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Sample records for sri lanka implications

  1. Anopheles culicifacies breeding in brackish waters in Sri Lanka and implications for malaria control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendran Sinnathamby N

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles culicifacies is the major vector of both falciparum and vivax malaria in Sri Lanka, while Anopheles subpictus and certain other species function as secondary vectors. In Sri Lanka, An. culicifacies is present as a species complex consisting of species B and E, while An. subpictus exists as a complex of species A-D. The freshwater breeding habit of An. culicifacies is well established. In order to further characterize the breeding sites of the major malaria vectors in Sri Lanka, a limited larval survey was carried out at a site in the Eastern province that was affected by the 2004 Asian tsunami. Methods Anopheline larvae were collected fortnightly for six months from a brackish water body near Batticaloa town using dippers. Collected larvae were reared in the laboratory and the emerged adults were identified using standard keys. Sibling species status was established based on Y-chromosome morphology for An. culicifacies larvae and morphometric characteristics for An. subpictus larvae and adults. Salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH were determined at the larval collection site. Results During a six month study covering dry and wet seasons, a total of 935 anopheline larvae were collected from this site that had salinity levels up to 4 parts per thousand at different times. Among the emerged adult mosquitoes, 661 were identified as An. culicifacies s.l. and 58 as An. subpictus s.l. Metaphase karyotyping of male larvae showed the presence of species E of the Culicifacies complex, and adult morphometric analysis the presence of species B of the Subpictus complex. Both species were able to breed in water with salinity levels up to 4 ppt. Conclusions The study demonstrates the ability of An. culicifacies species E, the major vector of falciparum and vivax malaria in Sri Lanka, to oviposit and breed in brackish water. The sibling species B in the An. subpictus complex, a well-known salt water breeder and a secondary malaria vector in the country, was also detected at the same site. Since global warming and the rise in sea levels will further increase of inland brackish water bodies, the findings have significant implications for the control of malaria in Sri Lanka and elsewhere.

  2. Tissue bank: Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human degenerative diseases and congenital defects are common throughout the world. Many people suffer also from burns, fractures and nerve damage resulting from traumatic accidents and outbreaks of violence which occur all too frequently, especially in poorer countries. Far too many people are impaired for life because they have no access to treatment or simply cannot afford it. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Division of Nuclear Medicine, to improve facilities at the Sri Lanka Tissue Bank. (IAEA)

  3. Sri Lanka, Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The topography of the island nation of Sri Lanka is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. For this special view heights below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored red. These low coastal elevations extend 5 to 10 km (3.1 to 6.2 mi) inland on Sri Lanka and are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges, rising sea level, or, as in the aftermath of the earthquake of December 26, 2004, tsunami. These so-called tidal waves have occurred numerous times in history and can be especially destructive, but with the advent of the near-global SRTM elevation data planners can better predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events. Sri Lanka is shaped like a giant teardrop falling from the southern tip of the vast Indian subcontinent. It is separated from India by the 50km (31mi) wide Palk Strait, although there is a series of stepping-stone coral islets known as Adam's Bridge that almost form a land bridge between the two countries. The island is just 350km (217mi) long and only 180km (112mi) wide at its broadest, and is about the same size as Ireland, West Virginia or Tasmania. The southern half of the island is dominated by beautiful and rugged hill country, and includes Mt Pidurutalagala, the islandaE(TM)s highest point at 2524 meters (8281 ft). The entire northern half comprises a large plain extending from the edge of the hill country to the Jaffna peninsula. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C. Location: 8.0 degrees North latitude, 80.7 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 275.6 by 482.4 kilometers (165.4 by 299.0 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  4. Renewable Energy Supply Options for Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Wijayatunga, Priyantha D. C.

    2001-01-01

    Sri Lanka energy sector is dominated by conventional energy sources as biomass, hydropower and petroleum. The electricity sector is dominated by hydropower supplying approximately while small component is supplied by oil fired thermal plants. Sri Lanka has a relatively low household electrification level with major variations among urban, suburban and rural areas of the country. Main renewable energy sources capable of offering a substantial contribution to the Sri Lanka electricity generatio...

  5. Nuclear science training in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two major levels of obtaining radiation or nuclear education and training in Sri Lanka : the University and training courses in nuclear related technology and radiation protection offered by the Atomic Energy Authority of the Ministry of Science and Technology . This paper summarizes the status, some of the activities and problems of radiation education in Sri Lanka. (author)

  6. eHealth Sri lanka 2010 Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Roshan Hewapathirana

    2010-01-01

    eHealth Sri lanka 2010 - International Conference on eHealth15 & 16 September 2010at Waters Edge – Battaramulla - Sri LankaThe closing date for submission of Abstracts is 31st of July 2010.For more details, visit www.ehealth2010.hissl.org

  7. Leprosy control in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewapura, D R

    1994-01-01

    Even though health workers have treated all registered cases of leprosy in Sri Lanka with multiple drug therapy since 1982, it continues to be transmitted. The government has launched a social marketing and social mobilization campaign to reduce the incidence of leprosy. It has expanded the network of leprosy services. A national advertising program included mass media ads, posters, stickers on buses, and radio and television serials to create awareness of the early signs of leprosy and to reduce fear to leprosy. Health workers distributed leaflets and booklets to the general public and to new patients. The Anti-Leprosy Campaign of Sri Lanka organized 1-week health education programs for administrative officer, village leaders, religious leaders, teachers, and voluntary workers. Skin camps were set up to detect leprosy cases and to treat minor skin disorders. Teachers received flip charts on leprosy to help them teach colleagues and children about leprosy. All primary level staff, medical officers in hospital staff, and estate medical and paramedical staff have undergone special training on diagnosing leprosy and on reducing their fear of it. Almost every district has at least 1 leprosy control specialist. 2 leprosy control specialists work in those districts where leprosy is endemic Each district has a trained medical laboratory technician, who stains and interprets leprosy smears. In 1992, school, contact, and mass surveys have found 31, 149, and 225 new cases, respectively. Active case findings methods found 16.5% of new cases. 50% of new cases are self- reported, compared to less than 10% in 1989, suggesting increased awareness of early signs of leprosy and a reduced fear of it. 25 more clinics opened in 1991 to meet the demand for leprosy services. PMID:8018284

  8. Shrimp Farming Practices in the Puttallam District of Sri Lanka: Implications for Disease Control, Industry Sustainability, and Rural Development

    OpenAIRE

    Abeygunawardena, Indra S.; Preeni Abeynayake; Nalaka Munasinghe, M.; Craig Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Shrimp farming has great potential to diversify and secure income in rural Sri Lanka, but production has significantly declined in recent years due to civil conflicts, some unsustainable practices and devastating outbreaks of disease. We examined management practices affecting disease prevention and control in the Puttalam district to identify extension services outputs that could support sustainable development of Sri Lankan shrimp farming. A survey on 621 shrimp farms (603 operational and 1...

  9. Agricultural Adaptation and Water Management in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, E.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Efficient management of freshwater resources is critical as concerns with water security increase due to changes in climate, population, and land use. Effective water management in agricultural systems is especially important for irrigation and water quality. This research explores the implications of tradeoffs between maximization of crop yield and minimization of nitrogen loss to the environment, primarily to surface water and groundwater, in rice production in Sri Lanka. We run the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model under Sri Lankan climate and soil conditions. The model serves as a tool to simulate crop management scenarios with different irrigation and fertilizer practices in two climate regions of the country. Our investigation uses DNDC to compare rice yields, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and nitrogen leaching under different cultivation scenarios. The results will inform best practices for farmers and decision makers in Sri Lanka on the management of water resources and crops.

  10. Renewable Energy Supply Options for Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyantha D. C. Wijayatunga

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Sri Lanka energy sector is dominated by conventional energy sources as biomass, hydropower and petroleum. The electricity sector is dominated by hydropower supplying approximately while small component is supplied by oil fired thermal plants. Sri Lanka has a relatively low household electrification level with major variations among urban, suburban and rural areas of the country. Main renewable energy sources capable of offering a substantial contribution to the Sri Lanka electricity generation sector are micro-hydro, wind, biomass and solar. Penetration of RE in the electricity generation sector has been extremely limited by the constraints in financing mechanisms and financial viability. The only exception has been micro/minihydro sector due to its relatively low capital investment and recent opportunities for grid connection. Also the recent World Bank refunded Energy Services Delivery (ESD project has helped the resurgence of MH sector during the last few years. This paper examinations the feasibility of the use of these renewable sources particularly for electricity generation in Sri Lank along the incentives and barriers to their expansion.

  11. Climate change and agricultural adaptation in Sri Lanka: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Esham, Mohamed; Garforth, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is inevitable and will continue into the next century. Since the agricultural sector in Sri Lanka is one of the most vulnerable to climate change, a thorough understanding of climate transition is critical for formulating effective adaptation strategies. This paper provides an overview of the status of climate change and adaptation in the agricultural sector in Sri Lanka. The review clearly indicates that climate change is taking place in Sri Lanka in terms of rainfall varia...

  12. Abortion in Sri Lanka: the double standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ramya

    2013-03-01

    In Sri Lanka, women do not have access to legal abortion except under life-saving circumstances. Clandestine abortion services are, however, available and quite accessible. Although safe specialist services are available to women who can afford them, others access services under unsafe and exploitative conditions. At the time of this writing, a draft bill that will legalize abortion in instances of rape, incest, and fetal abnormalities awaits approval, amid opposition. In this article, I explore the current push for legal reform as a solution to unsafe abortion. Although a welcome effort, this amendment alone will be insufficient to address the public health consequences of unsafe abortion in Sri Lanka because most women seek abortions for other reasons. Much broader legal and policy reform will be required. PMID:23327236

  13. Implications of global warming for regional climate and water resources of tropical islands: Case studies over Sri Lanka and Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawalagedara, R.; Kumar, D.; Oglesby, R. J.; Ganguly, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    The IPCC AR4 identifies small islands as particularly vulnerable to climate change. Here we consider the cases of two tropical islands: Sri Lanka in the Indian Ocean and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean. The islands share a predominantly tropical climate with diverse topography and hence significant spatial variability of regional climate. Seasonal variability in temperatures is relatively small, but spatial variations can be large owing to topography. Precipitation mechanisms and patterns over the two islands are different however. Sri Lanka receives a majority of the annual rainfall from the summer and winter monsoons, with convective rainfall dominating in the inter-monsoon period. Rainfall generating mechanisms over Puerto Rico can range from orographic lifting, disturbances embedded in Easterly waves and synoptic frontal systems. Here we compare the projected changes in the regional and seasonal means and extremes of temperature and precipitation over the two islands during the middle of this century with the present conditions. Two 5-year regional climate model runs for each region, representing the present (2006-2010) and future (2056-2060) conditions, are performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with the lateral boundary conditions provided using the output from CCSM4 RCP8.5 greenhouse gas emissions pathway simulation from the CMIP5 ensemble. The consequences of global warming for water resources and the overall economy are examined. While both economies have substantial contributions from tourism, there are major differences: The agricultural sector is much more important over Sri Lanka compared to Puerto Rico, while the latter exhibits no recent growth in population or in urbanization trends unlike the former. Policy implications for water sustainability and security are discussed, which highlight how despite the differences, certain lessons learned may generalize across the two relatively small tropical islands, which in turn have diverse economic, infrastructural, and societal constraints.

  14. Non-economic gains of Sri Lanka's FTAs with neighbours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandara, Jayatilleke S.; Yu, Wusheng

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to answer the question: does a bilateral free trade agreement (FTA) lead to an improvement in the security of a member country and greater peace between two member countries in the developing world? Design/methodology/approach – This paper reviews existing literature and uses the idea of non-economic gains from regional trading agreements to explain how Sri Lanka managed to use FTAs to neutralise India and obtain military assistance from Pakistan using its FTAs with two countries during the recently concluded war. Findings – Even though political objectives were not explicitly outlined in Sri Lanka's two FTAs with its big rival neighbours (India and Pakistan), the FTAs helped Sri Lanka to successfully execute the war against the LTTE (the Tamil Tigers) by neutralising India on the one hand and gaining military assistance from Pakistan on the other. Research limitations/implications – The research approach is basically qualitative. However, there is needto develop a comprehensive theoretical model to capture non-economics gains from FTAs. Originality/value – Although there is a growing body of literature on the underlying political and strategic motivations of countries forming regional and bilateral trading arrangements, this paper adds to understanding of what motivates small developing countries to form trade agreements with big neighbours.

  15. Integration of mental health into primary care in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Rachel; Mendis, Jayan; Cooray, Sherva; Cooray, Marius

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Sri Lanka has one of the highest suicide rates in the world, with recent protracted conflict and the tsunami aggravating mental health needs. This paper describes a project to establish a systematic “train the trainers” programme to integrate mental health into primary care in Sri Lanka's public health system and private sector.

  16. Surface circulation and upwelling patterns around Sri Lanka and formation of the Sri Lanka Dome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattiaratchi, C. B.; Wijeratne, S.; De Vos, A.

    2014-12-01

    Sri Lanka, a relatively large island (length 440 km; width 225 km), occupies a unique location within the equatorial belt in the northern Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea on its western side and the Bay of Bengal on its eastern side and experiences bi-annually reversing monsoon winds. This allows for the Island to interact with the seasonally reversing monsoon currents leading to the the island mass effect and enhanced primary production. We will present elements of the dynamics of the surface circulation and coastal upwelling in the waters around Sri Lanka using satellite imagery and numerical simulations using the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS). The model was run for 4 years to examine the inter-annual, seasonal and shorter term (~10 days) variability. The results confirmed the presence of the reversing current system, between the equator and Sri Lanka, in response to the changing wind field: the eastward flowing Southwest Monsoon Current (SMC) during the Southwest (SW) monsoon transporting 11.5 Sv and the westward flowing Northeast Monsoon Current (NMC) transporting 9.5 Sv during the Northeast (NE) monsoon, respectively. A recirculation feature located to the east of Sri Lanka during the SW monsoon, the Sri Lanka Dome, is shown to result from the interaction between the SMC and the Island of Sri Lanka. Along the eastern and western coasts, during both monsoon periods, flow is southward converging along the south coast (see Figure). During the SW monsoon the Island deflects the eastward flowing SMC southward whilst along the east coast the southward flow results from the Sri Lanka Dome recirculation. The major upwelling region, during both monsoon periods, is located along the south coast resulting from southward flow converging along the south coast and subsequent divergence associated with the offshore transport of water(see Figure). Higher surface chlorophyll concentrations were observed during the SW monsoon. The location of the flow convergence and hence the upwelling centre was dependent on the relative strengths of wind driven flow along the east and west coasts: during the SW (NE) monsoon the flow along the western (eastern) coast was stronger migrating the upwelling centre to the east (west).

  17. OTEC thermal resource report for Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, W. A.

    1979-05-01

    The water surrounding the island of Sri Lanka has a temperature difference resource which is more than adequate for potential OTEC use. The temperature resource was examined between 5--10/sup 0/ North latitude and 78--83/sup 0/ East longitude. This area includes the surrounding waters on all sides of Sri Lanka. There is a large area north and northwest of the island where there is insufficient depth to provide the needed cold water supply. The annual average ..delta..T at 1000 meters is 21.3/sup 0/C. An annual average ..delta..T greater than 20/sup 0/C is available at 800 meters. The temperature is very consistent at depths with little difference between the coldest monthly mean temperature and the warmest. The area has an upper mixed layer the entire year, (deepest in January--February and shallowest in the fall). Winds and storms are not a major problem for this site, although there are occasional tropical storms or hurricanes. Low to moderate sea and swell conditions generally dominate throughout the year. The surface currents are generally moderate throughout the year, changing direction with the shifting monsoons.

  18. Climate change mitigation studies in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Sri Lanka, Climate Change Mitigation Studies have received low priority and have been limited to an ADB-sponsored preliminary study followed by an initial assessment of some mitigation options in the energy and agricultural sectors, with technical assistance from the US Country Studies Program. The major focus was on options of the mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector. Owing to funding constraints, only the potential for reduction of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the various mitigation options were quantified; analysis of monetary costs and benefits or policy/programs for adoption of the options were not undertaken. For the non-energy sector, a very limited study on mitigation of methane emissions from rice fields was carried out. (au)

  19. Seroepidemiololgy of rickettsioses in Sri Lanka: a patient based study

    OpenAIRE

    Liyanapathirana Veranja; Thevanesam Vasanthi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Rickettsioses are emerging infections in Sri Lanka as shown by the increase in the number of clinically diagnosed rickettsial patients being reported to the Epidemiology Unit, Sri Lanka. However, mapping the disease for the whole island with laboratory confirmed cases has not been previously carried out. Methods 615 samples received from 23 hospital representing 8 provinces were tested using ELISA or IFA methods and clinical data was collected using a validated questionnai...

  20. Surface circulation and upwelling patterns around Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    A. de Vos; C. B. Pattiaratchi; E. M. S. Wijeratne

    2013-01-01

    Sri Lanka occupies a unique location within the equatorial belt in the northern Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea on its western side and the Bay of Bengal on its eastern side. The region is characterised by bi-annually reversing monsoon winds resulting from seasonal differential heating and cooling of the continental land mass and the ocean. This study explored elements of the dynamics of the surface circulation and coastal upwelling in the waters around Sri Lanka using satellite imagery and...

  1. The gender impact in earnings inequality: Evidence from Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Thankom Arun; Vani K. Borooah

    2011-01-01

    The Gender impact in Earnings Inequality: Evidence from Sri LankaAbstract: This paper estimates an earnings function for Sri Lanka, followed by a decomposition analysis of male-female earnings suggest that the gender disparity in earnings largely represents ‘discrimination’ against women. The findings showed that irrespective of their “inferior” labour market attributes, men had average earnings that were considerably higher than the female average and that this could be attributed en...

  2. Iron deficiency anaemia in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The commonest cause of nutritional anaemia in the Sri Lankan population is iron deficiency. The diets of the population belonging to the lower socio-economic groups contain little food of animal origin. Thus, their diets are deficient in easily absorbable (haem) iron; and are also heavily cereal-based. Therefore interference in the absorption of dietary iron also occurs. Iron-deficiency anaemia is not restricted to the so-called ''vulnerable groups'' in Sri Lanka, however, their greater demands make the problem not only commoner but also more severe. Among pregnant and lactating women anaemia is often associated with folate deficiency. It must also be noted that the low availability of dietary iron is compounded in large population groups. Malaria, presently raging on an epidemic scale is also a major contributory factor to the incidence of anaemia. The purpose of this study was to examine the iron status of pre-school children and pregnant women; to establish normal levels of biochemical indices at different trimesters; to record the effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy; and to record the bioavailability of iron from weaning foods and common adult diets. 6 figs, 14 tabs

  3. Art Therapy with Child Tsunami Survivors in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcote, Rebekah L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper details art therapy with children affected by the December 2004 tsunami in Sri Lanka. Over 30,000 Sri Lankans lost their lives when the tsunami decimated coastal areas. The child survivors witnessed horrific traumatic events and the loss of loved ones, but had not been given opportunity to express their grief and pain. A 4-week art…

  4. Biological Differences between Brackish and Fresh Water-Derived Aedes aegypti from Two Locations in the Jaffna Peninsula of Sri Lanka and the Implications for Arboviral Disease Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Ramasamy, Ranjan; Jude, Pavilupillai J.; Veluppillai, Thabothiny; Eswaramohan, Thampoe; Surendran, Sinnathamby N.

    2014-01-01

    The mainly fresh water arboviral vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) can also undergo pre-imaginal development in brackish water of up to 15 ppt (parts per thousand) salt in coastal areas. We investigated differences in salinity tolerance, egg laying preference, egg hatching and larval development times and resistance to common insecticides in Ae. aegypti collected from brackish and fresh water habitats in Jaffna, Sri Lanka. Brackish water-derived Ae. aegypti were more tolerant of sa...

  5. Living Up to the Ideal of Respectability : Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights Implications for Unmarried Migrant Workers, Single Mothers, and Women in Prostitution in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Jordal, Malin

    2014-01-01

    This thesis aims to gain a deeper understanding of relationships and sexuality of women at risk of social exclusion in Sri Lanka and the risk of violations of their sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) that they might face. Individual qualitative interviews with migrant women workers (n=18) and men (n=18) in the Free Trade Zone (FTZ), women facing single motherhood (n=28) and women formerly involved in prostitution (n=15) were conducted. Conceptual approaches included gender, soci...

  6. Seroepidemiololgy of rickettsioses in Sri Lanka: a patient based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyanapathirana Veranja

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rickettsioses are emerging infections in Sri Lanka as shown by the increase in the number of clinically diagnosed rickettsial patients being reported to the Epidemiology Unit, Sri Lanka. However, mapping the disease for the whole island with laboratory confirmed cases has not been previously carried out. Methods 615 samples received from 23 hospital representing 8 provinces were tested using ELISA or IFA methods and clinical data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Results Rash was found among more spotted fever seropositive patients than scrub typhus seropositive patients while the opposite was true for the presence of eschar. Spotted fever and scrub typhus was found in a geographically restricted manner. Consistent temporal patterns were seen for the presentation of patients with rickettsioses in Kandy and Kurunegala districts for 2009 and 2010. Conclusions This study expanded knowledge on the distribution of rickettsioses in Sri Lanka and their clinical profiles which in turn helps in the clinical diagnosis of these infections.

  7. Surface circulation and upwelling patterns around Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, A.; Pattiaratchi, C. B.; Wijeratne, E. M. S.

    2014-10-01

    Sri Lanka occupies a unique location within the equatorial belt in the northern Indian Ocean, with the Arabian Sea on its western side and the Bay of Bengal on its eastern side, and experiences bi-annually reversing monsoon winds. Aggregations of blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) have been observed along the southern coast of Sri Lanka during the northeast (NE) monsoon, when satellite imagery indicates lower productivity in the surface waters. This study explored elements of the dynamics of the surface circulation and coastal upwelling in the waters around Sri Lanka using satellite imagery and numerical simulations using the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS). The model was run for 3 years to examine the seasonal and shorter-term (~10 days) variability. The results reproduced correctly the reversing current system, between the Equator and Sri Lanka, in response to the changing wind field: the eastward flowing Southwest Monsoon Current (SMC) during the southwest (SW) monsoon transporting 11.5 Sv (mean over 2010-2012) and the westward flowing Northeast Monsoon Current (NMC) transporting 9.6 Sv during the NE monsoon, respectively. A recirculation feature located to the east of Sri Lanka during the SW monsoon, the Sri Lanka Dome, is shown to result from the interaction between the SMC and the island of Sri Lanka. Along the eastern and western coasts, during both monsoon periods, flow is southward converging along the southern coast. During the SW monsoon, the island deflects the eastward flowing SMC southward, whilst along the eastern coast, the southward flow results from the Sri Lanka Dome recirculation. The major upwelling region, during both monsoon periods, is located along the southern coast, resulting from southward flow converging along the southern coast and subsequent divergence associated with the offshore transport of water. Higher surface chlorophyll concentrations were observed during the SW monsoon. The location of the flow convergence and hence the upwelling centre was dependent on the relative strengths of wind-driven flow along the eastern and western coasts: during the SW (NE) monsoon, the flow along the western (eastern) coast was stronger, migrating the upwelling centre to the east (west).

  8. Yellow Oleander Poisoning and Suicide in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobitha Puvaneswaralingam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Intentional yellow oleander poisoning is a growing problem that is straining the health care services of Sri Lanka as it is a readily available method of suicide. The country remains to have one the highest suicide rates in the world, and the trend of oleander poisoning has been difficult to halt due to the lack of resources to manage the problem. As mental health issues are becoming a serious public health problem in Sri Lanka, it is timely to consider what efforts could be made to manage this unique phenomenon.

  9. Yellow Oleander Poisoning and Suicide in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Shobitha Puvaneswaralingam

    2012-01-01

    Intentional yellow oleander poisoning is a growing problem that is straining the health care services of Sri Lanka as it is a readily available method of suicide. The country remains to have one the highest suicide rates in the world, and the trend of oleander poisoning has been difficult to halt due to the lack of resources to manage the problem. As mental health issues are becoming a serious public health problem in Sri Lanka, it is timely to consider what efforts could be made to manage th...

  10. Hybrid Power System for Eluvaithivu Island Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Ratneswaran, Kanagaratnam

    2011-01-01

    Government of Sri Lanka has policy target to achieve 100% electrification by end of year 2012. Grid-based electrification is possible up to maximum 95% of the population in Sri Lanka. Balance 5% of the electrification has to be mainly depending on off-grid technologies such as solar PV, wind, biomass and micro hydro.   Use of renewable based off-grid technologies is limited by the seasonal variation of the resource. This barrier could be overcome by coupling renewable based power generation t...

  11. Writing Strategy Use: AFL Learners in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagoor Gafoordeen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Study on writing strategy used in Arabic as a foreign language is a new emerging concept. Few studies have contracted on essay written in Arabic as a final product and illustrated deficiencies that surfaced. This study investigates the writing strategies employed by 6 learners in Fathih Institute of Sri Lanka (FISL. A Qualitative research was conducted using the think aloud protocol; observation and retrospective interview to provide the facts. Results of a pilot study revealed that a proficient learner employ varieties of writing strategies better than an average learner and less proficient learners on their essay writing tasks. The findings also revealed that there is a lot to be done to improve the Arabic writing skills of Sri Lankan learners. The implications of the results are that, teachers need to rethink about the problems that average and less proficient students encounter and figure out ways to help them achieve proficiency. Also, there is the need to help these learners how to make their place and organize their opinions more reasonably in writing activities.

  12. Zirconolites from Sri Lanka, South Africa and Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirconolites, CaZrTi2O7, from Sri Lanka and Pala Bora, South Africa, and a calzirtite, CaZr3TiO9, from Jacupiranga, Brazil, were examined using the electron microprobe, x-ray diffraction (annealing study), transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy. The x-ray data indicate that all three zirconolites are metamict. Both Sri Lanka zirconolites are amorphous to the limits of resolution of the electron microscope (approx. 10 A). The Pala Bora zirconolite is largely amorphous but contains isolated domains (50 to 200 A) of crystalline material which may be the result of post-metamict recrystallization and alteration. The only other significant evidence for chemical alteration was the lower ThO2 concentration (1 to 2 weight percent) and slightly lower analytic totals for the rims of the Sri Lanka zirconolites. Upon annealing at 11300C for 5 hours, all three zirconolites recrystallized as microcrystalline aggregates. Refined unit cell parameters and volumes are consistent with published data for synthetic zirconolites. Both Sri Lanka zirconolites contain microvoids, spherical in shape, and 200 Angstroms to 2 microns in size. This porosity may be the result of helium accumulation arising from the decay of U and Th. The calzirtite was highly crystalline, exhibited no porosity, and was unchanged by the annealing treatment

  13. Mithuri users surveyed in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The Family Planning Association (FPA) of Sri Lanka completed a survey of Mithuri (oral contraceptive) users to determine consumer characteristics. The survey addressed issues such as purchasing habits, user patterns, dealer consumer relationships, levels of consumer satisfaction and motivation, prevalence of side effects, degree and level of medical consultations, and attitudes toward mass media product advertising. A mail survey was used to conduct this quantitative research to reduce the cost of collecting the data. Mail surveys offer the advantage of being able to reach a large number of respondents at a very reasonable cost, but they also require an accurate list of respondents who are representative of the population to be examined. Of the 681 questionnaires delivered, 442 were completed and returned. The majority of those surveyed (86%) purchased Mithuri at pharmacies that are within 5 miles of their residence. 73.2% of the women asked their husbands to make the purchase, and 67.6% purchased 2 cycles at a time. Most respondents reported experiencing no side effects from Mithuri. The majority of the few who experienced side effects considered them to be very slight. 2.7% of the respondents reported becoming pregnant while using Mithuri, 11 of whom ascribed the pregnancy to their failure to take the pill regularly. Most respondents said that they never missed a day. Husbands or "Western" medical practitioners were most often cited as the motivators to use Mithuri. Of the 82% of the respondents who had read the Mithuri newspaper advertisements, 87% indicated they approved of mass media advertising about contraceptives, primarily because they felt that making such information available was an urgent matter. Although advertisements and package circulars urged 1st time users to consult a physician before using Mithuri, less than half the respondents reported consulting any medical person, nurses, and midwives included. They also reported that the dealer gave no spontaneous advice on the use of Mithuri or any other contraceptive method nor had they as users sought any advice. The declared length of use indicates a satisfactory continuation rate and is supported by the fact that 94% of those included in the 1981 survey were still using Mithuri in June 1982. 84.5% of the respondents reported they were "completely satisfied" with Mithuri; 7.8% reported they were not satisfied at all but used Mithuri for convenience. PMID:12265786

  14. Then and Now: English in Sri Lanka’s Public Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaran Rajandran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available English was the official language of Sri Lanka during British colonization but it was replaced by Sinhala and Tamil as independence neared. The public sector was directly affected by this change although English held sway here for some years. Yet, English was made the link language for the Sinhalese and Tamils in 1987 and the state has since taken many steps to promote and improve its use in the public sector. Such change in language policy did not happen in void. It resulted from different perceptions nationalism and nationism had about English. This paper tries to understand the changing fate of English in Sri Lanka’s public sector by placing it in the context of nationalism and nationism. It aims to do two things, namely to explain nationalism and nationism in relation to Sri Lanka and to explore the presence of English in the public sector from independence until today, affected by nationalism and nationism. This investigative approach shows the influence of local ideology on language policy. It is ultimately seen that language policy concerning English in the public sector is responsive to the volatile political and social contexts of Sri Lanka.

  15. Food Crops Breeding in Sri Lanka - Achievements and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since Rice is the staple food in Sri Lanka strong emphasis has been given for the improvement of Rice in Sri Lanka. Over the last three decades 36 high yielding rice varieties have been developed. The present yield potential of Sri Lanka's best varieties have been recorded to be be around 10 mt/ha. At present more than 90% of the total paddy extent is grown with modern high yielding rice varieties and as a result the national paddy production has increased from 1.8 mt/ha to 3.5 mt/ha. Induced mutations is used in plant breeding. Use of radiation to produce haploids and for production of transitory sexuality in apomicts have been done. Under the coarse grains and millet varietal program, maize have recorded increasing attention owing to the fact that is is used for human consumption and as feed grain for poultry. Promising varieties of Soya bean, cowpea, mung bean, black gram and ground nut have been recommended for cultivation. Research attention has also been directed towards Root and Tuber crops which have great potential in providong food for the rapidly increasing population in Sri Lanka. Potato is the most important and popular tuber crop. A number of improved varieties with respect to a number of local fruit crops such as banana, sweet orange, lemonime, avocado, pineapple, rambutan, grapes.have been introduced. New improved varieties of indigenous vegetables such as tomato, brinjal etc. have been produced. Chillies and onions with desirable qualities also have bnions with desirable qualities also have been identified. Mutation breeding provides a novel approach to the plant breeders for raising the productivity of crop plants, thus complementing conventional methods. Any way the use of induced mutations in crop improvement has not been properly exploited in Sri Lanka as yet

  16. Where there is no information: IDP vulnerability assessments in Sri Lanka’s borderlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danesh Jayatilaka

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available A third of the estimated 600,000 IDPs in Sri Lanka live in areas controlled by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam (LTTE. Displaced people within these so-called ‘un-cleared’ or ‘liberated areas’ (termsused by the Sri Lankan government and the LTTE respectively are at especial risk. Their situation highlights the difficulties of assessing protection and assistance in the context of conflict.

  17. Surface circulation and upwelling patterns around Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. de Vos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sri Lanka occupies a unique location within the equatorial belt in the northern Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea on its western side and the Bay of Bengal on its eastern side. The region is characterised by bi-annually reversing monsoon winds resulting from seasonal differential heating and cooling of the continental land mass and the ocean. This study explored elements of the dynamics of the surface circulation and coastal upwelling in the waters around Sri Lanka using satellite imagery and the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS configured to the study region and forced with ECMWF interim data. The model was run for 2 yr to examine the seasonal and shorter term (?10 days variability. The results confirmed the presence of the reversing current system in response to the changing wind field: the eastward flowing Southwest Monsoon Current (SMC during the Southwest (SW monsoon transporting 11.5 Sv and the westward flowing Northeast Monsoon Current (NMC transporting 9.5 Sv during the Northeast (NE monsoon, respectively. A recirculation feature located to the east of Sri Lanka during the SW monsoon, the Sri Lanka Dome, is shown to result from the interaction between the SMC and the Island of Sri Lanka. Along the eastern and western coasts, during both monsoon periods, flow is southward converging along the south coast. During the SW monsoon the Island deflects the eastward flowing SMC southward whilst along the east coast the southward flow results from the Sri Lanka Dome recirculation. The major upwelling region, during both monsoon periods, is located along the south coast and is shown to be due to flow convergence and divergence associated with offshore transport of water. Higher surface chlorophyll concentrations were observed during the SW monsoon. The location of the flow convergence and hence the upwelling centre was dependent on the relative strengths of wind driven flow along the east and west coasts: during the SW (NE monsoon the flow along the western (eastern coast was stronger and hence the upwelling centre was shifted to the east (west. The presence of upwelling along the south coast during both monsoon periods may explain the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus aggregations in this region.

  18. Demand for private tuition classes under the free education policy. Evidence based on Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Pallegedara, Asankha

    2011-01-01

    Private tuition classes are growing phenomenon in Sri Lanka especially among students who prepare for competitive national school qualifying examinations. It is one of major education issues under the free education policy in Sri Lanka. It can tarnish the real purpose of free education policy. In this paper, we examine the demand for private tuition classes in Sri Lanka by using two waves of Household Income and Expenditure Surveys (HIES) conducted by the Department of Census and Statistics (...

  19. Transmission of Global Food Prices to Domestic Prices: Evidence from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivarajasingham Selliah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Food prices have been increasing sharply since 2003. In the globalized world, the transmission of global foodprice increases to domestic market determines the decision of economic agents and policy makers of a domesticeconomy. The recent growth of global food prices affects the welfare of poor consumers and producers. In SriLanka, large segment of the population spends more than 50 percent of their income on food. Thus, this studyinvestigates and assesses how international food price surge affects domestic inflation process in Sri Lanka. Theempirical statistical results are derived by using a battery of parametric and non-parametric econometrictechniques using monthly data of price series for the period from 2003M1 to 2013M12. The co-integrationanalysis results confirm that global food prices, domestic prices are co-integrated. Therefore, Sri Lankangovernment needs to develop a safety net program for the poor and a longer term poverty reduction strategy.Policy attention needs to shift towards efforts to increase food production. The results of this study have variouspolicy implications for monetary policy, food and agricultural policy and trade policy for Sri Lanka.

  20. COMPARISON OF E-LEARNING ACCEPTANCE AMONG POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS IN SRI LANKA AND MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushalya Yatigammana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of innovation attributes on postgraduate students’ e-learning acceptance between Sri Lanka and Malaysia. The Diffusion of Innovation theory identifies five attributes of innovation namely relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialabiltity, observability which impact for the attitude and intention of using e- learning. Sri Lanka and Malaysia are the countries which have more similarities in terms of history, geography and culture. Therefore a comparison between Sri Lanka and Malaysia for the innovation attributes towards the attitude and intention of using e-learning is more relevant as to acquire the knowledge on how economic and technological development have an impact on postgraduate students preferences. A random sample of 400 was drawn from the postgraduate students in locally based universities in Sri Lanka and Malaysia. It was found that Sri Lanka and Malaysia has similar in e-learning acceptance in terms of observability and relative advantage which has a significant impact on attitude and intention of using e-learning and also complexity and trialability was the least significant factors on e-learning acceptance in both Sri Lanka and Malaysia.  This is the first attempt of comparing e-learning acceptance between Sri Lanka and Malaysia and discloses information on how Sri Lanka and Malaysia differ. The findings of this paper can be used by the higher educational institutions in Sri Lanka and Malaysia when implementing e learning solutions.

  1. Detection of Rickettsioses and Q fever in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelakis, Emmanouil; Munasinghe, Aruna; Yaddehige, Iranga; Liyanapathirana, Veranja; Thevanesam, Vasanthi; Bregliano, Anne; Socolovschi, Cristina; Edouard, Sophie; Fournier, Pierre Edouard; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Current serological evidence suggests the presence of scrub typhus and spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiosis in Sri Lanka. Our objective was to identify rickettsial agents/Q fever as aetiological causes for patients who were presumed having rickettsioses by the presence of an eschar or a rash. Sera from patients with unknown origin fever from Matara were tested by immunofluorescence for SFG rickettsial antigens, typhus group rickettsiae, Orientia tsutsugamushi, and Coxiella burnetii antigens. Thirteen (7.3%) of the patients presented with a rash, 11 (6.1%) had an inoculation eschar, and 16 patients recalled a tick or flea bite. We found that 25 (14%) patients had scrub typhus, 6 (3%) SFG rickettsioses, 3 (1.6%) acute Q fever, 3 (1.6%) murine typhus, and 3 (1.6%) were infected by Rickettsia felis. In addition to already described scrub and murine typhus, we found that R. felis and C. burnetii infections should be considered in Sri Lanka. PMID:22492158

  2. Ranging behavior of the Asian elephant in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando, P.; Wikramanayake, E. D.; Janaka, H. K.; Jayasinghe, L. K. A.; Gunawardena, M.; Kotagama, S. W.; Weerakoon, D.; Pastorini, J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the ranging patterns of 10 elephants in and around the Yala protected area complex, southern Sri Lanka, using VHF radio telemetry. All tracked elephants displayed similar ranging patterns. The observed home ranges were small (mean=115.2±64.0 km2) relative to reported home ranges in India, possibly in response to high habitat productivity and abundant perennial water sources. Elephants showed high fidelity to their ranges. Home ranges had relatively large core areas, suggesting int...

  3. Religion, conflict and boundary politics in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Goodhand, J; Klem, B; Korf, Benedikt

    2009-01-01

    Boundaries have always been central to the dynamics of armed conflicts. Wars involve the activation and hardening of certain boundaries, thus dividing friend from foe. But despite the efforts of political potentates to carve out clearly delineated impermeable boundaries, people continue to travel across and sometimes challenge these boundaries. In this article, we study the boundary crossing practices of religious actors in eastern Sri Lanka, a multi-ethnic and multi-religious context affecte...

  4. Economic challenges of post-tsunami reconstruction in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Weerakoon, Dushni; Jayasuriya, Sisira; Arunatilake, Nisha; Steele, Paul

    2007-01-01

    After successful emergency relief operations, Sri Lanka initiated post-tsunami reconstruction with optimism and a relatively rapid recovery was expected. However, initial expectations have turned out to be overly optimistic. Coordination problems between agencies, constraints on aid absorption capacity, and inequities in aid distribution among regions have hampered reconstruction. Infrastructure reconstruction targets have not been fully met. Initial expectations that the tsunami experience w...

  5. The practice of mindfulness based behaviour therapy in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Zoysa, P.

    2010-01-01

    The Buddhist practice of cultivating mindfulness has been increasingly influencing psychotherapeutic work. However, in Sri Lanka, the documentation on the use of such practice in psychotherapy is scarce. This paper aims to discuss the influence of Buddhist mindfulness practice on psychotherapy; present a case of mixed anxiety-depressive disorder where mindfulness practice and behaviour therapy were used in its treatment and discuss issues that need to be considered in the use of mindfulness p...

  6. GEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FOR PALEO-TSUNAMIS IN SRI LANKA

    OpenAIRE

    Nayomi Kulasena; Kapila Dahanayake

    2008-01-01

    After the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami inundation event, thin sediment films of fining up sequences were located in several topographic depressions of the southern coastal belt of Sri Lanka. The films consisting of silty fine sand with particular microfossil assemblages were located also in closed containers, bottles and kitchen tables. Well preserved microfossils such as foraminifera, radiolarians as well as spicules of sponges were noted in these recent tsunami sediments.Random augur holes wer...

  7. Detection of Rickettsioses and Q fever in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Angelakis, Emmanouil; Munasinghe, Aruna; Yaddehige, Iranga; Liyanapathirana, Veranja; Thevanesam, Vasanthi; Bregliano, Anne; Socolovschi, Cristina; Edouard, Sophie; Fournier, Pierre Edouard; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Current serological evidence suggests the presence of scrub typhus and spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiosis in Sri Lanka. Our objective was to identify rickettsial agents/Q fever as aetiological causes for patients who were presumed having rickettsioses by the presence of an eschar or a rash. Sera from patients with unknown origin fever from Matara were tested by immunofluorescence for SFG rickettsial antigens, typhus group rickettsiae, Orientia tsutsugamushi, and Coxiell...

  8. Mobile Phone–based Infectious Disease Surveillance System, Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Colin; Sawford, Kate; Daniel, Samson L.A.; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Stephen, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Because many infectious diseases are emerging in animals in low-income and middle-income countries, surveillance of animal health in these areas may be needed for forecasting disease risks to humans. We present an overview of a mobile phone–based frontline surveillance system developed and implemented in Sri Lanka. Field veterinarians reported animal health information by using mobile phones. Submissions increased steadily over 9 months, with ?4,000 interactions between field veterinarians an...

  9. GEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FOR PALEO-TSUNAMIS IN SRI LANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayomi Kulasena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available After the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami inundation event, thin sediment films of fining up sequences were located in several topographic depressions of the southern coastal belt of Sri Lanka. The films consisting of silty fine sand with particular microfossil assemblages were located also in closed containers, bottles and kitchen tables. Well preserved microfossils such as foraminifera, radiolarians as well as spicules of sponges were noted in these recent tsunami sediments.Random augur holes were drilled into some selected depressions in the southern coastal villages of Peraliya and Denuwala situated at locations separated by about 50km. In several such holes, at least two fining up sequences were located below the surface in soil horizons separated from each other by 35cm to 1m. These soil profiles were overlying older coral reefs developed on lateritic formations. The microscopic observations on particular size fractions of the soil horizons showed microfossil assemblages with textures, color and organic C contents strikingly comparable to those observed in the recent tsunami sediments of Sri Lanka. Our findings imply the occurrence of at least two paleo- tsunami events of different ages in Sri Lanka originating apparently from a common source.

  10. Groundwater overuse and farm-level technical inefficiency: evidence from Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athukorala, Wasantha; Wilson, Clevo

    2012-08-01

    Extraction of groundwater for onion and other cash crop production has been increasing rapidly during the last two decades in the dry zone areas of Sri Lanka. As a result of overuse, the quantity of available groundwater is gradually declining, while water quality is deteriorating. The deteriorating water quality has a negative impact on agricultural production, especially for crops (such as onions) that are sensitive to increases in salinity levels. This issue is examined with respect to onion production in Sri Lanka. A stochastic frontier production function (SFPF) is used, in which technical efficiency and the determinants of inefficiencies are estimated simultaneously. The results show that farmers are overusing groundwater in their onion cultivation, which has resulted in decreasing yields. Factors contributing to inefficiency in production are also identified. The results have important policy implications.

  11. From silence to voice: Examining the empowerment potential of mobile phones to women in Sri Lanka The case of dependent housewives

    OpenAIRE

    Handapangoda, Wasana Sampath; Sisira Kumara, Ajanth

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few decades, at an unprecedented rate, mobile phone has penetrated Sri Lanka, triggering much hype and investment as well as multiple socioeconomic implications. Yet, examining the developmental impact of mobile phones has, however, drawn surprisingly little attention in Sri Lanka with no studies focusing primarily on the impact of mobile phones on the empowerment of women. Therefore, this paper, applying primarily qualitative methodology, attempts an investigatio...

  12. Solar photovoltaics in Sri Lanka: a short history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a significant unelectrified rural population, Sri Lanka has followed the evolution of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology in the West very closely since the 1970s as terrestrial applications for photovoltaics were developed. It was not until 1980 that the Sri Lankan government embarked on the promotion of solar photovoltaics for rural domestic use when the Ceylon Electricity Board formed the Energy Unit. In addition, Australian and Sri Lankan government-funded pilot projects have given the local promoters further valuable insight into how and how not to promote solar photovoltaics. The establishment of community-based solar photovoltaic programmes by non-governmental organizations has developed a novel approach to bridge the gap between this state-of-the-art technology and the remotely located end-users. (author)

  13. Using Climate Information for Disaster Risk Identification in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, L.

    2004-12-01

    We have engaged in a concerted attempt to undertake research and apply earth science information for development in Sri Lanka, with a focus on climate sciences. Here, we provide details of an ongoing attempt to harness science for disaster identification as a prelude to informed disaster management. Natural disasters not only result in death and destruction but also undermine decades of development gains as highlighted by recent examples from Sri Lanka. First, in May 2003, flooding and landslides in the South-West led to 260 deaths, damage to 120,000 homes and destruction of schools, infrastructure and agricultural land. Second, on December 26, 2000, a cyclone in the North-Central region left 8 dead, 55,000 displaced, with severe damage to fishing, agriculture, infrastructure and cultural sites. Third, an extended island-wide drought in 2001 and 2002 resulted in a 2% drop in GDP. In the aftermath of these disasters, improved disaster management has been deemed to be urgent by the Government of Sri Lanka. In the past the primary policy response to disasters was to provide emergency relief. It is increasingly recognized that appropriate disaster risk management, including risk assessment, preventive measures to reduce losses and improved preparedness, can help reduce death, destruction and socio-economic disruption. The overwhelming majority of hazards in Sri Lanka - droughts, floods, cyclones and landslides -have hydro-meteorological antecedents. Little systematic advantage has, however, been taken of hydro-meteorological information and advances in climate prediction for disaster management. Disaster risks are created by the interaction between hazard events and vulnerabilities of communities, infrastructure and economically important activities. A comprehensive disaster risk management system encompasses risk identification, risk reduction and risk transfer. We undertook an identification of risks for Sri Lanka at fine scale with the support of the Global Disaster Hotspots project of the Earth Institute at Columbia University. We developed tools that translate meteorological, environmental and socio-economic exposure and vulnerability information into assessments of relevant hazard related disaster risk at appropriate spatial and temporal scales. We also developed high-resolution predictive capabilities for assessing seasonal hazard event. We found that useful hazard risk and vulnerability analysis can be carried out with the type of data that is available in Sri Lanka with sufficiently fine scale as to be useful for national level planning and action. Also, hydro-meteorological information was essential to estimate hazard risks. This analysis brought out a distinct seasonality to drought, floods, landslides and cyclone hazards in Sri Lanka. This work provides a foundation for systematic disaster management that shall manage risks through measures such as hazard warnings, scenario-based relief identification and planning, strategic river basin management, risk mapping and land use zoning, standards for construction and infrastructure. The fostering of research and application capacity in the vulnerable community leads to the appropriate and sustainable use of earth science information. This work contributes to the mitigation of risk of vulnerable communities and provides an example of the harnessing of geosciences for poverty alleviation and improvement of human well-being. Note: The contributions of Vidhura Ralapanawe, Upamala Tennakoon, Ruvini Perera, Maxx Dilley, Bob Chen and the Hotspots team are gratefully acknowledged.

  14. Delineation of Tsunami Risk Zones for Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijetunge, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    The coastal belts of several Indian Ocean countries including Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India and Thailand suffered massive loss of life and damage to property due to the tsunami unleashed by the great earthquake of moment magnitude 9.1-9.3 in the Andaman-Sunda subduction zone on December 26, 2004. In Sri Lanka, 13 of the 14 administrative districts lying along the coastal belt were affected: the death toll was over 35,000 with 20,000 injured and about 100,000 dwellings and other buildings either completely or partially damaged leaving half a million people homeless and causing massive disruption to livelihoods. However, it was clear in the immediate aftermath of the tsunami that the degree of damage along the coastal belt of Sri Lanka was not uniform: some areas suffered more damage, some less, and in certain other areas, often not far away, there was no damage at all. This suggests that the level of risk for coastal communities from future events of tsunami exhibits considerable variation even along a short stretch of the shoreline. The high cost and the scarcity of coastal lands in many areas demand an accurate assessment of the tsunami risk rather than arbitrary conservative zonation. Moreover, information relating to the spatial distribution of tsunami risk is essential in formulating post-tsunami coastal land use plans as well as in planning of evacuation of people during tsunami warnings. However, neither comprehensive probabilistic assessments of the tsunami hazard nor detailed information pertaining to the vulnerability of coastal communities are available at present for the coastal zone of Sri Lanka. Consequently, the methodology adopted in the present paper is to use field observations and numerical simulations of the December 2004 tsunami, which may be considered a worst-case scenario, in order to obtain the variation along the coastline of three parameters that quantify the tsunami impact. These three parameters are the tsunami height, the horizontal inundation distance and the degree of damage to housing as a result of the 2004 tsunami. The tsunami heights at a spatial resolution of 250 m along the coastal belt were computed by employing a numerical model based on shallow-water equations. The inundation distances were obtained from the points of maximum penetration of inundation measured by the author at 200-400 m intervals along the affected coast using a GPS. The percentage of the number of housing units either completely damaged or partially damaged but unusable in each locality was compiled from a large volume of data gathered by the Department of Census and Statistics of the Government of Sri Lanka in the aftermath of the 2004 tsunami. A 'relative risk index' was then computed by factoring the influence of each of these three parameters normalized with the respective mean value for the entire length of the coastal sector concerned. Accordingly, the relative risk index indicates whether the risk is lower or higher at a given location compared to the mean for the respective coastline. Note also that, all three parameters were given the same weight in the present analysis. Two separate curves depicting the spatial variation of the relative risk index at 250 m intervals were compiled in this way for the east and south coasts of Sri Lanka as the geomorphology of these two coastal sectors are essentially different. These curves of the relative risk index shows significant spatial variation with prominent peaks and troughs at several locations thereby indicating likely zones of comparatively higher as well as lower tsunami risk along the east and south coasts of Sri Lanka.

  15. Expanding Rural Access to Renewable Energy : Lessons from Sri Lanka’s Energy Services Delivery Project (ESDP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sovacool, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The Energy Services Delivery Project (ESDP) in Sri Lanka was an exemplary renewable energy access programme. Consisting of a Credit Component, a Wind Farm Component and a Capacity Building Component, the $53.8 million ESDP successfully installed 21,000 off-grid Solar Home Systems (SHS), 31 megawatts (MW) of grid-connected mini-hydro capacity, 574 kilowatts (kW) of off-grid village hydroelectric systems serving 2,897 households, and a 3MW grid-connected wind farm from 1997 to 2002. By the end of 2004, two years after the ESDP’s close, the Sri Lankan renewable energy industry boasted more than 40 mini-hydro developers, 10 registered solar companies, 22 registered village hydro developers and 12 village hydro equipment suppliers compared to less than three of each before the ESDP began. This study explores the dynamics of the ESDP, and investigates its structure, benefits, challenges and broader implications.

  16. Sri Lanka’s Post-Conflict Strategy: Restorative Justice for Rebels and Rebuilding of Conflict-affected Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iromi Dharmawardhane

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the Sri Lankan Government’s military defeat of the internationally proscribed terrorist organisation, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE in May 2009, Sri Lanka embarked on an essential and long-term twofold post-conflict strategy: (i rehabilitation and reintegration of former LTTE combatants, and (ii the rebuilding of the conflict-affected Tamil communities of the Northern and Eastern Provinces. The rehabilitation program was by many counts a success, with demonstrated cognitive transformation in attitudes and behaviour of most of the (formerly radicalised combatants. Reconciliation initiatives were implemented to fulfill the urgent social, political, and economic needs of the conflict-affected communities of the North and East. These reconciliation efforts continue to be implemented and comprise different measures taken in: (1 resettlement and humanitarian assistance, (2 reconstruction of key transport, economic, health, and social infrastructure for reintegration, (3 political engagement, and (4 various types of peace-building work. Sri Lanka’s post-conflict strategy adopts a holistic approach, seeking the contribution of the public sector, private sector, community organisations, international organisations, NGOs, and private individuals from different segments of society in Sri Lanka. However, despite the many effective state-led and other reconciliation efforts undertaken by Sri Lanka, the author is able to present a number of recommendations to the government of Sri Lanka to overcome shortcomings in the rehabilitation and reconciliation programs adopted, as well as other challenges faced by Sri Lanka, such as the relentless disinformation campaign against the Sri Lankan state pursued by the remnant LTTE cells surviving internationally. To understand the complex nature of the Sri Lankan conflict and the skillful disinformation campaign pursued against the Sri Lankan state by the LTTE’s transnational network, a comprehensive introduction is provided as a part of this article.

  17. Equity in Education: Opportunities and Challenges In A Changing Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedere, Upali M.

    2010-01-01

    Equity is a major concern for all development actors. Although Sri Lanka has successfully addressed equity issues in education sector there are unresolved factors and variables those perpetuate inequity. There are emerging new equity issues those that Sri Lanka needs to address. The changing population dynamics and the huge middle class population…

  18. Grass Roots Networking for Primary Education: Case Studies: Thailand, Sri Lanka, Philippines, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    This monograph describes inter-institutional network structures in Thailand, Sri Lanka, Japan, and the Philippines which were implemented to improve educational delivery systems at the primary level. Chapter 1, an overview, discusses the similarities and differences in three examples of networks in Thailand, Sri Lanka, and the Philippines. In the…

  19. Spatial and temporal variations of thunderstorm activities over Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnadara, Upul

    2015-04-01

    Spatial and temporal variation of frequencies of thunderstorms over Sri Lanka using thunder day data is presented. A thunder day is simply a calendar day in which thunder is heard at least once at a given location. Two sets of data were collected and analyzed: annual totals for 10 climatological stations for a period of 50 years and monthly totals for 20 climatological stations for a period of 20 years. The average annual thunder days over Sri Lanka was found to be 76. Among the climatological stations considered, a high number of annual thunder days was recorded in Ratnapura (150 days/year), followed by Colombo (108 days/year) and Bandarawela (106 days/year). It appears that there are no widespread long-term increasing or decreasing trends in thunderstorm frequencies. However, Colombo, the capital of Sri Lanka which has over two million people shows an increasing trend of 0.8 thunder days per year. Although there is a high variability between stations reporting the number of thunder days, the overall pattern within a year is clear. Thunderstorm frequencies are high during two periods: March-May and September-November, which coincide with the first inter-monsoon and second inter-monsoon periods. Compared to the dry zone, the wet zone, especially the southwestern region, has high thunderstorm activity. There is a clear spatial difference in thunderstorm activities during the southwest and northeast monsoon seasons. During both these seasons, enhanced thunderstorm activities are reported on the leeward side of the mountain range. A slight reduction in the thunderstorm activities was found in the high elevation areas of the hill country compared to the surrounding areas. A lightning ground flash density map derived using annual thunder days is also presented.

  20. Pesticide poisoning: a major health problem in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Hoek, W; Konradsen, F; Athukorala, K; Wanigadewa, T

    1998-01-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in Sri Lanka. In several agricultural districts, it precedes all other causes of death in government hospitals. Most of the acute poisoning cases are intentional (suicide) and occur among young adults, mainly males. Poisoning due to occupational exposure is also common, but less well documented. In an irrigation area in Sri Lanka a very high incidence of serious pesticide poisoning was observed, with 68% due to intentional ingestion of liquid pesticides. It is argued that the easy availability and widespread use of highly hazardous pesticides is the most important reason for this high number of poisoning cases. The frequent application of highly hazardous pesticides in high concentrations was often irrational and posed serious health and financial risks to the farmers. Sales promotion activities and credit facilities promoted this excessive pesticide use, which was not counteracted by an agricultural extension service. Hazardous practices when spraying pesticides were due to the impossibility of applying recommended protective measures under the local conditions, rather than to lack of knowledge. Current emphasis on programs that promote the safe use of pesticides through education and training of farmers will be ineffective in Sri Lanka because knowledge is already high and most poisoning cases are intentional. Instead, enforcement of legislation to restrict availability of the most hazardous pesticides would result in an immediate health benefit. Improved agricultural extension services to promote alternative non-chemical methods of pest control is the most important strategy, in the long term, to prevent acute pesticide poisoning. PMID:9460829

  1. Determinants of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka: Study Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thevanesam Vasanthi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptospirosis is becoming a major public health threat in Sri Lanka as well as in other countries. We designed a case control study to determine the factors associated with local transmission of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka, in order to identify major modifiable determinants of leptospirosis. The purpose of this paper is to describe the study protocol in detail prior to the publishing of the study results, so that the readership will be able to understand and interpret the study results effectively. Methods A hospital based partially matched case control design is proposed. The study will be conducted in three selected leptospirosis endemic districts in central Sri Lanka. Case selection will include screening all acute fever patients admitted to selected wards to select probable cases of leptospirosis and case confirmation using an array of standard laboratory criteria. Age and sex matched group of acute fever patients with other confirmed diagnosis will be used as controls. Case to control ratio will be 1:2. A minimum sample of 144 cases is required to detect 20% exposure with 95% two sided confidence level and 80% power. A pre tested interviewer administered structured questionnaire will be used to collect data from participants. Variables included in the proposed study will be evaluated using conceptual hierarch of variables in three levels; Exposure variables as proximal; reservoir and environmental variables as intermediate; socio-demographic variables as distal. This conceptual hierarch hypothesised that the distal and intermediate variables are mediated through the proximal variables but not directly. A logistic regression model will be used to analyse the probable determinants of leptospirosis. This model will evaluate the effect of same level and upper level variables on the outcome leptospirosis, using three blocks. Discussion The present national control programme of leptospirosis is hampered by lack of baseline data on leptospirosis disease transmission. The present study will be able to provide these essential information for formulation of better control strategies.

  2. Distribution of Lutra lutra in the Highlands of Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Silva P. K. de

    1991-01-01

    The only otter found in Sri Lanka is Lutra lutra. A survey was carried out in 1989/1990 in the highland region of the island, an area drained by four river systems. Abundant signs of otters were found. Freshwater crabs form the main part of the otters' diet in the study area, where few fish are found. Although at present, otters are plentiful, partly because access to tea plantations is limited, reducing pressure on otters living on them, this may not continue as vegetable farming increases,...

  3. Integrated approach for coastal hazards and risks in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Garcin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The devastating impact of the tsunami of 26 December 2004 on the shores of the Indian Ocean recalled the importance of knowledge and the taking into account of coastal hazards. Sri Lanka was one of the countries most affected by this tsunami (e.g. 30 000 dead, 1 million people homeless and 70% of the fishing fleet destroyed. Following this tsunami, as part of the French post-tsunami aid, a project to establish a Geographical Information System (GIS on coastal hazards and risks was funded. This project aims to define, at a pilot site, a methodology for multiple coastal hazards assessment that might be useful for the post-tsunami reconstruction and for development planning. This methodology could be applied to the whole coastline of Sri Lanka.

    The multi-hazard approach deals with very different coastal processes in terms of dynamics as well as in terms of return period. The first elements of this study are presented here. We used a set of tools integrating a GIS, numerical simulations and risk scenario modelling. While this action occurred in response to the crisis caused by the tsunami, it was decided to integrate other coastal hazards into the study. Although less dramatic than the tsunami these remain responsible for loss of life and damage. Furthermore, the establishment of such a system could not ignore the longer-term effects of climate change on coastal hazards in Sri Lanka.

    This GIS integrates the physical and demographic data available in Sri Lanka that is useful for assessing the coastal hazards and risks. In addition, these data have been used in numerical modelling of the waves generated during periods of monsoon as well as for the December 2004 tsunami. Risk scenarios have also been assessed for test areas and validated by field data acquired during the project. The results obtained from the models can be further integrated into the GIS and contribute to its enrichment and to help in better assessment and mitigation of these risks.

    The coastal-hazards-and-risks GIS coupled with modelling thus appears to be a very useful tool that can constitute the skeleton of a coastal zone management system. Decision makers will be able to make informed choices with regards to hazards during reconstruction and urban planning projects.

