining military assistance from Pakistan on the other. Research limitations/implications – The research approach is basically qualitative. However, there is needto develop a comprehensive theoretical model to capture non-economics gains from FTAs. Originality/value – Although there is a growing body of literature on the underlying political and strategic motivations of countries forming regional and bilateral trading arrangements, this paper adds to understanding of what motivates small developing countries to form trade agreements with big neighbours.

Bandara, Jayatilleke S.; Yu, Wusheng

2012-01-01

35

Recent Isotope Applications in Hydrology and Sedimentology in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this Article some of the applications of naturally occuring and artificial isotopes in the study of hydrological problems in Sri Lanka, are discussed. They are the water balance of a small catchment, origin of leakage to the graphite mines at Bogola in Sri Lanka, origin of thermal springs, origin of tropical monsoons and recharge study at Bandarakoswatte are discussed

1991-01-01

36

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

Cats are essential in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally-resistant oocysts in nature. Nothing is known of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Sri Lanka. Serum samples from 86 cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka were tested f...

37

Islam, politics and violence in eastern Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article bridges Sri Lankan studies and the academic debate on the relation between contemporary Islam and politics. It constitutes a case study of the Muslim community in Akkaraipattu on Sri Lanka’s war-ridden east coast. Over two decades of ethnically colored conflict have made Muslim identity...

Klem, B

38

Investigations on Piper betle grown in Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Piper betle is an economically important plant cultivated in Sri Lanka. Although more than 12 cultivars of betel are reported in Sri Lanka, very few scientific investigations have been carried out on them. Studies on the chemical constituents indicated that safrole is the major constituent, followed...

Arambewela, L. S. R.; Arawwawala, L. D. A. M.; Kumaratunga, K. G; Dissanayake, D. S; Ratnasooriya, W. D.; Kumarasingha, S. P.

39

Indirect elements off neotectonic in Sri Lanka (Ceylon); Elementi indiretti di neotettonica in Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The hydrography of the eastern side of Sri Lanka appears to be entirely different from the opposite side. Actually in the first case the rivers, before reaching the Ocean flow parallel to the main development of the island thus showing two different ways of recent evolution. Besides these rather classical indirect elements of neotectonic, some remarkable elements may be found pointing out a slow and recent lifting of the region, such as meanders more or less embanked at high altitudes and various orders of terraces. All the considerations contained in this study are strictly personal and are referred to a trip to Sri Lanka in the month of September 1996. [Italiano] L`idrografia presente nel settore orientale dello Sri Lanka appare ben diversa da quella del settore opposto. Nel primo caso, infatti, i corsi d`acqua, prima di defluire verso l`oceano, presentano un decorso parallelo allo sviluppo principale dell`isola denunciando due modalita` diverse di evoluzione recente. Accanto a questi elementi indiretti piuttosto classici di neotettonica, se ne rinvengono altri significatiovi che denunciano un lento e recente sollevamento della regione, come meandri piu` o meno incassati a quote elevate e piu` ordini di terrazzi. Tutte le osservazioni contenute nel presente lavoro sono strettamente personali e si riferiscono ad una escursione effettuata nel settembre del 1996 nello Sri Lanka.

Martinis, B.

1998-12-31

40

Sri Lanka: In Peace or in Pieces? A Critical Approach to Peace Education in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

|This article seeks to explore the "two faces of education" through a critical analysis of peace education in Sri Lanka. It aims to contribute to the wider debate on the complex role of education in situations of conflict. The article starts with an overview of what peace education is, or should be. This leads to the conclusion that peace…

Cardozo, Mieke T. A. Lopes

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Incidence of physical injuries in a rural community in Sri Lanka: Results of the first community survey in Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Injuries account for approximately 11% of all hospital admissions in Sri Lanka. However, no published data are available with regard to the community incidence of injuries in Sri Lanka. Objectives: To determine the community incidence of major intentional and unin...

Lamawansa M; Piyathilake A

42

Climate defeats energy planners in sri lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Changes in climatic conditions and vagaries of rainfall have seriously affected Sri Lanka's hydroelectric power supplies. The country's planners, who thought that the 1980 installed capacity of 421 MMW would be sufficient to meet present needs, have been compelled to resort to power cuts. Attempts to seed rain clouds, using Thai expertise, have also failed. The bulk of the country's power supply comes from hydroplants while thermal plants are used as a back-up source; the yield from this source is 20 MMW.

Peramunetilleke, T.B.

1982-02-01

43

Recent disasters in Sri Lanka: lessons learned.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sri Lanka has faced several disasters in the recent past, both manmade and natural. The mental health and psychosocial consequences have been felt at the individual, family, and collective levels. Individuals developed normal distress, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, or alcohol abuse. There were changes in family and social processes causing a tearing of the social fabric, lack of social cohesion, disconnection, mistrust, hopelessness, dependency, lack of motivation, powerlessness, and despondency. Because of the widespread nature of mental health needs, a community approach would reach the most number of people. PMID:23954050

Somasundaram, Daya

2013-09-01

44

Sri Lanka. Political violence and ethnic conflict.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In recent years, Sri Lanka has experienced 2 violent rebellions in which youths have played a prominent role, 1 in the majority Sinhala community and 1 in the minority Tamil community. The former was crushed, but the latter remains ongoing, with the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, who claim to represent the Tamil minority, battling the Sinhala-dominated government. Prospects for peace in the short- and medium term appear poor. These events have generated an impressive body of interdisciplinary interpretation, but several important topics have received relatively little attention. Most ongoing research is being carried out by anthropologists, historians, and political scientists, but psychological insights would offer important complementary perspectives.

Rogers JD; Spencer J; Uyangoda J

1998-07-01

45

Recent disasters in sri lanka: lessons learned.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sri Lanka has faced several disasters in the recent past, both manmade and natural. The mental health and psychosocial consequences have been felt at the individual, family, and collective levels. Individuals developed normal distress, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, or alcohol abuse. There were changes in family and social processes causing a tearing of the social fabric, lack of social cohesion, disconnection, mistrust, hopelessness, dependency, lack of motivation, powerlessness, and despondency. Because of the widespread nature of mental health needs, a community approach would reach the most number of people.

Somasundaram D

2013-09-01

46

Energy efficiency and conservation in Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sri Lanka is a tropical, predominantly agricultural island with a mixed population. The economy is rapidly expanding since 1977. So far the country is self-sufficient in rice, which is the staple food of the population. Indiscriminate cutting of forests for firewood resulted in a disastrous upsetting of the rain pattern. The existing capacity of hydro-electric power plants is not adequate to meet the demands of the rapidly growing industries and of households where the use of appliances increases dramatically with the progress of the economy. Periodic cut-offs of electric power supply became necessary. These are very harmful to industry. In order to keep the balance of payments in equilibrium, the government is fostering the development of new sources of foreign income, such as tourism and export of gems and spices. Remedies used to master the energy crisis are: the building of new hydroelectric plants, reforestation; introduction of ''kerosene stamps'' which will restrict the sale of this product at subsidized prices to the needy only; encouraging the use of fuel-efficient motorcycles in preference to automobiles; introduction (in cooperation with Honda) of alcohol-powered motorcycles; appointment of a Ministerial Committee endowed with broad powers to formulate and implement national energy policy. Although the general energy situation in Sri Lanka is rather bleak for the moment, it is confidently hoped that these measures will bear fruit in the long run.

Samarasekura, S.W.R.

1983-01-01

47

Estimation of global radiation for Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are several formulae that relate global radiation to other climatological parameters such as sunshine hours, relative humidity, maximum temperature, and average temperature. In this paper a generally accepted modified form of the formula first introduced by Angstrom is used. It relates global radiation to hours of sunshine that have been measured for several years in many of the meteorological stations in Sri Lanka. The annual average of the ratio of the hours of sunshine to the length of the day, i.e., annual average of (S/Z), is found to vary considerably and to lie in the range 0.42-0.66. Fre're et al., have found, using data from many parts of the world, a general graphical representation for the variation of a and b with annual average (S/Z) lying in the range 0.28 to 0.75. This variation of a and b can be expressed as quadratic functions are modified and used to determine a and b values for stations in Sri Lanka.

Samuel, T.D.M.A. (Univ. of Peradeniya (Sri Lanka))

1991-01-01

48

Autosomal dominant hereditary ataxia in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) are a group of hereditary neurodegenerative disorders. Prevalence of SCA subtypes differ worldwide. Autosomal dominant ataxias are the commonest types of inherited ataxias seen in Sri Lanka. The aim of the study is to determine the genetic etiology of patients with autosomal dominant ataxia in Sri Lanka and to describe the clinical features of each genetic subtype. METHODS: Thirty four patients with autosomal dominant ataxia were recruited. For every patient the following was done: recording of clinical details and genotyping for SCA 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 12, and 17. RESULTS: Sixty one per cent of the subjects were identified as SCA1. One subject had SCA2, 12 remain unidentified. Mean age at onset was 34.8?±?10years for SCA1 and 32.7?±?9.8 for non SCA1. 76% of SCA1 patients and 50% of non SCA1 were using walking aids. Quantification of symptoms and signs were similar in the SCA1 and non SCA1 groups. Clinical depression was evidenced in 68.4% of SCA1 and 75% non SCA-1 patients. Mean CAG repeat length in SCA1 patients was 52.0?±?3.8, with greater anticipation seen with paternal inheritance. CONCLUSION: SCA1 was the predominant subtype and showed similar phenotype to previous reports. However, disease severity was higher and depression more prevalent in this population than previously described.

Sumathipala DS; Abeysekera GS; Jayasekara RW; Tallaksen CM; Dissanayake VH

2013-01-01

49

Thermal comfort implications of urbanization in a warm-humid city: the Colombo Metropolitan Region (CMR), Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we analyze the historic trends in thermal comfort (measured in terms of Temperature-Humidity Index [THI] and Relative Strain Index [RSI]) in the Sri Lankan primate city of Colombo and correlate them with land cover changes in the region. Land cover is calculated from time-series aerial photographs in terms of 'hard' cover (buildings, paved areas and roads) and 'soft' cover (trees, green areas and waterbodies). The period selected for analysis includes pre-rapid (up to 1977) and rapid urban phases (1978 onwards) in the city. Contemporary Sri Lanka's urbanization is peculiar in that mid to late 20th century urban rates (approx. 22% of the population) had remained virtually unchanged till the economy was liberalized in 1977, but have recently intensified (currently at about 35%). This offers a unique window of opportunity to look at the thermal comfort transition consequent to urbanization. Since many tropical cities are at a similar stage of demographic transition, lessons from Colombo may generally be applicable to other tropical developing cities as well. An increasing trend in thermal discomfort-particularly at night-is seen especially at the suburban station and it correlates well with hard land cover changes. The study also brings out the relative importance of land cover in city center vs. rural areas (e.g. hard cover has more effect on thermal discomfort in city center than in rural areas). Based on these findings, we postulate an outline for a climate-sensitive urban design policy for tropical cities. (Author)

Emmanuel, R. [Moratuwa Univ., Dept. of Architecture, Moratuwa (Sri Lanka)

2005-12-01

50

Nuclear power generation of electricity in Sri Lanka?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Brief description of how nuclear power is used to generate electricity, advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power, and the main factors that should be taken into consideration in dividing to use nuclear power in Sri Lanka

1989-01-01

51

Investigations on Piper betle grown in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Piper betle is an economically important plant cultivated in Sri Lanka. Although more than 12 cultivars of betel are reported in Sri Lanka, very few scientific investigations have been carried out on them. Studies on the chemical constituents indicated that safrole is the major constituent, followed by chavibitol acetate, in the essential oil of common betel leaves of Sri Lanka. Investigations on the bioactivities of P. betle revealed the presence of antimicrobial, insecticidal, antioxidant, antinociceptive, antidiabetic and gastroprotective activities. In addition, P. betle was found to be safe in terms of hepatotoxicity, renotoxicity, hematotoxicity, gross morphology, weights of organs, stress or aversive behaviors in rats. The above findings indicate the vast potential of P. betle yet to be harnessed for the benefit of mankind and the betel industry of Sri Lanka. PMID:22279373

Arambewela, L S R; Arawwawala, L D A M; Kumaratunga, K G; Dissanayake, D S; Ratnasooriya, W D; Kumarasingha, S P

2011-07-01

52

Investigations on Piper betle grown in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Piper betle is an economically important plant cultivated in Sri Lanka. Although more than 12 cultivars of betel are reported in Sri Lanka, very few scientific investigations have been carried out on them. Studies on the chemical constituents indicated that safrole is the major constituent, followed by chavibitol acetate, in the essential oil of common betel leaves of Sri Lanka. Investigations on the bioactivities of P. betle revealed the presence of antimicrobial, insecticidal, antioxidant, antinociceptive, antidiabetic and gastroprotective activities. In addition, P. betle was found to be safe in terms of hepatotoxicity, renotoxicity, hematotoxicity, gross morphology, weights of organs, stress or aversive behaviors in rats. The above findings indicate the vast potential of P. betle yet to be harnessed for the benefit of mankind and the betel industry of Sri Lanka.

Arambewela LS; Arawwawala LD; Kumaratunga KG; Dissanayake DS; Ratnasooriya WD; Kumarasingha SP

2011-07-01

53

Challenges of collective humanitarian response in Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Grappling with how to respond to both conflict and tsunami-induced displacement, Sri Lanka is an ideal testing groundfor the principles of humanitarian partnership which areat the heart of the Global Humanitarian Platform (GHP).

Firzan Hashim

2007-01-01

54

Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Sri Lanka and the Maldives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) wind resource group identifies the wind characteristics and distribution of the wind resource in Sri Lanka and the Maldives. The detailed wind resource maps and other information contained in the atlas facilitate the identification of prospective areas for use of wind energy technologies, both for utility-scale power generation and off-grid wind energy applications.

Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; George, R.

2003-08-01

55

The Gender impact in Earnings Inequality: Evidence from Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Gender impact in Earnings Inequality: Evidence from Sri LankaAbstract: This paper estimates an earnings function for Sri Lanka, followed by a decomposition analysis of male-female earnings suggest that the gender disparity in earnings largely represents ‘discrimination’ against women. The findings showed that irrespective of their “inferior” labour market attributes, men had average earnings that were considerably higher than the female average and that this could be attributed entirely to discrimination in favour of male earners.

Thankom Arun; Vani K. Borooah

2011-01-01

56

Climate change mitigation studies in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In Sri Lanka, Climate Change Mitigation Studies have received low priority and have been limited to an ADB-sponsored preliminary study followed by an initial assessment of some mitigation options in the energy and agricultural sectors, with technical assistance from the US Country Studies Program. The major focus was on options of the mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector. Owing to funding constraints, only the potential for reduction of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the various mitigation options were quantified; analysis of monetary costs and benefits or policy/programs for adoption of the options were not undertaken. For the non-energy sector, a very limited study on mitigation of methane emissions from rice fields was carried out. (au)

1998-01-01

57

Prehospital System Development in Jaffna, Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Introduction The building of prehospital emergency medical care systems in developing and lower middle-income countries (as defined by the World Bank) is a critical step in those countries' efforts to reduce unnecessary morbidity and mortality. This case report presents the development of a prehospital care system in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka and provides the results of the system's first year of operations, the likely reasons for the results, and the prospects for sustained operations of the system. The goal of this report is to add to the literature surrounding Emergency Medical Services (EMS) in developing countries by providing insight into the implementation of a prehospital emergency care system in developing and lower middle-income settings. METHODS: The level of utilization and the financial performance of the system during its first year of operation were analyzed using data from the Jaffna Regional Director of Health Services (RDHS) Call Center database and information from the implementing organization, Medical Teams International. RESULTS: The system responded to >2000 emergency calls in its first 11 months of operation. The most utilized ambulance of the system experienced only a US $13.50 loss during the first 12 months of operation. Factors such as up-front support, a systematic approach, and appropriateness contributed to the successful implementation of the Jaffna prehospital EMS system. CONCLUSION: The implementation of a prehospital EMS system and its functioning were successful in terms of utility and, in many regards, financial stability. The system's success in development may serve as a potential model for implementing prehospital emergency medical care in other developing and lower middle-income country settings, keeping in mind factors outside of the system that were integral to its developmental success. Zimmerman JR , Bertermann KM , Bollinger PJ , Woodyard DR . Prehospital system development in Jaffna, Sri Lanka. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2013;28(5):1-8.

Zimmerman JR; Bertermann KM; Bollinger PJ; Woodyard DR

2013-07-01

58

A Profile of Biomass Stove Use in Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A large body of evidence has confirmed that the indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass fuel use is a major cause of premature deaths, and acute and chronic diseases. Over 78% of Sri Lankans use biomass fuel for cooking, the major source of IAP in developing countries. We conducted a review of the available literature and data sources to profile biomass fuel use in Sri Lanka. We also produced two maps (population density and biomass use; and cooking fuel sources by district) to illustrate the problem in a geographical context. The biomass use in Sri Lanka is limited to wood while coal, charcoal, and cow dung are not used. Government data sources indicate poor residents in rural areas are more likely to use biomass fuel. Respiratory diseases, which may have been caused by cooking emissions, are one of the leading causes of hospitalizations and death. The World Health Organization estimated that the number of deaths attributable to IAP in Sri Lanka in 2004 was 4300. Small scale studies have been conducted in-country in an attempt to associate biomass fuel use with cataracts, low birth weight, respiratory diseases and lung cancer. However, the IAP issue has not been broadly researched and is not prominent in Sri Lankan public health policies and programs to date. Our profile of Sri Lanka calls for further analytical studies and new innovative initiatives to inform public health policy, advocacy and program interventions to address the IAP problem of Sri Lanka.

Myles F. Elledge; Michael J. Phillips; Vanessa E. Thornburg; Kibri H. Everett; Sumal Nandasena

2012-01-01

59

Molecular epidemiology of human rabies viruses in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rabies is a lethal zoonotic disease caused by the rabies virus, which is transmitted by rabid animals to humans. Rabies is prevalent in all continents, with over 60% of human deaths occurring in Asia. Sri Lanka is a rabies-endemic country. This study shows that rabies afflicted more older individuals than children in Sri Lanka between 2008 and 2010. This novel finding indicates that older people in Sri Lanka should be more aware of the risk of rabies. Phylogenetic analyses of the rabies N and G genes showed that the Sri Lankan rabies viruses are distinct and probably originated from a single clone. The G-L noncoding region is highly diverse, and is suitable for the analysis of virus evolution within a country. A phylogenetic analysis of this region showed high diversity in the currently circulating Sri Lankan rabies viruses, which can be divided into seven clades. Some clades are unique to a specific geographic region, whereas others occur at multiple locations. This indicates that the movement of dogs, the main rabies-transmitting animal in Sri Lanka, is restricted in some areas but less limited in others. These data may help to formulate a more efficient rabies control program in Sri Lanka. PMID:23722023

Matsumoto, Takashi; Ahmed, Kamruddin; Karunanayake, Dushantha; Wimalaratne, Omala; Nanayakkara, Susilakanthi; Perera, Devika; Kobayashi, Yuji; Nishizono, Akira

2013-05-28

60

A profile of biomass stove use in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A large body of evidence has confirmed that the indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass fuel use is a major cause of premature deaths, and acute and chronic diseases. Over 78% of Sri Lankans use biomass fuel for cooking, the major source of IAP in developing countries. We conducted a review of the available literature and data sources to profile biomass fuel use in Sri Lanka. We also produced two maps (population density and biomass use; and cooking fuel sources by district) to illustrate the problem in a geographical context. The biomass use in Sri Lanka is limited to wood while coal, charcoal, and cow dung are not used. Government data sources indicate poor residents in rural areas are more likely to use biomass fuel. Respiratory diseases, which may have been caused by cooking emissions, are one of the leading causes of hospitalizations and death. The World Health Organization estimated that the number of deaths attributable to IAP in Sri Lanka in 2004 was 4300. Small scale studies have been conducted in-country in an attempt to associate biomass fuel use with cataracts, low birth weight, respiratory diseases and lung cancer. However, the IAP issue has not been broadly researched and is not prominent in Sri Lankan public health policies and programs to date. Our profile of Sri Lanka calls for further analytical studies and new innovative initiatives to inform public health policy, advocacy and program interventions to address the IAP problem of Sri Lanka.

Elledge MF; Phillips MJ; Thornburg VE; Everett KH; Nandasena S

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
61

Molecular epidemiology of human rabies viruses in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rabies is a lethal zoonotic disease caused by the rabies virus, which is transmitted by rabid animals to humans. Rabies is prevalent in all continents, with over 60% of human deaths occurring in Asia. Sri Lanka is a rabies-endemic country. This study shows that rabies afflicted more older individuals than children in Sri Lanka between 2008 and 2010. This novel finding indicates that older people in Sri Lanka should be more aware of the risk of rabies. Phylogenetic analyses of the rabies N and G genes showed that the Sri Lankan rabies viruses are distinct and probably originated from a single clone. The G-L noncoding region is highly diverse, and is suitable for the analysis of virus evolution within a country. A phylogenetic analysis of this region showed high diversity in the currently circulating Sri Lankan rabies viruses, which can be divided into seven clades. Some clades are unique to a specific geographic region, whereas others occur at multiple locations. This indicates that the movement of dogs, the main rabies-transmitting animal in Sri Lanka, is restricted in some areas but less limited in others. These data may help to formulate a more efficient rabies control program in Sri Lanka.

Matsumoto T; Ahmed K; Karunanayake D; Wimalaratne O; Nanayakkara S; Perera D; Kobayashi Y; Nishizono A

2013-08-01

62

Iron deficiency anaemia in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The commonest cause of nutritional anaemia in the Sri Lankan population is iron deficiency. The diets of the population belonging to the lower socio-economic groups contain little food of animal origin. Thus, their diets are deficient in easily absorbable (haem) iron; and are also heavily cereal-based. Therefore interference in the absorption of dietary iron also occurs. Iron-deficiency anaemia is not restricted to the so-called ''vulnerable groups'' in Sri Lanka, however, their greater demands make the problem not only commoner but also more severe. Among pregnant and lactating women anaemia is often associated with folate deficiency. It must also be noted that the low availability of dietary iron is compounded in large population groups. Malaria, presently raging on an epidemic scale is also a major contributory factor to the incidence of anaemia. The purpose of this study was to examine the iron status of pre-school children and pregnant women; to establish normal levels of biochemical indices at different trimesters; to record the effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy; and to record the bioavailability of iron from weaning foods and common adult diets. 6 figs, 14 tabs

1991-11-01

63

Upper pleistocene fossil hominids from Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Between 1978 and 1983 hominid skeletal remains were collected from the cave sites of Batadomba lena and Beli lena Kitulgala in Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon). These are the most ancient specimens of anatomically modern Homo sapiens found thus far in South Asia, radiocarbon dates placing them in the Upper Pleistocene. Morphometric analysis of the remains of some 38 individuals from the two sites indicates that these populations were characterized by medium stature, moderate to pronounced cranial and postcranial robusticity, medium-size permanent tooth crown measurements, prognathic alveolar facial proportions, and low incidence of osseous and dental pathological conditions. Comparisons of these ancient Sri Lankans with other prehistoric skeletal series from South Asia and elsewhere support the hypothesis that muscular-skeletal robusticity was a significant physical adaptation of earlier hunting-foraging populations. A trend towards reduction of sexual dimorphism and development of more gracile body form and smaller teeth appears to have accelerated with the socioeconomic transition to food-production strategies involving agriculture and pastoralism and refinement of technologies for food procurement and preparation, as documented by morphometric studies of later prehistoric inhabitants of South Asia.

Kennedy KA; Deraniyagala SU; Roertgen WJ; Chiment J; Disotell T

1987-04-01

64

Art Therapy with Child Tsunami Survivors in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

|This paper details art therapy with children affected by the December 2004 tsunami in Sri Lanka. Over 30,000 Sri Lankans lost their lives when the tsunami decimated coastal areas. The child survivors witnessed horrific traumatic events and the loss of loved ones, but had not been given opportunity to express their grief and pain. A 4-week art…

Chilcote, Rebekah L.

2007-01-01

65

A retrospective analysis of cannabis use in a cohort of mentally ill patients in Sri Lanka and its implications on policy development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Several epidemiological studies have shown that cannabis; the most widely used illegal drug in the world, is associated with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD). Aims To assess the characteristics of cannabis use and its association with SSD in a cohort of psychiatrically ill patients and discuss the implications for policy development Methods This is a retrospective analytical study of a cohort of psychiatric patients who received treatment in the psychiatry unit of the Provincial General Hospital, Ratnapura, Sri Lanka over five years (2000 - 2004). The schizophrenia spectrum disorders defined in this article include schizophrenia and the schizoaffective disorders. Results A total of 3644 patient records were analyzed. The percentage of self reported life time cannabis (LTC) use was 2.83% (103, all males). Sixteen percent (576) of the total cohort was diagnosed with SSD by 2009. Male sex and LTC use were significantly associated with SSD (p Conclusions Self reported LTC use was strongly associated with being diagnosed with SSD. However we could not identify a particular subgroup of users that are at increased risk to recommend targeted primary prophylaxis. The policy implications of this observation are discussed.

Rodrigo Chaturaka; Welgama Srina; Gunawardana Alwis; Maithripala Chinthaka; Jayananda Gamini; Rajapakse Senaka

2010-01-01

66

Frigophobia: A case series from Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Frigophobia is a condition in which patients report coldness of extremities leading to a morbid fear of death. It has been reported as a rare culture-related psychiatric syndrome in Chinese populations. An extensive survey of the literature yielded only six case reports. The present paper describes a series of 109 patients with frigophobia in Sri Lanka. The common clinical presentation was of patients initially examining their extremities for cold sensations, and then, with the onset of fear, covering themselves in layers of clothing, applying emollients, and staying near an open fire in an effort to ward off the cold. They avoided foods considered to be "cooling" and bathed only in the heat of the noonday sun. When the severity of the symptoms reached a peak, or when they felt death was imminent, Western medical aid was sought. The fear of dying is seen as the single most important aspect that drives these individuals to seek help. There was a preponderance of female patients, and a few had specific phobias as comorbid conditions. Management comprised primarily illness education, reassurance, and desensitisation by exposure to cold stimuli, with short-term anxiolytic medication use when necessary.

Perera DN; Panduwawela S; Perera MH

2013-09-01

67

Sri Lanka Wind Farm Analysis and Site Selection Assistance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The United States Department of Energy (DOE), through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), has been working in partnership with the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) in an on-going process to quantify the Sri Lanka wind energy potential and foster wind energy development. Work to date includes completion of the NREL wind atlas for Sri Lanka. In addition, the Ceylon Electricity Board (CEB) has conducted a wind resource assessment of several areas of the country and has successfully completed and is currently operating a 3-MW pilot wind project. A review of the work completed to date indicates that additional activities are necessary to provide Sri Lanka with the tools necessary to identify the best wind energy development opportunities. In addition, there is a need to identify key policy, regulatory, business and infrastructure issues that affect wind energy development and to recommend steps to encourage and support wind power development and investment.

Young, M.; Vilhauer, R.

2003-08-01

68

Seroepidemiololgy of rickettsioses in Sri Lanka: a patient based study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Rickettsioses are emerging infections in Sri Lanka as shown by the increase in the number of clinically diagnosed rickettsial patients being reported to the Epidemiology Unit, Sri Lanka. However, mapping the disease for the whole island with laboratory confirmed cases has not been previously carried out. Methods 615 samples received from 23 hospital representing 8 provinces were tested using ELISA or IFA methods and clinical data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Results Rash was found among more spotted fever seropositive patients than scrub typhus seropositive patients while the opposite was true for the presence of eschar. Spotted fever and scrub typhus was found in a geographically restricted manner. Consistent temporal patterns were seen for the presentation of patients with rickettsioses in Kandy and Kurunegala districts for 2009 and 2010. Conclusions This study expanded knowledge on the distribution of rickettsioses in Sri Lanka and their clinical profiles which in turn helps in the clinical diagnosis of these infections.

Liyanapathirana Veranja; Thevanesam Vasanthi

2011-01-01

69

Capacity building in environmental and occupational health in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although environmental and occupational health (EOH) research and services in Sri Lanka have a long history, policies related to EOH are outdated. METHODS: We review the International Training and Research in Environmental and Occupational Health (ITREOH) program in Sri Lanka that commenced in 2006 as a collaboration between the University of Alabama at Birmingham and the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. RESULTS: The program has trained over 20 scientists in conducting EOH research. New pioneering research in EOH was initiated. The program was instrumental in furthering the training and research in EOH by initiating a MPH degree program, the first in the country. CONCLUSIONS: The program has established North-South, South-South and in-country collaborations between institutions and scientists, increasing the visibility of EOH in the future.

Wickremasinghe AR; Peiris-John R; Nandasena S; Delzell E; Tipre M; Sathiakumar N

2013-01-01

70

Environmental impact assessment in Sri Lanka: A progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper reports on progress by the Government of Sri Lanka in the implementation of a formal environmental impact assessment (EIA) requirement. The authors have recently conducted several activities in Sri Lanka intended to improve the analytical quality of EIA documents and the utility of the EIA process in government decisionmaking, with particular attention to the use of programmatic or sectoral EIAs. The U.S. Agency for International Development established a 5-year project, the Natural Resources and Environmental Policy Project (NAREPP), to provide training and technical assistance in EIA and related disiplines for the Central Environmental Authority (CEA), several other Sri Lanka government agencies, and the private sector. This activity has involved efforts to expand the technical expertise within Sri Lanka for conducting EIA, which include developing EIA courses and materials in cooperation with several universities and conducting intensive training programs for both government and private-sector environmental professionals. This EIA will focus on the selection of government-approved industrial estates throughout the country, on which most new industrial development projects are to be located. Further training programs in the use of current analytical methodologies for EIA were also developed and conducted. The effectiveness of these activities can be assessed by evaluating changes in the content and quality of subsequent EIA documents and in the extent to which such documents affect environmental decisionmaking in Sri Lanka. The authors discuss the role of the programmatic EIA in the industrial development program of Sri Lanka, remaining constraints on the EIA process, and recommendations for further improvement.

Butler, J.W. [International Resources Group, Ltd., Washington, DC (United States)

1995-12-01

71

Computer modelling of multipurpose multireservoir systems of Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] As in many other countries, the development of hydro resources in Sri Lanka is associated with multiple purposes, including the generation of electricity. Because of the importance of this resource, it is necessary to optimize the characteristics of the associated reservoirs, not only in terms of installed capacity, but also with regard to the use of water for power generation and the other purposes involved. This paper describes the experience of Sri Lanka in the use of the WASP-III computer program and several computer programs that have been developed in the country for simulating the operation of multipurpose reservoirs. (author). 5 refs, 25 figs

1988-01-01

72

Wind energy for electricity generation in Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Different aspects of the island Sri Lanka are discussed in relation to the use of wind energy to generate electric power. The electricity demand and supply are dealt with as well as geo-climatic features. Wind resources in different parts of Sri Lanka are determined. Further study is needed to achieve more data on wind potential and wind speeds. Finally a case study is discussed, carried out to assess the feasibility of integration of wind and hydro resources in combination to meet a predetermined load to be used in an optimal configuration. 7 figs., 1 tab.

Fernando, W.J.

1988-01-01

73

Diesel plant backs up Sri Lanka's hydropower  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sri Lanka's main source of electricity is hydropower. When this is not available, for example during periods of drought, some standby source is necessary, The Ceylon Electricity Board (CEB) decided to build a diesel power plant for this purpose. A new 80 MW diesel power plant in Sri Lanka will supply power to the country's 220 kV grid in the event of the shortage of hydropower. The plant is located near the capital Colombo. The four diesel engines all ran at full power for the first time in November 1985. The operation of the plant is discussed.

Breeze, P.

1986-02-01

74

Yellow Oleander Poisoning and Suicide in Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intentional yellow oleander poisoning is a growing problem that is straining the health care services of Sri Lanka as it is a readily available method of suicide. The country remains to have one the highest suicide rates in the world, and the trend of oleander poisoning has been difficult to halt due to the lack of resources to manage the problem. As mental health issues are becoming a serious public health problem in Sri Lanka, it is timely to consider what efforts could be made to manage this unique phenomenon.

Shobitha Puvaneswaralingam

2012-01-01

75

A jurassic-cretaceous dolerite dike from Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A dolerite dike from southwestern Sri Lanka gave whole-rock K-Ar ages of 152.6 ± 7.6 Ma and 143.3 ± 7.2 Ma. Many of the other dolerite dikes of Sri Lanka are considered to be of Mesozoic ages judging from the present age data and tectonometamorphic history of Sri Lanka. Petrographic similarities should not be used for age correlations, because dolerites of different age may have the same petrography. Preliminary natural remanent magnetization (NRM) after AF and thermal demagnetization gave a mean inclination of 24.6deg and declination of 67.5deg with ?95=21.7deg. A virtual geomagnetic pole position calculated from the mean NRM was rotated relative to Antarctica so as to fit with that obtained from the Jurassic Ferrar dolerite of Antarctica. This rotation results in the location and attitude of Sri Lanka to attach with Antarctica at Lutzow-Holm Bay as suggested by Barron et al. (1978). (author). 18 refs

1989-01-01

76

Recent isotope applications in hydrology and sedimentology in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Some of the applications of naturally occurring and artificial isotopes in the study of hydrological problems in Sri Lanka are discussed, namely the water balance of a small catchment, origin of leakage to the graphite mines at Bogala, origin of thermal springs, origin of tropical monsoons and recharge study at Bandarakoswatte

1989-01-01

77

The development of atomic energy in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This article was written by the Institution's overseas representative Professor P.P.G.L. Siriwardene, Chairman of the Atomic Energy Authority of Sri Lanka, with the express purpose of conveying to members of the Institution a broad outline of his country's interest in the peaceful uses of atomic energy. (author)

1978-01-01

78

Economic growth, employment, and decentralised development in Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This Working Paper describes the economic growth rate and patterns in Sri Lanka during the 1990s, showing the interrelationship between uneven sectorial growth and the unbalanced regional growth patterns. This is reflected in the regional distribution of unemployment and poverty. In addition, the on...

Ofstad, Arve

79

Hepatitis C virus in healthy blood donors in Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction : Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the etiological agent for the majority of cases of non-A, non-B hepatitis. As a blood-borne virus, HCV is widely recognized as a major causative agent of post-transfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis. The prevalence of HCV and the distribution of HCV genotypes in Sri Lanka in comparison with the rest of Asia are not well known. Materials and Methods: The blood samples collected from healthy blood donors at the National Blood Transfusion Centre of Sri Lanka were screened to determine the prevalence and the genotypes of HCV among blood donors in Sri Lanka. Results: HCV antibodies were found in 53 of 4980 blood donors. However, of the 53 only 8 positive results were confirmed by Reverse Transcription-PCR, which suggests frequent false-positive results or viral clearance. The PCR positive samples were genotyped by DNA sequencing of the Core/E1 regions of HCV genome, and all the HCV viruses belonged to genotype 3, of which 7 were 3a and 1 was 3b. Conclusion: HCV is relatively rare among blood donors in Sri Lanka and only genotype 3 was detected in the studied group.

Senevirathna Dammika; Amuduwage Senani; Weerasingam Shirani; Jayasinghe Saroj; Fernandopulle Neil

2011-01-01

80

Exegetical somersaults - Theories on the Kolam Dances of Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper gives a short outline of the performance and perception of one of the most famous mask performances of Sri Lanka, the Kolam Dances. It will analyse their components, strategy and structure and link them to overarching notions of Sinhalese culture.

Mey, Wolfgang

 
 
 
 
81

Viruses isolated from mosquitoes collected in Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Attempts to isolate viruses from 178,181 unengorged female mosquitoes collected from different ecologic areas of Sri Lanka yielded 31 isolates: 17 of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus, nine of Getah virus, three of a Batai- related bunyavirus, and two of Arkonam virus. Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Man...

Peiris, JSM; Amerasinghe, PH; Amerasinghe, FP; Calisher, CH; Perera, LP; Arunagiri, CK; Munasingha, NB; Karunaratne, SHPP

82

New hosts of corynespora cassiicola in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Corynespora cassiicola is the causal organism of the most devastating leaf disease of rubber in Sri Lanka. Cotton, cowpea, cucumber, eggplant, sesame, soybean, tobacco, and tomato also have been reported as hosts of C. cassiicola. In Sri Lanka, however, the fungus has been reported only on rubber, soybean, winged bean, and tomato (1). During this investigation, C. cassiicola was isolated from cocoa, tomato, papaya, winged bean, sweet potato, and manihot. The pathogenicity of each isolate on the host from which it was isolated was established by following Koch's postulates. This is the first record of Corynespora leaf disease on cocoa, papaya, sweet potato, and manihot in Sri Lanka. Using an aqueous spore suspension (5 × 104 spores per ml), rubber leaves were inoculated separately with each isolate. Inoculation studies indicated that, except for the isolate from papaya, all isolates also were pathogenic on rubber. In Sri Lanka all the host plants listed are commonly cultivated in and around rubber plantations. Therefore, the existence of C. cassiicola infections on other hosts should be taken into account when developing control measures for Corynespora infection on rubber.

Silva WPK; Wijesundera RLC; Karunanayake EH; Jayasinghe CK; Priyanka UMS

2000-02-01

83

Learning Organization Dimensions of the Sri Lanka Army  

Science.gov (United States)

|Purpose: This study intends to investigate the extent to which the Sri Lanka Army can be described as a learning organization. Design/methodology/approach: The main tool of analysis used was the Dimensions of the Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) developed by Marsick and Watkins, with the exclusion of the sections on financial and…

Dahanayake, Nishada Dhananjaya; Gamlath, Sharmila

2013-01-01

84

The gender impact in earnings inequality: Evidence from Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper estimates an earnings function for Sri Lanka, followed by a decomposition analysis of male-female earnings suggest that the gender disparity in earnings largely represents discrimination against women. The findings showed that irrespective of their inferior labour market attributes, men h...

Arun, Thankom; Borooah, Vani K.

85

The Labour Market Experience of University Graduates in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

|Graduate unemployment has been a major socio-politico-economic problem in the small open economy of Sri Lanka for the past 35 years. The nature of the problem, causal factors and policy responses are examined in this paper with a special focus on the role of higher education within a highly competitive and knowledge-based economic environment.…

Chandrasiri, Sunil

2008-01-01

86

An American Montessori Teacher's Experience in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

|What can Montessorians learn from teaching in a war-torn country, and what can they hope to share with others in the process? These questions were much on the author's mind when she went to Sri Lanka in the summer of 2003. This article contains excerpts from e-mails the author sent home, chronicling her experience teaching two high school English…

Baker, Irene

2006-01-01

87

Post-Graduate Peace Education in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

|This paper summarises the rationale, development, content, and delivery of a Post Graduate Diploma in Conflict Resolution and Peace Preparedness in Sri Lanka, a country that has experienced a violent and protracted social conflict over the last 25 years. It also describes the methodology which is being used to measure the peace impact of the…

Harris, Simon; Lewer, Nick

2005-01-01

88

An American Montessori Teacher's Experience in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

What can Montessorians learn from teaching in a war-torn country, and what can they hope to share with others in the process? These questions were much on the author's mind when she went to Sri Lanka in the summer of 2003. This article contains excerpts from e-mails the author sent home, chronicling her experience teaching two high school English…

Baker, Irene

2006-01-01

89

Entanglements of Politics and Education in Sri Lanka  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this article I argue that in Sri Lanka the field of education has been a constant and significant element in the relationship between population and politicians, and it plays an important role in most people's experiences and understandings of politics, just as it affects their own political participation.

SØrensen, Birgitte Refslund

2011-01-01

90

Food Crops Breeding in Sri Lanka - Achievements and challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since Rice is the staple food in Sri Lanka strong emphasis has been given for the improvement of Rice in Sri Lanka. Over the last three decades 36 high yielding rice varieties have been developed. The present yield potential of Sri Lanka's best varieties have been recorded to be be around 10 mt/ha. At present more than 90% of the total paddy extent is grown with modern high yielding rice varieties and as a result the national paddy production has increased from 1.8 mt/ha to 3.5 mt/ha. Induced mutations is used in plant breeding. Use of radiation to produce haploids and for production of transitory sexuality in apomicts have been done. Under the coarse grains and millet varietal program, maize have recorded increasing attention owing to the fact that is is used for human consumption and as feed grain for poultry. Promising varieties of Soya bean, cowpea, mung bean, black gram and ground nut have been recommended for cultivation. Research attention has also been directed towards Root and Tuber crops which have great potential in providong food for the rapidly increasing population in Sri Lanka. Potato is the most important and popular tuber crop. A number of improved varieties with respect to a number of local fruit crops such as banana, sweet orange, lemonime, avocado, pineapple, rambutan, grapes.have been introduced. New improved varieties of indigenous vegetables such as tomato, brinjal etc. have been produced. Chillies and onions with desirable qualities also have been identified. Mutation breeding provides a novel approach to the plant breeders for raising the productivity of crop plants, thus complementing conventional methods. Any way the use of induced mutations in crop improvement has not been properly exploited in Sri Lanka as yet.

1988-01-01

91

Where there is no information: IDP vulnerability assessments in Sri Lanka’s borderlands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A third of the estimated 600,000 IDPs in Sri Lanka live in areas controlled by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam (LTTE). Displaced people within these so-called ‘un-cleared’ or ‘liberated areas’ (termsused by the Sri Lankan government and the LTTE respectively) are at especial risk. Their situation highlights the difficulties of assessing protection and assistance in the context of conflict.

Danesh Jayatilaka; Robert Muggah

2004-01-01

92

After Five Years of Collaboration: The Benefits of University Based Eduaction for Nurses in Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A request from the nurses of Sri Lanka led to the establishment of the country’s first university nursing program. Delivered by distance, the program represented a collaborative, approach among a Sri Lankan university (The Open University of Sri Lanka), a Canadian university (Athabasca University) a...

Moira M. Cameron

93

The Asian Tsunami and Problem-Based Learning for Postgraduate Students in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

|The Asian Tsunami struck Sri Lanka on December 26, 2004. Sri Lanka was the second worst affected country after Indonesia, and this natural disaster killed in excess of 35,000 people and displaced over 1 million. The article explores the Tsunami Disaster Management Program developed by one Sri Lankan university: the Postgraduate Institute of…

Jayawardana, A. K. L.; O'Donnell, Michael

2007-01-01

94

Palaeoclimate change during Glacial Periods: Evidence from Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the Earth’s history, there were five major glaciations, namely, Huronian (2,300 Ma),Cryogenianor Sturtian-Varangian(850-635 Ma), Andean-Saharan (460-430 Ma, Karoo (360-260 Ma) andthe Quaternary (2.58 Ma to Present) that occurred between 2,300 Ma and 0.0114 Ma. It is revealed thatGondwanaland emerged between the Huronian glaciation (2300-2100 Ma) in the Paleoproterozoic Eraand the Andean-Saharan glaciation (460-420 Ma) in the Early Paleozoic Era. During this time, mostcontinental land masses were clustered in the southern hemisphere, and Sri Lanka was part of theGondwanaland landmass comprising present day Africa, Madagascar, India and Antarctica. Within theOrdovician (485.4-445.2Ma) to Permian Periods (299.0-254.2 Ma) there were signs of the breaking up ofGondwanaland resulting in the severing of India and Sri Lanka together and subsequently Sri Lanka fromIndia. By end of the Permian Period (260 Ma) Karoo Glaciation had ended and the present Mannar Basindeveloped within a deep canyon (about 4-7 km deep) on the Precambrian basement.Although the island of Sri Lanka presently lies in the Indian Ocean between 5º 52´N-9º 54´N and79º 30´E-81º 55´E, to the southwest of Bay of Bengal and southeast of Arabian Sea, it was positionedwithin 67ºS-65ºS and 34ºE-43ºE during the Lower and Middle Jurassic Era (201.3-166.1 Ma). Huge rockyblocks (erratic boulders) have been transported to different places by continental ice sheets due to climaticchanges in the Permian, Triassic and Jurassic Periods, but erratic pebbles (2 to 8 cm or more in size) andstreams fed deposits have been transported by glacifluvial processes. These glaciofluvial processesoccurred on four occasions during the Jurassic Period and Eocene, Miocene and Pliocene Epochs on SriLankan landmass, which fallowed the climatic changes and sea level fluctuations that broke up thesedimentary beds, initiating establishment of the present topography and structural configuration. As aresult, the earlier sedimentary deposits were obliterated from greater part of Sri Lanka. During theQuaternary Period the erosional rate increased and the resultant erratic boulders along withglaciofluvialdeposits can still be found on “Planated Surfaces”of Sri Lanka.

J. Katupotha

2013-01-01

95

Landmarks of History of Soil Science in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

Sri Lanka is a tropical Island in the Southern tip of Indian subcontinent positioned at 50 55' to 90 50' N latitude and 790 42' to 810 53' E longitude surrounded by the Indian Ocean. It is an island 435 km in length and 224 km width consisting of a land are of 6.56 million ha with a population of 20 million. In area wise it is ranked as 118th in the world, where at present ranked as 47 in population wise and ranked 19th in population density. The country was under colonial rule under Portuguese, Dutch and British from 1505 to 1948. The majority of the people in the past and present earn their living from activities based on land, which indicates the important of the soil resource. The objective of this paper is to describe the landmarks of the history of Soil Science to highlight the achievements and failures, which is useful to enrich our present understanding of Sri Lankan soils. The landmarks of the history of Soil Science in Sri Lanka can be divided to three phases namely, the early period (prior to 1956), the middle period (1956 to 1972) and the present period (from 1972 onwards). During the early period, detailed analytical studies of coffee and tea soils were compiled, and these gave mainly information on up-country soils which led to fertilizer recommendations based on field trials. In addition, rice and forest soils were also studied in less detail. The first classification of Sri Lankan soils and a provisional soil map based on parent material was published by Joachim in 1945 which is a major landmark of history of Soil Science in Sri Lanka. In 1959 Ponnamperuma proposed a soil classification system for wetland rice soils. From 1963 to 1968 valuable information on the land resource was collected and documented by aerial resource surveys funded by Canada-Ceylon Colombo plan aid project. This covered 18 major river basins and about 1/4th of Sri Lanka, which resulted in producing excellent soil maps and information of the areas called the Kelani Aruvi Ara and Walawe basins. The provisional soil map was updated by many other workers as Moorman and Panabokke in 1961 and 1972 using this information. The soil map produced by De Alwis and Panabokke in 1972 at a scale of 1:500,000 was the soil maps mostly used during the past years During the present era, the need for classification of Soils of Sri Lanka according to international methods was felt. A major leap forward in Soil Survey, Classification leading to development of a soil data base was initiated in 1995 with the commencement of the "SRICANSOL" project which was a twining project between the Soil Science Societies of Sri Lanka and Canada. This project is now completed with detail soil maps at a scale of 1:250,000 and soil classified according to international methods for the Wet, Intermediate and Dry zones of Sri Lanka. A digital database consisting of soil profile description and physical and chemical data is under preparation for 28, 40 and 51 benchmark sites of the Wet, Intermediate and Dry zones respectively. The emphases on studies on Soil Science in the country at present is more towards environmental conservation related to soil erosion control, reducing of pollution of soil and water bodies from nitrates, pesticide residues and heavy metal accumulation. Key words: Sri Lanka, Provisional soil map

Mapa, R.

2012-04-01

96

Surface circulation and upwelling patterns around Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

Sri Lanka occupies a unique location within the equatorial belt in the northern Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea on its western side and the Bay of Bengal on its eastern side. The region is characterised by bi-annually reversing monsoon winds resulting from seasonal differential heating and cooling of the continental land mass and the ocean. This study explored elements of the dynamics of the surface circulation and coastal upwelling in the waters around Sri Lanka using satellite imagery and the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) configured to the study region and forced with ECMWF interim data. The model was run for 2 yr to examine the seasonal and shorter term (?10 days) variability. The results confirmed the presence of the reversing current system in response to the changing wind field: the eastward flowing Southwest Monsoon Current (SMC) during the Southwest (SW) monsoon transporting 11.5 Sv and the westward flowing Northeast Monsoon Current (NMC) transporting 9.5 Sv during the Northeast (NE) monsoon, respectively. A recirculation feature located to the east of Sri Lanka during the SW monsoon, the Sri Lanka Dome, is shown to result from the interaction between the SMC and the Island of Sri Lanka. Along the eastern and western coasts, during both monsoon periods, flow is southward converging along the south coast. During the SW monsoon the Island deflects the eastward flowing SMC southward whilst along the east coast the southward flow results from the Sri Lanka Dome recirculation. The major upwelling region, during both monsoon periods, is located along the south coast and is shown to be due to flow convergence and divergence associated with offshore transport of water. Higher surface chlorophyll concentrations were observed during the SW monsoon. The location of the flow convergence and hence the upwelling centre was dependent on the relative strengths of wind driven flow along the east and west coasts: during the SW (NE) monsoon the flow along the western (eastern) coast was stronger and hence the upwelling centre was shifted to the east (west). The presence of upwelling along the south coast during both monsoon periods may explain the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) aggregations in this region.

de Vos, A.; Pattiaratchi, C. B.; Wijeratne, E. M. S.

2013-09-01

97

Wind and Solar Resource Assessment of Sri Lanka and the Maldives (CD-ROM)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Wind and Solar Resource Assessment of Sri Lanka and the Maldives CD contains an electronic version of Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Sri Lanka and the Maldives (NREL/TP-500-34518), Solar Resource Assessment for Sri Lanka and the Maldives (NREL/TO-710-34645), Sri Lanka Wind Farm Analysis and Site Selection Assistance (NREL/SR-500-34646), GIS Data Viewer (software and data files with a readme file), and Hourly Solar and Typical Meteorological Year Data with a readme file.

Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; George, R.

2003-08-01

98

The design of Sri Lanka's Samanalawewa project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sri Lanka has both a climate and topography favourable to hydroelectricity. The largest river in the country is the Mahaweli Ganga, of which almost all the potential has now been exploited by the Kotmale, Victora, Randenigala and Rantembe (under construction) schemes. The hydro development of Sri Lanka will continue with the construction of projects on other river systems, and the Samanalawewa project on the Walawe Ganga (flowing south from the Central Highlands) is one such project now under construction. This project consists of a 100 m-high embankment dam, a 5 km-long power tunnel, a steel penstock and a surface power station with two 60 MW units. At a later stage it is planned to double the size of the powerplant and tap the flow from a tributary, which passes above the power tunnel near its downstream end. (author).

Back, P.A.A.; Westwell, J.R. (Sir Alexander Gibb and Partners, Reading (GB))

1988-06-01

99

The practice of mindfulness based behaviour therapy in Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Buddhist practice of cultivating mindfulness has been increasingly influencing psychotherapeutic work. However, in Sri Lanka, the documentation on the use of such practice in psychotherapy is scarce. This paper aims to discuss the influence of Buddhist mindfulness practice on psychotherapy; present a case of mixed anxiety-depressive disorder where mindfulness practice and behaviour therapy were used in its treatment and discuss issues that need to be considered in the use of mindfulness practice in psychotherapy. The combined use of Buddhist mindfulness practice and behaviour therapy yielded a favourable outcome in the case reported. In Sri Lanka, a culturally rooted method such as mindfulness practice, in combination with behaviour therapy, is useful in the treatment of mixed anxietydepressive disorder. The use of mindfulness practice in psychotherapy should be undertaken by those trained in psychological assessments and by those who have their personal mindfulness practice. Future studies on the use of mindfulness practice in other psychological disorders would be useful.

P de Zoysa

2010-01-01

100

A CBA model of a hydro project in Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study demonstrates an empirical application of a cost benefit analysis for hydro projects, which includes social and environmental as well as economic aspects. The model treats uncertain inputs by specifying them as probability distributions. A proposed hydro project in Sri Lanka is used as a case study. The study uses time variable discount rates related to economic growth and investigates the sensitivity of the net present value to the choice of a discount rate. (author)

Morimoto, Risako; Hope, C. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Judge Inst. of Management

2004-07-01

 
 
 
 
101

Groundwater overuse and farm-level technical inefficiency: evidence from Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

Extraction of groundwater for onion and other cash crop production has been increasing rapidly during the last two decades in the dry zone areas of Sri Lanka. As a result of overuse, the quantity of available groundwater is gradually declining, while water quality is deteriorating. The deteriorating water quality has a negative impact on agricultural production, especially for crops (such as onions) that are sensitive to increases in salinity levels. This issue is examined with respect to onion production in Sri Lanka. A stochastic frontier production function (SFPF) is used, in which technical efficiency and the determinants of inefficiencies are estimated simultaneously. The results show that farmers are overusing groundwater in their onion cultivation, which has resulted in decreasing yields. Factors contributing to inefficiency in production are also identified. The results have important policy implications.

Athukorala, Wasantha; Wilson, Clevo

2012-08-01

102

Lighting energy efficiency in office buildings: Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper describes a study conducted in the lighting sector of office buildings as a part of a broader research study aimed at developing building codes for Sri Lanka addressing lighting as well as thermal comfort in order to optimise the use of electricity within these buildings. The study covered different tasks performed in office buildings and the optimum lighting levels required to perform these tasks in the office environment in Sri Lanka. Also, it included assessing the visual performance of people involved in different activities under varying illumination levels in a controlled environment and a comparison of these optimum lighting levels with international standards. It can be seen that the required optimum lighting levels are generally lower in Sri Lanka in comparison to specified standard levels, and this scenario is likely to be similar in other developing countries too. These findings clearly emphasise the need to adopt lighting standards most appropriate to local conditions, in turn helping improve the energy efficiency within buildings

2003-01-01

103

Prospects for a wind pump industry in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Since 1977 considerable effort has been made in Sri Lanka to develop and disseminate wind pumping systems primarily in the small-scale agricultural sector in the island's dry zone. Through close cooperation with the Consultancy Services Wind Energy Developing Countries (CWD) in the Netherlands this programme has been successful in developing the necessary hardware but the broad objective of promoting wide spread use of wind pumping in Sri Lanka is yet to materialize. In analyzing probable reasons for this, the paper highlights that the basic arguments underlying the origin of the project in 1976, such as foreign exchange savings and local industrial development, became irrelevant to the post 1977 political and economic policies of the new government. Thus, the general economic framework adopted in Sri Lanka since 1977 does not seem to provide the necessary pre-conditions for development of a local industry for wind pumps. Due to this reason and the fact that kerosene oil used in conventional agriculturla pumps is subsidized, the ability of wind pumps to compete in the wind pump market seems highly constrained. It is concluded that under such conditions the prospects for the manufacturing and marketing of wind pumps on an industrial scale are not very favourable

1991-01-01

104

Lighting energy efficiency in office buildings: Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes a study conducted in the lighting sector of office buildings as a part of a broader research study aimed at developing building codes for Sri Lanka addressing lighting as well as thermal comfort in order to optimise the use of electricity within these buildings. The study covered different tasks performed in office buildings and the optimum lighting levels required to perform these tasks in the office environment in Sri Lanka. Also, it included assessing the visual performance of people involved in different activities under varying illumination levels in a controlled environment and a comparison of these optimum lighting levels with international standards. It can be seen that the required optimum lighting levels are generally lower in Sri Lanka in comparison to specified standard levels, and this scenario is likely to be similar in other developing countries too. These findings clearly emphasise the need to adopt lighting standards most appropriate to local conditions, in turn helping improve the energy efficiency within buildings. (Author)

Wijayatunga, Priyantha D.C. [Moratuwa Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Moratuwa (Sri Lanka); Fernando, W.J.L.S.; Ranasinghe, S. [Sri Lanka Energy Managers Association, Colombo (Sri Lanka)

2003-09-01

105

Solar Resource Assessment for Sri Lanka and Maldives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The countries of Sri Lanka and the Maldives lie within the equatorial belt, a region where substantial solar energy resources exist throughout much of the year in adequate quantities for many applications, including solar water heating, solar electricity, and desalination. The extent of solar resources in Sri Lanka has been estimated in the past based on a study of the daily total direct sunshine hours recorded at a number of weather and agricultural stations throughout the country. These data have been applied to the well-known Angstrom relationship in order to obtain an estimate of the distribution of monthly average daily total solar resources at these stations. This study is an effort in improve on these estimates in two ways: (1) to apply a gridded cloud cover database at a 40-km resolution to produce updated monthly average daily total estimates of all solar resources (global horizontal, DNI, and diffuse) for the country, and (2) to input hourly or three-hourly cloud cover observations made at nine weather stations in Sri Lanka and two in the Maldives into a solar model that produces estimates of hourly solar radiation values of the direct normal, global, and diffuse resource covering the length of the observational period. Details and results of these studies are summarized in this report.

Renne, D.; George, R.; Marion, B.; Heimiller, D.; Gueymard, C.

2003-08-01

106

GEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FOR PALEO-TSUNAMIS IN SRI LANKA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami inundation event, thin sediment films of fining up sequences were located in several topographic depressions of the southern coastal belt of Sri Lanka. The films consisting of silty fine sand with particular microfossil assemblages were located also in closed containers, bottles and kitchen tables. Well preserved microfossils such as foraminifera, radiolarians as well as spicules of sponges were noted in these recent tsunami sediments.Random augur holes were drilled into some selected depressions in the southern coastal villages of Peraliya and Denuwala situated at locations separated by about 50km. In several such holes, at least two fining up sequences were located below the surface in soil horizons separated from each other by 35cm to 1m. These soil profiles were overlying older coral reefs developed on lateritic formations. The microscopic observations on particular size fractions of the soil horizons showed microfossil assemblages with textures, color and organic C contents strikingly comparable to those observed in the recent tsunami sediments of Sri Lanka. Our findings imply the occurrence of at least two paleo- tsunami events of different ages in Sri Lanka originating apparently from a common source.

Kapila Dahanayake; Nayomi Kulasena

2008-01-01

107

Risk factors for acute pesticide poisoning in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This report describes the characteristics of patients with acute pesticide poisoning in a rural area of Sri Lanka and, for intentional self-poisoning cases, explores the relative importance of the different determinants. Data were collected for 239 acute pesticide-poisoning cases, which were admitted to two rural hospitals in Sri Lanka. Sociodemographic characteristics, negative life events and agricultural practices of the intentional self-poisoning cases were compared with a control group. Most cases occurred among young adults and the large majority (84%) was because of intentional self-poisoning. Case fatality was 18% with extremely high case fatality for poisoning with the insecticide endosulfan and the herbicide paraquat. Cases were generally younger than controls, of lower educational status and were more often unemployed. No agricultural risk factors were found but a family history of pesticide poisoning and having ended an emotional relationship in the past year was clearly associated with intentional self-poisoning. The presence of mental disorders could only be assessed for a subsample of the cases and controls and this showed that alcohol dependence was a risk factor. This study shows that acute pesticide poisoning in Sri Lanka is determined by a combination of sociodemographic and psychological factors. Suggestions are given for interventions that could control the morbidity and mortality due to acute pesticide poisoning in developing countries.

van der Hoek W; Konradsen F

2005-06-01

108

Is leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka benign and be ignored?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis is now an endemic disease in Sri Lanka. Many studies have focussed on various aspects of this disease but the knowledge, particularly on epidemiological and vector aspects is still poor and the awareness among the general public and even medical/paramedical personnel regarding this disease remains grossly inadequate. The steady increase in the numbers and spread of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in Sri Lanka and the very close similarity (genotypic and phenotypic) between the local parasite Leishmania donovani MON-37 and the parasite causing visceral leishmaniasis in India (L. donovani MON-2), considered together with the more recent case reports of autochthonous cases of visceral disease in this country, calls for urgent action for setting up of a surveillance programme to estimate the true disease burden and to implement an organized control strategy, combined with operational and epidemiological research to aid control efforts to avert a potentially major catastrophe of more virulent form of leishmaniasis, particularly the visceral type becoming endemic in Sri Lanka.

N.D. Karunaweera; U.S. Rajapaksa

2009-01-01

109

Problems of Illiteracy in a Literate Developing Society: Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

With 87.0% of its population literate, Sri Lanka occupies a high ranking position among South and South-East Asian nations in educational development. The high percentage of literacy achieved through progressive measures in education spanning half a century, however, has led to a state of complacency and less priority being given to efforts at eradicating illiteracy. This paper will focus on a recent study conducted on the incidence of illiteracy in specific disadvantaged communities in the country which indicated that in the present era of technological advancement, lack of literacy will continue to affect the life-chances of people in these communities where the rate of literacy remains much lower than the national average. The study investigates into the factors associated with illiteracy, and the attitudes and perceptions of the communities themselves towards literacy programmes and regarding the modalities and strategies of providing literacy. The implications of the study and the final recommendations drawn up in consultation with the policy makers at national and provincial levels in governmental and non-governmental sectors are also discussed in the paper.

Gunawardena, Chandra

1997-09-01

110

Patterns of hospital transfer for self-poisoned patients in rural Sri Lanka: implications for estimating the incidence of self-poisoning in the developing world  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Most data on self-poisoning in rural Asia have come from secondary hospitals. We aimed to: assess how transfers from primary to secondary hospitals affected estimates of case-fatality ratio (CFR); determine whether there was referral bias according to gender or poison; and estimate the annual incidence of all self-poisoning, and of fatal self-poisoning, in a rural developing-world setting. METHODS: Self-poisoning patients admitted to Anuradhapura General Hospital, Sri Lanka, were reviewed on admission from 1 July to 31 December 2002. We audited medical notes of self-poisoning patients admitted to 17 of the 34 surrounding peripheral hospitals for the same period. FINDINGS: A total of 742 patients were admitted with self-poisoning to the secondary hospital; 81 died (CFR 10.9%). 483 patients were admitted to 17 surrounding peripheral hospitals. Six patients (1.2%) died in peripheral hospitals, 249 were discharged home, and 228 were transferred to the secondary hospital. There was no effect of gender or age on likelihood of transfer; however, patients who had ingested oleander or paraquat were more likely to be transferred than were patients who had taken organophosphorus pesticides or other poisons. Estimated annual incidences of self-poisoning and fatal self-poisoning were 363 and 27 per 100 000 population, respectively, with an overall CFR of 7.4% (95% confidence interval 6.0-9.0). CONCLUSION: Fifty per cent of patients admitted to peripheral hospitals were discharged home, showing that CFRs based on secondary hospital data are inflated. However, while incidence of self-poisoning is similar to that in England, fatal self-poisoning is three times more common in Sri Lanka than fatal self-harm by all methods in England. Population based data are essential for making international comparisons of case fatality and incidence, and for assessing public health interventions.

Eddleston Michael; Sudarshan K; Senthilkumaran M; Reginald K; Karalliedde Lakshman; Senarathna Lalith; Silva Dhammika de; Rezvi Sheriff MH; Buckley Nick A; Gunnell David

2006-01-01

111

Solar photovoltaics in Sri Lanka: a short history  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] With a significant unelectrified rural population, Sri Lanka has followed the evolution of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology in the West very closely since the 1970s as terrestrial applications for photovoltaics were developed. It was not until 1980 that the Sri Lankan government embarked on the promotion of solar photovoltaics for rural domestic use when the Ceylon Electricity Board formed the Energy Unit. In addition, Australian and Sri Lankan government-funded pilot projects have given the local promoters further valuable insight into how and how not to promote solar photovoltaics. The establishment of community-based solar photovoltaic programmes by non-governmental organizations has developed a novel approach to bridge the gap between this state-of-the-art technology and the remotely located end-users. (author)

1994-01-01

112

77 FR 59899 - U.S. Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

...U.S. Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka AGENCY: International Trade Administration...U.S. Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka Chennai and Cochin, India and Colombo, Sri Lanka February 3-8,...

2012-10-01

113

Testimony ceremonies in Asia: Integrating spirituality in testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study explores the therapeutic implications of including culturally adapted spiritual ceremonies in the process of testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines. Data were collected through an action research process with Asian mental health and hu...

Agger, Inger; Igreja, Victor; Kiehle, Rachel; Polatin, Peter

114

Characterization of knockdown resistance in DDT- and pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus populations from Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

DDT and pyrethroid resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus have been previously reported in Sri Lanka, but the mechanisms involved have yet to be characterized. We report the presence of two mutant alleles of the sodium channel gene, the target site for both DDT and pyrethroid insecticides. Both mutations resulted in classic knockdown resistance (kdr) L1014F mutation because of either an A-to-T substitution or an A-to-C substitution. We developed two alternative assays to distinguish between the two mutations and used these to screen 214 individuals from nine geographic locations throughout Sri Lanka. Very high levels of kdr mutations were found throughout the country. A predominance of the A-to-C mutation was observed over the A-to-T with an average allele frequency of 50% and 2%, respectively. In addition to these non-synonymous kdr substitutions, we also found an indel (TCACA) in the intron downstream of the kdr mutation. After genotyping this indel in 136 individuals, we found no evident correlation between kdr genotypes and intronic indel. The presence of two alternative kdr mutations has implications for the reliance on single molecular diagnostics for detection of resistance in field populations. Furthermore, the high levels of these kdr mutations in C. quinquefasciatus populations throughout Sri Lanka are of concern for the future of pyrethroid-based control programmes on this island.

Wondji CS; Priyanka De Silva WA; Hemingway J; Ranson H; Parakrama Karunaratne SH

2008-04-01

115

Completed Suicide among Sinhalese in Sri Lanka: A Psychological Autopsy Study  

Science.gov (United States)

|Sri Lanka has the one of highest rates of suicide. Important factors associated with suicide were determined via the psychological autopsy approach (which had not been carried out previously in Sri Lanka). Over a 3-month period, in a catchment area, 31 suicides among Sinhalese were identified and 27 were investigated. Males were more likely to…

Samaraweera, Sudath; Sumathipala, Athula; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sivayogan, S.; Bhugra, Dinesh

2008-01-01

116

Planning E-government startup:a case study on E-Sri-Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyzes the proposed implementation strategies of e-government in Sri Lanka. First, the vision of e-Sri Lanka – the information and communication technology development roadmap to achieve e-governance – is presented. Second, a literature study on e-government startup is given. Also given...

Davidrajuh, Reggie

117

Equity in Education: Opportunities and Challenges In A Changing Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

|Equity is a major concern for all development actors. Although Sri Lanka has successfully addressed equity issues in education sector there are unresolved factors and variables those perpetuate inequity. There are emerging new equity issues those that Sri Lanka needs to address. The changing population dynamics and the huge middle class…

Sedere, Upali M.

2010-01-01

118

The Changing Times: General Education and the Vocational Training System in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

|Sri Lanka is widening its scope for vocational education sub-sector. The emerging global trends and the aspirations of the emerging Sri Lanka after defeating terrorism demands the preparation of the graduating youth at different stages of the education system for employment. Vocational education faces many challenges. Though there are…

Sedere, Upali M.

2010-01-01

119

Emplacement and Evolution History of Pegmatites and Hydrothermal Deposits, Matale District, Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Excellent outcrops in Matale Sri Lanka provide unique insight into the emplacement and evolution history of hydrothermal and pegmatitic rocks in the central highlands of Sri Lanka. Field, structural, petrological, thermo-barometric studies in the metamorphic basement rocks in the central highlands a...

G.W.A.R Fernando; A Pitawala; T.H.N.G Amaraweera

120

The Role of UK Qualification Suppliers in Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe: A Comparative Evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is based on research on the role of UK qualifications suppliers in providing qualifications and accreditation in Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe in the context of rather different engagements with liberalisation, structural adjustment and globalisation. Sri Lanka's economic liberalisation and growth since the late 1970s has had a "de facto"…

Evans, J.; Little, A. W.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Global Observatory for eHealth (GOe) Survey in Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Global Observatory for eHealth (GOe), is an important initiative established in 2005 by the World Health Organization (WHO), designed to provide countries with strategic information and guidance on effective, practices, policies and standards in eHealth. The second eHealth survey was conducted in 2009 where Sri Lanka too participated. This short report is based on the findings of the GOe Survey for Sri Lanka. The second GOe survey had seven sections. The survey was completed with contributions from identified stakeholders of eHealth in Sri Lanka.The foundation for e-Sri Lanka is led by Information and Communication Technology Agency (ICTA) of Sri Lanka. The country has favourable foundation and organization support to introduce eHealth activities. Many organizations and individuals has designed and implemented eHealth related activities but the efforts lack central coordination.

Rasika Rampatige; MH Abusayeed; Himan Galappaththi

2010-01-01

122

Gender differences in undergraduate medical examination results in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To identify possible gender related differences in performance at undergraduate medical examinations in Sri Lanka. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Results of examinations conducted by the faculty of medicine, University of Kelaniya in 1997 and 1998, and data published by the University Grants Commission (UGC) on final examinations conducted by 4 other Sri Lankan medical faculties (in the Universities of Colombo, Peradeniya, Ruhuna and Jaffna) in 1996 and 1997, were analysed for sex related differences. RESULTS: The proportion of women in each batch of students who sat for 8 examinations conducted at the faculty of medicine, University of Kelaniya in 1997 and 1998, ranged from 40.7 to 48.4% (average 44.3%). Among students sitting for the final MBBS examinations in other medical faculties in 1996 and 1997, the proportion of women ranged from 37.3% in Peradeniya to 53.7% in Jaffna. The proportions of women who obtained "classes" were higher than that of men in 12/15 examinations, with statistically significant differences in four. Higher proportions of men were referred or failed in all 8 examinations analysed; the differences were statistically significant in two. CONCLUSIONS: Women appear to do marginally better than men in undergraduate medical examinations in Sri Lanka.

de Silva NR; Thabrew MI; Saparamadu PA; Jayawardena DK; Arachchige AA; Weerawardhane M; Gunawardena YI

2000-09-01

123

Small hydropower projects and sustainable energy development in Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sustainable development has evolved to encompass three major viewpoints: economic, social and environmental. Given the wide-ranging potential impacts of energy on national sustainable development, we review the linkages between these two topics. In the Sri Lanka case study presented here, the Sustainomics framework is used to assess the role of small hydroelectric power projects in sustainable energy development. Key variables represent economic, social and environmental dimensions. This analysis helps policy-makers compare and rank project alternatives more easily and effectively. The multi-dimensional analysis, which includes environmental and social variables, supplements the more conventional cost benefit analysis based on economic values alone. (Author)

Morimoto, R.; Munasinghe, M. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom); Munasinghe Inst. for Development, Colombo (Sri Lanka); Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

2005-07-01

124

Ecologically sound building in Sri Lanka; Bygget i solen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article describes a 300 m2 office and television building in Sri Lanka. A number of energy-conserving measures have been implemented the most conspicuous of which are some large, blue solar cell roofs which at the same time give shade and 25000 W solar electricity. The dc from the solar cells is converted to 230 V ac by means of inverters. Among other environmentally friendly aspects is automobile-free garden, natural ventilation and cooling, energy-efficient equipment and wood materials from certified environmental forests. Sewer is handled on location by a local plant. 75 percent of the house is available to wheelchair users.

Brekke, Ragnar

2002-07-01

125

Biomass to promote energy self-sufficiency in Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy policies of Sri Lanka during the past few years are reviewed. Hydro-electric power, once believed sufficient to supply energy needs, is now known to be inadequate. Attempts to use renewable energy sources are discussed with emphasis on the use of biomass and the influence of government agencies on energy decisions. Several low-cost biomass units are described. The preference of the government is a project in which biogas, wind, and solar energy are converted to electricity to provide lighting and cooking facilities for 200 homes. (MJJ)

Gosling, D.

1980-01-01

126

Non-dermatophyte mold onychomycosis in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dermatophytic and non-dermatophytic onychomycosis (NDM) was indistinguishable clinically in our case series. Making a clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis without mycology is the routine practice in Sri Lanka. The prevalence of NDM (45.8%) was very high in our patient population, followed by yeasts (34.1%); dermatophyte infection made up only 20%. Therefore, the treatment of onychomycosis with griseofulvin seems futile. Close contact with soil, the habit of walking barefoot, frequent emersion of hands in water, and a hot, humid climate partly explain the variation in causative pathogens in this case series.

Ranawaka RR; de Silva N; Ragunathan RW

2012-01-01

127

Breaking energy bonds: micro hydro in Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article discusses the need to provide electrical power through mini hydroelectric power systems for disadvantaged rural communities in Sri Lanka. The objective of the country's Electricity Consumers' Society is to enable communities to have their own renewable energy sources over which they will have total control. The Society's strategy is discussed in detail. At present, mineral oil is still widely used in bottle lamps but a new era of empowerment appears to have dawned and will be completed when the 'powerless' 46% of the population has access to efficient, environmentally friendly electrical power.

Lahiru Perera, M.A.; Karunaratne, T.W. [ITDG (Sri Lanka)

2001-08-01

128

Integrated approach for coastal hazards and risks in Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The devastating impact of the tsunami of 26 December 2004 on the shores of the Indian Ocean recalled the importance of knowledge and the taking into account of coastal hazards. Sri Lanka was one of the countries most affected by this tsunami (e.g. 30 000 dead, 1 million people homeless and 70% of the fishing fleet destroyed). Following this tsunami, as part of the French post-tsunami aid, a project to establish a Geographical Information System (GIS) on coastal hazards and risks was funded. This project aims to define, at a pilot site, a methodology for multiple coastal hazards assessment that might be useful for the post-tsunami reconstruction and for development planning. This methodology could be applied to the whole coastline of Sri Lanka. The multi-hazard approach deals with very different coastal processes in terms of dynamics as well as in terms of return period. The first elements of this study are presented here. We used a set of tools integrating a GIS, numerical simulations and risk scenario modelling. While this action occurred in response to the crisis caused by the tsunami, it was decided to integrate other coastal hazards into the study. Although less dramatic than the tsunami these remain responsible for loss of life and damage. Furthermore, the establishment of such a system could not ignore the longer-term effects of climate change on coastal hazards in Sri Lanka. This GIS integrates the physical and demographic data available in Sri Lanka that is useful for assessing the coastal hazards and risks. In addition, these data have been used in numerical modelling of the waves generated during periods of monsoon as well as for the December 2004 tsunami. Risk scenarios have also been assessed for test areas and validated by field data acquired during the project. The results obtained from the models can be further integrated into the GIS and contribute to its enrichment and to help in better assessment and mitigation of these risks. The coastal-hazards-and-risks GIS coupled with modelling thus appears to be a very useful tool that can constitute the skeleton of a coastal zone management system. Decision makers will be able to make informed choices with regards to hazards during reconstruction and urban planning projects.

M. Garcin; J. F. Desprats; M. Fontaine; R. Pedreros; N. Attanayake; S. Fernando; C. H. E. R. Siriwardana; U. De Silva; B. Poisson

2008-01-01

129

Community psychiatry service in Sri Lanka: a successful model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the current practice of psychiatry there is a shift from hospital to community based care. Different models of community psychiatry have been tried in different countries. Though this concept is based on several core principles, each country has to find what is best suited for its population. In Sri Lanka too, community psychiatry projects have been initiated by psychiatrists. We describe below one such project started in a postal area in the capital, Colombo, by one of the authors. The project began in late 2008 and by 2010 was functioning independently and fulfilled the criteria for a community based mental health service.

Pushpa Ranasinghe; Jayan Mendis; Raveen Hanwella

2011-01-01

130

Installation of solar PV systems in Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The tropical country of Sri Lanka has hydroelectric power plants sufficient to provide electricity to only 40% of its 25,000 villages. The electric power needs of the average Sri Lankan rural communities are basic: three or four lights to illuminate their house and a power supply for their televisions. Solar radiation is abundant throughout the year. To take advantage of this resource, the Sarvodaya Rural Technical Services launched a Solar PV pilot demonstration project in the rural areas not served by the electric grid. The systems were being installed on an individual residence basis and funded by loans. Social and cultural problems which have arisen during the course of the project have slowed its implementation. This study identifies the problems and makes recommendations to resolve the current problems and avoid new ones.

Fernando, M.P.T.P. [Sarvodaya Rural Technical Services, Moratuwa (Sri Lanka)

1995-10-01

131

A new begomovirus-betasatellite complex is associated with chilli leaf curl disease in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Leaf curl disease of chilli (LCDC) is a major constraint in production of chilli in the Indian subcontinent. The objective of this study was to identify the begomovirus species occurring in chilli in Sri Lanka, where the LCDC was initially recorded in 1938. The virus samples were collected from the North Central Province, the major chilli growing region in Sri Lanka with a history of epidemic prevalence of LCDC. The virus could be readily transmitted by Bemisia tabaci to chilli, tomato and tobacco, where vein clearing followed by leaf curl developed. The genome analysis of two isolates obtained from two distantly located fields showing 100 % LCDC, revealed that the DNA-A genome (2754 nucleotides) shared 89.5 % sequence identity with each other and 68.80-84.40 % sequence identity with the other begomoviruses occurring in the Indian subcontinent. The closest identity (84.40 %) of the virus isolates was with Tomato leaf curl Sri Lanka virus (ToLCLKV). The results support that a new begomovirus species is affecting chilli in Sri Lanka and the name Chilli leaf curl Sri Lanka virus (ChiLCSLV) is proposed. Recombination analysis indicated that ChiLCSLV was a recombinant virus potentially originated from the begomoviruses prevailing in southern India and Sri Lanka. The genome of betasatellite associated with the two isolates consisted of 1366 and 1371 nucleotides and shared 95.2 % sequence identity with each other and 41.50-73.70 % sequence identity with the other betasatellite species. The results suggest that a new begomovirus betasatellite, Chilli leaf curl Sri Lanka betasatellite is associated with LCDC in Sri Lanka. This study demonstrates a new species of begomovirus and betasatellite complex is occurring in chilli in Sri Lanka and further shows that diverse begomovirus species are affecting chilli production in the Indian subcontinent.

Senanayake DM; Jayasinghe JE; Shilpi S; Wasala SK; Mandal B

2013-02-01

132

Malaria in Sri Lanka: one year post-tsunami.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One year ago, the authors of this article reported in this journal on the malaria situation in Sri Lanka prior to the tsunami that hit on 26 December 2004, and estimated the likelihood of a post-tsunami malaria outbreak to be low. Malaria incidence has decreased in 2005 as compared to 2004 in most districts, including the ones that were hit hardest by the tsunami. The malaria incidence (aggregated for the whole country) in 2005 followed the downward trend that started in 2000. However, surveillance was somewhat affected by the tsunami in some coastal areas and the actual incidence in these areas may have been higher than recorded, although there were no indications of this and it is unlikely to have affected the overall trend significantly. The focus of national and international post tsunami malaria control efforts was supply of antimalarials, distribution of impregnated mosquito nets and increased monitoring in the affected area. Internationally donated antimalarials were either redundant or did not comply with national drug policy, however, few seem to have entered circulation outside government control. Despite distribution of mosquito nets, still a large population is relatively exposed to mosquito bites due to inadequate housing. There were no indications of increased malaria vector abundance. Overall it is concluded that the tsunami has not negatively influenced the malaria situation in Sri Lanka.

Briët OJ; Galappaththy GN; Amerasinghe PH; Konradsen F

2006-01-01

133

Research and development on radiation processing in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Research on radiation processing of natural polymer such as polysaccharides of chitosan, cellulose, carrageenan has been carried out in Sri Lanka since the year 2004. The research group have been involving in development activities on application of chitin and chitosan for wound dressing, irradiated chitosan on shelf life extension of fruits such as papaya, banana, mangoes, radiation crosslinked super-absorbent hydrogel from sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by radiation processing. Hydrogels prepared with PVA/Carrageenan/Agar has been studied on guinea pigs to determine the wound healing effect. Irradiated chitosan powder and chitosan solution was studied in vitro and found chitosan solution (1%) directly subjected to irradiation dosages even at 5 kGy was highly effective in control of anthracnose causing organism of papaya. In vivo studies with irradiated 1% chitosan solution on Rathana and red lady variety of papaya shows better control of spoilage of papaya to a considerable extent. The government of Sri Lanka (Ministry of Science and Technology and Atomic Energy Authority) is in the process of establishing the first government owned Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility and it will be helpful to transfer the output of R and D in radiation processing. (author)

2008-01-01

134

Greenhouse gas emission reduction: A case study of Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we describe a case study for Sri Lanka that explores a wide range of options for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Options range from renewable technologies to carbon taxes and transportation sector initiatives. We find that setting electricity prices to reflect long-run marginal cost has a significant beneficial impact on the environment, and the expected benefits predicted on theoretical grounds are confirmed by the empirical results. Pricing reform also has a much broader impact than physical approaches to demand side management, although several options such as compact fluorescent lighting appear to have great potential. Options to reduce GHG emissions are limited as Sri Lanka lacks natural gas, and nuclear power is not practical until the system reaches a much larger size. Building the few remaining large hydro facilities would significantly reduce GHG emissions, but these would require costly resettlement programs. Given the inevitability for fossil-fuel base load generation, both clean coal technologies such as pressurized fluidized bed combustion, as well as steam-cycle residual oil fueled plants merit consideration as alternatives to the conventional pulverized coal-fired plants currently being considered. Transportation sector measures necessary to ameliorate local urban air pollution problems, such as vehicle inspection and maintenance programs, also bring about significant reductions of GHG emissions. 51 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Meier, P. [IDEA, Washington, DC (United States); Munasinghe, M. [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-12-31

135

Musculoskeletal trauma services in Mozambique and Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is currently an escalating epidemic of trauma-related injuries due to road traffic accidents and armed conflicts. This trauma occurs predominantly in rural areas where most of the population lives. Major ways to combat this epidemic include prevention programs, improved healthcare facilities, and training of competent providers. Mozambique and Sri Lanka have many common features including size, economic system, and healthcare structure but have significant differences in their medical education systems. With six medical schools, Sri Lanka graduates 1000 new physicians per year while Mozambique graduates less than 50 from their singular school. To supplement the low number of physicians, a training course for surgical technicians has been implemented. Examination of district hospital staffing and the medical education in these two countries might provide for improving trauma care competence in other developing countries. Musculoskeletal education is underrepresented in most medical school curricula around the world. District hospitals in developing countries are commonly staffed by recently graduated general medical officers, whose last formal education was in medical school. There is an opportunity to improve the quality of trauma care at the district hospital level by addressing the musculoskeletal curriculum content in medical schools. PMID:18618212

Fisher, Richard C

2008-07-10

136

Spatial epidemiology of suspected clinical leptospirosis in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world. A large outbreak of suspected human leptospirosis began in Sri Lanka during 2008. This study investigated spatial variables associated with suspected leptospirosis risk during endemic and outbreak periods. Data were obtained for monthly numbers of reported cases of suspected clinical leptospirosis for 2005-2009 for all of Sri Lanka. Space-time scan statistics were combined with regression modelling to test associations during endemic and outbreak periods. The cross-correlation function was used to test association between rainfall and leptospirosis at four locations. During the endemic period (2005-2007), leptospirosis risk was positively associated with shorter average distance to rivers and with higher percentage of agriculture made up of farms Outbreak locations in 2008 were characterized by shorter distance to rivers and higher population density. The analysis suggests the possibility of household transmission in densely populated semi-urban villages as a defining characteristic of the outbreak. The role of rainfall in the outbreak remains to be investigated, although analysis here suggests a more complex relationship than simple correlation. PMID:21676347

Robertson, C; Nelson, T A; Stephen, C

2011-06-07

137

Spatial epidemiology of suspected clinical leptospirosis in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world. A large outbreak of suspected human leptospirosis began in Sri Lanka during 2008. This study investigated spatial variables associated with suspected leptospirosis risk during endemic and outbreak periods. Data were obtained for monthly numbers of reported cases of suspected clinical leptospirosis for 2005-2009 for all of Sri Lanka. Space-time scan statistics were combined with regression modelling to test associations during endemic and outbreak periods. The cross-correlation function was used to test association between rainfall and leptospirosis at four locations. During the endemic period (2005-2007), leptospirosis risk was positively associated with shorter average distance to rivers and with higher percentage of agriculture made up of farms <0·20 hectares. Temporal correlation analysis of suspected leptospirosis cases and rainfall revealed a 2-month lag in rainfall-case association during the baseline period. Outbreak locations in 2008 were characterized by shorter distance to rivers and higher population density. The analysis suggests the possibility of household transmission in densely populated semi-urban villages as a defining characteristic of the outbreak. The role of rainfall in the outbreak remains to be investigated, although analysis here suggests a more complex relationship than simple correlation.

Robertson C; Nelson TA; Stephen C

2012-04-01

138

Social gradient in dental caries among adolescents in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to assess the social inequality in dental caries among adolescents in Sri Lanka. A total of 1,225 15-year-olds were selected using a stratified cluster sampling technique from schools in the Colombo district. The data were collected by means of an oral examination and questionnaires to both children and their parents. There were statistically significant inverse gradients between caries prevalence, caries experience (DMFS) and all five socio-economic indicators considered. Maternal education and family affluence emerged as significant predictors of dental caries. The magnitude of social inequality in dental caries was assessed using the slope index of inequality (SII) and the concentration index based on the concentration curve. SII for all socio-economic indicators were negative and, except in relation to father's occupation, they were statistically significant. With the socio-economic groups ordered from the lowest to the highest, a negative SII indicates that caries experience decreased with improving socio-economic status. The concentration index for DMFS was negative (-0.111) and statistically significant, indicating disproportionate concentration of dental caries among the poor children. In conclusion, this study has shown the existence of a social gradient with respect to dental caries among adolescents in Sri Lanka and it also illustrates the use of SII and concentration index as tools to determine the magnitude of social inequality in dental caries. PMID:18277071

Perera, I; Ekanayake, L

2008-02-15

139

Alpha thalassaemia and extended alpha globin genes in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ?-globin genes were studied in nine families with unexplained hypochromic anaemia and in 167 patients with HbE ? thalassaemia in Sri Lanka. As well as the common deletion forms of ?(+) thalassaemia three families from an ethnic minority were found to carry a novel form of ?(0) thalassaemia, one family carried a previously reported form of ?(0) thalassaemia, --(THAI), and five families had different forms of non-deletional thalassaemia. The patients with HbE ? thalassaemia who had co-inherited ? thalassaemia all showed an extremely mild phenotype and reduced levels of HbF and there was a highly significant paucity of ?(+) thalassaemia in these patients compared with the normal population. Extended ? gene arrangements, including ???, ???? and ?????, occurred at a low frequency and were commoner in the more severe phenotypes of HbE ? thalassaemia. As well as emphasising the ameliorating effect of ? thalassaemia on HbE ? thalassaemia the finding of a novel form of ?(0) thalassaemia in an ethnic minority, together with an unexpected diversity of forms of non-deletion ? thalassaemia in Sri Lanka, further emphasises the critical importance of micro-mapping populations for determining the frequency of clinically important forms of the disease.

Suresh S; Fisher C; Ayyub H; Premawardhena A; Allen A; Perera A; Bandara D; Olivieri N; Weatherall D

2013-02-01

140

Understanding the explanatory model of the patient on their medically unexplained symptoms and its implication on treatment development research: a Sri Lanka Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) are often distressed, disabled and dissatisfied with the care they receive. Illness beliefs held by patients have a major influence on the decision to consult, persistence of symptoms and the degree of disability. Illness perception models consist of frameworks to organise information from multiple sources into distinct but interrelated dimensions: identity (the illness label), cause, consequences, emotional representations perceived control and timeline. Our aim was to elicit the illness perceptions of patients with MUS in Sri Lankan primary care to modify and improve a CBT intervention. Method An intervention study was conducted in a hospital primary care clinic in Colombo, Sri Lanka using CBT for MUS. As a part of the baseline assessment, qualitative data was collected using; the Short Explanatory Model Interview (SEMI), from 68 patients (16–65 years) with MUS. We categorised the qualitative data in to key components of the illness perception model, to refine CBT intervention for a subsequent larger trial study. Results The cohort was chronically ill and 87% of the patients were ill for more than six months (range six months to 20 years) with 5 or more symptoms and 6 or more visits over preceding six months. A majority were unable to offer an explanation on identity (59%) or the cause (56%), but in the consequence domain 95% expressed significant illness worries; 37% believed their symptoms indicated moderately serious illness and 58% very serious illness. Reflecting emotional representation, 33% reported fear of death, 20% fear of paralysis, 13% fear of developing cancer and the rest unspecified incurable illness. Consequence and emotional domains were significant determinants of distress and consultations. Their repeated visits were to seek help to alleviate symptoms. Only a minority expected investigations (8.8 %) or diagnosis (8.8%). However, the doctors who had previously treated them allegedly concentrated more on identity than cause. The above information was used to develop simple techniques incorporating analogies to alter their perceptions Conclusion The illness perception model is useful in understanding the continued distress of patients with persistent symptoms without an underlying organic cause. Hence it can make a significant contribution when developing and evaluating culturally sensitive patient friendly interventions.

Sumathipala Athula; Siribaddana Sisira; Hewege Suwin; Sumathipala Kethaki; Prince Martin; Mann Anthony

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

International Intervention in Intra-State Conflicts: The Case in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

This thesis attempts to understand various factors involved with the intervention of powerful countries in the affairs of weaker countries, taking the Indian intervention in Sri Lanka as a case study. It examines shifts in India s intervention decisions d...

A. I. De Silva

2013-01-01

142

Enrolment in micro life and health insurance: Evidences from Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Microinsurance is an emerging concept protecting households from the potentially catastrophic expenditures associated with family related shocks. Therefore, this paper presents evidence on the determinants of insurance participation using probit models on household survey data from Sri Lanka, condit...

Bendig, Mirko; Arun, Thankom

143

Childrens’ clubs: new ways of working with conflict-displaced children in Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is based upon research conducted earlyin 2002 in the Batticaloa and Ampara Districts ofeastern Sri Lanka, a rural region which has witnessednearly two decades of inter-ethnic conflict.