  4. Integrated approach for coastal hazards and risks in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    M. Garcin; Desprats, J.F.; Fontaine, M; R. Pedreros; Attanayake, N.; Fernando, S.; Siriwardana, C.H.E.R.; SILVA, U; B. Poisson

    2008-01-01

    The devastating impact of the tsunami of 26 December 2004 on the shores of the Indian Ocean recalled the importance of knowledge and the taking into account of coastal hazards. Sri Lanka was one of the countries most affected by this tsunami (e.g. 30 000 dead, 1 million people homeless and 70% of the fishing fleet destroyed). Following this tsunami, as part of the French post-tsunami aid, a project to establish a Geographical Information System (GIS) on coastal hazards and risks was funded. T...

  5. Positioning Muslims in Ethnic Relations, Ethnic Conflict and Peace Process in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Agus Yusoff; Nordin Hussin; Athambawa Sarjoon

    2014-01-01

    Sri Lankan Muslims, the second largest minority ethnic group with 9.4 per cent (2012) of the total population has been victimized in the cause of ethnic politics, ethno-nationalism, and ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka. Like other ethnic groups in Sri Lanka, the Muslims also have a historical origin that follows a set of distinctive ethno-centric cultural and religious practices. They have contributed much to the communal harmony, socio-economic and political development of the country throughout...

  6. Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth: Evidence from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirunavukkarasu Velnampy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Various international organizations and foreign advisors suggested that developing countries should focusprimarily on foreign direct investment (FDI as a source of external finance. In this context, the main purpose ofthe study is to find out the impact of foreign direct investment on economic growth in the Sri LankanPerspective. Data on the foreign direct investment and economic growth from the year 1990 to 2011 werecollected for the study purpose. Further, the results revealed that, there is no significant impact of FDI on theeconomic growth, which is in lowest level. Only 4.3 percent of the variance in the dependent variable has beenfound. In contrast, we found that, in the Sri Lankan context, there is a long run equilibrium relationship betweenFDI and economic growth rate. Statistical findings on the basic regression analysis, Co integration test andGranger causality test show the contradiction in terms of the findings. Meantime, scholars in the econometricsstated that, Co integration test generally is applied among time series data. Due to that, Co integration test givethe insights to the findings in terms of long run view. Finally, we have suggested that, the Sri LankanGovernment and Central Bank of Sri Lanka jointly should take the necessary action to focus on theinfrastructure development through the FDI to get the economic growth in the long term view. Meantime, FDIshould be directed to agricultural actives to get the food sufficient aspects in the local and globalized level.

  7. Concomitant leptospirosis-hantavirus co-infection in acute patients hospitalized in Sri Lanka: implications for a potentially worldwide underestimated problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil-Chandra, N P; Clement, J; Maes, P; DE Silva, H J; VAN Esbroeck, M; VAN Ranst, M

    2015-07-01

    Two global (re-)emerging zoonoses, leptospirosis and hantavirus infections, are clinically indistinguishable. Thirty-one patients, hospitalized in Sri Lanka for acute severe leptospirosis, were after exclusion of other potentially involved pathogens, prospectively screened with IgM ELISA for both pathogens. Of these, nine (29·0%) were positive for leptospirosis only, one (3·2%) for hantavirus only, seven (22·5%) for both pathogens concomitantly, whereas 13 (41·9%) remained negative for both. Moreover, in a retrospective study of 23 former patients, serologically confirmed for past leptospirosis, six (26·0%) were also positive in two different IgG ELISA hantavirus formats. Surprisingly, European Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) results were constantly higher, although statistically not significantly different, than Asian Hantaan virus (HTNV), suggesting an unexplained cross-reaction, since PUUV is considered absent throughout Asia. Moreover, RT-PCR on all hantavirus IgM ELISA positives was negative. Concomitant leptospirosis-hantavirus infections are probably heavily underestimated worldwide, compromising epidemiological data, therapeutical decisions, and clinical outcome. PMID:25582980

  8. Proterozoic to Mesozoic East Gondwana: The juxtaposition of India, Sri Lanka, and Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masaru; Funaki, Minoru; Vitanage, Piyadasa W.

    1992-04-01

    Jurassic and Cambro-Ordovician paleomagnetic pole positions deduced from rocks of Sri Lanka and Antarctica generally conform when Sri Lanka is juxtaposed with the coast of Lützow-Holm Bay, East Antarctica, in a manner similar to a current Gondwana reassembly. The Highland and Southwest groups (mostly Proterozoic) of Sri Lanka are correlated with the Ongul and Skallen groups of East Antarctica on the basis of similar lithology, structural characteristics, structural trend, tectonothermal history (ranging from early Proterozoic to Mesozoic), and the pressure-temperature-time path of the main metamorphism. Some neighboring lithotectonic units are also comparable between the two areas. Fracture-lineament systems of Sri Lanka and Antarctica formed after the latest Silurian and during or before the Jurassic conform in this reconstruction. An improved fit of the 2000 m isobaths of India-Sri Lanka-Antarctica and continuation of the latest Archaean mobile belt from Enderby Land to peninsular India is obtained by fitting Sri Lanka into Lützow-Holm Bay, and Enderby Land into the embayment in the east coast of peninsular India. This juxtaposition of peninsular India to East Antarctica involves about 80 km northward movement and about 30° clock-wise rotation of Sri Lanka relative to India. The reassembly thus obtained accords well with data, supporting the idea that East Gondwana existed from the earliest Proterozoic to middle Mesozoic, although some disruption-collision events of limited scale are considered possible.

  9. Research and development on radiation processing in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on radiation processing of natural polymer such as polysaccharides of chitosan, cellulose, carrageenan has been carried out in Sri Lanka since the year 2004. The research group have been involving in development activities on application of chitin and chitosan for wound dressing, irradiated chitosan on shelf life extension of fruits such as papaya, banana, mangoes, radiation crosslinked super-absorbent hydrogel from sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by radiation processing. Hydrogels prepared with PVA/Carrageenan/Agar has been studied on guinea pigs to determine the wound healing effect. Irradiated chitosan powder and chitosan solution was studied in vitro and found chitosan solution (1%) directly subjected to irradiation dosages even at 5 kGy was highly effective in control of anthracnose causing organism of papaya. In vivo studies with irradiated 1% chitosan solution on Rathana and red lady variety of papaya shows better control of spoilage of papaya to a considerable extent. The government of Sri Lanka (Ministry of Science and Technology and Atomic Energy Authority) is in the process of establishing the first government owned Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility and it will be helpful to transfer the output of R and D in radiation processing. (author)

  10. Malaria in Sri Lanka: one year post-tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amerasinghe Priyanie H

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One year ago, the authors of this article reported in this journal on the malaria situation in Sri Lanka prior to the tsunami that hit on 26 December 2004, and estimated the likelihood of a post-tsunami malaria outbreak to be low. Malaria incidence has decreased in 2005 as compared to 2004 in most districts, including the ones that were hit hardest by the tsunami. The malaria incidence (aggregated for the whole country in 2005 followed the downward trend that started in 2000. However, surveillance was somewhat affected by the tsunami in some coastal areas and the actual incidence in these areas may have been higher than recorded, although there were no indications of this and it is unlikely to have affected the overall trend significantly. The focus of national and international post tsunami malaria control efforts was supply of antimalarials, distribution of impregnated mosquito nets and increased monitoring in the affected area. Internationally donated antimalarials were either redundant or did not comply with national drug policy, however, few seem to have entered circulation outside government control. Despite distribution of mosquito nets, still a large population is relatively exposed to mosquito bites due to inadequate housing. There were no indications of increased malaria vector abundance. Overall it is concluded that the tsunami has not negatively influenced the malaria situation in Sri Lanka.

  11. Then and Now: English in Sri Lanka’s Public Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaran Rajandran

    2009-01-01

    English was the official language of Sri Lanka during British colonization but it was replaced by Sinhala and Tamil as independence neared. The public sector was directly affected by this change although English held sway here for some years. Yet, English was made the link language for the Sinhalese and Tamils in 1987 and the state has since taken many steps to promote and improve its use in the public sector. Such change in language policy did not happen in void. It resulted from different p...

  12. Biological Differences between Brackish and Fresh Water-Derived Aedes aegypti from Two Locations in the Jaffna Peninsula of Sri Lanka and the Implications for Arboviral Disease Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Ranjan; Jude, Pavilupillai J.; Veluppillai, Thabothiny; Eswaramohan, Thampoe; Surendran, Sinnathamby N.

    2014-01-01

    The mainly fresh water arboviral vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) can also undergo pre-imaginal development in brackish water of up to 15 ppt (parts per thousand) salt in coastal areas. We investigated differences in salinity tolerance, egg laying preference, egg hatching and larval development times and resistance to common insecticides in Ae. aegypti collected from brackish and fresh water habitats in Jaffna, Sri Lanka. Brackish water-derived Ae. aegypti were more tolerant of salinity than fresh water-derived Ae. aegypti and this difference was only partly reduced after their transfer to fresh water for up to five generations. Brackish water-derived Ae. aegypti did not significantly discriminate between 10 ppt salt brackish water and fresh water for oviposition, while fresh water-derived Ae. aegypti preferred fresh water. The hatching of eggs from both brackish and fresh water-derived Ae. aegypti was less efficient and the time taken for larvae to develop into pupae was prolonged in 10 ppt salt brackish water. Ae. aegypti isolated from coastal brackish water were less resistant to the organophosphate insecticide malathion than inland fresh water Ae. aegypti. Brackish and fresh water-derived Ae. aegypti however were able to mate and produce viable offspring in the laboratory. The results suggest that development in brackish water is characterised by pertinent biological changes, and that there is restricted genetic exchange between coastal brackish and inland fresh water Ae. aegypti isolates from sites 5 km apart. The findings highlight the need for monitoring Ae. aegypti developing in coastal brackish waters and extending vector control measures to their habitats. PMID:25170879

  13. The Solar Orientation of the Lion Rock Complex in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the solar orientation of the archaeological complex of Sigiriya, the Lion Rock, in Sri Lanka. We can see that the axis of this complex is oriented with the sunset of the zenithal sun.

  14. Conflict, forced displacement and health in Sri Lanka: a review of the research landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Wickramage, Kolitha

    2014-01-01

    Sri Lanka has recently emerged from nearly three decades of protracted conflict, which came to an end five years ago in 2009. A number of researchers have explored the devastating effect the conflict has had on public health, and its impact on Sri Lanka's health system - hailed as a success story in the South Asian region. Remarkably, no attempt has been made to synthesize the findings of such studies in order to build an evidence-informed research platform. This review aims to map the 'research landscape' on the impact of conflict on health in Sri Lanka. Findings highlight health status in select groups within affected communities and unmet needs of health systems in post-conflict regions. We contend that Sri Lanka's post-conflict research landscape requires exploration of individual, community and health system resilience, to provide better evidence for health programs and interventions after 26 years of conflict. PMID:25400692

  15. Mobile phone-based infectious disease surveillance system, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Colin; Sawford, Kate; Daniel, Samson L A; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Stephen, Craig

    2010-10-01

    Because many infectious diseases are emerging in animals in low-income and middle-income countries, surveillance of animal health in these areas may be needed for forecasting disease risks to humans. We present an overview of a mobile phone-based frontline surveillance system developed and implemented in Sri Lanka. Field veterinarians reported animal health information by using mobile phones. Submissions increased steadily over 9 months, with ?4,000 interactions between field veterinarians and reports on the animal population received by the system. Development of human resources and increased communication between local stakeholders (groups and persons whose actions are affected by emerging infectious diseases and animal health) were instrumental for successful implementation. The primary lesson learned was that mobile phone-based surveillance of animal populations is acceptable and feasible in lower-resource settings. However, any system implementation plan must consider the time needed to garner support for novel surveillance methods among users and stakeholders. PMID:20875276

  16. Nuclear Knowledge Management Implementation Issues In Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About Knowledge Management: Process of organizing and distributing an Organization’s collective wisdom so the right information gets to the right people at the right time. NKM Implementation Problems in Sri Lanka: • Difficulty of identifying nuclear knowledge holders; • NKM has not been given considerable importance; • Many nuclear science experts are in retirement age; • No proper mechanism is available to replace young personnel for their positions; • Unawareness of general public about his technology. • Capacity building through training and education and transferring knowledge from centers of knowledge to centers of growth are key issues. • Development of new courses related to nuclear science is a key issue to be highly considered. • The tendency towards the training and educations of nuclear personnel in the country is becoming less and less

  17. Distribution of Lutra lutra in the Highlands of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva P. K. de

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available The only otter found in Sri Lanka is Lutra lutra. A survey was carried out in 1989/1990 in the highland region of the island, an area drained by four river systems. Abundant signs of otters were found. Freshwater crabs form the main part of the otters' diet in the study area, where few fish are found. Although at present, otters are plentiful, partly because access to tea plantations is limited, reducing pressure on otters living on them, this may not continue as vegetable farming increases, bringing pesticide and fertiliser washoff and soil erosion. Mining is also causing increased water turbidity, and fish farming is leading to otters being destroyed. Peak Wilderness Sanctuary and the Horton Plains National Park help to protect otters and other wildlife, but conservation measures need to be put in place now to protect otters against theses growing threats.

  18. Post-Tsunami Reconstruction in Sri Lanka: Houses or Housing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazai, B.; Franco, G.; Ingram, J. C.; Rumbaitis del Rio, C.

    2005-12-01

    Reconstruction can be an opportunity to address longer-term livelihood vulnerability within poor communities and households, and to empower the most vulnerable. The post-tsunami reconstruction efforts in Sri Lanka can be seen on two disconnected scales. On a local scale there seems to be a growing recognition by district-level government and NGOs on the importance of households in creating social, human and financial capital, as demonstrated by many programs targeted at rebuilding livelihoods and income-generating activities. On a national scale, however, programs have revealed an emphasis on houses as the physical capital rather than housing as the arena of social and economic life. The aim of national-scale programs is to deliver tangible and quantifiable products, in the form of houses built, often without regard of whether this complements or disrupts livelihoods. One example of such a directive is the implementation of a coastal buffer zone which will ban any new construction within a 100 to 200 meter band from the ocean and allowing only structures that sustained less than 40 percent damage to remain and rebuild. In general these kind of surviving structures along the coast are businesses such as hotels and restaurants. In an island nation such as Sri Lanka, where beach front property is by and large considered low-income housing, typically inhabited by fishermen who rely on the ocean for their livelihoods, the buffer zone constitutes a drastic oversight of local processes shaping these households. The product-oriented solution on the national scale has resulted in building permanent houses for fishery communities in resettlement sites kilometers away from the ocean. The focus of this presentation will be on reconciling the need for immediate shelter needs with a long-term perspective of livelihood rehabilitation using Sri Lanka as a case study. Houses themselves are often not an immediate priority for local people, whose first need is likely to resume income-generating activities. In normal times, building houses is seen as a multi-stage process often fitted around the local economic calendar: annual farming or fishing cycles for example. Disaster victims may choose to stay in makeshift shelters in the short term, hoping to have more time, money or materials for rebuilding later. A major challenge for the tsunami-stricken areas in Sri Lanka is to find ways of widening public participation in what to date has been a governmental framework that operates on two disconnected scales in its reconstruction efforts. There is a general absence of mechanisms for incorporating community participation into the governmental decision-making process. Local governments might have also been expected to play a larger role in recovery decision making, but frequently lack both the resources and the authority to become actively involved. Lack of participation in the construction process, has led on an over-reliance on outsiders, reinforcing an attitude of raised expectations.

  19. Malaria Eradication and Educational Attainment: Evidence from Paraguay and Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Adrienne M.

    2010-01-01

    Mid-twentieth century malaria eradication campaigns largely eliminated malaria from Paraguay and Sri Lanka. Using these interventions as quasi-experiments, I estimate malaria’s effect on lifetime female educational attainment through the combination of pre-existing geographic variation in malarial intensity and cohort exposure based on the timing of the national anti-malaria campaigns. The estimates from Sri Lanka and Paraguay are similar and indicate that malaria eradication increased year...

  20. Spatiotemporal Hydrological Modelling with GIS for the Upper Mahaweli Catchment, Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Premalal Silva, Ranjith

    1997-01-01

    Sustainability of water resources is imperative for the continued prosperity of Sri Lanka where the economy is dependent upon agriculture. The Mahaweli river is the longest in Sri Lanka, with the upper catchment covering an area of 3124 sq .km .. The Mahaweli Development programme, a major undertaking in the upper catchment has been implemented with the aims of providing Mahaweli water to the dry zone of the country through a massive diversion scheme and also for generating hyd...

  1. Symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescent students; a perspective from Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Wijeratne Thilina; Gurusinghe Jayantha; Welgama Srina; Rodrigo Chaturaka; Jayananda Gamini; Rajapakse Senaka

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Sri Lanka recorded an extraordinary high suicide rate for adolescents aged 15 - 19 in the early 1990s (46.5/100,000). With this in perspective, the Ministry of Health in Sri Lanka recommends school programmes for adolescents by mental health units of local hospitals. Methods We conducted cross sectional surveys to screen for symptoms of anxiety and depression among students aged 14 - 18 during school mental health programmes. Two schools were randomly selected within the R...

  2. COMPARISON OF E-LEARNING ACCEPTANCE AMONG POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS IN SRI LANKA AND MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushalya Yatigammana; Md Gapar Md Johar; Chandra Gunawardhana

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of innovation attributes on postgraduate students’ e-learning acceptance between Sri Lanka and Malaysia. The Diffusion of Innovation theory identifies five attributes of innovation namely relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialabiltity, observability which impact for the attitude and intention of using e- learning. Sri Lanka and Malaysia are the countries which have more similarities in terms of history, geography and culture....

  3. The determinants of household poverty in Sri Lanka: 2006/2007

    OpenAIRE

    Ranathunga, Seetha P. B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the Micro-level factors associated with household poverty in Sri Lanka using latest Household Income and Expenditure Surveys (HIES) data in 2006/07 employing OLS, quintile and probit regressions. The results of the probit regression indicate that, the major determinants of household poverty in Sri Lanka are human capital related factors which can be link to the labour market and remittances. Further, qunatile regression shows that education and foreign remittances have ...

  4. Impacts of Service Sector Policy Reform:CGE model Analysis based on Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Pallegedara, Asankha

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the macroeconomic effects of services sector reform policies using two computable general equilibrium models of Sri Lankan economy. First model assumes perfect competitive market and second one assumes monopoly supplier economy. Both models have been calibrated using Sri Lanka’s social accounting matrix currently available. Impacts of both services sector production tax reduction and import tariff increase have been simulated. Simulation results imply that reduction ...

  5. Dynamic relationships between stock market performance and short term interest rate Empirical evidence from Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Pallegedara, Asankha

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the dynamic relationships between stock market performance and the interest rates in Sri Lanka during June 2004 to April 2011. We use all share price index in the Colombo stock exchange as a measure of stock market performance indicator and Sri Lanka interbank offer rate as a measure of interest rate. We employ some conventional time series econometric techniques namely Unit root test, cointegration test, vector auto correction model (VECM), Granger-Causality test and Impu...

  6. The role of Sri Lanka in enhancing connectivity between South Asia and Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Weerakoon, Dushni; Perera, Nipuni

    2014-01-01

    Improving physical connectivity between South and Southeast Asia has long been recognized as a key element in promoting greater trade and investment linkages within the region. As an island economy, Sri Lanka's regional connectivity has been mainly through its main sea port in Colombo, a transshipment hub port for South Asia. Investments to expand capacity at Colombo port are underway as part of Sri Lanka's renewed efforts to develop its infrastructure following the long internal separatist c...

  7. Genesis of metasomatic sapphirine-corundum-spinel-bearing granulites in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando, G. W. A. Rohan

    2001-01-01

    The goal of the present study is to understand the mechanism of mass transfer, the composition and the role of fluids during crustal metasomatism in high-temperature metamorphic terranes. A well constrained case study, a locality at Rupaha, Sri Lanka was selected. It is located in the Highland Complex of Sri Lanka, which represents a small, but important fragment of the super-continent Gondwana. Excellent exposures of ultramafic rocks, which are embedded in granulites, were found at 10 locali...

  8. Real-Time Biosurveillance Pilot Programme in Sri Lanka: Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Weerasinghe Gamachchige Chamindu Sampath

    2010-01-01

    The latter parts of 2007 and early months of 2008 witnessed an alarming number of deaths due to a Leptospirosis outbreak in Sri Lanka(1). An unusual number of patients presenting with symptoms of fever, headache or myalgia concentrated in particular geographic areas (North Central and North Western Province in Sri Lanka) could have signalled the epidemiologists of an abnormal event with the help of a quicker surveillance programme leading to possible implementation of optimal strategies which...

  9. Scrub Typhus among Pediatric Patients in Dambadeniya:A Base Hospital in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Nalika; Wijesundara, Sarojini; Liyanapathirana, Veranja; Thevanesam, Vasanthi; Stenos, John

    2012-01-01

    Data on pediatric scrub typhus is uncommon in Sri Lanka and other countries. The objective of this study was to identify the clinical features of patients with scrub typhus at a Base Hospital in Sri Lanka. Sixty patients presenting with suspected scrub typhus were included in the study. Their blood samples were tested for the presence of antibodies against rickettsioses using the reference method. Twenty patients had confirmed scrub typhus and 24 had possible scrub typhus. Their clinical feat...

  10. Supporting elephant conservation in Sri Lanka through MODIS imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Kithsiri; Tateishi, Ryutaro

    2012-10-01

    The latest national elephant survey of Sri Lanka (2011) revealed Sri Lanka has 5,879 elephants. The total forest cover for these elephants is about 19,500 sq km (2012 estimation) and estimated forest area is about 30% of the country when smaller green patches are also counted. However, studies have pointed out that a herd of elephants need about a 100 sq km of forest patch to survive. With a high human population density (332 people per sq km, 2010), the pressure for land to feed people and elephants is becoming critical. Resent reports have indicated about 250 elephants are killed annually by farmers and dozens of people are also killed by elephants. Under this context, researchers are investigating various methods to assess the elephant movements to address the issues of Human-Elephant-Conflict (HEC). Apart from various local remedies for the issue, the conservation of elephant population can be supported by satellite imagery based studies. MODIS sensor imagery can be considered as a successful candidate here. Its spatial resolution is low (250m x 250m) but automatically filters out small forest patches in the mapping process. The daily imagery helps to monitor temporal forest cover changes. This study investigated the background information of HEC and used MODIS 250m imagery to suggest applicability of satellite data for Elephant conservations efforts. The elephant movement information was gathered from local authorities and potentials to identify bio-corridors were discussed. Under future research steps, regular forest cover monitoring through MODIS data was emphasized as a valuable tool in elephant conservations efforts.

  11. Indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka: production systems and genetic diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production status, farming systems and genetic diversity of indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka were evaluated using six geographically distinct populations. The indigenous cattle population of the country is considered as a nondescript mixture of genotypes, and represents more than half of the total cattle population of 1.2 million heads. Five distinct indigenous populations were investigated for morphological analysis, and four were included in evaluating genetic differences. Farming systems were analysed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. The genetic variation was assessed within and between populations using 15 autosomal and two Y-specific microsatellite markers, and compared with two indigenous populations from the African region. Farming system analysis revealed that indigenous cattle rearing was based on traditional mixed-crop integration practices and operates under limited or no input basis. The contribution of indigenous cattle to total tangible income ranged from zero to 90% reflecting the high variation in the purpose of keeping. Morphometric measurements explained specific phenotypic characteristics arising from geographical isolation and selective breeding. Though varying according to the region, the compact body, narrow face, small horns and humps with shades of brown and black coat colour described the indigenous cattle phenotype in general. Genetic analysis indicated that indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka have high diversity with average number of ave high diversity with average number of alleles per locus ranging from 7.9 to 8.5. Average heterozygosity of different regions varied within a narrow range (0.72 ± 0.04 to 0.76 ± 0.03). Genetic distances between regions were low (0.085 and 0.066) suggesting a similar mixture of genotypes across regions. Y-specific analysis indicated a possible introgression of Taurine cattle in one of the cattle populations. (author)

  12. Metal release from serpentine soils in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithanage, Meththika; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Oze, Christopher; Rajakaruna, Nishanta; Dissanayake, C B

    2014-06-01

    Ultramafic rocks and their related soils (i.e., serpentine soils) are non-anthropogenic sources of metal contamination. Elevated concentrations of metals released from these soils into the surrounding areas and groundwater have ecological-, agricultural-, and human health-related consequences. Here we report the geochemistry of four different serpentine soil localities in Sri Lanka by coupling interpretations garnered from physicochemical properties and chemical extractions. Both Ni and Mn demonstrate appreciable release in water from the Ussangoda soils compared to the other three localities, with Ni and Mn metal release increasing with increasing ionic strengths at all sites. Sequential extraction experiments, utilized to identify "elemental pools," indicate that Mn is mainly associated with oxides/(oxy)hydroxides, whereas Ni and Cr are bound in silicates and spinels. Nickel was the most bioavailable metal compared to Mn and Cr in all four soils, with the highest value observed in the Ussangoda soil at 168 ± 6.40 mg kg(-1) via the 0.01-M CaCl2 extraction. Although Mn is dominantly bound in oxides/(oxy)hydroxides, Mn is widely dispersed with concentrations reaching as high as 391 mg kg(-1) (Yudhaganawa) in the organic fraction and 49 mg kg(-1) (Ussangoda) in the exchangeable fraction. Despite Cr being primarily retained in the residual fraction, the second largest pool of Cr was in the organic matter fraction (693 mg kg(-1) in the Yudhaganawa soil). Overall, our results support that serpentine soils in Sri Lanka offer a highly labile source of metals to the critical zone. PMID:24464398

  13. Testimony ceremonies in Asia: Integrating spirituality in testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Agger, Inger; Igreja, Victor; Kiehle, Rachel; Polatin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the therapeutic implications of including culturally adapted spiritual ceremonies in the process of testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines. Data were collected through an action research process with Asian mental health and human rights organizations, during which the testimonial method was reconceptualized and modified to include four sessions. In the first two sessions, community workers assist survivors in the writin...

  14. P-T evolution of a spinel + quartz bearing khondalite from the Highland Complex, Sri Lanka: Implications for non-UHT metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmapriya, P. L.; Malaviarachchi, Sanjeewa P. K.; Galli, Andrea; Su, Ben-Xun; Subasinghe, N. D.; Dissanayake, C. B.; Nimalsiri, T. B.; Zhu, Bin

    2014-12-01

    Here, we report a natural field example for the coexistence of spinel + quartz as a non-UHT assemblage in spinel- and cordierite-bearing garnet-sillimanite-biotite-graphite gneiss (khondalite) interbedded with orthopyroxene-garnet-biotite bearing intermediate granulites from the Highland Complex (HC) in Sri Lanka. The khondalite contains Zn-rich spinel mainly in four textural assemblages namely: (a) spinel co-existing with tiny quartz (ZnO = 12.67-12.85 wt%), (b) spinel surrounded by sillimanite moates and in intergrowth with skeletal sillimanites (ZnO = 9.03-9.17 wt%), (c) symplectitic spinels at the margin of sillimanite (ZnO = 4.09-4.28 wt%) and (d) spinel co-existing with ilmenite or as isolated grains (ZnO = 7.61-7.97 wt% and Cr2O3 = 5.99-6.27 wt%). Assemblage (a) and (b) occur within garnet while assemblages of (c) and (d) are present within cordierite moates after garnet in the matrix. Pseudosections calculated in the NCKFMASHTMnO system and conventional geothermobarometry suggest that the metamorphic peak conditions attained by the spinel + quartz bearing khondalites and associated intermediate granulites did not exceed T of 900 °C and P of 7.5-8.5 kbar. Post-peak evolution was characterized by a stage of nearly-isobaric cooling down to T of 770 °C and P of 7.5 kbar, followed by a late stage of isothermal decompression down to P < 6.5 kbar and T of 770 °C. We propose that the incorporation of large amount of Zn into spinel from exotic, metasomatic fluids and possibly incorporation of Fe3+ into spinel under high oxidizing conditions may have shifted the stabilization of co-existing spinel + quartz to T < 900 °C. Hence, this study provides insights into the occurrence of spinel + quartz as a non- UHT assemblage suggesting that the coexistence of spinel + quartz should be treated with care and considered only as indicative, but not diagnostic of UHT metamorphism.

  15. Neurological manifestations of snake bite in Sri Lanka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seneviratne U

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Snake bite is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in certain parts of Sri Lanka. This study was designed to determine the offending snakes, neurological manifestations, disease course, and outcome in neurotoxic envenomation. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Fifty six consecutive patients admitted with neurological manifestations following snake bite were studied prospectively. Data were obtained regarding the offending snakes, neurological symptoms, time taken for onset of symptoms, neurological signs, and time taken for recovery. RESULTS: The offending snake was Russell?s viper in 27(48.2%, common and Sri Lankan krait in 19(33.9%, cobra in 3(5.4%, and unidentified in 7(12.5%. Ptosis was the commonest neurological manifestation seen in 48(85.7% followed by ophthalmoplegia (75%, limb weakness (26.8%, respiratory failure (17.9%, palatal weakness (10.7%, neck muscle weakness (7.1%, and delayed sensory neuropathy (1.8%. Neurological symptoms were experienced usually within 6 hours after the bite. Following administration of antivenom, the signs of recovery became evident within a few hours to several days. The duration for complete recovery ranged from four hours to two weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Complete recovery of neuromuscular weakness was observed in all patients except for one who died with intracerebral haemorrhage shortly after admission.

  16. Sri Lanka’s Post-Conflict Strategy: Restorative Justice for Rebels and Rebuilding of Conflict-affected Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Iromi Dharmawardhane

    2013-01-01

    Following the Sri Lankan Government’s military defeat of the internationally proscribed terrorist organisation, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) in May 2009, Sri Lanka embarked on an essential and long-term twofold post-conflict strategy: (i) rehabilitation and reintegration of former LTTE combatants, and (ii) the rebuilding of the conflict-affected Tamil communities of the Northern and Eastern Provinces. The rehabilitation program was by many counts a success, with demonstra...

  17. Present status of nuclear science education and training in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Like others Sri Lankans too have fear of nuclear radiation, probably because of the weak system of proper radiation education. Some National Institutes and few Universities are involved in nuclear science teaching and research. There are two major levels of obtaining radiation or nuclear education and training in Sri Lanka : the University and training courses in nuclear related technology and radiation protection offered by the Atomic Energy Authority of the Ministry of Science and Technology. This paper summarizes the status, some of the activities and problems of radiation education in Sri Lanka. (author)

  18. Tourism and Economic Growth in Sri Lanka: An ARDL Bounds Testing Approach

    OpenAIRE

    P Srinivasan; Santhosh Kumar P. K; L. Ganesh

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the impact of tourism on economic growth in Sri Lanka through the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach. The analysis was carried out for the period from 1969 to 2009. By and large, our analysis reveals that the tourism has a positive impact on economic growth in Sri Lanka both in the short-run and long-run. Hence, it is crucial for the Sri Lankan government to achieve unification and stability by focusing on political solutions t...

  19. The Global Financial Crisis Impact on Ethnic Diversity of Sri Lanka Boards

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart Locke; Nirosha Hewa Wellalage; Frank Scrimgeour

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the link between ethnic minority directors and agency conflict in Sri Lankan listed companies during a global financial crisis.  Due to social and economic pressures in recent decades, ethnic minorities now make up a larger proportion of directors on corporate boards in Sri Lanka. In addition, the global financial crisis has increased demand for boards to strengthen their ethnic diversity in workplaces.  This study shows that while Sri Lankan boards increase...

  20. Imposing restrictions on pornography: its potential impact and effectiveness in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Ranmali Waduge; Asiri Rodrigo; Upali Peris

    2011-01-01

    The government of Sri Lanka recently introduced many measures to limit the accessibility and availability of pornography in the country including censorship of websites containing sexually explicit material and active prosecution of Sri Lankans who appeared on such websites Available evidence suggests that pornographic consumption among Sri Lankan adolescents is considerable and such exposure may influence sexual attitudes and activity including sexual aggression in youth. However the current...

  1. Sri Lanka’s Health Unit Program: A Model of “Selective” Primary Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Hewa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the health unit program developed in Sri Lanka in the early twentieth century was an earlier model of selective primary health care promoted by the Rockefeller Foundation in the 1980s in opposition to comprehensive primary health care advocated by the Alma-Ata Declaration of the World Health Organization. A key strategy of the health unit program was to identify the most common and serious infectious diseases in each health unit area and control them through improved sanitation, health education, immunization and treatment with the help of local communities. The health unit program was later introduced to other countries in South and Southeast Asia as part of the Rockefeller Foundation’s global campaign to promote public health.

  2. Indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka: Production systems and genetic diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The production status, farming systems and genetic diversity of indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka were evaluated using six geographically distinct populations in Sri Lanka, which is a small island located below the southern tip of Indian subcontinent. The indigenous cattle population of the country is considered as a non-descript type mixture of genotypes, and represent more than the half of total cattle population of 1.2 million heads. Six distinct indigenous populations (NE, NC, So, No, TK and Th) were investigated for morphological and genetic differences. The respective farming systems were also evaluated to complete the requirement in developing conservation and utilization strategies. The sampling was carried out based on the non-existence of artificial insemination facilities to assure the target populations are indigenous. The six populations were assumed genetically isolated from each other in the absence of nomadic pattern of rearing and regular cattle migration. The farming systems were analyzed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire by single visits to each location. Single visits were practiced, as there is no variation in farming system according to the period of the year. Morphometric measurements were taken during the visit and the genetic variation was assessed within and between five populations using 15 autosomal and two Y-specific microsatellite markers. The farming system analysis revealed that indigenous cattle are reared as a traditt indigenous cattle are reared as a traditional practice in all the regions of the country under limited or no input situations. Since the low productivity masks its real contribution to the rural livelihood, the level of utilization was confounded within the attributes of respective farming systems. The contribution of indigenous cattle to total tangible income ranged from 0% to 90% in different regions reflecting the high variation in the purpose of keeping indigenous cattle. Integration with crop, especially with paddy was the common feature in systems across the regions. Morphometric measurements identified the specific phenotypic characteristics resulted by geographical isolation and selective breeding. Though vary according to the regional preferences, the compact body, narrow face, small horns and humps with shades of brown and black coat colour described the indigenous cattle phenotype in general. The diversity analysis based on microsatellite genotyping indicated that indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka has a high genetic diversity with average number of alleles per locus ranging from 7.9 to 8.5. Average heterozygosity of different regions varied within a narrow range (0.72 ± 0.04 to 0.76 ± 0.03). The genetic distances (DA) between regions were low (ranged between 0.085 and 0.066) suggesting a similar mixture of genotypes across regions despite the geographical isolation. However, two genetic clusters were visible though no relationship of those clusters with the geographical distribution of different regions could be observed. Introgression of taurine cattle was evidenced in one of the cattle populations (NC) as suggested by the Y-specific microsatellite analysis (author)

  3. Positioning Muslims in Ethnic Relations, Ethnic Conflict and Peace Process in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Agus Yusoff

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sri Lankan Muslims, the second largest minority ethnic group with 9.4 per cent (2012 of the total population has been victimized in the cause of ethnic politics, ethno-nationalism, and ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka. Like other ethnic groups in Sri Lanka, the Muslims also have a historical origin that follows a set of distinctive ethno-centric cultural and religious practices. They have contributed much to the communal harmony, socio-economic and political development of the country throughout the history of Sri Lanka. However, the ethnic distinctiveness of Sri Lankan Muslims has always been questioned and the community has been violently targeted in the cause of time. The ethnic politics and ethno-nationalism of both major ethnic groups, the Sinhalese and the Tamils have impacted a lot on the Muslims of Sri Lanka. Furthermore, most of the initiatives adopted to resolve the ethnic conflict have also failed to address the grievances and to accommodate the interests and demands of the Muslims. The devastating effects of the conflict on Muslim community and the continuous neglect of their interests in the discourses of peace process pushed them to politically mobilize for advocacy politics. On this backdrop, this paper pays attention on the historical survival of Muslim community, their position in ethnic politics and peace process in Sri Lanka. The main objective of this paper is to record the historical incidents related with the Muslims in Sri Lanka without pointing fingers at any party in these processes. The analysis of this paper is descriptive and interpretive in nature and only the secondary data is used for the analysis.

  4. Adolescents perception of reproductive health care services in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agampodi Thilini C

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent health needs, behaviours and expectations are unique and routine health care services are not well geared to provide these services. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived reproductive health problems, health seeking behaviors, knowledge about available services and barriers to reach services among a group of adolescents in Sri Lanka in order to improve reproductive health service delivery. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in a semi urban setting in Sri Lanka. A convenient sample of 32 adolescents between 17–19 years of age participated in four focus group discussions. Participants were selected from four midwife areas. A pre-tested focus group guide was used for data collection. Male and female facilitators conducted discussions separately with young males and females. All tape-recorded data was fully transcribed and thematic analysis was done. Results Psychological distresses due to various reasons and problems regarding menstrual cycle and masturbation were reported as the commonest health problems. Knowledge on existing services was very poor and boys were totally unaware of youth health services available through the public health system. On reproductive Health Matters, girls mainly sought help from friends whereas boys did not want to discuss their problems with anyone. Lack of availability of services was pointed out as the most important barrier in reaching the adolescent needs. Lack of access to reproductive health knowledge was an important reason for poor self-confidence among adolescents to discuss these matters. Lack of confidentiality, youth friendliness and accessibility of available services were other barriers discussed. Adolescents were happy to accept available services through public clinics and other health infrastructure for their services rather than other organizations. A demand was made for separate youth friendly services through medical practitioners. Conclusions and recommendations Adolescent health services are inadequate and available services are not being delivered in an acceptable manner. Proper training of health care providers on youth friendly service provision is essential. A National level integrated health care program is needed for the adolescents.

  5. Sri Lanka : de la lutte contre le terrorisme à la catastrophe humanitaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delon Madavan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available La volonté du gouvernement sri lankais d’en finir militairement avec le LTTE a abouti à une catastrophe humanitaire. L’armée et les Tigres se rendent coupables de crime de guerre et de crime contre l’humanité à l’encontre des civils tamouls, qui sont piégés dans la zone de combat ou enfermés dans des camps de détention. La perception différenciée de l’opération militaire selon les communautés nécessiterait la création d’un Tribunal Pénal International pour Sri Lanka.The will of Sri Lankan government to finish militarily with LTTE has ended with an humanitarian catastrophe. Both the Sri Lankan Army and the Tigers are guilty of international war and humanitarian crimes against Tamil civilians, who are trapped in the war zone or locked in detention camps. The different perceptions of the military operation according to the communities should need the creation of an International Penal Court for Sri Lanka

  6. Molecular characterisation and disease severity of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kanchana Kumari, Bandara; Manjula, Weerasekera; Chinthika P, Gunasekara; Nilantha, Ranasinghe; Chamil, Marasinghe; Neluka, Fernando.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease all over the world, important in tropical and subtropical areas. A majority of leptospirosis infected patients present as subclinical or mild disease while 5-10% may develop severe infection requiring hospitalisation and critical care. It is possible t [...] hat several factors, such as the infecting serovar, level of leptospiraemia, host genetic factors and host immune response, may be important in predisposition towards severe disease. Different Leptospira strains circulate in different geographical regions contributing to variable disease severity. Therefore, it is important to investigate the circulating strains at geographical locations during each outbreak for epidemiological studies and to support the clinical management of the patients. In this study immunochromatography, microscopic agglutination test and polymerase chain reaction were used to diagnose leptospirosis. Further restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing methods were used to identify the circulating strains in two selected geographical regions of Sri Lanka. Leptospira interrogans, Leptospira borgpetersenii and Leptospira kirschneri strains were identified to be circulating in western and southern provinces. L. interrogans was the predominant species circulating in western and southern provinces in 2013 and its presence was mainly associated with renal failure.

  7. Temporal correlation between malaria and rainfall in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galappaththy Gawrie NL

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rainfall data have potential use for malaria prediction. However, the relationship between rainfall and the number of malaria cases is indirect and complex. Methods The statistical relationships between monthly malaria case count data series and monthly mean rainfall series (extracted from interpolated station data over the period 1972 – 2005 in districts in Sri Lanka was explored in four analyses: cross-correlation; cross-correlation with pre-whitening; inter-annual; and seasonal inter-annual regression. Results For most districts, strong positive correlations were found for malaria time series lagging zero to three months behind rainfall, and negative correlations were found for malaria time series lagging four to nine months behind rainfall. However, analysis with pre-whitening showed that most of these correlations were spurious. Only for a few districts, weak positive (at lags zero and one or weak negative (at lags two to six correlations were found in pre-whitened series. Inter-annual analysis showed strong negative correlations between malaria and rainfall for a group of districts in the centre-west of the country. Seasonal inter-annual analysis showed that the effect of rainfall on malaria varied according to the season and geography. Conclusion Seasonally varying effects of rainfall on malaria case counts may explain weak overall cross-correlations found in pre-whitened series, and should be taken into account in malaria predictive models making use of rainfall as a covariate.

  8. Managing shallow aquifers in the dry zone of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Aditya; Manthrithilake, Herath; Siddiqui, Salman; Rajah, Ameer; Pathmarajah, S

    2015-07-01

    This study looks at the groundwater issues in the dry zone of Sri Lanka and shows how the use of remote sensing with high-resolution images can help in groundwater management. A new approach is developed for automatic extraction of the location of agro-wells using high-spatial-resolution satellite imageries. As an example, three pilot sites in three different aquifer systems in the country are considered, and their high-resolution images are analyzed over two temporal time periods. The analysis suggests that the well density in all three regions has increased over the last few years, indicating higher levels of groundwater extraction. Using the well inventory developed by this new approach, the water budgeting was prepared for the mainland of Jaffna Peninsula. The analysis shows a wide variation in well density in the Jaffna Peninsula, ranging from (as little as) less than 15 wells per square kilometer to (as high as) more than 200 wells per square kilometer. Calculations made for the maximum allowable water extraction in each administrative division of Jaffna show that less than 3 h of daily extraction per well is possible in some districts. This points to an increasing pressure on groundwater resources in the region and thus highlights the importance of understanding groundwater budgets for sustainable development of the aquifers. PMID:26041062

  9. Molecular characterisation and disease severity of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kanchana Kumari, Bandara; Manjula, Weerasekera; Chinthika P, Gunasekara; Nilantha, Ranasinghe; Chamil, Marasinghe; Neluka, Fernando.

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease all over the world, important in tropical and subtropical areas. A majority of leptospirosis infected patients present as subclinical or mild disease while 5-10% may develop severe infection requiring hospitalisation and critical care. It is possible t [...] hat several factors, such as the infecting serovar, level of leptospiraemia, host genetic factors and host immune response, may be important in predisposition towards severe disease. Different Leptospira strains circulate in different geographical regions contributing to variable disease severity. Therefore, it is important to investigate the circulating strains at geographical locations during each outbreak for epidemiological studies and to support the clinical management of the patients. In this study immunochromatography, microscopic agglutination test and polymerase chain reaction were used to diagnose leptospirosis. Further restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing methods were used to identify the circulating strains in two selected geographical regions of Sri Lanka. Leptospira interrogans, Leptospira borgpetersenii and Leptospira kirschneri strains were identified to be circulating in western and southern provinces. L. interrogans was the predominant species circulating in western and southern provinces in 2013 and its presence was mainly associated with renal failure.

  10. The use and abuse of female domestic workers from Sri Lanka in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-habib, L

    1998-03-01

    Women who migrate from Sri Lanka to become domestic workers in Lebanon face gender, class, and race discrimination that often results in abuse, yet the predicament of these women is largely ignored by local and international humanitarian and human rights agencies. Public consciousness about the plight of Asian domestic workers in the Persian Gulf region was raised in 1990 when domestic workers were repatriated in the wake of the Gulf War. In Lebanon, nearly half of the work permits granted to foreigners in 1997 were to women from Sri Lanka. This migration began in the 1970s and is sanctioned by the Sri Lanka government because of the economic benefits accruing from wages sent home by these women. Lebanese families procure domestic positions through an employment agency that arranges transportation and entry for the Sri Lankan women. These women, especially minors, often have to bribe Sri Lankan government agents to falsify travel documents. Upon arrival in Lebanon, the women have no support systems or job security. Most employment contracts last 3 years and pay $100/month with no benefits or protection from local labor laws. Domestic workers are made vulnerable by employers who withhold salaries or travel documents. Upon return to Sri Lanka, former domestic workers face social disapproval and marital problems. To redress this situation, the governments of sending and receiving countries must take action to protect female migrant workers, and nongovernmental organizations must publicize the plight of these women and take action to address the abuses they face. PMID:12321536

  11. Motivations and Usage Patterns of Social Networking Sites: Exploring Cultural Differences Between United States & Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Wijesundara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cybernetics has experienced a major breakthrough and led to the utilization of computers at nearly all parts of daily life including social networking. Even though Social Networking Sites (SNS is a global phenomenon, it is constrained by local conditions such as culture. Thus, the purpose of the study is to incorporate cultural dimensions to the motivations and usage patterns of the SNS considering SNS as a collection of features. Present study replicates a study made in the United States in Sri Lanka, and identified differences, trace them to cultural reasons. Findings revealed that while patterns of SNS usage do not differ across cultures, some of the motivations behind them do differ. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings, possible cultural reasons for differences and directions for further research are discussed.

  12. Dehydration and malaria augment the risk of developing chronic kidney disease in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardhana, E. A. R. I. E.; Perera, P. A. J.; Sivakanesan, R.; Abeysekara, T.; Nugegoda, D. B.; Jayaweera, J. A. A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown etiology (CKDu) is a serious health issue in Sri Lanka. One-to-one age and sex-matched two sample comparative study was carried out in the Medawachchiya divisional secretariat area of the North Central Province (NCP) of Sri Lanka, by randomly selecting 100 CKDu patients and 100 age and sex-matched subjects from non-CKDu affected families from the same area. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for the collection of data pertaining to occupation, medical history and lifestyle. Data were analyzed using a conditional linear logistic model. Working for >6 h in the field per day, exposure to sun, drinking water only from well, consumption of malaria were found to be having significant (P malaria and drinking untreated well water from are likely contribute to the development of CKD of unknown etiology among the inhabitants of NCP, Sri Lanka. PMID:26060363

  13. Use of x-ray fluorescence and diffraction techniques in studying ancient ceramics of Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceramics were produced for centuries in Sri Lanka for various purposes. Ancient ceramic articles such as pottery, bricks, tiles, sewer pipes, etc, were made from naturally occurring raw materials. Use of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in characterizing of two ancient ceramic samples from two different archaeological sites in Sri Lanka is presented. The information obtained in this manner is used to figure out the ancient ceramic technology, particularly to learn about the raw materials used, the source of raw materials, processing parameters such as firing temperature or binders used in ceramic production. This information then can be used to explore the archaeometric background such as the nature and extent of cultural and technological interaction between different periods of history in Sri Lanka.

  14. Use of x-ray fluorescence and diffraction techniques in studying ancient ceramics of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaratne, B. S. B.

    2012-07-01

    Ceramics were produced for centuries in Sri Lanka for various purposes. Ancient ceramic articles such as pottery, bricks, tiles, sewer pipes, etc, were made from naturally occurring raw materials. Use of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in characterizing of two ancient ceramic samples from two different archaeological sites in Sri Lanka is presented. The information obtained in this manner is used to figure out the ancient ceramic technology, particularly to learn about the raw materials used, the source of raw materials, processing parameters such as firing temperature or binders used in ceramic production. This information then can be used to explore the archaeometric background such as the nature and extent of cultural and technological interaction between different periods of history in Sri Lanka.

  15. Preliminary report on safety aspects on nuclear power generation in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is intended as background information on nuclear energy to contribute to Sri Lanka's comparative study of alternative sources of energy. This study has considered the safety and environmental effects of nuclear power reactors. Basic concepts of nuclear physics are introduced and providing and appreciation of safety considerations and safety aspects of nuclear power plants and the personnel. Radioactive waste management, storage and disposal are also discussed. Natural radiation levels in Sri Lanka are provided as well as information on biological effects of radiation especially occupational exposure licensing procedures for nuclear power plants are outlined strategy for public awareness of nuclear power is proposed

  16. The Micro and Macro Dynamics of a Mega-disaster: Rethinking the Sri Lanka Tsunami Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Frerks, G.E.

    2009-01-01

    The direct cause of the tsunami of 26 December 2004 was an earthquake off the coast of North Sumatra with a magnitude of 9.0 on the Richter scale. This earthquake set in motion a huge wave that hit fourteen countries around the Indian Ocean. When the tsunami landed, the waves varied from approximately 30 metres high in Banda Aceh up to ten metres in parts of Sri Lanka. The tsunami hit thirteen out of a total of 25 districts in Sri Lanka and more than two-thirds of its coastline. Loss of life ...

  17. Nutritional status of children under five in three state foster care institutions in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekera, Channa R

    2006-06-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of protein energy malnutrition (PEM) in children under five years (n = 52), in three randomly selected, State operated foster care institutions in Sri Lanka. The prevalence of PEM, was (51.9%), underweight (63.5%) and wasting (25.0%) was found to be considerably higher than the national prevalence (13.5%, 29.4%, 14.0%, respectively). Based on this preliminary evidence, it is recommended that a study representative of all institutionalised children in both State and private facilities be conducted to identify deficiencies and recommend improvements to institutional care in Sri Lanka. PMID:17180811

  18. Scrub Typhus among Pediatric Patients in Dambadeniya:A Base Hospital in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Nalika; Wijesundara, Sarojini; Liyanapathirana, Veranja; Thevanesam, Vasanthi; Stenos, John

    2012-01-01

    Data on pediatric scrub typhus is uncommon in Sri Lanka and other countries. The objective of this study was to identify the clinical features of patients with scrub typhus at a Base Hospital in Sri Lanka. Sixty patients presenting with suspected scrub typhus were included in the study. Their blood samples were tested for the presence of antibodies against rickettsioses using the reference method. Twenty patients had confirmed scrub typhus and 24 had possible scrub typhus. Their clinical features are discussed in this work. PMID:22855768

  19. Introduction of Web based Continuous Professional Development to Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumindu Garuka Kulatunga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Continuous Professional Development (CPD can be described as a continuous process which begins on the day a person start practicing as a doctor. Continuous Medical Education (CME concentrates on improving individual professional knowledge by education and training in areas determined by experts. But in CPD, professionals play an active role in defining the knowledge which they see as relevant to their own professional needs and learning takes place not only at individual level but also at organisational level. CPD is becoming a popular mode of learning worldwide by which doctors keep their practice up to-date. CPD is seen as essential for effective practice and for professional development. Even though the standard format of CPD for many years has been formal, there is no specific method in operation. Over the last decade there has been increasing interest in the use of computers to facilitate collaborative learning between healthcare professionals for CPD. Web-based learning is an attractive methodology for medical education and offers some advantages over traditional methods. There is improved clinical practice and improved clinical decision making as a result of web based learning. Professionals are satisfied with the ?exibility and the convenience offered in Web-based mode of CPD delivery as it saves time and money. Web based CPD programmes will fulfil the educational requirements of health professionals in the peripheral parts of Sri Lanka who have difficulty in attending formal education sessions due to their geographical isolation. Meeting the educational needs of professionals already in practice remains a challenge and web based online CPD can play a major role in proving the high demand.

  20. The Energy Forum of Sri Lanka: Working toward appropriate expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieusma, Dean

    Taking my cue from the knowledge base and practices comprising appropriate technology development, and building on politics of expertise scholarship, this dissertation develops the concept of appropriate expertise: the combination of social and technical competences required to address marginalization through technological interventions. The dissertation asks what appropriate expertise looks like "on the ground" in the context of development as practiced by an exceptional group of technology designers from the Energy Forum of Sri Lanka: What design goals did they strive toward? What challenges did they face? What strategies did they employ? In an effort to answer these questions, the dissertation looks at how these designers interacted across a range of contexts with a broad spectrum of people and institutions, each with its own expertise to draw upon. In particular, it looks at how they situated their work in a highly contoured field of social power, where different types of expertise were used as resources for reinforcing or resisting existing power relations. I use the concept relations of expertise to denote the structure of expert interactions across multiple contexts of activity. Although this concept links to broad political-economic conditions that order varied expert practices, my analytic focus is at a different level: the situated experiences of expert practitioners. By starting with ground-level practices and understandings, I argue that creating new relations of expertise---that is, changing the nature of the interactions among experts and between experts and those they work with---is the key way my informants worked to legitimate marginalized perspectives and thereby empower marginalized social groups around technology-development practices. Appropriate expertise enables the creation of appropriate technologies, but it does more. It enables the creation of new relations of expertise, both through inspiring new forms of interpersonal interaction surrounding technology development and through incremental modification of existing decision-making structures to allow a more diverse group stakeholders to come together around technology decision making in the context of development.

  1. Development of a Community Based Web-Mobile Platform (CBWMP) for diabetes care in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Nishan Siriwardena; Sudarshana Wickramasinghe; Dussantha Perera; Rohana Marasinghe; Lanka Katulanda; Roshan Hewapathirana

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease with no permanent cure. Sri Lanka is placed among the countries with the highest diabetes prevalence rates in the world (ie. 2.8 million Sri Lankans have diabetes or pre-diabetes, and most importantly, a significant proportions of the population is yet to be diagnosed). Patients with diabetes need lifelong care to prevent complications which further impose a significant burden on the country’s expenditure on healthcare. Moreover, patients need to maintain const...

  2. Coastal risks in Sri-Lanka - GIS, scenario and modelling approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Garcin, Manuel; Desprats, Jean-François; Pedreros, Rodrigo; Fontaine, Mélanie; Sedan, Olivier; Lenotre, Nicole; Attanayake, Nishantha; De Silva, Udaya; Fernando, Starin; Siriwardana, Cher

    2008-01-01

    The impact of the tsunami of December 26, 2004 in Sri Lanka clearly showed the importance of a thorough knowledge of coastal risks and of taking these into account in order to reduce their impacts. We present here a project funded by French Government (Ministère des Affaires Etrangères) and BRGM Research Division including both Sri Lankan and French institutions. The aims of this project are to implement an effective tool designed to reduce the impact of coastal natural hazards and to anticip...

  3. Diabetes mellitus among young adults in Sri Lanka--role of GAD antibodies in classification and treatment: the Sri Lanka Young Diabetes study.

    OpenAIRE

    Katulanda, P; Shine, B; Katulanda, GW; SILVA, A; Asfir, EL; Sheriff, R; Somasundaram, N; Long, AE; Bingley, PJ; McCarthy, MI; Clark, A; MATTHEWS, DR

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diabetes mellitus is increasing among young adult South Asians. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and phenotypic characteristics of diabetes subtypes based on GAD65 autoantibody (GADA) status in those with young adult-onset diabetes in Sri Lanka. METHODS: Clinical, metabolic and GADA data were available for 992 consecutively recruited individuals with diabetes aged < or =45 years (age at diagnosis 16-40 years). Participants were classified according to the...

  4. Molecular Detection and Partial Characterization of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G.A.S. Rajapaksha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV is an important plant virus on one of the economically most important vegetable crops; tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.. This had not been molecularly detected before, in Sri Lanka. TYLCV-GN-SL was isolated from apparently infected tomato plants using modified Cetyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB method in Gannoruwa. Associated Begomoviruses were detected using Deng 541/Deng 540 and AV 494/AC 1048 primer pairs. TYLCV was detected for the first time in tomato in Sri Lanka using P1V/P4C, TYLCV specific primer pair. Nucleotide sequence of coat protein of isolated TYLCV-GN-SL proved that the Indian strain of ToLC virus was closely related to Tomato Leaf Curl Sri Lanka Virus (TLCV-SL: 97% and Tomato leaf curl Geminivirus (TLCGV: 93% through direct sequencing data. TLCV-SL was confirmed as TYLCV isolate. TYLCV was molecularly detected from major tomato growing districts like Badulla, Nuwara-Eliya, Kandy and Matale in Sri Lanka.

  5. Traumabehandlung für Kriegskinder. Der Aufbau eines evidenzbasierten Interventionsprojekts in Nord-Ost Sri Lanka.

    OpenAIRE

    Schauer, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    Nord-Ost Sri Lanka wird seit mehr als zwei Jahrzehnten von bewaffneten Konflikten heimgesucht. Die Zivilbevölkerung, Kinder und Erwachsene, sind ständiger Bedrohung und traumatischem Stress durch Bombardierungen, Granatenhagel, Folter, Verfolgung, erzwungener Migration and einer Vielzahl anderer kriegsbedingter Stressoren ausgesetzt. Die vorliegende Arbeit beschreibt den Aufbau einer Mental Health Versorgungsstruktur für die am schwersten betroffenen Kinder im Nord-Osten dieser Region. Fr...

  6. Organising Hindu traditions in Europe, the case of Tamil Migrants from Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, Martin

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a case study of a transplanted religious tradition and the tradition's endeavours to reconstruct organisational patterns in a socio-culturally different environment. The author looks at Hindu traditions from Sri Lanka which in cause of the flight of Tamil people came during the last two decades to Europe.

  7. Dengue Virus Transmission by Blood Stem Cell Donor after Travel to Sri Lanka; Germany, 2013

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-09-22

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Dengue Virus Transmission by Blood Stem Cell Donor after Travel to Sri Lanka; Germany, 2013.  Created: 9/22/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/8/2014.

  8. Speaking Conflict: Ideological Barriers to Bilingual Policy Implementation in Civil War Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christina P.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a holistic view of ideological barriers to bilingual policy implementation in Sri Lanka, a conflict-ridden postcolonial nation-state. I examine Sinhalese youth and adults' Tamil as a second language (TSL) learning and speaking practices across three contexts: a multilingual school, a program for government servants, and an…

  9. Duty and Service: Life and Career of a Tamil Teacher of English in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the life and career of a Tamil teacher of English working in the government education system in northern Sri Lanka. Based on data gathered in an extended life history interview, the article explores the teacher's own experiences of schooling, his reasons for entering teaching as a profession, his professional training, and…

  10. An Analysis of the Competency-Based Secondary Mathematics Curriculum in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egodawatte, Gunawardena

    2014-01-01

    In education, there is a growing interest in the concept of "competency" especially in vocational training and professional development. The concept is strongly associated with the ability to apply knowledge and skills in effective ways in unanticipated situations. In Sri Lanka, a new competency-based mathematics curriculum was…

  11. Deployable Laboratory Response to Emergence of Melioidosis in Central Sri Lanka ?

    OpenAIRE

    Inglis, Timothy J. J.; Merritt, Adam; Montgomery, Joanne; Jayasinghe, Indika; Thevanesam, Vasanthi; Mcinnes, Russell

    2008-01-01

    A portable molecular diagnostic laboratory was used to provide molecular confirmation of suspected melioidosis cases seen at Peradeniya Hospital, central Sri Lanka. Soil supernatants from rice field and rubber plantation samples also produced PCR-positive results. These procedures could be used for melioidosis field work in other remote locations.

  12. Women and Management in Higher Education. CHESS Workshop (Colombo, Sri Lanka, January 5-11, 1997).

    Science.gov (United States)

    University Grants Commission (Sri Lanka).