Jason Hart

2002-01-01

144

Sample study of biomass fuel consumption in Sri Lanka households  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biomass, as a household fuel, is vital to the energy economy of Sri Lanka, although few reliable estimates of consumption are available. In the present study, biomass fuel consumption was measured and other related data collected from a sample of 518 households. The total consumption of biomass fuel by the household sector was estimated at 7.5 million tonnes/year and the per caput consumption at 1.36 kg/day. The biomass fuels used included rubber wood 18.0%, crop wastes (mainly from coconut) 28.8%, and other fuelwood 53.2%. Of the rural households studied 81% obtained their biomass fuel by gathering, generally within a distance of 1.6 km (1 mile). The mud stove and the three-stone open fireplace were the most common cooking devices used. 14 references.

Wijesinghe, L.C.A.deS.

1984-01-01

145

Distribution of Lutra lutra in the Highlands of Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The only otter found in Sri Lanka is Lutra lutra. A survey was carried out in 1989/1990 in the highland region of the island, an area drained by four river systems. Abundant signs of otters were found. Freshwater crabs form the main part of the otters' diet in the study area, where few fish are found. Although at present, otters are plentiful, partly because access to tea plantations is limited, reducing pressure on otters living on them, this may not continue as vegetable farming increases, bringing pesticide and fertiliser washoff and soil erosion. Mining is also causing increased water turbidity, and fish farming is leading to otters being destroyed. Peak Wilderness Sanctuary and the Horton Plains National Park help to protect otters and other wildlife, but conservation measures need to be put in place now to protect otters against theses growing threats.

Silva P. K. de

1991-01-01

146

An overview of air pollution and respiratory illnesses in Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines the effects on human health and controlling measures of air pollution in Sri Lanka. The objectives of the study were to identify and categorize the major air pollutants in Sri Lanka and their sources; examine the public health effects of air pollution; study the air pollution situation in Sri Lanka; understand the link between respiratory illnesses in Sri Lanka and air pollution; and, find control measures taken by the regulatory authorities to abate air pollution. Data were collected through interviews and conversation with air pollution stakeholders, reference materials, and visits with the Central Environmental Authority, Urban Development Authority and Public Health Bureau. The paper concludes that automobile exhaust is one of the major causes of air pollution and that respiratory diseases in Sri Lanka have become a major health problem. The author recommends that control measures should be strengthened to abate air pollution in Sri Lanka; steps should be taken to minimize traffic congestion and to develop programs to raise public awareness; artificial materials such as polythene and plastics in day-to-day activities should be minimized; and recycling processes of artificial materials should be enhanced. 7 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

Senarath, C. [Nilwala College of Education, Wilpita, Akuressa (Sri Lanka)

2005-07-01

147

Fossilized diatoms in meteorites from recent falls in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

On December 29, 2012, a bright yellow and green fireball was observed to disintegrate over the Polonnaruwa District of North Central, Sri Lanka. Many low density, black stones were recovered soon after the observed fall from rice paddy fields near the villages of Aralaganwila and Dimbulagala. These stones were initially studied by optical microscopy methods at the Medical Research Institute in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Soon thereafter, samples were sent to the UK and to the United States. More extensive Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy studies were then carried out at Cardiff University and the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center. The physico-chemical properties, elemental abundances, mineralogy and stable isotope data clearly indicate that these stones are non-terrestrial. Freshly fractured interior surfaces of the black stones have also been observed to contain the remains of fossilized diatom. Many of the diatom frustules are clearly embedded in the meteorite rock matrix and exhibit nitrogen levels below the EDX detection limits. Some of the fossil diatoms are araphid marine pennates and planktonic forms that are inconsistent with conditions associated with rice paddy fields. These observations indicate the fossilized diatoms are indigenous to the meteorites rather than post-arrival biological contaminants. The carbon content and mineralogy suggests that these stones may represent a previously ungrouped clan of carbonaceous meteorites. The extremely low density (~0.6) of the stones and their observed mineralogy was inconsistent with known terrestrial rocks (e.g., pumice, diatomite and fulgurites). The minerals detected suggest that the parent body of the Polonnaruwa stones may have been the nucleus of a comet. These observations are interpreted as supporting the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe Panspermia hypothesis and the hypothesis that diatoms and other microorganisms might be capable of living and growing in water ice and brines in comets.

Hoover, Richard B.; Wallis, Jamie; Wickramarathne, Keerthi; Samaranayake, Anil; Williams, George; Jerman, Gregory; Wallis, D. H.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.

2013-09-01

148

Indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka: production systems and genetic diversity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Production status, farming systems and genetic diversity of indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka were evaluated using six geographically distinct populations. The indigenous cattle population of the country is considered as a nondescript mixture of genotypes, and represents more than half of the total cattle population of 1.2 million heads. Five distinct indigenous populations were investigated for morphological analysis, and four were included in evaluating genetic differences. Farming systems were analysed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. The genetic variation was assessed within and between populations using 15 autosomal and two Y-specific microsatellite markers, and compared with two indigenous populations from the African region. Farming system analysis revealed that indigenous cattle rearing was based on traditional mixed-crop integration practices and operates under limited or no input basis. The contribution of indigenous cattle to total tangible income ranged from zero to 90% reflecting the high variation in the purpose of keeping. Morphometric measurements explained specific phenotypic characteristics arising from geographical isolation and selective breeding. Though varying according to the region, the compact body, narrow face, small horns and humps with shades of brown and black coat colour described the indigenous cattle phenotype in general. Genetic analysis indicated that indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka have high diversity with average number of alleles per locus ranging from 7.9 to 8.5. Average heterozygosity of different regions varied within a narrow range (0.72 ± 0.04 to 0.76 ± 0.03). Genetic distances between regions were low (0.085 and 0.066) suggesting a similar mixture of genotypes across regions. Y-specific analysis indicated a possible introgression of Taurine cattle in one of the cattle populations. (author)

2010-01-01

149

X-ray fluorescence in IAEA Member States: Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An ED-XRF facility was established in the analytical laboratory of the Atomic Energy Authority of Sri Lanka in 2001 under the technical assistance received through a IAEA TC project. The facility comprises of a X ray tube (Rich - Seifert), a sample holder with secondary target assembly and a Si (Li) detector. The laboratory has also got the necessary facilities to analyze water samples by co-precipitating technique using APDC. Our XRF laboratory has already established analytical procedures to use emission transmission methods (AXIl-QAES, P. Kump), back-scatter fundamental parameter method (QXAS-BFP), APDC co-precipitation method and thin and thick sample analysis method. Selected activities carried out by the XRF Laboratory are: Research study on heavy metal concentration levels in crow feathers collected from different environments and in industrial effluents released to a main water body (i.e the Kelani River); Research study on hyper accumulating capacity of flora in Ussangoda area (Serpentine mineral deposited area); Study on the possibility of removing heavy metals in liquid waste by bricks (low cost waste water treatment method); Study on heavy metal contamination in soil collected from Tsunami affected areas; Elemental analysis of air particulate matter to identify pollutants and pollution sources; Provision of analytical services to archaeological studies; Alloy analysis for technical evaluations. In Sri Lanka, there is a rising demand for this analytical service as it can provide the customer relatively fast and reliable results at low cost. AEA has decided to upgrade the existing facility to TXRF through the IAEA technical assistance to meet the demand for the services to analyse water and other liquid samples. In addition, Quality Assurance and Quality control procedures have been implemented for validation of analytical methods and check of accuracy of analytical results obtained

2006-01-01

150

Supporting elephant conservation in Sri Lanka through MODIS imagery  

Science.gov (United States)

The latest national elephant survey of Sri Lanka (2011) revealed Sri Lanka has 5,879 elephants. The total forest cover for these elephants is about 19,500 sq km (2012 estimation) and estimated forest area is about 30% of the country when smaller green patches are also counted. However, studies have pointed out that a herd of elephants need about a 100 sq km of forest patch to survive. With a high human population density (332 people per sq km, 2010), the pressure for land to feed people and elephants is becoming critical. Resent reports have indicated about 250 elephants are killed annually by farmers and dozens of people are also killed by elephants. Under this context, researchers are investigating various methods to assess the elephant movements to address the issues of Human-Elephant-Conflict (HEC). Apart from various local remedies for the issue, the conservation of elephant population can be supported by satellite imagery based studies. MODIS sensor imagery can be considered as a successful candidate here. Its spatial resolution is low (250m x 250m) but automatically filters out small forest patches in the mapping process. The daily imagery helps to monitor temporal forest cover changes. This study investigated the background information of HEC and used MODIS 250m imagery to suggest applicability of satellite data for Elephant conservations efforts. The elephant movement information was gathered from local authorities and potentials to identify bio-corridors were discussed. Under future research steps, regular forest cover monitoring through MODIS data was emphasized as a valuable tool in elephant conservations efforts.

Perera, Kithsiri; Tateishi, Ryutaro

2012-10-01

151

Neurological manifestations of snake bite in Sri Lanka.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Snake bite is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in certain parts of Sri Lanka. This study was designed to determine the offending snakes, neurological manifestations, disease course, and outcome in neurotoxic envenomation. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Fifty six consecutive patients admitted with neurological manifestations following snake bite were studied prospectively. Data were obtained regarding the offending snakes, neurological symptoms, time taken for onset of symptoms, neurological signs, and time taken for recovery. RESULTS: The offending snake was Russell?s viper in 27(48.2%), common and Sri Lankan krait in 19(33.9%), cobra in 3(5.4%), and unidentified in 7(12.5%). Ptosis was the commonest neurological manifestation seen in 48(85.7%) followed by ophthalmoplegia (75%), limb weakness (26.8%), respiratory failure (17.9%), palatal weakness (10.7%), neck muscle weakness (7.1%), and delayed sensory neuropathy (1.8%). Neurological symptoms were experienced usually within 6 hours after the bite. Following administration of antivenom, the signs of recovery became evident within a few hours to several days. The duration for complete recovery ranged from four hours to two weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Complete recovery of neuromuscular weakness was observed in all patients except for one who died with intracerebral haemorrhage shortly after admission.

Seneviratne U; Dissanayake S

2002-01-01

152

Sri Lanka’s Health Unit Program: A Model of “Selective” Primary Health Care  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper argues that the health unit program developed in Sri Lanka in the early twentieth century was an earlier model of selective primary health care promoted by the Rockefeller Foundation in the 1980s in opposition to comprehensive primary health care advocated by the Alma-Ata Declaration of the World Health Organization. A key strategy of the health unit program was to identify the most common and serious infectious diseases in each health unit area and control them through improved sanitation, health education, immunization and treatment with the help of local communities. The health unit program was later introduced to other countries in South and Southeast Asia as part of the Rockefeller Foundation’s global campaign to promote public health.

Soma Hewa

2011-01-01

153

Indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka: Production systems and genetic diversity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: The production status, farming systems and genetic diversity of indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka were evaluated using six geographically distinct populations in Sri Lanka, which is a small island located below the southern tip of Indian subcontinent. The indigenous cattle population of the country is considered as a non-descript type mixture of genotypes, and represent more than the half of total cattle population of 1.2 million heads. Six distinct indigenous populations (NE, NC, So, No, TK and Th) were investigated for morphological and genetic differences. The respective farming systems were also evaluated to complete the requirement in developing conservation and utilization strategies. The sampling was carried out based on the non-existence of artificial insemination facilities to assure the target populations are indigenous. The six populations were assumed genetically isolated from each other in the absence of nomadic pattern of rearing and regular cattle migration. The farming systems were analyzed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire by single visits to each location. Single visits were practiced, as there is no variation in farming system according to the period of the year. Morphometric measurements were taken during the visit and the genetic variation was assessed within and between five populations using 15 autosomal and two Y-specific microsatellite markers. The farming system analysis revealed that indigenous cattle are reared as a traditional practice in all the regions of the country under limited or no input situations. Since the low productivity masks its real contribution to the rural livelihood, the level of utilization was confounded within the attributes of respective farming systems. The contribution of indigenous cattle to total tangible income ranged from 0% to 90% in different regions reflecting the high variation in the purpose of keeping indigenous cattle. Integration with crop, especially with paddy was the common feature in systems across the regions. Morphometric measurements identified the specific phenotypic characteristics resulted by geographical isolation and selective breeding. Though vary according to the regional preferences, the compact body, narrow face, small horns and humps with shades of brown and black coat colour described the indigenous cattle phenotype in general. The diversity analysis based on microsatellite genotyping indicated that indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka has a high genetic diversity with average number of alleles per locus ranging from 7.9 to 8.5. Average heterozygosity of different regions varied within a narrow range (0.72 ± 0.04 to 0.76 ± 0.03). The genetic distances (DA) between regions were low (ranged between 0.085 and 0.066) suggesting a similar mixture of genotypes across regions despite the geographical isolation. However, two genetic clusters were visible though no relationship of those clusters with the geographical distribution of different regions could be observed. Introgression of taurine cattle was evidenced in one of the cattle populations (NC) as suggested by the Y-specific microsatellite analysis (author)

2009-01-01

154

Medical support to Sri Lanka in the wake of tsunamis: planning considerations and lessons learned.  

Science.gov (United States)

When massive tsunamis affected the coast of Sri Lanka and other Indian Ocean littorals, elements of the Third Force Service Support Group and assigned Navy, Air Force, Army, and Coast Guard units from the U.S. Pacific Command were "task organized" to form Combined Support Group-Sri Lanka (CSG-SL), charged to conduct humanitarian assistance/disaster relief (HA/DR) operations. The specific mission was to provide immediate relief to the affected population of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, to minimize loss of life, and to mitigate human suffering. A 30-person health care team deployed to the northern province of Jaffna and provided medical assistance to that chronically underserved and acutely overstressed region. For a 12-day period, the team served as the principal medical staff of an under-resourced government hospital and conducted mobile primary care clinics at nearby welfare camps housing > 7,000 internally displaced persons made homeless by the tsunamis. By every measurable standard, CSG-SL accomplished its assigned HA/DR task in Sri Lanka, including the medical mission. In doing so, the medical team learned many important lessons, including five of particular value to planners of similar relief operations in the future. This article discusses the context in which CSG-SL planned and executed the medical aspects of its HA/DR operations in Sri Lanka, and it describes the most significant medical lessons learned. PMID:17447616

Lane, David A

2006-10-01

155

Saw-Scaled Viper Bites in Sri Lanka: Is It a Different Subspecies? Clinical Evidence from an Authenticated Case Series  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The saw-scaled viper (SSV) (Echis carinatus) is considered to be a highly venomous snake in Sri Lanka despite any published clinical justification. Being a rarity, the clinical profile of SSV bites is not well established in Sri Lanka. We report a series of 48 (n-48) SSV bites from the Northern Prov...

Gnanathasan, Ariaranee; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Peranantharajah, Thambipillai; Coonghe, Anthonia

156

Current Status of Marine Snakes from Jaffna Peninsula, Sri Lanka with Description of Hitherto Unrecorded Hydrophis fasciatus fasciatus (Schneider, 1799)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As only a few study reported on sea snakes of Sri Lanka, a study was undertaken from June 2003 to November 2004 in the coast of Jaffna Peninsula which lies in the Northern part of Sri Lanka. Out of the 121 specimens examined, 9 species under 5 genera in two families were documented in the coasta...

S. Abyerami; K. Sivashanthini

157

77 FR 69592 - U.S. Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

...Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka AGENCY: International Trade...Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India (Chennai and Cochin) and Sri Lanka...trade.gov. U.S. Commercial Service India, James P. Golsen, Principal...

2012-11-20

158

Temporal correlation between malaria and rainfall in Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Rainfall data have potential use for malaria prediction. However, the relationship between rainfall and the number of malaria cases is indirect and complex. Methods The statistical relationships between monthly malaria case count data series and monthly mean rainfall series (extracted from interpolated station data) over the period 1972 – 2005 in districts in Sri Lanka was explored in four analyses: cross-correlation; cross-correlation with pre-whitening; inter-annual; and seasonal inter-annual regression. Results For most districts, strong positive correlations were found for malaria time series lagging zero to three months behind rainfall, and negative correlations were found for malaria time series lagging four to nine months behind rainfall. However, analysis with pre-whitening showed that most of these correlations were spurious. Only for a few districts, weak positive (at lags zero and one) or weak negative (at lags two to six) correlations were found in pre-whitened series. Inter-annual analysis showed strong negative correlations between malaria and rainfall for a group of districts in the centre-west of the country. Seasonal inter-annual analysis showed that the effect of rainfall on malaria varied according to the season and geography. Conclusion Seasonally varying effects of rainfall on malaria case counts may explain weak overall cross-correlations found in pre-whitened series, and should be taken into account in malaria predictive models making use of rainfall as a covariate.

Briët Olivier JT; Vounatsou Penelope; Gunawardena Dissanayake M; Galappaththy Gawrie NL; Amerasinghe Priyanie H

2008-01-01

159

Current status of uranium exploration in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Apart from the few occurrences of Gondwana (Jurassic), Miocene and later sediments, most of Sri Lanka consists of Precambrian rocks of Archaean age. These rocks underwent metamorphism under amphibolite and granulite facies conditions about 200 Ma ago. Nine anomalous areas for uranium mineralization were identified after a preliminary geochemical survey of the whole island, except for the northwestern Miocene belt. Consistent low contents of uranium in stream sediment samples suggested that solution or hydromorphic dispersion of uranium is not a prominent mechanism and that most of the uranium dispersion is rather mechanical in nature in most of the country. Six of the above areas lie either within or close to the boundary between the Highland Series and the Vijayan Complex. The latter mainly consists of granitic gneisses, hornblende biotite gneisses, granitoids and migmatites formed under amphibolite facies conditions. Denser sampling (one sample per 1 km2) in Phase II of the programme in two areas, namely Maha Cya and Mala Oya, indicated that further exploration work would be worthwhile. A number of samples from these areas had uranium values greater than 500 ppm. Further, the composition of the amphiboles and pyroxenes from rocks of the Maha Cya area are comparable to those in rocks from known areas of uranium mineralization such as the Mary Kathleen uranium deposit in Australia. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs

1988-01-01

160

Climatic change in Asia: Sri Lanka country report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report focuses on the impacts of climate change on water resources, agriculture and the coastal zone and investigates measures to reduce greenhouse gases through changes in future energy investments. Climate change scenarios indicate significant changes in temperature and rainfall in Sri Lanka in the year 2070. The study shows the most adverse impacts of climate change will be caused by sea level rise and the increased frequency of extreme rainfall and storms causing beach erosion, damage to coastal eco-systems such as mangroves and salinity intrusion and affecting the tourist and fisheries industries. Impacts on agriculture and on water resources will be adverse, but need further study of these and also of the severity of climate change. A `no regrets` policy for climate change mitigation is advocated, promoting energy efficiency and energy markets, preventing deforestation, enhancing the ability of eco-systems to respond to sea level rise and enabling the inhabitants to respond to climate change. Greater reliance on industrialization to reduce the dependence on agriculture is included in the national response strategy. Regional cooperation, for example to research the sea level rise problem and cope with natural disasters, is necessary. 122 refs., 23 figs., 103 tabs.

NONE

1994-07-01

 
 
 
 
161

Tobacco Smoking Among School Children in Colombo District, Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tobacco smoking is an important problem among schoolchildren. The authors studied the patterns of tobacco smoking among schoolchildren in Colombo, Sri Lanka, using a self-administered questionnaire. Multistaged stratified random sampling was used to select 6000 students. Response rate was 90.7% (5446), out of which 53.4% were males. Prevalence rates for males and females, respectively, were as follows: having smoked at least 1 complete cigarette: 27.0% and 13.3%, smoked more than 100 cigarettes: 2.3% and 0.3%, daily smoking: 1.8% and 0.2%. Mean age of starting to smoke was 14.16 years. The tobacco products most used were cigarettes (91.5%) and bidis (3.8%). In univariate analysis, male gender, parental smoking, studying non-science subjects, peer smoking, and participating in sports were significantly associated with smoking of at least 1 complete cigarette (P < .05). In multivariate analysis, the most significant correlates were having close friends (odds ratio = 3.29, confidence interval = 2.47-4.37) or parents who smoked (odds ratio = 1.86, confidence interval = 1.28-2.71). Female smoking has increased from previously reported values. These high-risk groups can be targets for preventive programs.

Katulanda P; Liyanage IK; Wickramasinghe K; Piyadigama I; Karunathilake IM; Palmer PH; Mathews DR

2012-03-01

162

Heat pumping technologies in Sri Lanka: applications and future prospects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

New applications of heat pumping technologies have been introduced in Sri Lanka. These include manufacture of made tea, drying fruits and vegetables, and drying coconut for manufacture of export quality copra. Tea has been the backbone of the export economy for many years, and only recently has it been overtaken by garment exports. It also accounts for a large amount of energy, in terms of electricity supplied from the national grid, biomass in the form of firewood, and petroleum products , chiefly diesel oil. It has been demonstrated in pilot scale commercial trials by the company that application of heat pumping technology reduces the cost of energy in manufacture of tea from about Rs 5 per kilogram of made tea to about Rs 3. Mobile drying units have been manufactured to demonstrate the application of heat pumping technology for drying fruits, vegetables and other agricultural produce on a commercial scale. This has resulted in considerable interest in the CISIR, the Industrial Development Board, and various private sector organizations. Application of heat pumping to drying coconut for manufacture of copra has been very successful. The quality of copra has been consistently supra-grade, since there is no contamination as in the traditional method of manufacture using biomass fuels in the form of coconut shells, which causes discolouration. (author)

Tharumaratnam, V.; Mendis, D.L.O. [Mini Well Systems (pvt) Ltd. (Sri Lanka)

1998-09-01

163

Use of x-ray fluorescence and diffraction techniques in studying ancient ceramics of Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Ceramics were produced for centuries in Sri Lanka for various purposes. Ancient ceramic articles such as pottery, bricks, tiles, sewer pipes, etc, were made from naturally occurring raw materials. Use of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in characterizing of two ancient ceramic samples from two different archaeological sites in Sri Lanka is presented. The information obtained in this manner is used to figure out the ancient ceramic technology, particularly to learn about the raw materials used, the source of raw materials, processing parameters such as firing temperature or binders used in ceramic production. This information then can be used to explore the archaeometric background such as the nature and extent of cultural and technological interaction between different periods of history in Sri Lanka.

2012-07-16

164

Use of x-ray fluorescence and diffraction techniques in studying ancient ceramics of Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

Ceramics were produced for centuries in Sri Lanka for various purposes. Ancient ceramic articles such as pottery, bricks, tiles, sewer pipes, etc, were made from naturally occurring raw materials. Use of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in characterizing of two ancient ceramic samples from two different archaeological sites in Sri Lanka is presented. The information obtained in this manner is used to figure out the ancient ceramic technology, particularly to learn about the raw materials used, the source of raw materials, processing parameters such as firing temperature or binders used in ceramic production. This information then can be used to explore the archaeometric background such as the nature and extent of cultural and technological interaction between different periods of history in Sri Lanka.

Karunaratne, B. S. B.

2012-07-01

165

The assistant medical officer in Sri Lanka: mid-level health worker in decline.  

Science.gov (United States)

The history of Assistant Medical Officers (AMOs) in Sri Lanka can be traced back to the 1860s. Their training from the beginning followed an allopathic, 'evidence based' model. AMOs have played a key role in rural and peripheral health care, through staffing of government central dispensaries and maternity homes and may have contributed to Sri Lanka's favorable health outcomes. While there are currently approximately 2000 AMOs, their training course was discontinued in 1995. It was argued that the quality of care provided by the AMOs is substandard relative to that of physicians. The success, rapid expansion and integration of physician assistant programs into the US health care system have recently spurred other countries to introduce similar programs. This paper reviews Sri Lanka's move in the opposite direction, phasing out the AMO profession, without any research into their contributions to access to interprofessional primary health care and positive health outcomes. PMID:23659623

De Silva, Vijitha; Strand de Oliveira, Justine; Liyanage, Mahinda; Østbye, Truls

2013-05-09

166

Telehealth - bringing healthcare to one's doorstep: how ready is Sri Lanka?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Provision of healthcare at a distance is not a new concept. However, with the advancement of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), the term ‘Telehealth’ has been cited frequently in the health/medical literature. Similar terms such as ‘Online Health’, ‘eHealth’ and Telemedicine’ are also begining to appear. The purpose of this article is to provide readers with an understanding of telehealth with special reference to Sri Lanka. First, different terms and definitions related to telehealth will be reviewed. Then, the history of telehealth and evolutionary milestones of telecommunication activities will be examined. Next, telecommunication activities in Sri Lanka and its trend will be explored. Later, telehealth effectiveness will be examined briefly. Finally, a brief overview of telehealth activities related to Sri Lanka will be presented before suggesting a way forward.

Rohana Basil Marasinghe

2010-01-01

167

The coir fiber industry in Sri Lanka: reasons for its decline and possible turnaround strategies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The decline of the coir fiber industry in Sri Lanka, which brings valuable foreign exchange, has been a subject of concern as Sri Lanka is a main supplier of coir fiber to the world market. The repercussions of this decline on the country are enormous. In this article we analyze this crisis situation to find the causative factors and to propose recommendations for the development and sustainability of the industry. The main factors contributing to the crisis are unfavorable trade policies, trade barriers, human resource problems, poor trade behavior, export barriers, poor product marketing strategy, the high cost of production, poor industry regulation, and threats from the global marketing environment. Recommendations for the development of the industry include policy changes, improved working conditions, trade strategies, product diversification, mechanization, quality assurance, market development, strengthening of market position, and regional cooperation. We present a comprehensive long-term strategy for the future development of the coir fiber industry of Sri Lanka.

Rosairo HSR; Kawamura T; Peiris TLGS

2004-01-01

168

The assistant medical officer in Sri Lanka: mid-level health worker in decline.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The history of Assistant Medical Officers (AMOs) in Sri Lanka can be traced back to the 1860s. Their training from the beginning followed an allopathic, 'evidence based' model. AMOs have played a key role in rural and peripheral health care, through staffing of government central dispensaries and maternity homes and may have contributed to Sri Lanka's favorable health outcomes. While there are currently approximately 2000 AMOs, their training course was discontinued in 1995. It was argued that the quality of care provided by the AMOs is substandard relative to that of physicians. The success, rapid expansion and integration of physician assistant programs into the US health care system have recently spurred other countries to introduce similar programs. This paper reviews Sri Lanka's move in the opposite direction, phasing out the AMO profession, without any research into their contributions to access to interprofessional primary health care and positive health outcomes.

De Silva V; Strand de Oliveira J; Liyanage M; Østbye T

2013-09-01

169

Policies and Effectiveness of Foreign Aid: The Case of Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This empirical study investigates foreign aid’s effectiveness in stimulating growth by considering economic policies and the factors that influenced aid flow in Sri Lanka during the period of 1980-2008. For both analyses, a single-equation instrumental variable estimation method is employed. The results derived from this study suggest that aid is positively associated with growth in a good policy environment in Sri Lanka. Regarding determinants, in terms of trade openness and budget deficits the results suggest that aid was transferred into Sri Lanka under a conditional policy environment. Inflation is positively associated with aid flow. Unrest in the country and per capita growth negatively influenced aid, whereas commercial interests, natural disasters, political stability, and poverty are positively associated with aid inflow.

T. Bhavan

2013-01-01

170

Molecular characterization and identification of members of the Anopheles subpictus complex in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Anopheles subpictus sensu lato is a major malaria vector in South and Southeast Asia. Based initially on polytene chromosome inversion polymorphism, and subsequently on morphological characterization, four sibling species A-D were reported from India. The present study uses molecular methods to further characterize and identify sibling species in Sri Lanka. METHODS: Mosquitoes from Sri Lanka were morphologically identified to species and sequenced for the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS2) and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit-I (COI) genes. These sequences, together with others from GenBank, were used to construct phylogenetic trees and parsimony haplotype networks and to test for genetic population structure. RESULTS: Both ITS2 and COI sequences revealed two divergent clades indicating that the Subpictus complex in Sri Lanka is composed of two genetically distinct species that correspond to species A and species B from India. Phylogenetic analysis showed that species A and species B do not form a monophyletic clade but instead share genetic similarity with Anopheles vagus and Anopheles sundaicus s.l., respectively. An allele specific identification method based on ITS2 variation was developed for the reliable identification of species A and B in Sri Lanka. CONCLUSION: Further multidisciplinary studies are needed to establish the species status of all chromosomal forms in the Subpictus complex. This study emphasizes the difficulties in using morphological characters for species identification in An. subpictus s.l. in Sri Lanka and demonstrates the utility of an allele specific identification method that can be used to characterize the differential bio-ecological traits of species A and B in Sri Lanka.

Surendran SN; Sarma DK; Jude PJ; Kemppainen P; Kanthakumaran N; Gajapathy K; Peiris LB; Ramasamy R; Walton C

2013-08-01

171

Policies and regulations affecting biomass-related energy sector development in Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The future predictions of energy demand, limitations of hydro expansion and inadequate fossil fuel supplies in Sri Lanka suggest the requirement for a diversity of power sources in the future. It has been recognized that renewable energy (particularly biomass, hydro, wind and solar) will have an important role in meeting future energy demands. The main objective of this policy brief is to discuss the current status of the biomass energy sector of Sri Lanka and to lay a foundation for a process of further studies and consultations leading towards a well-integrated energy policy.

NONE

2009-06-15

172

Motivations for Alcohol Use among Men Aged 16-30 Years in Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Psychometric properties of a new scale that measures motivations towards alcohol use were examined using a sample of 412 male alcohol users in Sri Lanka aged 16-30 years. In addition, associations between drinking motives and drinking frequency were explored. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a 3-factor model consisting of the factors personal enjoyment, tension reduction, and social pressure fit the data well. Overall, tension-reduction motivation was found to be prominent in the context of young males’ drinking behavior in Sri Lanka. Associations between stress and alcohol use among young males warrant further investigations.

Bilesha Perera; Mohammad Torabi

2009-01-01

173

Malaria Eradication and Educational Attainment: Evidence from Paraguay and Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

Mid-twentieth century malaria eradication campaigns largely eliminated malaria from Paraguay and Sri Lanka. Using these interventions as quasi-experiments, I estimate malaria’s effect on lifetime female educational attainment through the combination of pre-existing geographic variation in malarial intensity and cohort exposure based on the timing of the national anti-malaria campaigns. The estimates from Sri Lanka and Paraguay are similar and indicate that malaria eradication increased years of educational attainment and literacy. The similarity of the estimates across the countries reinforces our confidence in the validity of the identification strategy.

Lucas, Adrienne M.

2013-01-01

174

Malaria Eradication and Educational Attainment: Evidence from Paraguay and Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mid-twentieth century malaria eradication campaigns largely eliminated malaria from Paraguay and Sri Lanka. Using these interventions as quasi-experiments, I estimate malaria's effect on lifetime female educational attainment through the combination of pre-existing geographic variation in malarial intensity and cohort exposure based on the timing of the national anti-malaria campaigns. The estimates from Sri Lanka and Paraguay are similar and indicate that malaria eradication increased years of educational attainment and literacy. The similarity of the estimates across the countries reinforces our confidence in the validity of the identification strategy.

Lucas AM

2010-04-01

175

Preliminary report on safety aspects on nuclear power generation in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document is intended as background information on nuclear energy to contribute to Sri Lanka's comparative study of alternative sources of energy. This study has considered the safety and environmental effects of nuclear power reactors. Basic concepts of nuclear physics are introduced and providing and appreciation of safety considerations and safety aspects of nuclear power plants and the personnel. Radioactive waste management, storage and disposal are also discussed. Natural radiation levels in Sri Lanka are provided as well as information on biological effects of radiation especially occupational exposure licensing procedures for nuclear power plants are outlined strategy for public awareness of nuclear power is proposed.

1988-01-01

176

Cryptogenic cirrhosis is the leading cause for listing for liver transplantation in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hepatitis B and C are rare in Sri Lanka. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is increasing in the country. Eighty-one patients referred for liver transplantation (LT) over a period of 18 months were prospectively evaluated. Ninety-two percent (n = 74) were males. Cryptogenic cirrhosis was the leading indication for LT (58 %, n = 47) followed by alcohol in 27 % (n = 33). Hepatitis B and C were not seen in our cases. The liver biochemistry and clinical status of cirrhosis were similar in cryptogenic and alcoholic cirrhotics. Fourteen patients died while waiting for transplant, and nine transplants were performed. Cryptogenic cirrhosis is the leading cause for LT in Sri Lanka.

Siriwardana RC; Niriella MA; Liyanage CA; Wijesuriya SR; Gunathilaka B; Dassanayake AS; De Silva HJ

2013-09-01

177

Biomass fuel use for cooking in Sri Lanka: analysis of data from national demographic health surveys.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Biomass cooking fuel is the main source of indoor air pollution in the majority of households in the developing world. Sri Lanka is an island of about 20 million population with urban, rural, and estate population of 14.6%, 80.0%, and 5.4%, respectively. This study describes biomass fuel use for cooking in Sri Lanka. METHODS: We analyzed data from two national Demographic Health Surveys (2000 and 2007) to identify the use and determinants of cooking fuels in Sri Lankan households. The results are based on a sample of 8,169 households in 2000 and 19,862 households in 2007. RESULTS: Wood was the principal cooking fuel used in 78.3% and 78.5% of households in 2000 and 2007, respectively. In 2007, 96.3% of estate sector households used firewood as compared to 84.2% in the rural and 34.6% in the urban sectors. Similar trends were noted in 2000 as well. CONCLUSIONS: The shift from firewood to cleaner fuels in Sri Lanka is negligible from 2000 to 2007. Improving the quality of life of the population does not necessarily predict a shift towards the use of cleaner cooking fuels in Sri Lanka.

Nandasena S; Wickremasinghe AR; Sathiakumar N

2012-12-01

178

Genetic profile of 11 autosomal STR loci among the four major ethnic groups in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Allele frequencies and statistical parameters of forensic interest are presented for 11 autosomal microsatellites (CSF1PO, TPOX, TH01, D16S539, D13S317, D7S820, F13A, F13B, FESFPS, vWA and LPL) of four ethnic groups in Sri Lanka. A total of 513 unrelated individuals from Sinhalese, Sri Lankan Tamil, Indian Tamil and Sri Lankan Moor population groups were included. Sri Lanka is an island with a multi-ethnic population whose genetic composition has not been previously studied at the ethnic group level. All the 11 microsatellites were found to be highly polymorphic, with the combined power of exclusion being greater than 0.99999, in all four ethnic groups. Overall data analysis suggests that a single combined genetic database could be used for genetic-based identification purposes for the four ethnic groups.

Illeperuma RJ; Mohotti SN; De Silva TM; Fernandopulle ND; Ratnasooriya WD

2009-06-01

179

Genetic profile of 11 autosomal STR loci among the four major ethnic groups in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Allele frequencies and statistical parameters of forensic interest are presented for 11 autosomal microsatellites (CSF1PO, TPOX, TH01, D16S539, D13S317, D7S820, F13A, F13B, FESFPS, vWA and LPL) of four ethnic groups in Sri Lanka. A total of 513 unrelated individuals from Sinhalese, Sri Lankan Tamil, Indian Tamil and Sri Lankan Moor population groups were included. Sri Lanka is an island with a multi-ethnic population whose genetic composition has not been previously studied at the ethnic group level. All the 11 microsatellites were found to be highly polymorphic, with the combined power of exclusion being greater than 0.99999, in all four ethnic groups. Overall data analysis suggests that a single combined genetic database could be used for genetic-based identification purposes for the four ethnic groups. PMID:19414153

Illeperuma, Ruwan J; Mohotti, Samudi N; De Silva, Thilini M; Fernandopulle, Neil D; Ratnasooriya, W D

2008-11-28

180

Molecular characterization of cyanobacterial diversity in Lake Gregory, Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

Eutrophication or the process of nutrient enrichment of stagnant waters due to excessive use of fertilizer is becoming a critical issue worldwide. Lake Gregory, an artificial lake situated in Nuwara Eliya, Sri Lanka was once a very attractive landscape feature and recreational area attracting a large number of visitors. Rapid urbanization in surrounding areas and the consequent intensification of agricultural and industrial activities led to eutrophication and siltation in the lake. Present study was conducted to detect cyanobacterial diversity and their ability to produce hepatotoxic microcystins using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. Twenty five water samples (surface and bottom) were collected from the lake and total nitrogen and total carbon were estimated. Cyanobacterial cultures were grown in appropriate media and microscopic observations were used to determine the morphological diversity of cyanobacteria isolated from different sites. Genomic DNA was isolated and purified from cyanobacteria using Boom's method. DNA samples were analyzed by PCR with oligonucleotide primers for 16S rRNA gene and mcyA gene of the operon that encodes a microcystin synthetase. The 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed the presences of cyanobacteria belong to Synechococcus sp., Microcystis aeruginosa, Calothrix sp., Leptolyngbya sp., Limnothrix sp., order Oscillatoriales and order Chroococcales. The sequences obtained from this study were deposited in the database under the accession numbers (GenBank: GU368104-GU368116). PCR amplification of mcyA primers indicated the potential for toxin formation of isolated M. aeruginosa from Lake Gregory. This preliminary study shows that the Lake Gregory is under the potential risk of cyanobacterial toxicity. Clearly more work is needed to extend this finding and clarify if other cyanobacterial isolates have genetic potential to produce microcystin since this lake is utilized for recreational activities.

Magana-Arachchi, Dhammika; Wanigatunge, Rasika; Liyanage, Madhushankha

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
181

Heavy metals in Ratnapura alluvial gem sediments, Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

The valuable gems in Sri Lanka are found from the sedimentary gem deposits in Ratnapura District, which are found as alluvial deposits some are about >50 m deep. Gem bearing gravel layer is taken out from the mine, washed by panning to recover the gem minerals in the heavy mineral fraction, is a common practice in the gem mining area. Gem bearing sediment layer is associated with different heavy minerals in which different trace metals as Co, Cr, Cu, Al, Zr, Pb and As also can be present. During panning, the sediment is washed away and the heavy metals attached to the sediments are released into the environment. Hence we studied the lability and bioavailability of arsenic and other heavy metals from the gem sediments. Sediment samples were collected from 15 small scale gem mines (3 soil layers- top, gem mineral layer and layer below gem bearing gravel layer), air dried and sieved to obtain 150 mg/kg), Cu (>150 mg/kg), Pb (>400 mg/kg), Zn (>600 mg/kg) and Co ions (>100 mg/kg). Arsenite in the gem sediments were low and recorded as Co>Zn>Mn>Ni>Cu>Pb. Sediments from few gem pits showed considerably high concentrations of metals analyzed. In some places Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn reported high in bioavailable fractions 70, 25, 20, 10 mg/kg respectively. Mobilization of these metals may increase due to changes in the pH and the presence of other ions in the environment. High concentrations of toxic metals in exchangeable and bioavailable fractions indicate the risk on plant and animals as well as the open water bodies and groundwater sources.

Vithanage, M. S.; Hettiarachchi, J. K.; Rajapaksha, A. U.; Wijesekara, H.; Hewawasam, T.

2011-12-01

182

Introduction of Web based Continuous Professional Development to Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Continuous Professional Development (CPD) can be described as a continuous process which begins on the day a person start practicing as a doctor. Continuous Medical Education (CME) concentrates on improving individual professional knowledge by education and training in areas determined by experts. But in CPD, professionals play an active role in defining the knowledge which they see as relevant to their own professional needs and learning takes place not only at individual level but also at organisational level. CPD is becoming a popular mode of learning worldwide by which doctors keep their practice up to-date. CPD is seen as essential for effective practice and for professional development. Even though the standard format of CPD for many years has been formal, there is no specific method in operation. Over the last decade there has been increasing interest in the use of computers to facilitate collaborative learning between healthcare professionals for CPD. Web-based learning is an attractive methodology for medical education and offers some advantages over traditional methods. There is improved clinical practice and improved clinical decision making as a result of web based learning. Professionals are satisfied with the ?exibility and the convenience offered in Web-based mode of CPD delivery as it saves time and money. Web based CPD programmes will fulfil the educational requirements of health professionals in the peripheral parts of Sri Lanka who have difficulty in attending formal education sessions due to their geographical isolation. Meeting the educational needs of professionals already in practice remains a challenge and web based online CPD can play a major role in proving the high demand.

Gumindu Garuka Kulatunga; Rohana Basil Marasingha; Indika Mahesh Karunathilake; Vajira H.W. Dissanayake

2013-01-01

183

Descriptive study of chronic calcific pancreatitis in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To describe the potential risk factors, clinical features, biochemical and radiological features, and management of chronic calcific pancreatitis. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Tertiary care general hospital. PATIENTS: Fifty patients with pancreatic calcification referred to the Colombo South Teaching Hospital, and 50 age-matched controls from healthy relatives or friends of the patients. MEASUREMENT: Height and weight measurements, immunoreactive insulin levels and trypsin levels of duodenal aspirates were estimated. Plain abdominal xray and ultrasonography were performed. INTERVENTION: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP) was attempted on all patients during which duodenal aspirates were collected. Success rates of ERCP and response to endotherapeutic procedures were recorded. RESULTS: Twenty two of the 50 chronic calcific pancreatitis (CP) patients were diagnosed to have chronic alcoholic calcific pancreatitis (CACP). Mean age of the CACP patients was significantly higher than that of the chronic calcific pancreatitis of the tropics (CCPT) patients. Severe malnutrition (BMI < 20), frequent consumption of Manihot esculenta (manioc, cassava) and a high consumption of chilli or pepper were identified as possible risk factors for both alcoholic and non-alcoholic CP. Onset of diabetes occurred at a much younger age in the CCPT group than in the CACP group. Mean serum insulin was significantly higher in the CCPT group than in the CACP group and duodenal trypsin level was significantly lower in the CCPT than in CACP group. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the existence of both alcoholic (CACP) and non-alcoholic (CCPT) types of chronic calcific pancreatitis in Sri Lanka. A larger study is required to confirm the associated risk factors such as Manihot esculenta and foods with a high content of chilli or pepper.

de Silva M; Selliah S; Thabrew I

2005-03-01

184

Are consultants in Colombo, Sri Lanka satisfied with their job?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Job stress and job satisfaction play a key role in the work environment of an organization. These influence the behaviour of a doctor towards his or her co-workers, administration and, most importantly towards the patients. Objective: To assess job stress among consultants working in Colombo group of hospitals and to identify the factors that affect job satisfaction. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted by using postal questionnaire on 262 consultants working in Colombo group of hospitals. Hospital consultants job stress and job satisfaction questionnaire developed by Amanda Ramirez et al. was used with their permission. Results: Of the 262 questionnaires mailed 171 were returned. Of total responded 84.6% reported extremely satisfied or satisfied with their work. Nearly 92% agreed intellectual stimulation by teaching contributed to their job satisfaction. Nearly 80% reported having a high level of responsibility, being perceived to do the job well by the colleagues, being able to bring about positive changes to the unit, having a high level of autonomy contributed to their job satisfaction. Poor administration and lack of facilities e.g. computers, filing procedures caused job stress in 73%. Threat of being sued for malpractice or having to deal with distressed relatives did not contribute to stress in nearly 80%. Conclusion: In Sri Lanka nearly 85% consultants reported they were satisfied with their job and teaching medical undergraduates and post graduates was one of the major contributory factors. However 73% indicated factors such as lack of resources, and poor administration cause stress at work. Providing computers and basic stationery for patient documentation and efficient and effective administration will improve the work output of consultants by reducing their stress levels.

S. Cooray; K. Wijewardene; A. Dawson

2012-01-01

185

Differences in Selected Lifestyle Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease Between Sri Lankans in Oslo, Norway, and in Kandy, Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sri Lankans in Oslo have previously been shown to have lower risk of cardiovascular disease compared with those in Kandy, Sri Lanka. Here we present lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular diseases: frequency and type of fat consumed, frequency of fruit and vegetable intake, alcohol consumption, and leisure time physical activity between 1145 Sri Lankans living in Oslo and 678 Tamils and Sinhalese Sri Lankans living in Kandy as possible explanatory factors for the differences observed. Those in Oslo were consuming healthier fats and reported higher levels of physical activity but frequency of vegetable and fruit consumption was lower. Alcohol consumption among women was negligible. Type of fats consumed might be protective for Oslo group compared with predominantly saturated fat diet in Kandy. Higher leisure time physical activity may also be protective for the Oslo group. Higher frequency of consumption of vegetables and fruits may be beneficial in Kandy.

Tennakoon SU; Kumar BN; Meyer HE

2013-05-01

186

A cost effectiveness analysis of the preferred antidotes for acute paracetamol poisoning patients in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Acute paracetamol poisoning is a rapidly increasing problem in Sri Lanka. The antidotes are expensive and yet no health economic evaluation has been done on the therapy for acute paracetamol poisoning in the developing world. The aim of this study is to determine the cost effectiveness of using N-acetylcysteine over methionine in the management of acute paracetamol poisoning in Sri Lanka. METHODS: Economic analysis was applied using public healthcare system payer perspective. Costs were obtained from a series of patients admitted to the National Hospital of Sri Lanka with a history of acute paracetamol overdose. Evidence on effectiveness was obtained from a systematic review of the literature. Death due to hepatotoxicity was used as the primary outcome of interest. Analysis and development of decision tree models was done using Tree Age Pro 2008. RESULTS: An affordable treatment threshold of Sri Lankan rupees 1,537,120/death prevented was set from the expected years of productive life gained and the average contribution to GDP. A cost-minimisation analysis was appropriate for patients presenting within 10 hours and methionine was the least costly antidote. For patients presenting 10-24 hours after poisoning, n-acetylcysteine was more effective and the incremental cost effectiveness ratio of Sri Lankan rupees 316,182/life saved was well under the threshold. One-way and multi-way sensitivity analysis also supported methionine for patients treated within 10 hours and n-acetylcysteine for patients treated within 10-24 hours as preferred antidotes. CONCLUSIONS: Post ingestion time is an important determinant of preferred antidotal therapy for acute paracetamol poisoning patients in Sri Lanka. Using n-acetylcysteine in all patients is not cost effective. On economic grounds, methionine should become the preferred antidote for Sri Lankan patients treated within 10 hours of the acute ingestion and n-acetylcysteine should continue to be given to patients treated within 10-24 hours.