    The Commonwealth Higher Education Support Scheme (CHESS) 1997 Workshop was designed to promote the professional development of women in leadership positions in higher education. Participants were drawn from senior university academics and administrators from five countries: Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Specific objectives…

  13. Rainfall Distributions in Sri Lanka in Time and Space: An Analysis Based on Daily Rainfall Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Burt

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Daily rainfall totals are analyzed for the main agro-climatic zones of Sri Lanka for the period 1976–2006. The emphasis is on daily rainfall rather than on longer-period totals, in particular the number of daily falls exceeding given threshold totals. For one station (Mapalana, where a complete daily series is available from 1950, a longer-term perspective on changes over half a century is provided. The focus here is particularly on rainfall in March and April, given the sensitivity of agricultural decisions to early southwest monsoon rainfall at the beginning of the Yala cultivation season but other seasons are also considered, in particular the northeast monsoon. Rainfall across Sri Lanka over three decades is investigated in relation to the main atmospheric drivers known to affect climate in the region: sea surface temperatures in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, of which the former are shown to be more important. The strong influence of El Niño and La Niña phases on various aspects of the daily rainfall distribution in Sri Lanka is confirmed: positive correlations with Pacific sea-surface temperatures during the north east monsoon and negative correlations at other times. It is emphasized in the discussion that Sri Lanka must be placed in its regional context and it is important to draw on regional-scale research across the Indian subcontinent and the Bay of Bengal.

  14. Feasibility of an appliance energy testing and labeling program for Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermayer, Peter; Busch, John; Hakim, Sajid; Turiel, Issac; du Pont, Peter; Stone, Chris

    2000-04-01

    A feasibility study evaluated the costs and benefits of establishing a program for testing, labeling and setting minimum efficiency standards for appliances and lighting in Sri Lanka. The feasibility study included: refrigerators, air-conditioners, flourescent lighting (ballasts & CFls), ceiling fans, motors, and televisions.

  15. Applicability of Forecasting Models and Techniques for Stationery Business: A Case Study from Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Dewmini Danushika Illeperuma, Thashika Rupasinghe

    2013-01-01

    A demand forecasting methodology for a stationery company in Sri Lanka is being investigated. Different forecasting methods available are looked at including judgemental methods, quantitative methods and Artificial Intelligence methods. Importance of using a combination of methods available instead of using a single method is emphasised by the literature.

  16. Sri Lanka president lubab sõjalõksus riiki tänapäeva tuua / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2005-01-01

    Presidendivalimistest Sri Lankal. Uus president Mahinda Rajapaksa on valmis kohtuma tamilite mässu juhtidega ning arutama rahu taastamise võimalusi. Presidendi eesmärgid. Lisa: Pommirünnakud poliitikute vastu

  17. An early historic assemblage offshore of Godawaya, Sri Lanka: Evidence for early regional seafaring in South Asia.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muthucumarana, R.; Gaur, A.S.; Chandraratne, W.M.; Manders, M.; Rao, B.R.; Bhushan, R.; Khedekar, V.D.; Dayananda, A.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    from this site include many quern stones, various types of ceramics, and glass ingots. The comparative study of the artefacts from the Godawaya site and terrestrial sites of Sri Lanka and India suggest that the ship might have originated from...

  18. Challenging knowledge hierarchies: working toward sustainable development in Sri Lanka's energy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Nieusma

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes sustainable development practices within Sri Lanka’s energy sector. It directs attention to how expertise functions in development decision making in ways that can unintentionally inhibit sustainable development. Understanding expertise as merely specialized knowledge clouds its role as a social activity. In practice, expertise is a combination of knowledge and authority, and expert knowledge exists within a hierarchically ordered authority structure of diverse knowledge domains—what is referred to here as “knowledge hierarchies.” Knowledge hierarchies exclude the participation of some relevant knowledge domains, and thereby preclude the possibility of local sustainable development. The Energy Forum of Sri Lanka, a small renewable energy advocacy organization, strives to enable sustainability by going beyond facile calls for greater inclusion to confront the mechanisms of exclusion. The paper documents three of the Energy Forum’s development interventions intended to level out the knowledge hierarchy that inhibits sustainable energy development in Sri Lanka. Drawing insights from the Energy Forum’s approach, the paper argues that experts who wish to contribute to sustainable development must attend to the knowledge hierarchies in which they operate to ensure that their own authority does not exclude other relevant knowledge domains.

  19. Acute pituitary insufficiency and hypokalaemia following envenoming by Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) in Sri Lanka: Exploring the pathophysiological mechanisms.

    OpenAIRE

    Jeevagan, V; Katulanda, P; Gnanathasan, CA; Warrell, DA

    2013-01-01

    Russell's viper envenoming is associated with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality. Hypopituitarism following envenoming by Russell's vipers is a well recognized sequel in Burma and parts of India but has been reported only once in Sri Lanka. Hypokalaemia following envenoming by Russell's viper has not been described. Here we describe the association of acute pituitary insufficiency and hypokalaemia following Russell's viper envenoming in Sri Lanka and review the literature in order to...

  20. Revisiting Russell's Viper (Daboia russelii) Bite in Sri Lanka: Is Abdominal Pain an Early Feature of Systemic Envenoming?

    OpenAIRE

    Senanayake A. M. Kularatne; Silva, Anjana; Weerakoon, Kosala; Maduwage, Kalana; Walathara, Chamara; Paranagama, Ranjith; Mendis, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    The Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) is responsible for 30–40% of all snakebites and the most number of life-threatening bites of any snake in Sri Lanka. The clinical profile of Russell's viper bite includes local swelling, coagulopathy, renal dysfunction and neuromuscular paralysis, based on which the syndromic diagnostic tools have been developed. The currently available Indian polyvalent antivenom is not very effective in treating Russell's viper bite patients in Sri Lanka and the decisio...

  1. Homegardens as a Multi-functional Land-Use Strategy in Sri Lanka with Focus on Carbon Sequestration

    OpenAIRE

    Mattsson, Eskil; Ostwald, Madelene; Nissanka, S. P.; Marambe, Buddhi

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of homegardens and their potential functions as strategic elements in land-use planning, and adaptation and mitigation to climate change in Sri Lanka. The ancient and locally adapted agroforestry system of homegardens is presently estimated to occupy nearly 15 % of the land area in Sri Lanka and is described in the scientific literature to offer several ecosystem services to its users; such as climate regulation, protection against natural hazards, enhanced la...

  2. Socio-Environmental Impact of Water Pollution on the Mid-canal (Meda Ela), Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Yuan Wang; Soon Keat Tan; Kalpage, C. S.; Gersberg, Richard M.; Dong Qing Zhang; Wijewardena, S. K. I.; Jinadasa, K. B. S. N.; Wun Jern Ng

    2012-01-01

    Unplanned urban population growth in developing countries such as Sri Lanka exert pressures on the sectors of water supply, sewage disposal, waste management, and surface drainage in the cities as well as their surrounding areas. The Mid-canal is considered the most polluted surface water body in the Kandy district of Sri Lanka and contributes significantly to pollution of the Mahaweli River. Health problems in the nearby population may well be associated with environmental degradation and re...

  3. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a rural, physically active, low income population in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Pinidiyapathirage M; Dassanayake Anuradha S; Rajindrajith Shaman; Kalubowila Udaya; Kato Norihiro; Wickremasinghe A; de Silva H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is recognized as a metabolic disorder largely seen in urbanized populations. The purpose of this study was to assess prevalence and risk factors for NAFLD in a rural, physically active, economically deprived population in Sri Lanka. Methods By visiting individual households in the community, 35-64 year old adults resident in two selected estates in the Nuwara Eliya District of Sri Lanka, were invited to participate in the study. Bl...

  4. Serological Evidence for Exposure of Dogs to Rickettsia conorii, Rickettsia typhi, and Orientia tsutsugamushi in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Nanayakkara, Devathri M.; Rajapakse, R. P. V. J.; Wickramasinghe, Susiji; Kularatne, Senanayaka A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Vector-borne rickettsial infection is a major cause of febrile illnesses throughout the world. Although vertebrates hosting the vectors play a vital role in the natural cycle of rickettsiae, studies have not been conducted on them in Sri Lanka. Therefore, the present study was designed to determine the exposure of dog population in Rajawatta, Thambavita, and areas of the Western Slopes and Unawatuna of Sri Lanka to rickettsial pathogens. A total of 123 dog blood samples were collected from th...

  5. A morphologically distinct Phlebotomus argentipes population from active cutaneous leishmaniasis foci in central Sri Lanka

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Shalindra, Ranasinghe; Rhaiza DC, Maingon; Daniel P, Bray; Richard D, Ward; Chandani, Udagedara; Manel, Dissanayake; Vathsala, Jayasuriya; Nissanka K de, Silva.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the reported aetiological agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sri Lanka is Leishmania donovani, the sandfly vector remains unknown. Ninety-five sandflies, 60 females and 35 males, collected in six localities in the district of Matale, central Sri Lanka, close to current active transmis [...] sion foci of CL were examined for taxonomically relevant characteristics. Eleven diagnostic morphological characters for female sandflies were compared with measurements described for Indian and Sri Lankan sandflies, including the now recognised Phlebotomus argentipes sensu lato species complex. The mean morphometric measurements of collected female sandflies differed significantly from published values for P. argentipes morphospecies B, now re-identified as Phlebotomus annandalei from Delft Island and northern Sri Lanka, from recently re-identified P. argentipes s.s. sibling species and from Phlebotomus glaucus. Furthermore, analysis of underlying variation in the morphometric data through principal component analysis also illustrated differences between the population described herein and previously recognised members of the P. argentipes species complex. Collectively, these results suggest that a morphologically distinct population, perhaps most closely related to P. glaucus of the P. argentipess. I. species complex, exists in areas of active CL transmission. Thus, research is required to determine the ability of this population of flies to transmit cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  6. Home gardens and Dioscorea species – A case study from the climatic zones of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Sangakkara

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Home gardens are considered as vital units for enhancing food security particularly in developing nations of South Asia, such as Sri Lanka. Although the yam crop Dioscorea spp. constitute a popular but still minor component in Sri Lankan home gardens, they have the potential of producing large quantities of edible material with minimal inputs. However, their real value in South Asian home gardens is not yet reported. Hence, this study was carried out to get insights into home garden characteristics, gardener demography as well as current management practices within 300 Sri Lankan home garden systems that are located along a climatic gradient. By using interviews and field observations, gardeners, who cultivated in particular Dioscorea species, were studied within 10 of the 25 administrative districts distributed in the wet, intermediate and dry climatic zone of Sri Lanka. Furthermore, current management practices of yams cultivation were analyzed on local scale and compared afterwards with management recommendations published in the year 2006 by the Department of Agriculture. Dioscorea species were found in a majority of home gardens, especially in wet and intermediate zones of Sri Lanka. D. alata was the most prominent species and was managed at a subsistence level and not as per recommendations developed by the Department of Agriculture. Our results revealed that Dioscorea alata is an essential component of Sri Lankan home gardens in rural areas and can yield substantial quantities of edible tubers with low input, especially during times of food scarcities, and has therefore the potential to enhance food security and rural development.

  7. A preliminary geochemical study of sedimentary gem deposits of Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geochemical abundances of 22 elements from the < 0.63 ?m fraction of gem-bearing alluvial gravel from the main gem fields of Sri Lanka have been studied. These abundances are compared with those in the probable source rocks. Be and Zr are generally enriched in the gem-bearing sediments compared with most alkali and alkaline earths, which are depleted. When compared to the metal contents of average shales, the < 0.63 ?m fraction of the gem sediments of Sri Lanka is enriched in Be, Zr, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn. The charnockites and the gneisses of the area are rich in most of these elements and in the gem-bearing sediments, they are presumably found in diadochic substitution in minerals, or adsorbed by a variety of clay minerals, secondary Fe and Mn hydroxides and oxides and primary minerals. (author)

  8. Exclusive breastfeeding in Sri Lanka: problems of interpretation of reported rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Silva Avanthi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Accurate interpretation of reported breastfeeding rates is essential in understanding the true picture of a country's breastfeeding status. In Sri Lanka, where the reported exclusive breastfeeding (EBF rate among infants aged from 0 to 5 months is 75%, accurate understanding of this rate is of the utmost importance. The danger of misinterpreting the data and assuming that Sri Lanka has achieved a high EBF rate is that health workers begin to believe that no further effort should be made in this area. This is very dangerous as the potential to further improve rates of EBF will not be addressed. We discuss the interpretation of survey data and various definitions used in the relevant literature. We strongly recommend that interpretation of EBF rates should be done only after careful evaluation of the definitions and survey methods used.

  9. Preliminary investigation on genetic characterization of native and endemic fowl types in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Sri Lanka is a tropical island, which shelters a large number and variety of wild as well as domesticated animals. As an oceanic island Sri Lanka has a high percentage of endemic species that have evolved because of the isolation, but they are particularly vulnerable. Its location, astride the sea routes between the east and west throughout the history, has exposed the country to be a recipient of variety of animal species transported throughout the world. This history had made the gene pool of native animals very unique and diverse. In this context native poultry species of Sri Lanka demonstrate an incomparable scenario in evolution of domestic poultry species. According to one of the hypotheses regarding the evolution of poultry, the Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus gallus) is considered as the main ancestor of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus). However, it is also believed that the domestic fowl descent from different ancestral groups, one of which is Ceylon Jungle Fowl. Ceylon Jungle Fowl (Gallus laffeyatti) is endemic to Sri Lanka. Nevertheless, different native fowl types found in Sri Lanka resemble varying characteristics of Asiatic fowl. However, except for the few studies on G. laffeyatti there is hardly any information available on the origin of Sri Lankan native fowl. Also there is only one investigation done so far on the relationship of the Ceylon Jungle Fowl and native fowl population in Sri Lanka. Therefore, the present study was conducted, in orde, the present study was conducted, in order to investigate the origin of native fowl in Sri Lanka and to find out the genetic relationship among them. Observations of morphological characters of endemic, indigenous and exotic fowl types were carried out using Ceylon Jungle fowl, eleven types of native chicken and two exotic chicken breeds (Cornish and Rhode Island Red). Blood samples for DNA extraction were collected from the above three categories of chicken. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis were carried out using sixteen non-specific primers. The results of morphological characterization revealed many variations in plumage color pattern. Single and pea comb types were found in both native and exotic types of chicken. A prominent yellow color marking on red color comb was a unique feature in Ceylon Jungle fowl. In the sample tested only one indigenous chicken type showed feathered shank character. Another distinguishing feature observed was the presence of white spot in red color earlobes of all native chicken types except naked neck type, which is believed to be a cross of exotic and indigenous. Sixteen non-specific primers used in the study produced 22 polymorphic bands ranging from 500 base pair (bp) to 1957.6 bp. There were two monomorphic bands common to all chicken types tested. Genetic similarity coefficient detected according to Noeingen Index ranged from 0.5 to 1.1 indicating a wide genetic base of tested samples of chicken. According to the results of cluster analysis there was a clear separation of Ceylon Jungle fowl from the other chicken types used in the study. This indicates that there was an early separation and divergent evolution of Ceylon Jungle fowl from all the other domestic chicken types tested. It appears that the contribution of Ceylon Jungle Fowl in development of Sri Lankan native chicken is minute or very marginal. However, the present study was carried out with limited sample size and from the present results it can be confirmed that RAPD is an effective method, though the repeatability is low, in genetic characterization of animal populations with wide genetic basis. (author)

  10. Leptospirosis Outbreak in Sri Lanka in 2008: Lessons for Assessing the Global Burden of Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Agampodi, Suneth B.; Peacock, Sharon J.; Thevanesam, Vasanthi; Nugegoda, Danaseela B.; Smythe, Lee; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Craig, Scott B.; Burns, Mary Ann; Dohnt, Michael; Boonsilp, Siriphan; Senaratne, Thamarasi; Kumara, Athula; Palihawadana, Paba; Perera, Sahan; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    Global leptospirosis disease burden estimates are hampered by the lack of scientifically sound data from countries with probable high endemicity and limited diagnostic capacities. We describe the seroepidemiologic and clinical characteristics of the leptospirosis outbreak in 2008 in Sri Lanka. Definitive/presumptive case definitions proposed by the World Health Organization Leptospirosis Epidemiology Reference Group were used for case confirmation. Of the 404 possible cases, 155 were confirme...

  11. Air pollution and health in Sri Lanka: a review of epidemiologic studies

    OpenAIRE

    Sathiakumar Nalini; Wickremasinghe Ananda R; Nandasena Yatagama

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Air pollution is increasingly documented as a threat to public health in most developing countries. Evaluation of current air quality levels, regulatory standards and scientific literature on outdoor and indoor air pollution, and health effects are important to identify the burden, develop and implement interventions and to fill knowledge gaps in Sri Lanka. Methods PUBMED and Medline databases, local journals and conference proceedings were searched for epidemiologic studi...

  12. Peasant in transition : agrarian society in Western Sri Lanka under Dutch rule, 1740-1800

    OpenAIRE

    Dewasiri, Nirmal Ranjith

    2007-01-01

    This thesis investigates the structural changes in the agrarian society in Western parts of Sri Lanka as seen in the mid and late eighteenth century in the context of the encounter with the Dutch United East India Company (VOC) administration. It attempts to understand the developments in the period from the vantage point of the peasantry, particularly by looking at the ways in which the peasants were affected by the Dutch colonial intervention and how they adjusted themselves to the changing...

  13. An alternative approach for Chemical Restraint of Domesticated Elephants in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Sumanasiri, W. G. C. S. B.; Prathapsinghe, Gamika A.

    2009-01-01

    The Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) represents one of the most seriousendangered species. Capturing and domestication of these wild elephantscan be considered as one of the measures of elephant conservation.Domesticated elephants play a major role during festival processions in SriLanka. However, there is always a risk of getting panic and disobeying ofthese animals to the mahout's order. Self-Tranquilizer was invented toovercome the constraint such as difficulty of reaching and targeting th...

  14. Information and Communication Technology: A Comparison of Pakistan and Sri-Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Javed Iqbal

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to examine the information and communication technology sector in Pakistan and Sri-Lanka because they are among top five countries in ICT in the South Asian region. The research is helpful for decision makers to channel ICT related resources where they are required the most. ICT oriented data have been collected by International Telecommunication Union but no comparison exists between the countries included in the research. Therefore, the sources of data are ITU ...

  15. Developing tools to link environmental flows science and its practice in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriyagma, N.; Jinapala, K.

    2014-09-01

    The term "Environmental Flows (EF)" may be defined as "the quantity, timing and quality of water flows required to sustain freshwater and estuarine ecosystems and the human livelihoods and well-being that depend on these ecosystems". It may be regarded as "water for nature" or "environmental demand" similar to crop water requirements, industrial or domestic water demand. The practice of EF is still limited to a few developed countries such as Australia, South Africa and the UK. In many developing countries EF is rarely considered in water resources planning and is often deemed "unimportant". Sri Lanka, being a developing country, is no exception to this general rule. Although the country underwent an extensive irrigation/water resources development phase during the 1960s through to the 1980s, the concept of EF was hardly considered. However, as Sri Lanka's water resources are being exploited more and more for human usage, ecologists, water practitioners and policymakers alike have realized the importance of EF in sustaining not only freshwater and estuarine ecosystems, but also their services to humans. Hence estimation of EF has been made mandatory in environmental impact assessments (EIAs) of all large development projects involving river regulation/water abstraction. Considering EF is especially vital under the rapid urbanization and infrastructure development phase that dawned after the end of the war in the North and the East of the country in 2009. This paper details simple tools (including a software package which is under development) and methods that may be used for coarse scale estimation of EF at/near monitored locations on major rivers of Sri Lanka, along with example applications to two locations on River Mahaweli. It is hoped that these tools will help bridge the gap between EF science and its practice in Sri Lanka and other developing countries.

  16. EFFECT OF THE INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI ON GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN COASTAL AQUIFERS IN EASTERN SRI LANKA

    OpenAIRE

    Meththika Vithanage; Villholth, Karen G.; Kushani Mahatantila; Peter Engesgaard; Kartsten H. Jensen

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACTChanges in water quality of a sand aquifer on the east coast of Sri Lanka due to the December 26, 2004 tsunami and subsequent disturbance due to well pumping and flushing by precipitation were investigated. Two closely spaced tsunami affected transects, spanning the ocean and an interior lagoon across a 2 km wide land strip were monitored from October, 2005 to September, 2006. Water samples were collected from 15 dug wells and 20 piezometers, from the disturbed and undisturbed sites r...

  17. Business training and female enterprise start-up, growth, and dynamics: Experimental evidence from Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Mel, Suresh; Mckenzie, David J.; Woodruff, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    We conduct a randomized experiment in Sri Lanka to measure the impact of the most commonly used business training course in developing countries, the Start-and-Improve Your Business (SIYB) program. In contrast to existing business training evaluations which are restricted to microfinance clients, we consider two more representative groups: a random sample of women operating subsistence enterprises, and a random sample of women who are out of the labor force but interested in starting a busine...

  18. Livelihoods at risk: coping strategies of war-affected communities in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Korf, Benedikt

    2003-01-01

    Rural societies in war-affected areas can be described as ’distressed livelihoods’: they experience a dramatic increase in risk and uncertainty. How does this affect land use and agricultural coping strategies of small-scale farm households? This was the key research question of a multi-disciplinary, comparative village study carried out in the war-torn areas of Sri Lanka. The study employed the analytical framework of rural livelihoods promoted by DFID. In addition, theoretical models of...

  19. Student Perceptions of an Online Post Graduate Course in Family Medicine in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    D. R. N. Sumanasekera; Fernando, J; R. E. E. de Silva; S. D. Liyanagama Mail

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundThe online Diploma course in Family Medicine (DFM) of the Post Graduate Institute of Medicine (PGIM) of the University of Colombo is one of the pioneering online post graduate medical courses in Sri Lanka.ObjectivesTo describe student perceptions on the online DFM course.MethodsThe study population comprised of all the students (19) of the first batch of the course. Pre- tested self administered questionnaires were administered to all students. A Likert scale was used to assess the ...

  20. Emergência Complexa no Sri Lanka: possibilidade de resolução ou perpetuação da violência?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalgisa Bozi Soares

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available

    A abordagem de segurança da guerra civil

    do Sri Lanka possibilita a construção da paz no longo

    prazo?

  1. Symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescent students; a perspective from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijeratne Thilina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sri Lanka recorded an extraordinary high suicide rate for adolescents aged 15 - 19 in the early 1990s (46.5/100,000. With this in perspective, the Ministry of Health in Sri Lanka recommends school programmes for adolescents by mental health units of local hospitals. Methods We conducted cross sectional surveys to screen for symptoms of anxiety and depression among students aged 14 - 18 during school mental health programmes. Two schools were randomly selected within the Ratnapura municipality (urban population of approx. 50,000, Sri Lanka and all students aged 14-18 were assessed with self administered (pre tested, Sinhalese translations questionnaires [Center for epidemiologic studies depression scale, Anxiety screening test of suicide and mental health association international]. Results A total of 445 students were assessed (male-54.4%, female 45.6%. Thirty six percent screened positive for depression (mild depression-17%, severe depression-19% and 28% screened positive for severe anxiety. Females screened positive for depression and anxiety significantly more than the males (p = 0.0001, 0.005 respectively. Students in classes facing barrier examinations at the end of the year had the highest positivity rates. Examination related issues (36% were the most commonly cited problem. Recommendations It is recommended that: 1. School mental health development programmes in Sri Lanka concentrate more on reducing examination related stress, and in particular focus on the female students 2. Policy decisions are made to reduce competition for higher education 3. A nationally coordinated survey on mental health of adolescent students is carried out utilizing the island-wide network of medical officers of mental health.

  2. Financial sector development - futile or fruitful? An examination of the determinants of savings in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Roger; Mavrotas, George

    2003-01-01

    Using dynamic econometric techniques the paper investigates the determinants of private saving in Sri Lanka with a primary focus on the role of financial sector development. Empirical evidence is obtained indicating the existence of the Ricardian equivalence hypothesis, and the significance of credit constraints on private saving. Most significantly, an index of financial sector development variables is constructed, based on measures of the relative size of the financial sector, the absolute ...

  3. Factors controlling January–April rainfall over southern India and Sri Lanka

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vialard, J.; Terray, P.; Duvel, J.-P.; Nanjundiah, R.S.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Shankar, D.

    2011-01-01

    -0°) to estimate the influence of anomalies of the interhemispheric SST gradient (see later in the text for justification of the choice of these regions). The southwestern Indian Ocean (hereafter SWIO, Annamalai et al. 2005) is an important region... and rain patterns do not change much (not shown). The wind becomes more southward as the ITCZ moves southward under the effect of solar forcing. As a result, southern India receives much less 9 moisture and only the southern part of Sri Lanka experiences...

  4. Early Iron and Steel production in Sri Lanka:A Scientific Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Prabath Hewageegana

    2014-01-01

    This work investigates the nature of technological development and the viability of applying an evolutionary approach to the early development of iron production in Sri Lanka. The main objective of this paper is to use modern techniques in the fields of Physics and Engineering to investigate the wind-driven furnace used in early iron and steel producing industry dating to 300 B.C. In order to study the scientific aspects of the furnace, several theoretical calc...

  5. Environmental exposures and their genetic or environmental contribution to depression and fatigue: a twin study in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovas Yulia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is very little genetically informative research identifying true environmental risks for psychiatric conditions. These may be best explored in regions with diverse environmental exposures. The current study aimed to explore similarities and differences in such risks contributing to depression and fatigue. Methods Home interviews assessed depression (lifetime-ever, fatigue and environmental exposures in 4,024 randomly selected twins from a population-based register in the Colombo district of Sri Lanka. Results Early school leaving and standard of living showed environmentally-mediated effects on depression, in men. In women, life events were associated with depression partly through genetic pathways (however, the temporal order is consistent with life events being an outcome of depression, as well as the other way around. For fatigue, there were environmentally mediated effects (through early school leaving and life events and strong suggestions of family-environmental influences. Conclusions Compared to previous studies from higher-income countries, novel environmentally-mediated risk factors for depression and fatigue were identified in Sri Lanka. But as seen elsewhere, the association between life events and depression was partially genetically mediated in women. These results have implications for understanding environmental mechanisms around the world.

  6. Inter-Annual Variability in Blue Whale Distribution off Southern Sri Lanka between 2011 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha de Vos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus movements are often driven by the availability of their prey in space and time. While globally blue whale populations undertake long-range migrations between feeding and breeding grounds, those in the northern Indian Ocean remain in low latitude waters throughout the year with the implication that the productivity of these waters is sufficient to support their energy needs. A part of this population remains around Sri Lanka where they are usually recorded close to the southern coast during the Northeast Monsoon. To investigate inter-annual variability in sighting locations, we conducted systematic Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD and visual surveys between January–March 2011 and January–March 2012. In 2011, there was a notable decrease in inshore sightings compared to 2009 and 2012 (p < 0.001. CTD data revealed that in 2011 there was increased freshwater in the upper water column accompanied by deeper upwelling than in 2012. We hypothesise that anomalous rainfall, along with higher turbidity resulting from river discharge, affected the productivity of the inshore waters and caused a shift in blue whale prey and, consequently, the distribution of the whales themselves. An understanding of how predators and their prey respond to environmental variability is important for predicting how these species will respond to long-term changes. This is especially important given the rapid temperature increases predicted for the semi-enclosed northern Indian Ocean.

  7. Inequalities and externalities of power sector: A case of Broadlands hydropower project in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the paper is to estimate environmental externalities related to a run of river project in Sri Lanka and to investigate inequity in distribution of impacts among different social groups. Diversion of the river resulted in loss of water sports (for high-income groups both local and remote), loss of historical monuments (for remote high-income groups) and recreation losses (for local poor). Removal of forest cover leads to loss of non-timber products (for local poor) and carbon storage (for remote high- and low-income groups). Loss of home garden productivity was borne by local poor groups. Benefit of the project, generation of 145 GWh annually, was a gain for the grid connected groups. The impacts were valued using various valuation methods. The base case of the cost benefit analysis resulted in NPV of US$ 11,335,730. When distributional weights are applied for different income groups, both the sign and magnitude of net benefits change. In order to be viable, the project needs diversion of at least 9% of generated electricity to the poorest households in the country. Implications for energy policy towards reducing externality and inequality impacts are also discussed.

  8. Inequalities and externalities of power sector: A case of Broadlands hydropower project in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunawardena, U.A.D. Prasanthi, E-mail: prasanthigunawardena@yahoo.co [Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda (Sri Lanka)

    2010-02-15

    The objective of the paper is to estimate environmental externalities related to a run of river project in Sri Lanka and to investigate inequity in distribution of impacts among different social groups. Diversion of the river resulted in loss of water sports (for high-income groups both local and remote), loss of historical monuments (for remote high-income groups) and recreation losses (for local poor). Removal of forest cover leads to loss of non-timber products (for local poor) and carbon storage (for remote high- and low-income groups). Loss of home garden productivity was borne by local poor groups. Benefit of the project, generation of 145 GWh annually, was a gain for the grid connected groups. The impacts were valued using various valuation methods. The base case of the cost benefit analysis resulted in NPV of US$ 11,335,730. When distributional weights are applied for different income groups, both the sign and magnitude of net benefits change. In order to be viable, the project needs diversion of at least 9% of generated electricity to the poorest households in the country. Implications for energy policy towards reducing externality and inequality impacts are also discussed.

  9. Inequalities and externalities of power sector. A case of Broadlands hydropower project in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunawardena, U.A.D. Prasanthi [Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda (Sri Lanka)

    2010-02-15

    The objective of the paper is to estimate environmental externalities related to a run of river project in Sri Lanka and to investigate inequity in distribution of impacts among different social groups. Diversion of the river resulted in loss of water sports (for high-income groups both local and remote), loss of historical monuments (for remote high-income groups) and recreation losses (for local poor). Removal of forest cover leads to loss of non-timber products (for local poor) and carbon storage (for remote high- and low-income groups). Loss of home garden productivity was borne by local poor groups. Benefit of the project, generation of 145 GWh annually, was a gain for the grid connected groups. The impacts were valued using various valuation methods. The base case of the cost benefit analysis resulted in NPV of US$ 11,335,730. When distributional weights are applied for different income groups, both the sign and magnitude of net benefits change. In order to be viable, the project needs diversion of at least 9% of generated electricity to the poorest households in the country. Implications for energy policy towards reducing externality and inequality impacts are also discussed. (author)

  10. Climate Change Impacts on Rice Farming Systems in Northwestern Sri Lanka. Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Lareef; Nissanka, Sarath P.; Weerakoon, W. M. W.; Herath, Dumindu I.; Karunaratne, Asha S; Prabodha, A. S. M.; Agalawatte, M. B.; Herath, Rasnayaka; Yahiya, S. Zeenas; Punyawardhene, B. V. R.; Vishwanathan, Janan; Delpitiya, Punya; Wijekoon, A. Erandika N.; Gunaratna, Janaka; Chandrasekara, Sewwandhi S. K.; Wickramagamage, P.; Weerasinghe, K. D. N.; Navaratne, Champa M.; Perera, Ruchika S.; Gunesekara, Asela I.; Kumara, G. M. Pradeep; Wallach, Daniel; Valdivia, Roberto O.; McDermid, Sonali

    2015-01-01

    Sri Lanka has achieved tremendous progress since 1950 in crop production and food availability. Yields grew at an impressive rate until leveling off in the mid-eighties. Sri Lanka's population is anticipated to grow in the coming decades, creating an ever-greater demand for food security on the household, sub-district, regional, and national scales.The agricultural sector in Sri Lanka is vulnerable to climate shocks. An unusual succession of droughts and floods from 2008 to 2014 has led to both booms and busts in agricultural production, which were reflected in food prices. In both instances, the majority of farmers and consumers were adversely affected.At present the rice-farming systems are under stress due to inadequate returns for the farmers and difficulty in coping with shocks due to climate, pests, and diseases, and prices for produce. There are government price-support mechanisms, fertilizer-subsidy schemes, and crop insurance schemes, but the levels of the supports are modest and often do not effectively reach the farmers.

  11. Liquidity Management and Profitability: A Case Study of Listed Manufacturing Companies in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya,K

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available — Liquidity management and profitability are very important issues in the growth and survival of business and the ability to handle the trade-off between the two a source of concern for financial managers.The study is also aimed at finding the effect of changes in liquidity levels on profitability of manufacturing companies in Sri Lanka. The study covered listed manufacturing companies in Sri Lanka over a period of past 5 years from 2008 to 2012. Correlation and regression analysis were used in the analysis and findings suggest that there is a significant relationship exists between liquidity and profitability among the listed manufacturing companies in Sri Lanka. Suggested that Inventory Sales Period (ISP, Current Ratio (CRand are significantly correlated with Return on Asset (ROA, Operating Cash Flow Ratio (OCFRare significantly correlated with Return on Equity (ROE 5 percent level of significance. At the same time ISP and OCFR also are significantly correlated with ROA, Creditors Payment Period (CPP also is significantly correlated with ROE at 1 percent level of significance.

  12. Towards e-learning for all in Sri Lanka - progress and problems insome selected Sri Lankan 21st century initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Mozelius, Peter; Hewagamage, K. P.; Hansson, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    In the 21st century Sri Lanka and many other regions in Asia have shown a rapid but heterogeneous development in the field of Information and Communications Technology (ICT).The difference in impact on urban regions and rural areas has sometimes been described as the internal digital divide. At the same time as the gap has diminished between cities in developing countries and the developed world the internal development gap has increased in many Asian countries. How can this gap be bridged? I...

  13. How does the conflict influence the development and the situation of women in Trincomalee district, Sri Lanka?

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyarathne, Nisanka Sanjeewani

    2009-01-01

    In thirty years period conflict became as main actor in Sri Lankan socio economic and politicalback grounds. As the consequences of the conflict, Sri Lankan mainstreams had harmfuldamages. These damages directly affected to the development. North and Eastern province aremost conflict affected regions in Sri Lanka. North was the first conflict affected region. Easternis the totally different form when comparing with North. Eastern province is the secondlyconflict affected and conflict vulnerab...

  14. My older brother’s tree: everyday violence and the question of the ordinary in Batticaloa, Eastern Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Batticaloa district on the Eastern coast of Sri Lanka has been one of the most disrupted and devastated areas of the island since civil war began in the early 1980s. Ethnically and culturally diverse, the Eastern province has been under the control of different military actors, the Sri Lankan army, the Indian Peace-Keeping Forces, and the LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam), however, none maintained full control of the Eastern areas until May 2009 when the Sri Lankan Army s...

  15. Theorising the practice of language mixing in music: an interdisciplinary (linguistic and musicological) investigation of Sri Lanka’s leading genre of contemporary popular song and its community.

    OpenAIRE

    Ekanayaka, Tanya Nissani Ilangakkone

    2011-01-01

    This thesis represents the first ever study of Sri Lanka’s leading genre of contemporary popular song covering a period of over twelve years, and how its artists and principal audience interpolate ‘global’ and ‘local’ (linguistic and musical) elements in their invention and negotiation of the genre. The central objective is to articulate the collective linguistic identity of the genre’s artists and principal audience. They are shown to constitute a community of over 5.5 million...

  16. Development of a Community Based Web-Mobile Platform (CBWMP for diabetes care in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishan Siriwardena

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic disease with no permanent cure. Sri Lanka is placed among the countries with the highest diabetes prevalence rates in the world (ie. 2.8 million Sri Lankans have diabetes or pre-diabetes, and most importantly, a significant proportions of the population is yet to be diagnosed. Patients with diabetes need lifelong care to prevent complications which further impose a significant burden on the country’s expenditure on healthcare. Moreover, patients need to maintain constant contact with the healthcare provider for the optimal management of diabetes. However, such arrangement is often costly and time consuming and therefore it ultimately aggravates the burden to patients, the healthcare system and the economy.With the development of telecommunication technologies, Telemedicine (i.e. the use of Information Communication Technology to provide healthcare at a distance has gained attention. Telemedicine can enhance communication between patient and healthcare provider without needing physical presence in one place. Telemedicine can link healthcare professionals from different corners of the globe to share knowledge and expertise. Moreover, evidence is surfacing to suggest that the telemedicine would be a viable alternative to conventional care.This article showcases a Sri Lankan study which describes the development of a Telemedicine system for Sri Lanka - Community Based Web-Mobile Platform (CBWMP. The concept of the platform is to maintain an electronic Personal Health Record (e-PHR in order to provide communication between different parties to optimise patient health information flow and also to coordinate the continuity of care at minimal cost. The CBWMP - integrated mobile phones and e-PHR - is capable of delivering diabetes education, co-ordinating effective management, and screening diabetes status. To avoid any cultural marginalisation, all the services can be accessed in the user’s preferred native language in Sri Lanka viz. Sinhala, Tamil, and English.

  17. Imposing restrictions on pornography: its potential impact and effectiveness in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranmali Waduge

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The government of Sri Lanka recently introduced many measures to limit the accessibility and availability of pornography in the country including censorship of websites containing sexually explicit material and active prosecution of Sri Lankans who appeared on such websites Available evidence suggests that pornographic consumption among Sri Lankan adolescents is considerable and such exposure may influence sexual attitudes and activity including sexual aggression in youth. However the current evidence on the beneficial effects of censorship of pornography is less than convincing. The authors believe that warm, communicative parent-child relationship and open discussion about sexual matters at home and at school could be more effective than restrictive measures such as censorship and punitive legislation.

  18. Viper bites complicate chronic agrochemical nephropathy in rural Sri Lanka

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anjana, Silva; Rivikelum, Samarasinghe; Senaka, Pilapitiya; Niroshana, Dahanayake; Sisira, Siribaddana.

    2014-09-02

    Full Text Available Snakebite is a common occupational health hazard among Sri Lankan agricultural workers, particularly in the North Central Province. Viperine snakes, mainly Russell’s viper envenomation, frequently lead to acute renal failure. During the last two decades, an agrochemical nephropathy, a chronic tubulo [...] interstitial disease has rapidly spread over this area leading to high morbidity and mortality. Most of the epidemiological characteristics of these two conditions overlap, increasing the chances of co-occurrence. Herein, we describe four representative cases of viperine snakebites leading to variable clinical presentations, in patients with chronic agrochemical nephropathy, including two patients presented with acute and delayed anuria. These cases suggest the possibility of unusual manifestations of snakebite in patients with Sri Lankan agrochemical nephropathy, of which the clinicians should be aware. It could be postulated that the existing scenario in the Central America could also lead to similar clinical presentations.

  19. Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth: Evidence from Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Thirunavukkarasu Velnampy; Sivapalan Achchuthan; Rajendran Kajananthan

    2013-01-01

    Various international organizations and foreign advisors suggested that developing countries should focusprimarily on foreign direct investment (FDI) as a source of external finance. In this context, the main purpose ofthe study is to find out the impact of foreign direct investment on economic growth in the Sri LankanPerspective. Data on the foreign direct investment and economic growth from the year 1990 to 2011 werecollected for the study purpose. Further, the results revealed that, there ...

  20. Investment in Post-Compulsory Education in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Ranasinghe, Athula; Hartog, Joop

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we have used the standard Human Capital model to describe the post-compulsory schooling behaviour of Sri Lankans. We assumed that there is no uncertainty in the education system or in the labour market. Therefore, inthe steady-state, the earnings profile of one generation is a replica of the earnings of the next generation. Then, we modeled and estimated the school enrolment and the length of schooling decisions.Our results show a very clear positive association between the fam...

  1. Serological evidence of Thailand virus-related hantavirus infection among suspected leptospirosis patients in Kandy, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, Chandika D; Yasuda, Shumpei P; Nishio, Sanae; Kularatne, Senanayake A; Weerakoon, Kosala; Rajapakse, Jayanthe; Nwafor-Okoli, Chinyere; Lee, Romeo B; Obayashi, Yoshi; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro; Tamashiro, Hiko

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the current prevalence of leptospirosis and hantaviral infections, and the socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors of infected patients, in Kandy, Sri Lanka. This report discusses the serological evidence of hantavirus infections among 105 suspected leptospirosis patients, 8 of whom had hantavirus antibodies. Serotyping ELISA showed that these 8 patients had high optical density values for Thailand virus. Most of the sera showed that the focus reduction neutralization test titer against Thailand virus was higher than that against Seoul virus, thereby suggesting that the hantaviral antibodies found in Sri Lanka are different from Seoul virus but closely related to Thailand virus. These findings imply that the hantaviral infection found in Kandy, Sri Lanka appears to be due to a virus similar to Thailand virus. Epidemiological analysis revealed that the association between hantavirus infection and socio-demographic characteristics was not statistically significant. PMID:21266762

  2. Oral hypoglycaemic activity of some medicinal plants of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunanayake, E H; Welihinda, J; Sirimanne, S R; Sinnadorai, G

    1984-07-01

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate the oral hypoglycaemic activity of some Sri Lankan medicinal plants. Approximately 40 plants available locally are reputed to have oral hypoglycaemic activity. Of these, the mostly widely used are (a) Salacia reticulata (Celastraceae) (b) Aegle marmelos (Rutaceae) and (c) Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae). Aqueous decoctions of these plants were investigated for their ability to lower the fasting blood glucose level and improve the glucose tolerance in laboratory animals. The results indicate that the aqueous decoctions of all three plants possess significant hypoglycaemic effect. The magnitude of this effect showed time related variation with the three plants. The highest oral hypoglycaemic activity and the maximum improvement of the oral glucose tolerance were associated with the extract of Momordica charantia while the least but significant effects were shown by Salacia reticulata. PMID:6492834

  3. Environmental and Socio-Demographic Determinants of Dengue Fever in Colombo City, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipre, Meghan; Luvall, Jeffrey; Haque, Akhlaque; McClure, Leslie; Zaitchik, Ben; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever has increased exponentially in Sri Lanka, from 24.4 cases per 100,000 in 2003 to 165.3 per 100,000 population in 2013. Although early warning systems using predictor models have been previously developed in other settings, it is important to develop such models in each local setting. Further, the ability of these models to be applicable at smaller geographic units will enhance current vector control and disease surveillance measures. The aim of this paper was to identify environmental and socio-economic status (SES) risk factors that may predict dengue fever at the Gram Niladhari Divisions (GND) level (smallest administrative unit) in Colombo city, Sri Lanka. These factors included landcover classes, amount of vegetation, population density, water access and neighborhood SES as determined by roof type. A geographically weighted regression (GWR) was used to develop the prediction model. A total 55 GND units covering an area of 37 sq km were investigated. We found that GND units with decreased vegetation, higher built-up area, higher population density and poor access to tap-water supply were associated with high risk of dengue; the pertinent GND units were concentrated in the center of the city. This is the first study in Sri Lanka to include both environmental and socio-demographic factors in prediction models for dengue fever. The methodology may be useful in enhancing ongoing dengue fever control measures in the country, and to be extended to other countries in the region that have an increasing incidence of dengue fever.

  4. Use of the internet by patients attending specialist clinics in Sri Lanka: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kommalage Mahinda

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The internet is a relatively new medium of disseminating health information. Studies on Internet usage for health information are mainly done in developed countries and very few studies have been carried out in developing countries. Methods The Internet usage of patients who were attending specialist clinics in Teaching Hospital Karapitiya and Southern Hospital in Galle, Sri Lanka was investigated. The study was carried out on the following specialities; General Medicine, Pediatrics, General Surgery and Cardiothoracic surgery. Information was collected using an investigator-administered questionnaire while patients were waiting for a consultation. Results Three hundred and fifty five patients (or guardians in the Pediatric clinic participated in the study. One hundred seventy two (48.3% participants have heard about the Internet. There was a relationship between awareness of the Internet and age, educational level and the clinic attended. There was no difference of awareness depending on the gender or the hospital. Only three participants (0.97% have used the Internet to find information about their disease conditions. Close relatives searched the Internet about the conditions of two participants. Altogether, the Internet was used to search information on the disease condition of five participants (1.4%. Conclusion Very low usage of the Internet for health information retrieval in this study is probably due to low awareness of the Internet and low educational level. This low usage of Internet and the associated reasons shown in this study can be generalized to Sri Lanka and probably to other low-income countries that have lower educational level than Sri Lanka.

  5. An alternative approach for Chemical Restraint of Domesticated Elephants in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanasiri, W.G.C.S.B.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Asian elephant (Elephas maximus represents one of the most seriousendangered species. Capturing and domestication of these wild elephantscan be considered as one of the measures of elephant conservation.Domesticated elephants play a major role during festival processions in SriLanka. However, there is always a risk of getting panic and disobeying ofthese animals to the mahout's order. Self-Tranquilizer was invented toovercome the constraint such as difficulty of reaching and targeting theelephant in a crowded area, prolong loading time of the tranquilizer drug etc,experienced when palmer cap-chur gun is used. Current study was mainlybased on data collected through primary survey and experimental form.Target people of the study were, elephant owners and senior officersattached to Wild Life Department of Sri Lanka. Data were collected usingstructural questionnaire which included general information about captiveelephant management. Survey was concluded that approximately 115 oftamed elephants were rared in the Sri Lanka. Objective of this study was todo a feasibility assessment about Self-Tranquilizer as a safe, reliable anduser friendly method to tranquilize elephants during festive processions.Novel device of the “Self- Tranquilizer was experimented by using the deadelephant's skin. Mechanical background of this machine was fullytelephone operated. Major important part of this machine was auto-plunger.The auto-plunger can be used as a proper “Intramuscular drugadministrating” device. This machine was prepared to fix on the neck of theelephant. In any elephant was out of control, the veterinary surgeon cantranquilize the elephants just by dialing the secrete mobile number that isassigned to the particular elephant. “Self- Tranquilizer” found to beimportant to regain and safeguard the public confidence and safety,respectively.

  6. Sociodemographic factors associated with aggressive driving behaviors of 3-wheeler taxi drivers in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akalanka, Ediriweera Chintana; Fujiwara, Takeo; Desapriya, Ediriweera; Peiris, Dinithi C; Scime, Giulia

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the nature and scope of aggressive driving in developing countries. The objective of this study is to specifically examine the sociodemographic factors associated with aggressive driving behavior among 3-wheeler taxi drivers in Sri Lanka. Convenience samples of 3-wheeler taxi drivers from Rathnapura, Ahaliyagoda, Sri Lanka were surveyed from June to August 2006. Analyses included bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Drivers with less than high school education were 3.5 times more likely to drive aggressively (odds ratio [OR] = 3.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 11.1). Single drivers were 9 times more likely to run red lights (OR = 8.74; 95% CI = 2.18, 35.0), and being single was a major risk factor for drunk driving (OR = 4.80; 95% CI = 1.23, 18.7). Furthermore, high school completers were 4 times more likely to bribe a policeman (OR = 4.27; 95% CI = 1.23, 14.9) when caught violating the road rules. Aggressive driving and risk-taking behavior are amenable to policy initiatives, and preventive programs targeted at key groups could be used to improve road safety in Sri Lanka. This study demonstrates that aggressive driving behavior is associated with sociodemographic factors, including the level of education, marital status, and other socioeconomic factors. Hence, economic factors should be addressed to find solutions to traffic-related issues. It will be the government's and policy makers' responsibility to try and understand the economic factors behind risky road behavior and bribe-taking behavior prior to legislating or enforcing new laws. PMID:20685667

  7. The Role and Perceptions of Middle Managers and Their Influence on Business Performance: The Case of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriya Kumarasinghe

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role and perceptions of middle managers and how they influence business performance in Sri Lankan companies. The study presented here is based on a questionnaire survey of 121 middle managers regarding issues of communication, group decision making, and organizational leadership. Quantitative analysis of the responses suggests that organizations with collectivistic leaders achieve better performance. As a result, it is argued that collectivism, which includes middle management, can positively contribute to Sri Lanka’s business development and economic recovery.

  8. Teachers’ Levels of Use of the 5E Instructional Model in the Implementation of Curriculum Reforms in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Fareed Mohamed Nawastheen; Sharifah Nor Puteh; Tamby Subahan Mohd Meerah

    2014-01-01

    The 5E instructional model is an innovative approach for constructive classroom instruction. First introduced in competency-based curriculum reforms in Sri Lanka, this is an inquiry-based model that allows students to engage in the self-learning process, in which teachers act as facilitators. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of teachers’ participation (through Levels of Use or LoU) in implementing the 5E instructional model in Sri Lanka. The Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM...

  9. Report on work done in Sri Lanka [Management of water hyacinth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main emphasis of the work in Sri Lanka during the period under review has been on: the collection of available information on the biology of the plant and attempts to gain a more complete understanding of the biology by direct observation and experimentation; the study of the ecology of the plant with special reference to its competition with the other prevalent aquatic weeds in this country, viz Salvinia molesta; the study of the fauna and flora associated with the plant with a view to isolating some organisms that may prove to be suitable agents for its biological control

  10. International trends in health science librarianship part 12: South Asia (India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Medha; Ali Anwar, Mumtaz; Ullah, Midrar; Kuruppu, Chandrani

    2014-12-01

    This is the 12th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship. This issue describes developments in health science librarianship in the first decade of the 21st century in South Asia. The three contributors report on challenges facing health science librarians in India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. There is consensus as to the need for education, training and professional development. Starting in the next issue, the focus will turn to Africa, starting with countries in southern Africa. JM. PMID:25443029

  11. An airtight paddy storage system for small-scale farmers in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikarinayake, T. B.; Mu?ller, J.; Oostdam, J. W. M.; Huisman, W.; Richards, P.

    2007-01-01

    The farmers in Sri Lanka's dry zone are the main contributors to the paddy production in the country. However, due to various reasons, they face difficulties in obtaining a reasonable income for their produce at harvesting time. According to the survey carried out in the paddy producing regions, it was found that one possible solution to reduce this problem is to enable the farmers to sell their produce at a time when prices are higher than at harvest time. To enable the farmers to keep their...

  12. Histopathological diagnosis of myocarditis in a dengue outbreak in Sri Lanka, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Pg, Gunatilake Laxman; Ka, Kodikara Sarachchandra; Edussuriya Deepthika H; Am, Kularatne Senanayake; Gad, Weerakoon Kosala; Pinto Vasanti G; Seneviratne Ashoka B; Gunasena Sunethra

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In 2009, an outbreak of dengue caused high fatality in Sri Lanka. We conducted 5 autopsies of clinically suspected myocarditis cases at the General Hospital, Peradeniya to describe the histopathology of the heart and other organs. Methods The diagnosis of dengue was confirmed with specific IgM and IgG ELISA, HAI and RT-PCR techniques. The histology was done in tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Results Of the 319 cases of dengue fever, 166(52%) had severe ...

  13. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Sri Lanka 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Sri Lanka carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  14. A waste heat recovery steam power generation system for ACE Power Embilipitiya (Pvt) Ltd, Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Weerasiri, Udayani Priyadarshana

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the heat recovery from exhaust gas at the ACE Power Embilipitiya (Pvt) Ltd (APE) in Sri Lanka was conceptually proposed and evaluated. APE has an installed capacity of 100 MW comprising 14 units of 7.5MW medium speed diesel engines fired with heavy fuel oil. There is only a minimum recovery of waste heat in the plant at the moment, only for fuel preheating, whereas waste heat recovery (WHR) boilers of 750kWth are equipped on eight engines. The larger portion of the waste heat i...

  15. Fungal pathogens associated with banana fruit in Sri Lanka, and their treatment with essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Sulali; Abeywickrama, Krishanthi; Dayananda, Ranjith; Wijeratnam, Shanthi Wilson; Arambewela, Luxshmi

    2004-01-01

    The crown rot pathogens isolated from banana samples collected from 12 localities in Sri Lanka were Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium proliferatum and Colletotrichum musae. Fungal pathogens isolated were able to cause crown rot disease alone or in combination. Disease severity was higher when combinations of virulent pathogens were used. Cymbopogon nardus and Ocimum basilicum oils displayed fungicidal activity against C. musae and F. proliferatum between 0.2-0.6% (v/v) in a Poisoned food bioassay. Slightly lower concentrations of the test oils were needed for similar activity during liquid bioassays. The combination of Cymbopogon nardus and O. basilicum oils demonstrated synergistic action during both in-vivo bioassays. PMID:15008351

  16. ADVANCES OF BASIC MOLECULAR BIOLOGY TECHNIQUES: POTENTIAL TO APPLY IN PLANT VIROID DETECTION IN SRI LANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yapa M.A.M. Wijerathna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Viroids are the smallest pathogens of plants. They are the cause of serious diseases on economic plants worldwide. Prevention and detection of the pathogens are the best method to reduce the economic loss from viroid infection. During last decade, genetics and molecular biology techniques have gained an increasing presence in plant pathology research. The purpose of this review is to highlight the most upgrade molecular biology techniques that have been used and studied recently. Most relevant published reports and hand skilled techniques have presented here with emphasis on suitable Viroid detection technique should be used for Sri Lanka.

  17. Patterns of hospital transfer for self-poisoned patients in rural Sri Lanka: implications for estimating the incidence of self-poisoning in the developing world / Modalités d'hospitalisation des cas d'autoempoisonnement délibéré en milieu rural au Sri Lanka: ce qu'elles impliquent pour l'estimation de l'incidence des autoempoisonnements dans le monde en développement / Perfil de traslados interhospitalarios de pacientes autointoxicados en una zona rural de Sri Lanka: implicaciones para la estimación de la incidencia de autointoxicaciones en el mundo en desarrollo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Michael, Eddleston; K, Sudarshan; M, Senthilkumaran; K, Reginald; Lakshman, Karalliedde; Lalith, Senarathna; Dhammika de, Silva; MH, Rezvi Sheriff; Nick A, Buckley; David, Gunnell.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: La mayoría de los datos sobre autointoxicaciones en las zonas rurales de Asia proceden de hospitales secundarios. Nuestros objetivos fueron los siguientes: evaluar cómo influyen los traslados de hospitales primarios a hospitales secundarios en las estimaciones de la tasa de letalidad; det [...] erminar si había algún sesgo de derivación según el sexo o el tipo de intoxicación; y estimar la incidencia anual de todos los tipos de autointoxicación, así como de las autointoxicaciones mortales, en un entorno rural del mundo en desarrollo. MÉTODOS: Entre el 1 de julio y el 31 de diciembre de 2002 se examinó en el momento del ingreso a los autointoxicados llegados al Hospital General de Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. Revisamos además las notas médicas correspondientes a los pacientes autointoxicados ingresados en 17 de los 34 hospitales periféricos de los alrededores durante el mismo periodo. RESULTADOS: En total fueron ingresadas en el hospital secundario 742 víctimas de autointoxicaciones, de las cuales fallecieron 81 (tasa de letalidad: 10,9%). Un total de 483 pacientes fueron ingresados en 17 hospitales periféricos de los alrededores. Seis pacientes (1,2%) murieron en esos hospitales, 249 fueron dados de alta, y 228 fueron trasladados al hospital secundario. No se observó ningún efecto del sexo o la edad sobre la probabilidad de traslado; sin embargo, los pacientes que habían ingerido adelfa o paraquat tenían más probabilidades de ser trasladados que los que habían tomado plaguicidas organofosforados u otros productos tóxicos. La incidencia anual estimada de autointoxicaciones y de autointoxicaciones mortales fue de 363 y 27 por 100 000 habitantes, respectivamente, con una tasa de letalidad global del 7,4% (intervalo de confianza del 95%: 6,0-9,0). CONCLUSIÓN: Un 50% de los pacientes ingresados en hospitales periféricos fueron dados de alta, lo que demuestra que las tasas de letalidad basadas en los datos de hospitales secundarios están infladas. No obstante, si bien la incidencia de autointoxicaciones es semejante a la de Inglaterra, en Sri Lanka las autointoxicaciones mortales son tres veces más frecuentes que las autolesiones mortales por cualquier método registradas en Inglaterra. Los datos basados en la población son esenciales para realizar comparaciones internacionales de la letalidad y la incidencia y para evaluar las intervenciones de salud pública. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: Most data on self-poisoning in rural Asia have come from secondary hospitals. We aimed to: assess how transfers from primary to secondary hospitals affected estimates of case-fatality ratio (CFR); determine whether there was referral bias according to gender or poison; and estimate the a [...] nnual incidence of all self-poisoning, and of fatal self-poisoning, in a rural developing-world setting. METHODS: Self-poisoning patients admitted to Anuradhapura General Hospital, Sri Lanka, were reviewed on admission from 1 July to 31 December 2002. We audited medical notes of self-poisoning patients admitted to 17 of the 34 surrounding peripheral hospitals for the same period. FINDINGS: A total of 742 patients were admitted with self-poisoning to the secondary hospital; 81 died (CFR 10.9%). 483 patients were admitted to 17 surrounding peripheral hospitals. Six patients (1.2%) died in peripheral hospitals, 249 were discharged home, and 228 were transferred to the secondary hospital. There was no effect of gender or age on likelihood of transfer; however, patients who had ingested oleander or paraquat were more likely to be transferred than were patients who had taken organophosphorus pesticides or other poisons. Estimated annual incidences of self-poisoning and fatal self-poisoning were 363 and 27 per 100 000 population, respectively, with an overall CFR of 7.4% (95% confidence interval 6.0-9.0). CONCLUSION: Fifty per cent of patients admitted to peripheral hospitals were discharged home, showing that CFRs based on secondary hospital data are inflated. However, while incidence of self-poisonin

  18. A geochemical reconnaissance survey of Sri Lanka using panned mineral concentrates of stream sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirteen elements (Au, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn, Th, U and Zn) were determined in 120 heavy mineral concentrates from Sri Lankan stream sediments of the Highland Group of rocks in central Sri Lanka. The data indicate sporadic occurrences of gold, notably in the north of the region where this metal had not previously been found. The possibility of the existence of a previously unknown area of ultramafic rocks near Balangoda close to the plate boundary with the Vijayan Complex was indicated by high levels of chromium and nickel in the sediments. Background levels of uranium (8 ?g/g) were relatively high and three anomalies (>35 ?g/g) were detected in stream sediment concentrates. The project has pinpointed several areas where localized intensive exploration for specific minerals should be undertaken. Background levels have also been established for thirteen elements in stream sediment concentrates derived from the Highland Group of rocks. (orig.)

  19. Physical activity patterns and correlates among adults from a developing country: the Sri Lanka Diabetes and Cardiovascular Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Katulanda, P; Jayawardena, R; Jayawardana, R; Ranasinghe, P; Rezvi Sheriff, MH; MATTHEWS, DR

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate patterns of physical activity (PA), the prevalence of physical inactivity and the relationships between PA and sociodemographic, clinical and biochemical parameters among Sri Lankan adults. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Nationally representative population-based survey conducted in Sri Lanka. SUBJECTS: Data on PA and associated details were obtained from 5000 adults. PA was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (short-for...