Senarathna SM; Sri Ranganathan S; Buckley N; Fernandopulle R

2012-01-01

187

Agency's technical co-operation programme with Sri Lanka 1983-1993 country programme summaries.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Sri Lanka carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme ev...

1993-01-01

188

Conflict, War and Peace in Sri Lanka – Politics by Other Means?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For decades, Sri Lanka has been a laboratory for research and scholarship on ethnic conflict, liberal peacebuilding and civil war. Methodologically, this pre-war academic work laments the risks of applying simplified “episode based approaches” and narrow theoretical frameworks leading to a...

Jayasundara-Smits, S.M.S.

189

In the eye of the storm: Sri Lanka's front-line civil servants in transition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article narrates how bureaucrats in eastern Sri Lanka operated during and after the war. They managed to keep minimal state services running whilst being locked between the government and the insurgent Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). When the government defeated the LTTE in 2009, civil...

Klem, Bart

190

Perceptions and understanding of climate change in Sri Lanka : a case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A citizen's organization in Sri Lanka is conducting a study on current perceptions and attitudes of climate change in a small village in southern Sri Lanka just 100 km north of the capital city of Colombo. The study involves 500 villagers, of which the majority are farmers. While not yet completed, several interesting facts are emerging from this study. The 65,610 sq. km island of Sri Lanka is divided into two distinct climate regions, the wet and dry zones. The mean temperature of the island ranges from 26 to 28 degrees C. Rainfall occurs during the southwest and northeast monsoons. The three main factors for climatic change in Sri Lanka are depressions in the Bay of Bengal, intermonsoonal rain, and deforestation. A total of 500 households were given a questionnaire which was divided into the following 4 sections: (1) socio-economic situation of the household, (2) impacts of climate change, (3) behavioural intentions for actions to reduce the advance impacts of climate change, and (4) ideas about public policies to address climate change. Group discussions were also held to allow villagers to express their voices and raise questions. The study indicates that the villagers have a comprehensive perception about climate change issues in their community (experience gained by flash floods), but have less knowledge about climate change issues in the country. Many villagers believe that political intervention is necessary for any effective climate policy to emerge.

Patabendi, P. [Team for Disaster Prevention and Sustainable Development, Kaduwela (Sri Lanka)

2000-06-01

191

Soil moisture variability and its possible impact on the atmosphere : A case in Sri Lanka ?????????????????? : ???????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Time series analyses of soil moisture, rainfall, air temperature and other hydrometeorological components observed at inland area of Sri Lanka in 1994 were carried out. Auto-correlation analysis gives a time scale from 10 to 30 days as persistency of soil moisture anomaly, which is considerably smal...

Yamanaka, Tsutomu; Kaihotsu, Ichirow; Shimada, Jun; Nandakumar, Vythilingam; ??, ?; ??, ??; ??, ?

192

Greenhouse gas emission mitigation in the Sri Lanka power sector supply side and demand side options  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sri Lanka has had a hydropower dominated electricity generation sector for many years with a gradually decreasing percentage contribution from hydroresources. At the same time, the thermal generation share has been increasing over the years. Therefore, the expected fuel mix in the future in the large scale thermal generation system would be dominated by petroleum products and coal. This will result in a gradual increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) and other environmental emissions in the power sector and, hence, require special attention to possible mitigation measures. This paper analyses both the supply side and demand side (DSM) options available in the Sri Lanka power sector in mitigating emissions in the sector considering the technical feasibility and potential of such options. Further, the paper examines the carbon abatement costs associated with such supply side and DSM interventions using an integrated resource planning model, which is not used in Sri Lanka at present. The sensitivities of the final generation costs and emissions to different input parameters, such as discount rates, fuel prices and capital costs, are also presented in the paper. It is concluded that while some DSM measures are economically attractive as mitigation measures, all the supply side options have a relatively high cost of mitigation, particularly in the context of GHG emission mitigation. Further it is observed that when compared with the projected price of carbon under different global carbon trading scenarios, these supply side options cannot provide economically beneficial CO{sub 2} mitigation in countries like Sri Lanka. (author)

Wijayatunga, P.D.C. [University of Moratuwa (Sri Lanka). Centre for Energy Studies; Fernando, W.J.L.S. [Sri Lanka Energy Managers Association, Colombo (Sri Lanka); Shrestha, R.M. [Asian Inst. of Technology, Pathumthani (Thailand). Energy Program

2003-12-01

193

Peasant in transition : agrarian society in Western Sri Lanka under Dutch rule, 1740-1800  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis investigates the structural changes in the agrarian society in Western parts of Sri Lanka as seen in the mid and late eighteenth century in the context of the encounter with the Dutch United East India Company (VOC) administration. It attempts to understand the developments in the period...

Dewasiri, Nirmal Ranjith

194

Internally displaced persons remaining in camps : A case study of internally displaced persons in Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ABSTRACT Internally displaced persons remaining in camps - who are they, why do they stay? A case study of internally displaced persons in Sri Lanka Essay in Political Science C, by Rebecka Johansson, fall 2004 This essay is a case study of internally displaced persons in camps in the district of Va...

Johansson, Rebecka

195

Housing anxiety and multiple geographies in post-tsunami Sri Lanka.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tsunami intervention has been an extraordinary and unprecedented relief and recovery operation. This article underlines the complexities posed by shelter and housing intervention in post-tsunami Sri Lanka, revealing a pragmatic, reductionist approach to shelter and housing reconstruction in a contes...

Boano, C

196

Mathematics Performance and Principal Effectiveness: A Case Study of Some Coastal Primary Schools in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

|This mixed method research study is situated in the school effectiveness research paradigm to examine the correlation between the effectiveness of urban, primary school principals and their students' performance in mathematics. Nine, urban, primary schools from Negombo, a coastal fishing area in Sri Lanka, were selected; their student…

Egodawatte, Gunawardena

2012-01-01

197

Research on corruption in Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Tanzania and Uganda. What, who and where?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report provides an overview of corruption-related literature from five of Norway's priority partner countries in the developing world; i.e. Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Tanzania and Uganda. Both published and unpublished studies are included. The five countries have been selected on the basis ...

Andvig, Jens Chr.; Fjeldstad, Odd-Helge

198

Sri Lanka - energy situation 1981/82. BfAI-Marktinformation. Reihe MI-BS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy situation of Sri Lanka is reviewed on the basis of some relevant data. Its energy policy is commented on, and developments in electric power generation are described as well as the trends observed for the various energy sources. Figures are given on external trade.

1982-12-01

199

Use of induced mutations for crop improvement programmes in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The use of radiation induced mutations is an effective additional tool for plant breeding work in Sri Lanka. Mutation Breeding could be effectively utilized to create favourable specific changes such as short culms, 90o resistance to pests and diseases, improvement in grain quality etc

1989-01-01

200

Dutch and British colonial intervention in Sri Lanka c. 1780 - 1815 : Expansion and reform.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study examines the colonial intervention in Sri Lanka at the end of the Eighteenth century, when British rule replaced Dutch rule on the island. It focuses on the local reforms in the Dutch administration and policymaking on the island prior to the take-over and the various ways in which the Bri...

Schrikker, Alicia Frederika

 
 
 
 
201

The Victoria Project, Sri Lanka: Victoria Power-Station. [Hydroelectric power  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Victoria Hydroelectric Power-Station forms part of the Victoria Project on the Mahaweli Ganga in Sri Lanka and it provides the country's largest single power source. The Paper describes the planning, design and construction of the civil engineering works, including problems encountered, and also describes, in outline, the electrical and mechanical works. (Author).

Creber, B. (Sir Alexander Gibb and Partners (GB))

1991-04-01

202

Molecular Detection and Partial Characterization of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus in Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV) is an important plant virus on one of the economically most important vegetable crops; tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). This had not been molecularly detected before, in Sri Lanka. TYLCV-GN-SL was isolated from apparently infected tomato plants using modified Cetyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) method in Gannoruwa. Associated Begomoviruses were detected using Deng 541/Deng 540 and AV 494/AC 1048 primer pairs. TYLCV was detected for the first time in tomato in Sri Lanka using P1V/P4C, TYLCV specific primer pair. Nucleotide sequence of coat protein of isolated TYLCV-GN-SL proved that the Indian strain of ToLC virus was closely related to Tomato Leaf Curl Sri Lanka Virus (TLCV-SL: 97%) and Tomato leaf curl Geminivirus (TLCGV: 93%) through direct sequencing data. TLCV-SL was confirmed as TYLCV isolate. TYLCV was molecularly detected from major tomato growing districts like Badulla, Nuwara-Eliya, Kandy and Matale in Sri Lanka.

S.A.M.C. Samarakoon; A. Balasuriya; R.G.A.S. Rajapaksha; W.A.R.T. Wickramarachchi

2012-01-01

203

Greenhouse gas emission mitigation in the Sri Lanka power sector supply side and demand side options  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sri Lanka has had a hydropower dominated electricity generation sector for many years with a gradually decreasing percentage contribution from hydroresources. At the same time, the thermal generation share has been increasing over the years. Therefore, the expected fuel mix in the future in the large scale thermal generation system would be dominated by petroleum products and coal. This will result in a gradual increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) and other environmental emissions in the power sector and, hence, require special attention to possible mitigation measures. This paper analyses both the supply side and demand side (DSM) options available in the Sri Lanka power sector in mitigating emissions in the sector considering the technical feasibility and potential of such options. Further, the paper examines the carbon abatement costs associated with such supply side and DSM interventions using an integrated resource planning model, which is not used in Sri Lanka at present. The sensitivities of the final generation costs and emissions to different input parameters, such as discount rates, fuel prices and capital costs, are also presented in the paper. It is concluded that while some DSM measures are economically attractive as mitigation measures, all the supply side options have a relatively high cost of mitigation, particularly in the context of GHG emission mitigation. Further it is observed that when compared with the projected price of carbon under different global carbon trading scenarios, these supply side options cannot provide economically beneficial CO2 mitigation in countries like Sri Lanka.

2003-01-01

204

A case study of the relationship between journalism and politics in Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This bachelor thesis is conducted as a Minor Field Study (MFS) in Colombo, Sri Lanka. The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between journalism and politics from three questions at issue: 1) What is the role of media according to the journalists? 2) How do journalists work with poli...

Westerberg, Isabella

205

Influence of pesticide regulation on acute poisoning deaths in Sri Lanka.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: To assess in a developing Asian country the impact of pesticide regulation on the number of deaths from poisoning. These regulations, which were implemented in Sri Lanka from the 1970s, aimed to reduce the number of deaths - the majority from self-poisoning - by limiting the availability...

Roberts, Darren M.; Karunarathna, Ayanthi; Buckley, Nick A.; Manuweera, Gamini; Sheriff, M. H. Rezvi; Eddleston, Michael

206

Implementation of District Health Information Software 2 (DHIS2) in Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available District Health Information Software (DHIS) 2 is a tool for collection, validation, analysis, and presentation of aggregate and transactional data, tailored (but not limited) to integrated health information management activities (http://www.dhis2.org). In this paper we describe the introduction of DHIS2 to Sri Lanka and share our views on challenges and opportunities.

Subodha Manoj; Arjuna Wijekoon; Manjula Dharmawardhana; Deepal Wijesuriya; Shan Rodrigo; Roshan Hewapathirana; Pandula Siribaddana; Thilina Gunasekera; Vajira H. W. Dissanayake

2013-01-01

207

Recommended Support for Grain Policy Development and Implementation in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study attempts to answer the questions of the problems hampering the development and implementation of a rational grain policy in Sri Lanka in view of potential USAID support. The study is divided into three sections: The initial section focuses on th...

R. Borsdorf D. Anderson D. Anderson

1979-01-01

208

Geographic Structure of Plasmodium vivax: Microsatellite Analysis of Parasite Populations from Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Genetic diversity and population structure of Plasmodium vivax parasites can predict the origin and spread of novel variants within a population enabling population specific malaria control measures. We analyzed the genetic diversity and population structure of 425 P. vivax isolates from Sri Lanka, ...

Gunawardena, Sharmini; Karunaweera, Nadira D.; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Phone-Kyaw, Myatt; Pollack, Richard J.; Alifrangis, Michael

209

Grassroots Empowerment of Women: Portraits of Four Villages in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

|This paper describes a participatory research (PR) project encompassing a capacity-development programme and advocacy skill-building initiative for rural women. The project actively engaged four prominent women's non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Sri Lanka: Agromart Foundation, Centre for Women's Research (CENWOR), Sarvodaya Women's…

Jeris, Laurel; Gajanayake, Jaya; Ismail, Jesima; Ebert, Seela; Peris, Amara; Wanasundara, Leelangi; Diyadawagamage, Nalika

2006-01-01

210

Duty and Service: Life and Career of a Tamil Teacher of English in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

|This article discusses the life and career of a Tamil teacher of English working in the government education system in northern Sri Lanka. Based on data gathered in an extended life history interview, the article explores the teacher's own experiences of schooling, his reasons for entering teaching as a profession, his professional training, and…

Hayes, David

2010-01-01

211

Peace Education in Conflict Zones--Experience from Northern Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

|In September 2005, adult students from Kilinochchi, located in the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)-controlled Wanni region of northern Sri Lanka, were awarded University of Bradford, UK, validated postgraduate certificates or diplomas in conflict resolution and peace preparedness. The diploma is, we think, a landmark in peace education…

Harris, Simon; Lewer, Nick

2008-01-01

212

Exploring the Lives of Non-Native Speaking English Educators in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

|This paper uses in-depth interview data to explore aspects of the lives of non-native speaking English educators working in the state education system in Sri Lanka. In so doing the research focus is on the educators themselves and the paper will discuss such issues as: careers as English teachers--motives for entering teaching, career…

Hayes, David

2005-01-01

213

Air pollution and health in Sri Lanka: a review of epidemiologic studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Air pollution is increasingly documented as a threat to public health in most developing countries. Evaluation of current air quality levels, regulatory standards and scientific literature on outdoor and indoor air pollution, and health effects are important to identify the burden, develop and implement interventions and to fill knowledge gaps in Sri Lanka. Methods PUBMED and Medline databases, local journals and conference proceedings were searched for epidemiologic studies pertaining to air pollution and health effects in Sri Lanka. All the studies pertaining to air pollution and health effects were considered. Results Sixteen studies investigated the association between exposure to ambient or indoor air pollution (IAP) and various health outcomes ranging from respiratory symptoms, low birth weight and lung cancers. Of the sixteen, three used a case control design. Half of the studies collected exposure data only through questionnaires. There were positive associations between air pollution and adverse health effects in all studies. Methodological limitations in most of the studies resulted in poor quantification of risk estimates. Conclusion A limited number of epidemiological studies in Sri Lanka have investigated the health effects of air pollution. Based on findings of studies and reported air quality levels, air pollution may be considered a neglected public health problem in Sri Lanka.

Nandasena Yatagama; Wickremasinghe Ananda R; Sathiakumar Nalini

2010-01-01

214

Genesis of metasomatic sapphirine-corundum-spinel-bearing granulites in Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of the present study is to understand the mechanism of mass transfer, the composition and the role of fluids during crustal metasomatism in high-temperature metamorphic terranes. A well constrained case study, a locality at Rupaha, Sri Lanka was selected. It is located in the Highland Compl...

Fernando, G. W. A. Rohan

215

Species Composition of Odonate Fauna in Meegahawatta, a Wetland Area in Hanwella, Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Approximately 120 species of Odonata (Zygoptera and Anisoptera) have been recorded in SriLanka to date. There are many gaps in our knowledge of Odonata taxonomy and distribution. The presentstudy, therefore, was carried out to investigate adult Odonata species present in Meegahawatta area(1000m2) in...

M.D.H. Lankika; M.M.S.C. Karunaratne; K. Conniff

216

A road map to the end of displacement in Sri Lanka?  

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Full Text Available The Consortium of Humanitarian Agencies (CHA) is anon-profit agency representing those working in thehumanitarian sector in Sri Lanka. Our work on internaldisplacement, the knowledge we have gained and thecapacity we have developed owe much to collaborationwith Roberta Cohen and her Brookings colleagues.

Jeevan Thiagarajah

2006-01-01

217

Histopathological diagnosis of myocarditis in a dengue outbreak in Sri Lanka, 2009  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background In 2009, an outbreak of dengue caused high fatality in Sri Lanka. We conducted 5 autopsies of clinically suspected myocarditis cases at the General Hospital, Peradeniya to describe the histopathology of the heart and other organs. Methods The diagno...

Weerakoon Kosala GAD; Kularatne Senanayake AM; Edussuriya Deepthika H; Kodikara Sarachchandra KA; Gunatilake Laxman PG

218

Role of technology transfer in abating greenhouse gas emissions: the case of Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measures introduced by the Sri Lanka government to reduce energy consumption are outlined. These include introduction of improved cookstoves, promotion of gas use in place of electricity, introduction of efficient lighting, energy management programs in industry, and research into more appropriate agricultural machinery. Self-reliance in energy planning is advocated. Foreign expertise may be needed to initiate a process but emphasis is put on eventual transition to national staffing. The article outlines Sri Lanka`s foreign investment policy. It then describes the efforts made so far to improve the efficiency of lighting systems in households, together with details of costs and benefits of a possible state sponsored or private sector funded popularization programme for efficient lighting systems. 1 fig.

Gnanalingam, K.; Siyambalapitiya, T. [Sri Lanka Energy Managers Association, Colombo (Sri Lanka)

1994-12-31

219

Antivenom for snakebite envenoming in Sri Lanka: the need for geographically specific antivenom and improved efficacy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sri Lanka is a tropical developing island nation that endures significant economic and medical burden as a result of snakebite envenomation, having not only a high prevalence of envenomations, but also one of the highest incidence rates (200 snakebites/100,000 people/year) of venomous snakebite in the world (Kasturiratne et al., 2005). Ironically, the very snakes responsible for this human morbidity and mortality are a valuable biomedical and ecological national resource, despite the medical and economic consequences of envenomation. Currently, no snake antivenom is produced using venoms from native Sri Lankan snakes as immunogens, and there is a true need for an efficacious Sri Lanka, poly-specific snake antivenom. An approach to fulfilling this need via combining the scientific, technological and economical resources from Costa Rica and the United States with the knowledge and talent of Sri Lankan official governmental agencies, legal counsels, environmental, medical and veterinary academic institutions, and religious and cultural leaders has been initiated, coordinated and funded by Animal Venom Research International (AVRI), a nonprofit charity. This bridging of nations and the cooperative pooling of their resources represents a potential avenue for antivenom development in a developing country that suffers the consequences of few specific resources for the medical management of venomous snakebite. The desired final outcome of such an endeavor for Sri Lanka is, most importantly, improved medical outcomes for snakebite patients, with enhanced and expanded science and technology relating to snake venoms and antivenoms, and the collateral benefits of reduced economic cost for the country.

Keyler DE; Gawarammana I; Gutiérrez JM; Sellahewa KH; McWhorter K; Malleappah R

2013-07-01

220

Assessing sloth bears as surrogates for carnivore conservation in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

Bears are large, charismatic mammals whose presence often garners conservation attention. Because healthy bear populations typically require large, contiguous areas of habitat, land conservation actions often are assumed to benefit co-occurring species, including other mammalian carnivores. However, we are not aware of an empirical test of this assumption. We used remote camera data from 2 national parks in Sri Lanka to test the hypothesis that the frequency of detection of sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) is associated with greater richness of carnivore species. We focused on mammalian carnivores because they play a pivotal role in the stability of ecological communities and are among Sri Lanka's most endangered species. Seven of Sri Lanka's carnivores are listed as endangered, vulnerable, or near threatened, and little empirical information exists on their status and distribution. During 2002–03, we placed camera traps at 152 sites to document carnivore species presence. We used Poisson regression to develop predictive models for 3 categories of dependent variables: species richness of (1) all carnivores, (2) carnivores considered at risk, and (3) carnivores of least conservation concern. For each category, we analyzed 8 a priori models based on combinations of sloth bear detections, sample year, and study area and used Akaike's information criterion (AICc) to test our research hypothesis. We detected sloth bears at 55 camera sites and detected 13 of Sri Lanka's 14 Carnivora species. Species richness of all carnivores showed positive associations with the number of sloth bear detections, regardless of study area. Sloth bear detections were also positively associated with species richness of carnivores at risk across both study years and study areas, but not with species richness of common carnivores. Sloth bears may serve as a valuable surrogate species whose habitat protection would contribute to conservation of other carnivores in Sri Lanka.

Ratnayeke, Shyamala; van Manen, Frank T.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Genus-level phylogeny of snakes reveals the origins of species richness in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Snake diversity in the island of Sri Lanka is extremely high, hosting at least 89 inland (i.e., non-marine) snake species, of which at least 49 are endemic. This includes the endemic genera Aspidura, Balanophis, Cercaspis, Haplocercus, and Pseudotyphlops, which are of uncertain phylogenetic affinity. We present phylogenetic evidence from nuclear and mitochondrial loci showing the relationships of 40 snake species from Sri Lanka (22 endemics) to the remaining global snake fauna. To determine the phylogenetic placement of these species, we create a molecular dataset containing 10 genes for all global snake genera, while also sampling all available species for genera with endemic species occurring in Sri Lanka. Our sampling comprises five mitochondrial genes (12S, 16S, cyt-b, ND2, and ND4) and five nuclear genes (BDNF, c-mos, NT3 RAG-1, and RAG-2), for a total of up to 9582bp per taxon. We find that the five endemic genera represent portions of four independent colonizations of Sri Lanka, with Cercaspis nested within Colubrinae, Balanophis in Natricinae, Pseudotyphlops in Uropeltidae, and that Aspidura+Haplocercus represents a distinct, ancient lineage within Natricinae. We synonymize two endemic genera that render other genera paraphyletic (Haplocercus with Aspidura, and Cercaspis with Lycodon), and discover that further endemic radiations may be present on the island, including a new taxon from the blindsnake family Typhlopidae, suggesting a large endemic radiation. Despite its small size relative to other islands such as New Guinea, Borneo, and Madagascar, Sri Lanka has one of the most phylogenetically diverse island snake faunas in the world, and more research is needed to characterize the island's biodiversity, with numerous undescribed species in multiple lineages.

Pyron RA; Kandambi HK; Hendry CR; Pushpamal V; Burbrink FT; Somaweera R

2013-03-01

222

Malaria control and elimination in Sri Lanka: documenting progress and success factors in a conflict setting.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Sri Lanka has a long history of malaria control, and over the past decade has had dramatic declines in cases amid a national conflict. A case study of Sri Lanka's malaria programme was conducted to characterize the programme and explain recent progress. METHODS: The case study employed qualitative and quantitative methods. Data were collected from published and grey literature, district-level and national records, and thirty-three key informant interviews. Expenditures in two districts for two years--2004 and 2009--were compiled. FINDINGS: Malaria incidence in Sri Lanka has declined by 99.9% since 1999. During this time, there were increases in the proportion of malaria infections due to Plasmodium vivax, and the proportion of infections occurring in adult males. Indoor residual spraying and distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets have likely contributed to the low transmission. Entomological surveillance was maintained. A strong passive case detection system captures infections and active case detection was introduced. When comparing conflict and non-conflict districts, vector control and surveillance measures were maintained in conflict areas, often with higher coverage reported in conflict districts. One of two districts in the study reported a 48% decline in malaria programme expenditure per person at risk from 2004 to 2009. The other district had stable malaria spending. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Malaria is now at low levels in Sri Lanka--124 indigenous cases were found in 2011. The majority of infections occur in adult males and are due to P. vivax. Evidence-driven policy and an ability to adapt to new circumstances contributed to this decline. Malaria interventions were maintained in the conflict districts despite an ongoing war. Sri Lanka has set a goal of eliminating malaria by the end of 2014. Early identification and treatment of infections, especially imported ones, together with effective surveillance and response, will be critical to achieving this goal.

Abeyasinghe RR; Galappaththy GN; Smith Gueye C; Kahn JG; Feachem RG

2012-01-01

223

Life threatening intracerebral haemorrhage following saw- scaled viper (Echis carinatus) envenoming-authenticated case report from Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Echis carinatus (Saw scaled viper {SSV}) is a venomous snake found in the parts of Middle East and Central Asia. SSV envenoming is characterized by local swelling and coagulopathy. Various bleeding manifestations are commonly seen with SSV envenoming. In contrast to other part of Asia, saw scale viper envenoming has not been reported to cause life threatening haemorrhagic manifestations in Sri Lanka. Case presentation We report a 19 years old healthy boy who developed massive left temporo-parietal intra cerebral haemorrhage following Echis carinatus (Saw scaled viper) bite in Sri Lanka. Conclusion Although subspecies of SSV in Sri Lanka is regarded as a ‘non lethal venomous snake’, the occurrence of rare potentially fatal complications such as intracerebral haemorrhage should be considered in their management. This case report is intended to bring the awareness of this fatal complication of SSV envenoming in Sri Lanka.

2013-01-01

224

Life threatening intracerebral haemorrhage following saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) envenoming--authenticated case report from Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Echis carinatus (Saw scaled viper {SSV}) is a venomous snake found in the parts of Middle East and Central Asia. SSV envenoming is characterized by local swelling and coagulopathy. Various bleeding manifestations are commonly seen with SSV envenoming. In contrast to other part of Asia, saw scale viper envenoming has not been reported to cause life threatening haemorrhagic manifestations in Sri Lanka. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 19 years old healthy boy who developed massive left temporo-parietal intra cerebral haemorrhage following Echis carinatus (Saw scaled viper) bite in Sri Lanka. CONCLUSION: Although subspecies of SSV in Sri Lanka is regarded as a 'non lethal venomous snake', the occurrence of rare potentially fatal complications such as intracerebral haemorrhage should be considered in their management. This case report is intended to bring the awareness of this fatal complication of SSV envenoming in Sri Lanka.

Fonseka CL; Jeevagan V; Gnanathasan CA

2013-01-01

225

Current Status of Marine Snakes from Jaffna Peninsula, Sri Lanka with Description of Hitherto Unrecorded Hydrophis fasciatus fasciatus (Schneider, 1799)  

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Full Text Available As only a few study reported on sea snakes of Sri Lanka, a study was undertaken from June 2003 to November 2004 in the coast of Jaffna Peninsula which lies in the Northern part of Sri Lanka. Out of the 121 specimens examined, 9 species under 5 genera in two families were documented in the coastal waters of both Valvettiturai to Point Pedro and the Jaffna lagoon waters. This includes Hydrophis fasciatus fasciatus which is no longer known in Sri Lanka increased the number of Hydrophis species to 8, thus the total number of sea snakes inhabiting the coastal waters of Sri Lanka become 14 in Hydrophiidae. Of the sea snakes collected, Lapemis curtus (33.88%) and Praescutata viperina (23.97%) were the commonly recorded species. Least recorded species were H. lapemoides, H. fasciatus fasciatus, Kerilia jerdonii jerdonii and Acrochordus granulatus (0.83, 0.83, 2.47 and 2.47%, respectively).

S. Abyerami; K. Sivashanthini

2008-01-01

226

Leishmanization revisited: immunization with a naturally attenuated cutaneous Leishmania donovani isolate from Sri Lanka protects against visceral leishmaniasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by Leishmania protozoa and associated with three main clinical presentations: cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis is the second most lethal parasitic disease after malaria and there is so far no human vaccine. Leishmania donovani is a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in South East Asia and Eastern Africa. However, in Sri Lanka, L. donovani causes mainly cutaneous leishmaniasis, while visceral leishmaniasis is rare. We investigate here the possibility that the cutaneous form of L. donovani can provide immunological protection against the visceral form of the disease, as a potential explanation for why visceral leishmaniasis is rare in Sri Lanka. Subcutaneous immunization with a cutaneous clinical isolate from Sri Lanka was significantly protective against visceral leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice. Protection was associated with a mixed Th1/Th2 response. These results provide a possible rationale for the scarcity of visceral leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka and could guide leishmaniasis vaccine development efforts.

McCall LI; Zhang WW; Ranasinghe S; Matlashewski G

2013-02-01

227

Sri Lanka president lubab sõjalõksus riiki tänapäeva tuua / Allan Espenberg  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Presidendivalimistest Sri Lankal. Uus president Mahinda Rajapaksa on valmis kohtuma tamilite mässu juhtidega ning arutama rahu taastamise võimalusi. Presidendi eesmärgid. Lisa: Pommirünnakud poliitikute vastu

Espenberg, Allan

2005-01-01

228

Challenging knowledge hierarchies: working toward sustainable development in Sri Lanka's energy sector  

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Full Text Available This paper analyzes sustainable development practices within Sri Lanka’s energy sector. It directs attention to how expertise functions in development decision making in ways that can unintentionally inhibit sustainable development. Understanding expertise as merely specialized knowledge clouds its role as a social activity. In practice, expertise is a combination of knowledge and authority, and expert knowledge exists within a hierarchically ordered authority structure of diverse knowledge domains—what is referred to here as “knowledge hierarchies.” Knowledge hierarchies exclude the participation of some relevant knowledge domains, and thereby preclude the possibility of local sustainable development. The Energy Forum of Sri Lanka, a small renewable energy advocacy organization, strives to enable sustainability by going beyond facile calls for greater inclusion to confront the mechanisms of exclusion. The paper documents three of the Energy Forum’s development interventions intended to level out the knowledge hierarchy that inhibits sustainable energy development in Sri Lanka. Drawing insights from the Energy Forum’s approach, the paper argues that experts who wish to contribute to sustainable development must attend to the knowledge hierarchies in which they operate to ensure that their own authority does not exclude other relevant knowledge domains.

Dean Nieusma

2007-01-01

229

A morphologically distinct Phlebotomus argentipes population from active cutaneous leishmaniasis foci in central Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although the reported aetiological agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sri Lanka is Leishmania donovani, the sandfly vector remains unknown. Ninety-five sandflies, 60 females and 35 males, collected in six localities in the district of Matale, central Sri Lanka, close to current active transmission foci of CL were examined for taxonomically relevant characteristics. Eleven diagnostic morphological characters for female sandflies were compared with measurements described for Indian and Sri Lankan sandflies, including the now recognised Phlebotomus argentipes sensu lato species complex. The mean morphometric measurements of collected female sandflies differed significantly from published values for P. argentipes morphospecies B, now re-identified as Phlebotomus annandalei from Delft Island and northern Sri Lanka, from recently re-identified P. argentipes s.s. sibling species and from Phlebotomus glaucus. Furthermore, analysis of underlying variation in the morphometric data through principal component analysis also illustrated differences between the population described herein and previously recognised members of the P. argentipes species complex. Collectively, these results suggest that a morphologically distinct population, perhaps most closely related to P. glaucus of the P. argentipess. I. species complex, exists in areas of active CL transmission. Thus, research is required to determine the ability of this population of flies to transmit cutaneous leishmaniasis.

Ranasinghe S; Maingon RD; Bray DP; Ward RD; Udagedara C; Dissanayake M; Jayasuriya V; de Silva NK

2012-05-01

230

A morphologically distinct Phlebotomus argentipes population from active cutaneous leishmaniasis foci in central Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Although the reported aetiological agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sri Lanka is Leishmania donovani, the sandfly vector remains unknown. Ninety-five sandflies, 60 females and 35 males, collected in six localities in the district of Matale, central Sri Lanka, close to current active transmission foci of CL were examined for taxonomically relevant characteristics. Eleven diagnostic morphological characters for female sandflies were compared with measurements described for Indian and Sri Lankan sandflies, including the now recognised Phlebotomus argentipes sensu lato species complex. The mean morphometric measurements of collected female sandflies differed significantly from published values for P. argentipes morphospecies B, now re-identified as Phlebotomus annandalei from Delft Island and northern Sri Lanka, from recently re-identified P. argentipes s.s. sibling species and from Phlebotomus glaucus. Furthermore, analysis of underlying variation in the morphometric data through principal component analysis also illustrated differences between the population described herein and previously recognised members of the P. argentipes species complex. Collectively, these results suggest that a morphologically distinct population, perhaps most closely related to P. glaucus of the P. argentipess. I. species complex, exists in areas of active CL transmission. Thus, research is required to determine the ability of this population of flies to transmit cutaneous leishmaniasis.

Shalindra Ranasinghe; Rhaiza DC Maingon; Daniel P Bray; Richard D Ward; Chandani Udagedara; Manel Dissanayake; Vathsala Jayasuriya; Nissanka K de Silva

2012-01-01

231

A morphologically distinct Phlebotomus argentipes population from active cutaneous leishmaniasis foci in central Sri Lanka  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Although the reported aetiological agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sri Lanka is Leishmania donovani, the sandfly vector remains unknown. Ninety-five sandflies, 60 females and 35 males, collected in six localities in the district of Matale, central Sri Lanka, close to current active transmission foci of CL were examined for taxonomically relevant characteristics. Eleven diagnostic morphological characters for female sandflies were compared with measurements descri (more) bed for Indian and Sri Lankan sandflies, including the now recognised Phlebotomus argentipes sensu lato species complex. The mean morphometric measurements of collected female sandflies differed significantly from published values for P. argentipes morphospecies B, now re-identified as Phlebotomus annandalei from Delft Island and northern Sri Lanka, from recently re-identified P. argentipes s.s. sibling species and from Phlebotomus glaucus. Furthermore, analysis of underlying variation in the morphometric data through principal component analysis also illustrated differences between the population described herein and previously recognised members of the P. argentipes species complex. Collectively, these results suggest that a morphologically distinct population, perhaps most closely related to P. glaucus of the P. argentipess. I. species complex, exists in areas of active CL transmission. Thus, research is required to determine the ability of this population of flies to transmit cutaneous leishmaniasis.

Ranasinghe, Shalindra; Maingon, Rhaiza DC; Bray, Daniel P; Ward, Richard D; Udagedara, Chandani; Dissanayake, Manel; Jayasuriya, Vathsala; Silva, Nissanka K de

2012-05-01

232

The influence of gender, ethnicity, class, race, the women's and labour movements on the development of nursing in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The paper reveals that historically various socio-political factors, including gender, class, ethnicity, race, waves of colonization, decolonization, the civil and ethnic wars, the women's and labour movements, have influenced the development of nursing in Sri Lanka. However, literature presenting the development of nursing in Sri Lanka is sparse. All relevant journals and books published in the English and Sinhalese languages on nursing in Sri Lanka between the years 1878-2011 were examined. Because there are no nursing journals currently produced in Sri Lanka, CINAHL and Medline databases were accessed and relevant literature published in the English language on Sri Lanka was examined. Government, nurses' union and association reports, other unpublished reports and websites such as Google were also searched to access information related to the influence of gender, race, class, ethnicity, women's and labour movements in Sri Lanka. Poor pay, shortages of resources, failure in recruitment and retention and limited opportunity for career progression have acted as deterrents to persons entering and remaining in the nursing profession. Being non-British was a key issue in terms of race. Further, the shift from a colonized state to a welfare state resulted in a class shift from upper middle class to middle and lower class persons entering into nursing. Although there is a paucity of information available in the nursing literature, this analysis offers an intriguing insight into an angle that may be used to examine the influence of gender, ethnicity, class, race and the women's and labour movements in other contextual situations.

Aluwihare-Samaranayake D; Paul P

2013-06-01

233

Preliminary investigation of genetic characterization of native and endemic fowl types of Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus gallus) is generally considered to be main ancestor of the domestic fowl (Callus domesticus). However, it is also believed that other wild Callus species might have contributed to the modern genetic make-up of the domestic fowl, one wild species being the Ceylon Jungle Fowl (Gallus lafayetti), endemic to Sri Lanka, which could have contributed to the domestic stock of Sri Lankan native poultry. The present study was conducted in order to investigate the origin of native fowl in Sri Lanka and to establish genetic relationships among them and the Ceylon Jungle Fowl. Morphological characters of endemic, indigenous and exotic fowl types were recorded. These included Ceylon Jungle fowl; eleven types of native chicken from Sri Lanka; and two exotic chicken breeds (Cornish and Rhode Island Red). Blood samples were collected for DNA extraction. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was carried out using sixteen non-specific primers. The results of morphological characterization revealed many variations in plumage and colour pattern. Single and pea comb types were found in both native and exotic types of chicken. A prominent yellow colour marking on a red comb was a unique feature in Ceylon Jungle fowl. The presence of white spots in red earlobes was a distinguishing feature of all native chicken types. Sixteen non-specific primers were used in the study, and produced 22 polymorphic bands ranging from 500 to 1960 bp. Genetic similarity indices ranged from 0.5 to 1.1 in average genetic distance scale, indicating a broad genetic base in the samples studied. Cluster analysis revealed a clear separation of Ceylon Jungle Fowl from all other types studied, indicating that contribution in data analysis, and the Director and staff, National Zoological Gardens, Sri Lanka, for their help in sampling Ceylon Jungle Fowl. (author)

2005-01-01

234

EXPLORING GOOD PRACTICE KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER RELATED TO POST TSUNAMI HOUSING (RE-)CONSTRUCTION IN SRI LANKA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sri Lanka was badly affected by the tsunami that occurred on 26th December 2004. The tsunami destroyed about two-thirds of the Sri Lankan coastline and affected more than 1,000,000 people. It does not only affected the lives of the community, but also had a devastating effect on their housing and livelihoods. The overall loss of 100,000 or more houses due to the tsunami proved to be a major challenge to the emergency response teams and disaster planners. Although several major disasters of varying magnitudes have occurred in the world, the body of knowledge related to post-disaster housing reconstruction and rehabilitation appears fragmented and poorly integrated. This paper attempts to fill this theoretical gap by focusing on the extent to which good practice knowledge transfer helps in overcoming this problem for more effective and efficient delivery of post-tsunami housing in Sri Lanka. The paper applied knowledge transfer principles within the context of the two housing reconstruction strategies employed in post-tsunami housing reconstruction in Sri Lanka; namely donor-driven housing and owner driven housing. The results of this study reveal that the knowledge transfer within this context cannot be simply copied and inserted from one context without any localisation. Therefore, the paper proposes a high-level abstraction of the core principles of community engagement through participatory techniques associated with appropriate capacity and capability building techniques that will enable the various stakeholders to create a new application to suit the appropriate context of the transfer destination (post-tsunami context in Sri Lanka).

Bingunath Ingirige; Richard Haigh; Chamindi Malalgoda; Roshani Palliyaguru

2008-01-01

235

Sri Lanka in global medical research: a scientific analysis of the Sri Lankan research output during 2000-2009.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Scientific research is an essential component in guiding improvements in health systems. There are no studies examining the Sri Lankan medical research output at international level. The present study evaluated the Sri Lankan research performance in medicine as reflected by the research publications output between years 2000-2009. METHODS: This study was based on Sri Lankan medical research publication data, retrieved from the SciVerse Scopus® from January 2000 to December 2009. The process of article selection was as follows: Affiliation - 'Sri Lanka' or 'Ceylon', Publication year - 'January 2000 to December 2009' and Subject area - 'Life and Health Sciences'. The articles identified were classified according to disease, medical speciality, institutions, major international collaborators, authors and journals. RESULTS: Sri Lanka's cumulative medical publications output between years 2000-2009 was 1,740 articles published in 160 different journals. The average annual publication growth rate was 9.1%. Majority of the articles were published in 'International' (n = 950, 54.6%) journals. Most articles were descriptive studies (n = 611, 35.1%), letters (n-345, 19.8%) and case reports (n = 311, 17.9%). The articles were authored by 148 different Sri Lankan authors from 146 different institutions. The three most prolific local institutions were Universities of; Colombo (n = 547), Kelaniya (n = 246) and Peradeniya (n = 222). Eighty four countries were found to have published collaborative papers with Sri Lankan authors during the last decade. UK was the largest collaborating partner (n = 263, 15.1%).Malaria (n = 75), Diabetes Mellitus (n = 55), Dengue (n = 53), Accidental injuries (n = 42) and Lymphatic filariasis (n = 40) were the major diseases studied. The 1,740 publications were cited 9,708 times, with an average citation of 5.6 per paper. The most cited paper had 203 citations, while there were 597 publications with no citations. The Sri Lankan authors' contribution to the global medical research output during the last decade was only 0.086%. CONCLUSION: The Sri Lankan medical research output during the last decade is only a small fraction of the global research output. There it is a necessity to setup an enabling environment for research, with a proper vision, support, funds and training. In addition, collaborations across the region need to be strengthened to face common regional health challenges.

Ranasinghe P; Jayawardena R; Katulanda P

2012-01-01

236

"Education Is All about Opportunities, Isn't It?": A Biographical Perspective on Learning and Teaching English in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

|In this article, David Hayes explores the language learning and teaching experiences of a teacher of English in Sri Lanka. He shows how the acquisition of English enabled the teacher to access the social capital available to speakers of English, which holds a divisive place in postcolonial Sri Lankan society. In his reflections on his career,…

Hayes, David

2010-01-01

237

Over-a-century-old death investigation system in Sri Lanka: an appraisal for reforms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the death investigation systems in the world are divergent, the prime objective of each system is to certify the cause of death and manner of unnatural and unexplained deaths. In addition, it provides evidence for the purpose of fair administration of justice and data for health sector regulation. Many jurisdictions recently underwent considerable review and made changes to their death investigation systems in accordance with modern innovation in medicine and science. This enhanced the quality of justice in those countries. The death investigation system in Sri Lanka was originally established in 1883 and is a modified model of the British coroners system. However, the system has not undergone significant revisions since then and is confined to an informal traditional framework. The scope of this article was to review the death investigation system in Sri Lanka with a view to amend it in accordance with the current global trends. PMID:23921772

Kodikara, Sarathchandra

2013-09-01

238

Integrated national energy planning and management: methodology and application to Sri Lanka. World Bank technical paper  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Given the importance of energy in modern economies, the first part of the volume is devoted to examining some of the key conceptual and analytical tools available for energy-policy analysis and planning. Policy tools and institutional frameworks that will facilitate better energy management are also discussed. Energy-policy analysis is explained, while effective energy management techniques are discussed to achieve desirable national objectives, using a selected set of policies and policy instruments. In the second part of the volume, the actual application of the principles set out earlier is explained through a case study of Sri Lanka. The monograph integrates the many aspects of the short-term programs already begun with the options for the medium to long term, and ends with the outline of a long-term strategy for Sri Lanka.

Munasinghe, M.; Meier, P.

1988-01-01

239

Distribution pattern of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter (pfcrt) gene haplotypes in Sri Lanka 1996-2006  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract. Widespread antimalarial resistance has been a barrier to malaria elimination efforts in Sri Lanka. Analysis of genetic markers in historic parasites may uncover trends in the spread of resistance. We examined the frequency of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter (pfcrt; codons 72-76) haplotypes in Sri Lanka in 1996-1998 and 2004-2006 using a high-resolution melting assay. Among 59 samples from 1996 to 1998, we detected the SVMNT (86%), CVMNK (10%), and CVIET (2%) haplotypes, with a positive trend in SVMNT and a negative trend in CVMNK frequency (P = 0.004) over time. Among 24 samples from 2004 to 2006, we observed only the SVMNT haplotype. This finding indicates selection for the SVMNT haplotype over time and its possible fixation in the population.

Zhang, Jenny J; Senaratne, Tharanga N

2011-01-01

240

Socio-Environmental Impact of Water Pollution on the Mid-canal (Meda Ela), Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Unplanned urban population growth in developing countries such as Sri Lanka exert pressures on the sectors of water supply, sewage disposal, waste management, and surface drainage in the cities as well as their surrounding areas. The Mid-canal is considered the most polluted surface water body in the Kandy district of Sri Lanka and contributes significantly to pollution of the Mahaweli River. Health problems in the nearby population may well be associated with environmental degradation and related to deteriorated water quality. The overall objectives of this study were to identify the socio-economic status of the community settled along the Meda Ela banks, and to examine the current water quality status of the Meda Ela and possible impacts of the nearby residents on water quality. Additionally, we propose remedial measures concerning wastewater and solid waste disposal to improve environmental conditions in this area.