  20. Leptospirosis outbreak in Sri Lanka in 2008: lessons for assessing the global burden of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agampodi, Suneth B; Peacock, Sharon J; Thevanesam, Vasanthi; Nugegoda, Danaseela B; Smythe, Lee; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Craig, Scott B; Burns, Mary Ann; Dohnt, Michael; Boonsilp, Siriphan; Senaratne, Thamarasi; Kumara, Athula; Palihawadana, Paba; Perera, Sahan; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2011-09-01

    Global leptospirosis disease burden estimates are hampered by the lack of scientifically sound data from countries with probable high endemicity and limited diagnostic capacities. We describe the seroepidemiologic and clinical characteristics of the leptospirosis outbreak in 2008 in Sri Lanka. Definitive/presumptive case definitions proposed by the World Health Organization Leptospirosis Epidemiology Reference Group were used for case confirmation. Of the 404 possible cases, 155 were confirmed to have leptospirosis. Highest titers of patient seum samples reacted with serovars Pyrogenes (28.7%), Hardjo (18.8%), Javanica (11.5%), and Hebdomadis (11.5%). Sequencing of the 16S ribosomal DNA gene identified six infections: five with Leptospira interrogans and one with L. weilli. In this patient population, acute renal failure was the main complication (14.8%), followed by myocarditis (7.1%) and heart failure (3.9%). The case-fatality rate was 1.3%. This report strengthens the urgent need for increasing laboratory diagnostic capabilities to determine the causes of epidemic and endemic infectious diseases in Sri Lanka, a finding relevant to other tropical regions. PMID:21896807

  1. Leptospirosis Outbreak in Sri Lanka in 2008: Lessons for Assessing the Global Burden of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agampodi, Suneth B.; Peacock, Sharon J.; Thevanesam, Vasanthi; Nugegoda, Danaseela B.; Smythe, Lee; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Craig, Scott B.; Burns, Mary Ann; Dohnt, Michael; Boonsilp, Siriphan; Senaratne, Thamarasi; Kumara, Athula; Palihawadana, Paba; Perera, Sahan; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    Global leptospirosis disease burden estimates are hampered by the lack of scientifically sound data from countries with probable high endemicity and limited diagnostic capacities. We describe the seroepidemiologic and clinical characteristics of the leptospirosis outbreak in 2008 in Sri Lanka. Definitive/presumptive case definitions proposed by the World Health Organization Leptospirosis Epidemiology Reference Group were used for case confirmation. Of the 404 possible cases, 155 were confirmed to have leptospirosis. Highest titers of patient seum samples reacted with serovars Pyrogenes (28.7%), Hardjo (18.8%), Javanica (11.5%), and Hebdomadis (11.5%). Sequencing of the 16S ribosomal DNA gene identified six infections: five with Leptospira interrogans and one with L. weilli. In this patient population, acute renal failure was the main complication (14.8%), followed by myocarditis (7.1%) and heart failure (3.9%). The case-fatality rate was 1.3%. This report strengthens the urgent need for increasing laboratory diagnostic capabilities to determine the causes of epidemic and endemic infectious diseases in Sri Lanka, a finding relevant to other tropical regions. PMID:21896807

  2. The geology, mineralogy and rare element geochemistry of the gem deposits of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. Dissanayake

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The gem deposits of Sri Lanka are studied from the point of view of their geology, mineralogy and geochemistry. Nearly all the gem formations are located in the central high-grade metamorphic terrain of the Highland Complex. The gem deposits are classified as sedimentary, metamorphic and magmatic; the sedimentary types being the most abundant. The mineralogy of the gem deposits varies widely with, among others, corundum, chrysoberyl, beryl, spinel, topaz,zircon, tourmaline, garnet and sphene being common.Rare element concentrations in sediments from the three main gem fields of Sri Lanka, namely Ratnapura, Elahera and Walawe, were studied. It was found that some sediments are considerably enriched in certain elements compared to their average continental crustal abundances. The Walawe Ganga sediments show anomalous enrichments of the high field strength and associated elements, particularly Zr, Hf, W and Ti. This is attributed to the presence of accessory mineralssuch as zircon, monazite and rutile. Some of these heavy minerals comprise as much as 50 wt% of sediment. The geochemical enrichment of some trace elements compared to their average crustal abundances indicates that highly differentiated granites and associated pegmatites have provided the source materials for enrichment.

  3. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Lanka is essentially a detached portion of the Deccan Plateau of south India and like it, is underlain almost everywhere by hard old Precambrian rocks. Prior to 1940 there was no systematic organised geological survey work on the island. Between 1957 and 1962 a partial aerial survey and field traverses were conducted in a search for radio- active minerals. Since then a modest programme has continued. Thorianite was first discovered in placer deposits in 1903 and prospecting has found many other refractory radioactive minerals probably derived from the weathering of pegmatites. Monazite is found as an important constituent of beach placer deposits and it is estimated to have an average content of 8-10%ThO2 and 0.3 - 0.5% U3O8. Up to 1000 tons monazite per year could be produced from the beach sand industry. Sri Lanka has had very little systematic exploration for uranium and as it is largely composed of Precambrian rocks it deserves closer attention. On the other hand it is part of a thorium rich province and there is a body of technical opinion that believes that thorium rich provinces are unlikely to contain significant uranium deposits. For these reasons it is estimated that the Speculative Potential may be within the range of 1000 to 10,000 tonnes uranium. In addition it maybe possible to produce up to 5 tonnes uranium and 100 tonnes thorium from the beach sand industry on an annual basis. (author)

  4. Anomalous short period geomagnetic variations at two stations in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of the rates of change in the geomagnetic field components in the period range 20-600 sec recorded at Kondavil and Hikkaduwa, two stations in the equatorial electrojet belt near the northern and south western coasts respectively of Sri Lanka, shows anomalous variations. The results confirm induced current concentration in the Palk Strait and deflection of induced currents around the southerncoast of Sri Lanka postulated by earlier workers from observations of SSC and Bay events at Indian stations and from analogue and numerical model studies. At Kondavil, which is situated close to the geomagnetic equator, no appreciable difference in the night-time and day-time values of ?Z/?H and ?D/?H ratios was noticed while at Hikkaduwa, a station situated under the edge of the equatorial electrojet belt, a day-time enhancement of ?Z/?H ratios was found at all periods in the observed range. An enhancement of the H component at Colombo over that at Hikkaduwa was also found at short periods, the enhancement being greater at day-time. The day-time enhancement in the ?Z/?H ratios at Hikkaduwa and in the ratio of the H components at Colombo and Hikkaduwa could be due to the effect of the equatorial electrojet on the short period variations. (author)

  5. Survival of living donor renal transplant recipients in Sri Lanka: a single-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galabada, Dinith Prasanna; Nazar, Abdul L M; Ariyaratne, Prasad

    2014-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease is one of the main public health concerns in Sri Lanka. In comparison with dialysis, successful kidney transplantation improves both patient survival and quality of life, relieves the burden of dialysis in patients suffering from end-stage renal disease and decreases the cost of healthcare to the society and government. The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate graft and patient survival rates in patients who were transplanted from living donors at the Nephrology Unit of the National Hospital of Sri Lanka from January 2005 to January 2011. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and through a review of past medical records. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the survival rate, the log rank test was used to compare survival curves and the Cox proportional hazard model was used for multivariate analysis. Mean follow-up was 26.44±16.6 months. The five-year death-censored graft survival of kidney transplant recipients from living donors in our center was 93.5% and the five-year patient survival was 82.2%, which is comparable with other transplant programs around the world. The number of acute rejection episodes was an independent risk factor for graft survival. Delayed graft function, younger recipient age and unknown cause of end-stage renal disease were found to be risk factors for graft failure but after adjusting for confounding factors, and the difference was not apparent. PMID:25394462

  6. Seroprevalence of varicella zoster virus infections in Colombo District, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyanage NPM

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Varicella Zoster virus (VZV infections occur worldwide, the epidemiology is remarkably different in tropical and temperate climates. VZV infections result in significant morbidity and mortality among adults in Sri Lanka. Aims : For future VZV vaccination strategies, we set to determine the age-specific seroprevalence rate of VZV infections in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Materials and methods : The study was carried out from 1999 to 2000. Multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used to collect 913 blood samples, which were tested for the presence of VZV-specific IgG antibodies. Results :0 VZV seroprevalence rates were markedly lower in all age groups when compared to temperate climates. The seroprevalence rates increased with age in both the rural and urban populations. Of those aged 60 years, only 50% in the rural population and 78.9% in the urban population were immune to VZV. Seroprevalence rates of VZV infections were significantly different between the urban and rural populations (P< 0.001, with VZV-specific IgG antibodies detected in 47.5% in the urban population and 27.9% in the rural population. It was found that 56.2% (131 of females of childbearing age were nonimmune to VZV. Conclusions : These findings highlight the need for a VZV vaccination program, which is likely to have a huge impact on the incidence of chickenpox and its associated morbidity and mortality.

  7. Ecology of vector mosquitoes in Sri Lanka--suggestions for future mosquito control in rice ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuoka, Junko; Levins, Richard

    2007-07-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are a major public health threat in Asia. To explore effective mosquito control strategies in rice ecosystems from the ecological point of view, we carried out ecological analyses of vector mosquitoes in Sri Lanka. During the 18-month study period, 14 Anopheles, 11 Culex, 5 Aedes, 2 Mansonia, and 1 Armigeres species were collected, most of which are disease vectors for malaria, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, or dengue in Sri Lanka and elsewhere in Asia. The density and occurrence of Anopheles and Culex species were the highest in seepage pools and paddy fields, where the majority of niche overlaps between larval mosquito and aquatic insect species were observed. All 7 aquatic insect species, which are larval mosquito predators, overlapped their niche with both Anopheles and Culex larvae. This suggests that conserving these aquatic insect species could be effective in controlling mosquito vectors in the study site. Correlations between several climatic factors and mosquito density were also analyzed, and weather conditions, including higher temperature, lower relative humidity, and higher wind velocity, were found to affect mosquito oviposition, propagation, and survival. These findings deepen our understanding of mosquito ecology and will strengthen future mosquito control strategies in rice ecosystems in Asia. PMID:17883002

  8. Update on uncertain etiology of chronic kidney disease in Sri Lanka's north-central dry zone

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kamani, Wanigasuriya.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This manuscript updates a review previously published in a local journal in 2012, about a new form of chronic kidney disease that has emerged over the past two decades in the north-central dry zone of Sri Lanka, where the underlying causes remain undetermined. Disease burden is higher [...] in this area, particularly North Central Province, and affects a rural and disadvantaged population involved in rice-paddy farming. Over the last decade several studies have been carried out to estimate prevalence and identify determinants of this chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology. OBJECTIVE: Summarize the available evidence on prevalence, clinical profile and risk factors of chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology in the north-central region of Sri Lanka. METHODS: PubMed search located 16 manuscripts published in peer-reviewed journals. Three peer-reviewed abstracts of presentations at national scientific conferences were also included in the review. RESULTS: Disease prevalence was 5.1% - 16.9% with more severe disease seen in men than in women. Patients with mild to moderate stages of disease were asymptomatic or had nonspecific symptoms; urinary sediments were bland; 24-hour urine protein excretion was

  9. The impact of electricity supply on economic growth in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    World net electricity consumption is expected to double over the next two decades. With increasing demand, electricity shortages will be prevalent, particularly in developing countries. An adequate and regular power supply would support economic growth in developing countries. Previous studies have demonstrated a strong correlation between electricity use and economic development. Studies have shown that there is a bi-directional causal relationship between gross domestic product and electricity consumption in Taiwan for the period 1954 to 1997. In order to examine the impact of electricity supply on economic growth in Sri Lanka, this paper presented the results of a study that applied Yang's model, using a simple regression analysis. The paper presented the methodology and estimation results. The study incorporated a cost benefit analysis model which assessed the economic, social and environmental impacts of dam projects in Sri Lanka. It was concluded that the application of Yang's regression analysis is one possible approach to estimate a better range for the expected increase in economic output parameter. 14 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  10. Poverty and growth impacts of high oil prices: Evidence from Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sharp rise in oil and food prices in 2007 and 2008 caused negative impacts on poverty and economic growth in many oil and food importing developing countries. Some analysts believe that these countries are under stress again due to a rise in crude oil prices, to a two-and-a-half year high in March 2011, which has also been partly responsible for higher food prices in recent months. However, there is a limited body of empirical evidence available from developing countries on the impact of high oil prices on growth in general and household poverty in particular. In this study, Sri Lanka is used as a case study and a computable general equilibrium (CGE) approach is adopted as an analytical framework to explore the growth and poverty impacts of high oil prices. The results suggest that urban low income households are the group most adversely affected by high global oil prices, followed by low income rural households. In contrast, estate low income households are the least affected out of all low income households. The energy intensive manufacturing sector and services sector are affected most compared to the agricultural sector. - Highlights: ? Using a general equilibrium model we find poverty and oil price link for Sri Lanka. ? Urban low income households are the group most adversely affected. ? Energy intensive manufacturing and services sectors are affected most.

  11. Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology in Sri Lanka: is cadmium a likely cause?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiris-John Roshini J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD and subsequent end stage renal failure necessitating renal replacement therapy has profound consequences for affected individuals and health care resources. This community based study was conducted to identify potential predictors of microalbuminuria in a randomly selected sample of adults from the North Central Province (NCP of Sri Lanka, where the burden of CKD is pronounced and the underlying cause still unknown. Methods Exposures to possible risk factors were determined in randomly recruited subjects (425 females and 461 males from selected areas of the NCP of Sri Lanka using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Sulphosalicylic acid and the Light Dependent Resister microalbumin gel filtration method was used for initial screening for microalbuminuria and reconfirmed by the Micral strip test. Results Microalbumnuria was detected in 6.1% of the females and 8.5% of the males. Smoking (p Conclusions Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, UTI, and smoking are known risk factors for microalbuminuria. The association between microalbuminuria and consumption of well water suggests an environmental aetiology to CKD in NCP. The causative agent is yet to be identified. Investigations for cadmium as a potential causative agent needs to be initiated.

  12. Mapping mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, Sri Lanka, India and Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Menil Victoria

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited evidence about mental health finances in low and middle-income countries is a key challenge to mental health care policy initiatives. This study aimed to map mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, India (Kerala state, Sri Lanka and Lao PDR focusing on how much money is available for mental health, how it is spent, and how this impacts mental health services. Methods A researcher in each region reviewed public mental health-related budgets and interviewed key informants on government mental health financing. A total of 43 key informant interviews were conducted. Quantitative data was analyzed in an excel matrix using descriptive statistics. Key informant interviews were coded a priori against research questions. Results National ring-fenced budgets for mental health as a percentage of national health spending for 2007-08 is 1.7% in Sri Lanka, 3.7% in Ghana, 2.0% in Kerala (India and 6.6% in Uganda. Budgets were not available in Lao PDR. The majority of ring-fenced budgets (76% to 100% is spent on psychiatric hospitals. Mental health spending could not be tracked beyond the psychiatric hospital level due to limited information at the health centre and community levels. Conclusions Mental health budget information should be tracked and made publically accessible. Governments can adapt WHO AIMS indicators for reviewing national mental health finances. Funding allocations work more effectively through decentralization. Mental health financing should reflect new ideas emerging from community based practice in LMICs.

  13. The feminization of foreign currency earnings: women's labor in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarasinghe, V

    1998-01-01

    This paper considers women's participation in foreign currency earning activities in Sri Lanka. The author first analyzes the structure of women's participation patterns in the major foreign currency earning activities in the country, including consideration of their wage levels and the impact of ethnicity, age, educational levels, and skills upon the different components of those activities in which women participate. She then probes the applicability for Sri Lanka of Guy Standing's argument that structural adjustment policies (SAP) have triggered a change in labor force practices leading to a feminization through flexible labor. Many studies have shown that cutbacks in subsidies mandated by SAPs and initiated in the 1980s among developing countries have adversely affected poor women. Women have adjusted to the new situation in a variety of ways, ranging from cutting their household budgets for basic needs to seeking income-generating work in the informal sector and participating in labor-intensive manufacturing activities. In closing, the author assesses the degree to which the new demands made upon women resulting from the effect of SAPs upon their households have stimulated women's increasing participation in foreign currency earning activities. PMID:12349170

  14. Selenium and iodine in soil, rice and drinking water in relation to endemic goitre in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endemic goitre has been reported in the climatic wet zone of south-west Sri Lanka for the past 50 years, but rarely occurs in the northern dry zone. Despite government-sponsored iodised salt programmes, endemic goitre is still prevalent. In recent years, it has been suggested that Se deficiency may be an important factor in the onset of goitre and other iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). Prior to the present study, environmental concentrations of Se in Sri Lanka and the possible relationships between Se deficiency and endemic goitre had not been investigated. During the present study, chemical differences in the environment (measured in soil, rice and drinking water) and the Se-status of the human population (demonstrated by hair samples from women) were determined for 15 villages. The villages were characterised by low (25%) goitre incidence (NIDD, MIDD and HIDD, respectively). Results show that concentrations of soil total Se and iodine are highest in the HIDD villages, however, the soil clay and organic matter content appear to inhibit the bioavailability of these elements. Concentrations of iodine in rice are low (?58 ng/g) and rice does not provide a significant source of iodine in the Sri Lankan diet. High concentrations of iodine (up to 84 ?g/l) in drinking water in the dry zone may, in part, explain why goitre is uncommon in this area. This study has shown for the first time that significant proportions of the Sri Lankan nificant proportions of the Sri Lankan female population may be Se deficient (24, 24 and 40% in the NIDD, MIDD and HIDD villages, respectively). Although Se deficiency is not restricted to areas where goitre is prevalent, a combination of iodine and Se deficiency could be involved in the pathogenesis of goitre in Sri Lanka. The distribution of red rice cultivation in Sri Lanka is coincident with the HIDD villages. Varieties of red rice grown in other countries contain anthocyanins and procyanidins, compounds which in other foodstuffs are known goitrogens. The potential goitrogenic properties of red rice in Sri Lanka are presently unknown and require further investigation. It is likely that the incidence of goitre in Sri Lanka is multi-factorial, involving trace element deficiencies and other factors such as poor nutrition and goitrogens in foodstuffs

  15. Escalating chronic kidney diseases of multi-factorial origin in Sri Lanka: causes, solutions, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2014-11-01

    During the last two decades, Sri Lanka, located close to the equator, has experienced an escalating incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown aetiology (CKDue) in dry zonal areas. Similar incidences of unusual CKDs have been reported in the dry zonal, agricultural areas of several other equatorial countries. In Sri Lanka, the incidence of CKDue is highest in the North Central Province (NCP), where approximately 45 % of the country's paddy fields are located. However, in recent years, the disease has spread into areas adjacent to as well as distant from the NCP. The cause of CKD in Sri Lanka is unknown, and may likely due to interactions of different potential agents; thus, CKD is of multi-factorial origin (CKD-mfo). These factors include, the negative effects from overuse of agrochemicals. Nevertheless, the potential interactions and synergism between probable agents have not been studied. This systematic review discusses the proposed hypotheses and causes of CKD-mfo in Sri Lanka, and ways to decrease the incidence of this disease and to eradicate it, and provide some recommendations. During the past decade, a number of groups have investigated this disorder using different methodologies and reported various correlations, but failed to find a cause. Research has focussed on the contamination of water with heavy metals, agrochemicals, hard water, algae, ionicity, climate change, and so forth. Nevertheless, the levels of any of the pollutants or conditions reported in water in NPC are inconsistent not correlated with the prevalence of the disease, and are too low to be the sole cause of CKD-mfo. Meanwhile, several nephrotoxins prevalent in the region, including medications, leptospirosis, toxic herbs, illicit alcohol, locally grown tobacco, and petrochemicals, as well as the effects of changed habits occured over the past four decades have not been studied to date. Taken together, the geographical distribution and overall findings indicate that combinations of factors and/or their interactions are likely to precipitate CKD-mfo, which kills more than 5,000 people annually in Sri Lanka; most victims are middle-aged male farmers. Much anecdotal evidence from this region suggests that consumption of contaminated water is the most likely source of this deadly disease. Although the aetiology is unknown, prevention of this "environmentally acquired" disease seems relatively straightforward. Solutions include (a) preventing environmental pollution, (b) stopping the irresponsible use and decreasing the usage of agrochemicals, and encouraging the use of environmentally friendly agricultural methods, (c) taking proper precautions when using agrochemicals and safe disposal of their containers, (d) changing the risky behaviour of farmers and educating them to preserve the environment, and (e) providing clean potable water to all affected regions. Implementing a well-coordinated, in-depth, region-wide, broad-based research study together with a long-term effective surveillance programme across the country is essential to curbing this disease. Unless firm actions are taken promptly, more than three million healthy people in the country, live in agricultural regions, are at risk for contracting CKD-mfo and succumb to premature deaths, which are preventable. PMID:25239006

  16. Wives' Attitudes toward Gender Roles and Their Experience of Intimate Partner Violence by Husbands in Central Province, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatilleke, Achini; Poudel, Krishna C.; Sakisaka, Kayako; Yasuoka, Junko; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jimba, Masamine

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a community based, cross-sectional study to describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) by husbands and the association between wives' attitudes toward gender roles and their experience of IPV in Central Province, Sri Lanka. This article included a representative sample of 624 wives between 15 and 49 years of…

  17. The Politics, Policies and Progress of Basic Education in Sri Lanka. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 38

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Angela W.

    2010-01-01

    Sri Lanka is hailed internationally for her achievements in literacy, access to education and equality of educational opportunity. However, progress has not been straightforward due to the complex interactions between politics, policy formulation, and the implementation of reforms. This dynamic process has often led to contradictory outcomes. This…

  18. Understanding School Health Environment through Interviews with Key Stakeholders in Lao PDR, Mongolia, Nepal and Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Lee, Eun Young; Gittelsohn, Joel; Nkala, Denis; Choi, Bo Youl

    2015-01-01

    Studies on health promoting schools (HPS) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are scarce. To contribute to the development of HPS in these countries, we conducted formative research to understand the school environment in Lao PDR, Mongolia, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. Forty-three teachers, 10 government workers and 5 parents participated in…

  19. Low serum vitamin D among community-dwelling healthy women in Sri Lanka

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    Mahinda Rodrigo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although hypovitaminosis D is prevalent among healthy adults in Asia and other regions, available data among Sri Lankans are not consistent with this finding. We studied vitamin D level among healthy community-dwelling women and examined its effects on parathyroid hormone (PTH level and bone mineral status. Methods: Females of 20-40 years (n = 434 who were employed in southern Sri Lanka were recruited to the study. Bone mineral density and content (pBMD and pBMC of the middle phalanx of the middle finger of the non-dominant hand were measured in all subjects and 5.0 ml of venous blood was collected from each subject after an overnight fast for biochemical assessment of serum vitamin D, parathyroid hormone and total alkaline phosphatase. Results: Mean (SD pBMD of the women studied was 0.493 (0.060 g/cm2 and pBMC was 1.49 (0.28 g. Severe vitamin D deficiency (jects, whereas 19.1% subjects had moderate (12.5-25.0 nmol/L and 15.7% had mild (25.1 -35.0 nmol/L vitamin D deficiency. Serum vitamin D showed significant positive correlations with pBMD (r = 0.13, p = 0.008 and pBMC (r = 0.12, p = 0.01. In regression analysis, vitamin D showed a positive association with pBMD (regression coefficient 0.0003, SEM 0.0001, p = 0.007. Conclusions: Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency is prevalent among healthy young and middle-aged women in this study group selected from southern Sri Lanka. The accompanying rise of PTH indicates the biological significance of low vitamin D level. The negative effects observed on bone mineral status suggest the clinical importance of this finding.

  20. Studies on prevalence of anopheline species and community perception of malaria in Jaffna district, Sri Lanka

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    N.D. Karunaweera

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Over two decades of civil unrest and the conflict situation have had detrimental effects on vector control activities and management of malaria in Jaffna district which is an endemic region for malaria in Sri Lanka. With the background that only a few small-scale studies on malaria and its vectors have been reported from this district, a study was designed to explore the current status of malaria in the Jaffna district in relation to vector and community aspects.Methods: Adults and larvae of anopheline mosquitoes were collected monthly from selected endemic localities. Species prevalence of the collected mosquitoes was studied while the collected adults of Anopheles subpictus, a potential vector in the district, was screened for sibling species composition based on morphological characteristics and exposed to common insecticides using WHO bioassay kits. Knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP of the community were tested using a pre-tested structured questionnaire in high-risk and low-risk localities in the district.Results: The anopheline mosquito species distribution in the district was—An. culicifacies (0.5%, An. subpictus (46%, An. varuna (4%, An. nigerrimus (44% and An. pallidus (5.5%. Among the collected larvae the percent prevalence of An. culicifacies was 13% and other species follows as: An. subpictus (71%, An. varuna (4%, An. nigerrimus (10% and An. pallidus (2%. Sibling species B, C and D of An. subpictus were present in the district with the predominance of B in both coastal and inland areas, while all members showed both indoor and outdoor resting characteristics, they were highly resistant to DDT (4% and highly susceptible to malathion (5%. KAP study in the district showed a reasonable level of knowledge, positive attitude and practices towards malaria.Conclusion: An. subpictus, the reported major vector of Jaffna and a well-established secondary vector of malaria in the country, continues to be the predominant anopheline species. The distribution of sibling species of An. subpictus complex in the Jaffna district, revealed for the first time, has implications for future studies on its bionomics and malaria transmission pattern in this area and the planning of control strategies for this region. The community perception of disease, which revealed a satisfactory knowledge indicates the potential for better community participation in future malaria control activities in this region. As potential vectors are still present, health authorities need to be vigilant to prevent any future epidemics of malaria.

  1. SEM–EDS analysis of copper, glass and iron recovered from the 1st century AD shipwreck site off Godawaya, Southern Sri Lanka

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandraratne, W.M.; Gaur, A.S.; Rao, B.R.; Bhushan, R.; Muthucumarana, R.; Manders, M.; Khedekar, V.D.; Dayananda, A.M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent maritime archaeological explorations conducted at a shipwreck site in the offshore regions of Godawaya, a fishing village on the south coast of Sri Lanka led to the retrieval of several artifacts such as copper slag, glass ingots, iron...

  2. Types de contact village-plantation à Sri Lanka (1840-1940

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    Éric MEYER

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available La partie humide de Sri Lanka (montagnes du centre et du quart sud-ouest associait initialement riziculture, cultures sur brûlis et cocoteraies. L’économie de plantation s’y étant développée à partir de 1840, elle est devenue le lieu d’un contact villageplantation généralement décrit comme un cas classique de dualisme. Un examen microstructurel révèle plusieurs types principaux de configurations, l’un caractérisé par un dualisme effectif, un autre par une interpénétration poussée, le dernier par une intégration. L’approche diachronique montre l’importance des bouleversements, dans les structures foncières et l’utilisation du sol, introduits par les plantations. L’analyse des flux de main-d’oeuvre et de produits permet de préciser le contenu des échanges entre les deux éléments du couple village-plantation.

  3. The political economy of controlling transnationals: the pharmaceutical industry in Sri Lanka, 1972-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, S; Bibile, S

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes the experience of Sri Lanka in reforming the structure of production, importation, and distribution of pharmaceuticals in the period 1972-1976. It highlights the actions and reactions of transnational pharmaceutical corporations to these reforms, and traces the achievements and problems of the State Pharmaceuticals Corporation which was set up to implement the reforms. The roles of political leadership in regulating the power of drug transnationals, and of the medical profession in resisting reform, seem to be of crucial significance. Developing countries wishing to lower the present high cost of drug delivery must proceed with great care and immense caution, since complex problems of quality control, bioequivalence, medical acceptance, and consumer reeducation are involved. PMID:640768

  4. Real-Time Biosurveillance Pilot Programme in Sri Lanka: Lessons Learned

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    Weerasinghe Gamachchige Chamindu Sampath

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The latter parts of 2007 and early months of 2008 witnessed an alarming number of deaths due to a Leptospirosis outbreak in Sri Lanka(1. An unusual number of patients presenting with symptoms of fever, headache or myalgia concentrated in particular geographic areas (North Central and North Western Province in Sri Lanka could have signalled the epidemiologists of an abnormal event with the help of a quicker surveillance programme leading to possible implementation of optimal strategies which could possibly have minimized the early deaths and even prevented the progression of the outbreak. The present day paper-based disease surveillance and notification systems in Sri Lanka(2, confined to a set of notifiable diseases, often require 15-30 days to communicate data and for the central Epidemiology Unit to process it. This latency does not allow for timely detection of disease outbreaks and it limits the ability of the health system to effectively respond and mitigate their consequences. Therefore it negatively affects the health status of the work force and productivity of the country. The Real Time Bio-surveillance Program (RTBP is a pilot study aiming to introduce modern technology to the Health Department of Sri Lanka to complement the existing disease surveillance and notification systems. The processes involve digitizing all clinical health records and analysing them in near real-time to detect unusual events to forewarn health workers before the diseases reach epidemic states. Similar studies have been conducted on bio terrorism surveillance in Winnipeg, Canada(3, pandemic surveillance in Morocco(4 and North Carolina Disease Event Tracking and Epidemiologic Collection Tool (NC DETECT in North Carolina(5. The infrastructure of the project RTBP is composed of an interconnected network between health care workers via mHealthSurvey mobile phone application, T-Cube web interface (TCWI and Sahana Messaging/Alerting Module. Health records from health facilities, namely demographic information, symptoms, suspected and diagnosed diseases are collected through the mHealthSurvey, a mobile phone application(6, that feed in to the TCWI(7, a browser based software tool that detects adverse events; health officials are notified of the adverse events using the Sahana Alerting module that transports via Short Message Service (SMS, Email, and Web(10. Evaluation of the RTBP involves a replication study and parallel cohort study. This pilot study indicates the need for more robust mobile application for data collection with complete ontology, semantics and vocabulary in disease-syndrome information to reduce noise and increase reliability in the datasets. More rigorous capacity building and frequent use is required for health officials to take advantage of the full potential of TCWI. This paper discusses the technologies used in the pilot and the initial findings in relation to usability of the system.

  5. Simultaneous infection with dengue 2 and 3 viruses in a Chinese patient return from Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenming, Peng; Man, Yu; Baochang, Fan; Yongqiang, Deng; Tao, Jiang; Hongyuan, Duan; Ede, Qin

    2005-03-01

    Dengue is an acute viral disease transmitted by the Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquito, which are present in most tropical urban areas of the world. There are four antigenically distinct serotypes, designated dengue-1 (DEN-1), dengue-2 (DEN-2), dengue-3 (DEN-3) and dengue-4 (DEN-4). Dengue outbreaks have occurred in several regions in Asia, involving four serotypes of dengue 1, 2, 3 and 4. In review of the few cases of dual infection documented in the literature, we report here a case of simultaneous infection with DEN-2 and DEN-3 in a Chinese patient return from Sri Lanka. The dual infection was identified by type-specific indirect immunofluorescence assay and confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequence determination. This is the first documented case of simultaneous infection with serotype of DEN-2 and DEN-3 in China. PMID:15722024

  6. Establishment of antimicrobial residue monitoring programme for food of animal origin in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Antibiotic drugs are often used both therapeutically and prophylactically in animal production, and are necessary for many production systems. However, the presence of unacceptable levels of antimicrobial residues in animal products may lead to direct effects on the consumer, such as allergies and toxicities such as dose-independent idiosyncratic reactions that can be triggered due to chloramphenicol residues. Indirect adverse reactions include the promotion of antimicrobial resistance. Further, the parent drugs and their metabolites of the nitrofuran group of antimicrobials are known to be carcinogens. In order to promote awareness on food safety and quality assurance, it is necessary to monitor antimicrobial residues in animal products. This can be done only by having well equipped laboratories and validated techniques. Sri Lanka, as an export country for cultured shrimp, needs to comply with EU regulations. The establishment of the residue monitoring programme in Sri Lanka was commenced in 2002 at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Peradeniya. Three techniques have been established in Sri Lanka for monitoring antimicrobial residues in food of animal origin. The modified EU Six Plate Test (SPT) is a bioassay technique, which screens six groups of antimicrobials, namely; penicillin, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, macrolides (erythromycin), tetracycline and sulphonamides. Food commodities are screened for chloramphenicoommodities are screened for chloramphenicol residues using a commercially available ELISA kit (Euro Diagnostica, Netherlands), which is a microtiter plate, based competitive enzyme immunoassay. A HPLC-DAD technique has been established to detect nitrofuran metobolites in shrimp including the primary metobolites of furazolidone, furaltadone, nitrofurantoin and nitrofurazon. Since July 2002 a total of 1712 samples including 900 chicken samples and 812 shrimp samples were screened for antimicrobial residues using the SPT. Since November 2002, 1027 shrimp samples from export consignments have been tested using ELISA. In 2007 the HPLC technique was established and 85 shrimp samples have been tested. Out of the 900 broiler meat samples tested by SPT, 52 samples (5.8 %) showed positive results while all the shrimp samples tested were negative. Out of the 1027 shrimp samples tested using ELISA, 2 samples (0.2 %) were positive. All the samples tested using by HPLC were negative for nitrofuran metabolites. There is clear evidence that the frequency of residues occurrence in the samples tested decreased as the project progressed due to increased awareness among farmers on restrictions imposed on using antimicrobial agents in animal production. Trace back procedures were adopted in situations where residue violations were observed in order to initiate action to prevent reoccurrence through the appropriate and responsible use of antimicrobials, and efforts were taken to ensure sustainability of the project. Further, steps are now being taken to comply with ISO 17025 Certification in order to obtain the status of laboratory accreditation. The laboratory established at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka is now recognized as an Independent Reference Laboratory for monitoring antimicrobial residues in food of animal origin. The laboratory service for the analysis of food samples for antimicrobial residue monitoring is now extended to producers and quality assurance divisions of regulatory authorities. (author)

  7. Instructors’ Perspective on E-Learning Adoption in Sri Lanka: A Preliminary Investigation

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    Husnayati Hussin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available E-Learning has become an increasingly popular mode of instruction in higher education due to advances in the Internet and multimedia technologies. The purpose of the study is to gauge the perception and views of the lecturers at South Eastern University (SEUSL. As it is an exploratory study, the case study method was undertaken. The result of the study indicates that the lecturers are with positive attitude and supportive mindset to embark on e-learning initiative and it also identified a number of factors that could potentially influence the e-learning implementation in the university. Moreover the findings are instrumental and directing in undertaking a comprehensive study to understand the overall perception of lecturers towards e-learning implementation at the tertiary educational institutions in Sri Lanka.

  8. Direct evidence for human reliance on rainforest resources in late Pleistocene Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Patrick; Perera, Nimal; Wedage, Oshan; Deraniyagala, Siran; Perera, Jude; Eregama, Saman; Gledhill, Andrew; Petraglia, Michael D; Lee-Thorp, Julia A

    2015-03-13

    Human occupation of tropical rainforest habitats is thought to be a mainly Holocene phenomenon. Although archaeological and paleoenvironmental data have hinted at pre-Holocene rainforest foraging, earlier human reliance on rainforest resources has not been shown directly. We applied stable carbon and oxygen isotope analysis to human and faunal tooth enamel from four late Pleistocene-to-Holocene archaeological sites in Sri Lanka. The results show that human foragers relied primarily on rainforest resources from at least ~20,000 years ago, with a distinct preference for semi-open rainforest and rain forest edges. Homo sapiens' relationship with the tropical rainforests of South Asia is therefore long-standing, a conclusion that indicates the time-depth of anthropogenic reliance and influence on these habitats. PMID:25766234

  9. An under-recognized influenza epidemic identified by rapid influenza testing, southern sri lanka, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillekeratne, L Gayani; Bodinayake, Champica K; Nagahawatte, Ajith; Vidanagama, Dhammika; Devasiri, Vasantha; Arachchi, Wasantha Kodikara; Kurukulasooriya, Ruvini; De Silva, Aruna Dharshan; Østybe, Truls; Reller, Megan E; Woods, Christopher W

    2015-05-01

    Influenza accounts for a large burden of acute respiratory tract infections in high-income countries; data from lower-income settings are limited due to lack of confirmatory testing. Consecutive outpatients presenting to the largest tertiary care hospital in southern Sri Lanka were surveyed for influenza-like illness (ILI), defined as acute onset of fever ? 38.0°C and cough. Patients were administered a questionnaire and nasal/nasopharyngeal sampling for rapid influenza A/B testing. We enrolled 311 patients with ILI from March to November 2013: 170 (54.7%) children and 172 (55.3%) males. Approximately half (147, 47.3%) tested positive for influenza, but 253 (81.4%) were prescribed antibiotics. On bivariable analysis, symptoms associated with influenza included pain with breathing (P testing to identify an influenza epidemic in a setting in which testing is not routinely available. PMID:25732679

  10. Municipal solid waste management in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka: Problems, issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the problems, issues and challenges faced by Sri Lanka based on the outcome of a recent study conducted in the country's Southern Province. The study consists of a public survey, discussions with local authority staff involved in waste management, discussions with Provincial Council and Government officials, dialogue with local politicians, review of documents and field observations. The study revealed that only 24% of the households have access to waste collection and that in rural areas it was less than 2%. A substantial number of households in areas without waste collection expect local authorities to collect their waste. The study also showed that most sites in the province are under capacity to handle any increased demand. Urgent and immediate improvement of the waste disposal sites is necessary to meet the current demand for improved waste collection. The study also revealed that there is a high willingness of people for home composting

  11. Ultra-micro trace element contents in spices from Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spices were analyzed by ICP-MS for determination of the ultra-micro trace elements in the human adult, Bi, Cd, Co, Ni, Pd, Pt, Se, Sn, Te, Tl, to complement previous results obtained by INAA and by EDXRF. The spices, originating from Sri Lanka, were curry, chilli powder and turmeric powders, coriander, cinnamon, black pepper, fennel, rampeh and curry leaves, and cumin. The analytical procedure was validated by analyzing the certified reference materials NIST SRM 1572 Citrus Leaves and NIST SRM 1573 Tomato Leaves. The results indicate that spices may contribute well to the daily optimal uptake of nutrients of a human adult. The adequacy of spices as a reference material with certified ultra micro trace elements is suggested. (author)

  12. Effect of promoting country of origin as an ethnocentric appeal in developing local brands: special reference to telecommunication industry of Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Ravindra Dissanayake; Sudath Weerasiri

    2010-01-01

    Sri Lanka is emerging as service sector driven economy with the GDP penetration of 50%-60% from service sector. After imposing the open economy policy in 1977, local brands had to gear ahead with intensive competition came from international brands. Telecommunication industry of Sri Lanka has been dominated by international brands, but local brands are strategically promoting the concept of country of origin (CO) or being local as a motive for citizens to deliberately purchase locally origina...

  13. A determination of air pollution in Colombo and Kurunegala, Sri Lanka, using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry on Heterodermia speciosa

    OpenAIRE

    Gunathilaka, Patikiri Arachchilage Don Hasantha Nayan

    2011-01-01

    Sri Lanka is facing severe environmental problems such as air and water pollution due to rapid industrialisation and urbanisation. Because there have not been many studies on heavy metal pollution in Sri Lanka, the present study attempts to contribute to the literature a determination of metal pollution using indicators found in lichen specimens. Our study utilised energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to determine element concentrations resulting from air pollution in the lichen ...

  14. An Ethno medical Survey on the Traditional Medicines and Methods Using for the Treatment of Arshas (Haemorrhoids in Sri Lanka

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    Kumudu Rupika Weerasekera

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Arshas (Heamorrhoids is one of the most common ailments in Sri Lankan society. Most of the people suffering from Arshas have great faith in Ayurvedic and Traditional treatments. According to literature survey there are many preparations for the Arshas done by using herbs and materials which could be found from our natural surroundings. The traditional medical practitioners' select the drugs based on a rational theory and empirical knowledge obtained by trial and error. Some traditional physicians of Sri Lanka claim to have special treatments known only to them or to the trusted members of the family, or the most eminent and trusted of the physician. Objectives:  This survey conducted to find out the most using formulations, treatment methods and commonest drugs used for the disease of Arshas of the traditional physicians in Sri Lanka.   Methods: In this survey ethno medical data was collected from thirty four traditional physicians residing in Uva province in Sri Lanka by using a questioneer. Results: The main methods of treating the disease Arshas was Kashaya (Decoctions, Churna (Powders, Alepa (Pastes, Avagaha (Sitz baths, Arishta, Asava and Dhuma (fumes. The most common herbs of treating the Arshas were Gotukola (Centella asiatica L., Kohila (Lassia spinosa L., Mun (Vigna radiate, Umbalakada (Maldive fish and Ratu Araliya (Plumeria autifoloa P.

  15. Emplacement and Evolution History of Pegmatites and Hydrothermal Deposits, Matale District, Sri Lanka

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    G.W.A.R Fernando

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Excellent outcrops in Matale Sri Lanka provide unique insight into the emplacement and evolution history of hydrothermal and pegmatitic rocks in the central highlands of Sri Lanka. Field, structural, petrological, thermo-barometric studies in the metamorphic basement rocks in the central highlands and related hydrothermal deposits are presented in this study. Detailed petrographic and mineralogical data reveal peak metamorphic conditions for the crustal unit in the study area as 854 ± 44oC at 10.83 ± 0.86 kbar. Hydrothermal veins consisting of quartz and mica are closely related to cross-cutting pegmatites, which significantly post-date the peak metamorphic conditions of the crustal unit. Field relations indicate that the veins originated as ductile-brittle fractures have subsequently sealed by pegmatites and hydrothermal crystallization. Geological, textural and mineralogical data suggest that most enriched hydrothermal veins have evolved from a fractionated granitic melt progressively enriched in H2O, F, etc. Quartz, K-feldspar, mica, tourmaline, fluorite and topaz bear evidence of multistage crystallization that alternated with episodes of resorption. It was suggested that the level of emplacement of pegmatites of the Matale District was middle crust, near the crustal scale brittle-ductile transition zone at a temperature of about 600oC. For this crustal level and temperature range, it is considered very unlikely that intruding pegmatitic melts followed pre-existing cracks. As such the emplacement temperatures of the pegmatites could be well below the peak metamorphic estimates in the mafic granulites. The metamorphic P-T strategy and position of formation of hydrothermal deposits and pegmatites is summarized in the modified P-T-t-D diagrams.

  16. Assessment of economic impact of electricity supply interruptions in the Sri Lanka industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the outcome of the Sri Lanka case study on assessing the economic impact of power interruptions on industry in the South Asia region, comprising the countries of Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh and India. The technical assessment evaluates the cost to the country's economy in terms of the industrial loss due to supply interruptions and environmental impacts from standby generation used to supplement the power requirements of the industrial sector. The study found that the main economic impact of the power interruptions, both planned and unplanned, is the loss of output in the industrial sector. In a typical year of power shortages, such as 2001, arising from a deficit in generation capacity, these losses can be as high as approximately US$ 81 million a year, which is approximately 0.65% of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). Also, the economic impact due to unplanned outages can be around US$ 45 million (0.3% of GDP) in a typical year. On average, these values for planned and unplanned outages are US$ 0.66 and US$ 1.08 per kW h of energy loss, respectively. It is also observed that 92% of the sampled industries have standby generation facilities to satisfy either, in full or partially, their own power requirements, which produced approximately 146 GW h of energy in 2001. The serious economic and environmental impacts of power interruptions, both planned and unplanned, underlines the importance of timely implementation of the long term least coy implementation of the long term least cost generation expansion plan and proper maintenance of transmission and distribution networks to ensure their high reliability. Therefore, it is clear that the utility needs to take immediate steps to improve its supply reliability in order to retain consumers and justify the existence of a centralised generation facility

  17. Impact of distributed and independent power generation on greenhouse gas emissions: Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Lanka has a hydropower dominated power system with approximately two thirds of its generation capacity based on large hydro plants. The remaining one third are based on oil fired thermal generation with varying technologies, such as oil steam, Diesel, gas turbines and combined cycle plants. A significant portion of this capacity is in operation as independent power plants (IPPs). In addition to these, Sri Lanka presently has about 40 MWs of mini-hydro plants, which are distributed in the highlands and their surrounding districts, mainly connected to the primary distribution system. Further, there are a few attempts to build fuel wood fired power plants of small capacities and connect them to the grid in various parts of the country. The study presented in this paper investigates the impact of these new developments in the power sector on the overall emissions and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in particular. It examines the resulting changes to the emissions and costs in the event of developing the proposed coal power plant as an IPP under different investment and operational conditions. The paper also examines the impact on emissions with 80 MWs of distributed power in different capacities of wind, mini-hydro and wood fired power plants. It is concluded that grid connected, distributed power generation (DPG) reduces emissions, with only a marginal increase in overall costs, due to the reduction in transmission and distribution network losses that result from tribution network losses that result from the distributed nature of generation. These reductions can be enhanced by opting for renewable energy based DPGS, as the case presented in the paper, and coupling them with demand side management measures. It is also concluded that there is no impact on overall emissions by the base load IPPs unless they are allowed to change over to different fuel types and technologies. (author)

  18. Board Leadership Structure, Audit Committee and Audit Quality: Evidence from Manufacturing Companies in Sri Lanka

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    Thirunavukarasu Velnampy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper aims to analyze whether the corporate governance attributes such as board leadershipstructure, audit committee meetings held, size of independent non-executive directors and size of non-executivedirectors have significant impact on audit quality of manufacturing companies listed on Colombo Stock Exchange,Sri Lanka during 2011 to 2013.Research Design: The study takes 32 manufacturing companies listed in Sri Lanka out of 36 as sample andemploys binary logistic regression method for modeling the association between a binary dependent variable suchas audit quality and multiple independent variables such as board leadership structure, audit committee meetingsheld, size of independent non-executive directors, and size of non-executive directors.Findings: The study finds the logistic regression model for overall evaluation, statistical tests of individualpredictors and goodness-of-fit. As per the output, Hosmer and Lemeshow test reveals the model for goodness offit with chi-square of 17.503 and with probability value of 0.008, which is significant at five percent levels. Cox &Snell R Square reveal 56.2 % of the variance in audit quality. Whereas board leadership structure and auditcommittee meetings held have significant relationship with audit quality, size of non-executive directors and sizeof independent non-executive directors have shown insignificant association.Research Limitation-As sample size is relatively small, there may be a challenge to generalize the results ofthis study widely.Originality-This research contributes to the literature by adding the significant association between somecorporate governance variables and audit quality. The findings from this research could be generalized to thecompanies similar to this category.

  19. Collective trauma in northern Sri Lanka: a qualitative psychosocial-ecological study

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    Somasundaram Daya

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex situations that follow war and natural disasters have a psychosocial impact on not only the individual but also on the family, community and society. Just as the mental health effects on the individual psyche can result in non pathological distress as well as a variety of psychiatric disorders; massive and widespread trauma and loss can impact on family and social processes causing changes at the family, community and societal levels. Method This qualitative, ecological study is a naturalistic, psychosocial ethnography in Northern Sri Lanka, while actively involved in psychosocial and community mental health programmes among the Tamil community. Participatory observation, key informant interviews and focus group discussion with community level relief and rehabilitation workers and government and non-governmental officials were used to gather data. The effects on the community of the chronic, man-made disaster, war, in Northern Sri Lanka were compared with the contexts found before the war and after the tsunami. Results Fundamental changes in the functioning of the family and the community were observed. While the changes after the tsunami were not so prominent, the chronic war situation caused more fundamental social transformations. At the family level, the dynamics of single parent families, lack of trust among members, and changes in significant relationships, and child rearing practices were seen. Communities tended to be more dependent, passive, silent, without leadership, mistrustful, and suspicious. Additional adverse effects included the breakdown in traditional structures, institutions and familiar ways of life, and deterioration in social norms and ethics. A variety of community level interventions were tried. Conclusion Exposure to conflict, war and disaster situations impact on fundamental family and community dynamics resulting in changes at a collective level. Relief, rehabilitation and development programmes to be effective will need to address the problem of collective trauma, particularly using integrated multi-level approaches.

  20. The gift of disaster: the commodification of good intentions in post-tsunami Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korf, Benedikt; Habullah, Shahul; Hollenbach, Pia; Klem, Bart

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the commodification of post-tsunami aid in Sri Lanka, a process that 'contaminated' the 'purity' of good intentions with the politics of patronage and international aid. It argues that gifts are not just material transfers of 'aid', but also embodiments of cultural symbolism, social power, and political affiliations. The tsunami gift re-enforced and reconfigured exchange relationships among different patrons and clients in Sri Lankan communities, perpetuating the political economy that has driven social conflict and discontent in the post-independence years. Beyond dominant rationales of ethnic or political party patronage, the paper finds that gifts by disingenuous patrons not only became patrimonial, but that the patrimonial rationale emerged as much from above as from below--a dynamic that became nearly inescapable and self-reinforcing. Through three case studies, we explore the intricate chain of relations, obligations, and expectations pertinent in the co-evolving, but often contradictory, gift rationales that permeate the practices, performances, and discourses of tsunami aid. PMID:19486354

  1. Establishment of multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) technology for goats in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) has been done successfully in goats in some countries (Chen et al., 2008). It can be used to multiply the genetically superior animals and to make elite herds with increased production potential. There have been no previous reports on successful MOET in goats in Sri Lanka. Therefore, this study was carried out to establish techniques for in vivo production and transfer of goat embryos in Sri Lanka. Genetically superior does (n = 7) were subjected to super ovulation for in vivo embryo production using a protocol modified from that of Batt et al (1993). Progesterone releasing intravaginal pessaries (45 mg, Cronolone) was inserted on Day 1 of the programme. The does in group 1 (n = 3) were stimulated on Day 8 with injections of pure porcine Follicular Stimulating Hormone (pFSH), while those in group 2 (n = 4) were stimulated with pure ovine Follicular Stimulating Hormone (oFSH). Equine Chorionic Gonadotrophin (eCG) was given to all does in the evening of Day 8. Subsequent injections of pFSH (group 1) or oFSH (group 2) were given in the morning and evening on Day 9 and Day 10. All does were injected with prostaglandin analogue (263 ?g/ml cloprostenol sodium) in the morning of Day 9 and vaginal pessaries were removed in the evening of Day 10. On Day 11, pFSH or oFSH was injected in the morning and Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) was injected in the evening. Immediately after the GnRH injection does were exposed to breedinRH injection does were exposed to breeding with a genetically superior Jamnapari buck for 48 hours. Embryos were collected surgically 7 d after oestrus, by flushing of the uterus with embryo flushing medium containing lactated Ringer's solution with 1% bovine serum albumin at 37 deg C through a mid ventral laparotomy. The quality of the embryos was assessed microscopically and those considered to be of good and excellent quality were transferred surgically to oestrus synchronized recipient goats (n = 6) 7 d post-oestrus. The ovarian parameters measured and mean numbers of embryos recovered after superovalation are given. The total number and the quality of the embryos recovered from each group of does are shown in Table II. Following embryo transplantation, 4 of the 6 recipient does were diagnosed pregnant by ultrasound at day 35. The first goat kid born (named 'Peradeniya Kumari') was a single healthy female with 3.6 kg birth weight at full term. Two more does kidded, resulting in four healthy kids with birth weights of 3.2 kg (female), 1.8 kg (female), 1.6 kg (male) and 1.2 kg (male), while an abortion was observed in one doe. During the first six weeks the average weight gains of the first two kids born were 152.3 and 149.2 g/d, respectively. The results showed that valuable, genetically superior female goats can be multiplied using embryo transfer. The superovulatory response, quality and quantity of the embryos were better with oFSH than with pFSH. Although the number of embryos recovered was high in both groups, only some of the embryos were transferred due to the lack of sufficient number of recipient goats. The resulting offspring showed high growth rates and good survivability. Further experiments are warranted to optimize the protocols under Sri Lankan conditions and to compare the data statistically. In conclusion, the birth of healthy goat offspring through MOET technology is reported for the first time in Sri Lanka, indicating the feasibility of multiplying superior goats through this technology. (author)

  2. TSUNAMI ON 26 DECEMBER 2004: SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF TSUNAMI HEIGHT AND THE EXTENT OF INUNDATION IN SRI LANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaka J. Wijetunge

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of the massive tsunami of 26 December 2004 on Sri Lanka bytracing the tsunami height, the extent of inundation and the level of damage along the affectedcoastal belt. The results of an extensive field survey that was carried out in the east, south andwest coasts to record the evidence of water levels left behind by the tsunami clearly indicate non-uniform spatial distribution of inundation along the affected coastline of the country. Thetsunami inundation had been significantly greater for most parts of the east and the south-eastcoastal areas than the south, south-west and the west coasts of Sri Lanka. The results alsoindicate the possible influence of the coastal geomorphology on the extent of inundation. On theother hand, the measurements suggest maximum tsunami heights of 3 m – 7 m along the eastcoast, 3 m – 11 m on the south coast, and 1.5 m – 6 m on the west coast.

  3. Village agroforestry systems and tree-use practices: A case study in Sri Lanka. Multipurpose tree species network research series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickramasinghe, A.

    1992-01-01

    Village agroforestry systems in Sri Lanka have evolved through farmers' efforts to meet their survival needs. The paper examines farmers' land-use systems and their perceptions of the role of trees in the villages of Bambarabedda and Madugalla in central Sri Lanka. The benefits of village agroforestry are diverse food, fuelwood, fodder, timber, and mulch, but food products are of outstanding importance. The ability of Artocarpus heterophyllus (the jackfruit tree) and Cocos nucifera (coconut) to ensure food security during the dry season and provide traditional foods throughout the year, as well as to grow in limited space, make them popular crops in the two study villages. The study recommends that further research precede the formulation of agricultural interventions and that efforts to promote improved tree varieties recognize farmers' practices and expressed needs.

  4. Socio-Environmental Impact of Water Pollution on the Mid-canal (Meda Ela, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yuan Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Unplanned urban population growth in developing countries such as Sri Lanka exert pressures on the sectors of water supply, sewage disposal, waste management, and surface drainage in the cities as well as their surrounding areas. The Mid-canal is considered the most polluted surface water body in the Kandy district of Sri Lanka and contributes significantly to pollution of the Mahaweli River. Health problems in the nearby population may well be associated with environmental degradation and related to deteriorated water quality. The overall objectives of this study were to identify the socio-economic status of the community settled along the Meda Ela banks, and to examine the current water quality status of the Meda Ela and possible impacts of the nearby residents on water quality. Additionally, we propose remedial measures concerning wastewater and solid waste disposal to improve environmental conditions in this area.

  5. Using focus groups to investigate service quality determinants for customer satisfaction in selected university libraries in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaminda Jayasundara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at establishing service quality determinants which may affect customer satisfaction in university libraries in Sri Lanka. Using the literature, 113 service quality determinants were identified. These were then reviewed by eight focus groups in four different universities. Forty of the determinants were perceived to be applicable to their context. The participants also added 14 quality requirements which they thought were not provided for in the list. Finally, the content and face validity of the 54 determinants were evaluated by a panel of experts who ultimately reduced them to 50. This study recommends the use of the identified quality determinants by library administrators and policymakers in the higher education sector in Sri Lanka to gauge the levels of customer satisfaction and assure quality of service.

  6. Quality change and mass loss of paddy during airtight storage in a ferro-cement bin in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikarinayake, T.B.; Palipane, K.B.; Müller, J

    2006-01-01

    In Sri Lanka, prices for paddy fluctuate severely showing a minimum price at harvest. To benefit from higher prices, farmers strive to store paddy, but lack of facilities and poor storage management cause quantitative and qualitative losses by rodents, insects and microbial deterioration. To overcome these problems an airtight storage system, based on a ferro-cement bin, has been developed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the storage system in terms of paddy quality and mass loss....

  7. A theoretical model to predict customer satisfaction in relation to service quality in selected university libraries in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Chaminda Jayasundara; Patrick Ngulube; Minishi-majanja, Mabel K.

    2009-01-01

    University library administrators in Sri Lanka have begun to search for alternative ways to satisfy their clientele on the basis of service quality. This article aims at providing a theoretical model to facilitate the identification of service quality attributes and domains that may be used to predict customer satisfaction from a service quality perspective. The effectiveness of existing service quality models such as LibQUAL, SERVQUAL and SERVPREF have been questioned. In that regard, this s...

  8. JOB SATISFACTION AND EMPLOYEES’ WORK PERFORMANCE: A CASE STUDY OF PEOPLE’S BANK IN JAFFNA PENINSULA, SRI LANKA

    OpenAIRE

    Nimalathasan, Balasundaram; Brabete, Valeriu

    2010-01-01

    Abstract:For the purpose of this study, the data was extracted from the branches of people’s bank operating within Jaffna peninsula, Sri Lanka. Here, we analysed the data by employing simple correlation analysis. In the analysis, it is found that there is a positive relationship between job satisfaction and employees’ work performance. That is high level of fair promotion, reasonable pay system appropriate work itself and good working condition leads to high level of employees’ performa...

  9. Status of organic agriculture in Sri Lanka with special emphasis on tea production systems (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze)

    OpenAIRE

    Williges, Ute

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated a group of poor and isolated farmers from the mid country of Sri Lanka, Kandy District, Udapalatha Secretarial Division, which successfully developed plots of degraded former tea plantation land into productive and diverse home gardens by adapting organic agriculture practices. Here, former subsistence production was overcome by means of the concentration on the organic cultivation of tea as a cash crop facilitating market access. Direct marketing of an organic product...

  10. Armed Conflict Termination in Sri Lanka: An Opportunity to End Displaced Life and Renew Tamil-Muslim Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salithamby Abdul Rauff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The 30 years of local armed conflict in Sri Lanka that broke out between the state security forces and Liberation Tigers of Tamil Ealam (LTTE in early 1980s came to an end after Sri Lankan government demolished the LTTE in 2009. A termination of such civil war was highly hoped by the people displaced by the same armed conflict, mainly Tamils and Muslims, to be an opportunity to return to their homes ending their protracted displaced live. The termination was also widely interpreted by Tamil and Muslim communities as an opportunity to renew their onetime ethnic relations, which today remained vulnerably damaged after this armed conflict. The return and the renewal of Tamil-Muslim relations have been two most notable aspects that have received a dominant position in social development programme and Tamil-Muslim public discourse of the post-conflict Sri Lanka. This paper is an attempt to examine if the Sri Lanka’s conflict termination has really served to end the displaced life and to bring Tamil-Muslim relations back. The paper focuses only on Muslims. This is a qualitative study. 11 Muslims, five from north and six from east, were recruited with purposive sample. The data was collected by one-on-one interviews with respondents and analysed with a descriptive method. The findings suggested that the conflict termination has hardly satisfied people’s hope to end their displaced live and renew their former ethnic relations. The paper, therefore, proposed some recommendations that need to be effectively advanced by government, civil communities and even non-governmental actors.

  11. Caregiver strain and symptoms of depression among principal caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Chaturaka; Fernando Tharanga; Rajapakse Senaka; De Silva Varuni; Hanwella Raveen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Data on caregiver strain and depression of principal caregivers of patients with mental illnesses are few in developing countries. Findings from developed countries cannot be applied directly to developing countries as culture specific factors may influence the outcome. Methods A prospective study was carried out in the University Psychiatry Unit of the National Hospital of Sri Lanka (NHSL) to identify symptoms of depression, caregiver strain and dissatisfaction with lif...

  12. Homegardens as a multi-functional land-use strategy in Sri Lanka with focus on carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Eskil; Ostwald, Madelene; Nissanka, S P; Marambe, Buddhi

    2013-11-01

    This paper explores the concept of homegardens and their potential functions as strategic elements in land-use planning, and adaptation and mitigation to climate change in Sri Lanka. The ancient and locally adapted agroforestry system of homegardens is presently estimated to occupy nearly 15 % of the land area in Sri Lanka and is described in the scientific literature to offer several ecosystem services to its users; such as climate regulation, protection against natural hazards, enhanced land productivity and biological diversity, increased crop diversity and food security for rural poor and hence reduced vulnerability to climate change. Our results, based on a limited sample size, indicate that the homegardens also store significant amount of carbon, with above ground biomass carbon stocks in dry zone homegardens (n = 8) ranging from 10 to 55 megagrams of carbon per hectare (Mg C ha(-1)) with a mean value of 35 Mg C ha(-1), whereas carbon stocks in wet zone homegardens (n = 4) range from 48 to 145 Mg C ha(-1) with a mean value of 87 Mg C ha(-1). This implies that homegardens may contain a significant fraction of the total above ground biomass carbon stock in the terrestrial system in Sri Lanka, and from our estimates its share has increased from almost one-sixth in 1992 to nearly one-fifth in 2010. In the light of current discussions on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+), the concept of homegardens in Sri Lanka provides interesting aspects to the debate and future research in terms of forest definitions, setting reference levels, and general sustainability. PMID:23456780

  13. Effectiveness of Tobacco Control Measures in Reducing Tobacco Use among Adolescents and Young Adults in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka

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    Waduarachchige Don Aruna Shantha De Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sri Lanka became a signatory to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in September 2003 and ratified in November 2003. Aiming to reduce tobacco burden in Sri Lanka, National Authority on Tobacco and Alcohol Act [NATA] No. 27 was authorized in 2006. The objective of this study was to assess the behavioral changes related to tobacco use among adolescents and young adults following the exposure to tobacco control measures implemented by NATA. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from October 2011 to November 2011 among adolescent (13-19 years and young adult (20-39 years males in Anuradhapura divisional secretary area in Sri Lanka. A self-administered questionnaire and focus group discussions were used for data collection. Confounding factors were controlled by stratification and randomization. Results: A total of 456 male respondents including 168 (37% adolescents and 288 (63% young adults participated in the study. Among the ever smokers 66 (14 % had already quitted smoking while 151 (33% were current smokers. The majority of the respondents (95.4% of quitters and 88.0% of current smokers were acquainted with the dangers of smoking through the mass media. Among the current smokers and quitters, the knowledge on health risks of smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke was quite satisfactory. The current smokers as well as the quitters were well aware of the tobacco control measures. Smokers as well as the non-smokers and quitters supported these measures. Conclusion: Tobacco control measures implemented by NATA had a favorable influence on reducing tobacco burden among adolescents and young adults in Sri Lanka      

  14. Cutaneous Manifestations of Spotted Fever Rickettsial Infections in the Central Province of Sri Lanka: A Descriptive Study

    OpenAIRE

    Weerakoon, Kosala; Kularatne, Senanayake A. M.; Rajapakse, Jayanthe; Adikari, Sanjaya; Waduge, Roshitha

    2014-01-01

    Rickettsial organisms infect humans causing a wider array of clinical features and have re-emerged in Sri Lanka where three known disease entities; spotted fever group, murine typhus and scrub typhus do exist. These diseases cause clinical illnesses varying from mild febrile illness to severe multiple organ involvement even leading to fatal outcomes when there is a delay in diagnosis. Occasionally, clinical features could be nonspecific or atypical. Nevertheless, detection of skin lesions mos...

  15. Revisiting Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) bite in Sri Lanka: is abdominal pain an early feature of systemic envenoming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kularatne, Senanayake A M; Silva, Anjana; Weerakoon, Kosala; Maduwage, Kalana; Walathara, Chamara; Paranagama, Ranjith; Mendis, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    The Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) is responsible for 30-40% of all snakebites and the most number of life-threatening bites of any snake in Sri Lanka. The clinical profile of Russell's viper bite includes local swelling, coagulopathy, renal dysfunction and neuromuscular paralysis, based on which the syndromic diagnostic tools have been developed. The currently available Indian polyvalent antivenom is not very effective in treating Russell's viper bite patients in Sri Lanka and the decision regarding antivenom therapy is primarily driven by clinical and laboratory evidence of envenoming. The non-availability of early predictors of Russell's viper systemic envenoming is responsible for considerable delay in commencing antivenom. The objective of this study is to evaluate abdominal pain as an early feature of systemic envenoming following Russell's viper bites. We evaluated the clinical profile of Russell's viper bite patients admitted to a tertiary care centre in Sri Lanka. Fifty-five patients were proven Russell's viper bite victims who produced the biting snake, while one hundred and fifty-four were suspected to have been bitten by the same snake species. Coagulopathy (159, 76.1%), renal dysfunction (39, 18.7%), neuromuscular paralysis (146, 69.9%) and local envenoming (192, 91.9%) were seen in the victims, ranging from mono-systemic involvement to various combinations. Abdominal pain was present in 79.5% of these patients, appearing 5 minutes to 4 hours after the bite. The severity of the abdominal pain, assessed using a scoring system, correlated well with the severity of the coagulopathy (p<0.001) and the neurotoxicity (p<0.001). Its diagnostic validity to predict systemic envenoming is - Sensitivity 81.6%, Specificity 82.4%, Positive predictive value 91.2%. Thus, abdominal pain is an early clinical feature of systemic Russell's viper bite envenoming in Sri Lanka. However, it is best to judge abdominal pain together with other clinical manifestations on decision making. PMID:24587278

  16. An assessment of the Samurdhi (prosperity) development programme :a case study from the Ratnapura district, Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Gunasinghe, Chandika Senani

    2009-01-01

    This thesis assesses the impact of the Samurdhi (prosperity) development programme (SDP) on the livelihoods of its beneficiaries in the Ratnapura district of Sri Lanka. The assessment covers three main aspects; development, environment and management. First I identify a main research problem and three sub problems that are directly related to the success of the SDP. Second, based on the sustainable livelihood approach (SLA), I develop a theoretical framework where a poverty level of a househo...

  17. Using focus groups to investigate service quality determinants for customer satisfaction in selected university libraries in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Chaminda Jayasundara; Patrick Ngulube; Mabel K. Minishi-Majanja

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at establishing service quality determinants which may affect customer satisfaction in university libraries in Sri Lanka. Using the literature, 113 service quality determinants were identified. These were then reviewed by eight focus groups in four different universities. Forty of the determinants were perceived to be applicable to their context. The participants also added 14 quality requirements which they thought were not provided for in the list. Finally, the content and ...

  18. Helvolic acid, an antibacterial nortriterpenoid from a fungal endophyte, Xylaria sp. of orchid Anoectochilus setaceus endemic to Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnaweera, Pamoda B.; Williams, David. E.; de Silva, E. Dilip; Wijesundera, Ravi L.C.; Dalisay, Doralyn S.; Andersen, Raymond J

    2014-01-01

    An endophytic fungus was isolated from surface sterilized leaf segments of Anoectochilus setaceus, an orchid endemic to Sri Lanka, and was identified as Xylaria sp. by morphological characters and DNA sequencing. Bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionation of the organic extract of a laboratory culture of this fungus led to the isolation of the known antibacterial helvolic acid. Helvolic acid was active against the Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis [minimal inhibitory concentrations...

  19. Mental Health and the Role of Cultural and Religious Support in the Assistance of Disabled Veterans in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Thulitha Wickrama; Piyanjali de Zoysa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of PTSD and CES-D depressive symptoms, their association with previously untested supportive resources such as Buddhist religious activities, Buddhist bodhipuja rituals and horoscope readings for 45 recently wounded veterans in Sri Lanka. The results revealed an 85.4% prevalence rate of clinical levels of CES-D depression and a 42.2% prevalence rate of clinical levels of PTSD. The results of this study provide unique evidence for the significant role of Bu...

  20. Diagnosis and treatment of malaria by health care providers: findings from a post conflict district in Sri Lanka.

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, J.; Abeyasinghe, Rr; Fitzpatrick, R.; Fernando, Sd

    2012-01-01

    This study determines whether 72 health care providers in a previously conflict-affected district in Sri Lanka adhere to the recommendations of the Anti Malaria Campaign with regard to diagnosis, prescribing antimalarials and reporting of a positive case. All patients suspected of clinically having malaria are being referred for laboratory confirmation, indicating that presumptive treatment is not practiced. The knowledge amongst health care providers regarding accurate management and reporti...

  1. Promoting Participation of Stakeholders in Community-Based Rehabilitation in Sri Lanka: Process of Action Research in Anuradhapura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masateru Higashida

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the participation of stakeholders, including disabled people, in disability and community issues in rural areas in Sri Lanka. As a conceptual framework, four dimensions of participation in community-based rehabilitation (CBR are summarised from previous research. This research was mainly conducted in the model administrative division of the national CBR programme in Anuradhapura district. An action research approach was applied in March 2013, which consisted of eight steps. The study used data from the hearing survey on disabled children under 18 years old (n=103, semi-structured interviews with disabled people (n=20, focus group discussions with participants of community workshops (n=34 and social services officers (n=5 separately, and the authors’ field notes, amongst others. Data were analysed with a qualitative procedure, except for quantitative data. Showing the four dimensions of participation in each step, we found promoting participation of various stakeholders improved disabled people’s living conditions and enhanced their empowerment. The study also revealed elements that were significant in promoting participation through the action research process: key persons, information and network, utilising existing local resources, dialogue in meetings, and multisectional practice. Finally, we discuss the theoretical implications of this research.

  2. Energy access and transition to cleaner cooking fuels and technologies in Sri Lanka: Issues and policy limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easy energy access is a trigger for human, social, and economic development. A research project was undertaken in Sri Lanka to broaden the understanding of human dimension of energy access and technologies. A questionnaire survey, covering 2269 households, gathered data on socio-economic contexts and issues influencing a transition towards clean cooking facilities. The findings reveal that the transition is impeded by four factors: the lack of motivation and the pressure for switching over to cleaner facilities, the lack of modern energy technology options, the financial risks, and the lack of financing and other support. The paper describes the delicate two-way interrelation between women earning wages and the transitions to cleaner cooking fuels and technologies. The findings suggest the need for a policy framework involving the stakeholders, financing and standardised technologies. To make a change it is proposed to introduce a national, integrated policy incorporating financing and energy governance. - Highlights: ? Households in Sri Lanka lack access to modern energy technology options for cooking. ? Cooking with fuel wood and residues is the norm in Sri Lanka, particularly in rural households. ? A survey of rural households revealed that most cannot afford to switch to cleaner cooking options. ? Most households have little awareness of the health impacts of biomass cooking. ? Women in regular formal employment are more likely to value cleaner cooking oikely to value cleaner cooking options that save time.

  3. Morphology and surface topography of the schistosome Bivitellobilharzia nairi from the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus maximus) in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, R P V J; Iwagami, M; Wickramasinghe, S; Walker, S M; Agatsuma, T

    2013-09-01

    Bivitellobilharzia nairi was first recorded from an Indian elephant (Elephas maximus) in Berlin. Infections with this parasite have become increasingly important in E. maximus maximus populations in Sri Lanka. The present work is the first morphological description of this schistosome from Sri Lanka. A number of adult worms were recovered from a dead Asian elephant near the elephant orphanage, Pinnawala, in Sri Lanka. The observed clinical features of the infected elephant included emaciation, subventral oedema and anaemia. Post-mortem results indicated that the liver was enlarged and adult schistosomes were found in the blood vessels of the liver parenchyma. The total number of worms recovered from a portion of the liver was 129,870, which is an average of 22 worms per 100 g of liver. The present study uses both light microscopic and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques for the morphological and topographical characterization of this parasite and to permit comparison with other species of schistosomes. Morphologically, these worms correspond very well to the description of B. nairi by Dutt & Srivastava (1955). Moreover, it is clear that B. nairi is a distinctive species easily differentiated from other schistosomes. The SEM study of the tegument of male worms shows that the surface of B. nairi is smoother than in other schistosomes. PMID:22989615

  4. Reducing the scarcity in mental health research from low and middle income countries: a success story from Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Sumathipala, Athula; Siribaddana, Sisira; Samaraweera, Sudath; Abeysinghe, Nihal; Prince, Martin; Hotopf, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    There is an enormous inequity in global health as well as research. Less than 10% of research funds are spent on the diseases that account for 90% of the global disease burden. This case study of north-south, south-south collaborations in Sri Lanka is a classic example of the issues faced by mental health researchers in low and middle income countries (LMICs). In this paper, work carried out by the Institute of Psychiatry (IoP), King's College London and the Institute for Research and Development (IRD) partnership since 1997 in Sri Lanka is presented to show an example of a successful private research institution based in a LMIC as a product of south-south and north-south collaboration in mental health research. The evidence of scarcity of mental health research and resources is overwhelmingly abundant in the context of Sri Lanka. IRD-IoP partnership showcases a successful north-south partnership with equality and efficiency. It has moved beyond start-up phase and has become a sustainable initiative in terms of funding, collaboration, research output and policy impact. International funding agencies, academics, and other bodies need to address sustaining such initiatives as priorities in reducing scarcity and inequity in mental health research in developing countries. PMID:21338302

  5. Thrombotic microangiopathy and acute kidney injury in hump-nosed viper (Hypnale species) envenoming: a descriptive study in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, Nalaka; Wazil, Abdul; Kularatne, Senanayake; Ratnatunga, Neelakanthi; Weerakoon, Kosala; Badurdeen, Sadath; Rajakrishna, Premil; Nanayakkara, Nishantha; Dharmagunawardane, Dilantha

    2012-07-01

    Hump-nosed viper (Hypnale species) bites are common in Sri Lanka and a proportion of these bites lead to coagulation abnormalities and acute kidney injury (AKI). We observed thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) among some of these patients, but its contribution to severity of AKI and other morbidities remains unknown. Thus, we report a case series of TMA following hump-nosed viper bite addressing the complications and renal out comes in Sri Lanka. This was a prospective observational study carried out at the nephrology unit, Kandy in Sri Lanka from October 2010 to October 2011 and included 11 patients with AKI following hump-nosed viper bites. All eleven cases needed renal replacement therapy (RRT) with intermittent haemodialysis for a period of 1-5 weeks. Of them, 7 patients developed TMA with evidence of microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia (MAHA), thrombocytopenia and severe anaemia needing multiple blood transfusions. They needed longer duration of RRT (range 2-5 weeks); 2 patients developed chronic kidney disease and two died during acute stage. Autopsy study found thrombosis of micro-vessels. Thrombotic microangiopathy could be a causative pathology of AKI in hump-nosed viper bite carrying poor outcome. PMID:22483846

  6. Impact of economic labour migration: a qualitative exploration of left-behind family member perspectives in sri lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Wickramage, Kolitha; Jayaweera, Kaushalya; Adikari, Anushka; Weerawarna, Sulochana; Van Bortel, Tine; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sumathipala, Athula

    2015-06-01

    Sri Lanka is a major labour sending country in Asia, with a high proportion of female labour migrants employed as domestic housemaids in the Middle East with increasing remittances. Despite such financial gains for families and national economy, health and social effects on the left-behind families have had limited exploration. This qualitative study was carried out across five districts with high labour migration rates in Sri Lanka. Twenty in-depth interviews were conducted with participants recruited through purposive sampling. Data was analysed using content and thematic analysis and emerging themes were mapped. Pre-migration socio-economic situation, economic difficulties and higher earning possibilities abroad were considered to be the major push and pull factors for labour migration. Post-migration periods were shown to be of mixed benefit to left-behind families and children suffer the negative effects of parental absence. The absence of support mechanisms for dealing with adverse events such as serious injury, death, abuse or imprisonment were cited as major concerns. Post-migration periods affect the health, well-being and family structures of left-behind families. Promoting economic prosperity while ensuring health and social protection is a formidable policy challenge for 'labour sending' countries such as Sri Lanka. PMID:24242226

  7. Laboratory studies of dune sand for the use of construction industry in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva Jayawardena, Upali; Wijesuriya, Roshan; Abayaweera, Gayan; Viduranga, Tharaka

    2015-04-01

    With the increase of the annual sand demand for the construction industry the excessive excavation of river sand is becoming a serious environmental problem in Sri Lanka. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the possibility for an alternative to stop or at least to minimize river sand mining activities. Dune sand is one of the available alternative materials to be considered instead of river sand in the country. Large quantities of sand dunes occur mainly along the NW and SE coastal belt which belong to very low rainfall Dry Zone coasts. The height of dune deposits, vary from 1m to about 30 meters above sea level. The objective of this paper is to indicate some studies and facts on the dune sand deposits of Sri Lanka. Laboratory studies were carried out for visual observations and physical properties at the initial stage and then a number of tests were carried out according to ASTM standards to obtain the compressive strength of concrete cylinders and mortar cubes mixing dune sand and river sand in different percentages keeping a constant water cement ratio. Next the water cement ratio was changed for constant dune sand and river sand proportion. Microscopic analysis shows that the dune sand consist of 95 % of quartz and 5 % of garnet, feldspar, illmenite and other heavy minerals with clay, fine dust, fine shell fragments and organic matters. Grains are sub-rounded to angular and tabular shapes. The grain sizes vary from fine to medium size of sand with silt. The degree of sorting and particle size observed with dune sands are more suited with the requirement of fine aggregates in the construction industry. The test result indicates that dune sand could be effectively used in construction work without sieving and it is ideal for wall plastering due to its'-uniformity. It could also be effectively used in concrete and in mortars mixing with river sand. The best mixing ratio is 75% dune sand and 25% river sand as the fine aggregate of concrete. For mortar the mixing percentage is 50%. The best water cement ratio for mix proportion is 0.45. It was observed that the available amount of dune sand can be extracted to meet the demand for sand in construction industry. However, the extraction of dune sand from the areas close to the sea will cause several social, environmental and legal problems. Therefore sand mining from dunes must be commenced after making a detailed Environmental Impact Assessment.

  8. A non-invasive multiproxy approach to recognize Holocene paleocoastal environmental signals in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, P. N.; Ortiz, J. D.; Siriwardana, C.

    2009-05-01

    Coastal lagoons are archives of paleocoastal environmental signatures. Lagoonal cores are extensively used to recognize paleo-sea level changes, plaeoclimatic changes, paleo-tsunami and storm deposits. Grain size, microfossil assemblages and organic carbon content are some of the common proxies used in such paleoenvironmental studies. This study attempts to use petrophysical methods to measure the physical properties of lagoonal cores to recognize paleoenvironmental signatures. Three sediment cores, each five meters in length, were collected in a 1 km long transect from a siliciclastic coastal lagoon at Kirinda, Sri Lanka. This south-eastern lagoon is highly susceptible to tsunamis and coastal flood events; The 2004 Asian tsunami generated 7-8 m waves in the area. Evidence for Holocene sea level changes are also preserved in nearby areas. Particle size, magnetic susceptibility and visible color reflectance were measured in the three cores at 1 cm resolution. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out with grain size (Q-mode) and reflectance data (R-mode). Log records and depth variation diagrams of grain size, reflectance factor scores, and magnetic susceptibility were compared to identify paleo-environmental signals. PCA analysis of reflectance data identified three principle components which describe 92% of the variance while a similar analysis performed for grain size data identifies six components describing 98% of the variance. Downcore variation plots show that a*, b* and the reflectance factor scores representing sediment goethite and iron oxide content have a strong correlation with grain size factors representing the medium sand, silt and clay size classes. Sand layers deposited by 2004 tsunami event and by similar older events can be clearly recognized using these parameters. Magnetic susceptibility plots also show peaks in some of the same sand layers indicating the association of magnetic mineral-rich beach sand. Downcore plots of these petrophysical parameters show a significant abrupt change in the signal at about 2 m below the surface. According to an age model constructed for a nearby lagoon by Jackson (2009) this break dates back about 6000 yrs BP. This break may represent the mid Holocene sea level transgression, which resulted in about 1.5 m sea level rise in Sri Lanka (Katupota, 1995) Correlation of multi proxy downcore variation plots from Kirinda lagoon with geomorphologically and geographically different lagoons on the eastern coast would enable distinguishing different coastal events in the Holocene history.

  9. Thalassemia treatment and prevention in Uva Province, Sri Lanka: a public opinion survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudiyanse, Rasnayaka M

    2006-01-01

    Due to its excessive cost thalassemia management is a major health care problem in Sri Lanka. The majority of doctors are using only desferrioxamine (DFO), in grossly inadequate doses mainly because of its unavailability. Deferiprone (L1), which is more affordable, is not used due to fear of toxicity, as previously reported. Arthropathy attributed to L1 has been observed in some patients, and has led to the discontinuation of the drug in all patients, without scientific rationale. The proposed thalassemia prevention project for Uva Province is based on prevention of marriages between carriers. This could be achieved by carrier screening and counseling of teenagers and adolescents well before they select their partners. In Sri Lanka, people find their marriage partners at their work place or universities, by themselves, or with the help of professional marriage brokers (they are called Kapuwa), through relatives and close friends. This process of finding a partner may also be helped by paper advertisements. However, in addition to the appearance and attitude of the prospective partner, the caste, social background and horoscope are major considerations in selecting a partner. Even when they select partners on their own at the work place or university, they keep these factors in the back of their minds to ensure social acceptance. Many relationships are given up due to objections and advice from parents when the caste or social background does not match. A horoscope is a written document that almost every child gets, written by a professional horoscope reader and depending on the time of birth. It is believed, according to the horoscope, that a person's attitudes, desires, future prospects of finding a suitable partner, could be predicted. It is rare to proceed with a marriage if the horoscope does not match. These customs are considered less seriously among educated people when they find their partner at the work place or university. The concept of thalassemia risk-free marriages advocates promotion of marriages where at least one partner is a non-carrier. Success of such a project could be monitored at the time of marriage. This opinion survey indicates that the public is motivated to promote carrier screening and the prevention of thalassemia. PMID:16798653

  10. Policy Debate | Humanitarian Protection in the Midst of Civil War: Lessons from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norah Niland

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Editor’s note: This paper is a contribution to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy-makers and practioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, the initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from scholars and/or policy-makers.Authored by Norah Niland, the initial paper addresses the protection dimension of humanitarian action in the Sri Lankan Civil War. The end phase of this long-standing war and subsequent internment of survivors illustrate the limited capacity of the international relief system to adequately protect civilians. The author argues that the failure of intergovernmental crisis management and the human rights machinery was exacerbated by the relief system’s lack of agency in safeguarding humanitarian space and the protected status of civilians. According to Norah Niland, relief actors largely ignored the instrumentalisation of humanitarianism and the use of sovereignty and Global War on Terror (GWOT narratives to rationalise the slaughter of thousands. The lack of accountability for and reflection on the humanitarian  operation  in Sri Lanka will likely complicate future relief efforts and add to the suffering of  civilians in other crisis settings. The paper  is followed by critical comments by Sir John Holmes, Former UN Under-Secretary General and Emergency Relief Coordinator, Head of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, and Miriam Bradley, Postdoctoral Researcher, Programme for the Study of International Governance, the Graduate Institute, Geneva.This debate can be pursued on the eJournal’s blog http://devpol.hypotheses.org/69Download the full debate in .pdf

  11. Nephrotoxic contaminants in drinking water and urine, and chronic kidney disease in rural Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, Tewodros; Jeuland, Marc; Manthrithilake, Herath; McCornick, Peter

    2015-06-15

    Chronic kidney disease of unknown ("u") cause (CKDu) is a growing public health concern in Sri Lanka. Prior research has hypothesized a link with drinking water quality, but rigorous studies are lacking. This study assesses the relationship between nephrotoxic elements (namely arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and uranium (U)) in drinking water, and urine samples collected from individuals with and/or without CKDu in endemic areas, and from individuals without CKDu in nonendemic areas. All water samples - from a variety of source types (i.e. shallow and deep wells, springs, piped and surface water) - contained extremely low concentrations of nephrotoxic elements, and all were well below drinking water guideline values. Concentrations in individual urine samples were higher than, and uncorrelated with, those measured in drinking water, suggesting potential exposure from other sources. Mean urinary concentrations of these elements for individuals with clinically diagnosed CKDu were consistently lower than individuals without CKDu both in endemic and nonendemic areas. This likely stems from the inability of the kidney to excrete these toxic elements via urine in CKDu patients. Urinary concentrations of individuals were also found to be within the range of reference values measured in urine of healthy unexposed individuals from international biomonitoring studies, though these reference levels may not be safe for the Sri Lankan population. The results suggest that CKDu cannot be clearly linked with the presence of these contaminants in drinking water. There remains a need to investigate potential interactions of low doses of these elements (particularly Cd and As) with other risk factors that appear linked to CKDu, prior to developing public health strategies to address this illness. PMID:25782025

  12. The age for the fossil-bearing Tabbowa beds in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S. C.; Dassanayake, S.; Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Well-preserved terrestrial fossils, mainly including conifers, cycads and ferns, were discovered from the Tabbowa beds in northwestern Sri Lanka. The high diversity and abundance of plants and insects from these Jurassic sediments provide a unique window to understand floral evolution and plant-insect co-evolution in the Mesozoic. For example, unearthed fossils from the Tabbowa beds indicate that leaf feeding and dwelling insects played a significant role in the Jurassic ecosystem. For another example, feeding and chewing marks on leaves allow studying insect behavior and paleo-ecology. Additionally, the recent discoveries of Otozamites latiphyllus and Otozamites tabbowensis from these sediments provide evidence that Bennettitales, an extinct order of seed plants, widely spread in the Gondwana during the Jurassic period. Although most fossils are yet to be well studied, and only few of the fossil occurrences have been published in western journals, plant fossils from the Tabbowa beds have great potential for substantially increasing our knowledge of Jurassic terrestrial ecosystems. The fossil-bearing Tabbowa beds are mainly composed of sandstone, siltstone, and mudstone with occasional thin bands of nodular limestone. Until now, radio-isotopic age determinations for the fossil-rich Tabbowa beds are lacking. In this study, we investigate the geological and geochronological setting of this area by dating detrital zircons from the Tabbowa beds. The age data will allow testing several hypotheses regarding the plant evolution, the basin development of this region.

  13. Estimating short and long-term residential demand for electricity. New evidence from Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athukorala, P.P.A Wasantha; Wilson, Clevo [School of Economics and Finance, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia)

    2010-09-15

    This study investigates the short-run dynamics and long-run equilibrium relationship between residential electricity demand and factors influencing demand - per capita income, price of electricity, price of kerosene oil and price of liquefied petroleum gas - using annual data for Sri Lanka for the period, 1960-2007. The study uses unit root, cointegration and error-correction models. The long-run demand elasticities of income, own price and price of kerosene oil (substitute) were estimated to be 0.78, - 0.62, and 0.14 respectively. The short-run elasticities for the same variables were estimated to be 0.32, - 0.16 and 0.10 respectively. Liquefied petroleum (LP) gas is a substitute for electricity only in the short-run with an elasticity of 0.09. The main findings of the paper support the following (1) increasing the price of electricity is not the most effective tool to reduce electricity consumption (2) existing subsidies on electricity consumption can be removed without reducing government revenue (3) the long-run income elasticity of demand shows that any future increase in household incomes is likely to significantly increase the demand for electricity and (4) any power generation plans which consider only current per capita consumption and population growth should be revised taking into account the potential future income increases in order to avoid power shortages in the country. (author)

  14. Zebu cattle farming in Sri Lanka: Production systems and reproductive characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebu cattle (Bos indicus) constitute 72.3% of the cattle population in Sri Lanka and consist of indigenous exotic and crosses. Indigenous Zebu cattle were primarily found in the dry and the intermediate zones with the remainder in the wet zone. In the latter two zones the indigenous Zebu have been gradually replaced by dairy-type exotic genotypes. In the dry zone Zebu cattle farming is done as a traditional village system (DTVS) and irrigated settlement system (DISS). The DTVS is the most prevalent system and 24% of small holdings within this system rear cattle. In 91.4% of these households cattle farming is either a primary or secondary occupation. Zebu cattle farming provides a modest income with meat, milk, draught and manure contribution 45%, 34%, 9% and 12%, respectively to the total income. Scarcity of grazing lands, high incidence of crop damages by cattle, an inadequate veterinary service and poor milk collecting network are having adverse effects on the sustainability of the system. The objective of the present study were to assess the distribution, production systems and reproductive patterns of cattle with special reference to indigenous Zebu cattle in traditional management systems. 39 refs, 4 figs, 7 tabs

  15. The Political Economy of Desire in Ritual and Activism in SriLanka (abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Van Daele

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Amidst the complexity of the development-religion nexus, this chapter examines desire and its varying expressions as fundamental concerns of many religions motivating both development and alternatives to development. In Sri Lanka, as people deal with social change, the neoliberal and globalised development is understood and re-interpreted through local idioms and formations of desire. The neoliberal economy cultivates desire and, as such, leads to a perceived increase in the presence of pretas (greedy, hungry ghosts that occasionally emerge when people die. The hungry ghosts, as fetishised formations of desire, resonate with consumers and entrepreneurs, who exhibit an insatiable hunger for ever more material wealth. Hence, the ritual appeasement of hungry ghosts and the social activism of groups such as the Movement for National Land and Agricultural Reform are clearly linked by their mutual concern with the existential insecurity of fellow human and non-human beings caused by excessive and unbalanced desire. However, the explicit articulation of specific concerns regarding desire diverges between ritual action and social activism. Ritual materialises and condenses the anxiety related to desire, whereas social activism describes the fetishisation of desire in more abstract economic, political and scientific terms.

  16. Seroepidemiology of rinderpest in bovines in Sri Lanka using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first inland wide study on seroprevalence of rinderpest in Sri Lanka. This study shows the advantages of using a serologically sensitive test, such as ELISA, in studying the seroepidemiology of a disease with low prevalence. The prevalence was highest in the northern, eastern and north-central provinces. The spread of rinderpest from the first location of the outbreak, which was in the eastern province in 1987, is attributed to the movement of bovines for slaughtering purposes. It appears that the spread of rinderpest could be reduced by controlling animal movement. Apparently, rinderpest had shifted from an epidemic form in the 1987-1989 period to an epidemic form from 1990 onwards, towards areas with high bovine density (>0.3 bovines/hectare). Furthermore, the extensive management system mostly practiced in the DL regions, in which animal-to-animal contact is more frequent, had contributed to the spread of rinderpest. The prevalence was higher in older bovines, probably because of exposure to natural infection during the last epidemic

  17. EFFECT OF THE INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI ON GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN COASTAL AQUIFERS IN EASTERN SRI LANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meththika Vithanage

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTChanges in water quality of a sand aquifer on the east coast of Sri Lanka due to the December 26, 2004 tsunami and subsequent disturbance due to well pumping and flushing by precipitation were investigated. Two closely spaced tsunami affected transects, spanning the ocean and an interior lagoon across a 2 km wide land strip were monitored from October, 2005 to September, 2006. Water samples were collected from 15 dug wells and 20 piezometers, from the disturbed and undisturbed sites respectively to evaluate the temporal and spatial trends in water quality.The EC values observed from the undisturbed area showed a significant decrease (3000 to 1200 ?S/cm with the rain from November 2005 to March 2006, while the values in the disturbed area appeared to have stabilized without further decline through the same period. The concentration range of EC, Ca, K, Na, alkalinity, total hardness and sulphate were higher in the disturbed site than in the undisturbed site. PHREEQC modeling showed that the mixed sea water fraction is higher in the disturbed site than in the undisturbed site, and this is likely due to the movement of the disturbed plume by water extraction through pumping and extensive well cleaning after the tsunami, causing forced diffusion and dispersion. No arsenic contamination was observed as all observed arsenic concentrations were below 10 ?g/L. For the sites investigated, there are clear indications of only a slow recovery of the aquifer with time in response to the onset of the monsoon.

  18. The effects of the 2004 tsunami on a coastal aquifer in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vithanage, Meththika Suharshini; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard

    2012-01-01

    On December 26, 2004, the earthquake off the southern coast of Sumatra in the Indian Ocean generated far-reaching tsunami waves, resulting in severe disruption of the coastal aquifers in many countries of the region. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of the tsunami on groundwater in coastal areas. Field investigations on the east coast of Sri Lanka were carried out along a transect located perpendicular to the coastline on a 2.4 km wide sand stretch bounded by the sea and a lagoon. Measurements of groundwater table elevation and electrical conductivity (EC) of the groundwater were carried out monthly from October 2005 to August 2007. The aquifer system and tsunami saltwater intrusion were modeled using the variable-density flow and solute transport code HST3D to understand the tsunami plume behavior and estimate the aquifer recovery time. EC values reduced as a result of the monsoonal rainfall following the tsunami with a decline in reduction rate during the dry season. The upper part of the saturated zone (down to 2.5 m) returned to freshwater conditions (EC < 1000 µS/cm) 1 to 1.5 years after the tsunami, according to field observations. On the basis of model simulations, it may take more than 15 years for the entire aquifer (down to 28 m) to recover completely, although the top 6 m of the aquifer may become fresh in about 5 years

  19. Characterisation of the Rota Wewa tank cascade system in the vicinity of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schütt, Brigitta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A complex and sustainable watershed management strategy was implemented in Sri Lanka during the ancient Anuradhapura period, from the 5th century BC to the 11th century AD. Like modern watershed management strategies, it focused on flood prevention, soil erosion control, water quality control and water storage for irrigation. Tank cascade systems were the key element of these ancient watershed management installations. The wewas investigated were constructed in valleys characterised by fluvial accumulation. Sedimentological analyses of these tank cascade systems show that a precise age determination and the reconstruction of sediment and water f luxes as triggered by human-environment interactions are difficult. This is caused by the shallow character of the wewas leading to the steady redeposition of the tank sediments by wave motions during the wet season and agricultural use of the desiccated wewas during the dry season. Beyond, the sediments analysed allow to distinguish between the weathered parent bedrock and the overlying sediments. A differentiation between wewa deposits and the underlying fluvial deposits remains challenging.

  20. Histopathological diagnosis of myocarditis in a dengue outbreak in Sri Lanka, 2009

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    Gunatilake Laxman PG

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2009, an outbreak of dengue caused high fatality in Sri Lanka. We conducted 5 autopsies of clinically suspected myocarditis cases at the General Hospital, Peradeniya to describe the histopathology of the heart and other organs. Methods The diagnosis of dengue was confirmed with specific IgM and IgG ELISA, HAI and RT-PCR techniques. The histology was done in tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Results Of the 319 cases of dengue fever, 166(52% had severe infection. Of them, 149 patients (90% had secondary dengue infection and in 5 patients, DEN-1 was identified as the causative serotype. The clinical diagnosis of myocarditis was considered in 45(27% patients. The autopsies were done in 5 patients who succumbed to shock (3 females and 2 males aged 13- 31 years. All had pleural effusions, ascites, bleeding patches in tissue planes and histological evidence of myocarditis. The main histological findings of the heart were interstitial oedema with inflammatory cell infiltration and necrosis of myocardial fibers. One patient had pericarditis. The concurrent pulmonary abnormalities were septal congestion, pulmonary haemorrhage and diffuse alveolar damage; one case showed massive necrosis of liver. Conclusions The histology supports occurrence of myocarditis in dengue infection.

  1. Socio-geographic perception in the diffusion of innovation: Solar energy technology in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understandings of the diffusion process have tended to emphasize either the adoption perspective, which focuses on individual characteristics, or the market perspective, which focuses on institutional context. In this paper we bring these two perspectives together by recognizing that people are embedded in socio-geographic contexts that affect their perceptions of their situations, which in turn shape the innovativeness of individuals and places. Focusing on the diffusion of Solar Home Systems (SHS) in Sri Lanka, we explore the role of context at the village (by comparing adoption rates among villages) and individual (by comparing time-to-adoption among household decision makers in a case-study village) scales. At the village scale, we find that expectations of government policy based on interactions related to ethnicity and politicians' previous power-grid connection promises are significant drivers of SHS adoption, along with perceived tolerance levels in the village for non-conformist behavior. Among household decision makers within the case-study village, we analyze relative adoption time and the duration of the innovation-decision process and find that perceiving strong village-level social control inhibits SHS adoption decision making. The results add to innovation diffusion theory and provide policy recommendations for agencies promoting solar energy in developing countries

  2. Characterization of the Temporal and Spatial Dynamics of the Dengue Epidemic in Northern Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anno, S.; Imaoka, K.; Tadono, T.; Igarashi, T.; Sivaganesh, S.; Kannathasan, S.; Kumaran, V.; Surendran, S.

    2014-11-01

    Dengue outbreaks are affected by biological, ecological, socio-economic and demographic factors that vary over time and space. These factors have been examined separately, with limited success, and still require clarification. The present study aimed to investigate the spatial and temporal relationships between these factors and dengue outbreaks in the northern region of Sri Lanka. Remote sensing (RS) data gathered from a plurality of satellites: TRMM TMI, Aqua AMSR-E, GCOM-W AMSR2, DMSP SSM/I, DMSP SSMIS, NOAA-19 AMSU, MetOp-A AMSU and GEO IR were used to develop an index comprising rainfall. Humidity (total precipitable water, or vertically integrated water vapor amount) and temperature (surface temperature) data were acquired from the JAXA Satellite Monitoring for Environmental Studies (JASMES) portal which were retrieved and processed from the Aqua/MODIS and Terra/MODIS data. RS data gathered by ALOS/AVNIR-2 were used to detect urbanization, and a digital land cover map was used to extract land cover information. Other data on relevant factors and dengue outbreaks were collected through institutions and extant databases. The analyzed RS data and databases were integrated into geographic information systems, enabling both spatial association analysis and spatial statistical analysis. Our findings show that the combination of ecological factors derived from RS data and socio-economic and demographic factors is suitable for predicting spatial and temporal patterns of dengue outbreaks.

  3. Estimating short and long-term residential demand for electricity. New evidence from Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the short-run dynamics and long-run equilibrium relationship between residential electricity demand and factors influencing demand - per capita income, price of electricity, price of kerosene oil and price of liquefied petroleum gas - using annual data for Sri Lanka for the period, 1960-2007. The study uses unit root, cointegration and error-correction models. The long-run demand elasticities of income, own price and price of kerosene oil (substitute) were estimated to be 0.78, - 0.62, and 0.14 respectively. The short-run elasticities for the same variables were estimated to be 0.32, - 0.16 and 0.10 respectively. Liquefied petroleum (LP) gas is a substitute for electricity only in the short-run with an elasticity of 0.09. The main findings of the paper support the following (1) increasing the price of electricity is not the most effective tool to reduce electricity consumption (2) existing subsidies on electricity consumption can be removed without reducing government revenue (3) the long-run income elasticity of demand shows that any future increase in household incomes is likely to significantly increase the demand for electricity and (4) any power generation plans which consider only current per capita consumption and population growth should be revised taking into account the potential future income increases in order to avoid power shortages in the country. (author)

  4. Impact of Corporate Governance on Firm Performance A Study on Financial Institutions in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Danoshana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Now corporate governance issues have received wide attention of researchers for more than three decades due to the increasing economic crisis around the world. This research study consider the impact of corporate governance on the performance of listed financial institutions in Sri Lanka as main objective and recommend a suitable corporate governance practices for improving performance of listed financial institutions. To achieve these objectives, the researcher use Return on equity, Return on assets, as the key variables that defined the performance of the firm. On the other hand, Board size, Meeting frequency and audit committee of the company are used as variables to measure the corporate governance. Twenty five listed financial institutions were selected as sample size for the sample period of 2008-2012. The data will be collected by using the secondary sources. According to the analysis, variables of corporate governance significantly impact on firm’s performance and board size and audit committee size have positive impact on firm’s performance. However, meeting frequency has negatively impact on firm’s performance.

  5. An investigation into the role of alcohol in self-harm in rural Sri Lanka: a protocol for a multimethod, qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Jane Brandt; Rheinländer, Thilde

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Sri Lanka has one of the highest suicide and self-harm rates in the world and although alcohol has been found to be a risk factor for self-harm in Sri Lanka, we know little about the connection between the two. This paper comprises a protocol for a qualitative study investigating alcohol’s role in selfharm in rural Sri Lanka at three levels: the individual, community and policy level. The analysis will bring new understanding of the link between alcohol and self-harm in Sri Lanka, drawing on structural, cultural and social concepts. It will equip researchers, health systems and policy makers with vital information for developing strategies to address alcohol-related problems as they relate to self-harm. Methods and analysis: To capture the complexity of the link between alcohol and self-harm in the Anuradhapura district in the North Central Province in Sri Lanka, qualitative methods will be utilised. Specifically, the data will consist of serial narrative life-story interviews with up to 20 individuals who have non-fatally selfharmed and where alcohol directly or indirectly was involved in the incidence as well as with their significant others; observations in communities and families; six focus group discussions with community members; and key-informant interviews with 15–25 stakeholders who have a stake in alcohol distribution, marketing, policies, prevention and treatment as they relate to self-harm. Ethics and dissemination: The study has received ethical approval from the Ethical Review Committee of the Faculty of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka. A sensitive data collection technique will be used and ethical issues will be considered throughout the study. Results: The results will be disseminated in scientific peer-reviewed articles in collaboration with Sri Lankan and other international research partners.

  6. A national upgrade of the climate monitoring grid in Sri Lanka. The place of Open Design, OSHW and FOSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemin, Yann; Bandara, Niroshan; Eriyagama, Nishadi

    2015-04-01

    The National Climate Observatory of Sri lanka is a proposition designed for the Government of Sri Lanka in September and discussed with private and public stakeholders in November 2014. The idea was initially to install a networked grid of weather instruments from locally-made open source hardware technology, on land and seas, that report live the state of climate. After initial stakeholder meetings, it was agreed to first try to connect any existing weather stations from different governmental and private sector agencies. This would bring existing information to a common ground through the Internet. At this point, it was realized that extracting information from various vendors set up would take a large amount of efforts, that is still the best and fastest anyway, as considerations from ownership and maintenance are the most important issues in a tropical humid country as Sri Lanka. Thus, the question of Open Design, open source hardware (OSHW) and free and open source software (FOSS) became a pivotal element in considering operationalization of any future elements of a national grid. Reasons range from ownership, to low-cost and customization, but prominently it is about technology ownership, royalty-free and local availability. Building on previous work from (Chemin and Bandara, 2014) we proposed to open design specifications and prototypes for weather monitoring for various kinds of needs, the Meteorological Department clearly specified that the highest variability observed spatially in Sri Lanka is rainfall, and their willingness to investigate OSHW electronics using their new team of electronics and sensors specialists. A local manufacturer is providing an OSHW micro-controller product, a start up is providing additional sensor boards under OSHW specifications and local manufacture of the sensors (tipping-bucket and other wind sensors) is under development and blueprints have been made available in the Public Domain for CNC machine, 3D printing or Plastic Molding. The Lanka Rainwater Harvesting Forum was in need of volumetric estimation of rainfall-runoff contributed to recharge of the aquifers. Regular reporting of high quality rainfall events and intensity is still a challenge to be addressed in Sri Lanka. A combination of OSHW and FOSS is being used to created a royalty-free, cheap raingauge design, with full control of on-board data collection and statistics. Development of an initial 15 raingauges include capacity-building, joint set up from the ground to scouting and installation, and full ownership of all aspects (hardware sourcing locally, software modification, communication troubleshooting, etc.). The Irrigation Department in Malwatu Oya had a requirement for real time rainfall information to manage reservoirs in cascade ("daisy chain") and mitigate flooding consequences downstream. 5 generic prototypes are now reporting to reservoir managers, and the reservoir management model is now rerun as often as needed to re-assess decision-requirements from any new rainfall about certain, already-known, dangerous intensity. The irrigation department capacity-building was provided in two trainings, one for engineers (decision-making support) and technicians (reporting and maintenance). Interest for further level of control in the system is low. Reporting online is following several potential routes, and an open design GPRS protocol is being developed, to simplify future weather stations design specifications in Sri Lanka.

  7. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a rural, physically active, low income population in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinidiyapathirage M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is recognized as a metabolic disorder largely seen in urbanized populations. The purpose of this study was to assess prevalence and risk factors for NAFLD in a rural, physically active, economically deprived population in Sri Lanka. Methods By visiting individual households in the community, 35-64 year old adults resident in two selected estates in the Nuwara Eliya District of Sri Lanka, were invited to participate in the study. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were made on all participants. Blood samples were obtained for the assay of fasting glucose, serum lipids, serum insulin and alanine aminotransferase. NAFLD was diagnosed on established ultrasound criteria for fatty liver in the absence of hepatitis B and C markers and high alcohol consumption. Results Of those invited, 403 (65% participated in the study. Almost all participants were either Indian or Sri Lankan Tamils and 53% were females. Prevalence of NAFLD was 18% in this population. Twice as many males were diagnosed as having NAFLD compared to females. Male sex, high BMI, high waist circumference, high diastolic blood pressure and high plasma glucose levels were significant predictors of NAFLD. Conclusion Nearly one in five people in this predominantly Indian Tamil, rural, physically active, economically deprived population had NAFLD. The condition was associated with constituent features of the metabolic syndrome. These results support studies reporting ethnic variations in disease susceptibility and suggest that genetic factors may also play a role in determining disease risk.

  8. Malathion resistance and prevalence of the malathion carboxylesterase mechanism in populations of mosquito vectors of disease in Sri Lanka

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    Karunaratne S.H.P.P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels of malathion resistance and prevalence of the malathion carboxylesterase mechanism among mosquitoes in Sri Lanka. METHODS: Bioassays were carried out using WHO-recommended methods on samples of the following Sri Lankan mosquito vectors: Culex quinquefasciatus, C. tritaeniorhynchus, C. gelidus; Anopheles culicifacies B, A. subpictus; Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. FINDINGS: Malathion-specific carboxylesterase mechanisms were found in A. culicifacies and A. subpictus, both giving high rates of insecticide metabolism. In contrast, malathion resistance in C. quinquefasciatus and C. tritaeniorhynchus is linked to broad-spectrum resistance to organophosphorus compounds due to elevated levels of esterases that sequester malaoxon, but are unable to metabolize malathion. CONCLUSIONS: Resistance among the Anopheles spp. must have occurred as a direct result of antimalarial activities, since malathion use in Sri Lanka is limited to public health treatments. In contrast, resistance among Culex spp. has resulted from large-scale use of the organophosphorus insecticide group as larvicides for filariasis control and on rice paddy, where C. tritaeniorhynchus predominantly breeds, for agricultural purposes.

  9. Phosphate fertilizer is a main source of arsenic in areas affected with chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasumana, Channa; Fonseka, Saranga; Fernando, Ashvin; Jayalath, Kumudika; Amarasinghe, Mala; Siribaddana, Sisira; Gunatilake, Sarath; Paranagama, Priyani

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Kidney Disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) has escalated into an epidemic in North Central Province (NCP) and adjacent farming areas in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Studies have shown that this special type of CKD is a toxic nephropathy and arsenic may play a causative role along with a number of other heavy metals. We investigated the hypothesis that chemical fertilizers and pesticide could be a source of arsenic. 226 samples of Fertilizers and 273 samples of pesticides were collected and analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for arsenic and other heavy metals in two university laboratories. Almost all the agrochemicals available to the farmers in the study area are contaminated with arsenic. The highest amount was in triple super phosphate (TSP) with a mean value of 31 mg/kg. Also TSP is a rich source of other nephrotoxic metals including Cr, Co, Ni, Pb and V. Annually more than 0.1 million tons of TSP is imported to Sri Lanka containing approximately 2100 kg of arsenic. The next highest concentration was seen in the rock phosphate obtained from an open pit mine in NCP (8.56 mg/kg). Organic fertilizer contained very low amounts of arsenic. Arsenic contamination in pesticides varied from 0.18 mg/kg to 2.53 mg/kg although arsenic containing pesticides are banned in Sri Lanka. Glyphosate the most widely used pesticide in Sri Lanka contains average of 1.9 mg/kg arsenic. Findings suggest that agrochemicals especially phosphate fertilizers are a major source of inorganic arsenic in CKDu endemic areas. Organic fertilizer available in Sri Lanka is comparatively very low in arsenic and hence the farmers in CKDu endemic areas in Sri Lanka should be encouraged to minimize the use of imported chemical fertilizer and use organic fertilizers instead. PMID:25763302

  10. Some characteristics of the larval breeding sites of Anopheles culicifacies species B and E in Sri Lanka

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    S.N. Surendran & R. Ramasamy

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives : Anopheles culicifacies Giles, the major malaria vector in Sri Lanka, existsas a species complex comprising two sympatric sibling species— species B and E. Species E is reportedto be the major vector of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum parasites in Sri Lanka, whilst speciesB is a poor or nonvector as in India. Knowledge of the breeding habits of the two sibling species canhelp in designing optimal vector control strategies. Hence, a survey was conducted in Sri Lanka tostudy the preferential breeding habitats of An. culicifacies species B and E.Methods: Immature forms of An. culicifacies were collected from identified breeding sites in malariousdistricts. Collected larvae were typed for their sibling species status based on mitotic Y-chromosomestructure. Data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science version 10.0.Results: An. culicifacies immature forms were found in 23 collection sites. Among these samples19 were found to have species E and four to have species B. All species B larvae were collected fromTonigala village in the Puttalam district. None of the 23 sites was found to have both species B and E.Species E, the major vector of malaria, appears to breed in variety of breeding sites which can be of anindication of its adaptive variation to exploit breeding sites with varying limnological characteristics.Interpretation & conclusion: The present findings have to be taken into account when formulatingmore effective larval control measures. They also show the need for a detailed study of possibledifferent preferences for larval breeding sites between species B and E.

  11. Pre-elimination stage of malaria in Sri Lanka: assessing the level of hidden parasites in the population

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    Amerasinghe Priyanie H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the dramatic drop in the transmission of malaria in Sri Lanka in recent years, the country entered the malaria pre-elimination stage in 2008. Assessing the community prevalence of hidden malaria parasites following several years of extremely low transmission is central to the process of complete elimination. The existence of a parasite reservoir in a population free from clinical manifestations, would influence the strategy for surveillance and control towards complete elimination. Methods The prevalence of hidden parasite reservoirs in two historically malaria endemic districts, Anuradhapura and Kurunegala, previously considered as high malaria transmission areas in Sri Lanka, where peaks of transmission follow the rainy seasons was assessed. Blood samples of non-febrile individuals aged five to 55 years were collected from randomly selected areas in the two districts at community level and a questionnaire was used to collect demographic information and movement of the participants. A simple, highly sensitive nested PCR was carried out to detect both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, simultaneously. Results In total, 3,023 individuals from 101 villages participated from both districts comprising mostly adults between the ages 19-55 years. Out of these, only about 1.4% of them (n = 19 could recall having had malaria during the past five years. Analysis of a subset of samples (n = 1322 from the two districts using PCR showed that none of the participants had hidden parasites. Discussion A reservoir of hidden parasites is unlikely to be a major concern or a barrier to the ongoing malaria elimination efforts in Sri Lanka. However, as very low numbers of indigenous cases are still recorded, an island-wide assessment and in particular, continued alertness and follow up action are still needed. The findings of this study indicate that any future assessments should be based on an adaptive sampling approach, involving prompt sampling of all subjects within a specified radius, whenever a malaria case is identified in a given focus.

  12. Vulnerability assessment and protective effects of coastal vegetation during the 2004 Tsunami in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, M.; Renaud, F. G.; Lüchters, G.

    2009-08-01

    The tsunami of December 2004 caused extensive human and economic losses along many parts of the Sri Lankan coastline. Thanks to extensive national and international solidarity and support in the aftermath of the event, most people managed to restore their livelihoods completely but some households did not manage to recover completely from the impacts of the event. The differential in recovery highlighted the various vulnerabilities and coping capacities of communities exposed to the tsunami. Understanding the elements causing different vulnerabilities is crucial to reducing the impact of future events, yet capturing them comprehensively at the local level is a complex task. This research was conducted in a tsunami-affected area in southwestern Sri Lanka to evaluate firstly the role of coastal vegetation in buffering communities against the tsunami and secondly to capture the elements of vulnerability of affected communities. The area was chosen because of its complex landscape, including the presence of an inlet connecting the Maduganga estuary with the sea, and because of the presence of remaining patches of coastal vegetation. The vulnerability assessment was based on a comprehensive vulnerability framework and on the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework in order to detect inherent vulnerabilities of different livelihood groups. Our study resulted in the identification of fishery and labour-led households as the most vulnerable groups. Unsurprisingly, analyses showed that damages to houses and assets decreased quickly with increasing distance from the sea. It could also be shown that the Maduganga inlet channelled the energy of the waves, so that severe damages were observed at relatively large distances from the sea. Some reports after the tsunami stated that mangroves and other coastal vegetation protected the people living behind them. Detailed mapping of the coastal vegetation in the study area and subsequent linear regression revealed significant differences between three vegetation classes present in the area with regard to water level and damages to houses. As our region showed homogeneity in some important factors such as coastal topography, our results should only be generalised to comparable regions.

  13. Vulnerability assessment and protective effects of coastal vegetation during the 2004 Tsunami in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kaplan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The tsunami of December 2004 caused extensive human and economic losses along many parts of the Sri Lankan coastline. Thanks to extensive national and international solidarity and support in the aftermath of the event, most people managed to restore their livelihoods completely but some households did not manage to recover completely from the impacts of the event. The differential in recovery highlighted the various vulnerabilities and coping capacities of communities exposed to the tsunami. Understanding the elements causing different vulnerabilities is crucial to reducing the impact of future events, yet capturing them comprehensively at the local level is a complex task. This research was conducted in a tsunami-affected area in southwestern Sri Lanka to evaluate firstly the role of coastal vegetation in buffering communities against the tsunami and secondly to capture the elements of vulnerability of affected communities. The area was chosen because of its complex landscape, including the presence of an inlet connecting the Maduganga estuary with the sea, and because of the presence of remaining patches of coastal vegetation. The vulnerability assessment was based on a comprehensive vulnerability framework and on the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework in order to detect inherent vulnerabilities of different livelihood groups. Our study resulted in the identification of fishery and labour-led households as the most vulnerable groups. Unsurprisingly, analyses showed that damages to houses and assets decreased quickly with increasing distance from the sea. It could also be shown that the Maduganga inlet channelled the energy of the waves, so that severe damages were observed at relatively large distances from the sea. Some reports after the tsunami stated that mangroves and other coastal vegetation protected the people living behind them. Detailed mapping of the coastal vegetation in the study area and subsequent linear regression revealed significant differences between three vegetation classes present in the area with regard to water level and damages to houses. As our region showed homogeneity in some important factors such as coastal topography, our results should only be generalised to comparable regions.

  14. Degradation of 14C ring labelled pesticides in selected soils of Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ground water resources in Sri Lanka are largely derived from direct rainfall seepage and recharge from surface water bodies. Ground water contamination potential of pesticides is governed by many soil, pesticide and environmental factors. One of the critical factors that affects is the rate at which pesticides degrade in the soil. This is the process that eliminates the chemical from the environment. Therefore the knowledge of degradation rates of pesticides is essential for pollution control management. Degradation and dissipation rates of 14C ring labelled carbofuran and diazinon in selected Sri Lankan soils were studied under laboratory conditions. 0.1 Ci/10 g soil of ring labelled carbofuran and diazinon-were added to Nuwara Eliya (Red yellow podzolic), Pugoda (Alluvials) Kalpitiya and Negombo (Regosols) soils and incubated in 75% of maximum water holding capacity and 28 degree C of temperature for 13 hours light and 11 hours dark conditions. Liberated 14CO2 was collected after 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28, 36, 42 and 58 days to an alkaline solution and analyzed using Liquid Scintillation Counter. Carbofuran has a mineralization rate of 12.5% in Kalpitiya regosols, 7.5% in Pugoda alluvials and lower rates in other two soils after 20 days. After 40 days it increases over 20% in Kalpitiya and in other three soils it was less than 15%. After-58 days the mineralization was over 60% in Kalpitiya soils but less than 500/o in other three soils. but less than 500/o in other three soils. During the whole period the mineralization was less than 10% in Nuwara Eliya red yellow podzolic soils. Diazinon exhibited 25% mineralization in Nuwara Eliya and Kalpitiya soils after ten days but in Pugoda and Negombo soils it was less than 20%. After 40 days it was 80% in Kalpitiya soil and 60% in Nuwara Eliya. During the total period the mineralization is less than 25% in Negombo and Pugoda soils. Overall, the degradation rate of carbofuran is much lower than diazinon for all selected soils. Therefore the contamination risk by leaching of pesticide is much higher for carbofuran.

  15. Irregular Migration as a Potential Source of Malaria Reintroduction in Sri Lanka and Use of Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests at Point-of-Entry Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Kolitha Wickramage; Galappaththy, Gawrie N. L.; Dayarathne, D.; Peiris, Sharika L.; Basnayake, Rajeeka N.; Davide Mosca; Jan Jacobs

    2013-01-01

    Background. We describe an irregular migrant who returned to Sri Lanka after a failed people smuggling operation from West Africa. Results. On-arrival screening by Anti-Malaria Campaign (AMC) officers using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) (CareStart Malaria HRP2/PLDH) indicated a negative result. On day 3 after arrival, he presented with fever and chills but was managed as dengue (which is hyperendemic in Sri Lanka). Only on day 7, diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria was made by microcop...

  16. Effect of cooling charge air on the gas turbine performance and feasibility of using absorption refrigeration in the “Kelanitissa” power station, Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Kodituwakku, Dinindu

    2014-01-01

    One of the drawbacks of the gas turbine is that performance drops rapidly when ambient air temperature increases. This is a major drawback for gas turbines operated in a tropical country like Sri Lanka. In Colombo, commercial capital of Sri Lanka where this study was carried out, the ambient temperature typically varies between 25 0C and 32 0C.   The Kelanitissa gas turbine plant has single shaft gas turbines (GE MS5001 R) operated in open cycle which use diesel as fuel (designed for dual fue...

  17. Scale-Up and Commercialisation of Improved Cookstoves in Sri Lanka: Lessons Learnt from the Anagi Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissanka, Ramani [Practical Action Consulting in Eastern Africa, Nairobi (Kenya)

    2009-12-15

    Interest in cook stove improvement in Sri Lanka started in the early 1950s. These activities were initiated among the migrant South Indian community that worked in tea plantations concentrated in the central part of the country who had been influenced by the interest generated in the South India. However, these were not replicated in other parts of the country, possibly due to the abudance of the fuel-wood in those areas and also due to a lack of wider interest and awareness of the significance if Improved Cook Stoves (ICS).

  18. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections among Plantation Sector Schoolchildren in Sri Lanka: Prevalence after Ten Years of Preventive Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawardena, Kithsiri; Kumarendran, Balachandran; Ebenezer, Roshini; Gunasingha, Muditha Sanjeewa; Pathmeswaran, Arunasalam; de Silva, Nilanthi

    2011-01-01

    Mass de-worming of pre-school and school-age children was introduced in Sri Lanka's plantation sector in 1994 after a survey showed that >90% of children and women of reproductive age were infected with intestinal worms. The present study was carried out to assess the status of infection four years after mass de-worming was stopped in 2005 due to lack of funds. Approximately 20 children from each of 114 schools in five districts were examined. Data regarding the school, the child's family and...