K. B. S. N. Jinadasa; S. K. I. Wijewardena; Dong Qing Zhang; Richard M. Gersberg; C. S. Kalpage; Soon Keat Tan; Jing Yuan Wang; Wun Jern Ng

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Over-a-Century-Old Death Investigation System in Sri Lanka: An Appraisal for Reforms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although the death investigation systems in the world are divergent, the prime objective of each system is to certify the cause of death and manner of unnatural and unexplained deaths. In addition, it provides evidence for the purpose of fair administration of justice and data for health sector regulation. Many jurisdictions recently underwent considerable review and made changes to their death investigation systems in accordance with modern innovation in medicine and science. This enhanced the quality of justice in those countries. The death investigation system in Sri Lanka was originally established in 1883 and is a modified model of the British coroners system. However, the system has not undergone significant revisions since then and is confined to an informal traditional framework. The scope of this article was to review the death investigation system in Sri Lanka with a view to amend it in accordance with the current global trends.

Kodikara S

2013-09-01

242

Responding to security threats: livelihoods under protracted conflict in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Populations affected by violent conflicts often withstand threats to their security as well as threats to their livelihoods. Their response to the former threats nontrivially affects their response to the latter threats, and vice versa. This paper examines the interplay between protection and livelihood strategies using a sample of households selected from the Anuradhapura district of Sri Lanka. The fieldwork for this study was completed in 2008, producing evidence that the protection and livelihood strategies employed by households affected by the protracted conflict in Sri Lanka are interlaced. In addition, the research discovered that Muslim and Sinhalese households largely responded to the protracted conflict in ways that are unique to their ethnic group. Certain vulnerabilities that impinge on protection and certain opportunities that support livelihoods are shown to be ethnicised. Hence, the final livelihood outcome, which is defined narrowly here as the household's income, also appears to be ethnicised. PMID:24007520

Kulatunga, Sasini T K; Lakshman, Rajith W D

2013-10-01

243

Seva Vanitha Movement of Sri Lanka (Incorporation) Act (No. 10 of 1987), 10 March 1987.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This Act incorporates the Seva Vanitha Movement of Sri Lanka, which was established by the Women's Bureau of Sri Lanka. Among the objectives of the Movement are the following: "a) to maintain a record of current public affairs with particular reference to the interests of women, children and youths so as to ensure their physical, mental, moral, religious and social development and to protect them from exploitation and discrimination; b) to promote cooperation and mutual confidence among all members irrespective of race, religion, language, occupation and political opinion to enable women to act as a single group interested in National Development; c) to ensure that the women actively participate in development activities outside their homes; and d) to conduct surveys and studies and collect data on problems relating to women and children in collaboration with the Women's Bureau, Children's Secretariat and Governmental and nongovernmental agencies."

1987-01-01

244

Responding to security threats: livelihoods under protracted conflict in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Populations affected by violent conflicts often withstand threats to their security as well as threats to their livelihoods. Their response to the former threats nontrivially affects their response to the latter threats, and vice versa. This paper examines the interplay between protection and livelihood strategies using a sample of households selected from the Anuradhapura district of Sri Lanka. The fieldwork for this study was completed in 2008, producing evidence that the protection and livelihood strategies employed by households affected by the protracted conflict in Sri Lanka are interlaced. In addition, the research discovered that Muslim and Sinhalese households largely responded to the protracted conflict in ways that are unique to their ethnic group. Certain vulnerabilities that impinge on protection and certain opportunities that support livelihoods are shown to be ethnicised. Hence, the final livelihood outcome, which is defined narrowly here as the household's income, also appears to be ethnicised.

Kulatunga ST; Lakshman RW

2013-10-01

245

Sri Lanka : un pays qui s’enfonce de nouveau dans la guerre  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Le retrait unilatéral de l’accord de cessez-le-feu par le Président Rajapakse marque le retour officiel à l’état de guerre à Sri Lanka. L’île est meurtrie par les affrontements opposant l’armée gouvernementale aux militants séparatistes tamouls. Les civils se retrouvent encore prisonniers du cynisme des belligérants, qui préfèrent ignorer les répercussions de leurs actes pour arriver à leur fin, quitte à mettre en danger l’harmonie intercommunautaire dans l’île.  President Rajapakse’s decision to withdraw from the cease-fire agreement marks the official return to state of war in Sri Lanka. The island has immensely suffered by clashes between government forces and tamil separatist militants. Once again, the civilians are prisoners of cynicism of belligerents, those prefer ignoring the consequences of their acts to archieve their goal, even if it means endangering intercultural harmony in the island.

Delon Madavan

2008-01-01

246

Preliminary investigation on genetic characterization of native and endemic fowl types in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: Sri Lanka is a tropical island, which shelters a large number and variety of wild as well as domesticated animals. As an oceanic island Sri Lanka has a high percentage of endemic species that have evolved because of the isolation, but they are particularly vulnerable. Its location, astride the sea routes between the east and west throughout the history, has exposed the country to be a recipient of variety of animal species transported throughout the world. This history had made the gene pool of native animals very unique and diverse. In this context native poultry species of Sri Lanka demonstrate an incomparable scenario in evolution of domestic poultry species. According to one of the hypotheses regarding the evolution of poultry, the Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus gallus) is considered as the main ancestor of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus). However, it is also believed that the domestic fowl descent from different ancestral groups, one of which is Ceylon Jungle Fowl. Ceylon Jungle Fowl (Gallus laffeyatti) is endemic to Sri Lanka. Nevertheless, different native fowl types found in Sri Lanka resemble varying characteristics of Asiatic fowl. However, except for the few studies on G. laffeyatti there is hardly any information available on the origin of Sri Lankan native fowl. Also there is only one investigation done so far on the relationship of the Ceylon Jungle Fowl and native fowl population in Sri Lanka. Therefore, the present study was conducted, in order to investigate the origin of native fowl in Sri Lanka and to find out the genetic relationship among them. Observations of morphological characters of endemic, indigenous and exotic fowl types were carried out using Ceylon Jungle fowl, eleven types of native chicken and two exotic chicken breeds (Cornish and Rhode Island Red). Blood samples for DNA extraction were collected from the above three categories of chicken. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis were carried out using sixteen non-specific primers. The results of morphological characterization revealed many variations in plumage color pattern. Single and pea comb types were found in both native and exotic types of chicken. A prominent yellow color marking on red color comb was a unique feature in Ceylon Jungle fowl. In the sample tested only one indigenous chicken type showed feathered shank character. Another distinguishing feature observed was the presence of white spot in red color earlobes of all native chicken types except naked neck type, which is believed to be a cross of exotic and indigenous. Sixteen non-specific primers used in the study produced 22 polymorphic bands ranging from 500 base pair (bp) to 1957.6 bp. There were two monomorphic bands common to all chicken types tested. Genetic similarity coefficient detected according to Noeingen Index ranged from 0.5 to 1.1 indicating a wide genetic base of tested samples of chicken. According to the results of cluster analysis there was a clear separation of Ceylon Jungle fowl from the other chicken types used in the study. This indicates that there was an early separation and divergent evolution of Ceylon Jungle fowl from all the other domestic chicken types tested. It appears that the contribution of Ceylon Jungle Fowl in development of Sri Lankan native chicken is minute or very marginal. However, the present study was carried out with limited sample size and from the present results it can be confirmed that RAPD is an effective method, though the repeatability is low, in genetic characterization of animal populations with wide genetic basis. (author)

2003-01-01

247

Environmental exposures and their genetic or environmental contribution to depression and fatigue: a twin study in Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background There is very little genetically informative research identifying true environmental risks for psychiatric conditions. These may be best explored in regions with diverse environmental exposures. The current study aimed to explore similarities and differences in such risks contributing to depression and fatigue. Methods Home interviews assessed depression (lifetime-ever), fatigue and environmental exposures in 4,024 randomly selected twins from a population-based register in the Colombo district of Sri Lanka. Results Early school leaving and standard of living showed environmentally-mediated effects on depression, in men. In women, life events were associated with depression partly through genetic pathways (however, the temporal order is consistent with life events being an outcome of depression, as well as the other way around). For fatigue, there were environmentally mediated effects (through early school leaving and life events) and strong suggestions of family-environmental influences. Conclusions Compared to previous studies from higher-income countries, novel environmentally-mediated risk factors for depression and fatigue were identified in Sri Lanka. But as seen elsewhere, the association between life events and depression was partially genetically mediated in women. These results have implications for understanding environmental mechanisms around the world.

Ball Harriet A; Siribaddana Sisira H; Sumathipala Athula; Kovas Yulia; Glozier Nick; McGuffin Peter; Hotopf Matthew

2010-01-01

248

Testimony ceremonies in Asia: integrating spirituality in testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study explores the therapeutic implications of including culturally adapted spiritual ceremonies in the process of testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines. Data were collected through an action research process with Asian mental health and human rights organizations, during which the testimonial method was reconceptualized and modified to include four sessions. In the first two sessions, community workers assist survivors in the writing of their testimony, which is their narrative about the human rights violations they have suffered. In the third session, survivors participate in an honour ceremony in which they are presented with their testimony documents. In the fourth session, the community workers meet with the survivors for a reevaluation of their well-being. The honour ceremonies developed during the action research process came to employ different kinds of symbolic language at each site: human rights (India), religious/Catholic (Sri Lanka), religious/Buddhist (Cambodia), and religious/Moslem (Philippines). They all used embodied spirituality in various forms, incorporating singing, dancing, and religious purification rituals in a collective gathering. We suggest that these types of ceremonies may facilitate an individual's capacity to contain and integrate traumatic memories, promote restorative self-awareness, and engage community support. Additional research is needed to determine the method's applicability in other sociopolitical contexts governed by more Western-oriented medical traditions.

Agger I; Igreja V; Kiehle R; Polatin P

2012-07-01

249

Testimony ceremonies in Asia: integrating spirituality in testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explores the therapeutic implications of including culturally adapted spiritual ceremonies in the process of testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines. Data were collected through an action research process with Asian mental health and human rights organizations, during which the testimonial method was reconceptualized and modified to include four sessions. In the first two sessions, community workers assist survivors in the writing of their testimony, which is their narrative about the human rights violations they have suffered. In the third session, survivors participate in an honour ceremony in which they are presented with their testimony documents. In the fourth session, the community workers meet with the survivors for a reevaluation of their well-being. The honour ceremonies developed during the action research process came to employ different kinds of symbolic language at each site: human rights (India), religious/Catholic (Sri Lanka), religious/Buddhist (Cambodia), and religious/Moslem (Philippines). They all used embodied spirituality in various forms, incorporating singing, dancing, and religious purification rituals in a collective gathering. We suggest that these types of ceremonies may facilitate an individual's capacity to contain and integrate traumatic memories, promote restorative self-awareness, and engage community support. Additional research is needed to determine the method's applicability in other sociopolitical contexts governed by more Western-oriented medical traditions. PMID:22637721

Agger, Inger; Igreja, Victor; Kiehle, Rachel; Polatin, Peter

2012-05-25

250

Symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescent students; a perspective from Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Sri Lanka recorded an extraordinary high suicide rate for adolescents aged 15 - 19 in the early 1990s (46.5/100,000). With this in perspective, the Ministry of Health in Sri Lanka recommends school programmes for adolescents by mental health units of local hospitals. Methods We conducted cross sectional surveys to screen for symptoms of anxiety and depression among students aged 14 - 18 during school mental health programmes. Two schools were randomly selected within the Ratnapura municipality (urban population of approx. 50,000), Sri Lanka and all students aged 14-18 were assessed with self administered (pre tested, Sinhalese translations) questionnaires [Center for epidemiologic studies depression scale, Anxiety screening test of suicide and mental health association international]. Results A total of 445 students were assessed (male-54.4%, female 45.6%). Thirty six percent screened positive for depression (mild depression-17%, severe depression-19%) and 28% screened positive for severe anxiety. Females screened positive for depression and anxiety significantly more than the males (p = 0.0001, 0.005 respectively). Students in classes facing barrier examinations at the end of the year had the highest positivity rates. Examination related issues (36%) were the most commonly cited problem. Recommendations It is recommended that: 1. School mental health development programmes in Sri Lanka concentrate more on reducing examination related stress, and in particular focus on the female students 2. Policy decisions are made to reduce competition for higher education 3. A nationally coordinated survey on mental health of adolescent students is carried out utilizing the island-wide network of medical officers of mental health.

Rodrigo Chaturaka; Welgama Srina; Gurusinghe Jayantha; Wijeratne Thilina; Jayananda Gamini; Rajapakse Senaka

2010-01-01

251

Implementing a practical fuelwood conservation policy. The case of Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Despite the almost universal recognition of the importance of fuelwood conservation and management in developing countries, the formulation and implementation of practical programmes has proved to be difficult. This paper describes the recent experience in Sri Lanka in establishing a National Fuelwood Conservation Programme (NFCP) within the overall context of a national energy strategy (NES). Among the important factors leading to a workable policy consensus were institutional reforms and the use of simple but plausible models to demonstrate the dire consequences of inaction.

Meier, P.; Munasinghe, M.

1987-04-01

252

Factors controlling January-April rainfall over southern India and Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

Most of the annual rainfall over India occurs during the Southwest (June-September) and Northeast (October-December) monsoon periods. In March 2008, however, Southern peninsular India and Sri Lanka received the largest rainfall anomaly on record since 1979, with amplitude comparable to summer-monsoon interannual anomalies. This anomalous rainfall appeared to be modulated at intraseasonal timescale by the Madden Julian Oscillation, and was synchronous with a decaying La Niña event in the Pacific Ocean. Was this a coincidence or indicative of a teleconnection pattern? In this paper, we explore factors controlling rainfall over southern India and Sri Lanka between January and April, i.e. outside of the southwest and northeast monsoons. This period accounts for 20% of annual precipitation over Sri Lanka and 10% over the southern Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Interannual variability is strong (about 40% of the January-April climatology). Intraseasonal rainfall anomalies over southern India and Sri Lanka are significantly associated with equatorial eastward propagation, characteristic of the Madden Julian Oscillation. At the interannual timescale, we find a clear connection with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO); with El Niños being associated with decreased rainfall (correlation of -0.46 significant at the 98% level). There is also a significant link with local SST anomalies over the Indian Ocean, and in particular with the inter-hemispheric sea surface temperature (SST) gradient over the Indian Ocean (with colder SST south of the equator being conducive to more rainfall, correlation of 0.55 significant at the 99% level). La Niñas/cold SSTs south of the equator tend to have a larger impact than El Niños. We discuss two possible mechanisms that could explain these statistical relationships: (1) subsidence over southern India remotely forced by Pacific SST anomalies; (2) impact of ENSO-forced regional Indian Ocean SST anomalies on convection. However, the length of the observational record does not allow distinguishing between these two mechanisms in a statistically significant manner.

Vialard, J.; Terray, P.; Duvel, J.-P.; Nanjundiah, R. S.; Shenoi, S. S. C.; Shankar, D.

2011-08-01

253

Small wind generators for battery charging in Peru and Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG) have developed a small wind generator (SWG) intended primarily for battery charging in Peru and Sri Lanka. The project is funded mainly by the Department for International Development (DfID) and aims to provide rural households and communities who do not have access to mains electricity with a form of electrification. This paper reports on progress to date and is correct at the time of going to press, but subsequent changes to specifications may occur. (Author)

Dunnett, S. [Intermediate Technology Development Group, Rugby (United Kingdom)

2000-07-01

254

Immune response to hepatitis B vaccine in a group of health care workers in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health care workers (HCWs) are considered at high risk of acquiring the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Seroconversion rates after vaccination against HBV among HCWs have not previously been available in Sri Lanka. In the current study, the response to HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) vaccine was assessed in a selected group of HCWs by testing for antibodies against HBsAg (anti-HBs). This was a retrospective descriptive study to measure the anti-HBs levels, using an ELISA, in an immunized group of HCW referred to Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. Among the 342 participants, 9.9% (n=34) were non-responders. Female participants had a significantly higher immune response (94.7%) than males (p 0.05). Post HBsAg vaccination immunity in HCW in Sri Lanka is similar to that of global rates with similar gender variation. Anti-HBs levels should be tested in all HCW following HBsAg vaccination so that necessary precautions can be taken. PMID:23810225

Chathuranga, L S; Noordeen, F; Abeykoon, A M S B

2013-06-28

255

Geochemical characterization of the Mahawelli River, Sri Lanka, based on basement rock, soil and sediment compositions  

Science.gov (United States)

The geochemistry of river sediments is the product of the combination of many factors and natural processes, including source rock composition, climate, weathering, and sorting. At present few data are available for river sediments in Sri Lanka. To address this, we have examined the provenance, environmental, and geochemical characteristics of sediments from the 335km-long Mahawelli River, which cuts across the wet, intermediate, and dry zone climatic zones of Sri Lanka, in succession. The Mahawelli flows through the Highland Complex, which is characterized by coarse-grained granulite facies metamorphic rocks including charnockites, quartzites, marbles, garnet-gneisses, and granulites. River sediments (n=54) and selected soil (n=22) and basement rock samples (n=38) within the Mahawelli basin were analyzed for As, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, V, Sr, Y, Nb, Zr, Th, Sc, F, Br, I , Cl, Fe2O3, TiO2, MnO, CaO, P2O5 and total sulfur, using a Rigaku RIX-2000 XRF. The results show that Th is strongly correlated with V (0.86, p-value Sri Lanka, Sediments, Geochemistry, Provenance.

Young, S. M.; Ishiga, H.; Pitawala, A.

2010-12-01

256

Isotopic mapping of age provinces in Precambrian high-grade terrains: Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nd model ages of amphibolite- and granulite-grade rocks in Sri Lanka form a simple region pattern that broadly correlates with mappable geological units, and is in effect an isotopic map of the island's basement. The granulite-grade units of the Highland Group and Southwest Group have model ages of 2.2-3.0 Ga indicating derivation mainly from late Archean sources. They are bounded to the east and west by late Proterozoic gneisses of the Vijayan Complex with model ages of 1.1-2.0 Ga. The isotopic data identify three distinct crustal provinces and are not consistent with earlier suggestions that the Vijayan gneisses are retrograde equivalents of the Highland granulites. Sri Lanka is not a direct continuation of the Archean Dharwar Craton of southern India. Identification of Vijayan-type juvenile crustal terrains in other Gondwana fragments may play a key role in determining the precise attachment of southern India-Sri Lanka in eastern Gondwana.

Milisenda, C.C.; Liew, T.C.; Hofmann, A.W.; Kroener, A.

1988-09-01

257

Geographic Structure of Plasmodium vivax: Microsatellite Analysis of Parasite Populations from Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic diversity and population structure of Plasmodium vivax parasites can predict the origin and spread of novel variants within a population enabling population specific malaria control measures. We analyzed the genetic diversity and population structure of 425 P. vivax isolates from Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Ethiopia using 12 trinucleotide and tetranucleotide microsatellite markers. All three parasite populations were highly polymorphic with 3–44 alleles per locus. Approximately 65% were multiple-clone infections. Mean genetic diversity (HE) was 0.7517 in Ethiopia, 0.8450 in Myanmar, and 0.8610 in Sri Lanka. Significant linkage disequilibrium was maintained. Population structure showed two clusters (Asian and African) according to geography and ancestry. Strong clustering of outbreak isolates from Sri Lanka and Ethiopia was observed. Predictive power of ancestry using two-thirds of the isolates as a model identified 78.2% of isolates accurately as being African or Asian. Microsatellite analysis is a useful tool for mapping short-term outbreaks of malaria and for predicting ancestry.

Gunawardena, Sharmini; Karunaweera, Nadira D.; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Phone-Kyaw, Myatt; Pollack, Richard J.; Alifrangis, Michael; Rajakaruna, Rupika S.; Konradsen, Flemming; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H.; Schousboe, Mette L.; Galappaththy, Gawrie N. L.; Abeyasinghe, Rabindra R.; Hartl, Daniel L.; Wirth, Dyann F.

2010-01-01

258

Resistance Towards the Language of Globalisation - The Case of Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper relates the contemporary educational reforms in Sri Lanka to the processes of globalisation. The international monetary organisations such as the IMF and the World Bank and the regional organisations like the Asian Development Bank (ADB) play a dominant role in influencing the debt-receiving countries when it comes to their educational practice. The intensity of the influence of these organisations can vary depending on the existing educational policy of the aid receiving countries. This paper, after a brief introduction on globalisation, examines its effects on the education policy in Sri Lanka with a special emphasis on the current language policy. Equity in education is usually advocated at primary level based on the universal primary education concept so highly upheld by the World Bank. However, the present high human development indicators are undoubtedly due to Sri Lanka's free education policy in native languages. The paper concludes stressing the importance to retain the national education policy as a means of empowerment and liberation of its masses and creating stronger ethnic harmony.

Punchi, Lakshman

2001-07-01

259

A seroepidemiological study of toxocariasis and risk factors for infection in children in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

A seroepidemiology study using TES-ELISA was carried out in 1,020 children aged 1-12 years in the Hindagala Community Health Project, Sri Lanka. Toxocariasis seroprevalence was 43% with 16.6% showing high antibody levels. Unconditional logistic regression analysis showed 7-9 year olds to be at the highest risk (OR 3.0820; CI = 1.95-4.87). Dog ownership, especially puppies (OR 29.28; CI = 7.40-116.0), and geophagia-pica (OR 6.3732; CI = 3.87-10.50), were significant risk factors. Family clustering of toxocariasis was significant (chi2 = 88.000; p = 0.0001). Abdominal pain (45%), cough (30%), limb pain (23%) and skin rashes (20%) were significantly associated with seropositivity indicating that toxocariasis causes covert morbidity. These findings are, overall, applicable to other areas in Sri Lanka. However, in the dry zone, survival of infective eggs in the soil could be affected by the climate while more importantly, in agricultural areas with a high buffalo population, Toxocara vitulorum could account for human toxocariasis. Using a species specific double sandwich ELISA based on 57 kDa protein of T. canis ES antigen, it is demonstrated that 91% of the seropositives were due to T. canis. Thus along with rabies and dirofilariasis, toxocariasis is an important zoonotic health hazard from dogs in Sri Lanka and prevention is indicated. PMID:12971508

Iddawela, Devika R; Kumarasiri, P V R; de Wijesundera, Manel S

2003-03-01

260

A seroepidemiological study of toxocariasis and risk factors for infection in children in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A seroepidemiology study using TES-ELISA was carried out in 1,020 children aged 1-12 years in the Hindagala Community Health Project, Sri Lanka. Toxocariasis seroprevalence was 43% with 16.6% showing high antibody levels. Unconditional logistic regression analysis showed 7-9 year olds to be at the highest risk (OR 3.0820; CI = 1.95-4.87). Dog ownership, especially puppies (OR 29.28; CI = 7.40-116.0), and geophagia-pica (OR 6.3732; CI = 3.87-10.50), were significant risk factors. Family clustering of toxocariasis was significant (chi2 = 88.000; p = 0.0001). Abdominal pain (45%), cough (30%), limb pain (23%) and skin rashes (20%) were significantly associated with seropositivity indicating that toxocariasis causes covert morbidity. These findings are, overall, applicable to other areas in Sri Lanka. However, in the dry zone, survival of infective eggs in the soil could be affected by the climate while more importantly, in agricultural areas with a high buffalo population, Toxocara vitulorum could account for human toxocariasis. Using a species specific double sandwich ELISA based on 57 kDa protein of T. canis ES antigen, it is demonstrated that 91% of the seropositives were due to T. canis. Thus along with rabies and dirofilariasis, toxocariasis is an important zoonotic health hazard from dogs in Sri Lanka and prevention is indicated.

Iddawela DR; Kumarasiri PV; de Wijesundera MS

2003-03-01

 
 
 
 
261

Geographic structure of Plasmodium vivax: microsatellite analysis of parasite populations from Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Genetic diversity and population structure of Plasmodium vivax parasites can predict the origin and spread of novel variants within a population enabling population specific malaria control measures. We analyzed the genetic diversity and population structure of 425 P. vivax isolates from Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Ethiopia using 12 trinucleotide and tetranucleotide microsatellite markers. All three parasite populations were highly polymorphic with 3-44 alleles per locus. Approximately 65% were multiple-clone infections. Mean genetic diversity (H(E)) was 0.7517 in Ethiopia, 0.8450 in Myanmar, and 0.8610 in Sri Lanka. Significant linkage disequilibrium was maintained. Population structure showed two clusters (Asian and African) according to geography and ancestry. Strong clustering of outbreak isolates from Sri Lanka and Ethiopia was observed. Predictive power of ancestry using two-thirds of the isolates as a model identified 78.2% of isolates accurately as being African or Asian. Microsatellite analysis is a useful tool for mapping short-term outbreaks of malaria and for predicting ancestry.

Gunawardena S; Karunaweera ND; Ferreira MU; Phone-Kyaw M; Pollack RJ; Alifrangis M; Rajakaruna RS; Konradsen F; Amerasinghe PH; Schousboe ML; Galappaththy GN; Abeyasinghe RR; Hartl DL; Wirth DF

2010-02-01

262

Pass through Effect of Exchange Rate and Monetary Policy in Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the effectiveness of monetary policy in targeting exchange rate shock between different periods in Sri Lanka. After the trade liberalization in 1977, Sri Lanka became a small open economy. Therefore, monetary policy targeting the exchange rate also became an important issue. Sri Lanka introduced floating exchange rate system in 1990. A Vector Error Correction model and impulse response function were estimated to examine the effectiveness of monetary policy in targeting exchange rate shock for whole period from 1977 to 2007 and also separately for the periods from 1977 to 1990 and from 1990 to 2007. The results show that monetary policy is targeting exchange rate much for recent period but not targeting inflation. Inflation rate was high in the recent period. Central bank was purchasing bonds issued by the government to monetize defense spending and to increase the salaries of government employees in this period for political purpose, hence, leading to inflation and monetary policy distortion. Economic growth may be declined in long term if monetary policy is not operating optimally on targeting inflation and exchange rate.

Sooriyakumar Krishnapillai; Henry Thompson

2012-01-01

263

A survey of odonate assemblages associated with selected wetland localities in southern Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The dragonflies and damselflies are a major insect group (Class Insecta; Order Odonata) associated with water courses. Odonate assemblages with reference to their habitat characters have not been widely studied in Sri Lanka. We have investigated odonate assemblages for a period of three months in selected localities in southern Sri Lanka with reference to the habitat characters. Bundala and Embillakala lagoons in Bundala National Park (A Ramsar wetland in Sri Lanka), “Kirala Kele” Eco-tourism Zone-Matara, Bandaththara marshland system-Matara, “Kirala Kele” Biological Garden-Ambalanthota and Kosgahadola stream which belongs to Mulatiyana Rain forest reserve were selected as study sites since these sites are important in conservation of biodiversity. A total of 28 species were identified during the study period. Our data reveals odonate assemblages specific to the studied habitats such as bushlands, marshlands, lagoons, flowing water bodies, stagnant water bodies and vegetation type (wet zone and dry zone). These data will be useful in future studies and conservation of biodiversity in the studied habitats.

Chandana, E.P.S.; Rajapaksha, A.C.D.; Samarasekara, W.G.K.H.

2012-01-01

264

Ethics of cancer palliative care in Sri Lanka. A cross- cultural perspective.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The diagnosis of cancer is associated with an unexpected breakdown of the physical, psychological and social well being. In addition to cancer related physical outcomes, cross-cultural issues are known to hasten patients’ clinical deterioration and can impact upon orientation as a healthy human being in society. As members of a developing nation in the second world, to provide patient oriented quality care while maintaining high standards of ethical practice, health care workers in Sri Lanka have to be culturally competent. In Sri Lanka, the cross-cultural ethical issues related to patients with a diagnosis of cancer include, awareness of one’s own cultural identity, gaining knowledge of different cultural issues, verbal and non verbal communication skills, respect for patients’ autonomy, involvement of the family and the relatives, addressing moral and spiritual backgrounds, development of effective communication skills and provision of social support. Therefore in the management of cancer patients in Sri Lanka, cultural issues should be given a high priority to maintain ethical standards and quality in palliative care. Culturally competent Health care workers safeguard the rights of patients, as well as providing optimal medical and surgical care.

Dayasiri MBKC

2010-01-01

265

Estimates of dengue force of infection in children in Colombo, Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dengue is the most important vector-borne viral disease worldwide and a major cause of childhood fever burden in Sri Lanka, which has experienced a number of large epidemics in the past decade. Despite this, data on the burden and transmission of dengue virus in the Indian Subcontinent are lacking. As part of a longitudinal fever surveillance study, we conducted a dengue seroprevalence survey among children aged <12 years in Colombo, Sri Lanka. We used a catalytic model to estimate the risk of primary infection among seronegative children. Over 50% of children had IgG antibodies to dengue virus and seroprevalence increased with age. The risk of primary infection was 14.1% per year (95% CI: 12.7%-15.6%), indicating that among initially seronegative children, approximately 1 in 7 experience their first infection within 12 months. There was weak evidence to suggest that the force of primary infection could be lower for children aged 6 years and above. We estimate that there are approximately 30 primary dengue infections among children <12 years in the community for every case notified to national surveillance, although this ratio is closer to 100:1 among infants. Dengue represents a considerable infection burden among children in urban Sri Lanka, with levels of transmission comparable to those in the more established epidemics of Southeast Asia.

Tam CC; Tissera H; de Silva AM; De Silva AD; Margolis HS; Amarasinge A

2013-06-01

266

Information and Communication Technology: A Comparison of Pakistan and Sri-Lanka  

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Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to examine the information and communication technology sector in Pakistan and Sri-Lanka because they are among top five countries in ICT in the South Asian region. The research is helpful for decision makers to channel ICT related resources where they are required the most. ICT oriented data have been collected by International Telecommunication Union but no comparison exists between the countries included in the research. Therefore, the sources of data are ITU who has identified twenty three parameters individually; they have been rearranged under three subjects: ICT infrastructure, usage and economic impact on the economies of the countries concerned. It is found that the infrastructure of Sri-Lanka is better than Pakistan while both countries are using their resources equally. However, the economic impacts are less visible in Pakistan than its counterpart. Overall the ICT score of Sri Lanka is better than Pakistan. It suggests that policy makers in both nations have to rethink to deploy their resources to take maximum benefit as par to the international standards.

Javed Iqbal

2013-01-01

267

Immune response to hepatitis B vaccine in a group of health care workers in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Health care workers (HCWs) are considered at high risk of acquiring the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Seroconversion rates after vaccination against HBV among HCWs have not previously been available in Sri Lanka. In the current study, the response to HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) vaccine was assessed in a selected group of HCWs by testing for antibodies against HBsAg (anti-HBs). This was a retrospective descriptive study to measure the anti-HBs levels, using an ELISA, in an immunized group of HCW referred to Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. Among the 342 participants, 9.9% (n=34) were non-responders. Female participants had a significantly higher immune response (94.7%) than males (p<0.05). The results of the study found no significant decline in the immune response with time (p > 0.05). Post HBsAg vaccination immunity in HCW in Sri Lanka is similar to that of global rates with similar gender variation. Anti-HBs levels should be tested in all HCW following HBsAg vaccination so that necessary precautions can be taken.

Chathuranga LS; Noordeen F; Abeykoon AM

2013-06-01

268

Consultation liaison psychiatry in Sri Lanka: a case for sub-specialisation  

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Full Text Available Liaison psychiatry has not been established in Sri Lanka as a sub-speciality. However many psychiatrists who work in general hospital settings are required to do liaison work. Patterns of referrals to a university psychiatry liaison unit were studied in order to identify the requirements in training for liaison psychiatry in Sri Lanka. A retrospective analysis of records of all new patients registered during a six month period from 1st January 2010 in the liaison unit of the University Psychiatry Unit, Colombo was carried out. A total of 1079 patients were referred to the liaison unit during this period. The commonest reason for referral was assessment of patients who were admitted to medical or surgical wards after deliberate self harm. The variety of clinical conditions referred to liaison units highlight that psychiatry trainees need a broad knowledge of general medicine and a wide repertoire of clinical and other skills to effectively manage their patients. Specialised liaison units should be started in the general hospitals and should form the nucleus for training and establishing the field of consultationliaison psychiatry as a subspecialty in Sri Lanka.

Raveen Hanwella

2010-01-01

269

Inequalities and externalities of power sector: A case of Broadlands hydropower project in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The objective of the paper is to estimate environmental externalities related to a run of river project in Sri Lanka and to investigate inequity in distribution of impacts among different social groups. Diversion of the river resulted in loss of water sports (for high-income groups both local and remote), loss of historical monuments (for remote high-income groups) and recreation losses (for local poor). Removal of forest cover leads to loss of non-timber products (for local poor) and carbon storage (for remote high- and low-income groups). Loss of home garden productivity was borne by local poor groups. Benefit of the project, generation of 145 GWh annually, was a gain for the grid connected groups. The impacts were valued using various valuation methods. The base case of the cost benefit analysis resulted in NPV of US$ 11,335,730. When distributional weights are applied for different income groups, both the sign and magnitude of net benefits change. In order to be viable, the project needs diversion of at least 9% of generated electricity to the poorest households in the country. Implications for energy policy towards reducing externality and inequality impacts are also discussed.

2010-01-01

270

Inequalities and externalities of power sector. A case of Broadlands hydropower project in Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of the paper is to estimate environmental externalities related to a run of river project in Sri Lanka and to investigate inequity in distribution of impacts among different social groups. Diversion of the river resulted in loss of water sports (for high-income groups both local and remote), loss of historical monuments (for remote high-income groups) and recreation losses (for local poor). Removal of forest cover leads to loss of non-timber products (for local poor) and carbon storage (for remote high- and low-income groups). Loss of home garden productivity was borne by local poor groups. Benefit of the project, generation of 145 GWh annually, was a gain for the grid connected groups. The impacts were valued using various valuation methods. The base case of the cost benefit analysis resulted in NPV of US$ 11,335,730. When distributional weights are applied for different income groups, both the sign and magnitude of net benefits change. In order to be viable, the project needs diversion of at least 9% of generated electricity to the poorest households in the country. Implications for energy policy towards reducing externality and inequality impacts are also discussed. (author)

Gunawardena, U.A.D. Prasanthi [Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda (Sri Lanka)

2010-02-15

271

Development of a Community Based Web-Mobile Platform (CBWMP) for diabetes care in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic disease with no permanent cure. Sri Lanka is placed among the countries with the highest diabetes prevalence rates in the world (ie. 2.8 million Sri Lankans have diabetes or pre-diabetes, and most importantly, a significant proportions of the population is yet to be diagnosed). Patients with diabetes need lifelong care to prevent complications which further impose a significant burden on the country’s expenditure on healthcare. Moreover, patients need to maintain constant contact with the healthcare provider for the optimal management of diabetes. However, such arrangement is often costly and time consuming and therefore it ultimately aggravates the burden to patients, the healthcare system and the economy.With the development of telecommunication technologies, Telemedicine (i.e. the use of Information Communication Technology to provide healthcare at a distance) has gained attention. Telemedicine can enhance communication between patient and healthcare provider without needing physical presence in one place. Telemedicine can link healthcare professionals from different corners of the globe to share knowledge and expertise. Moreover, evidence is surfacing to suggest that the telemedicine would be a viable alternative to conventional care.This article showcases a Sri Lankan study which describes the development of a Telemedicine system for Sri Lanka - Community Based Web-Mobile Platform (CBWMP). The concept of the platform is to maintain an electronic Personal Health Record (e-PHR) in order to provide communication between different parties to optimise patient health information flow and also to coordinate the continuity of care at minimal cost. The CBWMP - integrated mobile phones and e-PHR - is capable of delivering diabetes education, co-ordinating effective management, and screening diabetes status. To avoid any cultural marginalisation, all the services can be accessed in the user’s preferred native language in Sri Lanka viz. Sinhala, Tamil, and English.

Nishan Siriwardena; Sudarshana Wickramasinghe; Dussantha Perera; Rohana Marasinghe; Lanka Katulanda; Roshan Hewapathirana

2013-01-01

272

Applicability of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) in the Apparel industry in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Lean Manufacturing can be considered as a business strategy which originated and developed in Japan. It tries to identify waste and eliminate it. Thus it leads to improvement in productivity of manufacturing and service organizations and quality of products leading to a competitive advantage over others. Sri Lankan industries, especially apparel sector have attempted to implement this, but a little research work is carried out in regarding its suitability. This research is an attempt to identify the applicability of one of the most important Lean Manufacturing tool called “Value Stream Mapping (VSM)” for the apparel industry in Sri Lanka. As the initial stage, a literature review was carried out to study Lean Manufacturing and Value Stream Mapping (VSM). Next step was to explore how VSM can be effectively applied in Sri Lankan context. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the applicability of VSM in apparel manufacturing organizations in Sri Lanka using a case-based approach. The research was administered with one of the leading apparel manufacturers in Sri Lanka using personal interviews, secondary data and observations. The current state map was developed after making necessary observations and calculations. Then various improvement proposals had been identified based on Lean Manufacturing theories and the future state map was developed. The findings revealed that VSM can be applied to mass production apparel industries in order to derive positive results such as reducing wastes in inventory and defects. Further, VSM helped the managers of the case company to visualize the different types of wastes generated in the organization and future possibilities of eliminating or reducing them. The findings can be extended to similar apparel organizations in the future.

Silva, S.K.P.N.

2011-01-01

273

Imposing restrictions on pornography: its potential impact and effectiveness in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The government of Sri Lanka recently introduced many measures to limit the accessibility and availability of pornography in the country including censorship of websites containing sexually explicit material and active prosecution of Sri Lankans who appeared on such websites Available evidence suggests that pornographic consumption among Sri Lankan adolescents is considerable and such exposure may influence sexual attitudes and activity including sexual aggression in youth. However the current evidence on the beneficial effects of censorship of pornography is less than convincing. The authors believe that warm, communicative parent-child relationship and open discussion about sexual matters at home and at school could be more effective than restrictive measures such as censorship and punitive legislation.

Ranmali Waduge; Asiri Rodrigo; Upali Peris

2011-01-01

274

Staffing Practices in the Private Sector in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

|Purpose: This paper seeks to present and discuss the findings of a study of staffing practices in the Sri Lankan private sector with particular reference to junior level managerial jobs. The scope of staffing practices consisted of six major areas, namely the usage of information from job analysis in staffing, the sources of labour, selection…

Wickramasinghe, Vathsala

2007-01-01

275

The Text of a Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology. Acceptance of the Agreement by Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 9 March 1976 the Government of Sri Lanka notified the Agency of its acceptance of the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology between the Agency and Member States, in accordance with Section 9 thereof. Pursuant to Section 10, the Agreement consequently entered into force with respect to the Government of Sri Lanka on that date

1976-03-09

276

Numerical Simulation of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami: Case Study of Effect of Sand Dunes on the Spatial Distribution of Inundation in Hambantota, Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The megathrust earthquake of moment magnitude 9.1 – 9.3 on December 26, 2004 unleashed a massive tsunami which devastated the coastal belts of Sri Lanka as well as several other countries bordering the Indian Ocean. Extensive field observations carried out in Sri Lanka in the aftermath of ...

J.J Wijetunge

277

Changing epidemiologic patterns of deliberate self poisoning in a rural district of Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute poisoning is a major public health issue in many parts of the world. The epidemiology and the mortality rate is higher in low and middle income countries, including Sri Lanka. The aim of this study was to provide details about the epidemiology of acute poisoning in a rural Sri Lankan district and to identify the changing patterns and epidemiology of poisoning. Methods A prospective study was conducted from September 2008 to January 2010 in all hospitals with inpatient facilities in Anuradhapura district of North Central Province of Sri Lanka. Acute poisoning data was extracted from patient charts. Selected data were compared to the data collected from a 2005 study in 28 hospitals. Results There were 3813 poisoned patients admitted to the hospitals in the Anuradhapura district over 17 months. The annual population incidence was 447 poisoning cases per 100,000 population. The total number of male and female patients was approximately similar, but the age distribution differed by gender. There was a very high incidence of poisoning in females aged 15–19, with an estimated cumulative incidence of 6% over these five years. Although, pesticides are still the most common type of poison, medicinal drug poisonings are now 21% of the total and have increased 1.6 fold since 2005. Conclusions Acute poisoning remains a major public health problem in rural Sri Lanka and pesticide poisoning remains the most important poison. However, cases of medicinal drug poisoning have recently dramatically increased. Youth in these rural communities remain very vulnerable to acute poisoning and the problem is so common that school-based primary prevention programs may be worthwhile. Lalith Senarathna, Shaluka F Jayamanna, Patrick J Kelly, Nick A Buckley,michael J Dibley, Andrew H Dawson. These authors contributed equally to this work.

Senarathna Lalith; Jayamanna Shaluka F; Kelly Patrick J; Buckley Nick A; Dibley Michael J; Dawson Andrew H

2012-01-01

278

Epidemiology and clinical effects of hump-nosed pit viper (Genus: Hypnale) envenoming in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hump-nosed pit vipers of Genus Hypnale are the commonest cause of snake bite in Sri Lanka. Although there are many reports of local effects, coagulopathy and acute kidney injury, it remains unclear how frequent these clinical effects are and therefore the medical importance of this snake genus. The genus has been recently revised to include Hypnale hypnale from Sri Lanka and Western Ghats of Southern India, and the two endemic species to Sri Lanka, Hypnale zara and Hypnale nepa. This was a prospective hospital-based clinical study of definite Hypnale spp. bites from July 2008 to July 2010 in six Sri Lankan hospitals. There were 114 patients included and all snakes were correctly identified by hospital staff as Hypnale spp. Of these, 93 snakes were identified as H. hypnale by an expert, 16 as H. zara and five as H. nepa. Most bites occurred on the lower limbs in the daytime. There was no difference in the clinical effects between the three species. Pain and fang marks were present in all patients, 101 had local swelling and only 16 (14%) developed extensive local swelling that spread proximally and involved more than half of the bitten limb. Systemic symptoms occurred in 18 patients; four patients had an abnormal 20 min whole blood clotting test and one patient developed an acute kidney injury that required haemodialysis. All patients were discharged alive with a median length of stay of 2 days. This study confirms that hump-nosed viper bites cause only minor effects in most cases. Future studies need to undertake formal coagulation studies and identify important early indicators of renal impairment.

Maduwage K; Isbister GK; Silva A; Bowatta S; Mendis S; Gawarammana I

2013-01-01

279

Prevalence of cryptosporidium and other enteric parasites among wild non-human primates in Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryptosporidiosis is a rapidly emerging disease in the tropics. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium and other protozoan infections (Entamoeba spp., Iodamoeba, Chilomastix, and Balantidium spp.) in wild primates that inhabit the natural forest of Sri Lanka. It is unclear if non-human primates serve as a reservoir for these parasites under certain conditions. A cross-sectional coprologic survey among 125 monkeys (89 toque macaques, 21 gray langurs, and 15 purple-faced langurs) indicated that Cryptosporidium was detected in all three primate species and was most common among monkeys using areas and water that had been heavily soiled by human feces and livestock. Most macaques (96%) shedding Cryptosporidium oocysts were co-infected with other protozoans and important anthropozoonotic gastrointestinal parasites (e.g., Enterobius and Strongyloides). The transmission of these parasites among primates in the wild may have important implications for public health as well as wildlife conservation management. PMID:16474091

Ekanayake, Dilrukshi K; Arulkanthan, Appudurai; Horadagoda, Neil U; Sanjeevani, G K Madura; Kieft, Rudo; Gunatilake, Sunil; Dittus, Wolfgang P J

2006-02-01

280

Relationships between Indian Ocean Sea surface temperature and the rainfall of Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spatial and temporal variations of the sea surface temperature (SST) over the Indian Ocean are examined by using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. The first EOF mode explains 20.54% of the total variance indicating positive values over the study area. The second and third EOF modes explain relatively less contribution, 5.6% and 5.1% of the total variance. A weak positive correlation coefficient is observed between the time coefficients of the first EOF mode of SST anomalies and the time coefficients of the first EOF mode of the rainfall anomalies over Sri Lanka when all months are considered. The positive relationships between SST anomalies of the Pacific and the Indian Oceans and rainfall anomalies of Sri Lanka first appear in March and April, and then gradually build up towards the significant level. In the case of the summer monsoon, Arabian Sea SST's strongly influence the rainfall of Sri Lank, particularly striking in the southwestern quadrant of the island. (8 figs, 4 tabs, 27 refs)

Suppiah, Ramasamy

1988-02-28

 
 
 
 
281

A Qualitative Assessment of the Health Information System in Sri Lanka using HMN assessment tool  

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Full Text Available Informed decisions are better decisions. Unfortunately, sound information is rarely available in low-income developing countries. Health Metrics Network (HMN) is the first global health partnership that focuses on strengthening a country’s health information system (HIS). Sri Lanka is one of the countries that are supported by HMN to strengthen the health information system. To do this HMN has developed a framework that provides a comprehensive approach to improving the health information system and has developed tools to assess and plan a country’s health information system. Sri Lankan National Health Information System was assessed using the Health Information System (HIS) assessment tool developed by the HMN. The assessments were conducted through national and provincial level stakeholder workshops and individual expert group interviews. The assessments identified gaps in the health information system in reference to HMN gold standards particularly in areas such as data management and resource available for the health information system. However in-depth analysis is needed to identify the gaps and the causes that contribute to it to develop a good health information systems strategic plan for Sri lanka.

Mohamed H Abusayeed; Rasika G.V. Rampatige; S. L. Peiris Mail; H. Galappathi

2010-01-01

282

The influence of gender, ethnicity, class, race, the women's and labour movements on the development of nursing in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper reveals that historically various socio-political factors, including gender, class, ethnicity, race, waves of colonization, decolonization, the civil and ethnic wars, the women's and labour movements, have influenced the development of nursing in Sri Lanka. However, literature presenting the development of nursing in Sri Lanka is sparse. All relevant journals and books published in the English and Sinhalese languages on nursing in Sri Lanka between the years 1878-2011 were examined. Because there are no nursing journals currently produced in Sri Lanka, CINAHL and Medline databases were accessed and relevant literature published in the English language on Sri Lanka was examined. Government, nurses' union and association reports, other unpublished reports and websites such as Google were also searched to access information related to the influence of gender, race, class, ethnicity, women's and labour movements in Sri Lanka. Poor pay, shortages of resources, failure in recruitment and retention and limited opportunity for career progression have acted as deterrents to persons entering and remaining in the nursing profession. Being non-British was a key issue in terms of race. Further, the shift from a colonized state to a welfare state resulted in a class shift from upper middle class to middle and lower class persons entering into nursing. Although there is a paucity of information available in the nursing literature, this analysis offers an intriguing insight into an angle that may be used to examine the influence of gender, ethnicity, class, race and the women's and labour movements in other contextual situations. PMID:22515570

Aluwihare-Samaranayake, Dilmi; Paul, Pauline

2012-04-20

283

Re-discovery of Pouch bearing sheath tailed bat Saccolaimus saccolaimus Temminck (Chiroptera: Emballonuridae) from Sri Lanka after 75 years  

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Full Text Available Saccolaimus saccolaimus Temminck, 1838, was first collected by the Museum of Natural History of Sri Lanka in the year 1919 and the first published record of this bat was in 1935 by W.W.A. Philips, though specimens were collected at various times for the collection of the Natural History Museum of Sri Lanka. However, after 1936 there were no records of the species, though, several surveys were conducted on the bat fauna of the island. The species had not been reported since, and was considered as Data Deficient according to latest literature. Here we report on its re-discovery.

Ranil P. Nanayakkara; Nilantha Vishvanath; T. G. Tharaka Kusuminda

2012-01-01

284

Tele-Genetics: Using Low Cost Internet Technology to Provide Genetic Consultations to Rural Areas in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Tele-medicine is still in its infancy in Sri Lanka and its implementation in the country has been slow due to high cost of infrastructure. Tele-genetics is a simple tele-medicine project implemented in June 2006 using low cost feely available technology and infrastructure aimed at taking clinical genetic services confided to Colombo to rural areas of Sri Lanka. We report here the implementation of this project and its successes and failures over the past two years.

VHW Dissanayake; D Nisansala; S Sandamal; RW Jayasekara

2010-01-01

285

An alternative approach for Chemical Restraint of Domesticated Elephants in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) represents one of the most seriousendangered species. Capturing and domestication of these wild elephantscan be considered as one of the measures of elephant conservation.Domesticated elephants play a major role during festival processions in SriLanka. However, there is always a risk of getting panic and disobeying ofthese animals to the mahout's order. Self-Tranquilizer was invented toovercome the constraint such as difficulty of reaching and targeting theelephant in a crowded area, prolong loading time of the tranquilizer drug etc,experienced when palmer cap-chur gun is used. Current study was mainlybased on data collected through primary survey and experimental form.Target people of the study were, elephant owners and senior officersattached to Wild Life Department of Sri Lanka. Data were collected usingstructural questionnaire which included general information about captiveelephant management. Survey was concluded that approximately 115 oftamed elephants were rared in the Sri Lanka. Objective of this study was todo a feasibility assessment about Self-Tranquilizer as a safe, reliable anduser friendly method to tranquilize elephants during festive processions.Novel device of the “Self- Tranquilizer was experimented by using the deadelephant's skin. Mechanical background of this machine was fullytelephone operated. Major important part of this machine was auto-plunger.The auto-plunger can be used as a proper “Intramuscular drugadministrating” device. This machine was prepared to fix on the neck of theelephant. In any elephant was out of control, the veterinary surgeon cantranquilize the elephants just by dialing the secrete mobile number that isassigned to the particular elephant. “Self- Tranquilizer” found to beimportant to regain and safeguard the public confidence and safety,respectively.

Sumanasiri, W.G.C.S.B.; Gamika A. Prathapsinghe

2009-01-01

286

Trends and determinants of childhood stunting and underweight in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Child undernutrition is a major risk factor for child mortality and adult ill-health. Despite substantial progress in most health indicators, undernutrition remains high in Sri Lanka, with recent trends being unclear, owing to methodological differences in national surveys. METHODS: This study uses data from the 1987, 1993, 2000 and 2006-07 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and the 2009 Nutrition and Food Security Survey (NFSS) to investigate trends and determinants of child undernutrition in Sri Lanka. The prevalence rates of stunting, underweight and wasting were re-estimated using the 2006 WHO growth standards to ensure consistency. Multivariate regression analysis was then undertaken to analyse the determinants of height-forage in children aged 9-23 months, and 24-59 months, and the relative impact of key factors was assessed using prediction models. RESULTS: Stunting and wasting substantially improved from 1987 to 2000, but rates stagnated from 2000 to 2006/07. Whilst economic inequalities in under nutrition were greater than in most other countries, the multivariate analysis found that maternal height, household wealth, length of breast-feeding and altitude are significant determinants of stunting, but differences in child feeding practices and other factors were not. Of these, maternal height and household wealth had the most influence. CONCLUSION: The results are consistent with the finding that food insecurity is the main driver of undernutrition, but more research is required to validate this. The strong relationship of child height with maternal height suggests that epigenetic factors, proxied by short maternal height, constrain the applicability of the WHO growth standards in Sri Lanka.

Rannan-Eliya RP; Hossain SM; Anuranga C; Wickramasinghe R; Jayatissa R; Abeykoon AT

2013-03-01

287

Information support for health information management in regional Sri Lanka: health managers' perspectives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Good management, supported by accurate, timely and reliable health information, is vital for increasing the effectiveness of Health Information Systems (HIS). When it comes to managing the under-resourced health systems of developing countries, information-based decision making is particularly important. This paper reports findings of a self-report survey that investigated perceptions of local health managers (HMs) of their own regional HIS in Sri Lanka. Data were collected through a validated, pre-tested postal questionnaire, and distributed among a selected group of HMs to elicit their perceptions of the current HIS in relation to information generation, acquisition and use, required reforms to the information system and application of information and communication technology (ICT). Results based on descriptive statistics indicated that the regional HIS was poorly organised and in need of reform; that management support for the system was unsatisfactory in terms of relevance, accuracy, timeliness and accessibility; that political pressure and community and donor requests took precedence over vital health information when management decisions were made; and use of ICT was unsatisfactory. HIS strengths included user-friendly paper formats, a centralised planning system and an efficient disease notification system; weaknesses were lack of comprehensiveness, inaccuracy, and lack of a feedback system. Responses of participants indicated that HIS would be improved by adopting an internationally accepted framework and introducing ICT applications. Perceived barriers to such improvements were high initial cost of educating staff to improve computer literacy, introduction of ICTs, and HIS restructure. We concluded that the regional HIS of Central Province, Sri Lanka had failed to provide much-needed information support to HMs. These findings are consistent with similar research in other developing countries and reinforce the need for further research to verify causes of poor performance and to design strategic reforms to improve HIS in regional Sri Lanka.

Ranasinghe KI; Chan T; Yaralagadda P

2012-01-01

288

Sociodemographic factors associated with aggressive driving behaviors of 3-wheeler taxi drivers in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Little is known about the nature and scope of aggressive driving in developing countries. The objective of this study is to specifically examine the sociodemographic factors associated with aggressive driving behavior among 3-wheeler taxi drivers in Sri Lanka. Convenience samples of 3-wheeler taxi drivers from Rathnapura, Ahaliyagoda, Sri Lanka were surveyed from June to August 2006. Analyses included bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Drivers with less than high school education were 3.5 times more likely to drive aggressively (odds ratio [OR] = 3.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 11.1). Single drivers were 9 times more likely to run red lights (OR = 8.74; 95% CI = 2.18, 35.0), and being single was a major risk factor for drunk driving (OR = 4.80; 95% CI = 1.23, 18.7). Furthermore, high school completers were 4 times more likely to bribe a policeman (OR = 4.27; 95% CI = 1.23, 14.9) when caught violating the road rules. Aggressive driving and risk-taking behavior are amenable to policy initiatives, and preventive programs targeted at key groups could be used to improve road safety in Sri Lanka. This study demonstrates that aggressive driving behavior is associated with sociodemographic factors, including the level of education, marital status, and other socioeconomic factors. Hence, economic factors should be addressed to find solutions to traffic-related issues. It will be the government's and policy makers' responsibility to try and understand the economic factors behind risky road behavior and bribe-taking behavior prior to legislating or enforcing new laws.

Akalanka EC; Fujiwara T; Desapriya E; Peiris DC; Scime G

2012-01-01

289

Sociodemographic factors associated with aggressive driving behaviors of 3-wheeler taxi drivers in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about the nature and scope of aggressive driving in developing countries. The objective of this study is to specifically examine the sociodemographic factors associated with aggressive driving behavior among 3-wheeler taxi drivers in Sri Lanka. Convenience samples of 3-wheeler taxi drivers from Rathnapura, Ahaliyagoda, Sri Lanka were surveyed from June to August 2006. Analyses included bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Drivers with less than high school education were 3.5 times more likely to drive aggressively (odds ratio [OR] = 3.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 11.1). Single drivers were 9 times more likely to run red lights (OR = 8.74; 95% CI = 2.18, 35.0), and being single was a major risk factor for drunk driving (OR = 4.80; 95% CI = 1.23, 18.7). Furthermore, high school completers were 4 times more likely to bribe a policeman (OR = 4.27; 95% CI = 1.23, 14.9) when caught violating the road rules. Aggressive driving and risk-taking behavior are amenable to policy initiatives, and preventive programs targeted at key groups could be used to improve road safety in Sri Lanka. This study demonstrates that aggressive driving behavior is associated with sociodemographic factors, including the level of education, marital status, and other socioeconomic factors. Hence, economic factors should be addressed to find solutions to traffic-related issues. It will be the government's and policy makers' responsibility to try and understand the economic factors behind risky road behavior and bribe-taking behavior prior to legislating or enforcing new laws. PMID:20685667

Akalanka, Ediriweera Chintana; Fujiwara, Takeo; Desapriya, Ediriweera; Peiris, Dinithi C; Scime, Giulia

2010-08-03

290

Prolonged internal displacement and common mental disorders in Sri Lanka: the COMRAID study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Evidence is lacking on the mental health issues of internally displaced persons, particularly where displacement is prolonged. The COMRAID study was carried out in year 2011 as a comprehensive evaluation of Muslims in North-Western Sri Lanka who had been displaced since 1990 due to conflict, to investigate the prevalence and correlates of common mental disorders. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among a randomly selected sample of internally displaced people who had migrated within last 20 years or were born in displacement. The total sample consisted of 450 adults aged 18-65 years selected from 141 settlements. Common mental disorders (CMDs) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalences were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire and CIDI sub-scale respectively. RESULTS: The prevalence of any CMD was 18.8%, and prevalence for subtypes was as follows: somatoform disorder 14.0%, anxiety disorder 1.3%, major depression 5.1%, other depressive syndromes 7.3%. PTSD prevalence was 2.4%. The following factors were significantly associated with CMDs: unemployment (odds ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval 1.6-4.9), widowed or divorced status (4.9, 2.3-10.1) and food insecurity (1.7, 1.0-2.9). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study investigating the mental health impact of prolonged forced displacement in post-conflict Sri Lanka. Findings add new insight in to mental health issues faced by internally displaced persons in Sri Lanka and globally, highlighting the need to explore broader mental health issues of vulnerable populations affected by forced displacement.

Siriwardhana C; Adikari A; Pannala G; Siribaddana S; Abas M; Sumathipala A; Stewart R

2013-01-01

291

Estimation of N-2 Fixation in four tropical leguminous trees in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] DiNitrogen-fixing capacity of four species of leguminous trees of Sri Lanka (Abarema bigemina, Adenanthera bicolor, Humboldtia laurifolia and Pericopsis mooniana) by analyzing their xylem sap and by taking acetylene reducyion (AR) measurements of nodulated roots of all species, except A.bicolor which had no nodules. Based on the results of the study on P.mooniana, a method to determine the C2H2/N2 conversion factor by analysing the total NH2 compounds is being developed

1993-01-01

292

Report on work done in Sri Lanka [Management of water hyacinth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The main emphasis of the work in Sri Lanka during the period under review has been on: the collection of available information on the biology of the plant and attempts to gain a more complete understanding of the biology by direct observation and experimentation; the study of the ecology of the plant with special reference to its competition with the other prevalent aquatic weeds in this country, viz Salvinia molesta; the study of the fauna and flora associated with the plant with a view to isolating some organisms that may prove to be suitable agents for its biological control

1981-01-01

293

SRI Lanka's energy problem comes out of the woods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The recent clearing of the Mahaveli forest to create new, irrigated crop lands has left Sri Lanka with 25 million tons of wood. By turning this wood into charcoal using an efficient portable steel kiln costing about pound 500 and lasting about three years, it is expected that wastage can be avoided and fuel for domestic consumption and export will result. About 15,000 tons can be produced yearly for export with the kilns. Some 14,000 hectares of the cleared farmland will be used for growing Eucalyptus trees to replace the local wood as sources of charcoal are exhausted.

1981-01-01

294

Home grown power plants - the case for wood-based energy systems in Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article is essentially an overview of the case for wood-based energy systems for Sri Lanka. Such systems are attractive in terms of being local, low-cost, and sustainable. However, development of such systems is hampered by insufficient political support, and concern over deforestation and waste in the context of the proposed large-scale biomass gasification. The article discusses benefits of the system, how it works, costs and economics and biomass potential. Other renewable energy systems discussed include solar, wind and hydro.

Kapadia, K. [University of California, Berkeley (United States). Energy and Resources Group

2002-12-01

295

Report on work done in Sri Lanka [Management of water hyacinth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main emphasis of the work in Sri Lanka during the period under review has been on: the collection of available information on the biology of the plant and attempts to gain a more complete understanding of the biology by direct observation and experimentation; the study of the ecology of the plant with special reference to its competition with the other prevalent aquatic weeds in this country, viz Salvinia molesta; the study of the fauna and flora associated with the plant with a view to isolating some organisms that may prove to be suitable agents for its biological control.

Balasooriya, I

1981-11-15

296

Indian flying fox Pteropus giganteus colony in Peradeniya Botanical Gardens, Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A colony of Indian flying foxes in Peradeniya Botanical Gardens near Kandy, Sri Lanka, was spread over 20 hectares and numbered 24,480 bats in September 2002. The number of bats per tree varied between ten and 1200. The median value was low (= 50 bats per tree) and half of the trees contained between 30 and 100 bats. The mean density was c. 1200 bats per hectare, but was significantly higher along the western margin of the colony (3250 bats per hectare). Peradeniya possibly supports the largest aggregation of the Indian flying fox known currently.

Boris Krystufek

2009-01-01

297

Characteristics of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka: a systematic review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The rate of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka has increased in recent years, with associated morbidity and economic cost to the country. This review examines the published literature for the characteristics and factors associated with non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka. METHODS: Electronic searches were conducted in Psychinfo, Proquest, Medline and Cochrane databases from inception to October 2011. RESULTS: 26 publications (representing 23 studies) were eligible to be included in the review. A majority of studies reported non-fatal self-poisoning to be more common among males, with a peak age range of 10-30 years. Pesticide ingestion was the most commonly used method of non-fatal self-poisoning. However three studies conducted within the last ten years, in urban areas of the country, reported non-fatal self-poisoning by medicinal overdose to be more common, and also reported non-fatal self-poisoning to be more common among females. Interpersonal conflict was the most commonly reported short-term stressor associated with self-poisoning. Alcohol misuse was reported among males who self-poisoned, and data regarding other psychiatric morbidity was limited. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that pesticide ingestion is the commonest method of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka, and it is more common among young males, similar to other Asian countries. However there appears to be an emerging pattern of increasing medicinal overdoses, paralleled by a gender shift towards increased female non-fatal self-poisoning in urban areas. Many non-fatal self-poisoning attempts appear to occur in the context of acute interpersonal stress, with short premeditation, and associated with alcohol misuse in males. Similar to other Asian countries, strategies to reduce non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka require integrated intervention programs with several key aspects, including culturally appropriate interventions to develop interpersonal skills in young people, community based programs to reduce alcohol misuse, and screening for and specific management of those at high risk of repetition following an attempt of self-poisoning.

Rajapakse T; Griffiths KM; Christensen H

2013-01-01

298

Desiccated coconut industry of Sri Lanka: opportunities for energy efficiency and environmental protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The desiccated coconut (DC) industry is one of the major export oriented food processing industries in Sri Lanka. This paper discusses the production processes, types of fuel used, energy use pattern and the overall specific thermal and electrical energy consumption in the DC sector. An analysis of the energy use highlights the inefficient processes and the key energy loss areas. Options for energy conservation in the DC mills have been discussed, and carbon dioxide emissions from this sector and its mitigation potential are estimated. Other options to improve efficiency and reduce other pollution and policy aspects have been presented.

2003-01-01

299

Mental health legislation in Sri Lanka: the time for change is now  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite a history of being subjected to mental health legislation for over a hundred years, Sri Lanka relies on these archaic laws to implement its present day services when most other countries in the region which have enacted recent reforms. This has resulted in discrepancies in service delivery and a less than optimum level of care. With the expansion of the country’s mental health services and other social changes, the need for immediate reforms, drafted a decade ago but not yet legislated, is convincing.

Rajiv Weerasundera

2011-01-01

300

Predatory efficacy of Culex (Lutzia) fuscanus on mosquito vectors of human diseases in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Larvae of Culex (Lutzia) Fuscanus were collected from ovitraps in a natural breeding site. Collected larvae were used to establish a self-mating colony, and larval progeny were then used to determine their predatory efficacy on larvae of 3 vector mosquito species, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles subpictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. Statistical analysis revealed that Cx. fuscanus showed greater feeding efficacy for Ae. aegypti than for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. subpictus. The natural predatory role of this species can potentially be exploited for biological control of mosquito vectors in Sri Lanka.

Surendran SN; Jude PJ; Thavaranjit AC; Eswaramohan T; Vinobaba M; Ramasamy R

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
301

Seroepidemiological survey of hospital-associated populations in Colombo, Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Almost 1,500 sera from hospital-associated groups in Colombo, Sri Lanka were tested for antibodies against melioidosis, scrub typhus, influenza, and group B arboviruses. A low prevalence of antibodies was found against meliodosis and scrub typhus. Crude prevalence rates of more than 50% were encountered for antibodies against A influenza, and there was no apparent difference in rates when these were analysed according to age, sex, or ethnic background. Influenza B antibodies were more prevalent in older individuals. Antibodies against group B arboviruses were found in all groups tested, and were significantly more prevalent in older Tamils, who has estimated attack rates of more than 5% per year. PMID:829175

Van Peenen, P F; See, R; Soysa, P E; Irving, G S

1976-03-01

302

Seroepidemiological survey of hospital-associated populations in Colombo, Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Almost 1,500 sera from hospital-associated groups in Colombo, Sri Lanka were tested for antibodies against melioidosis, scrub typhus, influenza, and group B arboviruses. A low prevalence of antibodies was found against meliodosis and scrub typhus. Crude prevalence rates of more than 50% were encountered for antibodies against A influenza, and there was no apparent difference in rates when these were analysed according to age, sex, or ethnic background. Influenza B antibodies were more prevalent in older individuals. Antibodies against group B arboviruses were found in all groups tested, and were significantly more prevalent in older Tamils, who has estimated attack rates of more than 5% per year.

Van Peenen PF; See R; Soysa PE; Irving GS

1976-03-01

303

Patterns of hospital transfer for self-poisoned patients in rural Sri Lanka: implications for estimating the incidence of self-poisoning in the developing world/ Modalités d'hospitalisation des cas d'autoempoisonnement délibéré en milieu rural au Sri Lanka: ce qu'elles impliquent pour l'estimation de l'incidence des autoempoisonnements dans le monde en développement/ Perfil de traslados interhospitalarios de pacientes autointoxicados en una zona rural de Sri Lanka: implicaciones para la estimación de la incidencia de autointoxicaciones en el mundo en desarrollo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish OBJETIVOS: La mayoría de los datos sobre autointoxicaciones en las zonas rurales de Asia proceden de hospitales secundarios. Nuestros objetivos fueron los siguientes: evaluar cómo influyen los traslados de hospitales primarios a hospitales secundarios en las estimaciones de la tasa de letalidad; determinar si había algún sesgo de derivación según el sexo o el tipo de intoxicación; y estimar la incidencia anual de todos los tipos de autointoxicación, así como de l (more) as autointoxicaciones mortales, en un entorno rural del mundo en desarrollo. MÉTODOS: Entre el 1 de julio y el 31 de diciembre de 2002 se examinó en el momento del ingreso a los autointoxicados llegados al Hospital General de Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. Revisamos además las notas médicas correspondientes a los pacientes autointoxicados ingresados en 17 de los 34 hospitales periféricos de los alrededores durante el mismo periodo. RESULTADOS: En total fueron ingresadas en el hospital secundario 742 víctimas de autointoxicaciones, de las cuales fallecieron 81 (tasa de letalidad: 10,9%). Un total de 483 pacientes fueron ingresados en 17 hospitales periféricos de los alrededores. Seis pacientes (1,2%) murieron en esos hospitales, 249 fueron dados de alta, y 228 fueron trasladados al hospital secundario. No se observó ningún efecto del sexo o la edad sobre la probabilidad de traslado; sin embargo, los pacientes que habían ingerido adelfa o paraquat tenían más probabilidades de ser trasladados que los que habían tomado plaguicidas organofosforados u otros productos tóxicos. La incidencia anual estimada de autointoxicaciones y de autointoxicaciones mortales fue de 363 y 27 por 100 000 habitantes, respectivamente, con una tasa de letalidad global del 7,4% (intervalo de confianza del 95%: 6,0-9,0). CONCLUSIÓN: Un 50% de los pacientes ingresados en hospitales periféricos fueron dados de alta, lo que demuestra que las tasas de letalidad basadas en los datos de hospitales secundarios están infladas. No obstante, si bien la incidencia de autointoxicaciones es semejante a la de Inglaterra, en Sri Lanka las autointoxicaciones mortales son tres veces más frecuentes que las autolesiones mortales por cualquier método registradas en Inglaterra. Los datos basados en la población son esenciales para realizar comparaciones internacionales de la letalidad y la incidencia y para evaluar las intervenciones de salud pública. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: Most data on self-poisoning in rural Asia have come from secondary hospitals. We aimed to: assess how transfers from primary to secondary hospitals affected estimates of case-fatality ratio (CFR); determine whether there was referral bias according to gender or poison; and estimate the annual incidence of all self-poisoning, and of fatal self-poisoning, in a rural developing-world setting. METHODS: Self-poisoning patients admitted to Anuradhapura General Hospi (more) tal, Sri Lanka, were reviewed on admission from 1 July to 31 December 2002. We audited medical notes of self-poisoning patients admitted to 17 of the 34 surrounding peripheral hospitals for the same period. FINDINGS: A total of 742 patients were admitted with self-poisoning to the secondary hospital; 81 died (CFR 10.9%). 483 patients were admitted to 17 surrounding peripheral hospitals. Six patients (1.2%) died in peripheral hospitals, 249 were discharged home, and 228 were transferred to the secondary hospital. There was no effect of gender or age on likelihood of transfer; however, patients who had ingested oleander or paraquat were more likely to be transferred than were patients who had taken organophosphorus pesticides or other poisons. Estimated annual incidences of self-poisoning and fatal self-poisoning were 363 and 27 per 100 000 population, respectively, with an overall CFR of 7.4% (95% confidence interval 6.0-9.0). CONCLUSION: Fifty per cent of patients admitted to peripheral hospitals were discharged home, showing that CFRs based on secondary hospital data are inflated. However, while inci

Eddleston, Michael; Sudarshan, K; Senthilkumaran, M; Reginald, K; Karalliedde, Lakshman; Senarathna, Lalith; Silva, Dhammika de; Rezvi Sheriff, MH; Buckley, Nick A; Gunnell, David

2006-04-01

304

A geochemical reconnaissance survey of Sri Lanka using panned mineral concentrates of stream sediments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Thirteen elements (Au, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn, Th, U and Zn) were determined in 120 heavy mineral concentrates from Sri Lankan stream sediments of the Highland Group of rocks in central Sri Lanka. The data indicate sporadic occurrences of gold, notably in the north of the region where this metal had not previously been found. The possibility of the existence of a previously unknown area of ultramafic rocks near Balangoda close to the plate boundary with the Vijayan Complex was indicated by high levels of chromium and nickel in the sediments. Background levels of uranium (8 ?g/g) were relatively high and three anomalies (>35 ?g/g) were detected in stream sediment concentrates. The project has pinpointed several areas where localized intensive exploration for specific minerals should be undertaken. Background levels have also been established for thirteen elements in stream sediment concentrates derived from the Highland Group of rocks. (orig.)

1985-01-01

305

Humanitarian NGOs and Mediations of Political Order in Sri Lanka  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article argues that international and national humanitarian NGOs have a far more fundamental bearing on the social reconstitution of Sri Lankan society as a political, cultural, and moral entity than is usually acknowledged. Through their interventions, humanitarian agencies affect the power relationship between state and non-state actors and between local organizations and the war-affected populations that make up their constituencies. But NGOs also affect the political order by introducing new understandings of the citizen and providing alternative moral arguments to legitimize power and authority. What is taking place, the author contends, is best conceived of as mediations, since the global and the local, the modern and the traditional are coexistent as sources to be strategically drawn upon by the actors.

SØrensen, Birgitte

2008-01-01

306

Impacts of the 2004 tsunami on groundwater resources in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

The 26 December 2004 tsunami caused widespread destruction and contamination of coastal aquifers across southern Asia. Seawater filled domestic open dug wells and also entered the aquifers via direct infiltration during the first flooding waves and later as ponded seawater infiltrated through the permeable sands that are typical of coastal aquifers. In Sri Lanka alone, it is estimated that over 40,000 drinking water wells were either destroyed or contaminated. From February through September 2005, a team of United States, Sri Lankan, and Danish water resource scientists and engineers surveyed the coastal groundwater resources of Sri Lanka to develop an understanding of the impacts of the tsunami and to provide recommendations for the future of coastal water resources in south Asia. In the tsunami-affected areas, seawater was found to have infiltrated and mixed with fresh groundwater lenses as indicated by the elevated groundwater salinity levels. Seawater infiltrated through the shallow vadose zone as well as entered aquifers directly through flooded open wells. Our preliminary transport analysis demonstrates that the intruded seawater has vertically mixed in the aquifers because of both forced and free convection. Widespread pumping of wells to remove seawater was effective in some areas, but overpumping has led to upconing of the saltwater interface and rising salinity. We estimate that groundwater recharge from several monsoon seasons will reduce salinity of many sandy Sri Lankan coastal aquifers. However, the continued sustainability of these small and fragile aquifers for potable water will be difficult because of the rapid growth of human activities that results in more intensive groundwater pumping and increased pollution. Long-term sustainability of coastal aquifers is also impacted by the decrease in sand replenishment of the beaches due to sand mining and erosion. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

Illangasekare, T.; Tyler, S. W.; Clement, T. P.; Villholth, K. G.; Perera, A. P. G. R. L.; Obeysekera, J.; Gunatilaka, A.; Panabokke, C. R.; Hyndman, D. W.; Cunningham, K. J.; Kaluarachchi, J. J.; Yeh, W. W. -G.; Van Genuchten, M. T.; Jensen, K.

2006-01-01

307

Anopheles culicifacies breeding in polluted water bodies in Trincomalee District of Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Anopheles culicifacies, the major vector of malaria in Sri Lanka, is known to breed in clean and clear water. The main objective of the study was to detect the breeding habitat diversity of An. culicifacies. Methods Potential larval habitats for Anopheles mosquitoes were surveyed on a monthly basis for 17 months (January 2011–June 2012) in four different selected sampling sites (Murthankulam, Kommnaimottai, Paranamadawachchiya and Kokmotawewa) in Trincomalee District of Sri Lanka. Results A total of 2,996 larval specimens representing 13 Anopheles species were reported from 16 different breeding habitats. According to density criterion, An. culicifacies, Anopheles subpictus, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles peditaeniatus and Anopheles nigerrimus were dominant. Anopheles nigerrimus, An. subpictus and An. peditaeniatus were observed as constant in relation to their distribution. The most productive breeding site for An. culicifacies was drains filled with waste water in remote areas; the second highest productivity was found in built wells. Conclusions These results indicate that An. culicifacies has adapted to breed in a wide range of water bodies including waste water collections although they were earlier considered to breed only in clean and clear water.

2013-01-01

308

Environmental, economic and social analysis of materials for doors and windows in Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper compares the environmental, economic and social impacts of two types of doors and windows (elements), namely timber and aluminum taking into consideration the life cycle perspective. These elements are widely used for the buildings in Sri Lanka. Thus, it will help in the decision-making process when selecting materials for these elements. Major materials used for these elements are timber, brass, glass, paint, aluminum, rubber, steel and PVC boards. Environmental burdens associated with these materials are analyzed in terms of embodied energy, and environmental impacts that are relevant to Sri Lanka, such as global warming (GWP), acidification (ACP) and nutrient enrichment (NEP). Economic analysis is done using market prices of materials and affordability for those materials. Social concerns such as thermal comfort, good interior (aesthetics), ability to construct fast, and durability are analyzed based on the data collected through the questionnaires and also, interviews with the stakeholders of the buildings such as engineers, architects, building contractors and building users. It was found that timber elements are superior to aluminum elements in environmental scores (GWP, ACP and NEP). On economic score, also, timber elements are better. But on social score, aluminum elements are better than timber. It was also found that the higher the recycling percentage of aluminum, the higher the environmental favorability of the aluminum. (author)

Abeysundra, U.G. Yasantha; Babel, Sandhya; Sharp, Alice [Environmental Technology Program, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology (SIIT), Thammasat University, P.O. Box 22, Pathumthani 12121 (Thailand); Gheewala, Shabbir [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology, School of Energy and Materials Building, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

2007-05-15

309

Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology in Sri Lanka: is cadmium a likely cause?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and subsequent end stage renal failure necessitating renal replacement therapy has profound consequences for affected individuals and health care resources. This community based study was conducted to identify potential predictors of microalbuminuria in a randomly selected sample of adults from the North Central Province (NCP) of Sri Lanka, where the burden of CKD is pronounced and the underlying cause still unknown. Methods Exposures to possible risk factors were determined in randomly recruited subjects (425 females and 461 males) from selected areas of the NCP of Sri Lanka using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Sulphosalicylic acid and the Light Dependent Resister microalbumin gel filtration method was used for initial screening for microalbuminuria and reconfirmed by the Micral strip test. Results Microalbumnuria was detected in 6.1% of the females and 8.5% of the males. Smoking (p Conclusions Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, UTI, and smoking are known risk factors for microalbuminuria. The association between microalbuminuria and consumption of well water suggests an environmental aetiology to CKD in NCP. The causative agent is yet to be identified. Investigations for cadmium as a potential causative agent needs to be initiated.

Wanigasuriya Kamani P; Peiris-John Roshini J; Wickremasinghe Rajitha

2011-01-01

310

Leptospirosis outbreak in Sri Lanka in 2008: lessons for assessing the global burden of disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Global leptospirosis disease burden estimates are hampered by the lack of scientifically sound data from countries with probable high endemicity and limited diagnostic capacities. We describe the seroepidemiologic and clinical characteristics of the leptospirosis outbreak in 2008 in Sri Lanka. Definitive/presumptive case definitions proposed by the World Health Organization Leptospirosis Epidemiology Reference Group were used for case confirmation. Of the 404 possible cases, 155 were confirmed to have leptospirosis. Highest titers of patient seum samples reacted with serovars Pyrogenes (28.7%), Hardjo (18.8%), Javanica (11.5%), and Hebdomadis (11.5%). Sequencing of the 16S ribosomal DNA gene identified six infections: five with Leptospira interrogans and one with L. weilli. In this patient population, acute renal failure was the main complication (14.8%), followed by myocarditis (7.1%) and heart failure (3.9%). The case-fatality rate was 1.3%. This report strengthens the urgent need for increasing laboratory diagnostic capabilities to determine the causes of epidemic and endemic infectious diseases in Sri Lanka, a finding relevant to other tropical regions. PMID:21896807

Agampodi, Suneth B; Peacock, Sharon J; Thevanesam, Vasanthi; Nugegoda, Danaseela B; Smythe, Lee; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Craig, Scott B; Burns, Mary Ann; Dohnt, Michael; Boonsilp, Siriphan; Senaratne, Thamarasi; Kumara, Athula; Palihawadana, Paba; Perera, Sahan; Vinetz, Joseph M

2011-09-01

311

Leptospirosis outbreak in Sri Lanka in 2008: lessons for assessing the global burden of disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Global leptospirosis disease burden estimates are hampered by the lack of scientifically sound data from countries with probable high endemicity and limited diagnostic capacities. We describe the seroepidemiologic and clinical characteristics of the leptospirosis outbreak in 2008 in Sri Lanka. Definitive/presumptive case definitions proposed by the World Health Organization Leptospirosis Epidemiology Reference Group were used for case confirmation. Of the 404 possible cases, 155 were confirmed to have leptospirosis. Highest titers of patient seum samples reacted with serovars Pyrogenes (28.7%), Hardjo (18.8%), Javanica (11.5%), and Hebdomadis (11.5%). Sequencing of the 16S ribosomal DNA gene identified six infections: five with Leptospira interrogans and one with L. weilli. In this patient population, acute renal failure was the main complication (14.8%), followed by myocarditis (7.1%) and heart failure (3.9%). The case-fatality rate was 1.3%. This report strengthens the urgent need for increasing laboratory diagnostic capabilities to determine the causes of epidemic and endemic infectious diseases in Sri Lanka, a finding relevant to other tropical regions.

Agampodi SB; Peacock SJ; Thevanesam V; Nugegoda DB; Smythe L; Thaipadungpanit J; Craig SB; Burns MA; Dohnt M; Boonsilp S; Senaratne T; Kumara A; Palihawadana P; Perera S; Vinetz JM

2011-09-01

312

Anomalous short period geomagnetic variations at two stations in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis of the rates of change in the geomagnetic field components in the period range 20-600 sec recorded at Kondavil and Hikkaduwa, two stations in the equatorial electrojet belt near the northern and south western coasts respectively of Sri Lanka, shows anomalous variations. The results confirm induced current concentration in the Palk Strait and deflection of induced currents around the southerncoast of Sri Lanka postulated by earlier workers from observations of SSC and Bay events at Indian stations and from analogue and numerical model studies. At Kondavil, which is situated close to the geomagnetic equator, no appreciable difference in the night-time and day-time values of ?Z/?H and ?D/?H ratios was noticed while at Hikkaduwa, a station situated under the edge of the equatorial electrojet belt, a day-time enhancement of ?Z/?H ratios was found at all periods in the observed range. An enhancement of the H component at Colombo over that at Hikkaduwa was also found at short periods, the enhancement being greater at day-time. The day-time enhancement in the ?Z/?H ratios at Hikkaduwa and in the ratio of the H components at Colombo and Hikkaduwa could be due to the effect of the equatorial electrojet on the short period variations. (author)

1986-01-01

313

The impact of electricity supply on economic growth in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

World net electricity consumption is expected to double over the next two decades. With increasing demand, electricity shortages will be prevalent, particularly in developing countries. An adequate and regular power supply would support economic growth in developing countries. Previous studies have demonstrated a strong correlation between electricity use and economic development. Studies have shown that there is a bi-directional causal relationship between gross domestic product and electricity consumption in Taiwan for the period 1954 to 1997. In order to examine the impact of electricity supply on economic growth in Sri Lanka, this paper presented the results of a study that applied Yang's model, using a simple regression analysis. The paper presented the methodology and estimation results. The study incorporated a cost benefit analysis model which assessed the economic, social and environmental impacts of dam projects in Sri Lanka. It was concluded that the application of Yang's regression analysis is one possible approach to estimate a better range for the expected increase in economic output parameter. 14 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

2006-01-01

314

A case series of spotted fever rickettsiosis with neurological manifestations in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsial infections are increasingly detected in Sri Lanka. We describe 17 patients with SFG who developed neurological manifestations. METHODS: The cases were studied prospectively from 2008 at the Teaching Hospital, Peradeniya. An immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA) was used to confirm the diagnosis. RESULTS: All had an IFA IgG titer ranging from 1/64 to 1/4096 and a positive IFA IgM titer against Rickettsia conorii antigen; in 10 (59%) cases the IgG titers were ? 1/256 (definitive cases). The median age of the patients was 62 years (range 26-82 years); 10 were male and seven female. The median duration of fever was 12 days (range 4-35 days). Neurological manifestations on admission were drowsiness or confusion in 14 (82%) and a semi-comatose state in three (18%). Rigidity of the limbs occurred in 14 (82%), bradykinesia and resting tremors in 12 (71%), which persisted after defervescence, neck stiffness in seven (42%), weakness of the limbs in five (29%), deafness in two (12%), and stupor in three (18%). Electroencephalograms in three (18%) showed generalized slow waves. Cerebrospinal fluid examination showed a cellular reaction, predominantly lymphocytes, in three cases. Two patients died (fatality rate 12%). CONCLUSION: We have documented for the first time the neurological features of SFG rickettsioses in the Central Province, Sri Lanka. These were predominantly extrapyramidal features in patients of older age.

Kularatne SA; Weerakoon KG; Rajapakse RP; Madagedara SC; Nanayakkara D; Premaratna R

2012-07-01

315

An Overview: Vaccination to control fowl typhoid in Commercial layers, Sri Lanka.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Poultry production and consumption in Sri Lanka, has been dramatically increased during last two decades and Salmonellosis was reported as one of the prevalent diseases in commercial layers. Both S.Gallianrum as well as S.Pullorum is causing severe economical impact to the industry, while S.Typhimurium and S.Enteritidis are also important in the public health aspects. Vaccination against Salmonellosis is widely practiced in several countries in the world to control the infection: In Sri Lanka, killed vaccine is permitted only for commercial layer, while breeder birds, commercial broilers are prohibited by regulation.Both Live attenuated and killed vaccine have many benefits, and proven results for controlling of none host- specific Salmonella in poultry and also in reducing the occurrence of human food born infections. Both vaccines were considered as potential to control the host specific Salmonella in poultry by reducing the mortality and feacal shedding to the environment. Evidencely, live vaccines are capable of controlling the human infections caused by non host specific Salmonella as a result of cross immunization in poultry. Since, Both vaccine given positive effect as well as negative effect to control the Salmonellsois in chicken and further studies are encouraged relevant to local situation.

M.A.R. Priyantha

2009-01-01

316

The geology, mineralogy and rare element geochemistry of the gem deposits of Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The gem deposits of Sri Lanka are studied from the point of view of their geology, mineralogy and geochemistry. Nearly all the gem formations are located in the central high-grade metamorphic terrain of the Highland Complex. The gem deposits are classified as sedimentary, metamorphic and magmatic; the sedimentary types being the most abundant. The mineralogy of the gem deposits varies widely with, among others, corundum, chrysoberyl, beryl, spinel, topaz,zircon, tourmaline, garnet and sphene being common.Rare element concentrations in sediments from the three main gem fields of Sri Lanka, namely Ratnapura, Elahera and Walawe, were studied. It was found that some sediments are considerably enriched in certain elements compared to their average continental crustal abundances. The Walawe Ganga sediments show anomalous enrichments of the high field strength and associated elements, particularly Zr, Hf, W and Ti. This is attributed to the presence of accessory mineralssuch as zircon, monazite and rutile. Some of these heavy minerals comprise as much as 50 wt% of sediment. The geochemical enrichment of some trace elements compared to their average crustal abundances indicates that highly differentiated granites and associated pegmatites have provided the source materials for enrichment.

C. B. Dissanayake; Rohana Chandrajith; H. J. Tobschall

2000-01-01

317

Analysis of effects of meteorological factors on dengue incidence in Sri Lanka using time series data.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In tropical and subtropical regions of eastern and South-eastern Asia, dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) outbreaks occur frequently. Previous studies indicate an association between meteorological variables and dengue incidence using time series analyses. The impacts of meteorological changes can affect dengue outbreak. However, difficulties in collecting detailed time series data in developing countries have led to common use of monthly data in most previous studies. In addition, time series analyses are often limited to one area because of the difficulty in collecting meteorological and dengue incidence data in multiple areas. To gain better understanding, we examined the effects of meteorological factors on dengue incidence in three geographically distinct areas (Ratnapura, Colombo, and Anuradhapura) of Sri Lanka by time series analysis of weekly data. The weekly average maximum temperature and total rainfall and the total number of dengue cases from 2005 to 2011 (7 years) were used as time series data in this study. Subsequently, time series analyses were performed on the basis of ordinary least squares regression analysis followed by the vector autoregressive model (VAR). In conclusion, weekly average maximum temperatures and the weekly total rainfall did not significantly affect dengue incidence in three geographically different areas of Sri Lanka. However, the weekly total rainfall slightly influenced dengue incidence in the cities of Colombo and Anuradhapura.

Goto K; Kumarendran B; Mettananda S; Gunasekara D; Fujii Y; Kaneko S

2013-01-01

318

Poverty and growth impacts of high oil prices: Evidence from Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sharp rise in oil and food prices in 2007 and 2008 caused negative impacts on poverty and economic growth in many oil and food importing developing countries. Some analysts believe that these countries are under stress again due to a rise in crude oil prices, to a two-and-a-half year high in March 2011, which has also been partly responsible for higher food prices in recent months. However, there is a limited body of empirical evidence available from developing countries on the impact of high oil prices on growth in general and household poverty in particular. In this study, Sri Lanka is used as a case study and a computable general equilibrium (CGE) approach is adopted as an analytical framework to explore the growth and poverty impacts of high oil prices. The results suggest that urban low income households are the group most adversely affected by high global oil prices, followed by low income rural households. In contrast, estate low income households are the least affected out of all low income households. The energy intensive manufacturing sector and services sector are affected most compared to the agricultural sector. - Highlights: ? Using a general equilibrium model we find poverty and oil price link for Sri Lanka. ? Urban low income households are the group most adversely affected. ? Energy intensive manufacturing and services sectors are affected most.

2012-01-01

319

Human disturbances on coral reefs in Sri Lanka: A case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The degradation of coral reefs in Sri Lanka has increased substantially over the last decades. Human activities causing this degradation include: mining for lime production, sewage discharges, discharges of oil and other pollutants in connection with shipping and port activities, destructive fishing practices, land and mangrove destruction, tourism and the collecting of fauna such as fish, shells and corals. In this study, three adjacent coral reefs; Bar Reef, Talawila Reef, and Kandakuliya Reef, which are widely scattered patch reefs off Kalpitiya Peninsula, northwestern Sri Lanka, were surveyed and compared in terms of their fish and coral diversity and abundance as well as human and natural disturbances. Information was gathered by snorkeling in visual overview surveys and by scuba diving in detailed transect surveys. When each reef was ranked according to the extent of live coral cover, and chaetodontid diversity, the results indicated that Bar Reef was in excellent condition, Talawila Reef was intermediate, and Kandakuliya Reef was in poor condition. The diversity of coral genera, the topographic relief and the proportion of coral rubble, did not follow the same pattern. The number of coral genera found was 49, while 283 fish species belonging to 51 families were recorded. Human disturbance factors on the reefs were found to be net fishing, boat anchoring and ornamental fish collection for the aquarium trade. Bottom.set nylon nets in particular were found to have a very destructive impact on the bottom fauna. 33 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

Oehman, M.C.; Linden, O. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Zoology); Rajasuriya, A. (NARA, Crow Island, Colombo (Sri Lanka))

1993-01-01

320

Anopheles culicifacies breeding in polluted water bodies in Trincomalee District of Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Anopheles culicifacies, the major vector of malaria in Sri Lanka, is known to breed in clean and clear water. The main objective of the study was to detect the breeding habitat diversity of An. culicifacies. METHODS: Potential larval habitats for Anopheles mosquitoes were surveyed on a monthly basis for 17 months (January 2011--June 2012) in four different selected sampling sites (Murthankulam, Kommnaimottai, Paranamadawachchiya and Kokmotawewa) in Trincomalee District of Sri Lanka. RESULTS: A total of 2,996 larval specimens representing 13 Anopheles species were reported from 16 different breeding habitats. According to density criterion, An. culicifacies, Anopheles subpictus, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles peditaeniatus and Anopheles nigerrimus were dominant. Anopheles nigerrimus, An. subpictus and An. peditaeniatus were observed as constant in relation to their distribution. The most productive breeding site for An. culicifacies was drains filled with waste water in remote areas; the second highest productivity was found in built wells. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that An. culicifacies has adapted to breed in a wide range of water bodies including waste water collections although they were earlier considered to breed only in clean and clear water.