  19. Production systems and characteristics of indigenous small ruminants in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farming operations of small ruminants is one of the most common features in the small-scale livestock farmers, which represents 99% of the total farming population in Sri Lanka. However, the distribution of native small ruminants; goats and sheep, are scattered. The goat population is distributed mostly (72%) in drier areas whereas sheep are concentrated mainly in northern area of the country. Therefore the management systems of these farm animal genetic resources are largely influenced by the socio cultural conditions of the respective areas. The data collection on farming systems and production characteristics were carried out during the years 2007 and 2008 from the areas in the north central, north-western and northern parts of the island. The farms were randomly chosen based on their representativeness of indigenous small ruminant populations, having confirmed that there was no introduction of exotic breeds within documented past. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used for data collection from 40 farm families for each small ruminant species. The production status of each species was analyzed separately as they belong to separate regional, social and ethnic categories. Native goats are kept mainly for meat and manure and rarely for milk under extensive management conditions. The input levels were low, ranging from sub-standard levels to zero level. According to farmers' perspective, native goats are hardy and resistant to common diseases. This was further tant to common diseases. This was further revealed by absence of disease incidence recorded during the survey. The herd size varies according to the area ranging from 1-2 goat on average in northern area and 6-7 on average in the north-central and north-western areas. The animals were recorded as small compact animals with varying coat colours either polled or horned. Females are prolific, however kids show low growth rates and high mortality before weaning. Breeding is done based on community arrangement using a hired buck. Low milk yield and low growth performance after weaning hinder their chances of being attracted as a genetic asset among rural community. This is mostly highlighted since the goat production is a part of mixed crop-livestock production system. The role-play of goat as an income generator was minimum (0%-20% of the total income) even in the areas, where the goat production is popular. Native sheep, know as Jaffna Local sheep are reared in very specific farming system prevailing in northern area of the island. The flock size of native sheep varies from 12-254 animals. There were only two farms having more than 200 animals. Animals are usually white with patches of various colours (brown and black), and have extremely short tails. Females usually have no horns but half of males do. Indigenous sheep are small animals with no production potential of wool. Breeding occurs naturally in a close system and no attention has paid for performance improvement but for the number. Single birth is most common though there were very few twinning (2.5%) recorded in the survey area. High lamb mortality rate could be seen due to harsh environmental conditions and lack of attention paid by the farmer s during lambing season. However, Jaffna Local is the hardy native sheep breed and it is the only local sheep breed in Sri Lanka. Majority of farmers kept sheep as a tradition and as an inherent property while few others (35%) recorded a family income born by selling manure and animals. Hence sheep production system is essentially a low-input, low-risk and low-return system specific to the area. (author)

  20. Effects of Glass Ceiling on Women Career Development in Private Sector Organizations – Case of Sri Lanka

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    Bombuwela P. M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was entirely designed by centering the focal problem of the effect of Glass Ceiling on Women Career Development. The overall study was structure based on the conceptual framework built up using the information of literature survey. The study was conducted with the aim of obtaining the following objective. That is “To find out the Effect of Glass Ceiling on Women Career Development with regard to female executive level employees who are working in privatesector organizations.” At the same time, hypotheses are developed to find out whether there is a significant effect of Individual Factors, Family Factors, Organizational Factors and Cultural Factors on Women Career development. Merely this study has been completed with an empirical survey which was thoroughly conducted using a self-administered questionnaire and the sample consisted of 150 women executives. For presenting and analyzing the data both descriptive andinferential statistics were used. The findings reveal that the Glass Ceiling and Women Career Development have a moderate negative relationship, and also show that Individual Factors, OrganizationalFactors and Cultural Factors have a significant effect on Women Career Development whereas Family Factor has effects on the Glass Ceiling. Following the study results, a conclusion was eventually made that there are significant effects of the Glass Ceiling on WomenCareer Development of Executive level female employees working in private sector organizations in Sri Lanka. By taking all these facts into consideration, better recommendations have been made in this study. Finally, the most valuable suggestions for further studies and limitations of the study have been outlined.

  1. Medical students’ willingness to work in post-conflict areas: A qualitative study in Sri Lanka

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    Azeem Dad Gadi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The north-east (NE region of Sri Lanka observed a critical health workers’ shortage after the long-lasting armed conflict. This study aimed to explore medical students’ attitudes towards working in the NE and to identify factors determining such attitudes. Methods: A semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted in two medical schools, one in the NE and the other near the capital, in October 2004. Data were qualitatively analysed using the framework approach. Results: Three main themes were identified: 1 Professional motives and career plans; 2 Students’ perceptions of the healthcare situation in the NE; and 3 Students’ choice of the NE as a future practice location. It was found that familiarity with the difficulties faced by the NE people was a major motivation for medical students to work in the NE in the future. For NE students, familiarity was linked to their sense of belonging. For non-NE students, their personal experience of the NE familiarized them with the difficult situation there, which positively influenced their willingness to work there. Demotivations to work in the NE were poor working and living conditions, fewer opportunities for postgraduate education, language differences, insecurity, and fear of an unpleasant social response from the NE communities. Conclusions: NE local medical students had a sense of belonging to the NE and compassion for the Tamil people as members of the ethnic group. They were willing to work in the NE if their concerns about difficult working and living conditions and postgraduate education could be solved. Non-NE students who were familiar with the NE situation through their personal experience also showed a willingness to work there; thus, early exposure programmes in medical education might help to increase the health workforce in the NE. It is also expected that non-NE physicians working for the NE people would facilitate reconciliation and the rebuilding of trust between two ethnic groups.

  2. Effects of Climate Change on Urban Rainwater Harvesting in Colombo City, Sri Lanka

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    Kwong Fai A. Lo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cities are becoming increasingly vulnerable to water-related issues due to rapid urbanization, installation of complex infrastructure and changes in rainfall patterns. This study aims at assessing the impacts of climate change on rainwater harvesting systems (RWH in the tropical urban city, Colombo, Sri Lanka. The future climate change projections are downscaled from global circulation models to the urban catchment scale using the Long Ashton Research Station Weather Generator (LARS-WG, described in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4, coupled with Inter Comparison Project (CMIP3 model results. Historical rainfall data from 1981–2010 is used to simulate long-term future rainfall data from 2011–2099. The percentage change of the rainfall is calculated. The rainfall patterns are analyzed based on the daily, monthly, seasonal and annual time scales. Water requirements are calculated based on the selected scenario types. Rainfall and water demand data are incorporated into a water balance model. Climate change impacts for the selected RWH scenarios are calculated based on the water security analysis for each scenario. Analysis of the future rainfall data of Colombo reveals that several extreme weather events with very heavy rainfall may occur in the future. However, the frequency of these big events may not occur too often. Most of the selected global circulation models (GCMs in this study predict that there will be more rainfall towards the end of this century (2080-2099. Residential RWH systems will be more affected than non-residential systems. RWH systems in Colombo should include potential future climate changes in their future design and planning and be prepared for excess runoff and additional measures against potential overflow and urban floods.

  3. Future of forest gardens in the Uvan uplands of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuberg, Ian K.; Evans, David G.; Senanayake, Ranil

    1994-11-01

    Forest gardens are traditional agroecosystems in the humid tropics that have evolved a forestlike structure and as such are commonly thought to be a good example of sustainable agriculture. While this may be true in the sense of soil protection and maintenance of biodiversity, they are not necessarily maintainable in the context of competing land use in the landscape. Such appears to be the case of forest gardens in the uplands of Uva Province of Sri Lanka. This paper reports an agroecological analysis of forest gardens and other forms of land use in Uva, and discusses how this understanding can be used to make use of the good properties of forest gardens. It shows that although they have very real environmental and social benefits, they are unable to satisfy the material needs of a rural population undergoing demographic and cultural changes. However, the alternative land-use systems, both private smallholder and state owned, have serious deficiencies with respect to long-term sustainability, and it is essential to develop appropriate alternatives. It should be possible to design a smallholder farming system that incorporates the high productivity of market gardens (i.e., the cultivation of seasonal crops such as vegetables) with, at least, the high stability and biophysical sustainability of the forest garden. Considerable work still needs to be done on the design of such a system as well as the agency for its development and promotion. The paper treats the forest gardens of Uva as a case study from which some general conclusions can be drawn with respect to the conscious development of forest garden systems elsewhere in the tropics.

  4. Caregiver strain and symptoms of depression among principal caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder in Sri Lanka

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    Rodrigo Chaturaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Data on caregiver strain and depression of principal caregivers of patients with mental illnesses are few in developing countries. Findings from developed countries cannot be applied directly to developing countries as culture specific factors may influence the outcome. Methods A prospective study was carried out in the University Psychiatry Unit of the National Hospital of Sri Lanka (NHSL to identify symptoms of depression, caregiver strain and dissatisfaction with life in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Participants were assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies – Depression Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Modified Caregiver Strain Index. Results and discussion Eighty caregivers were interviewed (males; 36, 45%. Symptoms of depression were significant in 37.5%, while 48.8% had unsatisfactory scores on the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Depression and higher caregiver strain were associated with spending more time with the patient, interruption to work, disputes with relations, being assaulted by patient and self admission of needing professional help to overcome mental stress. Conclusion This study identified several associations for depression and increased caregiver strain among caregivers in a subset of patients with mental disorder in Sri Lanka. These can be used as markers to screen and increase pretest probability to identify caregivers needing help rather than applying the cumbersome questionnaires to all.

  5. Teachers’ Levels of Use of the 5E Instructional Model in the Implementation of Curriculum Reforms in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fareed Mohamed Nawastheen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The 5E instructional model is an innovative approach for constructive classroom instruction. First introduced in competency-based curriculum reforms in Sri Lanka, this is an inquiry-based model that allows students to engage in the self-learning process, in which teachers act as facilitators. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of teachers’ participation (through Levels of Use or LoU in implementing the 5E instructional model in Sri Lanka. The Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM was used to identify teachers’ LoU. Using the qualitative method, 9 out of 305 secondary school Geography teachers from the Kalutara district were selected as respondents in this survey. We used the basic interview protocol adopted from CBAM instruments. Our results revealed that many teachers were either non-users or were at the initial stage of use. The overall results revealed that the use of innovation was unsatisfactory. Thus, these teachers must be engaged in training programs, provided with the necessary materials and resources and must be continuously monitored to help those who want to qualify for a user profile and those who want to move up into the higher user profiles.

  6. Public health risk associated with the co-occurrence of mycotoxins in spices consumed in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogendrarajah, Pratheeba; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Lachat, Carl; Walpita, Chaminda Niroshan; Kolsteren, Patrick; De Saeger, Sarah; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2014-12-01

    A quantitative risk assessment of mycotoxins due to the consumption of chilli (Capsicum annum L.) and black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) was performed in Sri Lanka. A food frequency questionnaire was administered in order to collect the data on consumption of spices by households in the Northern and Southern region (n?=?249). The mean chilli consumption in the North was significantly higher (p?chilli consumption at the lower bound scenario, while exposure to OTA was small. Dietary exposure to other mycotoxins, fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, sterigmatocystin and citrinin due to spices were estimated. Margin of exposure estimations at the mean exposure to AFB1 were remarkably lower due to chilli (45-78) than for pepper (2315–10,857). Moreover, the hepato cellular carcinoma (HCC) risk associated with the mean AFB1 exposure through chilli at the lower bound was 0.046 and 0.028 HCC cases/year/100,000 based on the North and South consumption, respectively. AFB1 exposure via chilli should be considered as a great public health concern in Sri Lanka due to both high mycotoxin concentration and high consumption. PMID:25455891

  7. Association of high plasma TNF-alpha levels and TNF-alpha/IL-10 ratios with TNF2 allele in severe P. falciparum malaria patients in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Perera, M. K.; Herath, N. P.; Pathirana, S. L.; Phone-kyaw, M.; Alles, H. K.; Mendis, K. N.; Premawansa, S.; Handunnetti, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    Plasma levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines of Plasmodium falciparum-infected patients with severe malaria (SM; n?=?62) and uncomplicated malaria (UM; n?=?69) from Sri Lanka were assessed. SM patients had significantly higher levels of TNF-alpha (P

  8. Implementation of a Mental Health Care Package for Children in Areas of Armed Conflict: A Case Study from Burundi, Indonesia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Jordans, M. J. D.; Tol, W.A.; Susanty, D.; Ntamatumba, P.; Luitel, N.P.; Komproe, I. H.; Jong, J.T.V.M. de

    2013-01-01

    As one article in an ongoing series on Global Mental Health Practice, Mark Jordans and colleagues describe their work developing and evaluating a community-based psychosocial and mental health care package for children in five conflict affected countries: Burundi, Indonesia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Sudan.

  9. Identification, evaluation and change detection of highly sensitive wetlands in South-Eastern Sri Lanka using ALOS (AVNIR2, PALSAR) and Landsat ETM+ data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Ajith; Fernando, Tamasha; Takeuchi, Wataru; Wickramasinghe, Chathura H.; Samarakoon, Lal

    2014-06-01

    Sri Lanka is an island consists of numerous wetlands and many of these ecosystems have been indiscriminately exploited for a commercial, agricultural, residential and industrial development and waste dumping. Eastern River Basin Region in Sri Lanka is rapidly urbanizing, which leads more threats to the surrounding wetland ecosystems considerably. Therefore, it is important to identify and designated them as reserved areas where necessary in order to protect them under the National Environmental Act of Sri Lanka. Mapping and change detection of wetlands in the selected region is a key requirement to fulfill the above task. GIS and Remote Sensing techniques were used to identify and analyze the wetland eco systems. In this study Landsat ETM+, ALOS-AVNIR2, ALOS-PALSAR images were analyzed for identifying and change detection of wetlands. The secondary information and data were collected through a questionnaire survey to recognize the possible threats and benefits. The collected data and information were incorporated in identification, analyzing and ranking the wetlands. The final outcome of the project is to correlate the satellite data with the field observations to quantify the highly sensitive wetlands to declare as Environmental Protection Areas under the National Environment Act of Sri Lanka.

  10. Artificial insemination of cattle in Sri Lanka: Status, performance and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artificial insemination (AI) has been accepted as the primary breeding tool in genetic upgrading programmes of cattle in Sri Lanka. Three studies were conducted, to determine the coverage and performance of AI at national, provincial and district levels (Study 1), the success rate and factors affecting success rate of AI in wet zone mid-country smallholder farms (Study 2) and in wet zone up-country large multiplier farms (Study 3). The objective was to design, implement remedial measures and/or determine future studies necessary to improve the efficiency of AI services. Study 1 revealed that at national level the AI service reached less than 15% of the breedable cattle and accounted for less than 6% of estimated annual calvings. The coverage reached above 50% of the breedable cattle only in the wet zone while in the intermediate and dry zone areas it was negligible. Study 2 revealed that the mean calving to first service interval (CFSI) in cattle of the wet zone mid-country small holdings was 183 ± 87.1 days (n=211) and the calving to conception interval (CCI) was 194 ± 93.9 days (n=143). The first service conception rate (FSCR) was 45% and the overall conception rate (OCR) was 50.2%, with an average of 1.99 services per conception (S/C). Study 3 showed that the mean CFSI and CCI in wet zone upcountry multiplier farmers were 111.2 ± 74.2 days (n=133) and 156 ± 92.7 days (n=170) respectively. The average FSCR and OCR were 50.4% and 53.6% respectively and the average S/C was 1.9. Study 1 showed that the AI coverage of the island is very low and the proportion of calvings from AI is too low to have a significant impact on genetic composition of the national cow population. Studies 2 and 3 showed that the success rate of the AI service in the more favourable and extensively covered wet zone areas was also low. These studies revealed that factors associated with the chain of events from farmer, cow, semen to the technician contributed to poor fertility. (author)

  11. Results of treatment of differentiated thyroid cancers using Iodine-131 at Sri Lanka's first private institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This department was started in order to meet the urgent demand of iodine-131 treatment in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), as the waiting list in government hospitals was unduly long. Data obtained revealed that 52% of the patients had iodine-131 therapy within 4 months, 31% in 4 to 8 months and 17% over 8 months time. Institute received license to order, stock and administer iodine-131 from the AEA-Sri Lanka as its facilities were according to IAEA standards. Facility included three 'single bedded en-suit toilet rooms' with storage capacity for iodine-131 capsules. 115 cases (male: female ratio 1:4) of DTC were treated during the past one and half year and each received 100 GBq of radioactivity. 89 (77.3%) comprised papillary carcinoma, 25 (21.7%) follicular carcinoma and 1 case of mixed carcinoma. 52% of males and 60.8% of females were in the 26-45 years age group. Sixty cases of papillary carcinoma were sub-typed and grouped to observe the distribution of metastases and response to iodine-131. They were follicular variant (FV) in 28 (46%), micropaillary (MP) in 10 (20%), encapsulated (EP) in 8 (13.3%), tall cell (TC) in 3 (5%) and diffuse sclerosis (DS) in 9 (15%). TSH and Tg values were measured before therapy and four months afterwards. Activity readings were measured 30 min after ingestion and 4 days later and discharged when the values were less than 20 ?Sv / hour. Six of the nine (66%) DS cancer patients had metastasis in lymph nodes and lungs had metastasis in lymph nodes and lungs when referred for iodine-131 treatment. In 8 of these patients, Tg levels were raised. 36% (8/9) of the FC patients also had raised Tg levels indicating metastases and 4/5 were found to have bony metastases. In post iodine-131 therapy whole body scans, 3.3% had metastases in the lungs in PC and 20% of FC in skeleton. With a single dose of iodine-131 over 90% had drop in Tg levels to less than I ng/ml except in DS (23% drop) and TC (33% drop). The study shows that sub-typing of PC was useful and TC and DS types needed either a higher dose or a second dose of iodine-131. Administration of iodine-131 therapy within four months of surgery gave the best results. (author)

  12. Influence of pesticide regulation on acute poisoning deaths in Sri Lanka / Influence de la législation concernant les pesticides sur les décès par intoxication aiguë à Sri Lanka / Influencia de la regulación de los plaguicidas en las defunciones por intoxicación aguda en Sri Lanka

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Darren M., Roberts; Ayanthi, Karunarathna; Nick A., Buckley; Gamini, Manuweera; M.H. Rezvi, Sheriff; Michael, Eddleston.

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar en un país asiático en desarrollo la repercusión de la regulación de los plaguicidas en el número de defunciones por intoxicación. Estas normas¸ que entraron en vigor en Sri Lanka a partir de los años setenta, tenían por objeto reducir el número de defunciones por intoxicación -aut [...] ointoxicaciones deliberadas la mayoría de las veces- mediante la limitación de la disponibilidad y el uso de plaguicidas altamente tóxicos. MÉTODOS: La información sobre los cambios legislativos procede del Ministerio de Agricultura, los datos de ingreso en hospitales nacionales y de distrito se obtuvieron de la Unidad de Estadísticas Sanitarias de Sri Lanka, y los datos particulares sobre las defunciones por intoxicación con plaguicidas son el resultado de un examen manual de las notas de los pacientes y de los registros de la unidad de cuidados intensivos de Anuradhapura. RESULTADOS: Entre 1986 y 2000 se duplicó la cifra total de ingresos por intoxicación a nivel nacional, y los ingresos por intoxicación con plaguicidas aumentaron en más de un 50%. Al mismo tiempo, la tasa de letalidad descendió para las intoxicaciones totales y para las intoxicaciones por plaguicidas. En 1991-1992, el 72% de las defunciones por plaguicidas registradas en Anuradhapura se debieron a plaguicidas organofosforados (OF) y de carbamato -en particular a los productos monocrotofos y metamidofos, clasificados por la OMS como OF de tipo I. A partir de 1991, la importación de estos plaguicidas se redujo gradualmente hasta que se prohibieron para uso corriente en enero de 1995, con la correspondiente caída de las defunciones. Lamentablemente, su desaparición en las tareas agrícolas dio paso al endosulfán organoclorado, un OF de tipo II que causó un aumento de las defunciones por status epilepticus, de una en 1994 a 50 en 1998. El endosulfán fue prohibido en 1998, y durante los tres años siguientes el número de muertes por endosulfán se redujo a tres. Sin embargo, al final de la década el número de defunciones por plaguicidas había vuelto a ser similar al de 1991, atribuyéndose la mayoría de las defunciones a los OF de tipo II. Aunque estos productos son menos tóxicos que los OF de tipo I, su gestión sigue planteando problemas, pues son todavía muy tóxicos y su toxicidad se ve agravada por la escasez de servicios. CONCLUSIÓN: La caída de la tasa de letalidad en el contexto de una incidencia creciente de casos de autointoxicación indica que los programas de regulación de los plaguicidas en Sri Lanka fueron beneficiosos. Sin embargo, una inspección más atenta de la mortalidad por plaguicidas en un hospital reveló un desplazamiento hacia otros plaguicidas altamente tóxicos, pues al prohibirse el uso de uno de ellos en la agricultura no tardó en ser reemplazado por otro. En la futura reglamentación habría que prever tanto ese tipo de sustituciones como la posibilidad de tratar fácilmente las intoxicaciones por los plaguicidas de sustitución. Además, la regulación al efecto debe aplicarse al mismo tiempo que otras estrategias, como el manejo integrado de plagas, a fin de reducir la disponibilidad general de plaguicidas para autolesiones. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To assess in a developing Asian country the impact of pesticide regulation on the number of deaths from poisoning. These regulations, which were implemented in Sri Lanka from the 1970s, aimed to reduce the number of deaths - the majority from self-poisoning - by limiting the availability [...] and use of highly toxic pesticides. METHODS: Information on legislative changes was obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture, national and district hospital admission data were obtained from the Sri Lanka Health Statistics Unit, and individual details of deaths by pesticide poisoning were obtained from a manual review of patients' notes and intensive care unit records in Anuradhapura. FINDINGS: Between 1986 and 2000, the total national number of admissions due to poisoning doubled, and admissions due to pesticide poisonin

  13. Organizational health and the achievement level of students in science at the secondary-level schools in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakkeer-Jaufar, Pakkeer Cadermohideen

    This study sought to identify those organizational health factors that might have overriding influence on the achievement level of students in science in Sri Lankan secondary schools. This study involved 752 students, 33 science teachers, and 10 principals from two different districts, Ampara and Colombo, in Sri Lanka. Ten Tamil medium, secondary level, public schools were selected to participate in this study. Data were collected using four types of instruments: a questionnaire for pupils; interview schedules for science teachers and principals; checklists for classroom/school facilities, science laboratory facilities, and science practicals; and a science achievement test. The analysis focused on the collective perceptions of students, science teachers, and principals. Regression and path analyses were used as major analysis techniques, and the qualitative data provided by science teachers and principals were considered for a crosschecking of the quantitative inferences. The researcher found teacher affiliation, academic emphasis, and instructional leadership of the principal, in descending order, were the overriding influential factors on the achievement level of students in science in Sri Lankan secondary schools. At the same time a similar descending order was found in their mean values and qualities. The researcher concluded that increasing the quality of the organizational health factors in Sri Lankan secondary schools would result in improved better achievement in science. The findings further indicate that instructional leadership of the principal had both direct and indirect effects on students' achievement in science when academic emphasis and teacher affiliation were taken into account. In addition, the resource support of the principal did not make any difference in students' science achievement and the findings stress the availability of the resources for individual students instead of assuming the general facilities of the school are available to all students of the school.

  14. JOB SATISFACTION AND EMPLOYEES’ WORK PERFORMANCE: A CASE STUDY OF PEOPLE’S BANK IN JAFFNA PENINSULA, SRI LANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasundaram NIMALATHASAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:For the purpose of this study, the data was extracted from the branches of people’s bank operating within Jaffna peninsula, Sri Lanka. Here, we analysed the data by employing simple correlation analysis. In the analysis, it is found that there is a positive relationship between job satisfaction and employees’ work performance. That is high level of fair promotion, reasonable pay system appropriate work itself and good working condition leads to high level of employees’ performance. In other words, employee’s job satisfaction has positive impact on their performance. Moreover, outcome of the research would be helpful to the academicians, practitioners, researchers, planners, and policy makers who are involved in the concerned area.

  15. Mental Health and the Role of Cultural and Religious Support in the Assistance of Disabled Veterans in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulitha Wickrama

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence of PTSD and CES-D depressive symptoms, their association with previously untested supportive resources such as Buddhist religious activities, Buddhist bodhipuja rituals and horoscope readings for 45 recently wounded veterans in Sri Lanka. The results revealed an 85.4% prevalence rate of clinical levels of CES-D depression and a 42.2% prevalence rate of clinical levels of PTSD. The results of this study provide unique evidence for the significant role of Buddhist religious activities, the cultural activity of horoscope reading, and the support of family and friends in reducing the depressive symptoms in disabled veterans. Moreover, with the present study we were able to conclude that the support of family and friends reduced both perceived depressive symptoms and the PTSD symptoms of wounded veterans.

  16. Salinity-tolerant larvae of mosquito vectors in the tropical coast of Jaffna, Sri Lanka and the effect of salinity on the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis to Aedes aegypti larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Jude Pavilupillai J; Tharmasegaram Tharmatha; Sivasubramaniyam Gobika; Senthilnanthanan Meena; Kannathasan Selvam; Raveendran Selvarajah; Ramasamy Ranjan; Surendran Sinnathamby N

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Dengue, chikungunya, malaria, filariasis and Japanese encephalitis are common mosquito-borne diseases endemic to Sri Lanka. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, the major vectors of dengue, were recently shown to undergo pre-imaginal development in brackish water bodies in the island. A limited survey of selected coastal localities of the Jaffna district in northern Sri Lanka was carried out to identify mosquito species undergoing pre-imaginal development in brackish and sa...

  17. Salinity-tolerant larvae of mosquito vectors in the tropical coast of Jaffna, Sri Lanka and the effect of salinity on the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis to Aedes aegypti larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Jude Pavilupillai J; Tharmasegaram Tharmatha; Sivasubramaniyam Gobika; Senthilnanthanan Meena; Kannathasan Selvam; Raveendran Selvarajah; Ramasamy Ranjan; Surendran Sinnathamby N

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Dengue, chikungunya, malaria, filariasis and Japanese encephalitis are common mosquito-borne diseases endemic to Sri Lanka. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, the major vectors of dengue, were recently shown to undergo pre-imaginal development in brackish water bodies in the island. A limited survey of selected coastal localities of the Jaffna district in northern Sri Lanka was carried out to identify mosquito species undergoing pre-imaginal development in brackish and sa...

  18. Impact of Dividend Policy on Share Holders’ Wealth A Study of Listed Companies in Hotels and Travels Sector of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinthuja Kumaresan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available this research intends to study the impact of firm’s dividend policy on shareholders’ wealth. The objective of the company is to increase the wealth of its shareholders. It is therefore necessary, to understand the nature of the relationship between dividend and shareholders' wealth. Tourism remains the fastest growing service industry in the economies of most of developing countries. Sri Lanka entered the international tourism market in the 1960s. Since then, Hotel and Travel sector has been growing steadily as a promising sector. In particular, the contribution of Hotel and Travel sector to Gross Domestic Product was 2% in Sri Lankan economy. In attempt to fill this research gap the present study was initiated to find out the impact of dividend policy on shareholders’ wealth of top ten listed companies under hotel and travel sector in Sri Lanka during the period from 2008 to 2012. Secondary data is collected from company annual report. This research used the correlation, regression and descriptive statistics to evaluate the data collected from the top ten listed companies under hotel and travel sector. In addition the dividend policy has significant impact on shareholders' wealth. There are Positive relationship between Return on Equity, dividend per share and Dividend payout ratio and Shareholders’ wealth of top ten listed companies under hotel and travel sector in Sri Lanka and mean while there is a negative relationship between retention ratio and Shareholders’ wealth.

  19. Vulnerability analysis in terms of food insecurity and poverty using GIS and remote sensing technology applied to Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriar, Pervez M.; Ramachandran, Mahadevan; Mutuwatte, Lal

    2003-03-01

    It is becoming increasingly recognized that computer methods such as models and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be valuable tools for analyzing a geographical area in terms of it's hazards vulnerability, Vulnerability is an important aspect of households' experience of poverty. The measurement and analysis of poverty, inequality and vulnerability are crucial for cognitive purposes (to know what the situation is), for analytical purposes (to understand the factors determining this situation), for policy making purposes (to design interventions best adapted to the issues), and for monitoring and evaluation purposes (to assess whether current policies are effective, and whether the situation is changing). Here vulnerability defined as the probability or risk today of being in poverty - or falling deeper into poverty - in the future. Vulnerability is a key dimension of well being since it affects individuals' behavior (in terms of investment, production patterns, coping strategies) and their perception of their own situation. This study has been conducted with the joint collaboration of World Food Programme (WFP) and International Water Management Institute (IWMI) in Sri Lanka for identifying regions and population which are food insecure, for analyzing the reasons for vulnerability to food insecurity in order to provide decision-makers with information to identify possible sectors of intervention and for identifying where and for whom food aid can be best utilized in Sri Lanka. This new approach integrates GIS and Remote sensing with other statistical packages to allow consideration of more spatial/physical parameters like accessibility to economic resources, particularly land and the assets of the built environment, creating employment, and attracting investment in order to improve the quality and quantity of goods and services for the analysis which leads the analysis to represent the real scenario. For this study a detailed topographic data are being used along with MODIS EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index)

  20. Serological evidence for exposure of dogs to Rickettsia conorii, Rickettsia typhi, and Orientia tsutsugamushi in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Devathri M; Rajapakse, R P V J; Wickramasinghe, Susiji; Kularatne, Senanayaka A M

    2013-08-01

    Vector-borne rickettsial infection is a major cause of febrile illnesses throughout the world. Although vertebrates hosting the vectors play a vital role in the natural cycle of rickettsiae, studies have not been conducted on them in Sri Lanka. Therefore, the present study was designed to determine the exposure of dog population in Rajawatta, Thambavita, and areas of the Western Slopes and Unawatuna of Sri Lanka to rickettsial pathogens. A total of 123 dog blood samples were collected from those areas. Samples were tested for antibodies against Rickettsia conorii (RC) of the spotted fever group (SFG), Rickettsia typhi (RT) of the typhus group (TG), and Orientia tsutsugamushi (OT) of the scrub typhus group (ST) of rickettsiae by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFA). Samples with titers ? 1:64 were considered as positive in this study. Collectively, 49% dogs were found to have antibodies against the rickettsial agents. Of the dogs, 42%, 24%, and 2% had antibodies against RC, OT, and RT, respectively. The seropositive rate of 100% was observed in areas of the Western Slopes, whereas the lowest rate of 20% was in Unawatuna. Among the positive samples, antibody titers against RC and OT ranged from 1/64 to 1/8192. In contrast, the few dogs that tested positive for RT showed very low titers of 1/64 and 1/128. Results of this study show the extent of exposure to the pathogen and its dispersion in the natural ecology. We suggest that dogs could be acting as reservoirs in the rickettsial transmission cycle or could be effective tracer animals that can be used to detect areas with potential for future outbreaks. PMID:23930973

  1. From pesticides to medicinal drugs: time series analyses of methods of self-harm in Sri Lanka / Des pesticides aux médicaments: analyses de séries chronologiques des méthodes d'automutilation au Sri Lanka / De los pesticidas a los fármacos: análisis de series temporales de los métodos de autolesión en Sri Lanka

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Varuni A de, Silva; SM, Senanayake; P, Dias; R, Hanwella.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Examinar si los cambios recientes en los métodos de autolesión en Sri Lanka podrían explicar el descenso de la incidencia de suicidio en dicho país. MÉTODOS: Se llevaron a cabo análisis de series temporales de las tasas de suicidio y hospitalización por diferentes tipos de intoxicación. RE [...] SULTADOS: Entre 1996 y 2008, la incidencia anual de admisión hospitalaria provocada por intoxicación por sustancias farmacológicas o biológicas incrementó exponencialmente de 48,2 a 115,4 ingresos por cada 100 000 habitantes. Durante el mismo periodo, los ingresos anuales provocados por intoxicación con pesticidas se redujeron de 105,1 a 88,9 casos por cada 100 000 habitantes. La incidencia anual de suicidio se redujo exponencialmente, de un pico de 47,0 casos por cada 100 000 habitantes en 1995 a 19,6 por 100 000 habitantes en 2009. Las intoxicaciones fueron las responsables de 37,4 suicidios por cada 100 000 habitantes en 1995, pero en el año 2009 solo representaron 11,2 suicidios por cada 100 000 habitantes. La tasa de letalidad de las intoxicaciones por pesticidas presentó una reducción lineal, de 11,0 muertes por cada 100 casos de ingreso en el hospital en 1997 a 5,1 por cada 100 casos en el año 2008. CONCLUSIÓN: Desde mediados de la década de 1990 se ha experimentado una tendencia entre aquellas personas que pretenden autolesionarse en Sri Lanka que se aleja del uso inadecuado de los pesticidas (a pesar de que no se ha producido una reducción en la disponibilidad de los mismos) y que se acerca a un mayor uso de sustancias farmacológicas y de otro tipo. Estas tendencias unidas a una reducción de la mortalidad entre aquellos que sufrieron una intoxicación por pesticidas han dado como resultado un descenso global de la incidencia nacional de suicidio consumado. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To explore if recent changes in methods of self-harm in Sri Lanka could explain the decline in the incidence of suicide. METHODS: Time series analyses of suicide rates and hospitalization due to different types of poisoning were carried out. FINDINGS: Between 1996 and 2008 the annual inci [...] dence of hospital admission resulting from poisoning by medicinal or biological substances increased exponentially, from 48.2 to 115.4 admissions per 100 000 population. Over the same period, annual admissions resulting from poisoning with pesticides decreased from 105.1 to 88.9 per 100 000. The annual incidence of suicide decreased exponentially, from a peak of 47.0 per 100 000 in 1995 to 19.6 per 100 000 in 2009. Poisoning accounted for 37.4 suicides per 100 000 population in 1995 but only 11.2 suicides per 100 000 in 2009. The case fatality rate for pesticide poisoning decreased linearly, from 11.0 deaths per 100 cases admitted to hospital in 1997 to 5.1 per 100 in 2008. CONCLUSION: Since the mid 1990s, a trend away from the misuse of pesticides (despite no reduction in pesticide availability) and towards increased use of medicinal and other substances has been seen in Sri Lanka among those seeking self-harm. These trends and a reduction in mortality among those suffering pesticide poisoning have resulted in an overall reduction in the national incidence of accomplished suicide.

  2. Public acceptance and trade development of irradiated food in Sri Lanka with special reference to spices and onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Lankan spices, onion, shallots and dried chillies suffer considerable storage losses due to inadequate preservation method. Irradiation to a dose 7 kGy was found to be effective technique to reduce storage losses and improve quality of different spices. Preliminary results showed prospect of using irradiation for large scale preservation of dried chillis. But due to lack of irradiation, facility scaled- up irradiation and storage trials could not be undertaken. Based on study conducted by the Ceylon Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, a report was submitted to the Atomic Energy Authority of Sri Lanka on the current demand for a multi-purpose irradiation facility. The food items identified for irradiation processing include spices, desiccated coconut, shrimps for export; and onions, chillies and dried fish products, foliage plants and medical products for local trade. The volume of products for commercial processing has also been indicated in the survey report. Steps for approval of the Harmonised Regulations on Food Irradiation as adopted in the RCA Workshop in Seoul, 1998 are at the processing level for submission as a parliamentary bill. A consumer acceptance survey was carried out in 1997; the outcome showed a low acceptance for irradiated spices. About 200 participants comprising private exporters, govt. officials and students were made aware of the irradiation process and benefits of irradiation treatment through the training programmes on post-harvest management at the CISIR. (author)

  3. Evidence of Sexual Selection for Evening Orientation in Human Males: A Cross Cultural Study in Italy and Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Piffer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has established the existence of individual differences with regards to individuals’ optimum time of well-functioning; specifically in terms of being either morning or evening oriented. An association has also emerged between being more evening, as opposed to morning, oriented and having a greater number of sexual partners. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether "eveningness” in males is an evolved sexually dimorphic trait consistent across different cultures. A sample of 179 male Sri Lankan men residing in two different cultural and economic settings, Italy and Sri Lanka, were administered the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ followed by assessing their sexual behavior history. The results robustly portrayed a highly significant main effect of MEQ types highlighting the twofold sexual success enjoyed by the evening individuals in both regional locations. Morning oriented individuals, showed a stronger preferece for going out and partying than evening-types, suggesting that the higher mating success of evening types is not due to their different lifestyles allowing more opportunities to encounter females. However, evening types exhibited a preference for flirtatious behaviors in the later part of the day. Shoulder-to-hip and handgrip strength, as measures of testosterone levels, were not significantly associated with eveningness. The results are discussed in terms of sexual selection and its interplay with human cultural variation.

  4. Economy wide emission impacts of carbon and energy tax in electricity supply industry: A case study on Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results and analysis of a study conducted with the objective of investigating the impact on economy wide emissions due to carbon and energy taxes levied within the electricity generation sector of Sri Lanka. This exercise is mainly based on the input-output table developed by the national planning department. An input-output decomposition technique is used to analyze four types of effects that contribute to the overall reduction in equivalent carbon, NO x and SO2 emissions. These four effects are: fuel mix effect (i.e. the change in emissions due to variation I fuel mix), structural effect (i.e. change in emissions due to changes in technological coefficients with taxes compared to that without taxes), final demand effect (i.e. the change in emissions associated with changes in final demand) and joint effect (i.e. the interactive effect between or among the fuel mix, structural and final demand effects). The polluting fuel sources and low energy efficiency generation technologies are less preferred under these tax regimes. Of the four effects, a change in fuel mix in thermal electricity generation and a change final demand for electricity were found to be the main contributors in achieving economy wide emission reductions. It was found in the analysis that a minimum of US$ 50/tC tax or US$ 1.0/MBtu of energy tax is required to have a significant impact on economy wide emissions in the Sri Lankan context. This translates inthe Sri Lankan context. This translates into an overall increase in electricity generation cost of approximately USCts 0.9 kW-1 h-1 and USCts 0.6 kW-1 h-1 under the carbon and energy tax regimes, respectively. The reduction in emissions is also strongly coupled with the value of the price elasticity of electricity

  5. Workshop to review waste inventory, waste characteristics and reference site candidates (RAS/4/016) 7-9 July 1997, Shanghai, China. Country report -Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Energy Authority, which was formed in 1969, is the organization responsible for the regulatory and promotional activities in the use of nuclear technology in Sri Lanka. The Authority functions under the Minister of Science, Technology and Human Resources Development. The governing body of the Authority is appointed by the Minster of Science, Technology and Human Resources Development. As defined by the AEA Act, the main objectives of the Authority are: Radiation protection; the dissemination of information on use of isotopes and radiation techniques; the promotion of the use of isotopes and radiation methodologies. As Sri Lanka does not possess any Research or Power reactors, the regulatory and promotional activities are limited to uses of radioisotopes and radiation in Medicine, Industry, Research Teaching. 1 fig

  6. Psychometric properties of the Sinhala version of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales in early adolescents in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Danansuriya Manjula; Rajapaksa Lalini C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The concept Health related Quality of life (HRQOL) is increasingly recognized as an important health outcome measure in clinical and research fields. The present study attempted to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Sinhala version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0 (PedsQL™ 4.0) Generic Core Scales among adolescents in Sri Lanka. Methods The original US PedsQL™ was translated into Sinhala and conceptually validated according to international guidelin...

  7. Haemostatic dysfunction and acute renal failure following envenoming by Merrem's hump-nosed viper (Hypnale hypnale) in Sri Lanka: first authenticated case.

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, A.; Wijekoon, AS; Jayasena, L; Abeysekera, CK; Bao, CX; Hutton, RA; Warrell, DA

    1994-01-01

    A five years old boy was bitten by a Merrem's hump-nosed viper (Hypnale hypnale) in Central Province, Sri Lanka. He developed local swelling, incoagulable blood, thrombocytopenia, bleeding into the gastrointestinal tract, and acute renal failure. Treatment with Serum Institute of Indian polyspecific antivenom (specific for venoms of cobra, common krait, Russell's viper and saw-scaled viper) had no effect on the coagulopathy, which persisted for more than a week. The boy recovered after 27 d i...

  8. Analysis of the effect of charge air temperature and humidity on the combustion process of diesel engines at Heladhanavi Power Plant, Puttalam, Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Kahandagamage, Gayan

    2015-01-01

    Heladhanavi 100MW Diesel Power Plant in Puttalam, Sri Lanka consists of six 18V46 Wartsila turbocharged air cooled engines. Specific fuel consumption of the engines varies with the ambient conditions. It has been seen in hotter days fuel consumption is higher comparatively to cooler days. This study was conducted as per the requirement to find out the reasons behind this variation of the fuel consumption and to quantify the effects on the efficiency with respect to the charge air properties i...

  9. A preliminary study on the impact of changing shifting cultivation practices on dry season forage for Asian elephants in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Pastorini, J.; Janaka, H. K.; Nishantha, H. G.; Prasad, T.; Leimgruber, P.; Fernando, P.

    2013-01-01

    Shifting cultivation, in which fields are traditionally cultivated for two or three consecutive years and left fallow for four to five years, is an ancient practice still prevalent in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Traditionally, shifting agriculture is rain dependent and is limited to the wet season. However, traditional patterns are now changing due to population pressures. We assessed the use of shifting agriculture areas by Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and the availability of fodder in a...

  10. Treating children traumatized by war and Tsunami: A comparison between exposure therapy and meditation-relaxation in North-East Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Ruf Martina; Kohiladevy Mahendran; Catani Claudia; Schauer Elisabeth; Elbert Thomas; Neuner Frank

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The North-Eastern part of Sri Lanka had already been affected by civil war when the 2004 Tsunami wave hit the region, leading to high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children. In the acute aftermath of the Tsunami we tested the efficacy of two pragmatic short-term interventions when applied by trained local counselors. Methods A randomized treatment comparison was implemented in a refugee camp in a severely affected community. 31 children who presented wit...

  11. Treating children traumatized by war and Tsunami : a comparison between exposure therapy and meditation-relaxation in North-East Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Catani, Claudia; Kohiladevy, Mahendran; Ruf, Martina; Schauer, Elisabeth; Elbert, Thomas; Neuner, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Background: The North-Eastern part of Sri Lanka had already been affected by civil war when the 2004 Tsunami wave hit the region, leading to high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children. In the acute aftermath of the Tsunami we tested the efficacy of two pragmatic short-term interventions when applied by trained local counselors. Methods: A randomized treatment comparison was implemented in a refugee camp in a severely affected community. 31 children who presented with a pre...

  12. Effect of Growth Rate on Wood Specific Gravity of Three Alternative Timber Species in Sri Lanka; Swietenia macrophylla, Khaya senegalensis and Paulownia fortunei

    OpenAIRE

    Priyan Perera; Hiran Amarasekera; Weerawardena, N. D. R.

    2012-01-01

    With increasing private sector investments in commercial forestry, it is apparent that plantationforestry in Sri Lanka is moving in the direction of managing fast growing timber species for shorterrotations. However, there’s a perceptionthat accelerated growth rates induced by improved forestmanagement practices can result in inferior wood quality. This study tested this perceptionby studyingthe effect of growth rate on the specific gravity, as a proxy for wood quality, of three alternative...

  13. Outcomes and moderators of a preventive school-based mental health intervention for children affected by war in Sri Lanka: a cluster randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Tol, Wietse A.; Komproe, Ivan H.; Jordans, Mark J. D.; Vallipuram, Anavarathan; Sipsma, Heather; Sivayokan, Sambasivamoorthy; Macy, Robert D.; Jong, Joop T.

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to examine outcomes, moderators and mediators of a preventive school-based mental health intervention implemented by paraprofessionals in a war-affected setting in northern Sri Lanka. A cluster randomized trial was employed. Subsequent to screening 1,370 children in randomly selected schools, 399 children were assigned to an intervention (n=199) or waitlist control condition (n=200). The intervention consisted of 15 manualized sessions over 5 weeks of cognitive behavioral techniques ...

  14. Maps of the Sri Lanka malaria situation preceding the tsunami and key aspects to be considered in the emergency phase and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konradsen Flemming

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the tsunami, a detailed overview of the area specific transmission levels is essential in assessing the risk of malaria in Sri Lanka. Recent information on vector insecticide resistance, parasite drug resistance, and insights into the national policy for malaria diagnosis and treatment are important in assisting national and international agencies in their control efforts. Methods Monthly records over the period January 1995 – October 2004 of confirmed malaria cases were used to perform an analysis of malaria distribution at district spatial resolution. Also, a focused review of published reports and routinely collected information was performed. Results The incidence of malaria was only 1 case per thousand population in the 10 months leading up to the disaster, in the districts with the highest transmission. Conclusion Although relocated people may be more exposed to mosquito bites, and their capacity to handle diseases affected, the environmental changes caused by the tsunami are unlikely to enhance breeding of the principal vector, and, given the present low parasite reservoir, the likelihood of a malaria outbreak is low. However, close monitoring of the situation is necessary, especially as December – February is normally the peak transmission season. Despite some losses, the Sri Lanka public health system is capable of dealing with the possible threat of a malaria outbreak after the tsunami. The influx of foreign medical assistance, drugs, and insecticides may interfere with malaria surveillance, and the long term malaria control strategy of Sri Lanka, if not in accordance with government policy.

  15. Quality management system of secondary standards dosimetry laboratory in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Application of Quality Management System (QMS) of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) of the Atomic Energy Authority (ALA) of Sri Lanka provides path of workflow and information on laboratory operations, management and competence of staff that would assist the laboratory in continual improvement of its processes and meeting accreditation requirements in compliance with IS017025. Thus provision of customers' satisfied accredited dosimetry calibration services is needed for the country. The SSDL currently possesses a reference electrometer (PTW Unidos) with protection level ion- chambers (NE2575, 600cc ion-chamber and PTW - lOLt ion-chamber) and therapy level ion-chambers (NE2571, 0.6cc thimble ion-chamber). Also the laboratory is also having measuring standards (NE2570 electrometer with NE2575, 600cc ion-chamber and NE2571, 0.6cc thimble ion-chamber) . A gamma irradiator which contains two gamma sources (Co-60 and Cs-137) and a X-ray system with six ISO 4037 beam qualities (narrow spectrum of energy range: 33keV - 118keV) are available for protection level X-ray calibrations. Stability of the electrometers with Ion- chambers is performed with Sr-90 check sources, which are specially designed for each type of chambers in order to fix the set-up maintaining the same geometry for every measurement. An average of reading of ten consecutive measurements of which each measurement was made for 300s is taken for stability measurement. Each reading is corrtability measurement. Each reading is corrected for ambient temperature and pressure. Acceptance of percentage deviation of stability results with respect to reference reading of respective chamber is ±1% for protection level and ± 0.5% for therapy level. All these equipments, when they are not in used are kept in a dry cabinet in order to control humidity. The SSDL of AEA has become a part of an international network of dosimetry laboratories established by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO). This network provides assistance for members to maintain consistency of Radiation Standard measurements in their dosimetry laboratories. Reference electrometer with ion-chambers has been calibrated from IAEA Radiation Standard Laboratory at Seibersdorf in Austria which is traceable to primary standards at BIPM. Measuring standards are calibrated using these reference standards. The SSDL also participates IAEA TLD dose audit program to ensure the accuracy of radiation standards and is firmly committed to achieve global harmonization wherever possible. Hence the QMS assures the quality and accuracy of the services provided to institutions such as hospitals, research institutes, industries for the safety of their radiation workers. Reference electrometer with ion-chambers is used to standardize the gamma radiation fields. Measurements are made from 1 m onwards from the source with 25 cm step increment along the beam axis. Ten consecutive readings are taken for the measurement of air-kerma rate at a point. Ambient temperature, pressure and humidity at the beginning and end of measurements of each measurement are taken by using calibrated ancillary instruments, which are traceable to national and international standards, for correction of density of air mass in the ion-chamber. This air-kerma rate is converted to ambient dose equivalent rate (ADER) for the calibration of area monitors and personal dose equivalent rate (PDER) for calibration of personal monitoring instruments/devices as recommended in IAEA Safety Report Series 16. Graphs, Distance Vs dose rate for ADER and PDER using power fitting formula are established. Decay correction is applied for each data point measured and a fresh graph, Distance Vs dose rate is prepared each day prior to calibration of instruments. Verification of dose given by the software program is done with manual calculation of three data points. Energies of X-ray beams used for protection level calibration are verified with first and second half-value thicknesses of each X-ray beam. Measure

  16. Counselling in Areas of Armed Conflict: The Case Jaffna, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veer, Guus; Somasundaram, Daya; Damian S.

    2003-01-01

    Counseling is discussed in relation to traditional resources of the Tamil community for dealing with psychosocial and mental health problems. Describes some problems of clients affected by the armed conflict, approaches of local counselors and mental health professionals, and training offered to future Sri Lankan counselors who want to work with…

  17. Social, cultural and economical determinants of diabetes mellitus in Kalutara district, Sri Lanka: a cross sectional descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pubudu De Silva Ambepitiyawaduge

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Sri Lanka is a country that is expected to face a high burden of diabetes mellitus (DM. There is a paucity of data on social and demographic determinants of DM, especially in the plantation sector. Aims To describe social and economic correlates and inequalities of DM in Kalutara District. Methods A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among adults over the age of 35 years. A sample of 1300 individuals was selected using stratified random cluster sampling method from 65 Grama Niladari Divisions (GND, which were representative of urban, rural and plantation sectors. Twenty households were randomly selected from each division and one adult was randomly selected from each household. Data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Fasting plasma blood sugar of ?126mg/dl was used to define DM. Significance of prevalence of diseases and risk factors across different socio-economic strata were determined by chi square test for trend. Results Of 1234 adults who were screened (628 males, 202 (14.7% had DM. Higher DM proportions (16.1% were seen in the highest income quintile and in those educated up to Advanced Levels (AL and above (17.3%. Prevalence in the urban, rural and plantation sectors were 23.6%, 15.5% and 8.5% respectively. Prevalence among Sinhalese, Tamils and Muslims were 14.4%, 29.0% and 20.0% respectively. There was a gradient in prevalence according to the unsatisfactory basic needs index of the GND with the highest proportion (20.7% observed in the richest GND. The highest social status quintile demonstrated the highest proportion (17.4% with diabetes mellitus. Conclusion There is a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the more affluent and educated segments of society. There is also a higher prevalence among urban compared to rural and estates. Sri Lanka is in an early stage of the epidemic where the wealthy people are at a higher risk of DM.

  18. Strategies to overcome barriers for cleaner generation technologies in small developing power systems: Sri Lanka case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The penetration of cleaner and energy efficient technologies in small power systems such as the one in Sri Lanka has encountered many problems. This has caused major concerns among the policy makers, mainly in the context of the growing need to reduce harmful emissions in the electricity supply industry from the point of view of both local environmental pollution as well as the global warming concerns. This paper presents the outcome of a study involved in identifying and ranking the barriers to the promotion of cleaner and energy efficient technologies and strategies to overcome these barriers in Sri Lanka. Barriers for renewable energy based systems such as wind and wood fuel fired plants (dendro thermal power) and cleaner technologies such as liquefied natural gas (LNG) fired combined cycle and IGCC (coal) were identified based on a survey. A direct assessment multi-criteria decision making method called Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to rank the barriers. The most effective strategies are proposed to address the three major barriers for each of these technologies based on extensive discussions with all the stakeholders in the electricity industry. It was found that lack of financing instruments, high initial cost and lack of assurance of resource supply or availability are the main barriers for renewable technologies. As for cleaner fuel and technology options associated with conventional generation systems, the lack of a clear government policy, uncert lack of a clear government policy, uncertainty of fuel supplies and their prices and the reliability of the technologies themselves are the major barriers. Strategies are identified to overcome the above barriers. Establishment of a proper feed in tariff, geographical diversification of installations and capacity building in commercial banks are suggested for wind power. Investment incentives, streamlining of wood production and research on site identification are proposed for wood fuel fired plants. Also the study suggests delayed implementation, combined planning with other sectors of the economy, incorporating environmental cost in planning and investment incentives as strategies for IGCC and LNG based technologies

  19. An Electronic Public Health Information System for Sri Lanka: a proposal to enhance current practice

    OpenAIRE

    G. R. M. P. Dharmawardhana

    2013-01-01

    Public health depends on timely collected, complete and accurate data. To achieve the public health goal of “collective action for sustained population-wide health improvement”, the ability to measure and monitor health indices of communities and populations is very important. The Sri Lankan public health system has been exemplary among developing countries and the system is well established. Yet the growing population, increased awareness and new health needs of the community have placed...

  20. Inequalities in the Financial Inclusion in Sri Lanka: An Assessment of the Functional Financial Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Heenkkenda, Shirantha

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the existing pattern and the levels of disparity of the functional financial literacy in the Sri Lankan context. The study, mainly using quantitative data, selected the sample representing the three main settlement types: urban, rural and estate sector using multi-stage sampling technique related to cluster sampling. The analysis generated five ‘domains’ of financial literacy scores that capture respondent’s relative skills using factor analysis. Tobit regression an...

  1. Vulnerability assessment and protective effects of coastal vegetation during the 2004 Tsunami in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, M.; Renaud, F.G.; Lüchters, G.

    2009-01-01

    The tsunami of December 2004 caused extensive human and economic losses along many parts of the Sri Lankan coastline. Thanks to extensive national and international solidarity and support in the aftermath of the event, most people managed to restore their livelihoods completely but some households did not manage to recover completely from the impacts of the event. The differential in recovery highlighted the various vulnerabilities and coping capacities of communities exposed to the tsunami. ...

  2. Ethics of cancer palliative care in Sri Lanka. A cross- cultural perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Dayasiri MBKC

    2010-01-01

    The diagnosis of cancer is associated with an unexpected breakdown of the physical, psychological and social well being. In addition to cancer related physical outcomes, cross-cultural issues are known to hasten patients’ clinical deterioration and can impact upon orientation as a healthy human being in society. As members of a developing nation in the second world, to provide patient oriented quality care while maintaining high standards of ethical practice, health care workers in Sri Lank...

  3. Pattern of pesticide storage before pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Eddleston Michael; Azher Shifa; Gunnell David; Manuweera Gamini; Mohamed Fahim; Dawson Andrew; Konradsen Flemming

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides is the commonest means of suicide in rural Asia. It is mostly impulsive and facilitated by easy access to pesticides. The aim of this large observational study was to investigate the immediate source of pesticides used for self-harm to help inform suicide prevention strategies such as reducing domestic access to pesticides. Methods The study was conducted in a district hospital serving an agricultural region of Sri Lan...

  4. Understanding school health environment through interviews with key stakeholders in Lao PDR, Mongolia, Nepal and Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Lee, Eun Young; Gittelsohn, Joel; Nkala, Denis; Choi, Bo Youl

    2015-04-01

    Studies on health promoting schools (HPS) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are scarce. To contribute to the development of HPS in these countries, we conducted formative research to understand the school environment in Lao PDR, Mongolia, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. Forty-three teachers, 10 government workers and 5 parents participated in three one-on-one interviews and 14 natural group interviews. Six themes emerged that centered on insufficient resources as reasons for suboptimal health conditions. At the individual level, participants mentioned the deficiency of personal resources to cope with cold weather and poor diet. At the school level, the lack of physical resources such as water purifiers and latrines was discussed. Interviewees also pointed out the schools' overdependence on external resources and therefore the lack of sustainability. Last, the shortage of health services at the school and community level was commonly mentioned. Based on these results, we believe that the basic concept of HPSs should also be applied when working with schools in LMICs. In conclusion, there was a lack of perception of the importance of policy and capacity development programs, which are important in developing HPSs. Therefore, future school health programs should stress improving these elements. PMID:25503378

  5. Transitions in ancient inland freshwater resource management in Sri Lanka affect biota and human populations in and around coastal lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdouh-Guebas, F; Hettiarachchi, S; Lo Seen, D; Batelaan, O; Sooriyarachchi, S; Jayatissa, L P; Koedam, N

    2005-03-29

    The increasing anthropogenic pressure on natural environments results in impacts that affect tropical forest areas and their biodiversity. Adverse impacts on terrestrial and oceanic environments often compound in the intertidal area, where mangrove forest ecosystems thrive. In tropical coastal areas of many developing countries where people depend on wood and other mangrove forest products and services, forest degradation leads to socioeconomic problems. At the same time, increasing freshwater needs in these areas are expected to cause additional problems. On the basis of remote sensing and ground truthing complemented by colonial archival material from the Dutch East India Company (1602-1800), we report that changes to the historic system of inland freshwater management have increased dramatically in recent times. Hydrological changes, such as interbasin transfers, have resulted in a qualitative ecological and socioeconomic degradation in three coastal lagoons in southern Sri Lanka. Variations in river hydrology have caused changes in the areas suitable as mangrove habitat and, thus, have resulted in an altered distribution. However, increases in mangrove area can mask the degradation of the site in terms of floristic composition, significance of the species, and biodiversity (this effect is termed "cryptic ecological degradation"). It is important that such changes be carefully monitored to ensure biological and socioeconomic sustainability. PMID:15797030

  6. Chronic renal failure in Sri Lanka caused by elevated dietary cadmium: Trojan horse of the green revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, J M R S; Wijewardena, H V P; Liyanege, J; Upul, M A; Bandara, J M U A

    2010-09-15

    The endemic of chronic renal failure (CRF) emerged in 2002 in the farming provinces of Sri Lanka. An estimate of dietary cadmium intake was between 15 and 28 microg/kg body weight per week. The mean urinary cadmium in patients diagnosed with stage 5 kidney failure was 7.6 microg/g creatinine and 11.6 microg/g for asymptomatic persons. The agrochemical triple superphosphate (TSP) fertilizer containing 23.5-71.7 mg Cd/kg was the source of cadmium added to soils. Mean Cd content in cultivated vs. uncultivated soils in Anuradhapura district was 0.02 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.11 +/- 0.19 mg/kg while in Polonnaruwa district, it was 0.005 +/- 0.004 vs. 0.016 +/- 0.005 mg/kg. Prior to the Green Revolution, the amount of fertilizer used in rice cultivation in 1970 was 32,000 metric tons (Mts) rising to 74,000 Mts in 1975. Up to 68.9 Mts of Cd could have entered into the rice-cascade reservoir environment from TSP use since 1973. Diversion of the Mahaweli River in 1970-1980 further increased cadmium input. Cadmium transfer from Upper Mahaweli water to Polgolla was 72.13 kg/day. Cadmium content of the sediments from reservoirs collecting cadmium from irrigated TSP fertilized crop fields (rice and vegetables) was 1.8-2.4 mg/kg. PMID:20430069

  7. Structure of a low-enthalpy geothermal system inferred from magnetotellurics - A case study from Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimalsiri, Thusitha Bandara; Suriyaarachchi, Nuwan Buddhika; Hobbs, Bruce; Manzella, Adele; Fonseka, Morrel; Dharmagunawardena, H. A.; Subasinghe, Nalaka Deepal

    2015-06-01

    First comprehensive geothermal exploration in Sri Lanka was conducted in 2010 encompassing seven thermal springs, of which Kapurella records the highest temperature. The study consisted of passive magnetotelluric (MT) soundings, in which static shifts were corrected using time domain electromagnetic method (TDEM). A frequency range of 12,500-0.001 Hz was used for MT acquisition and polar diagrams were employed for dimensionality determination. MT and TDEM data were jointly inverted and 2D models were created using both transverse electric and transverse magnetic modes. A conductive southeast dipping structure is revealed from both phase pseudosections and the preferred 2D inversion model. A conductive formation starting at a depth of 7.5 km shows a direct link with the dipping structure. We suggest that these conductive structures are accounted for deep circulation and accumulation of groundwater. Our results show the geothermal reservoir of Kapurella system with a lateral extension of around 2.5 km and a depth range of 3 km. It is further found that the associated dolerite dike is not the source of heat although it could be acting as an impermeable barrier to form the reservoir. The results have indicated the location of the deep reservoir and the possible fluid path of the Kapurella system, which could be utilized to direct future geothermal studies. This pioneering study makes suggestions to improve future MT data acquisition and to use boreholes and other geophysical methods to improve the investigation of structures at depth.

  8. Locking-in and locking-out business and economic reconciliation in the conflict-affected region of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danura Miriyagalla

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Using economic geography concepts, this paper compares four groups of investors to the conflictaffected region of Sri Lanka and critically analyses the key factors that are “locking-in” and “locking-out” investment, business development and employment creation. It argues that foreign/Diaspora investors were mostly being influenced by political and social factors, and thus far had not invested significantly in the region. Traders from the non-conflict-affected region of the country had benefitted the most due to opportunistic behaviour, their acceptance of the political realities and the short-term economic opportunities that had opened up. Large investors from outside the region, on the other hand, had either been disappointed with the economic situation or had invested due to a sense of social responsibility and long-term business prospects. Local SMEs within the conflict region were hit hard by the opening of the war-affected economy and have been unable to cope with the change. Political, economic, and social factors had all contributed to their unwillingness and inability to expand their businesses. The paper concludes that the climate for investment must be improved significantly by creating a strong “path-creating” environment and “de-locking” investment inhibiting factors. There must be better collaboration amongst different types of businesses, and coordination amongst different stakeholders. If done well, enhanced investment and employment creation could make a significant impact on reconciliation and long-term peace in the country.