Gunathilaka N; Fernando T; Hapugoda M; Wickremasinghe R; Wijeyerathne P; Abeyewickreme W

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
321

International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sri Lanka is essentially a detached portion of the Deccan Plateau of south India and like it, is underlain almost everywhere by hard old Precambrian rocks. Prior to 1940 there was no systematic organised geological survey work on the island. Between 1957 and 1962 a partial aerial survey and field traverses were conducted in a search for radio- active minerals. Since then a modest programme has continued. Thorianite was first discovered in placer deposits in 1903 and prospecting has found many other refractory radioactive minerals probably derived from the weathering of pegmatites. Monazite is found as an important constituent of beach placer deposits and it is estimated to have an average content of 8-10%ThO2 and 0.3 - 0.5% U3O8. Up to 1000 tons monazite per year could be produced from the beach sand industry. Sri Lanka has had very little systematic exploration for uranium and as it is largely composed of Precambrian rocks it deserves closer attention. On the other hand it is part of a thorium rich province and there is a body of technical opinion that believes that thorium rich provinces are unlikely to contain significant uranium deposits. For these reasons it is estimated that the Speculative Potential may be within the range of 1000 to 10,000 tonnes uranium. In addition it maybe possible to produce up to 5 tonnes uranium and 100 tonnes thorium from the beach sand industry on an annual basis. (author)

322

Could the Civil War Have Been Prevented in Sri Lanka? : In Comparison with the Swiss and Lebanese Political Models  

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The objective of this thesis is to analyse whether Sri Lanka could have avoided the civil war, if changes in the constitution, from 1948 to 1978, offered a political structure guaranteeing the minority rights. Furthermore, the thesis intends to study if the Swiss and Lebanese political models could ...

Paramanathan, Mathivathana

323

Design of optimal power cogeneration for north-east Sri Lanka based on stand-alone renewable energy systems  

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This paper presents an optimal model to satisfy electricity needs of North-east Sri Lanka (NE-SL). With the absence of indigenous fossil fuel and large-scale hydrologic resources, NE-SL depends on the import of fossil fuel for electricity generation, causing economic and environmental hardships. Thi...

Davidrajuh, Reggie

324

Comparative Study of Pre-Service Teacher Education Programme at Secondary Stage in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

|The present research work has studied and compared the different issues of pre-service teacher education programme in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Pakistan. The data were collected from 24 principals, 88 teacher educators and 157 student teachers from institutions and universities where Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) course were. The data were…

Yadav, S. K.

2011-01-01

325

The Politics, Policies and Progress of Basic Education in Sri Lanka. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 38  

Science.gov (United States)

|Sri Lanka is hailed internationally for her achievements in literacy, access to education and equality of educational opportunity. However, progress has not been straightforward due to the complex interactions between politics, policy formulation, and the implementation of reforms. This dynamic process has often led to contradictory outcomes.…

Little, Angela W.

2010-01-01

326

Wives' Attitudes toward Gender Roles and Their Experience of Intimate Partner Violence by Husbands in Central Province, Sri Lanka  

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|The authors conducted a community based, cross-sectional study to describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) by husbands and the association between wives' attitudes toward gender roles and their experience of IPV in Central Province, Sri Lanka. This article included a representative sample of 624 wives between 15 and 49 years of…

Jayatilleke, Achini; Poudel, Krishna C.; Sakisaka, Kayako; Yasuoka, Junko; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jimba, Masamine

2011-01-01

327

India and the civil war in Sri Lanka: On the failures of regional conflict management in South Asia  

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The paper provides an assessment of India's role in the final years of the civil war in Sri Lanka (2003-2009). In particular, it looks for explanations for India's inability to act as a conflict manager in its own region, which is in contrast to predominant assumptions about the role of powerful reg...

Destradi, Sandra

328

Social, cultural and economical determinants of diabetes mellitus in Kalutara district, Sri Lanka: a cross sectional descriptive study  

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Abstract Introduction Sri Lanka is a country that is expected to face a high burden of diabetes mellitus (DM). There is a paucity of data on social and demographic determinants of DM, especially in the plantation sector. Aims To describe social and economic correlates ...

Pubudu De Silva Ambepitiyawaduge; Padmal De Silva Sudirikku Hennadige; Liyanage Isurujith Kongala; Rajapakse Lalini Chandika

329

Sri Lanka--Canada School Library & Information Services Programme Components: A School Library Study Tour. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

|This document reports on a study tour of Canadian schools conducted by the Sri Lanka Ministry of Education. The purposes of the tour were to: develop an awareness of the scope of modern school library programming; investigate the aspects of implementation of a modern school library program including staffing, facilities, educational programming,…

Brown, Gerald R.

330

Situation Report--Australia, The Gambia, Papua and New Guinea, Rhodesia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tonga, and Western Samoa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data relating to population and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Australia, The Gambia, Papua and New Guinea, Rhodesia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tonga, and Western Somoa. Information is provided under three topics, statistical information, general background information,…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

331

Waves of Disaster – Waves of Relief : An Ethnography of Humanitarian Assistance to Post-Tsunami Sri Lanka  

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AbstractThis paper applies an impressionistic and reflexive genre of ethnography to understand the ethnographer’s meeting with the humanitarian aid workers in post-tsunami Sri Lanka. It offers an analysis of the political atmosphere in the country prior to the tsunami as a central framewor...

Bjarnesen, Jesper

332

Successful stock enhancement of a lagoon prawn fishery at Rekawa, Sri Lanka using cultured post-larvae of penaeid shrimp  

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Rekawa Lagoon, Sri Lanka (area 250 ha) has an artisanal fishery for penaeid shrimp, predominantly Penaeus indicus (93.6% of catch), but with small numbers (0.8%) of Penaeus monodon. Neither species breeds in the lagoon; larvae and post-larvae enter the lagoon: during brief periods in July and Novemb...

Davenport, J; Ekaratne, SUK; Walgama, SA; Lee, D; Hills, JM

333

An ordination study to view vegetation structure dynamics in disturbed and undisturbed mangrove forests in Kenya and Sri Lanka  

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The mangrove vegetation of a disturbed and undisturbed site in both Kenya and Sri Lanka was investigated in the field for three vegetation layers: adult trees, young trees, and juvenile trees. A minimum of 25 sample points, in which the vegetation was described and environmental factors (salinity, l...

Dahdouh-Guebas, F.; Kairo, J.G.; Jayatissa, L.P.; Cannicci, S.; Koedam, N.

334

Seroepidemiology of dengue and other arboviruses in a natural population of toque macaques (Macaca sinica) at Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka.  

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A seroepidemiological study of arboviruses infecting 115 wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) at Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka showed a high prevalence of antibodies to dengue and Lumbo viruses. There was low seroprevalence of Chandipura (2/115) and Batai (1/115) virus antibodies, but no seropositivity to C...

Peiris, JS; Dittus, WP; Ratnayake, CB

335

Population genetic structure of the Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite protein (Pvcsp) in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Molecular methods elucidate evolutionary and ecological processes in parasites, where interaction between hosts and parasites enlighten the evolution of parasite lifestyles and host defenses. Population genetics of Plasmodium vivax parasites accurately describe transmission dynamics of the parasites and evaluation of malaria control measures. As a first generation vaccine candidate against malaria, the Circumsporozoite Protein (CSP) has demonstrated significant potential in P. falciparum. Extensive polymorphism hinders the development of a potent malaria vaccine. Hence, the genetic diversity of Pvcsp was investigated for the first time in 60 Sri Lankan clinical isolates by obtaining the nucleotide sequence of the central repeat (CR) domain and examining the polymorphism of the peptide repeat motifs (PRMs), the genetic diversity indices and phylogenetic relationships. PCR amplicons determined size polymorphism of 610, 700 and 710 bp in Pvcsp of Sri Lanka where all amino acid sequences obtained were of the VK210 variant, consisting variable repeats of 4 different PRMs. The two most abundant PRMs of the CR domain, GDRADGQPA and GDRAAGQPA consisted ~2-4 repeats, while GNRAAGQPA was unique to the island. Though, different nucleotide sequences termed repeat allotypes (RATs) were observed for each PRM, these were synonymous contributing to a less polymorphic CR domain. The genetic diversity of Pvcsp in Sri Lanka was due to the number of repetitive peptide repeat motifs, point mutations, and intragenic recombination. The 19 amino acid haplotypes defined were exclusive to Sri Lanka, whereas the 194 Pvcsp sequences of global isolates generated 57 more distinct a.a. haplotypes of the VK210 variant. Strikingly, the CR domain of both VK210 and VK247 variants was under purifying selection interpreting the scarcity of CSP non-synonymous polymorphisms. Insights to the distribution of RATs in the CR region with geographic clustering of the P. vivax VK210 variant were revealed. The cladogram reiterated this unique geographic clustering of local (VK210) and global isolates (VK210 and VK247), which was further validated by the elevated fixation index values of the VK210 variant.

Dias S; Wickramarachchi T; Sahabandu I; Escalante AA; Udagama PV

2013-04-01

336

Selenium and iodine in soil, rice and drinking water in relation to endemic goitre in Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Endemic goitre has been reported in the climatic wet zone of south-west Sri Lanka for the past 50 years, but rarely occurs in the northern dry zone. Despite government-sponsored iodised salt programmes, endemic goitre is still prevalent. In recent years, it has been suggested that Se deficiency may be an important factor in the onset of goitre and other iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). Prior to the present study, environmental concentrations of Se in Sri Lanka and the possible relationships between Se deficiency and endemic goitre had not been investigated. During the present study, chemical differences in the environment (measured in soil, rice and drinking water) and the Se-status of the human population (demonstrated by hair samples from women) were determined for 15 villages. The villages were characterised by low (<10%), moderate (10-25%) and high (>25%) goitre incidence (NIDD, MIDD and HIDD, respectively). Results show that concentrations of soil total Se and iodine are highest in the HIDD villages, however, the soil clay and organic matter content appear to inhibit the bioavailability of these elements. Concentrations of iodine in rice are low ({<=}58 ng/g) and rice does not provide a significant source of iodine in the Sri Lankan diet. High concentrations of iodine (up to 84 {mu}g/l) in drinking water in the dry zone may, in part, explain why goitre is uncommon in this area. This study has shown for the first time that significant proportions of the Sri Lankan female population may be Se deficient (24, 24 and 40% in the NIDD, MIDD and HIDD villages, respectively). Although Se deficiency is not restricted to areas where goitre is prevalent, a combination of iodine and Se deficiency could be involved in the pathogenesis of goitre in Sri Lanka. The distribution of red rice cultivation in Sri Lanka is coincident with the HIDD villages. Varieties of red rice grown in other countries contain anthocyanins and procyanidins, compounds which in other foodstuffs are known goitrogens. The potential goitrogenic properties of red rice in Sri Lanka are presently unknown and require further investigation. It is likely that the incidence of goitre in Sri Lanka is multi-factorial, involving trace element deficiencies and other factors such as poor nutrition and goitrogens in foodstuffs.

Fordyce, F.M. [British Geological Survey, West Mains Road, EH9 3LA Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Johnson, C.C.; Appleton, J.D. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, NG12 5GG Nottingham (United Kingdom); Navaratna, U.R.B.; Dissanayake, C.B. [Department of Geology, University of Peradeniya, Kandy (Sri Lanka)

2000-12-18

337

Selenium and iodine in soil, rice and drinking water in relation to endemic goitre in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Endemic goitre has been reported in the climatic wet zone of south-west Sri Lanka for the past 50 years, but rarely occurs in the northern dry zone. Despite government-sponsored iodised salt programmes, endemic goitre is still prevalent. In recent years, it has been suggested that Se deficiency may be an important factor in the onset of goitre and other iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). Prior to the present study, environmental concentrations of Se in Sri Lanka and the possible relationships between Se deficiency and endemic goitre had not been investigated. During the present study, chemical differences in the environment (measured in soil, rice and drinking water) and the Se-status of the human population (demonstrated by hair samples from women) were determined for 15 villages. The villages were characterised by low (25%) goitre incidence (NIDD, MIDD and HIDD, respectively). Results show that concentrations of soil total Se and iodine are highest in the HIDD villages, however, the soil clay and organic matter content appear to inhibit the bioavailability of these elements. Concentrations of iodine in rice are low (?58 ng/g) and rice does not provide a significant source of iodine in the Sri Lankan diet. High concentrations of iodine (up to 84 ?g/l) in drinking water in the dry zone may, in part, explain why goitre is uncommon in this area. This study has shown for the first time that significant proportions of the Sri Lankan female population may be Se deficient (24, 24 and 40% in the NIDD, MIDD and HIDD villages, respectively). Although Se deficiency is not restricted to areas where goitre is prevalent, a combination of iodine and Se deficiency could be involved in the pathogenesis of goitre in Sri Lanka. The distribution of red rice cultivation in Sri Lanka is coincident with the HIDD villages. Varieties of red rice grown in other countries contain anthocyanins and procyanidins, compounds which in other foodstuffs are known goitrogens. The potential goitrogenic properties of red rice in Sri Lanka are presently unknown and require further investigation. It is likely that the incidence of goitre in Sri Lanka is multi-factorial, involving trace element deficiencies and other factors such as poor nutrition and goitrogens in foodstuffs

2000-12-18

338

Thermochronological dating of brittle structures in basement rocks: A case study from the onshore passive margin of SW Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

The brittle structural inventory of southern and southwestern Sri Lanka has been studied by kinematic, mineralogical and thermochronological techniques. Thermochronological analyses of faults comprise apatite and zircon fission track (FT) data and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He ages from fault planes and undisturbed host rocks, and range between ˜65 and ˜230 Ma. The ages of both settings are undistinguishable for topographic altitudes below ˜100 m, while fault planes from higher elevations are significantly younger than the corresponding host rocks. Thermal history modeling and qualitative interpretation of the thermochronological data identify at least five episodes of thermal overprint associated with faulting activity occurring at 159 ± 18, 144 ± 14, 120 ± 10, 94 ± 8, and 70 ± 10 Ma. The kinematic, mineralogical and thermochronological data collectively show that Sri Lanka was subjected to major N-S oriented extension subsequent to the Gondwana breakup. The resulting brittle structures exert primary control on the island's geomorphology, especially on the Southern Escarpment of the Sri Lankan Highlands.

Emmel, B.; Lisker, F.; Hewawasam, T.

2012-10-01

339

Butching it up: an analysis of same-sex female masculinity in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper seeks to examine the embodiment of female masculinity as experienced by 12 gender-non-conforming lesbians in Sri Lanka. By drawing on western feminist and queer theories, it critiques western theories in relation to a non-western subjectivity, attempting to unravel the seemingly empowering, albeit problematic, category of female masculinity. Data gathered through qualitative interviews address one key research question: how do gender-non-conforming lesbians in Sri Lankan embody female masculinity? As the discussion unfolds, this paper analyses the ways they view themselves, the extent to which their actions and behaviours fit within a masculine framework and the ways in which notions of desire are felt and understood in relation to their understanding of gender. In terms of theory, the analysis is located in social constructivist theory, while drawing on a postmodernist approach. Theoretically, the concept of female masculinity allows a woman embodying masculinity to dislodge men and maleness from it. The reality within a Sri Lankan experience, however, can at times be different, as this paper reveals. PMID:23837849

Kuru-Utumpala, Jayanthi

2013-07-09

340

Studies on prevalence of anopheline species and community perception of malaria in Jaffna district, Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives: Over two decades of civil unrest and the conflict situation have had detrimental effects on vector control activities and management of malaria in Jaffna district which is an endemic region for malaria in Sri Lanka. With the background that only a few small-scale studies on malaria and its vectors have been reported from this district, a study was designed to explore the current status of malaria in the Jaffna district in relation to vector and community aspects.Methods: Adults and larvae of anopheline mosquitoes were collected monthly from selected endemic localities. Species prevalence of the collected mosquitoes was studied while the collected adults of Anopheles subpictus, a potential vector in the district, was screened for sibling species composition based on morphological characteristics and exposed to common insecticides using WHO bioassay kits. Knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of the community were tested using a pre-tested structured questionnaire in high-risk and low-risk localities in the district.Results: The anopheline mosquito species distribution in the district was—An. culicifacies (0.5%), An. subpictus (46%), An. varuna (4%), An. nigerrimus (44%) and An. pallidus (5.5%). Among the collected larvae the percent prevalence of An. culicifacies was 13% and other species follows as: An. subpictus (71%), An. varuna (4%), An. nigerrimus (10%) and An. pallidus (2%). Sibling species B, C and D of An. subpictus were present in the district with the predominance of B in both coastal and inland areas, while all members showed both indoor and outdoor resting characteristics, they were highly resistant to DDT (4%) and highly susceptible to malathion (5%). KAP study in the district showed a reasonable level of knowledge, positive attitude and practices towards malaria.Conclusion: An. subpictus, the reported major vector of Jaffna and a well-established secondary vector of malaria in the country, continues to be the predominant anopheline species. The distribution of sibling species of An. subpictus complex in the Jaffna district, revealed for the first time, has implications for future studies on its bionomics and malaria transmission pattern in this area and the planning of control strategies for this region. The community perception of disease, which revealed a satisfactory knowledge indicates the potential for better community participation in future malaria control activities in this region. As potential vectors are still present, health authorities need to be vigilant to prevent any future epidemics of malaria.

S. Kannathasan; A. Antonyrajan; K.A. Srikrishnaraj; S.H.P.P. Karunaratne; N.D. Karunaweera; S.N. Surendran

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

An Ethno medical Survey on the Traditional Medicines and Methods Using for the Treatment of Arshas (Haemorrhoids) in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Arshas (Heamorrhoids) is one of the most common ailments in Sri Lankan society. Most of the people suffering from Arshas have great faith in Ayurvedic and Traditional treatments. According to literature survey there are many preparations for the Arshas done by using herbs and materials which could be found from our natural surroundings. The traditional medical practitioners' select the drugs based on a rational theory and empirical knowledge obtained by trial and error. Some traditional physicians of Sri Lanka claim to have special treatments known only to them or to the trusted members of the family, or the most eminent and trusted of the physician. Objectives:  This survey conducted to find out the most using formulations, treatment methods and commonest drugs used for the disease of Arshas of the traditional physicians in Sri Lanka.   Methods: In this survey ethno medical data was collected from thirty four traditional physicians residing in Uva province in Sri Lanka by using a questioneer. Results: The main methods of treating the disease Arshas was Kashaya (Decoctions), Churna (Powders), Alepa (Pastes), Avagaha (Sitz baths), Arishta, Asava and Dhuma (fumes). The most common herbs of treating the Arshas were Gotukola (Centella asiatica L.), Kohila (Lassia spinosa L.), Mun (Vigna radiate), Umbalakada (Maldive fish) and Ratu Araliya (Plumeria autifoloa P.)

Kumudu Rupika Weerasekera; Sujatha Ediriweera; Cooray Vidyashekera

2013-01-01

342

Demand for road-fuel in a small developing economy: The case of Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper estimates the demand for road fuel (petrol and auto-diesel) in the context of a small developing economy-Sri Lanka. The data set covers a period of 39 years from 1964 to 2002 representing both close economy and open economy policy regimes. The estimation procedure is based on seemingly unrelated regression equation (SURE) methodology mainly to capture substitutability of petrol and diesel in road transportation. The effect of auto-fuel prices on vehicle demand is also analyzed as a part of the analysis. In addition to confirming existing evidence on road-fuel demand, the findings reveal some interesting evidence with respect to own-price elasticity, cross-price elasticity, lag effects, income and vehicle mix variables.

Chandrasiri, Sunil [Department of Economics, University of Colombo, P.O. Box. 1490, Colombo 3 (Sri Lanka)]. E-mail: sunilch@sltnet.lk

2006-09-15

343

Demand for road-fuel in a small developing economy: The case of Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper estimates the demand for road fuel (petrol and auto-diesel) in the context of a small developing economy-Sri Lanka. The data set covers a period of 39 years from 1964 to 2002 representing both close economy and open economy policy regimes. The estimation procedure is based on seemingly unrelated regression equation (SURE) methodology mainly to capture substitutability of petrol and diesel in road transportation. The effect of auto-fuel prices on vehicle demand is also analyzed as a part of the analysis. In addition to confirming existing evidence on road-fuel demand, the findings reveal some interesting evidence with respect to own-price elasticity, cross-price elasticity, lag effects, income and vehicle mix variables

344

Effect of soil carbohydrates on nutrient availability in natural forests and cultivated lands in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbohydrates supply carbon sources for microbial activities that contribute to mineral nutrient production in soil. Their role on soil nutrient availability has not yet been properly elucidated. This was studied in forests and cultivated lands in Sri Lanka. Soil organic matter (SOM) fractions affecting carbohydrate availability were also determined. Soil litter contributed to sugars of plant origin (SPO) in croplands. The negative relationship found between clay bound organic matter (CBO) and glucose indicates higher SOM fixation in clay that lower its availability in cultivated lands. In forests, negative relationships between litter and sugars of microbial origin (SMO) showed that litter fuelled microbes to produce sugars. Fucose and glucose increased the availability of Cu, Zn and Mn in forests. Xylose increased Ca availability in cultivated lands. Arabinose, the main carbon source of soil respiration reduced the P availability. This study showed soil carbohydrates and their relationships with mineral nutrients could provide vital information on the availability of limiting nutrients in tropical ecosystems.

Ratnayake, R. R.; Seneviratne, G.; Kulasooriya, S. A.

2013-05-01

345

Impacts of the 2004 Indian ocean tsunami on the southwest coasts of Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused major landscape changes along the southwest coasts of Sri Lanka that were controlled by the flow, natural topography and bathymetry, and anthropogenic modifications of the terrain. Landscape changes included substantial beach erosion and scouring of return-flow channels near the beach, and deposition of sand sheets across the narrow coastal plain. In many areas tsunami deposits also included abundant building rubble due to the extensive destruction of homes and businesses in areas of dense development. Trim lines and flow directions confirmed that shoreline orientation and wave refraction from embayments and rock-anchored headlands locally focused the flow and amplified the inundation. Tsunami deposits were 1 to 36 cm thick but most were less than 25 cm thick. Deposit thickness depended partly on antecedent topography. The deposits were composed of coarse to medium sand organized into a few sets of plane parallel laminae that exhibited overall upward fining and landward thinning trends.

Morton, R. A.; Goff, J. R.; Nichol, S. L.

2007-01-01

346

Establishment of antimicrobial residue monitoring programme for food of animal origin in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: Antibiotic drugs are often used both therapeutically and prophylactically in animal production, and are necessary for many production systems. However, the presence of unacceptable levels of antimicrobial residues in animal products may lead to direct effects on the consumer, such as allergies and toxicities such as dose-independent idiosyncratic reactions that can be triggered due to chloramphenicol residues. Indirect adverse reactions include the promotion of antimicrobial resistance. Further, the parent drugs and their metabolites of the nitrofuran group of antimicrobials are known to be carcinogens. In order to promote awareness on food safety and quality assurance, it is necessary to monitor antimicrobial residues in animal products. This can be done only by having well equipped laboratories and validated techniques. Sri Lanka, as an export country for cultured shrimp, needs to comply with EU regulations. The establishment of the residue monitoring programme in Sri Lanka was commenced in 2002 at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Peradeniya. Three techniques have been established in Sri Lanka for monitoring antimicrobial residues in food of animal origin. The modified EU Six Plate Test (SPT) is a bioassay technique, which screens six groups of antimicrobials, namely; penicillin, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, macrolides (erythromycin), tetracycline and sulphonamides. Food commodities are screened for chloramphenicol residues using a commercially available ELISA kit (Euro Diagnostica, Netherlands), which is a microtiter plate, based competitive enzyme immunoassay. A HPLC-DAD technique has been established to detect nitrofuran metobolites in shrimp including the primary metobolites of furazolidone, furaltadone, nitrofurantoin and nitrofurazon. Since July 2002 a total of 1712 samples including 900 chicken samples and 812 shrimp samples were screened for antimicrobial residues using the SPT. Since November 2002, 1027 shrimp samples from export consignments have been tested using ELISA. In 2007 the HPLC technique was established and 85 shrimp samples have been tested. Out of the 900 broiler meat samples tested by SPT, 52 samples (5.8 %) showed positive results while all the shrimp samples tested were negative. Out of the 1027 shrimp samples tested using ELISA, 2 samples (0.2 %) were positive. All the samples tested using by HPLC were negative for nitrofuran metabolites. There is clear evidence that the frequency of residues occurrence in the samples tested decreased as the project progressed due to increased awareness among farmers on restrictions imposed on using antimicrobial agents in animal production. Trace back procedures were adopted in situations where residue violations were observed in order to initiate action to prevent reoccurrence through the appropriate and responsible use of antimicrobials, and efforts were taken to ensure sustainability of the project. Further, steps are now being taken to comply with ISO 17025 Certification in order to obtain the status of laboratory accreditation. The laboratory established at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka is now recognized as an Independent Reference Laboratory for monitoring antimicrobial residues in food of animal origin. The laboratory service for the analysis of food samples for antimicrobial residue monitoring is now extended to producers and quality assurance divisions of regulatory authorities. (author)

2002-11-00

347

Use of culture and immunochromatographic technique for diagnosis of trichomoniasis in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As a majority of the trichomoniasis patients are asymptomatic, laboratory tests are crucial in case detection. The usefulness of culture and immunochromatographic technique (ICT) compared to microscopy for detection of trichomoniasis in Sri Lanka was assessed. Females (16-45 years) from Colombo district were screened for Trichomonas vaginalis using three laboratory tests namely, microscopy of wet smear, Trichomonas liquid culture and ICT (OSOM® trichomonas rapid test). Trichomoniasis by at least one test being positive was 4.8%. Microscopy, culture and ICT detected 2.8%, 4.2% and 10% cases respectively. Microscopy missed 32% of culture positives. ICT is a simple, practical and reliable alternative to microscopy in laboratory diagnosis of trichomoniasis.

Banneheke H; Fernandopulle R; Prathanapan S; de Silva G; Fernando N

2013-09-01

348

The problem of privacy in transcultural research: reflections on an ethnographic study in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Western laws and codes of ethics frequently require that private health information be treated confidentially. However, cross-cultural research shows that it is not always easy to determine what members of a culture consider to be private or how they wish private information to be handled. This article begins by presenting an ethnographic study of patient-healer relationships in Sri Lanka; researchers were surprised to find that participants' views of health and privacy differed greatly from typical Western views, and that the privacy protections they had put in place caused discomfort among participants. Building on this ethics case study, the article explores two main questions. First, can a single definition of privacy possibly do justice to the cultural variations that exist, or does a conceptual definition inevitably run the risk of ethnocentrism? Second, to what extent is strict compliance with research regulations or ethics codes ethically justifiable when following the rules will obviously cause unease in international participants?

Monshi B; Zieglmayer V

2004-01-01

349

The problem of privacy in transcultural research: reflections on an ethnographic study in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Western laws and codes of ethics frequently require that private health information be treated confidentially. However, cross-cultural research shows that it is not always easy to determine what members of a culture consider to be private or how they wish private information to be handled. This article begins by presenting an ethnographic study of patient-healer relationships in Sri Lanka; researchers were surprised to find that participants' views of health and privacy differed greatly from typical Western views, and that the privacy protections they had put in place caused discomfort among participants. Building on this ethics case study, the article explores two main questions. First, can a single definition of privacy possibly do justice to the cultural variations that exist, or does a conceptual definition inevitably run the risk of ethnocentrism? Second, to what extent is strict compliance with research regulations or ethics codes ethically justifiable when following the rules will obviously cause unease in international participants? PMID:16622990

Monshi, Bardia; Zieglmayer, Verena

2004-01-01

350

Radioactivity of beach sand in the south western coast of Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The activity concentrations and effective dose rates due to (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K were determined for sand samples collected along the coastal strip from Crow Island to Beruwala, a part of south western coast of Sri Lanka, using a high-purity germanium detector. The ranges and the mean activity concentrations measured were (11-19 600, 2100), (7-3150, 450) and (14-1210, 220) Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K, respectively. The effective annual gamma dose in the area ranged from 0.004 to 16.8 mSv y(-1). For 21 % of the locations, the annual effective dose determined from the activity concentrations exceeded the average worldwide exposure of 2.4 mSv y(-1).

Withanage AP; Mahawatte P

2013-03-01

351

Municipal solid waste management in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka: Problems, issues and challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper describes the problems, issues and challenges faced by Sri Lanka based on the outcome of a recent study conducted in the country's Southern Province. The study consists of a public survey, discussions with local authority staff involved in waste management, discussions with Provincial Council and Government officials, dialogue with local politicians, review of documents and field observations. The study revealed that only 24% of the households have access to waste collection and that in rural areas it was less than 2%. A substantial number of households in areas without waste collection expect local authorities to collect their waste. The study also showed that most sites in the province are under capacity to handle any increased demand. Urgent and immediate improvement of the waste disposal sites is necessary to meet the current demand for improved waste collection. The study also revealed that there is a high willingness of people for home composting

2006-01-01

352

Municipal solid waste management in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka: problems, issues and challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the problems, issues and challenges faced by Sri Lanka based on the outcome of a recent study conducted in the country's Southern Province. The study consists of a public survey, discussions with local authority staff involved in waste management, discussions with Provincial Council and Government officials, dialogue with local politicians, review of documents and field observations. The study revealed that only 24% of the households have access to waste collection and that in rural areas it was less than 2%. A substantial number of households in areas without waste collection expect local authorities to collect their waste. The study also showed that most sites in the province are under capacity to handle any increased demand. Urgent and immediate improvement of the waste disposal sites is necessary to meet the current demand for improved waste collection. The study also revealed that there is a high willingness of people for home composting. PMID:16298122

Vidanaarachchi, Chandana K; Yuen, Samuel T S; Pilapitiya, Sumith

2005-11-17

353

Real-Time Biosurveillance Pilot Programme in Sri Lanka: Lessons Learned  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The latter parts of 2007 and early months of 2008 witnessed an alarming number of deaths due to a Leptospirosis outbreak in Sri Lanka(1). An unusual number of patients presenting with symptoms of fever, headache or myalgia concentrated in particular geographic areas (North Central and North Western Province in Sri Lanka) could have signalled the epidemiologists of an abnormal event with the help of a quicker surveillance programme leading to possible implementation of optimal strategies which could possibly have minimized the early deaths and even prevented the progression of the outbreak. The present day paper-based disease surveillance and notification systems in Sri Lanka(2), confined to a set of notifiable diseases, often require 15-30 days to communicate data and for the central Epidemiology Unit to process it. This latency does not allow for timely detection of disease outbreaks and it limits the ability of the health system to effectively respond and mitigate their consequences. Therefore it negatively affects the health status of the work force and productivity of the country. The Real Time Bio-surveillance Program (RTBP) is a pilot study aiming to introduce modern technology to the Health Department of Sri Lanka to complement the existing disease surveillance and notification systems. The processes involve digitizing all clinical health records and analysing them in near real-time to detect unusual events to forewarn health workers before the diseases reach epidemic states. Similar studies have been conducted on bio terrorism surveillance in Winnipeg, Canada(3), pandemic surveillance in Morocco(4) and North Carolina Disease Event Tracking and Epidemiologic Collection Tool (NC DETECT) in North Carolina(5). The infrastructure of the project RTBP is composed of an interconnected network between health care workers via mHealthSurvey mobile phone application, T-Cube web interface (TCWI) and Sahana Messaging/Alerting Module. Health records from health facilities, namely demographic information, symptoms, suspected and diagnosed diseases are collected through the mHealthSurvey, a mobile phone application(6), that feed in to the TCWI(7), a browser based software tool that detects adverse events; health officials are notified of the adverse events using the Sahana Alerting module that transports via Short Message Service (SMS), Email, and Web(10). Evaluation of the RTBP involves a replication study and parallel cohort study. This pilot study indicates the need for more robust mobile application for data collection with complete ontology, semantics and vocabulary in disease-syndrome information to reduce noise and increase reliability in the datasets. More rigorous capacity building and frequent use is required for health officials to take advantage of the full potential of TCWI. This paper discusses the technologies used in the pilot and the initial findings in relation to usability of the system.

Weerasinghe Gamachchige Chamindu Sampath

2010-01-01

354

Conservation Value of Forest Plantations: A Study of Four Timber Species in Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper assesses the potential of forest plantations in Sri Lanka consisting of teak, mahoganyand two species of eucalyptus, to facilitate the conservation of biodiversity using two taxonomic groups,the plants and birds. Their diversity in plantations at a harvestable age were compared with that of anatural forest. Enumerations of plants and dbh/height measurements were conducted in quadrates, whileavifauna was recorded along transects. Results show that plantation forests supported a reasonably richcommunity of both plants and birds, including natives and endemics. A large proportion of species werecommon to both plantations and natural forests indicating that plantations hold a subset of forest species.The presence of plants of various height and girth classes together with the high diversity and evennessvalues indicate that, although timber plantations are initially established as mono-cultivations, theyfacilitate the colonization of additional species. These findings thus demonstrate that forest plantationscould make a significant contribution towards biodiversity conservation.

Mayuri R Wijesinghe; V. R. de Silva

2012-01-01

355

Ultra-micro trace element contents in spices from Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Spices were analyzed by ICP-MS for determination of the ultra-micro trace elements in the human adult, Bi, Cd, Co, Ni, Pd, Pt, Se, Sn, Te, Tl, to complement previous results obtained by INAA and by EDXRF. The spices, originating from Sri Lanka, were curry, chilli powder and turmeric powders, coriander, cinnamon, black pepper, fennel, rampeh and curry leaves, and cumin. The analytical procedure was validated by analyzing the certified reference materials NIST SRM 1572 Citrus Leaves and NIST SRM 1573 Tomato Leaves. The results indicate that spices may contribute well to the daily optimal uptake of nutrients of a human adult. The adequacy of spices as a reference material with certified ultra micro trace elements is suggested. (author)

2008-01-01

356

Respiratory illnesses and ventilatory function among gem cutters in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: This study explores the proportion of respiratory symptoms and ventilatory functions among gem cutters in the city of gems, in Sri Lanka. METHODS: All gem cutters in the Ratnapura Medical Officers of Health area were included and the control group was selected from the government officers residing in the same area. The gem cutters and the controls were matched according to their age and sex. Pulmonary function was measured with a spirometer and peak flow meter. RESULTS: A significantly higher percentage of the exposed workers reported recurrent and prolonged cough (35%) and chest tightening (10%). FEV1 and FEV1/FVC was significantly lower in the exposed workers compared with unexposed workers. The results remained the same for the FEV1/FVC ratio (p=0.004) after adjusting for age and body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: Adverse respiratory health effects observed among gem cutters were probably caused by exposure to gem dust.

Prathapan S; Hettiarachchi P; Wimalasekara SW

2013-03-01

357

Poverty Incidence and its Determinants in the Estate Sector of Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Poverty measurement and analysis are needed to identify the poor, the nature and extent of poverty and its determinants, and to assess the impact of policies and programmes on the poor. The government of Sri Lanka has been spending huge sums of money for poverty alleviation and social welfare since its independence. Yet, poverty is still severe and widespread in Sri Lanka, especially in the estate and rural areas .The objective of this study is to find out and analyze the significant determinants of the incidence of poverty in the estate sector where the highest level of chronic poverty and unemployment exist. The national and regional poverty survey data and other official socio economic cross sectional data from selected provinces were used to analyze the extent of poverty in plantation sector in which 89 Divisional Secretariat from provinces such as Subaragamuva, Central and Uva were considered for the analysis. The econometric model were fitted and estimated in this study. Furthermore, Log transformation was conducted and heteroskedasticity problem was detected with the use of statistical software. The Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression analysis clearly indicates that, variables such as industrial employment, education, access to market and infrastructure significantly and negatively affect the poverty incidence of the estate sector. Also, agricultural employment has a negative impact but not significant. The R2 of 0.82 explains the statistical fitness of the model and the Prob (F-statistics) also confirms it. Analysis with the Durbin–Watson stat confirms that, there is no auto correlation between the variables. The results emphasize the need for adapting policies for regional infrastructural improvement as well as market and educational development in the plantation sector.

Sinnathurai Vijayakumar; B?ezinová Olga

2012-01-01

358

Impact of distributed and independent power generation on greenhouse gas emissions: Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sri Lanka has a hydropower dominated power system with approximately two thirds of its generation capacity based on large hydro plants. The remaining one third are based on oil fired thermal generation with varying technologies, such as oil steam, Diesel, gas turbines and combined cycle plants. A significant portion of this capacity is in operation as independent power plants (IPPs). In addition to these, Sri Lanka presently has about 40 MWs of mini-hydro plants, which are distributed in the highlands and their surrounding districts, mainly connected to the primary distribution system. Further, there are a few attempts to build fuel wood fired power plants of small capacities and connect them to the grid in various parts of the country. The study presented in this paper investigates the impact of these new developments in the power sector on the overall emissions and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in particular. It examines the resulting changes to the emissions and costs in the event of developing the proposed coal power plant as an IPP under different investment and operational conditions. The paper also examines the impact on emissions with 80 MWs of distributed power in different capacities of wind, mini-hydro and wood fired power plants. It is concluded that grid connected, distributed power generation (DPG) reduces emissions, with only a marginal increase in overall costs, due to the reduction in transmission and distribution network losses that result from the distributed nature of generation. These reductions can be enhanced by opting for renewable energy based DPGS, as the case presented in the paper, and coupling them with demand side management measures. It is also concluded that there is no impact on overall emissions by the base load IPPs unless they are allowed to change over to different fuel types and technologies. (author)

Wijayatunga, P.D.C. [University of Moratuwa (Sri Lanka). Centre for Energy Studies; Fernando, W.J.L.S. [Sri Lanka Energy Managers Association, Colombo (Sri Lanka); Shrestha, R.M. [Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani (Thailand). Energy Program

2004-12-01

359

Assessment of economic impact of electricity supply interruptions in the Sri Lanka industrial sector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the outcome of the Sri Lanka case study on assessing the economic impact of power interruptions on industry in the South Asia region, comprising the countries of Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh and India. The technical assessment evaluates the cost to the country's economy in terms of the industrial loss due to supply interruptions and environmental impacts from standby generation used to supplement the power requirements of the industrial sector. The study found that the main economic impact of the power interruptions, both planned and unplanned, is the loss of output in the industrial sector. In a typical year of power shortages, such as 2001, arising from a deficit in generation capacity, these losses can be as high as approximately US$ 81 million a year, which is approximately 0.65% of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). Also, the economic impact due to unplanned outages can be around US$ 45 million (0.3% of GDP) in a typical year. On average, these values for planned and unplanned outages are US$ 0.66 and US$ 1.08 per kW h of energy loss, respectively. It is also observed that 92% of the sampled industries have standby generation facilities to satisfy either, in full or partially, their own power requirements, which produced approximately 146 GW h of energy in 2001. The serious economic and environmental impacts of power interruptions, both planned and unplanned, underlines the importance of timely implementation of the long term least cost generation expansion plan and proper maintenance of transmission and distribution networks to ensure their high reliability. Therefore, it is clear that the utility needs to take immediate steps to improve its supply reliability in order to retain consumers and justify the existence of a centralised generation facility. (author)

Wijayatunga, P.D.C. [University of Moratuwa (Sri Lanka). Centre for Energy Studies, Department of Electrical Engineering; Jayalath, M.S. [NEXANT SARI/Energy, A Bectel Affiliated Company, Colombo (Sri Lanka)

2004-01-01

360

Impact of distributed and independent power generation on greenhouse gas emissions: Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Sri Lanka has a hydropower dominated power system with approximately two thirds of its generation capacity based on large hydro plants. The remaining one third are based on oil fired thermal generation with varying technologies, such as oil steam, Diesel, gas turbines and combined cycle plants. A significant portion of this capacity is in operation as independent power plants (IPPs). In addition to these, Sri Lanka presently has about 40 MWs of mini-hydro plants, which are distributed in the highlands and their surrounding districts, mainly connected to the primary distribution system. Further, there are a few attempts to build fuel wood fired power plants of small capacities and connect them to the grid in various parts of the country. The study presented in this paper investigates the impact of these new developments in the power sector on the overall emissions and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in particular. It examines the resulting changes to the emissions and costs in the event of developing the proposed coal power plant as an IPP under different investment and operational conditions. The paper also examines the impact on emissions with 80 MWs of distributed power in different capacities of wind, mini-hydro and wood fired power plants. It is concluded that grid connected, distributed power generation (DPG) reduces emissions, with only a marginal increase in overall costs, due to the reduction in transmission and distribution network losses that result from the distributed nature of generation. These reductions can be enhanced by opting for renewable energy based DPGS, as the case presented in the paper, and coupling them with demand side management measures. It is also concluded that there is no impact on overall emissions by the base load IPPs unless they are allowed to change over to different fuel types and technologies. (author)

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Informed consent in Sri Lanka: A survey among ethics committee members  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Approval of the research proposal by an ethical review committee from both sponsoring and host countries is a generally agreed requirement in externally sponsored research. However, capacity for ethics review is not universal. Aim of this study was to identify opinions and views of the members serving in ethical review and ethics committees in Sri Lanka on informed consent, essential components in the information leaflet and the consent form. Methods We obtained ethical approval from UK and Sri Lanka. A series of consensus generation meetings on the protocol were conducted. A task oriented interview guide was developed. The interview was based on open-ended questionnaire. Then the participants were given a WHO checklist on informed consent and requested to rate the items on a three point scale ranging from extremely important to not important. Results Twenty-nine members from ethics committees participated. Majority of participants (23), believed a copy of the information leaflet and consent form, should accompany research proposal. Opinions about the items that should be included in the information leaflets varied. Participants identified 18 criteria as requirements in the information leaflet and 19 for the consent form. The majority, 20 (69%), believed that all research need ethical approval but identified limited human resource, time and inadequate capacity as constraints. Fifteen (52%) believed that written consent is not required for all research. Verbal consent emerged as an alternative to written consent. The majority of participants rated all components of the WHO checklist as important. Conclusion The number of themes generated for the consent form (N = 18) is as many as for the information leaflet (N = 19) and had several overlaps. This suggests that the consent form should be itemized to reflect the contents covered in the information leaflet. The participants' opinion on components of the information leaflets and consent forms proved to be similar with WHO checklist on informed consent.

Sumathipala Athula; Siribaddana Sisira; Hewage Suwin; Lekamwattage Manura; Athukorale Manjula; Siriwardhana Chesmal; Murray Joanna; Prince Martin

2008-01-01

362

Collective trauma in northern Sri Lanka: a qualitative psychosocial-ecological study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex situations that follow war and natural disasters have a psychosocial impact on not only the individual but also on the family, community and society. Just as the mental health effects on the individual psyche can result in non pathological distress as well as a variety of psychiatric disorders; massive and widespread trauma and loss can impact on family and social processes causing changes at the family, community and societal levels. Method This qualitative, ecological study is a naturalistic, psychosocial ethnography in Northern Sri Lanka, while actively involved in psychosocial and community mental health programmes among the Tamil community. Participatory observation, key informant interviews and focus group discussion with community level relief and rehabilitation workers and government and non-governmental officials were used to gather data. The effects on the community of the chronic, man-made disaster, war, in Northern Sri Lanka were compared with the contexts found before the war and after the tsunami. Results Fundamental changes in the functioning of the family and the community were observed. While the changes after the tsunami were not so prominent, the chronic war situation caused more fundamental social transformations. At the family level, the dynamics of single parent families, lack of trust among members, and changes in significant relationships, and child rearing practices were seen. Communities tended to be more dependent, passive, silent, without leadership, mistrustful, and suspicious. Additional adverse effects included the breakdown in traditional structures, institutions and familiar ways of life, and deterioration in social norms and ethics. A variety of community level interventions were tried. Conclusion Exposure to conflict, war and disaster situations impact on fundamental family and community dynamics resulting in changes at a collective level. Relief, rehabilitation and development programmes to be effective will need to address the problem of collective trauma, particularly using integrated multi-level approaches.

Somasundaram Daya

2007-01-01

363

Emplacement and Evolution History of Pegmatites and Hydrothermal Deposits, Matale District, Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Excellent outcrops in Matale Sri Lanka provide unique insight into the emplacement and evolution history of hydrothermal and pegmatitic rocks in the central highlands of Sri Lanka. Field, structural, petrological, thermo-barometric studies in the metamorphic basement rocks in the central highlands and related hydrothermal deposits are presented in this study. Detailed petrographic and mineralogical data reveal peak metamorphic conditions for the crustal unit in the study area as 854 ± 44oC at 10.83 ± 0.86 kbar. Hydrothermal veins consisting of quartz and mica are closely related to cross-cutting pegmatites, which significantly post-date the peak metamorphic conditions of the crustal unit. Field relations indicate that the veins originated as ductile-brittle fractures have subsequently sealed by pegmatites and hydrothermal crystallization. Geological, textural and mineralogical data suggest that most enriched hydrothermal veins have evolved from a fractionated granitic melt progressively enriched in H2O, F, etc. Quartz, K-feldspar, mica, tourmaline, fluorite and topaz bear evidence of multistage crystallization that alternated with episodes of resorption. It was suggested that the level of emplacement of pegmatites of the Matale District was middle crust, near the crustal scale brittle-ductile transition zone at a temperature of about 600oC. For this crustal level and temperature range, it is considered very unlikely that intruding pegmatitic melts followed pre-existing cracks. As such the emplacement temperatures of the pegmatites could be well below the peak metamorphic estimates in the mafic granulites. The metamorphic P-T strategy and position of formation of hydrothermal deposits and pegmatites is summarized in the modified P-T-t-D diagrams.