  9. Description of a new species of rabbitfish (Perciformes: Siganidae) from southern India, Sri Lanka and the Maldives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodland, David J; Anderson, R Charles

    2014-01-01

    Siganus insomnis sp. nov. is described from the Maldives, Sri Lanka and southern India. It most closely resembles S. lineatus (Valenciennes) from the Western Pacific but differs in coloration, principally in that most if not all of the bronze bands on its mid and upper sides continue horizontally and unbroken through to the nape and opercular slit. By contrast, in S. lineatus, typically the anterior area below the spinous dorsal fin down to the mid-sides is irregularly marked with golden bronze spots, commas, or a maze of contorted lines. S. guttatus (Bloch) is the third member of this group of sibling species; its sides are covered with orange to bronze-gold spots. It is distributed throughout S.E. Asia, i.e., it occupies a geographic position between the areas inhabited by S. lineatus and S. insomnis. Thus the gene pools of S. lineatus and S. insomnis are quarantined from one another by distance and the intervening presence of S. guttatus in S.E. Asia. The geographical separation of the populations of S. lineatus and S. insomnis from one another is reinforced by the absence of suitable, coralline habitats for these species in the western half of the Bay of Bengal.  PMID:24943153

  10. Cost-effectiveness analyses of self-harm strategies aimed at reducing the mortality of pesticide self-poisonings in Sri Lanka : a study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lizell Bustamante; Eddleston, Michael

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: An estimated 803,900 people worldwide died as a result of self-harm in 2012. The deliberate ingestion of pesticides has been identified as the method most frequently used to commit fatal self-harm globally. In Sri Lanka, it is estimated that up to 60% of all suicides are committed using this method. The aim of the present study is to assess the cost-effectiveness of an ongoing safe storage intervention currently taking place in a rural Sri Lankan district and to model the cost-effectiveness of implementing the safe storage intervention as well as four potential interventions (legislative, medical management, follow-up contact and mobile phone contact) on a national level. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Study design for all the strategies is a cost-effectiveness analysis. A governmental perspective is adopted. The time horizon for tracking the associated costs and health outcomes of the safe storage intervention on district level runs over 3?years. The time horizon is extended to 5?years when modelling afull national roll-out of the respective interventions. The discounting of costs and health outcomes are undertaken at the recommended real rate of 3%. Threshold analyses of the modelled strategies are employed to assess the strategies potential for cost-effectiveness, running scenarios with health outcome improvements ranging from 1% to 100%. Sensitivity analyses are also performed. The main outcome measures of the safe storage intervention are incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was granted for the safe storage project from the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, in March of 2008. An amendment for the present study was granted from Rajarata University of Sri Lanka in November of 2013. Findings will be disseminated to public and private stakeholders in local and national government in Sri Lanka as well as the wider academic audience through peer-reviewed publications and international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: The safe storage cluster trial is registered with the Clinical Trials, ref: NCT1146496 (http://clinicaltrialsfeeds.org/clinical-trials/show/NCT1146496).

  11. Cost-effectiveness analyses of self-harm strategies aimed at reducing the mortality of pesticide self-poisonings in Sri Lanka: a study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Lizell Bustamante; Eddleston, Michael; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Pearson, Melissa; Agampodi, Suneth; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Konradsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Introduction An estimated 803?900 people worldwide died as a result of self-harm in 2012. The deliberate ingestion of pesticides has been identified as the method most frequently used to commit fatal self-harm globally. In Sri Lanka, it is estimated that up to 60% of all suicides are committed using this method. The aim of the present study is to assess the cost-effectiveness of an ongoing safe storage intervention currently taking place in a rural Sri Lankan district and to model the cost-effectiveness of implementing the safe storage intervention as well as four potential interventions (legislative, medical management, follow-up contact and mobile phone contact) on a national level. Methods and analysis Study design for all the strategies is a cost-effectiveness analysis. A governmental perspective is adopted. The time horizon for tracking the associated costs and health outcomes of the safe storage intervention on district level runs over 3?years. The time horizon is extended to 5?years when modelling a full national roll-out of the respective interventions. The discounting of costs and health outcomes are undertaken at the recommended real rate of 3%. Threshold analyses of the modelled strategies are employed to assess the strategies potential for cost-effectiveness, running scenarios with health outcome improvements ranging from 1% to 100%. Sensitivity analyses are also performed. The main outcome measures of the safe storage intervention are incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was granted for the safe storage project from the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, in March of 2008. An amendment for the present study was granted from Rajarata University of Sri Lanka in November of 2013. Findings will be disseminated to public and private stakeholders in local and national government in Sri Lanka as well as the wider academic audience through peer-reviewed publications and international conferences. Trial registration number The safe storage cluster trial is registered with the Clinical Trials, ref: NCT1146496 (http://clinicaltrialsfeeds.org/clinical-trials/show/NCT1146496). PMID:25724984

  12. Negotiating respectability: migrant women workers' perceptions of relationships and sexuality in free trade zones in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordal, Malin; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Ohman, Ann; Essén, Birgitta; Olsson, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Migration has implications for women's sexual and reproductive health and rights. Our purpose with this study was to explore unmarried migrant women's perceptions of relationships and sexuality in the context of Sri Lankan Free Trade Zones. Sixteen semi-structured qualitative interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. We found that the women's perceptions were influenced by gendered hegemonic notions of respectability and virginity. Complex gender relations both worked in favor of and against women's sexual and reproductive health and rights. Programs for improvement of migrant women's health should be informed by contextualized analysis of gender relations with its various dimensions and levels. PMID:24279615

  13. Studies on reproductive endocrinology and factors influencing fertility in dairy and draught buffaloes in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of calving data on state farms and a field survey in village herds were used in conjunction with radioimmunoassay for plasma and milk progesterone, rectal palpation and other clinical observations to study reproductive functions of river type (Murrah) and indigenous (Lanka) buffaloes. A marked seasonality of calvings and conceptions was observed in both types, with the highest percentage of conceptions occurring 2-5 months after the annual peak in rainfall. In Murrah buffaloes on two state farms the mean ages at first calving were 51.0 and 52.1 months, and the calving interval 17.5 months. Progesterone profiles during the postpartum period showed ovarian inactivity to be the major problem. Most animals remained anoestrous for 100-200 days, but conceived at the first or second postpartum ovulation. Treatment with GnRH during anoestrus had no beneficial effect. Hormonal changes during normal and prostaglandin-synchronized oestrous cycles, pregnancy and the peripartal period were basically similar to those in cattle, with some differences in absolute values. Gestation length (mean+-SD) was 309.9+-8.8 days. In Lanka buffaloes under village conditions marked differences in fertility were evident between certain districts and agro-ecological zones. Mean ages at first calving ranged from 41.4-49 months, calving intervals from 13-23.5 months, and annual calving rates from 42-75%. Ovarian inactivity was the major problem in areas with poor fertility, and was influenceeas with poor fertility, and was influenced by suckling management and usage for draught and milk. At one village location with high fertility 70% of the animals had calving to first service intervals less than 60 days, first service conception rate of 65.5% and 1.4 services per conception. The mean (+-SD) interval from calving to first elevation of progesterone in milk was 55.2+-18.6 days, the calving interval 393.7+-79.8 days, and the gestation length 316.9+-9.9 days. (author)

  14. Degradation of 14C ring labeled pesticides in selected soils of Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degradation rates of 14C ring labeled carbofuran and diazinon in selected Sri Lankan soils were studied using 0.1 ?Ci/10 g soil in Nuwara Eliya (red yellow podzolic), Pugoda (alluvials) Kalpitiya and Negombo (regosols) soils by incubating at 28 deg C of temperature for 13 hours light and 11 hours dark conditions and measuring the activity of liberated CO2 using liquid scintillation counter after 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28, 36, 42 and 58 days. During the total period the carbofuran mineralization was about 23% in Kalpitiya soils and less than 20% in other three soils and diazinon mineralization was about 25% in Negombo soil and very low in other soils. (author)

  15. Toad radiation reveals into-India dispersal as a source of endemism in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossuyt Franky

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High taxonomic level endemism in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot has been typically attributed to the subcontinent's geological history of long-term isolation. Subsequent out of – and into India dispersal of species after accretion to the Eurasian mainland is therefore often seen as a biogeographic factor that 'diluted' the composition of previously isolated Indian biota. However, few molecular studies have focussed on into-India dispersal as a possible source of endemism on the subcontinent. Using c. 6000 base pairs of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, we investigated the evolutionary history and biogeography of true toads (Bufonidae, a group that colonized the Indian Subcontinent after the Indo-Asia collision. Results Contrary to previous studies, Old World toads were recovered as a nested clade within New World Bufonidae, indicating a single colonization event. Species currently classified as Ansonia and Pedostibes were both recovered as being non-monophyletic, providing evidence for the independent origin of torrential and arboreal ecomorphs on the Indian subcontinent and in South-East Asia. Our analyses also revealed a previously unrecognized adaptive radiation of toads containing a variety of larval and adult ecomorphs. Molecular dating estimates and biogeographic analyses indicate that the early diversification of this clade happened in the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka during the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene. Conclusion Paleoclimate reconstructions have shown that the Early Neogene of India was marked by major environmental changes, with the transition from a zonal- to the current monsoon-dominated climate. After arrival in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka hotspot, toads diversified in situ, with only one lineage able to successfully disperse out of these mountains. Consequently, higher taxonomic level endemism on the Indian Subcontinent is not only the result of Cretaceous isolation, but also of invasion, isolation and radiation of new elements after accretion to the Eurasian mainland.

  16. Salinity-tolerant larvae of mosquito vectors in the tropical coast of Jaffna, Sri Lanka and the effect of salinity on the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis to Aedes aegypti larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue, chikungunya, malaria, filariasis and Japanese encephalitis are common mosquito-borne diseases endemic to Sri Lanka. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, the major vectors of dengue, were recently shown to undergo pre-imaginal development in brackish water bodies in the island. A limited survey of selected coastal localities of the Jaffna district in northern Sri Lanka was carried out to identify mosquito species undergoing pre-imaginal development in brackish and saline waters. The effect of salinity on the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis larvicide to Ae. aegypti larvae at salinity levels naturally tolerated by Ae. aegypti was examined. Methods Larvae collected at the selected sites along the Jaffna coast were identified and salinity of habitat water determined in the laboratory. The LC50 and LC90 of B. thuringiensis toxin, the active ingredient of a commercial formulation of the larvicide BACTIVEC®, were determined with Ae. aegypti larvae. Bioassays were also carried out at salinities varying from 0 to18 ppt to determine the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis to fresh and brackish water-derived larvae of Ae. aegypti. Results Larvae of four Anopheles, two Aedes, one Culex and one Lutzia species were collected from brackish and saline sites with salinity in the range 2 to 68 ppt. The LC50 and LC90 of B. thuringiensis toxin for the second instar larvae of Ae. aegypti in fresh water were 0.006 ppm and 0.013 ppm respectively, with corresponding values for brackish water populations of 0.008 and 0.012 ppm respectively. One hundred percent survival of second instar fresh water and brackish water-derived Ae. aegypti larvae was recorded at salinity up to 10 and 12 ppt and 100% mortality at 16 and 18 ppt, yielding an LC 50 for salinity of 13.9 ppt and 15.4 ppt at 24 h post-treatment respectively for the two populations. Statistical analysis showed significantly reduced toxicity of B. thuringiensis to fresh and brackish water-derived Ae. aegypti larvae at high salinities. Conclusion A variety of mosquito vectors of human diseases undergo pre-imaginal development in brackish or saline waters in coastal areas of the Jaffna district in northern Sri Lanka. Salinity has a small but significant negative impact on the toxicity of B. thuringiensis toxin to Ae. aegypti larvae at salinity levels where Ae. aegypti larvae are found in the environment. This has implications for the use of B. thuringiensis toxin as a larvicide in brackish waters. PMID:23174003

  17. Salinity-tolerant larvae of mosquito vectors in the tropical coast of Jaffna, Sri Lanka and the effect of salinity on the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis to Aedes aegypti larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Pavilupillai J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue, chikungunya, malaria, filariasis and Japanese encephalitis are common mosquito-borne diseases endemic to Sri Lanka. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, the major vectors of dengue, were recently shown to undergo pre-imaginal development in brackish water bodies in the island. A limited survey of selected coastal localities of the Jaffna district in northern Sri Lanka was carried out to identify mosquito species undergoing pre-imaginal development in brackish and saline waters. The effect of salinity on the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis larvicide to Ae. aegypti larvae at salinity levels naturally tolerated by Ae. aegypti was examined. Methods Larvae collected at the selected sites along the Jaffna coast were identified and salinity of habitat water determined in the laboratory. The LC50 and LC90 of B. thuringiensis toxin, the active ingredient of a commercial formulation of the larvicide BACTIVEC®, were determined with Ae. aegypti larvae. Bioassays were also carried out at salinities varying from 0 to18 ppt to determine the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis to fresh and brackish water-derived larvae of Ae. aegypti. Results Larvae of four Anopheles, two Aedes, one Culex and one Lutzia species were collected from brackish and saline sites with salinity in the range 2 to 68 ppt. The LC50 and LC90 of B. thuringiensis toxin for the second instar larvae of Ae. aegypti in fresh water were 0.006 ppm and 0.013 ppm respectively, with corresponding values for brackish water populations of 0.008 and 0.012 ppm respectively. One hundred percent survival of second instar fresh water and brackish water-derived Ae. aegypti larvae was recorded at salinity up to 10 and 12 ppt and 100% mortality at 16 and 18 ppt, yielding an LC 50 for salinity of 13.9 ppt and 15.4 ppt at 24 h post-treatment respectively for the two populations. Statistical analysis showed significantly reduced toxicity of B. thuringiensis to fresh and brackish water-derived Ae. aegypti larvae at high salinities. Conclusion A variety of mosquito vectors of human diseases undergo pre-imaginal development in brackish or saline waters in coastal areas of the Jaffna district in northern Sri Lanka. Salinity has a small but significant negative impact on the toxicity of B. thuringiensis toxin to Ae. aegypti larvae at salinity levels where Ae. aegypti larvae are found in the environment. This has implications for the use of B. thuringiensis toxin as a larvicide in brackish waters.

  18. "e-Praja Suwa Arunalu": A Pilot Study of a Health Information Management System for Public Health Midwives in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    E. Shan S. Rodrigo; Samantha R. U. Wimalaratne; Rohan B. Marasinghe; Sisira Edirippulige

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a needs analysis amongst 16 Public Health Midwives (PHMs) in Sri Lanka and found that they spend most of their time on managing health records. We developed an electronic Health Information Management System (HIMS) to help them with their work. The HIMS was designed so that it could accept data from the PHMs, and generate reports which could be used by the PHMs themselves as well as by their supervisors. The HIMS was tested by a group of 16 PHMs in a remote area in the Rathnapura...

  19. A cold pool south of Indo-Sri Lanka channel and its intrus on into the southeastern Arabian Sea during winter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, R.R.; GirishKumar, M.S.; Ravichandran, M.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Pankajakshan, T.

    2008-01-01

    –30 days in the equatorial Indian Ocean. Chatterjee and Goswami (2004) have discussed the structure, genesis and scale selection of the quasi-biweekly mode in the tropics. The time series measurements of currents from moorings deployed south of Sri Lanka...-surface thermal structure (Boyer et al., 2006). The QuikSCAT surface winds (2000–2006) (Wentz et al., 2001) and the SOC adjusted surface net heat flux data (1980–1993) (Josey et al., 1999) are utilized to assess their impact on the observed surface cooling...

  20. Comparison of Technical Efficiency and Socio-economic Status in Animal-crop Mixed Farming Systems in Dry Lowland Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Upul Yasantha Nanayakkara Vithanage; Gunaratne, Lokugam H. P.; Kumara Mahipala M. B. P.; Hewa Waduge Cyril

    2014-01-01

    Pre-tested, structured questionnaires covered management aspects, inputs, outputs, socio-economic situations and constraints in dairy farming among Semi-intensive (SIFS) and Extensive farming systems (EFS) in dry-lowland Sri Lanka. Parametric data were analyzed using two-tailed‘t’ and ‘Z’ tests, and non-parametric values were analyzed using Chi-square and Fisher’s extract tests. Cobb-Douglas model was used to calculate meta-frontier and system-specific frontiers. Returns in SIFS are...

  1. Anthelmintic prescribing patterns of a sample of general practitioners from selected areas in the colombo district of sri lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Gsa; Siriwardana, C; Paranavitane, S R; Ismail, M M; Fernando, S D

    2008-04-01

    General Practitioners (GPs) provide first contact care of children and pregnant mothers in the community. This study ascertained the prescribing pattern of anthelmintics to children and pregnant women by a sample of GPs from the district of Colombo. Two hundred medical practitioners engaged in full-time General Practice (100 urban and 100 rural), were selected randomly. A pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. A total of 183 GPs aged between 26 and 72 years (median 38) participated with 94 coming from urban areas. Seventy percent of the GPs were male. Almost 13% of GPs from urban areas had a Postgraduate degree in comparison to 4.5% from the rural areas (P Pyrantel pamoate was the preferred anthelmintic used for children by both groups. Approximately 55% and 64% of GPs from urban and rural areas, respectively, prescribed anthelmintics during pregnancy. A majority of GPs prescribed drugs after the first trimester. However, 25% from urban areas gave drugs during any trimester (P < 0.001). Regression analysis revealed that GPs with postgraduate qualifications, those having frequent access to health-related material and those seeing more than 30 patients daily, prescribed anthelmintics to pregnant women more often. Although routine de-worming of pregnant women and children should occur through government antenatal and well-baby clinics, and through the schools de-worming programme, it may not happen due to various reasons. Thus, GPs play a vital role in achieving good coverage of anthelmintics among children and pregnant women. Making available clear national guidelines on prescribing anthelmintics in Sri Lanka would improve the prescribing patterns of anthelmintics among GPs. PMID:19967032

  2. Mental Health Status of Sri Lanka Navy Personnel Three Years after End of Combat Operations: A Follow Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanwella, Raveen; Jayasekera, Nicholas E. L. W.; de Silva, Varuni A.

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to assess the mental health status of the Navy Special Forces and regular forces three and a half years after the end of combat operations in mid 2009, and compare it with the findings in 2009. This cross sectional study was carried out in the Sri Lanka Navy (SLN), three and a half years after the end of combat operations. Representative samples of SLN Special Forces and regular forces deployed in combat areas were selected using simple random sampling. Only personnel who had served continuously in combat areas during the one year period prior to the end of combat operations were included in the study. The sample consisted of 220 Special Forces and 275 regular forces personnel. Compared to regular forces a significantly higher number of Special Forces personnel had experienced potentially traumatic events. Compared to the period immediately after end of combat operations, in the Special Forces, prevalence of psychological distress and fatigue showed a marginal increase while hazardous drinking and multiple physical symptoms showed a marginal decrease. In the regular forces, the prevalence of psychological distress, fatigue and multiple somatic symptoms declined and prevalence of hazardous drinking increased from 16.5% to 25.7%. During the same period prevalence of smoking doubled in both Special Forces and regular forces. Prevalence of PTSD reduced from 1.9% in Special Forces to 0.9% and in the regular forces from 2.07% to 1.1%. Three and a half years after the end of combat operations mental health problems have declined among SLN regular forces while there was no significant change among Special Forces. Hazardous drinking among regular forces and smoking among both Special Forces and regular forces have increased. PMID:25254557

  3. The ‘Agency of Mapping’ in South Asia: Galle-Matara (Sri Lanka, Mumbai (India and Khulna (Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Shannon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The territories – cities and landscapes – of South Asia are under incredible transformation due to man-made and natural conditions. Globalisation is spatially leaving its imprint as cities and landscapes are progressively being built by an ever-more fragmented, piecemeal and ad-hoc project modus – funded by established and new-found fortunes of national and international developers and lenders, development aid projects and (often corrupt governments. At the same time, ‘natural’ disasters are increasing in severity and frequency – due to climate change and the flagrant disregard of the environment in the relentless dive to impose imported terms of reference for modernisation and urbanisation. The challenges and strategic importance of realising urban design in South Asia’s contemporary context of borrowed visions, abstract land-use planning and a diminishing political will are, obviously, innumerable. How to qualitatively intervene as an urbanist in such a context? This paper will argue that an understanding of contexts, based on fieldwork, is necessary in order to project feasible urban visions and strategic urban design projects that can make more evident particular sites’ inherent qualities and creatively marry ecological, infrastructural, and urbanisation issues by solutions that cut across multiple scales and sectoral divisions. Interpretative mapping is a first step to transform a territory. An understanding of the context and the reading of sites are necessary in order to create modifications that have logic and relate to the particularities of places and situations. Three scales of mapping (territorial, urban, and tissue will be presented. The territories/cities investigated are the southwest (Galle-Matara coast of Sri Lanka, Mumbai, the economic engine of India, and Khulna, the third largest city in Bangladesh.

  4. Multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms involving metabolic changes and insensitive target sites selected in anopheline vectors of malaria in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunaratne SHP Parakrama

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current status of insecticide resistance and the underlying resistance mechanisms were studied in the major vector of malaria, Anopheles culicifacies, and the secondary vector, Anopheles subpictus in five districts (Anuradhapura, Kurunegala, Moneragala, Puttalam and Trincomalee of Sri Lanka. Eight other anophelines, Anopheles annularis, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles jamesii, Anopheles nigerrimus, Anopheles peditaeniatus, Anopheles tessellatus, Anopheles vagus and Anopheles varuna from Anuradhapura district were also tested. Methods Adult females were exposed to the WHO discriminating dosages of DDT, malathion, fenitrothion, propoxur, ?-cyhalothrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, permethrin and etofenprox. The presence of metabolic resistance by esterase, glutathione S-transferase (GST and monooxygenase-based mechanisms, and the sensitivity of the acetylcholinesterase target site were assessed using synergists, and biochemical, and metabolic techniques. Results All the anopheline species had high DDT resistance. All An. culicifacies and An. subpictus populations were resistant to malathion, except An. culicifacies from Kurunegala, where there was no malathion carboxylesterase activity. Kurunegala and Puttalam populations of An. culicifacies were susceptible to fenitrothion. All the An. culicifacies populations were susceptible to carbamates. Both species were susceptible to the discriminating dosages of cypermethrin and cyfluthrin, but had different levels of resistance to other pyrethroids. Of the 8 other anophelines, only An. nigerrimus and An. peditaeniatus were resistant to all the insecticides tested, probably due to their high exposure to the insecticides used in agriculture. An. vagus showed some resistance to permethrin. Esterases, GSTs and monooxygenases were elevated in both An. culicifacies and An. subpictus. AChE was most sensitive to insecticides in Kurunegala and Trincomalee An. culicifacies populations and highly insensitive in the Trincomalee An. subpictus population. Conclusion The complexity of the resistance segregating in these field populations underlines the need for new molecular tools to identify the genomic diversity, differential upregulation and different binding specificities of resistance conferring genes, and the presence of different subspecies with different vectorial capacities.

  5. A One Health Framework for the Evaluation of Rabies Control Programmes: A Case Study from Colombo City, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häsler, Barbara; Hiby, Elly; Gilbert, Will; Obeyesekere, Nalinika; Bennani, Houda; Rushton, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Background One Health addresses complex challenges to promote the health of all species and the environment by integrating relevant sciences at systems level. Its application to zoonotic diseases is recommended, but few coherent frameworks exist that combine approaches from multiple disciplines. Rabies requires an interdisciplinary approach for effective and efficient management. Methodology/Principal Findings A framework is proposed to assess the value of rabies interventions holistically. The economic assessment compares additional monetary and non-monetary costs and benefits of an intervention taking into account epidemiological, animal welfare, societal impact and cost data. It is complemented by an ethical assessment. The framework is applied to Colombo City, Sri Lanka, where modified dog rabies intervention measures were implemented in 2007. The two options included for analysis were the control measures in place until 2006 (“baseline scenario”) and the new comprehensive intervention measures (“intervention”) for a four-year duration. Differences in control cost; monetary human health costs after exposure; Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost due to human rabies deaths and the psychological burden following a bite; negative impact on animal welfare; epidemiological indicators; social acceptance of dogs; and ethical considerations were estimated using a mixed method approach including primary and secondary data. Over the four years analysed, the intervention cost US $1.03 million more than the baseline scenario in 2011 prices (adjusted for inflation) and caused a reduction in dog rabies cases; 738 DALYs averted; an increase in acceptability among non-dog owners; a perception of positive changes in society including a decrease in the number of roaming dogs; and a net reduction in the impact on animal welfare from intermediate-high to low-intermediate. Conclusions The findings illustrate the multiple outcomes relevant to stakeholders and allow greater understanding of the value of the implemented rabies control measures, thereby providing a solid foundation for informed decision-making and sustainable control. PMID:25340771

  6. Analysis of patients admitted with history of road traffic accidents to surgical unit B Teaching Hospital Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAK Weerawardena

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Road Traffic Accidents (RTA is a leading cause of morbidity, mortalityand disability in Sri Lanka. Identification of factors associated with RTA in local settings is essential in redusing the burden of this conditionMethods We analyzed consecutive patients admitted with RTA toSurgical Unit-B,Teaching Hospital Anuradhapura from 01/10/ 2012 to 31/03/2013. Epidemiology, injury pattern, vehicle type, cause for accident and contributory factors were noted.Results Altogether, 214 consecutive patients with an age range of 01- 75 years were studied. Males accounted for 77.6%(n=166 of the study sample.. Vehicle type involved with the injury included, motorcycle 138(65%, bicycles 23(11%, three wheelers 23(11%, tractors 11(5%, buses 5(2%, lorries 6(3%, cars 2(1% and other3(1%. There were 135(64% drivers /riders, 59(28% passengers and 17(08%pedestrians.Causes for accidents included wrong driving/riding 54(25%, other vehicle collided 46(22%, animal crossing road 39(18%, mechanical failure 14(7%, poor road 18(9%, glare 4(2%, man crossing road 8(4%, garment trapping the wheel 5(2%, rain 6(3%. Contributory factors included alcohol use in 32%, no helmet 39% of riders, no driving license for 47% in recorded cases. There were 33 fractures, 2 intracranial hemorrhages.Conclusion Majority of RTA involved motor bicycles. Lack of driving license for 47% of rider/drivers itself explain wrong driving/ridding to be the main cause for accidents. Alcohol is a major contributory factor for RTA in this population.

  7. Effects of Sand Dune and Vegetation in the Coastal Area of Sri Lanka at the Indian Ocean Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Norio; Sasaki, Yasushi; Mowjood, M. I. M.

    This study explored the effects of coastal vegetation and sand dune on tsunami protection based on field observations carried out after the Indian Ocean tsunami on December 26, 2004. The representative vegetation was classified into six types according to their habitat and the stand structures of the trees. The impact of vegetation structure on drag forces was analyzed using the observed characteristics of the tree species. The drag coefficient, including the vertical stand structures of the trees, Cd-all, and the vegetation thickness in a unit area, dNu (d: reference diameter of trees, Nu: number of trees per unit area), varied greatly with the species classification. Based on the field survey and data analysis, Rhizophora apiculata and Rhizophora mucronata (Rhizophora apiculata-type), kinds of mangroves, and Pandanus odoratissimus, representative tree that grows in beach sand, were found to be especially effective in providing protection from tsunami-damage due to their complex aerial root structures. The breaking moment of the trees was investigated through a pulling test for the representative trees. The threshold value for breaking moment was compared to the drag-force moment acting on the trees located at the tsunami-damaged site. The breaking moment equation represents well the limitation of the representative species with the tsunami height. It arrives at a hypothesis about which species could better withstand the effects of a tsunami wave. Sand dune and lagoon is a typical landscape in most part of the coastal zone of Sri Lanka. The combination of the sand dune followed by vegetation toward landside played an important role in retarding tsunami. Two layers of forest in the vertical direction with P. odoratissimus and Casuarina equisetifolia and a horizontal forest structure of small and large diameter trees were also important for increasing drag, trapping floating objects, broken branches, houses, and people. These information should be considered in future coastal landscape planning, rehabilitation, and tsunami hazard mapping.

  8. Morphometric Evaluation of the Greater Palatine Foramen in Adult Sri Lankan Skulls / Evaluación Morfométrica del Foramen Palatino Mayor en Craneos Adultos de Sri Lanka

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isurani, Ilayperuma; Ganananda, Nanayakkara; Nadeeka, Palahepitiya.

    1418-14-01

    Full Text Available La evidencia apoya una variación racial evidente en la posición del foramen palatino mayor. Así, el conocimiento de datos específicos de la población sobre las características biométricas de las aperturas palatinas facilitará la realización de tratamientos terapéuticos, anestésicos locales y manipul [...] aciones quirúrgicas en la región maxilofacial. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar las características morfológicas y la posición anatómica precisa del foramen palatino mayor con referencia a estructuras anatómicas circundantes en una población adulta de Sri Lanka. Un total de 136 cráneos secos, adultos, fueron evaluados para determinar el número, la forma, la dirección de apertura del foramen palatino mayor y la distancia recta a la línea mediana palatina, al margen posterior del paladar duro y la fosa incisiva. La posición del foramen palatino mayor se determinó en relación con los molares superiores. Los resultados indicaron que 82,35% de los forámenes palatinos mayores tenían un contorno ovalado y situado en línea con el eje largo del tercer molar superior (77,20%). El foramen palatino mayor se encontró 15,24 mm lateral del plano sagital del paladar duro y 4,51 mm por delante del margen posterior del paladar duro. En el 50% de los casos la apertura de los forámenes fue en dirección antero-medial. Los resultados señalan las diferencias raciales en la posición del foramen palatino mayor y apuntan a la necesidad de una evaluación preoperatoria minuciosa en los pacientes candidatos a cirugías maxilofaciales y anestesia de bloque regional. Abstract in english Evidence supports a clear racial variation in the position of the greater palatine foramen. Therefore detailed knowledge of the population specific data on biometric features of the greater palatine foramen will facilitate therapeutic, local anesthetic and surgical manipulations in the maxillo-facia [...] l region. The goal of this study was to elucidate the morphological features and precise anatomical position of the greater palatine foramen with reference to surrounding anatomical landmarks in an adult Sri Lankan population. A total of one hundred and thirty six adult dry skulls were assessed to determine the number, shape, direction of opening of the greater palatine foramen and straight distance from it to the palatine midline, posterior margin of the hard palate and incisive fossa. The position of the greater palatine foramen was determined in relation to the maxillary molars. The results indicated that 82.35% of the greater palatine foramina had an oval outline and located in line with the long axis of the upper third molar (77.20%). The greater palatine foramen was located 15.24 mm lateral to the median sagittal plane of the hard palate and 4.51 mm anterior to the posterior border of the hard palate. In 50% of the cases the greater palatine foramen opened in an antero-medial direction. The results of the current study further highlight the racial differences in the position of the greater palatine foramen and emphasize the need for meticulous preoperative evaluation of the greater palatine foramen in patients who are candidates for maxillo-facial surgeries and regional block anesthesia.

  9. Supraorbital Notch/Foramen in Sri Lankan Skulls: Morphometry and Surgical Relevance / Escotadura/Foramen Supraorbitario en Cráneos de Sri Lanka: Morfometría y Relevancia Quirúrgica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isurani, Ilayperuma; Ganananda, Nanayakkara; Nadeeka, Palahapitiya.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La evidencia señala que existe dimorfismo étnico y sexual en la forma y posición del foramen supraorbitario. Por lo tanto, el conocimiento detallado de los datos específicos de una población sobre las características biométricas del foramen supraorbitario facilitará el diagnóstico, anestesia local y [...] procedimientos quirúrgicos en la región maxilofacial. El objetivo fue determinar las características morfológicas y posición anatómica exacta del foramen supraorbitario con referencia a los referencias anatómicas circundantes encontradas quirúrgicamente en una población adulta de Sri Lanka. Ciento ocho cráneos adultos secos de sexo conocido se evaluaron para determinar el número, forma, orientación, diámetros vertical y transversal del foramen supraorbitario, distancia transversal desde el foramen supraorbitario a la línea mediana nasal y sutura cigomático-maxilar y distancia vertical desde el foramen supraorbitario hasta el margen supraorbitario y foramen infraorbitario. La posición del foramen supraorbitario se determinó en relación al foramen infraorbitario. Los datos fueron evaluados según lado y sexo. La incisura supraorbitaria (64,81%) se encontró con mayor frecuencia que el foramen supraorbitario (35,19%). El 55,56% de las incisuras supraorbitarias y 20,37% de los forámenes supraorbitarios fueron bilaterales; mientras que el 24,07% de las incisuras fueron unilaterales con un foramen en el lado contralateral. La incidencia de los forámenes supraorbitarios múltiples fue del 6,48%. Se observaron variaciones sexuales en la posición relativa de la incisura/foramen supraorbitario respecto a la línea mediana nasal (hombres= 26,12±3,89; mujeres: 24,40±2,76), cresta temporal del hueso frontal (hombres= 32,74±3,94; mujeres: 30,87±4,18) y foramen infraorbitario (hombres= 44,86±3,35; mujeres= 43,26±3,63). La posición modal para el foramen infraorbitario fue lateral al margen lateral de la incisura/foramen supraorbitario (68,52 %), y los forámenes supraorbitario e infraorbitario se ubicaron en el mismo plano sagital sólo en el 24,07% de los cráneos. Los resultados muestran las diferencias raciales y sexuales y enfatizan la necesidad de una evaluación preoperatoria minuciosa del foramen supraorbitario para definir su posición en pacientes que son candidatos a cirugías maxilofaciales y bloqueo anestésico regional. Abstract in english Evidence supports the ethnic and sex variation in the form and position of the supraorbital foramen. Therefore, detailed knowledge of the population specific data on biometric features of the supraorbital foramen will facilitate diagnostic, local anesthetic and surgical manipulations in the maxillo- [...] facial region. The goal of this study was to elucidate the morphological features and precise anatomical position of the supraorbital foramen with reference to surrounding surgically encountered anatomical landmarks in an adult Sri Lankan population. A total of one hundred and eight adult dry skulls of known sex were assessed to determine the number, shape, orientation, vertical and transverse diameters of the supraorbital foramen, transverse distance from the supraorbital foramen to the nasal midline and the zygomatico-maxillary suture and the vertical distance from the supraorbital foramen to the supraorbital rim and infraorbital foramen. The position of the supraorbital foramen was determined in relation to the infraorbital foramen. Data were evaluated between sides and sex. The supraorbital notch (64.81%) was found more frequently than the supraorbital foramen (35.19%). Of the skulls investigated, 55.56% displayed bilateral supraorbital notches, whereas 20.37% had bilateral supraorbital foramina and 24.07% had a notch on one side and a foramen on the contralateral side. The incidence of multiple supraorbital foramina was 6.48%. Sex variations were observed in the relative position of supraorbital notch/foramen from nasal midline (male: 26.12±3.89; female: 24.40±2.76), temporal crest of the frontal bone (male: 32.74±3.94; fe

  10. Morphometric Analysis of the Mental Foramen in Adult Sri Lankan Mandibles / Análisis Morfométrico del Foramen Mental en Mandíbulas de Adultos de Sri Lanka

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isurani, Ilayperuma; Ganananda, Nanayakkara; Nadeeka, Palahepitiya.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La evidencia muestra una variación racial clara en la posición del foramen mental. Por lo tanto, un conocimiento detallado de la morfometría del foramen mental en diferentes poblaciones es esencial en la odontología clínica cuando se administre la anestesia regional, y al realizar cirugía en la regi [...] ón periférica mental de la mandíbula. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar las características morfológicas y la posición anatómica exacta del foramen mental con referencia a puntos anatómicos que lo rodean, en una población adulta de Sri Lanka. Un total de 51 mandíbulas adultas secas fueron evaluadas para determinar el número, forma, orientación, diámetros vertical y transversal del foramen mental y la distancia entre el foramen mental y sínfisis mentoniana. La posición del foramen mental fue determinada en función de los dientes inferiores. Los datos fueron evaluados en género y lado. Los resultados indicaron que la posición más común para el forman mental estaba en línea con el eje longitudinal del segundo premolar inferior (52,94%), seguido por una posición entre primer y segundo premolares (26,47%). La media de los diámetros transversal y vertical del forman fueron 3,31 ± 0,76 y 2,50 ± 0,61 mm, respectivamente. El foramen mental se encontró 24,87 ± 6,07 mm (lado derecho) y 24,77 ± 6.07mm (lado izquierdo) lateral a la sínfisis mentoniana. En la mayoría de los casos, el foramen mental era de forma oval (59%) y la dirección habitual de su apertura tenía una dirección póstero-superior (49,01%). La incidencia de múltiples forámenes mentales fue de 3,92%. Los resultados de este estudio proporcionan información valiosa que facilitará la localización efectiva del paquete neurovascular que pasa por el formen mental, evitando así las complicaciones de la anestesia local de procedimientos invasivos, quirúrgicos entre otros. Abstract in english Evidence shows a clear racial variation in the position of the mental foramen. Therefore, detailed knowledge of the morphometry of the mental foramen in different populations is essential in clinical dentistry when administering regional anesthesia, and performing peripheral surgery in the mental re [...] gion of the mandible. The goal of this study was to elucidate the morphological features and precise anatomical position of the mental foramen with reference to surrounding anatomical landmarks in an adult Sri Lankan population. A total of fifty one adult dry mandibles were assessed to determine the number, shape, orientation, vertical and transverse diameters of the mental foramen and the distance between the mental foramen and symphysis menti. The position of the mental foramen was determined in relation to the mandibular teeth. Data were evaluated between gender and side. The findings indicated that the most common position for the mental foramen was in line with the longitudinal axis of the lower second premolar (52.94%) followed by a position between first and second premolar (26.47%). The mean transverse and vertical diameters of the foramen were 3.31 ± 0.76 and 2.50 ± 0.61 mm, respectively. The mental foramen was located 24.87 ± 6.07 mm (right side) and 24.77 ± 6.07mm (left side) lateral to the symphysis menti. In the majority of cases, the mental foramen was oval in shape (59%) and its usual direction of opening was in a postero-superior direction (49.01%). The incidence of multiple mental foramina was 3.92%. The results of this study provide valuable information that will facilitate effective localization of the neurovascular bundle passing through the mental foramen thus avoiding complications from local anesthetic, surgical and other invasive procedures.

  11. Reducing Structural Violence through Entrepreneurial Tourism: Case Study in Hambantota District, Sri Lanka

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    Shammika DLAH

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is increasingly recognized as an effective means of achieving peace in world. In this paper tourism’s contribution for peace will be discussed in a broader sense with identification of structural violence as the main cause of Sri Lankan conflict. Structural violence is the process of deprivation of needs. It is characterized politically as repression, and economically by exploitation. The methodology used in this paper to identify ‘how entrepreneurial tourism can contribute to alleviate structural violence’ was basically qualitative. The methodology was based on the grounded theory which portrays the world as being complex and organized by both overt and hidden power structures. It was revealed during the process of data collection that the structural violence was functioning by means of polarization of the social structures such as caste, ethnicity, economic status, nobility, educational status into different strata together with grouping of people into the consequential ends leading to social uneasiness. People engaged in entrepreneurial activities are entrapped in a viscous system of unfair resource allocation and production exploitation operating through intermediaries. The paper suggests that it is necessary to seek remedies to increase the capacity of entrepreneurs to overcome the destructive force of the structural violence.

  12. Risk factors for bovine mastitis in the Central Province of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardana, Suraj; Thilakarathne, Dulari; Abegunawardana, Indra S; Abeynayake, Preeni; Robertson, Colin; Stephen, Craig

    2014-10-01

    A study of the risk factors associated with mastitis in Sri Lankan dairy cattle was conducted to inform risk reduction activities to improve the quality and quantity of milk production and dairy farmer income. A cross-sectional survey of randomly selected dairy farms was undertaken to investigate 12 cow and 39 herd level and management risk factors in the Central Province. The farm level prevalence of mastitis (clinical and subclinical) was 48 %, similar to what has been found elsewhere in South and Southeast Asia. Five cow level variables, three herd level variables, and eight management variables remained significant (p?milk yield, milking practices, access to veterinary services, use of veterinary products, stall structure, and stall hygiene. Many of the risk factors could be addressed by standard dairy cattle management techniques, but implementation of mastitis control programs as a technical approach is likely to be insufficient to achieve sustainable disease control without consideration of the social and political realities of smallholder farmers, who are often impoverished. PMID:24894437

  13. Validity of referral hospitals for the toxicovigilance of acute poisoning in Sri Lanka / Validité des hôpitaux de référence concernant la toxicovigilance des intoxications aiguës au Sri Lanka / Validez de los hospitales de derivación para la toxicovigilancia de intoxicaciones agudas en Sri Lanka

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L, Senarathna; NA, Buckley; SF, Jayamanna; PJ, Kelly; MJ, Dibley; AH, Dawson.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar el conjunto de datos de ingresos hospitalarios que mejor recoja la incidencia de la intoxicación aguda en la Sri Lanka rural. MÉTODOS: Se recopilaron datos de todos los ingresos por intoxicación aguda en 34 hospitales primarios y un hospital de derivación en el distrito de Anur [...] adhapura, entre septiembre de 2008 y enero de 2010. Se compararon tres conjuntos de datos de ingresos con la incidencia real de intoxicación aguda para determinar el sesgo sistemático inherente a cada conjunto de datos. La incidencia real se calculó sumando todos los ingresos directos (no remisiones) de los hospitales primarios y del hospital de derivación. Los tres conjuntos de datos fueron: (i) únicamente todos los ingresos en hospitales primarios; (ii) únicamente todos los ingresos en el hospital de derivación (directos y remisiones) y (iii) todos los ingresos tanto en hospitales primarios como en el hospital de derivación (todos los ingresos). El tercero es el método estadístico rutinario del gobierno, pero en éste las remisiones se cuentan dos veces, así que para el estudio solo se tuvieron en cuenta una vez los pacientes remitidos a través de la interrelación de datos. RESULTADOS: De los 3813 pacientes ingresados por intoxicación, 3111 acudieron en primer lugar a un hospital primario y 2287 (73,5%) fueron remitidos posteriormente al hospital de derivación, donde se registraron la mayoría de los fallecimientos (161/177). Todos los conjuntos de datos eran representativos demográficamente y por tipo de intoxicación, si bien los datos del hospital de derivación arrojaron una tasa de mortalidad más precisa que los del hospital primario o los de todos los ingresos. Los conjuntos de datos que contemplaban únicamente los ingresos en los hospitales primarios o únicamente los ingresos en el hospital de derivación subestimaron la incidencia de la intoxicación aguda en aproximadamente un 20% y los datos de todos los ingresos la sobreestimaron en un 60%. CONCLUSIÓN: Los datos de ingreso de los hospitales de derivación se pueden obtener fácilmente y reflejan de forma precisa la incidencia de intoxicación real. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify the hospital admission data set that best captures the incidence of acute poisoning in rural Sri Lanka. METHODS: Data were collected on all acute poisoning cases admitted to 34 primary and 1 referral hospital in Anuradhapura district from September 2008 to January 2010. Three [...] admission data sets were compared with the "true" incidence of acute poisoning to determine the systematic bias inherent to each data set. "True" incidence was calculated by adding all direct admissions (not transfers) to primary hospitals and to the referral hospital. The three data sets were: (i) all admissions to primary hospitals only; (ii) all admissions to the referral hospital only (direct and referrals), and (iii) all admissions to both primary hospitals and the referral hospital ("all admissions"). The third is the government's routine statistical method but counts transfers twice, so for the study transferred patients were counted only once through data linkage. FINDINGS: Of 3813 patients admitted for poisoning, 3111 first presented to a primary hospital and 2287 (73.5%) were later transferred to the referral hospital, where most deaths (161/177) occurred. All data sets were representative demographically and in poisoning type, but referral hospital data yielded a more accurate case-fatality rate than primary hospital data or "all admissions" data. Admissions to primary hospitals only or to the referral hospital only underestimated the incidence of acute poisoning by about 20%, and data on "all admissions" overestimated it by 60%. CONCLUSION: Admission data from referral hospitals are easily obtainable and accurately reflect the true poisoning incidence.

  14. Cost to government health-care services of treating acute self-poisonings in a rural district in Sri Lanka / Coût pour les services de santé publics du traitement des auto-empoisonnements aigus dans un district rural du Sri Lanka / Costo del tratamiento de las intoxicaciones voluntarias agudas en los servicios de salud públicos en un distrito rural de Sri Lanka

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kanchana, Wickramasinghe; Paul, Steele; Andrew, Dawson; Dinusha, Dharmaratne; Asha, Gunawardena; Lalith, Senarathna; Dhammika de, Siva; Kusal, Wijayaweera; Michael, Eddleston; Flemming, Konradsen.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar los costos financieros directos que supone para el Ministerio de Salud de Sri Lanka el tratamiento de los pacientes con intoxicación voluntaria, en particular por plaguicidas, en un determinado distrito. MÉTODOS: En un hospital general (2005) y cinco hospitales periféricos (2006) d [...] el distrito de Anuradhapura, a lo largo de un mes se reunieron datos prospectivos sobre el personal, los medicamentos, la información de laboratorio y otras variables sobre todos los pacientes ingresados por intoxicación voluntaria. Durante un periodo de seis meses se obtuvieron datos de 30 hospitales periféricos sobre los traslados de esos pacientes a centros de nivel secundario y terciario. El costo de los insumos en dólares de los Estados Unidos (US$), con cifras de 2005, se calculó a partir de las cuentas hospitalarias. RESULTADOS: En el hospital general, el costo medio total del tratamiento de los pacientes que se habían intoxicado voluntariamente fue de US$ 31,83, suma dentro de la cual el gasto más importante correspondió al personal de sala y los medicamentos, y sólo US$ 0,19 a los gastos de capital y mantenimiento. El costo total medio del tratamiento fue máximo en el caso de las intoxicaciones voluntarias por plaguicidas (US$ 49,12). Los pacientes ingresados en la unidad de cuidados intensivos, el 5% del total, representaron el 75% del costo global del tratamiento de todos los pacientes con intoxicación voluntaria atendidos en el hospital general. El costo total medio del tratamiento de los pacientes intoxicados voluntariamente en los hospitales periféricos fue de US$ 3,33. El costo medio por traslado fue de US$ 14,03. En 2006, el costo total del tratamiento de esos pacientes en el distrito de Anuradhapura ascendió a US$ 76 599, de los cuales US$ 53 834 correspondían a intoxicaciones voluntarias con plaguicidas. Considerando el costo total estimado en este estudio para el tratamiento por paciente intoxicado, se calcula que el costo del tratamiento de los pacientes con intoxicación voluntaria en todo Sri Lanka en 2004 ascendió a US$ 866 304. CONCLUSION: El costo del tratamiento de las intoxicaciones voluntarias por plaguicidas podría reducirse promoviendo el uso de plaguicidas menos tóxicos y, posiblemente, mejorando el tratamiento de los casos en los hospitales de atención primaria. Se requerirán nuevas investigaciones para determinar si la ampliación de la infraestructura y el personal en los hospitales periféricos permitiría reducir el costo global para la Administración, optimizar el manejo de los casos y reducir la presión en los servicios secundarios. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To estimate the direct financial costs to the Sri Lanka Ministry of Health of treating patients after self-poisoning, particularly from pesticides, in a single district. METHODS: Data on staff, drug, laboratory and other inputs for each patient admitted for self-poisoning were prospective [...] ly collected over a one-month period from one general hospital (2005) and five peripheral hospitals (2006) in the Anuradhapura district. Data on transfers to secondary- and tertiary-level facilities were obtained for a 6-month period from 30 peripheral hospitals. The cost of the inputs in United States dollars (US$), using 2005 figures, was derived from hospital accounts. FINDINGS: The average total cost of treating a self-poisoned patient at the general hospital was US$ 31.83, with ward staff input and drugs being the highest expenditure category and only US$ 0.19 of this sum related to capital and maintenance costs. The average total cost of treatment was highest for self-poisoning with pesticides (US$ 49.12). The patients placed in the intensive care unit, who comprised 5% of the total, took up 75% of the overall treatment cost for all self-poisoned patients at the general hospital. The average total cost of treating self-poisoned patients at peripheral hospitals was US$ 3.33. The average patient cost per transfer was US$ 14.03. In 2006, the total cost of treating self-poisoned patients

  15. Development, evaluation and popularization of medicated and non-medicated urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks for ruminant livestock production under smallholder conditions of Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of laboratory and field experiments led to development of four suitable urea-molasses multi-nutrient block (UMMB) formulas to suit different agro-ecological zones of Sri Lanka, for improving livestock productivity. The formulas developed were based on the production potential of the target animals and the quality of available roughage feeds. Feeding of UMMB to dairy cattle and buffalo resulted in both 'catalytic' and 'supplementary' effects. These effects were demonstrated by improved feed intake and digestibility and increased live weight gain of cattle and buffalo calves. The body condition of adult cows was satisfactorily maintained with UMMB use. Supplementation with UMMB improved milk yield and butterfat content, and extended the persistency of the lactation curve compared to traditional concentrate feedings. Reproductive performance was also improved by reducing the number of days from parturition to first service. Benefit : cost ratio for UMMB use was variable between the management systems, basal feed on offer and the agro-ecological zones but the benefits were, overall, satisfactory. Medicated blocks for goats substantially reduced the parasitic burden as indicated by reduced faecal worm egg counts. Supplementation with molybdenum also significantly decreased the parasite burden of goats. For cattle, due to logistical reasons the medicated block was considered unsuitable under local conditions in Sri Lanka. (author)author)

  16. Effect of Growth Rate on Wood Specific Gravity of Three Alternative Timber Species in Sri Lanka; Swietenia macrophylla, Khaya senegalensis and Paulownia fortunei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K.P. Perera

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available With increasing private sector investments in commercial forestry, it is apparent that plantationforestry in Sri Lanka is moving in the direction of managing fast growing timber species for shorterrotations. However, there’s a perceptionthat accelerated growth rates induced by improved forestmanagement practices can result in inferior wood quality. This study tested this perceptionby studyingthe effect of growth rate on the specific gravity, as a proxy for wood quality, of three alternative timberspecies grown in Sri Lanka; Swietenia macrophylla, Khaya senegalensis and Paulownia fortunei.Specific gravity remained more or less uniform from pith to bark regardless of the fluctuation of ringwidth in K. senegalensis while S. macrophylla exhibited a slight increase in specific gravity from pith tobark. This increasing trend was more prominent in P. fortunei. Results revealed growth rates representedby ring width showed poor correlations with specific gravity in both S. macrophylla, and K.senegalensis. Although P. fortunei showed a statistically significant positive correlation, regressionanalysis indicated a poor relationship between growth rate and specific gravity. Hence it is unlikely thatwood specific gravity of the studied species to be influenced by accelerated growth rates.

  17. Building Damage and Business Continuity Management in the Event of Natural Hazards: Case Study of the 2004 Tsunami in Sri Lanka

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    Masami Sugiura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sumatra Earthquake and Indian Ocean Tsunami event on the 26 December 2004 has provided a unique and valuable opportunity to evaluate the performance of various structures, facilities and lifeline systems during the tsunami wave attacks. There are especially meaningful observations concerning the structural changes due to the tsunami forces, which open up a wide area of research to develop the mitigation procedure. The business restoration process of business companies in terms of buildings, facilities and lifelines have shown greater research interest. In this study, we investigated the restoration process of business sectors in East and South coastal region in Sri Lanka after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. A field survey was conducted in East and South coast of Sri Lanka, in order to study the affecting parameters to damage assessment in the restoration process of the business companies. The results of the questionnaire-based field survey are then compared with the statistical analysis results. Finally, the factors affecting the restoration process after the tsunami are identified. As a main conclusion, financial support could be the most important reason for delays in restoration. Moreover, it has been observed that the tsunami inundation level of higher than one meter may have had more effect concerning the damage to the structures and requires additional time for restoration than other areas.

  18. Diagnosis and control of foot-and-mouth disease in Sri Lanka using ELISA-based technologies: Assessment of immune response to vaccination against FMD using ELISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The policy for control of FMD since 1964 in Sri Lanka has been the vaccination of high quality stock in government farms and in places where stock improvement was in progress once a year. From 1993, a supplementary vaccination during February to March was adopted to cover the young stock in addition to the annual vaccination programme. However in the field this was not successful due to the shortage of vaccines and less co-operation from farmers. The focus of this study was to study the effectiveness of the national immunisation programme carefully and develop strategies to get the maximum benefit from limited resources. Vaccination coverage during 1995, 1996 and 1997 in SP was low (3.4%, 4.45% and 3.5% respectively). However, during the outbreak of the disease at Kalutara district in WP, vaccination was adopted in border areas to have a buffer zone to prevent the leak of FMD to SP. The mean protective antibody level in the whole district of Galle was found to be 42.4%. FMD control and eradication strategy in Sri Lanka no doubt has to focus on preventing the free movement of animals without Health Certificate, on continuous mass vaccination in areas bordering the endemic Provinces NWP, NCP and EP to maintain a high herd immunity of more than 80% to prevent future outbreaks and also to protect the improved breed in the field and in State farms. This study shows that this is yet to be achieved. (author)

  19. Incidence and effects of Varicella Zoster Virus infection on academic activities of medical undergraduates - a five-year follow-up study from Sri Lanka

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    Kumarihamy Prabhashini

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adult population in Sri Lanka is having high level of susceptibility for Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV infection. Among medical undergraduates, 47% are VZV seronegative. The purpose of the present study was to determine the incidence of VZV infection in medical undergraduates in Sri Lanka, and to describe the effects of VZV infection on their academic activities. Methods A retrospective cohort of medical undergraduates' susceptible for VZV infection was selected from the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. Data on the incidence of VZV infection (Chickenpox during their undergraduate period was collected using a self-administered structured questionnaire. A second questionnaire was administered to collect data on the details of VZV infection and the impact of it on their academic activities. VZV incidence rate was calculated as the number of infections per 1,000 person years of exposure. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the impact of VZV infection on academic activities. Results Out of the 172 susceptible cohort, 153 medical undergraduates were followed up. 47 students reported VZV infection during the follow up period and 43 of them participated in the study. The cumulative incidence of VZV infection during the period of five and half years of medical training was 30.7%. Incidence density of VZV infection among medical undergraduates in this cohort was 65.1 per 1,000 person years of follow-up. A total of 377 working days were lost by 43 students due to the VZV infection, averaging 8.8 days per undergraduate. Total academic losses for the study cohort were; 205 lectures, 17 practicals, 13 dissection sessions, 11 tutorials, 124 days of clinical training and 107 days of professorial clinical appointments. According to their perception they lost 1,927 study hours due to the illness (Median 50 hours per undergraduate. Conclusions The incidence of VZV infection among Sri Lankan medical undergraduates is very high and the impact of this infection on academic activities causes severe disruption of their undergraduate life. VZV immunization for susceptible new entrant medical undergraduates is recommended.

  20. “Don’t forget the migrants”: exploring preparedness and response strategies to combat the potential spread of MERS-CoV virus through migrant workers in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agampodi, Suneth B

    2013-01-01

    From September 2012 to July 2013, 81 laboratory-confirmed cases of infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), including 45 deaths (a case fatality ratio of 55%) have been reported from eight countries. Human-to-human transmission is now confirmed showing potential for another pandemic of zoonotic disease, with an extremely high mortality rate. Effective surveillance strategies are required in countries with a high influx of migrants from the Middle East to mitigate the probable importation of MERS-CoV. We discuss here the risk of MERS-CoV in major labor sending countries and list the probable strategies for control and prevention of MERS-CoV using Sri Lanka as an example. It is conservatively estimated that 10% of Sri Lanka’s population work as international labor migrants (1.8 to 2 million workers), with 93% residing in the Middle East. An average of 720 workers depart each day, with the majority of these workers (71%) departing to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (the country with 81.5% of total MERS-CoV cases). We also describe other inbound migration categories such as tourists and resident visa holders relevant to the context of preparedness and planning. The importance of partnerships between public health authorities at national and regional levels with labor migration networks to establish institutional and/or policy mechanisms are highlighted for ensuring effective preparedness and response planning. Strategies that can be taken by public health authorities working in both labor sending and labor receiving counties are also described.  The strategies described here may be useful for other labor sending country contexts in Asia with a high frequency and volume of migrant workers to and from the Gulf region. PMID:24555078

  1. Situation Reports--Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 17 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, and…

  2. Institutional and Regulatory Economics of Electricity Market Reforms: the Evidence from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bipulendu

    Five South Asian countries-- India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka -- embarked on electricity market reforms in the 1990's. The dissertation uses the framework of New Institutional Economics to assess the effects on electricity sector performance of both observables elements of reform (i.e. privatization, unbundling, establishment of independent regulatory agencies etc.) as well as the unobservable elements (informal beliefs, habit, norms and culture of the actors involved in reforms). The first part of the dissertation -- econometric analysis of the relationship between observable electricity market reform measures and performance indicators -- finds that for the most part electricity market reforms in South Asia are having a positive impact on the performance of the sector. This is particularly the case for reforms that have increased private sector participation in generation and distribution and have vertically unbundled utilities into generation, transmission and distribution entities. Many of the reforms are positively correlated with higher tariffs, indicating a cost to the consumers from the reforms. The relationship between independent regulation and performance indicators , however, is not established. The second part of the dissertation - analytical narrative of the reform experiences of Gujarat and Nepal -- examines the informal elements (such as beliefs, norms, culture) that motivate behavior and explains how and why reform outcomes differed in these two places. The dissertation finds that the strength of formal institutions rules and the nature of social norms and customs have a significant influence on the outcome of reforms. Aided by the strength of its formal institutional framework and more evolved social norms and customs that encouraged people to follow formal rules, reforms in the Indian state of Gujarat were a success. The weakness of the formal institutional framework and the predominance of relation-based norms and customs in Nepal that led to limited compliance with formal rules, by contrast, limited the success of power sector reforms there. Efforts to reform the electricity sector in South Asia undertaken by governments with the assistance of development agencies such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank have focused to a large extent on getting the content of electricity market reform measures such as unbundling, privatization, and establishment of a power market right. The analysis in this dissertation suggests that such measures will be more successful in places with relatively robust formal rule based systems. Countries that are planning to carry out significant reforms in the electricity sector will benefit from the explicit consideration of the informal norms, habits and customs of the actors that will be affected by the reforms.

  3. Anthelmintic prescribing patterns of a sample of general practitioners from selected areas in the Colombo district of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawardena GSA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available General Practitioners (GPs provide first contact care of children and pregnant mothers in the community. This study ascertained the prescribing pattern of anthelmintics to children and pregnant women by a sample of GPs from the district of Colombo. Two hundred medical practitioners engaged in full-time General Practice (100 urban and 100 rural, were selected randomly. A pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. A total of 183 GPs aged between 26 and 72 years (median 38 participated with 94 coming from urban areas. Seventy percent of the GPs were male. Almost 13% of GPs from urban areas had a Postgraduate degree in comparison to 4.5% from the rural areas ( P < 0.05. Over 50% of GPs had 6-20 years of service and over 30% treated 16-30 patients daily. Seventy-three percent of GPs from rural areas accessed health-related reading material either daily or weekly in contrast to only 40% from urban areas ( P < 0.001. All GPs prescribed anthelmintics to children. Pyrantel pamoate was the preferred anthelmintic used for children by both groups. Approximately 55% and 64% of GPs from urban and rural areas, respectively, prescribed anthelmintics during pregnancy. A majority of GPs prescribed drugs after the first trimester. However, 25% from urban areas gave drugs during any trimester ( P < 0.001. Regression analysis revealed that GPs with postgraduate qualifications, those having frequent access to health-related material and those seeing more than 30 patients daily, prescribed anthelmintics to pregnant women more often. Although routine de-worming of pregnant women and children should occur through government antenatal and well-baby clinics, and through the schools de-worming programme, it may not happen due to various reasons. Thus, GPs play a vital role in achieving good coverage of anthelmintics among children and pregnant women. Making available clear national guidelines on prescribing anthelmintics in Sri Lanka would improve the prescribing patterns of anthelmintics among GPs.