G.W.A.R Fernando; A Pitawala; T.H.N.G Amaraweera

2011-01-01

364

A multi centre laboratory study of Gram negative bacterial blood stream infections in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Data on causative agents and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of blood stream infections in Sri Lanka is scarce. Information on trends of antibiotic resistance is necessary for the prescribers to treat patients effectively and policy makers to develop policies and guidelines. OBJECTIVES: To lay the foundation for a national data base on antimicrobial resistance in Sri Lanka. METHODS: A prospective study was carried out in seven hospitals to study the Gram negative aetiological agents and their susceptibility patterns in patients suspected of having bacteraemia. We reviewed 817 patients with clinically significant blood cultures including both adults and children. RESULTS: Data were complete for analysis in 733 Gram negative isolates only. Of the 733 isolates, 488 were from adults (> 12 years), 109 were from children (1-12 years) and 136 were from infants (<1 year). Intensive care units represented 18.4% of the isolates (123 adult patients and 27 paediatric patients). The highest number of isolates (33.7%) was from patients with septicaemia of unknown origin. Enteric fever, pyelonephritis and respiratory tract infections accounted for 20% of the isolates. Bacteraemia with underline malignancies were responsible for 24.5% of infections. Salmonella paratyphi A was the commonest cause of enteric fever in adults with 92% resistance to ciprofloxacin. The prevalence of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was high in this study population. CONCLUSIONS: It is essential to introduce multidisciplinary interventions to reduce the inappropriate use of antibiotics to increase the lifespan of precious antibiotics. Introduction of a National antibiotic policy with strict implementation and a well-planned stewardship programme is essential to control antimicrobial resistance in our country.

Chandrasiri P; Elwitigala JP; Nanayakkara G; Chandrasiri S; Patabendige G; Karunanayaka L; Perera J; Somaratne P; Jayathilleke K

2013-06-01

365

The burden of diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose in an urban population of Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To describe the burden of diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose in middle-aged residents (35-64 years) in an urban area of Sri Lanka. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Ragama Medical Officer of Health area, from which 2986 participants (1349 men and 1637 women) were randomly selected from the electoral registry between January and December 2007. The participants underwent a physical examination and had their height, weight, waist and hip circumferences and blood pressure measured by trained personnel. Fasting blood samples were taken for measurement of glucose, HbA(1c) and lipids. The prevalence of diabetes (fasting plasma glucose > 7 mmol/l) and impaired fasting glycaemia (fasting plasma glucose 5.6-6.9 mmol/l) and major predictors of diabetes in Sri Lanka were estimated from the population-based data. RESULTS: Age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes mellitus in this urban population was 20.3% in men and 19.8% in women. Through the present screening, 263 patients with diabetes and 1262 with impaired fasting glucose levels were identified. The prevalence of newly detected diabetes was 35.7% of all patients with diabetes. Among patients with diabetes, only 23.8% were optimally controlled. In the regression models, high BMI, high waist circumference, high blood pressure and hypercholesterolaemia increased the fasting plasma glucose concentration, independent of age, sex and a family history of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate the heavy burden of diabetes in this urban population. Short- and long-term control strategies are required, not only for optimal therapy among those affected, but also for nationwide primary prevention of diabetes.

Pinidiyapathirage MJ; Kasturiratne A; Ranawaka UK; Gunasekara D; Wijekoon N; Medagoda K; Perera S; Takeuchi F; Kato N; Warnakulasuriya T; Wickremasinghe AR

2013-03-01

366

Molecular, physiological and pathological characterization of Corynespora leaf spot fungi from rubber plantations in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The plant pathogenic fungus Corynespora cassiicola causes a severe leaf spot disease on more than 70 host plant species including Hevea brasiliensis. Genetic variability in 32 isolates of C. cassiicola collected from diverse hosts and locations in Sri Lanka and Australia was assessed using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA and random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis of total fungal DNA. Amplified ITS fragments from all 32 C. cassiicola isolates exhibited an identical size, and restriction analysis with seven different restriction endonucleases revealed identity in all of the detected DNA fragments. This finding of high genetic relatedness was further supported by the cloning and DNA sequencing of the ITS2 region from one Sri Lankan and one Australian isolate. However, RAPD-PCR profiles generated by 15 oligonucleotide decamer primers revealed significant polymorphism between groups of organisms. Genetic relationships among the isolates were determined by cluster analysis of the RAPD-PCR data and seven different RAPD groups were identified. Isolates showed strong correlations between the assigned RAPD group and the location and host plant genotype from which the isolate was collected. Correlations were also observed between the RAPD group, growth of the isolate and pathogenicity on different plant hosts.

Silva WPK; Deverall BJ; Lyon BR

1998-06-01

367

Susceptibility of New Entrant University students in Sri Lanka to varicella zoster infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To investigate the susceptibility of Sri Lankan new entry university students to varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection, a cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among new entrant medical and engineering students of the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. Self-reported history of chicken pox was studied first, followed by serological evaluation for VZV IgG antibodies. A total of 451 students participated in the study out of which 189 (41.9%) reported a history of chicken pox. Median age of reported age of acquiring the disease was 14 years with an interquartile range of 10 to 17 years. Only 25% of the population reported history of infection prior to age of 10 years. The seropositive rate of VZV IgG antibodies among undergraduates with a negative history of chicken pox was 10.1% ( 25/247). The present study indicates that nearly half (222/436) of the study population (50.9%, 95% CI 46.2-55.6) was susceptible to VZV infection.

Kurukulasooriya GM; Thevanesam V; Agampodi SB; Abeykoon AM; Amarasiri SP; Goonasekera KP

2010-04-01

368

Susceptibility of New Entrant University students in Sri Lanka to varicella zoster infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the susceptibility of Sri Lankan new entry university students to varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection, a cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among new entrant medical and engineering students of the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. Self-reported history of chicken pox was studied first, followed by serological evaluation for VZV IgG antibodies. A total of 451 students participated in the study out of which 189 (41.9%) reported a history of chicken pox. Median age of reported age of acquiring the disease was 14 years with an interquartile range of 10 to 17 years. Only 25% of the population reported history of infection prior to age of 10 years. The seropositive rate of VZV IgG antibodies among undergraduates with a negative history of chicken pox was 10.1% ( 25/247). The present study indicates that nearly half (222/436) of the study population (50.9%, 95% CI 46.2-55.6) was susceptible to VZV infection. PMID:19411280

Kurukulasooriya, G M P C P; Thevanesam, V; Agampodi, S B; Abeykoon, A M S B; Amarasiri, S P; Goonasekera, K P C

2009-05-01

369

The use of mindfulness practice in the treatment of a case of obsessive compulsive disorder in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For over 20 centuries, Buddhism has been the spiritual practice of the majority of Sri Lankans. Though Buddhist practices have been increasingly influencing psychotherapy in the West, the use of such practices in psychotherapy in Sri Lanka is not common. This paper attempts to bridge this gap by presenting a case study where Buddhist mindfulness practice was used successfully in the treatment of a case of obsessive compulsive disorder. This paper also presents an outline of the association between Buddhist mindfulness practice and mindfulness practices used in modern-day psychotherapy and discusses issues in the use of mindfulness practice in psychotherapy.

de Zoysa P

2013-03-01

370

Non-cognitive characteristics predicting academic success among medical students in Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify non-cognitive and socio-demographic characteristics determining academic success of Sri Lankan medical undergraduates. Methods A retrospective study among 90 recently graduated students of the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka. Students were stratified into two equal groups; ‘High-achievers’ (honours degree at the final MBBS examination) and ‘Low-achievers’ (repeated one or more subjects at the same examination). A revised version of the Non-cognitive Questionnaire (NQ) with additional socio-demographic data was the study instrument. Academic performance indicator was performance at the final MBBS examinations. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed using the dichotomous variable ‘Honours degree at final MBBS’ as the dependant factor. Results Males were 56.7%. Mean age?±?SD was 26.4?±?0.9?years. ‘High-achievers’ were significantly younger than ‘Low-achievers’. Significant proportion of ‘High-achievers’ were from the Western province and selected to university from Colombo district. A significant majority of ‘High-achievers’ entered medical school from their first attempt at GCE A/L examination and obtained ‘Distinctions’ at the GCE A/L English subject. ‘High-achievers’ demonstrated a significantly higher mean score for the following domains of NQ; Positive self-concept and confidence, realistic self-appraisal, leadership, preference of long range goals and academic familiarity. The binary logistic regression indicates that age, being selected to university from Colombo district, residency in Western province, entering university from GCE A/L first attempt, obtaining a ‘Distinction’ for GCE A/L English subject, higher number of patient-oriented case discussions, positive self-concept and confidence, leadership qualities, preference of long range goals and academic familiarity all significantly increased the odds of obtaining a Honours degree. Conclusion A combined system incorporating both past academic performance and non-cognitive characteristics might help improve the selection process and early recognition of strugglers.

Ranasinghe Priyanga; Ellawela Amaya; Gunatilake Saman B

2012-01-01

371

Non-cognitive characteristics predicting academic success among medical students in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: To identify non-cognitive and socio-demographic characteristics determining academic success of Sri Lankan medical undergraduates. METHODS: A retrospective study among 90 recently graduated students of the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka. Students were stratified into two equal groups; 'High-achievers' (honours degree at the final MBBS examination) and 'Low-achievers' (repeated one or more subjects at the same examination). A revised version of the Non-cognitive Questionnaire (NQ) with additional socio-demographic data was the study instrument. Academic performance indicator was performance at the final MBBS examinations. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed using the dichotomous variable 'Honours degree at final MBBS' as the dependant factor. RESULTS: Males were 56.7%. Mean age ± SD was 26.4 ± 0.9 years. 'High-achievers' were significantly younger than 'Low-achievers'. Significant proportion of 'High-achievers' were from the Western province and selected to university from Colombo district. A significant majority of 'High-achievers' entered medical school from their first attempt at GCE A/L examination and obtained 'Distinctions' at the GCE A/L English subject. 'High-achievers' demonstrated a significantly higher mean score for the following domains of NQ; Positive self-concept and confidence, realistic self-appraisal, leadership, preference of long range goals and academic familiarity.The binary logistic regression indicates that age, being selected to university from Colombo district, residency in Western province, entering university from GCE A/L first attempt, obtaining a 'Distinction' for GCE A/L English subject, higher number of patient-oriented case discussions, positive self-concept and confidence, leadership qualities, preference of long range goals and academic familiarity all significantly increased the odds of obtaining a Honours degree. CONCLUSION: A combined system incorporating both past academic performance and non-cognitive characteristics might help improve the selection process and early recognition of strugglers.

Ranasinghe P; Ellawela A; Gunatilake SB

2012-01-01

372

Food security, agricultural subsidies, energy, and the environment: a process of 'glocalization' in Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper analyzes the interplay of policy dilemma in the areas of food security, agricultural subsidies, energy consumption, and the environment in the 'glocalization' process of Sri Lanka. It demonstrates that the domestic agricultural and food sector is intricately interconnected with the global economy and world market forces. While this paper gives a primary focus on domestic rice production and wheat import policies, it further examines the environmental consequences and public health issues that are associated with the process of 'glocalization' as part of globalization. This 'glocalization' has led to a series of intended and unintended externalities for Sri Lanka whose economic integration is irreversibly linked to agricultural and subsidy policies of other food exporting and producing countries of Asia and the United States. (author)

Mendis, P.

2001-07-01

373

Analysis of rural household energy supplies in Sri Lanka: energy efficiency, fuel switching and barriers to expansion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A majority of the households in Sri Lanka, as in the case of many developing countries, is concentrated in the rural areas of the country. Unfortunately, very little attention has been paid until recently to analyse and address various issues associated with rural energy supplies, particularly those issues regarding barriers to penetration of clean and convenient sources of energy. This paper presents the results and analysis of a study conducted through a sample study on domestic energy supplies in rural Sri Lanka with emphasis on cooking and lighting energy requirements. The paper has attempted to highlight policy issues associated with rural energy supplies and possible solutions to them in the context of the country's overall picture of the energy sector. (Author)

Wijayatunga, Priyantha D.C.; Attalage, Rahula A. [Moratuwa Univ., Moratuwa (Sri Lanka)

2003-05-01

374

TSUNAMI ON 26 DECEMBER 2004: SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF TSUNAMI HEIGHT AND THE EXTENT OF INUNDATION IN SRI LANKA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of the massive tsunami of 26 December 2004 on Sri Lanka bytracing the tsunami height, the extent of inundation and the level of damage along the affectedcoastal belt. The results of an extensive field survey that was carried out in the east, south andwest coasts to record the evidence of water levels left behind by the tsunami clearly indicate non-uniform spatial distribution of inundation along the affected coastline of the country. Thetsunami inundation had been significantly greater for most parts of the east and the south-eastcoastal areas than the south, south-west and the west coasts of Sri Lanka. The results alsoindicate the possible influence of the coastal geomorphology on the extent of inundation. On theother hand, the measurements suggest maximum tsunami heights of 3 m – 7 m along the eastcoast, 3 m – 11 m on the south coast, and 1.5 m – 6 m on the west coast.

Janaka J. Wijetunge

2006-01-01

375

Using focus groups to investigate service quality determinants for customer satisfaction in selected university libraries in Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed at establishing service quality determinants which may affect customer satisfaction in university libraries in Sri Lanka. Using the literature, 113 service quality determinants were identified. These were then reviewed by eight focus groups in four different universities. Forty of the determinants were perceived to be applicable to their context. The participants also added 14 quality requirements which they thought were not provided for in the list. Finally, the content and face validity of the 54 determinants were evaluated by a panel of experts who ultimately reduced them to 50. This study recommends the use of the identified quality determinants by library administrators and policymakers in the higher education sector in Sri Lanka to gauge the levels of customer satisfaction and assure quality of service.

Chaminda Jayasundara; Patrick Ngulube; Mabel K. Minishi-Majanja

2010-01-01

376

Establishment of multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) technology for goats in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) has been done successfully in goats in some countries (Chen et al., 2008). It can be used to multiply the genetically superior animals and to make elite herds with increased production potential. There have been no previous reports on successful MOET in goats in Sri Lanka. Therefore, this study was carried out to establish techniques for in vivo production and transfer of goat embryos in Sri Lanka. Genetically superior does (n = 7) were subjected to super ovulation for in vivo embryo production using a protocol modified from that of Batt et al (1993). Progesterone releasing intravaginal pessaries (45 mg, Cronolone) was inserted on Day 1 of the programme. The does in group 1 (n = 3) were stimulated on Day 8 with injections of pure porcine Follicular Stimulating Hormone (pFSH), while those in group 2 (n = 4) were stimulated with pure ovine Follicular Stimulating Hormone (oFSH). Equine Chorionic Gonadotrophin (eCG) was given to all does in the evening of Day 8. Subsequent injections of pFSH (group 1) or oFSH (group 2) were given in the morning and evening on Day 9 and Day 10. All does were injected with prostaglandin analogue (263 ?g/ml cloprostenol sodium) in the morning of Day 9 and vaginal pessaries were removed in the evening of Day 10. On Day 11, pFSH or oFSH was injected in the morning and Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) was injected in the evening. Immediately after the GnRH injection does were exposed to breeding with a genetically superior Jamnapari buck for 48 hours. Embryos were collected surgically 7 d after oestrus, by flushing of the uterus with embryo flushing medium containing lactated Ringer's solution with 1% bovine serum albumin at 37 deg C through a mid ventral laparotomy. The quality of the embryos was assessed microscopically and those considered to be of good and excellent quality were transferred surgically to oestrus synchronized recipient goats (n = 6) 7 d post-oestrus. The ovarian parameters measured and mean numbers of embryos recovered after superovalation are given. The total number and the quality of the embryos recovered from each group of does are shown in Table II. Following embryo transplantation, 4 of the 6 recipient does were diagnosed pregnant by ultrasound at day 35. The first goat kid born (named 'Peradeniya Kumari') was a single healthy female with 3.6 kg birth weight at full term. Two more does kidded, resulting in four healthy kids with birth weights of 3.2 kg (female), 1.8 kg (female), 1.6 kg (male) and 1.2 kg (male), while an abortion was observed in one doe. During the first six weeks the average weight gains of the first two kids born were 152.3 and 149.2 g/d, respectively. The results showed that valuable, genetically superior female goats can be multiplied using embryo transfer. The superovulatory response, quality and quantity of the embryos were better with oFSH than with pFSH. Although the number of embryos recovered was high in both groups, only some of the embryos were transferred due to the lack of sufficient number of recipient goats. The resulting offspring showed high growth rates and good survivability. Further experiments are warranted to optimize the protocols under Sri Lankan conditions and to compare the data statistically. In conclusion, the birth of healthy goat offspring through MOET technology is reported for the first time in Sri Lanka, indicating the feasibility of multiplying superior goats through this technology. (author)

2009-01-01

377

Homegardens as a Multi-functional Land-Use Strategy in Sri Lanka with Focus on Carbon Sequestration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper explores the concept of homegardens and their potential functions as strategic elements in land-use planning, and adaptation and mitigation to climate change in Sri Lanka. The ancient and locally adapted agroforestry system of homegardens is presently estimated to occupy nearly 15 % of the land area in Sri Lanka and is described in the scientific literature to offer several ecosystem services to its users; such as climate regulation, protection against natural hazards, enhanced land productivity and biological diversity, increased crop diversity and food security for rural poor and hence reduced vulnerability to climate change. Our results, based on a limited sample size, indicate that the homegardens also store significant amount of carbon, with above ground biomass carbon stocks in dry zone homegardens (n = 8) ranging from 10 to 55 megagrams of carbon per hectare (Mg C ha(-1)) with a mean value of 35 Mg C ha(-1), whereas carbon stocks in wet zone homegardens (n = 4) range from 48 to 145 Mg C ha(-1) with a mean value of 87 Mg C ha(-1). This implies that homegardens may contain a significant fraction of the total above ground biomass carbon stock in the terrestrial system in Sri Lanka, and from our estimates its share has increased from almost one-sixth in 1992 to nearly one-fifth in 2010. In the light of current discussions on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+), the concept of homegardens in Sri Lanka provides interesting aspects to the debate and future research in terms of forest definitions, setting reference levels, and general sustainability.

Mattsson E; Ostwald M; Nissanka SP; Marambe B

2013-03-01

378

Homegardens as a Multi-functional Land-Use Strategy in Sri Lanka with Focus on Carbon Sequestration.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the concept of homegardens and their potential functions as strategic elements in land-use planning, and adaptation and mitigation to climate change in Sri Lanka. The ancient and locally adapted agroforestry system of homegardens is presently estimated to occupy nearly 15 % of the land area in Sri Lanka and is described in the scientific literature to offer several ecosystem services to its users; such as climate regulation, protection against natural hazards, enhanced land productivity and biological diversity, increased crop diversity and food security for rural poor and hence reduced vulnerability to climate change. Our results, based on a limited sample size, indicate that the homegardens also store significant amount of carbon, with above ground biomass carbon stocks in dry zone homegardens (n = 8) ranging from 10 to 55 megagrams of carbon per hectare (Mg C ha(-1)) with a mean value of 35 Mg C ha(-1), whereas carbon stocks in wet zone homegardens (n = 4) range from 48 to 145 Mg C ha(-1) with a mean value of 87 Mg C ha(-1). This implies that homegardens may contain a significant fraction of the total above ground biomass carbon stock in the terrestrial system in Sri Lanka, and from our estimates its share has increased from almost one-sixth in 1992 to nearly one-fifth in 2010. In the light of current discussions on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+), the concept of homegardens in Sri Lanka provides interesting aspects to the debate and future research in terms of forest definitions, setting reference levels, and general sustainability. PMID:23456780

Mattsson, Eskil; Ostwald, Madelene; Nissanka, S P; Marambe, Buddhi

2013-03-01

379

Thrombotic microangiopathy and acute kidney injury in hump-nosed viper (Hypnale species) envenoming: a descriptive study in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hump-nosed viper (Hypnale species) bites are common in Sri Lanka and a proportion of these bites lead to coagulation abnormalities and acute kidney injury (AKI). We observed thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) among some of these patients, but its contribution to severity of AKI and other morbidities remains unknown. Thus, we report a case series of TMA following hump-nosed viper bite addressing the complications and renal out comes in Sri Lanka. This was a prospective observational study carried out at the nephrology unit, Kandy in Sri Lanka from October 2010 to October 2011 and included 11 patients with AKI following hump-nosed viper bites. All eleven cases needed renal replacement therapy (RRT) with intermittent haemodialysis for a period of 1-5 weeks. Of them, 7 patients developed TMA with evidence of microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia (MAHA), thrombocytopenia and severe anaemia needing multiple blood transfusions. They needed longer duration of RRT (range 2-5 weeks); 2 patients developed chronic kidney disease and two died during acute stage. Autopsy study found thrombosis of micro-vessels. Thrombotic microangiopathy could be a causative pathology of AKI in hump-nosed viper bite carrying poor outcome.

Herath N; Wazil A; Kularatne S; Ratnatunga N; Weerakoon K; Badurdeen S; Rajakrishna P; Nanayakkara N; Dharmagunawardane D

2012-07-01

380

Home ranges and habitat use of sloth bears Melursus ursinus inornatus in Wasgomuwa National Park, Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied home ranges and habitat selection of 10 adult sloth bears Melursus ursinus inornatus at Wasgomuwa National Park, Sri Lanka during 2002-2003. Very little is known about the ecology and behaviour of M. u. inornatus, which is a subspecies found in Sri Lanka. Our study was undertaken to assess space and habitat requirements typical of a viable population of M. u. inornatus to facilitate future conservation efforts. We captured and radio-collared 10 adult sloth bears and used the telemetry data to assess home-range size and habitat use. Mean 95% fixed kernel home ranges were 2.2 km2 (SE = 0.61) and 3.8 km2 (SE = 1.01) for adult females and males, respectively. Although areas outside the national park were accessible to bears, home ranges were almost exclusively situated within the national park boundaries. Within the home ranges, high forests were used more and abandoned agricultural fields (chenas) were used less than expected based on availability. Our estimates of home-range size are among the smallest reported for any species of bear. Thus, despite its relatively small size, Wasgomuwa National Park may support a sizeable population of sloth bears. The restriction of human activity within protected areas may be necessary for long-term viability of sloth bear populations in Sri Lanka as is maintenance of forest or scrub cover in areas with existing sloth bear populations and along potential travel corridors. ?? Wildlife Biology 2007.

Ratnayeke, S.; Van Manen, F. T.; Padmalal, U. K. G. K.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Energy access and transition to cleaner cooking fuels and technologies in Sri Lanka: Issues and policy limitations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Easy energy access is a trigger for human, social, and economic development. A research project was undertaken in Sri Lanka to broaden the understanding of human dimension of energy access and technologies. A questionnaire survey, covering 2269 households, gathered data on socio-economic contexts and issues influencing a transition towards clean cooking facilities. The findings reveal that the transition is impeded by four factors: the lack of motivation and the pressure for switching over to cleaner facilities, the lack of modern energy technology options, the financial risks, and the lack of financing and other support. The paper describes the delicate two-way interrelation between women earning wages and the transitions to cleaner cooking fuels and technologies. The findings suggest the need for a policy framework involving the stakeholders, financing and standardised technologies. To make a change it is proposed to introduce a national, integrated policy incorporating financing and energy governance. - Highlights: ? Households in Sri Lanka lack access to modern energy technology options for cooking. ? Cooking with fuel wood and residues is the norm in Sri Lanka, particularly in rural households. ? A survey of rural households revealed that most cannot afford to switch to cleaner cooking options. ? Most households have little awareness of the health impacts of biomass cooking. ? Women in regular formal employment are more likely to value cleaner cooking options that save time.

2011-01-01

382

Morphology and surface topography of the schistosome Bivitellobilharzia nairi from the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus maximus) in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bivitellobilharzia nairi was first recorded from an Indian elephant (Elephas maximus) in Berlin. Infections with this parasite have become increasingly important in E. maximus maximus populations in Sri Lanka. The present work is the first morphological description of this schistosome from Sri Lanka. A number of adult worms were recovered from a dead Asian elephant near the elephant orphanage, Pinnawala, in Sri Lanka. The observed clinical features of the infected elephant included emaciation, subventral oedema and anaemia. Post-mortem results indicated that the liver was enlarged and adult schistosomes were found in the blood vessels of the liver parenchyma. The total number of worms recovered from a portion of the liver was 129,870, which is an average of 22 worms per 100 g of liver. The present study uses both light microscopic and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques for the morphological and topographical characterization of this parasite and to permit comparison with other species of schistosomes. Morphologically, these worms correspond very well to the description of B. nairi by Dutt & Srivastava (1955). Moreover, it is clear that B. nairi is a distinctive species easily differentiated from other schistosomes. The SEM study of the tegument of male worms shows that the surface of B. nairi is smoother than in other schistosomes. PMID:22989615

Rajapakse, R P V J; Iwagami, M; Wickramasinghe, S; Walker, S M; Agatsuma, T

2012-09-19

383

Morphology and surface topography of the schistosome Bivitellobilharzia nairi from the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus maximus) in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bivitellobilharzia nairi was first recorded from an Indian elephant (Elephas maximus) in Berlin. Infections with this parasite have become increasingly important in E. maximus maximus populations in Sri Lanka. The present work is the first morphological description of this schistosome from Sri Lanka. A number of adult worms were recovered from a dead Asian elephant near the elephant orphanage, Pinnawala, in Sri Lanka. The observed clinical features of the infected elephant included emaciation, subventral oedema and anaemia. Post-mortem results indicated that the liver was enlarged and adult schistosomes were found in the blood vessels of the liver parenchyma. The total number of worms recovered from a portion of the liver was 129,870, which is an average of 22 worms per 100 g of liver. The present study uses both light microscopic and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques for the morphological and topographical characterization of this parasite and to permit comparison with other species of schistosomes. Morphologically, these worms correspond very well to the description of B. nairi by Dutt & Srivastava (1955). Moreover, it is clear that B. nairi is a distinctive species easily differentiated from other schistosomes. The SEM study of the tegument of male worms shows that the surface of B. nairi is smoother than in other schistosomes.

Rajapakse RP; Iwagami M; Wickramasinghe S; Walker SM; Agatsuma T

2013-09-01

384

A theoretical model to predict customer satisfaction in relation to service quality in selected university libraries in Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available University library administrators in Sri Lanka have begun to search for alternative ways to satisfy their clientele on the basis of service quality. This article aims at providing a theoretical model to facilitate the identification of service quality attributes and domains that may be used to predict customer satisfaction from a service quality perspective. The effectiveness of existing service quality models such as LibQUAL, SERVQUAL and SERVPREF have been questioned. In that regard, this study developed a theoretical model for academic libraries in Sri Lanka based on the disconfirmation and performance-only paradigms. These perspectives were considered by researchers to be the core mechanism to develop service quality/customer satisfaction models. The attributes and domain identification of service quality was carried out with a stratified sample of 263 participants selected from postgraduate and undergraduate students and academic staff members from the faculties of Arts in four universities in Sri Lanka. The study established that responsiveness, supportiveness, building environment, collection and access, furniture and facilities, technology, Web services and service delivery were quality domains which can be used to predict customer satisfaction. The theoretical model is unique in its domain structure compared to the existing models. The model needs to be statistically tested to make it valid and parsimonious.

Chaminda Jayasundara; Patrick Ngulube; Mabel K. Minishi-Majanja

2009-01-01

385

Provenance variations in seed-related characters and oil content of Calophyllum inophyllum L. in northern Australia and Sri Lanka  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seed morphometric characters and oil content were studied in multiple-use plant, Calophyllum inophyllum L. of two countries, Australia (southern hemisphere) and Sri Lanka (northern hemisphere). Seven provenances were selected which included three from northern Australia and four from Sri Lanka. Twelve Candidate plus trees (CPTs) each were selected from 2 to 3 different locations within each provenance based on the morphometric and qualitative traits (GBH > 100 cm). Seed collection in both hemispheres was carried out from May to August 2008. Calophyllum inophyllum L. provenances showed a distinct hemisphere variation in their seed-related characters and oil content. All provenances differed significantly (P < 0.05) with one another in seed length. Seeds from Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka and seeds from Cardwell Australia recorded the highest (?57%) and the lowest oil (?31%) content respectively. Strong correlations were found between seed morphometric characters. Relatively weaker correlations were found between seed morphometric characters and oil content. Variations in seed-related characters were largely attributed by the provenance contribution which shows the significance of the effect of genetic variability on above mentioned seed related characters.

Hathurusingha Subhash; Ashwath Nanjappa; Midmore David

2011-01-01

386

Establishment of Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer (MOET) technology for goats in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This study was conducted to determine a suitable follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) preparation for superovulation in goats, establish techniques for embryo production and transfer in goats, and to examine the feasibility of applying such techniques in Sri Lanka. Two groups of genetically superior does were inserted with progesterone releasing intravaginal pessaries (45 mg Cronolone) on d 1 of the programme. On d 8, the does in Group 1 (n = 3) and Group 2 (n = 4) were given 2.5 mL injections of pure porcine FSH (pFSH, 20 mg/mL) or pure ovine FSH (oFSH, 0.88 mg/mL), respectively. On the same day, all animals were injected with 300 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG, 500 ?g/mL). Subsequent injections of 1.25 mL pFSH or oFSH were given in the morning and evening on d 9 and 10. Does were injected with 197 ?g prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?, 263 ?g/mL) in the morning of d 9 and vaginal pessaries were removed on the even- ing of d 10. On d 11, 1.25 mL of pFSH or oFSH and 1 mL of luteinising hormone releasing hormone (LHRH, 50 ?g/mL) injections were given in the morning and evening, respectively. On the same day, does in oestrus were bred to two Jamnapari bucks. Seven d post- oestrus, embryos were collected surgically, using embryo flushing medium. The quality of the embryos was assessed and the recovered embryos were transplanted surgically to oestrus synchronised goat recipients (n = 4/group) at 7 d post-oestrus. Following embryo transplantation, four does (Group 1, n = 1, Group 2, n = 3) were found to be pregnant by ultrasound scanning at 35 d into pregnancy. One healthy female offspring (Peradeniya Kumari) was born to Group 1. Another four goat kids were born to Group 2, while one kid died. In the same group, one abortion was reported. The results suggest that oFSH is better than pFSH for the superovulation of goats and that embryo transfer technology can be used in goats in Sri Lanka. (author)

2010-01-01

387

Predicting and monitoring drought in the humid tropics: A case study on Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation develops an operational tool for predicting and monitoring drought applicable to the humid tropics. Using Sri Lanka as a case example, it examines whether droughts in the humid tropics are predictable on an operational basis, and investigates how moisture stress may be monitored as a season unfurls. Droughts in Sri Lanka occur when rainfall during the main cultivation season -- the Maha (October-March) -- fails. Such droughts profoundly impact rice production. From 1951-2008, there were 4 extreme [Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) <-2.0], 1 severe (-1.9

Fernando, Dinali Nelun

388

Thalassemia treatment and prevention in Uva Province, Sri Lanka: a public opinion survey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Due to its excessive cost thalassemia management is a major health care problem in Sri Lanka. The majority of doctors are using only desferrioxamine (DFO), in grossly inadequate doses mainly because of its unavailability. Deferiprone (L1), which is more affordable, is not used due to fear of toxicity, as previously reported. Arthropathy attributed to L1 has been observed in some patients, and has led to the discontinuation of the drug in all patients, without scientific rationale. The proposed thalassemia prevention project for Uva Province is based on prevention of marriages between carriers. This could be achieved by carrier screening and counseling of teenagers and adolescents well before they select their partners. In Sri Lanka, people find their marriage partners at their work place or universities, by themselves, or with the help of professional marriage brokers (they are called Kapuwa), through relatives and close friends. This process of finding a partner may also be helped by paper advertisements. However, in addition to the appearance and attitude of the prospective partner, the caste, social background and horoscope are major considerations in selecting a partner. Even when they select partners on their own at the work place or university, they keep these factors in the back of their minds to ensure social acceptance. Many relationships are given up due to objections and advice from parents when the caste or social background does not match. A horoscope is a written document that almost every child gets, written by a professional horoscope reader and depending on the time of birth. It is believed, according to the horoscope, that a person's attitudes, desires, future prospects of finding a suitable partner, could be predicted. It is rare to proceed with a marriage if the horoscope does not match. These customs are considered less seriously among educated people when they find their partner at the work place or university. The concept of thalassemia risk-free marriages advocates promotion of marriages where at least one partner is a non-carrier. Success of such a project could be monitored at the time of marriage. This opinion survey indicates that the public is motivated to promote carrier screening and the prevention of thalassemia.

Mudiyanse RM

2006-01-01

389

Meteorological and internal wave forcing of seiches along the Sri Lanka coast  

Science.gov (United States)

Regularly observed seiches from tide gauge records around the Sri Lanka coast have been analyzed to determine the forcing mechanisms. The seiche periods range from a few 10s of min to 2 h. Fortnightly and seasonal variations of seiche amplitudes are clearly visible on the east coast. These seiche amplitudes are particularly large approximately 6-8 days after spring tides, with maximum seiche amplitudes observed during March-April and October-November, suggesting that the seiche variation could be related to stratification and internal wave activity. There is no visible fortnightly and seasonal variation of seiche amplitudes in west coast records. Instead, they show a daily pattern with relatively larger seiches around 1000 LT, suggesting that the seiches on the west coast could result from diurnal atmospheric forcing. Barotropic and two-layer models have been developed to investigate the influence of atmospheric forcing and internal wave activity on the seiches. A barotropic model applied to the west coast shows that the daily seiche amplitude variation could be simulated with cyclic diurnal meteorological forcing. Two-layer model runs for Trincomalee Bay and the adjacent east coast shelf suggest that seiche amplitudes are proportional to vertical stratification and mixed layer depths. Therefore, the observed seiches there could be excited by internal waves, which originate as far away as the Andaman Sea during spring tides and have a travel time of 6-8 days to the Sri Lankan east coast. However, further studies, including direct measurements of internal wave activity within the region, are required to confirm this hypothesis.

Wijeratne, E. M. S.; Woodworth, P. L.; Pugh, D. T.

2010-03-01

390

A Historical Analysis of the Relationship Between Rice Production and PDSI Values in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

As world population grows, there are ever increasing demands being placed on the food production systems throughout the world. Climate change is complicating these stressors even further through more frequent severe weather events. In the developing world, where there are fewer resources to mitigate the effects of climate change, the combination of these two factors can have drastic consequences. In Sri Lanka, farmers in major rice production areas of the country are already struggling to produce enough rice, a staple food of the local diet, and a severe wet or dry spell could be ruinous. Faced with a changing climate and a growing demand for rice, it is important to be able to anticipate how climatic changes will affect rice production. By examining how extreme wet and dry spells have historically affected rice production, decision makers may be better able to predict and prepare for potential food shortages. We conducted an analysis of historic temperature, precipitation, and rice production statistics in order to determine the effects of extreme wet and dry spells on rice production. We also created a timeline of major developments in Sri Lankan agriculture in order to compare effects on rice production due to changes in agricultural practices with meteorological changes. Historical temperature and precipitation data were used to calculate the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for a number of stations distributed throughout the Mahaweli river basin. The basin, the largest in the country, contains three different climatic regions - dry, intermediate, and wet - that all receive different amounts of annual precipitation. The PDSI values were used to quantify drought and wetness during the Yala (April-September) and Maha (October-March) growing seasons. Analysis of historical PDSI values, agricultural advances, and rice production statistics shows great promise for anticipating and mitigating future food shortages.

Jacobi, J. H.; Hornberger, G. M.

2011-12-01

391

Prevalence of postpartum anal incontinence: a cross sectional study in Northern Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of postpartum anal incontinence (AI) and to highlight associated factors that account for variation in the prevalence in Vavuniya district in Northern Sri Lanka. METHODS: A community based cross sectional study was conducted. Sample included all mothers (hospital and home deliveries) who had completed postpartum period between 1st August and 30th September 2007. Participants were identified from the "expected date of delivery" registers maintained by public health midwives. Data were collected by trained public health midwives at the respondents' houses using an interviewer administered questionnaire. RESULTS: The mean age of the 540 postpartum mothers interviewed was 28 years (range: 16 - 44). Majority 78% (n=423) were Sri Lankan Tamils, 13% (n=68) Sinhalese and remaining 9% (n=49) Moors. Thirty nine percent (n=209) were primi parous, 81% (n=435) had a normal vaginal delivery and 79% (n=344) had an episiotomy. Out of 540 mothers, 16.5% (95% CI: 13.4 - 19.6) reported anal incontinence. Among them only 39.3% (n=35) had consulted a health worker for the symptom. In the bivariate analysis the following factors were significantly associated with anal incontinence: parity, history of an episiotomy, duration of labour >12hrs, mode of delivery (vaginal), family income and maternal age (teenage). But the multiple logistic regression analysis revealed only the episiotomy status as an independent risk factor (adjusted odd ratio: 3.4 (95% CI: 1.28 - 8.9). CONCLUSINS: Anal incontinence is not an uncommon symptom in postpartum mothers and majority of affected individuals avoided seeking medical attention. Factors associated with increased risk of anal sphincter damage should be considered during delivery and an attempt should be made to reduce it.

Rajeshkannan N; Pathmeswaran A

2013-06-01

392

The effects of the 2004 tsunami on a coastal aquifer in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

On December 26, 2004, the earthquake off the southern coast of Sumatra in the Indian Ocean generated far-reaching tsunami waves, resulting in severe disruption of the coastal aquifers in many countries of the region. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of the tsunami on groundwater in coastal areas. Field investigations on the east coast of Sri Lanka were carried out along a transect located perpendicular to the coastline on a 2.4 km wide sand stretch bounded by the sea and a lagoon. Measurements of groundwater table elevation and electrical conductivity (EC) of the groundwater were carried out monthly from October 2005 to August 2007. The aquifer system and tsunami saltwater intrusion were modeled using the variable-density flow and solute transport code HST3D to understand the tsunami plume behavior and estimate the aquifer recovery time. EC values reduced as a result of the monsoonal rainfall following the tsunami with a decline in reduction rate during the dry season. The upper part of the saturated zone (down to 2.5 m) returned to freshwater conditions (EC < 1000 µS/cm) 1 to 1.5 years after the tsunami, according to field observations. On the basis of model simulations, it may take more than 15 years for the entire aquifer (down to 28 m) to recover completely, although the top 6 m of the aquifer may become fresh in about 5 years.

Vithanage M; Engesgaard P; Villholth KG; Jensen KH

2012-09-01

393

Geographical distribution of chronic kidney disease of unknown origin in North Central Region of Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: In early nineties investigators noticed an alarmingly high incidence of an apparently new form of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKD-U) in some parts of Sri Lanka. The aim of the study was to investigate the geographical distribution of CKD-U using GIS and GPS mapping. METHODS: Community based information was collected from 11,630 patients for GIS mapping using ARC 9.2 software. Based on GIS mapping, two locations were selected for GPS mapping to locate the households of 863 CKD-U patients with reference to reservoirs, irrigation canals and the topography of the areas. RESULTS: GIS mapping indicated five high prevalence areas of CKD-U. Communities who consumed water from natural springs showed a low prevalence of the disease. GPS mapping showed that most of the affected villages were located below the reservoirs and canals with stagnant irrigated water. CONCLUSION: Epidemiological data on geographical distribution infers that while older foci of CKD-U are persisting, there is an emergence of new foci with time. The location of the affected villages below the level of the reservoirs/canals may indicate the possibility of draining of irrigated water to the shallow wells of the households, which is the source of drinking water.

Jayasekara JM; Dissanayake DM; Adhikari SB; Bandara P

2013-03-01

394

Land use pattern and their impact on water quality in Bolgoda Lake basin- Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

Water quality monitoring of a river can be used to define the existing conditions, detect trends and sources of pollution. The water quality of the Bolgoda river was studied by sampling the river water at eight locations along its course within Colombo district, Sri Lanka. Bolgoda basin has been mostly encroached grasslands and agricultural lands have been converted into commercial purposes due to urbanization. The Bolgoda river and lake receive water from rainfall. Water which falls within the catchment area accumulates in the Bolgoda basin and flows from the North Lake through the South Lake and finally into the Indian Ocean at Northern and Southern outfalls of the river. This water plays a role to reduce the pollution level and salinity level in the water body in the basin. Saline water intrusion in the river was studied to identify the variation of the salinity in the river during the 2008 August to 2009 January. The study revealed that the salinity and pH variation depends on the water flow direction in the basin and rainfall. Salinity intrusion and depletion of vegetation cover are the badly effect existence of endemic and rare species. It also affects the development of riverside community.

Piyadasa, Ranjana; Chandreasekara, Kanchana

2010-05-01

395

Thalassaemic Osteopathy: a cross-sectional preliminary study from Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Introduction: The objectives of this study were to demonstrate the presence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and to examine the association of known risk factors for low BMD in patients with beta thalassaemia major in Sri Lanka. Method: Thirty-eight patients were studied. Their examination and laboratory investigation findings were recorded (haematology, biochemistry, hormonal profile, COL1A1 rs1800012G>T genotype, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning). Results: Mean age was 10.95 years (range 5-21.4). 20 (52.6%) were male. BMD was low (z score ?-2.0) in 12 (31.5%). Regression analysis of BMD on known risk factors (age, sex, pubertal stage, ferritin level, average pre-transfusion haemoglobin, serum calcium level and COL1A1 rs1800012G>T genotype) controlling for confounding factors on each comparison, showed that only age was significantly associated with low BMD (p=0.005). Conclusions: Approximately one-third of patients had a low BMD. Only age was significantly associated with a low BMD.

Dissanayake R; de Silva S; Lekamwasam S; Abeysekara G; Dissanayake VH

2013-10-01

396

Heavy metal abundances in the Kandy lake - an environmental case study from Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Kandy lake, situated in the heart of Sri Lanka's second largest city with a population of nearly 120,000, has been monitored to probe the extent of heavy metal pollution. Although the lake is a source of drinking water to the city, a large number of effluent canals drain into the lake carrying a continuous flow of industrial and domestic waste matter. A total of 66 surface water samples were analyzed for their Fe{sup 2+}, total Fe, total V, SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, Cd{sup 2+}, and Pb{sup 2+} contents. Pb and Cd were found in high concentrations averaging 150 {mu}g/l and 77 {mu}g/l, respectively, and exhibit a marked positive correlation with each other (r = +0.94). Vehicular emissions and industrial waste matter contribute largely to the Pb and Cd contents of the lake, the anthropogenic influence outweighing the contributions made by geological materials. All field observations and laboratory experiments indicate a tendency of the Kandy lake towards eutrophicity.

Dissanayake, C.B.; Rohana Bandara, A.M.; Weerasooriya, S.V.R. (Univ. of Peradeniya, (Sri Lanka))

1987-01-01

397

Petrogenesis of the Eppawala carbonatites, Sri Lanka: A cathodoluminescence and electron microprobe study  

Science.gov (United States)

Field and petrographic investigations, cathodoluminescence (CL) studies as well as microprobe analyses of major rock-forming minerals were conducted to establish the crystallization processes in the Eppawala carbonatites, Sri Lanka. The well preserved magmatic textures and crystal morphologies combined with the chemistry of apatite, calcite and dolomite indicate two major stages of crystal growth, which were accompanied by dynamic crystallization conditions. Initially, nucleation of apatite, ilmenite and possibly olivine was associated with rapid crystal growth during slow cooling of the carbonatite melt at depth. The heat loss through the roof and crystallization processes induced the development of turbulent convective currents, which in turn prevented further nucleation and growth of crystals and led to the dispersion of these earlier formed crystals within the magma chamber. Then, rapid upward movement of magma along structural weaknesses led to (i) the transport of mineral clusters, (ii) deformation of ilmenite, (iii) fracturing of apatite and (iv) the emplacement of the carbonatite melt as dykes. Here, the conditions were favourable for the simultaneous crystallization of magnetite, calcite and dolomite in a non-turbulent environment. Subsequent subsolidus alteration caused the hydrothermal overprint of the documented mineral assemblages, particularly along grain boundaries. The study demonstrates that detailed textural examinations of carbonatites combined with mineral chemical analyses and CL investigations can reveal the crystallization processes within carbonatite melts.

Pitawala, Amarasooriya; Lottermoser, Bernd G.

2012-05-01