  4. Farmer Resettlements and Water Energy Stresses Arising From Aggravating Drought Conditions in Mahaweli River Watershed, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabrew, L.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is expected to cause significant changes in water quantity and water quality in river basins throughout the world, with particularly significant impacts in developing regions. Climate change effects are often exacerbated by other simultaneous activities in developing countries, such as population growth, reliance on subsistence agriculture, and expanding provision of electricity. Each of these activities requires access to readily-available freshwater. For example, population growth requires more water for irrigation as food production needs increase. Additionally, water is needed for generating electricity in hydropower facilities as well as other facilities, which require water to run steam turbines or to cool facilities. As such, many developing countries face the real and immediate need to anticipate and adapt to climatic stresses on water resources in both the agricultural and residential sectors. Water withdrawal in both of these sectors is largely driven by individual behaviors, such as electricity use in the home and irrigation practices on farmland, aggregated at the household, community, and regional level. Our ongoing project in Sri Lanka focuses on understanding aforementioned issues in coupled natural and human systems in the Mahaweli River Watershed (MWR) to inform decision-makers to streamline policies and strategies for effective adaptation to worsening drought conditions. MWR produces more than 60% of the rice demand and nearly 40% of the energy requirement of the country. Although irrigation is currently the sector that withdraws the most water, with government plans for resettling farmer communities and developing new urban centers in the region by 2030, electricity production is expected to compete for water against irrigation in the future. Thus, understanding the water-energy nexus is crucial to planning for conservation and efficiency. Through a pilot survey conducted by our interdisciplinary research team, in five locations in MWR, we collect information on household and farm level water and energy use, demand-side water management practices, and farmers' willingness and capacities to practice them. We use these self-reported pilot data together with water and energy utility company data to model increasing water-energy stresses in the watershed, and its effect on existing water allocation issues related to irrigation and power generation. Drawing upon the preliminary results of this work, this paper presents the emerging water-energy issues and plausible adaptation measures in MWR. This work will pave the way to understand the inherent interconnectivities of water energy stresses in multi-purpose watersheds in the developing world.

  5. Food irradiation process control and acceptance. Regional UNDP project for Asia and the Pacific, mission undertaken in Sri Lanka. Food irradiation process control, regulation and acceptance RPFI-Phase 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the Government of Sri Lanka, the FAO/IAEA expert undertook a one-week mission, between November 10th and 17th 1990, to the Sri Lankan Atomic Energy Authority at Colombo. This included the following: The expert advised and assisted on matters related to food irradiation relevant to Sri Lanka and its on-going programmes. He engaged in a question and answer discussion meeting with representatives of the spice, and ornamental plants exporting trade in the presence of the Atomic Energy Authority Chairman, its chief food technologist, and a food science professor who serves on the Government's Food Advisory Group. The expert assisted with the drafting of what should be the first national food irradiation regulation, and presented and discussed the draft at seminars presented separately to the National Food Advisory Group, and to the National food inspectors who would ultimately be responsible for implementing any such regulation. (author)

  6. RCT of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in active suicidal ideation-as feasibility study in Sri Lanka

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sudath, Samaraweera; S., Sivayogan; Athula, Sumathipala; Dinesh, Bhugra; Sisira, Siribaddana.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: With one of the highest rates of suicide in the world and high rates of suicidal ideation in the population, we set out to pilot a study to ascertain whether it is possible to conduct a randomised controlled trial. Secondly we aimed to study whether Cognitive Behavioural T [...] herapy (CBT) for suicidal ideation is better than treatment as usual (TAU). Method: Those with suicidal ideation (identified by a population survey using GHQ-30 and Beck's suicidal ideation scale) were randomly allocated to 3-6 sessions of structured Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. The CBT was provided using a manual in primary care settings. Results: Of the two groups (CBT = 5, TAU = 4) the group which had received CBT showed a greater reduction in Beck's Suicidal Intent Score (from mean 11.2 to 0.2) and in GHQ-30 (from 22.0 to 10.8) in three months. Conclusions: The pilot study indicates that it is possible to conduct CBT and RCT in developing countries. The implications of this are discussed.

  7. RCT of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in active suicidal ideation-as feasibility study in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudath Samaraweera

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: With one of the highest rates of suicide in the world and high rates of suicidal ideation in the population, we set out to pilot a study to ascertain whether it is possible to conduct a randomised controlled trial. Secondly we aimed to study whether Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT for suicidal ideation is better than treatment as usual (TAU. Method: Those with suicidal ideation (identified by a population survey using GHQ-30 and Beck's suicidal ideation scale were randomly allocated to 3-6 sessions of structured Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. The CBT was provided using a manual in primary care settings. Results: Of the two groups (CBT = 5, TAU = 4 the group which had received CBT showed a greater reduction in Beck's Suicidal Intent Score (from mean 11.2 to 0.2 and in GHQ-30 (from 22.0 to 10.8 in three months. Conclusions: The pilot study indicates that it is possible to conduct CBT and RCT in developing countries. The implications of this are discussed.

  8. Study on the prevalence and the age at initial colonization of campylobacter in broiler flocks in central province of Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campylobacter is considered one of the main causes of bacterial enteritis worldwide and poultry meat appears to act as a common source of infection (Vandeplas et al., 2008). In Sri Lanka, the available data to show the importance of campylobacter as a cause of diarrhoeal diseases is sparse and the involvement of poultry in relation to Campylobacter has not been identified. Therefore this study was carried out to investigate the association of campylobacter with broiler chicken. The Campylobacter isolation and identification procedure based on ISO standard was established and poultry meat samples collected from retail markets were tested. A considerable number of meat samples were contaminated with thermotolerant Campylobacter. As Campylobacter is a commensal in the chicken gut, though it is a pathogen to human, the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks was studied. Cloacal swabs collected at farms and caeca collected at slaughter in processing plants were analysed. Out of 59 samples collected from the Central Province 42 became positive for Campylobacter. The prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks is 71%. High prevalence indicated the importance of controlling the pathogen but there was no data available on the ecology of the pathogen in Sri Lanka. Previous studies elsewhere have shown that factors like geographical location, seasonality, farming system, bio-security measures as the key factors influencing the host pathogen relationship. However, most dost pathogen relationship. However, most data have been generated in nontropical countries with clear summer and winter seasons (Newell and Fearnley, 2003). The relative importance of these factors in Sri Lanka was questionable as it is a tropical country with no clear seasonality. To investigate the colonization of Campylobacter in broiler flocks twenty broiler flocks reared in two farms where different management practices in use, in the Central Province were monitored during one year. From each flock, cloacae swabs were collected from randomly selected ten birds every other day until the flock became positive for Campylobacter. According to the findings, all flocks became positive for Campylobcater and colonization was first seen at the age of 14-26 d. Irrespective of the absence of seasonality and low levels of bio security the age of colonization was in accordance with the literature. In this study there was no difference at the age of colonization in the farm A that practices all in all-out system and the farm B that practices multiple age production system. Quantitative analysis of Campylobacter in the chicken gut and effect of feed modifications on the level of the pathogen load in the gut is under investigation

  9. 57 Factors Affecting Farmers` Higher Gain from Paddy Marketing: A Case Study on Paddy Farmers in North Central Province, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RH Kuruppuge

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focused to identify the likelihood factors affectingon farmers’ higher gain from paddy marketing in the NorthCentral Province of Sri Lanka, where the main paddy cultivationarea of the country. The required data was drawn from the fieldsurvey carried out in three irrigation systems covering 257farmers during July to August 2010. The empirical logit modelwas used to assess factors. The study found that imperfectionsof existing paddy marketing system in the area due to concentratedmarket power among few oligopolistic buyers. Furthermore,land size, land ownership, poor accessibility in formal sectorcredit market and farmers involvement in informal sectorcredit sources are critical to farmers’ decisions to gain higherreturns from paddy marketing. The results further showed theneed of reviewing the roles and functions of governmentextension services and farmer organizations with regard to thepaddy marketing.

  10. What Can We Learn From Historical Trends and Distributions of Malaria? Historical Case Studies From the US, Italy, and Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, E.

    2008-12-01

    Malaria is currently prevalent in many countries and has been for centuries. Primary controllers of the distribution and incidence of malaria in the past have been economic, social, military, political etc. with a modest contribution from local climate variations. Studies of potential impacts of climate change on the epidemiology of diseases such as malaria have focused on the impact of changing environmental conditions on vector physiology but little attention has been paid to factors that explain historical variations in spatial and temporal distributions of the disease. This talk reports results of three historical case studies from the US, Italy and Sri Lanka that bring together a breadth of information from varied sources in order to illustrate the value of including such information in studies of disease-climate connections.

  11. "No God and no Norway": collective resource loss among members of Tamil NGO's in Norway during and after the last phase of the civil war in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies on the mental health of refugees have tended to focus upon the impact of traumatic experiences in the country of origin, and acculturation processes in exile. The effects of crises in the country of origin on refugees living in exile have been little studied. This article examines how the final stages of the civil war in Sri Lanka in 2009 influenced members of pro-LTTE Tamil NGO's in Norway. Method Ethnographic fieldwork methods were employed within Tamil NGO's in the two largest cities in Norway between November 2008 and June 2011. Results The findings suggest that collective resources became severely drained as a result of the crisis, severely disrupting the fabric of social life. Public support from the majority community remained scarce throughout the crisis. Conclusions The study suggests that there is a need for public support to exile groups indirectly affected by man-made crises in their country of origin. PMID:21849029

  12. Variations in susceptibility to common insecticides and resistance mechanisms among morphologically identified sibling species of the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendran Sinnathamby N

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles subpictus s.l., an important malaria vector in Sri Lanka, is a complex of four morphologically identified sibling species A-D. Species A-D reportedly differ in bio-ecological traits that are important for vector control. We investigated possible variations that had not been reported previously, in the susceptibility to common insecticides and resistance mechanisms among the An. subpictus sibling species. Methods Adult An. subpictus were collected from localities in four administrative districts in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Single female isoprogeny lines were established and sibling species status determined according to reported egg morphology. World Health Organization's standard protocols were used for insecticide bioassays and biochemical assays to determine insecticide susceptibility and resistance mechanisms. Susceptibility of mosquitoes was tested against DDT (5%, malathion (4%, deltamethrin (0.05% and ?-cyhalothrin (0.05%. Biochemical basis for resistance was determined through assaying for esterase, glutathione-S-transferase and monooxygenase activities and the insensitivity of acetycholinesterase (AChE to propoxur inhibition. Results All sibling species were highly resistant to DDT. However there were significant differences among the sibling species in their susceptibility to the other tested insecticides. Few species A could be collected for testing, and where testing was possible, species A tended to behave more similarly to species C and D than to B. Species B was more susceptible to all the tested insecticides than the other sibling species. This difference may be attributed to the predominance of species B in coastal areas where selection pressure due to indoor residual spraying of insecticides (IRS was lower. However there were significant differences between the more inland species C and D mainly towards pyrethroids. Higher GST activities in species C and D might have contributed to their greater DDT resistance than species B. Malathion resistance in both species C and D may be caused by elevated GST activity and an altered insensitive target site in AChE. In addition, a carboxylesterase based malathion resistance mechanisms was also detected in species C and D. Elevated esterase levels in species C and D might have contributed to the low levels of pyrethroid resistance. However an absence of elevated activity of monooxygenases in species B, C and D indicates that monooxygenases are unlikely to be the cause of this partial resistance to pyrethroids. Conclusions The differences in insecticide susceptibility and insecticide resistance mechanism shown by An. subpictus sibling species are important considerations for developing the malaria control and eradication program in Sri Lanka. Similar studies on species complexes of other anopheline vectors of malaria are necessary for effective malaria control worldwide. The differential susceptibility findings are also consistent with most, if not all, morphologically identified An. subpictus species B in Sri Lanka belonging to the An. sundaicus complex. There is a need therefore to develop molecular techniques that can be used to differentiate morphologically similar anopheline species in field conditions for more effective vector control.

  13. Climate Change Projections for Sri Lanka for the mid-twentieth Century from CMIP5 Simulations under a High Emissions Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, L.; Agalawatte, P.

    2014-12-01

    Under the Agricultural Model Inter-Comparison program (AgMIP), climate change projections for Sri Lanka were undertaken from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) archives for five locations covering Sri Lanka. These datasets were first quality checked after removing questionable data entries. The gaps in data were filled using AgMERRA data set for the specific location developed by Alex Ruane and Sonali McDermid at NASA- GISS after applying the necessary bias corrections. Future climate projections for 2040- 2070 are based on projections for high Carbon Dioxide emissions (RCP8.5). Analysis was undertaken on the outputs of 20 General Circulation Models (GCMs). Observed climate datasets (for the period 1980- 2010) for each location were used to generate downscaled future predictions. Future projections for maximum temperature, minimum temperature and rainfall were generated while holding solar radiation constant and changing the CO2 value up to 499 ppm. Results for 5 GCMs that simulate the monsoon region best were then selected for further analysis. These are CCSM4, GFDL-ESM2M, HadGEM2-ES, MIROC5, MPI-ESM-MR. All 20 GCM outputs predicted that both minimum and maximum temperature shall rise by around 2 ?C throughout the year. This result is consistent across all 5 locations and the uncertainty associated with this prediction was observed to be low compared to that of rainfall. In the case of the rainfall, majority (80- 95%) of GCMs predicted an increment in the annual rainfall by around 0.5 mm/day. Rainfall during September- October- November was predicted to have a high increment (around 2- 7 mm/day) and during February- March a decrement of around 1- 2 mm/day was predicted. The uncertainty of this prediction based on outputs of all 20 GCMs were observed to be high. These results are consistent with the Fourth Assessment Report by the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change.

  14. A community-based cluster randomised trial of safe storage to reduce pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka : Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearson, Melissa; Konradsen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Background The WHO recognises pesticide poisoning to be the single most important means of suicide globally. Pesticide self-poisoning is a major public health and clinical problem in rural Asia, where it has led to case fatality ratios 20-30 times higher than self-poisoning in the developed world. One approach to reducing access to pesticides is for households to store pesticides in lockable "safe-storage" containers. However, before this approach can be promoted, evidence is required on its effectiveness and safety. Methods/Design A community-based cluster randomised controlled trial has been set up in 44,000 households in the North Central Province, Sri Lanka. A census is being performed, collecting baseline demographic data, socio-economic status, pesticide usage, self-harm and alcohol. Participating villages are then randomised and eligible households in the intervention arm given a lockable safe storage container for agrochemicals. The primary outcome will be incidence of pesticide self-poisoning over three years amongst individuals aged 14 years and over. 217,944 person years of follow-up are required in each arm to detect a 33% reduction in pesticide self-poisoning with 80% power at the 5% significance level. Secondary outcomes will include the incidence of all pesticide poisoning and total self-harm. Discussion This paper describes a large effectiveness study of a community intervention to reduce the burden of intentional poisoning in rural Sri Lanka. The study builds on a strong partnership between provincial health services, local and international researchers, and local communities. We discuss issues in relation to randomisation and contamination, engaging control villages, the intervention, and strategies to improve adherence. Trial Registritation The trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov ref: NCT1146496 (http://clinicaltrialsfeeds.org/clinical-trials/show/NCT01146496 webcite).

  15. Current Livelihood Condition of and Futurity of Tea Farming for Marginal Small Tea Farm Holders (MSTH of Sri Lanka: Case Study From Badulla and Matara District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indika R. Palihakkara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With an area of 120,955 ha, Small Tea Farm Holders (STH constitute about forty percent of the total tea land area of Sri Lanka. In addition to possessing small tea land area, portion of small holders face another serious problem, low productivity of the tea land. With the aim of filling the knowledge gap on the livelihood of Marginal Small Tea Farm Holders (MSTH and guide future policies and other interventions based on existing realities, this research analyzes the livelihood of MSTH in Badulla and Matara district using Sustainable Livelihood (SL Framework and discusses futurity of tea production for MSTHs. Since land is the most limiting factor for their livelihood, the MSTH were first divided into four land categories ranging from very small to large holder. Then, their livelihood capital was measured using the five livelihood capitals, i.e., natural, human, social, physical and financial. The result showed inconsistent relationship between land size of MSTH and other capitals such as number of trees planted and income from tea production. The district with smaller average land size (Matara and the very small and small land holders within district were found to generate more income from tea reduction. Improving human capital through education was also found to contribute negatively toward labor contribution for tea production. Between districts, weather and elevation, two forms of natural capital which are mostly neglected in rural studies using SL approach, were found to play important role in determining outcome from tea based livelihood. Overall, however, majority of the farmers are in the view that tea generates low benefit and should look for other alternatives. Considering this, possibility of other livelihood activities such as conversion of the marginal tea land to fuelwood planation should be considered. This, in addition to improving farmers’ livelihood through enhanced income from their land, will also contribute for overcoming the ongoing shortage of fuelwood in Sri Lanka while also improving the environmental service from the MSTHs’ land.

  16. The text of the Agreement of 5 July 1980 between Sri Lanka and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document contains two parts. The first part stipulates the agreement of Sri Lanka to accept safeguards on all source or special fissionable material in all peaceful nuclear activities within its territory, under its jurisdiction or carried out under its control anywhere, for the exclusive purpose of verifying that such material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. The second part specifies the procedures to be applied in the implementation of the safeguards provisions of Part I

  17. Nuclear methods in soil-plant aspects of sustainable agriculture. Proceedings of an FAO/IAEA regional seminar for Asia and the Pacific held in Colombo, Sri Lanka, 5-9 April 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document contains 24 papers presented at the FAO/IAEA Regional Seminar for Asia and the Pacific organized by the Soil Fertility, Irrigation and Crop Production Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and agriculture and held in Colombo, Sri Lanka, between 5-9 April 1993. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Was there a disparity in age appropriate infant immunization uptake in the theatre of war in the North of Sri Lanka at the height of the hostilities?: a cross-sectional study in resettled areas in the Kilinochchi district

    OpenAIRE

    Parameswaran Ananthan; Wijesinghe Pushpa

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background It was long speculated that there could be under-immunized pockets in the war affected Northern part of Sri Lanka relative to other areas. With the cessation of hostilities following the military suppression of the rebellion, opportunities have arisen to appraise the immunization status of children in areas of re-settlement in former war ravaged districts. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to describe the coverage and age appropriateness of infant vaccinations i...

  19. Socio-economic impacts of Corporate Social Responsibilitypractices in Sri Lankan domestic manufacturing companies :(with reference to Harischandra Mills PLC, Matara, Sri Lanka)

    OpenAIRE

    Mummullage, Sanjeewani Nanayakkara

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the socio-economic impacts of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices in Sri Lankan manufacturing companies. The thesis sets out to seek how CSR activities can obtain business benefits as well how it appeals to the socioeconomic issues in the community. To achieve the aim of this study, an investigation of the current practices was performed through a pertinent empirical study. The empirical investigation is based on a case study of Harischandra...

  20. [Application of a CO2 laser for oral soft tissue surgery in children in Sri Lanka--introduction of a laser through activities of aid to a developing country].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Junji; Jayawardena, Jayanetti Asiri; Wijeyeweera, Rafel Luxhmen; Moriya, Kayoko; Takagi, Yuzo

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the effect of CO2 laser irradiation on oral tissue problems in children in Sri Lanka, through the activities of aid to a developing country by the Japan International Cooperation Agency. This study took about six months, during two times periods: from November 2000 to February 2001, and from July 2001 to October 2001, in the paedodontic clinic of the Faculty of Dental Science, University of Peradeniya, in Sri Lanka. A CO2 laser was used on 48 subjects (51 cases), aged between 1 and 15 years, having main indications for labial frenectomy, frenectomy in ankyloglossia, and excision of mucocele. The results indicated that the CO2 laser had the following advantages. 1. Soft tissue cutting was efficient, with no bleeding, giving a clear operative field during operation. 2. There was no need to use sutures. 3. The surgery itself was simple and less time-consuming. Hence, there was no need for general anesthesia for such cases as tongue tie operation in small children. 4. There was no postsurgical infection. As a result, there was no need for analgesics or antibiotics, as post-surgical pain and infection were prevented. 5. Wound contraction and scarring were decreased or eliminated. Considering the above advantages, the use of a CO2 laser proved to be very safe and effective for soft tissue surgery, especially for children in developing countries such as Sri Lanka. PMID:11968836

  1. An overview of goat farming in the Hambantota district of Sri Lanka, with special reference to health aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was carried out with the intention of gathering knowledge of local farmers (n=108) on goat husbandry practices and their health status in the Hambantota district in the Southern province of Sri Lanka. Information was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire by interviewing the farmers. Apart from general farm and herd data, also questions on mortality, medicinal treatments and feeding were included. Dairy goats in the district accounted for 62% of total goats, while kids and billy goats accounted for 30 and 8%, respectively. The overall mortality in the goat herds was found to be 20% per year. Kid mortality has become a serious threat to the goat farmers in the Hambantota district where 68% out of total deaths in goats were kids, while the proportions of billy goats and dairy goats were lower with 8 and 24%, respectively. Death of kids mainly happens because of the prevailing dry and harsh environment in this area. Hence, kids undergo a lot of environmental stress and therefore only the fittest survive. In addition, clean water and fresh feed often was not available due to prevailing high temperatures. Because of clean water scarcity dairy goats also do not produce enough milk to nurse their kids. Travelling long distances with the herd to find feed has also been identified as major cause of kid mortality. In addition, poor sanitation practices have facilitated the prevalence of several contagious diseases such as foot rot and pustular dermatitis (CPD). Phyoot rot and pustular dermatitis (CPD). Physiological disorders like bloating of the goats are common in both dry and wet seasons as well. According to the questionnaires' results, commercial medicine to treat their animals was used by 83% of the farmers while only 3% of the farmers applied indigenous medicine. This can be explained by the well-established veterinary service network in the Hambantota district to which almost all the farmers have access. Only few farmers are not satisfied with the veterinary services and rather use indigenous medicine. Another 14% of the farmers did not use any kind of medicinal treatment on their goats, ignoring their health status. Out of the farmers that used commercial medicine, 25% used anti-parasitic treatments, vaccination, antibiotics, or minerals and vitamins as health treatments (41%, 25%, 9%, or 8%, respectively). However, there is an increased risk of an epidemic outbreak in this district among goats due to their generally low health status. Employing bio-diversity-based concepts in goat feeding was more prominent among rural than periurban farmers in the Hambantota district. Shrub and tree species used for feeding cinerea (Andara), Flueggea leucopyrus (Katupila), Azadirachta indica (Neem), Tamarindus indica (Tamarind) and Leucaena leucocephala (Ipil ipil). Feeding supplements such as rice bran, coconut oil cake and salt was practiced by 44% of the farmers and thereof by the ones living in peri-urban areas where access to supplementary feeds was easier. Besides that kitchen waste and refused coconut scrapings were also used by farmers to feed their goats during dry season in order to overcome feed scarcity. Free-living goats in the urban area tended to consume market garbage, paper posters on walls, pieces of clothes, and papers to satisfy their appetite. Selling goats for breeding purposes or meat production is very popular among goat farmers in the Hambantota district. Billy goats (47%) and dairy goats (46%) were the most preferred categories to be sold for an increase in the farmers' monetary income. By contrast, selling goat kids seems uncommon as it accounted only for 7% of the total sales, and the kids sold were mainly of poor condition as rearing them would mean monetary loss to the farmer. The goat management system most prominent in the Hambantota district is of extensive nature. Around 97% of the farmers keep the animals on the farm free living during daytime and collect them in barns during night-time to protect them from thefts and unfavourable environmental conditions. The remaining 3% of the farmers a

  2. Psychometric properties of the Sinhala version of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales in early adolescents in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danansuriya Manjula

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept Health related Quality of life (HRQOL is increasingly recognized as an important health outcome measure in clinical and research fields. The present study attempted to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Sinhala version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0 (PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales among adolescents in Sri Lanka. Methods The original US PedsQL™ was translated into Sinhala and conceptually validated according to international guidelines. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 142 healthy school going adolescents (12-14 years, their parents (n?=?120 and a group of adolescents with asthma who attended asthma clinics (n?=?115. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha and validity by examining scale structure, exploring inter-scale correlations and comparing across known groups (healthy vs. chronically ill. Results The PedsQL™ Sinhala version was found to be acceptable with minimal missing responses. All scales demonstrated satisfactory reliability. Cronbach’s alpha for the total scale scores was 0.85 for adolescent self-report while for the parent proxy-report for the healthy group it was 0.86. No floor effects were observed. Ceiling effects were noticed in self-report and parent proxy-report for the healthy group. Overall results of the multi trait scaling analysis confirmed the scale structure with 74% item-convergent validity, 88% item-discriminant validity and an overall scaling success of 72%. Moderate to high correlations were shown among the domains of teen self-report (Spearman rho?=?.37-.54 and between teen self-report and parent proxy-reports (Spearman rho?=?.41-.57. The PedsQL™ tool was able to discriminate between the quality of life in healthy adolescents and adolescents with asthma. Conclusion The findings support the reliability and validity of the Sinhala version of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales as a generic instrument to measure HRQOL among early adolescents in Sri Lanka in a population setting.

  3. Petrogenesis of high-K metagranites in the Kerala Khondalite Belt, southern India: a possible magmatic-arc link between India, Sri Lanka, and Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, C.; Ravindra Kumar, G. R.

    2013-01-01

    The Proterozoic Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB), southern India preserves a distinct high-grade terrain that is interpreted to have been situated adjacent to Madagascar and Sri Lanka during Gondwana assembly. As such, it has become a major focus for testing models of supercontinent amalgamation and dispersal. The lithounits of KKB have remarkable petrological similarities to the Highland Complex (HC) of Sri Lanka and south-central Madagascar. However, there is no well-constrained petrogenetic model for the KKB that fits explicitly within a supercontinent reconstruction model. We present here results from our on-going studies on the origin and evolution of K-rich (potassic, where K2O/Na2O > 1) gneisses of KKB in relation to Proterozoic supercontinent events. Our results show, in a major departure from earlier metasedimentary origin, that potassic gneisses are metamorphosed granitoids. The metagranitoid samples display high K2O contents and low Al2O3/(FeO + MgO + TiO2) values. They are moderate to strongly peraluminous (ASI values ranging from 1.05 to 1.47) rocks showing mineralogical, petrological, and geochemical characteristics distinctive of the high-K calc-alkaline suites. Typical of igneous suites, the high-K metagranites show minor variation in chemical compositions with most oxides showing negative correlation with SiO2. Geochemistry illustrates distinctive features of arc-related magmas with LILE (K, Rb, and Th) and LREE enriched patterns and considerable depletion of HSFE (Nb, Zr, and Ti). The high-K metagranites are further characterized by strong negative anomalies of Eu (Eu/Eu* = 0.10-0.44) and Sr, suggesting melting in plagioclase stability field and retention of plagioclase in the residual phase. Petrogenetic discrimination for granitoids, using major and trace elements demonstrates that the high-K metagranites of the KKB formed by partial melting of igneous source in lower- to middle-crust levels. Overall the geochemical features are supportive of origin in relation to a convergent margin setting, possibly in a continental magmatic arc system, which can be connected to the amalgamation and dispersal of continental fragments in a supercontinent event. This study, therefore, provides a lead towards more robust comparisons between the Proterozoic supercontinent events and processes.

  4. Actual exclusive breastfeeding rates and determinants among a cohort of children living in Gampaha district Sri Lanka: A prospective observational study

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    Perera Priyantha J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF during the early months of life reduce infant morbidity and mortality. Current recommendation in Sri Lanka is to continue exclusive breastfeeding up to six months of age. Exclusive breastfeeding rates are generally assessed by the 24 recall method which overestimates the actual rates. The objective of this study was to determine actual exclusive breast feeding rates in a cohort of Sri Lankan children and to determine the reasons that lead to cessation of breastfeeding before six months of age. Methods From a cohort of 2215 babies born in Gampaha district, 500 were randomly selected and invited for the study. They were followed up at two (n?=?404, four (n?=?395 and six (n?=?286 months. An interviewer administered questionnaire asked about feeding history and socio-demographic characteristics. Child health development record was used to assess the growth. Results Exclusive breastfeeding rates at two, four and six months were 98.0%, 75.4% and 71.3% respectively. The main reasons to stop exclusive breastfeeding between two to four months was concerns regarding weight gain and between four to six months were mothers starting to work. Majority of the babies that were not exclusively breastfed still continued to have breast milk. Mothers above 30 years had lower exclusive breastfeeding rates compared to younger mothers. Second born babies had higher rates than first borns. There was no significant association between maternal education and exclusive breastfeeding rates. Conclusions Exclusive breastfeeding rates were high among this cohort of children. A decrease in EBF was noted between two and four months. EBF up to six months does not cause growth failure. Mothers starting to work and concerns regarding adequacy of breast milk were the major reasons to cease EBF. The actual exclusive breastfeeding rates up to six months was 65.9%.

  5. Sexual Differences in the Diameter of Coronary Arteries in an Adult Sri Lankan Population / Diferencias Sexuales en el Diámetro de las Arterias Coronarias en una Población Adulta de Sri Lanka

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I, Ilayperuma; B. G, Nanayakkara; K. N, Palahepitiya.

    1444-14-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad coronaria es la mayor causa de mortalidad humana. Se afirma que las mujeres tienen peores resultados que los hombres después de un infarto de miocardio y revascularización coronaria. Diferencias sexuales en los diámetros de las arterias coronarias han sido especuladas como una de las r [...] azones para los resultados anteriores. Sin embargo, debido a posibles efectos de confusión, tales como talla corporal y peso del corazón, no está claro si hay un verdadero efecto sexo-específico sobre el tamaño arterial coronario. El presente estudio se realizó para investigar las diferencias sexuales en el diámetro de las arterias coronarias en un grupo de adultos de la población de Sri Lanka. Los diámetros de las arterias coronarias y sus ramas se midieron en lugares predeterminados en un total de 102 corazones aparentemente sanos obtenidos de cadáveres durante las disecciones anatómicas de rutina. Todas las medidas fueron tomadas con un caliper digital deslizante (precisión 0,01 mm). La media del diámetro arterial coronario fue significativamente menor en mujeres que en hombres. Estas diferencias persisten aún después de que los diámetros de las arterias coronarias fueron corregidos por el peso del corazón y talla corporal. El conocimiento preciso del diámetro de la arteria coronaria normal esperado en un determinado lugar anatómico es el primer paso hacia el desarrollo de una estimación cuantitativa de la gravedad de la enfermedad de las arterias coronarias. Este estudio proporciona un conjunto de datos de referencia para adultos de Sri Lanka con el cual comparar los diámetros de las arterias coronarias en diversas condiciones patológicas. Abstract in english Coronary artery disease is a major cause of human mortality. It is stated that females have worse outcomes than men following myocardial infarction and coronary revascularization. Sexual differences in the coronary artery diameters have also been speculated as one of the reasons for the above outcom [...] e. However, because of possible confounding effects, such as the body size and heart weight, it is unclear if there is a true sex-specific effect on coronary arterial size. The present study was undertaken to investigate the sexual differences in the diameter of coronary arteries in a group of adult Sri Lankan population. The diameters of the coronary arteries and their branches were measured at predetermined sites in a total of one hundred and two apparently healthy hearts obtained from cadavers during routine gross anatomy dissections. All measurements were taken using a digital sliding caliper capable of measuring to the nearest 0.01mm. The mean coronary arterial diameters were significantly smaller in females than in males. These differences persisted even after the diameters of coronary arteries were corrected for heart weight and body surface areas. Precise knowledge of the expected normal coronary arterial diameter at a given anatomic location is the first step towards developing a quantitative estimate of the severity of the coronary artery disease. This study provides a reference data set for adult Sri Lankans against which to compare the diameters of coronary arteries in various pathological conditions.

  6. Sexual Differences in the Diameter of Coronary Arteries in an Adult Sri Lankan Population Diferencias Sexuales en el Diámetro de las Arterias Coronarias en una Población Adulta de Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ilayperuma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease is a major cause of human mortality. It is stated that females have worse outcomes than men following myocardial infarction and coronary revascularization. Sexual differences in the coronary artery diameters have also been speculated as one of the reasons for the above outcome. However, because of possible confounding effects, such as the body size and heart weight, it is unclear if there is a true sex-specific effect on coronary arterial size. The present study was undertaken to investigate the sexual differences in the diameter of coronary arteries in a group of adult Sri Lankan population. The diameters of the coronary arteries and their branches were measured at predetermined sites in a total of one hundred and two apparently healthy hearts obtained from cadavers during routine gross anatomy dissections. All measurements were taken using a digital sliding caliper capable of measuring to the nearest 0.01mm. The mean coronary arterial diameters were significantly smaller in females than in males. These differences persisted even after the diameters of coronary arteries were corrected for heart weight and body surface areas. Precise knowledge of the expected normal coronary arterial diameter at a given anatomic location is the first step towards developing a quantitative estimate of the severity of the coronary artery disease. This study provides a reference data set for adult Sri Lankans against which to compare the diameters of coronary arteries in various pathological conditions.La enfermedad coronaria es la mayor causa de mortalidad humana. Se afirma que las mujeres tienen peores resultados que los hombres después de un infarto de miocardio y revascularización coronaria. Diferencias sexuales en los diámetros de las arterias coronarias han sido especuladas como una de las razones para los resultados anteriores. Sin embargo, debido a posibles efectos de confusión, tales como talla corporal y peso del corazón, no está claro si hay un verdadero efecto sexo-específico sobre el tamaño arterial coronario. El presente estudio se realizó para investigar las diferencias sexuales en el diámetro de las arterias coronarias en un grupo de adultos de la población de Sri Lanka. Los diámetros de las arterias coronarias y sus ramas se midieron en lugares predeterminados en un total de 102 corazones aparentemente sanos obtenidos de cadáveres durante las disecciones anatómicas de rutina. Todas las medidas fueron tomadas con un caliper digital deslizante (precisión 0,01 mm. La media del diámetro arterial coronario fue significativamente menor en mujeres que en hombres. Estas diferencias persisten aún después de que los diámetros de las arterias coronarias fueron corregidos por el peso del corazón y talla corporal. El conocimiento preciso del diámetro de la arteria coronaria normal esperado en un determinado lugar anatómico es el primer paso hacia el desarrollo de una estimación cuantitativa de la gravedad de la enfermedad de las arterias coronarias. Este estudio proporciona un conjunto de datos de referencia para adultos de Sri Lanka con el cual comparar los diámetros de las arterias coronarias en diversas condiciones patológicas.

  7. Lõputu sõda Sri Lankal / Agu Karelsohn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karelsohn, Agu

    2008-01-01

    Ülevaade Sri Lankal aastakümneid kestnud ja umbes 70 000 tapetut nõudnud kodusõjast, kus omavahel võitlevad võimul olevad singalid ja vähemuses olevad ning mässuliste organisatsiooniks Tamili Tiigrid koondunud tamilid. Kaart: Sri Lanka

  8. TSUNAMI RISK MITIGATION THROUGH STRATEGIC LAND-USE PLANNING AND EVACUATION PROCEDURES FOR COASTAL COMMUNITIES IN SRI LANKA

    OpenAIRE

    Woharika Kaumudi Weerasinghe; Akihiko Hokugo; Yuko Ikenouchi

    2011-01-01

    Safety measures against the future disaster risk are considered as the main aspect of post disaster reconstructions. The majority of post-disaster villages/settlements and due projects on Sri Lankan coastline are apparently lacking behind the proper safety measures and adequate evacuation procedures. Therefore the immediate necessities of proper safety measures have to be emphasized in order to mitigate future tsunami risks. This paper introduces a number of post disaster coastal villages/set...

  9. The Role and Perceptions of Middle Managers and Their Influence on Business Performance: The Case of Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Sriya Kumarasinghe; Yasuo Hoshino

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the role and perceptions of middle managers and how they influence business performance in Sri Lankan companies. The study presented here is based on a questionnaire survey of 121 middle managers regarding issues of communication, group decision making, and organizational leadership. Quantitative analysis of the responses suggests that organizations with collectivistic leaders achieve better performance. As a result, it is argued that collectivism, which includes middl...

  10. The effect of land-use on the diversity and mass-abundance relationships of understory avian insectivores in Sri Lanka and southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekar, Rachakonda; Srinivasan, Umesh; Mammides, Christos; Chen, Jin; Manage Goodale, Uromi; Wimalabandara Kotagama, Sarath; Sidhu, Swati; Goodale, Eben

    2015-01-01

    Understory avian insectivores are especially sensitive to deforestation, although regional differences in how these species respond to human disturbance may be linked to varying land-use histories. South Asia experienced widespread conversion of forest to agriculture in the nineteenth century, providing a comparison to tropical areas deforested more recently. In Sri Lanka and the Western Ghats of India, we compared understory insectivores to other guilds, and to insectivores with different vertical strata preferences, both inside mixed-species flocks and for the whole bird community. Overall species richness did not change across the land-use gradient, although there was substantial turnover in species composition between land-use types. We found that the proportion of species represented by insectivores was ~1.14 times higher in forest compared to agriculture, and the proportion of insectivores represented by understory species was ~1.32 times higher in forests. Mass-abundance relationships were very different when analyzed on mixed-species flocks compared to the total community, perhaps indicating reduced competition in these mutualisms. We show that South Asia fits the worldwide pattern of understory insectivores declining with increased land-use intensity, and conclude that these species can be used globally as indicator and/or umbrella species for conservation across different disturbance time scales. PMID:26108368

  11. Length-Weight Relationship and Growth Pattern of Sepioteuthis lessoniana Lesson 1830 (Cephalopoda:Teuthida from the Jaffna Lagoon, Sri Lanka

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    K. Sivashanthini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, length-weight regression equations were derived for male and female S. lessoniana collected from the Jaffna lagoon, Sri Lanka in order to find out the regression parameters and growth pattern of this species. Sepioteuthis lessoniana (Lesson 1830 are one of the commercially important group of cuttlefishes and becoming an important model system for neurobiological and behavioral research. It appears to be the most adaptable species to the laboratory environment and there exist a need for detail study on length-weight relationship for this species. Such a mathematical equation enables conversion of one parameter in to another as is often required during monitoring field measurements. Regression coefficients were estimated by using the logarithms of the mantle lengths and the corresponding weights and the growth pattern of the species was also noticed. The curvilinear relationships of mantle length-weight relationships for male and female were TW = 0.200*ML2.477 and TW = 0.229*ML2.437, respectively. Covariance analysis for mantle length-weight relationships of males and females revealed that there is no significant difference (p>0.05 between male and female and hence a common formulae of TW = 0.213* TL2.459 was derived for S. lessoniana. The ‘b’ values 2.477 and 2.4347 obtained for male and female, respectively indicate that the growth rate significantly differ from the ideal value ‘3’ and its growth said to be negative allometry.

  12. Major and trace elements in plants and soils in Horton Plains National Park, Sri Lanka: an approach to explain forest die back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrajith, Rohana; Koralegedara, Nadeesha; Ranawana, K. B.; Tobschall, H. J.; Dissanayake, C. B.

    2009-03-01

    Forest die back has been observed from 1980s in the montane moist forest of Horton Plains in the Central Sri Lanka for which the aetiology appears to be uncertain. The concentration levels of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, Zn and Pb in canopy leaves, bark and roots, which were collected from dying and healthy plants of three different endemic species, Calophyllum walkeri, Syzygium rotundifolium and Cinnamomum ovalifolium, from three different die back sites were studied. Soils underlying the plants were also analyzed for their extractable trace metals and total contents of major oxides. Analysis of dead and healthy plants does not show any remarkable differences in the concentrations of studied trace elements. The results show that there is a low status of pollution based on the concentrations of chemical elements of environmental concern. Extractable and total trace element analysis indicates a low content of Ca in soils due to high soil acidity that probably leads to Mg and Al toxicity to certain plants. Relatively high Al levels in the soil would affect the root system and hamper the uptake and transport of essential cations to the plant. It therefore seems that the forest declining appears to be a natural phenomenon, which occurs due to the imbalance of macro and micronutrients in the natural forest due to excessive weathering and the continuous leaching of essential elements.

  13. Modelling the flood-risk extent using LISFLOOD-FP in a complex watershed: case study of Mundeni Aru River Basin, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarnath, G.; Umer, Y. M.; Alahacoon, N.; Inada, Y.

    2015-06-01

    Flood management is adopting a more risk-based approach, whereby flood risk is the product of the probability and consequences of flooding. Two-dimensional flood inundation modeling is a widely used tool to aid flood-risk management. The aim of this study is to develop a flood inundation model that uses historical flow data to produce flood-risk maps, which will help to identify flood protection measures in the rural areas of Sri Lanka. The LISFLOOD-FP model was developed at the basin scale using available historical data, and also through coupling with a hydrological modelling system, to map the inundation extent and depth. Results from the flood inundation model were evaluated using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images to assess product accuracy. The impacts of flooding on agriculture and livelihoods were analyzed to assess the flood risks. It was identified that most of the areas under paddy cultivation that were located near the middle and downstream part of the river basin are more susceptible to flood risks. This paper also proposes potential countermeasures for future natural disasters to prevent and mitigate possible damages.

  14. An Assessment of the Contribution of an Analog Forest as a Sustainable Land-use Ecosystem for the Development of Rural Green Economy in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.K.D.D. Liyanage

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Large scale clearing of natural forests for human settlements as well as in the form of tea, rubberand cinnamon plantations resulted forest fragmentation in most natural ecosystems in the wet zone of SriLanka which posed massive threats to both nature and the humans including the loss of biodiversity,environmental hazards and increasing poverty. This paper discusses about the potential to develop ruralgreen economy as a result of consolidating these agricultural lands into analog forests as a sustainableland use practice. Bangamukande Estate, a man-made analog forest in Galle District was selected for thisassessment. Participatory rural appraisal methods were used to obtain information on resource utilizationby the local community in nearby villages. Secondary data of the long term analog forestry establishmentprogramme were also used for analysis the livelihood changes of the people due to the impacts thissystem. Various interventions had been made to address the issues such as encouraging local farmers tocultivate timber, fruits, spices and medicinal plants, paying them for the environmental services theyrender and enhancing their income through green employment. The introduction of new sustainableagricultural activities such as bee keeping and planting fruits resulted in the production of value addedfarm products and organic fruits to be sold in the market. Through environmental based tourism activitiessuch as providing food and accommodation, eco-guidance, and assisting environmental research, thestakeholders are earning a better income supporting the development of a green economy in the country.

  15. Glyphosate, hard water and nephrotoxic metals: are they the culprits behind the epidemic of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in Sri Lanka?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasumana, Channa; Gunatilake, Sarath; Senanayake, Priyantha

    2014-02-01

    The current chronic kidney disease epidemic, the major health issue in the rice paddy farming areas in Sri Lanka has been the subject of many scientific and political debates over the last decade. Although there is no agreement among scientists about the etiology of the disease, a majority of them has concluded that this is a toxic nephropathy. None of the hypotheses put forward so far could explain coherently the totality of clinical, biochemical, histopathological findings, and the unique geographical distribution of the disease and its appearance in the mid-1990s. A strong association between the consumption of hard water and the occurrence of this special kidney disease has been observed, but the relationship has not been explained consistently. Here, we have hypothesized the association of using glyphosate, the most widely used herbicide in the disease endemic area and its unique metal chelating properties. The possible role played by glyphosate-metal complexes in this epidemic has not been given any serious consideration by investigators for the last two decades. Furthermore, it may explain similar kidney disease epidemics observed in Andra Pradesh (India) and Central America. Although glyphosate alone does not cause an epidemic of chronic kidney disease, it seems to have acquired the ability to destroy the renal tissues of thousands of farmers when it forms complexes with a localized geo environmental factor (hardness) and nephrotoxic metals. PMID:24562182

  16. Changing role of non-timber forest products (NTFP) in rural household economy: the case of Sinharaja World Heritage site in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaratne, Athula; Abeygunawardena, Piyasena; Jayatilake, Wijaya

    2003-11-01

    This paper examines the modified patterns of utilizing non-timber forest products (NTFP) and associated behavioral changes around tropical forest areas in the context of conservation-related objectives and other commercially driven objectives. Our study introduces a conceptual framework based on the household production theory and tests empirically the hypotheses drawn at Sinharaja World Heritage in Sri Lanka. The results show that conditions introduced by forest conservation programs and the spread of small-scale commercial tea cultivation are transforming the economy around Sinharaja. The process is an economically rational one where resident communities decide upon their actions based on the opportunity cost of time involved with NTFP in the absence of observable prices. Although the process, overall, has led to a decline in the role of NTFP in the household economy, its impact over different NTFP are not uniform, leaving sustained demand for certain NTFP. This situation calls for a multifaceted approach in forest management programs to address the various household needs fulfilled by NTFP-based activities. PMID:15015695

  17. TSUNAMI RISK MITIGATION THROUGH STRATEGIC LAND-USE PLANNING AND EVACUATION PROCEDURES FOR COASTAL COMMUNITIES IN SRI LANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woharika Kaumudi Weerasinghe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety measures against the future disaster risk are considered as the main aspect of post disaster reconstructions. The majority of post-disaster villages/settlements and due projects on Sri Lankan coastline are apparently lacking behind the proper safety measures and adequate evacuation procedures. Therefore the immediate necessities of proper safety measures have to be emphasized in order to mitigate future tsunami risks. This paper introduces a number of post disaster coastal villages/settlements, which are in future coastline hazard risk, mainly in a future tsunami event. These include their location risk, land uses and housing designs defects and shortcomings of other safety measures. Furthermore few tsunami risk mitigation measures through land use planning strategies, which could be applied more easily in community level, are introduced. In addition to those the strategic development methods of functional networks of evacuation routes and shelters in different topographies are examined.

  18. Quality of life, vulnerability and resilience: a qualitative study of the tsunami impact on the affected population of Sri Lanka / Qualità della vita, vulnerabilità e resilienza: uno studio qualitativo dell'impatto dello tsunami sulla popolazione colpita dello Sri Lanka

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alice Josephine, Fauci; Manila, Bonciani; Raniero, Guerra.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This qualitative study is aimed at analysing the impact of the 2004 tsunami on the Quality of Life of the Sri Lankan population. It focused on the factors that have contributed to an increase in the people's susceptibility to the impact of hazards - their vulnerability - as well as of the natur [...] al ability to cope of the populations affected - their resilience. METHODOLOGY: The study is based on the conduction of 10 Focus Group discussions and 18 In-depth Interviews, then analysed through a qualitative analysis software. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The analysis shows that each factor involved in the interplay among the different processes that produced the changes in the affected people's quality of life is at the same time a damaged asset, a vulnerability factor and a resource to draw upon for coping. The complexity of this situation opens further speculation as to how disasters and relief interventions influence relationships and dynamics in society. This should thus be further investigated, together with the effects of individual and group trauma on society.

  19. Applicability of a Surveillance Methodology for the Microbiological Safety of Well Water Supplies, in a Highly Vulnerable Hydrogeological Setting——A Case Study Based Findings from the West Coastal Area of Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Shivasorupy Barthiban; Barry John Lloyd; Matthias Maier

    2012-01-01

    A well surveillance study carried out in nine Divisional Secretariat Divisions on the west coast of Sri Lanka showed that 70.3% of 101 well sampling points were microbially contaminated with equal to, or greater than, faecal coliform grade C (11 - 100 cfu/100 mL). Due to the very vulnerable hydro-geological setting of the coastal sand, laterite and alluvium aquifers occurring in the study areas, the recommended safe separation distance between an on-site sanitation system and a well could not...

  20. Processes of feelings in a society with a violent past : A qualitative study of the communication for Societal healing in the Truth Commissions in East Timor, Sri Lanka and Ghana between 2002-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Lindeby, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    The research investigates in what extent and how communication for meeting feelings is provided in Truth Commission work. It examines if and in what way feelings are addressed in the communication officially published by the Truth Commissions in East Timor, Ghana and Sri Lanka, occurring between 2002-2011. The research is also looking at the healing processes in a time perspective to find out if there is a communication for Societal healing to be continued in a longer term. My conclusion is t...

  1. Water Resource Management in Dry Zonal Paddy Cultivation in Mahaweli River Basin, Sri Lanka: An Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Climate Change Impacts and Traditional Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisira S. Withanachchi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lack of attention to spatial and temporal cross-scale dynamics and effects could be understood as one of the lacunas in scholarship on river basin management. Within the water-climate-food-energy nexus, an integrated and inclusive approach that recognizes traditional knowledge about and experiences of climate change and water resource management can provide crucial assistance in confronting problems in megaprojects and multipurpose river basin management projects. The Mahaweli Development Program (MDP, a megaproject and multipurpose river basin management project, is demonstrating substantial failures with regards to the spatial and temporal impacts of climate change and socioeconomic demands for water allocation and distribution for paddy cultivation in the dry zone area, which was one of the driving goals of the project at the initial stage. This interdisciplinary study explores how spatial and temporal climatic changes and uncertainty in weather conditions impact paddy cultivation in dry zonal areas with competing stakeholders’ interest in the Mahaweli River Basin. In the framework of embedded design in the mixed methods research approach, qualitative data is the primary source while quantitative analyses are used as supportive data. The key findings from the research analysis are as follows: close and in-depth consideration of spatial and temporal changes in climate systems and paddy farmers’ socioeconomic demands altered by seasonal changes are important factors. These factors should be considered in the future modification of water allocation, application of distribution technologies, and decision-making with regards to water resource management in the dry zonal paddy cultivation of Sri Lanka.

  2. Use of nuclear techniques for improving livestock production and health in Sri Lanka: A review of studies conducted and strategies for technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of nuclear techniques for studies on livestock production in Sri Lanka commenced in the 1970's with the establishment of Radioimmunoassay(RIA) technique for measuring reproductive hormones in the blood and milk of buffaloes, cattle and goats. Progesterone measurement was used in a series of studies to monitor reproductive status of ruminants under small-holder farming conditions in different agro-ecological zones, to identify the major constraints and to test methods for improving fertility. Thereafter, other isotopic techniques were established and used together with conventional methods for studies on nutrition, environmental physiology and disease control. In the early 1980's the nuclear-related technique of Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was established and applied for studies on the immune response of buffaloes to Toxocara vitulorum infection. Subsequently, ELISA techniques were used for studies on sero-epidomology and control of important viral and bacterial disease of cattle and buffaloes (rotavirus infection, haemorrhagic specticaemia, brucellosis, rinderpest and foot-and-mouth disease). The most recent development has been the use of ELISA for diagnosing viral diseases of poultry. In order to transfer the findings from research to the end-users, a multi disciplinary programme was launched in 1995, with the focus on improving buffalo production. Selected farms in three regions of the country participated in the testing, modification and evalated in the testing, modification and evaluation of appropriate technology packages aimed at imroving the productivity and health of their animals in a sustainable and economically feasible manner. They were provided assistance to upgrade their operations to the status of farms, which are now serving as demonstration sites and training locations for other farmers (AU)

  3. Effects of paraplegia on quality of life and family economy among patients with spinal cord injuries in selected hospitals of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyani, H H N; Dassanayake, S; Senarath, U

    2014-11-01

    Objectives:The study was conducted with the aim of assessing the effects of paraplegia caused by spinal cord injuries on the quality of life of patients and their family economy.Study design:A descriptive cross-sectional study.Setting:The study was carried out in Accident Service, Orthopedic and Neurosurgery Units of the National Hospital of Sri Lanka and the Spinal Injury Unit of Rehabilitation Hospital Ragama.Methods:One hundred traumatic paraplegic patients were included as the study sample. Modified Ferrans and Powers quality of life index: spinal cord injury version was used to measure the quality of life. Pre- and post-family economic data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire.Results:Quality of Life was calculated under four major components. Paraplegics' family component (mean=3.50) and social, economic aspects (mean=3.24) are considerably good when compared with health and functioning (mean=2.83) and psychological (mean=2.78) components. Also the study revealed that expenditures are significantly high (P=0.001) and income is significantly less (P=0.001) after injury than before.Conclusion:Quality of life is relatively good on family and social aspects, whereas the physical and psychological aspects are somewhat poor. Regarding family economy, expenses are significantly high and earnings are significantly less after the injury. Contribution to the income from self-employment shows the most significant decline. Findings suggest that the family economy of such patients should be supported.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 4 November 2014; doi:10.1038/sc.2014.183. PMID:25366535

  4. Natural Herbicide Resistance (HR to Broad-spectrum Herbicide, Glyphosate among Traditional and Inbred-cultivated Rice (Oryza sativa L. Varieties in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G.D. Wijeratne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Weeds along with insect pests and plant diseases are sources of biotic stress in crop systems. Weeds are responsible for serious problems in rice worldwide affecting growth and causing a considerable reduction in quality and quantity in yield. High concentrations of pre-emergent-broad-spectrum systemic herbicide, Glyphosate is prevalently applied to control rice weeds which intern causes severe damages to cultivated rice varieties, susceptible to Glyphosate. However, there may be rice varieties with natural Herbicide Resistance (HR which are so far, has not been evaluated. In this study Six traditional and eighteen developed-cultivated rice varieties (Bg, Bw, At and Ld series developed by Rice Research Development Institute, Sri Lanka were used to screen their natural HR. RCBD with five replicates and three blocks in each treatment-combination was used as the experimental design. As observations, time taken-to seed germination, time taken to flowering; plant height and number of leaves at 12-weeks after sawing, leaf-length, breadth, panicle-length, number of seeds/panicle of resistant plants and controls were recorded. Plants with ?40% resistance were considered as resistant to Glyphosate. Ten inbred-cultivated rice varieties (Bg250, Bg94-1, Bg304, Bg359, Bg406, Bg379-2, Bg366, Bg300, Bw364, At362 and three traditional rice varieties (“Kalu Heenati”, “Sudu Heenati”, “Pachchaperumal” were naturally resistant to 0.25 g L-1 Glyphosate concentration and when increased the concentration (0.5 g L-1 resistance was reduced. This study showed the usefulness of modern statistical method, classification and regression tree analysis (CART in exploring and visualizing the patterns reflected by a large number of rice varieties (larger experimental database on herbicide resistance in future.

  5. The utilization of alkali-treated rice straw supplemented with cheap non-protein nitrogen in buffalo production in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two experiments were undertaken to evaluate the feeding value of rice straw, with special emphasis on rumen function, on swamp buffalo in Sri Lanka. In Experiment 1 three rumen-fistulated buffaloes of average live weight 240 kg were used to compare three rations containing straw supplemented with 4% urea, straw 'ensiled' for 21 days with a solution of 4% urea (urea/ammonia treatment) and straw treated with a 4% solution of sodium hydroxide. The urea-ammonia and sodium hydroxide treatments were superior to urea supplementation in increasing apparent digestibility of the diet, total volatile fatty acid concentrations and acetate production rate in the rumen. In Experiment 2 three treatments were compared using the same three fistulated buffaloes. Treatments 1 and 2 were as in Experiment 1, but for treatment 3, to 4% urea ensiled straw as in Experiment 1 was added 5 wt% finely chopped, fresh glyricidia leaves prior to ensiling to supply urease, enhancing ammonia production from urea. The digestibility of the glyricidia-containing ration was similar to that of the ration with straw treated for 21 days. Acetate production and total volatile fatty acid concentration were also similar for the two treatments. The increased digestibility of the diet and the apparent increased volatile fatty acid production in the rumen explain the increases in live weight gain and milk production in cattle and buffalo fed urea-ammonia treated rice straw. Adding glyricidia at the commencement ow. Adding glyricidia at the commencement of ensiling can be recommended to reduce the ensiling time of treated straw. (author)

  6. X ray fluorescence technique for the assessment of pollution by heavy metals and their uptake by some inhabitant flora of Lunawa lagoon, Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the use of the X ray fluorescence (XRF) technique for the assessment of the status of heavy metal pollution of Lunawa lagoon, Sri Lanka, and the potential of Eichhornia crassipes, Panicum proliferum and Ipomoea aquatica in removing heavy metals from wastewaters. Sampling was done at two sites selected at the lagoon. The relative abundance (biomass) of each plant species found in the study area was determined and was expressed as dry weight/m2. Oven dried plant material was further analysed for elemental composition by the XRF method. The relative abundance (biomass) of P. proliferum at both sites was found to be twofold when compared with the other two species, E. crassipes and I. aquatica. Pollution of the sediments of the lagoon with metals, vanadium, manganese, iron, copper, zinc, arsenic, lead and cadmium was greater at site 1 than that of site 2, which was polluted mainly with Al, Ni and Hg. Eichhornia crassipes was observed to be the most efficient species in the uptake of Zn, Ni, Cu, Pb, Cd, As, Mn and Fe among the species tested. Panicum proliferum was equally efficient as E. crassipes in the uptake and the removal of Zn, Pb, Fe and Al. Panicum proliferum also showed a greater removal of Ni and Cu than that of E. crassipes due to the higher relative abundance of the former. Ipomoea aquatica also showed a considerable uptake of Zn, Ni, Cu, Mn, Al and As. The results obtained from XRF for zinc were in agreement with atomic absorptiinc were in agreement with atomic absorption spectrometry (r=0.81). It can be concluded from our results that P. proliferum and I. aquatica could be considered as resistant plant species for high concentrations of heavy metals comparable with E. crassipes and they could also be used as potential heavy metal removers in wastewater treatment systems. (author)

  7. Clinico-epidemiology of stings and envenoming of Hottentotta tamulus (Scorpiones: Buthidae), the Indian red scorpion from Jaffna Peninsula in northern Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kularatne, Senanayake A M; Dinamithra, Nandana P; Sivansuthan, Sivapalan; Weerakoon, Kosala G A D; Thillaimpalam, Bhanu; Kalyanasundram, Vithiya; Ranawana, Kithsiri B

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, stings of a lethal scorpion species were recorded from Jaffna Peninsula in the northern dry zone of Sri Lanka. This species was identified as Hottentotta tamulus (Scorpiones: Buthidae) which is the Indian red scorpion commonly found in Maharashtra, India. The Teaching Hospital, Jaffna recorded 84 H. tamulus stings over a year in 2012 and of them, 23 cases provided offending scorpions (proven cases). Three localities in Jaffna were recorded as hotspots of scorpion stings namely Palali, Achchuvali and Karainagar. Of the proven cases, 13 (57%) and 10 (43%) were males and females respectively and had a mean age of 30 years (SD ± 20 years). Among them, 5 (22%) were children below 12 years. In 13 (57%) patients stings occurred inside their houses including two children (40%). Six (26%) stings occurred at night when the victims were in sleep. Median time taken to arrive at the hospital from the time of stinging was 58 min (range 8-550 min). Signs of over activation of autonomic nervous system predominated the clinical picture-tachycardia in 14 (61%), high blood pressure in 11 (48%), excessive sweating in 9 (39%), excessive salivation in 5 (22%), hypotension in 4 (17%) and piloerection in 3 (13%). Children showed higher predilection to develop tachycardia - 4 (80%) and excessive salivation - 3 (60%). Priapism was not observed and 17 (74%) patients have developed intense pain at the site of sting. The commonest ECG change was tachycardia (73%) and occasional T wave inversion. Prazosin as a treatment was given to 22 (96%) patients. All patients made recovery and 13 (57%) patients left the hospital within two days. In future, there is a potential risk of spreading this species to elsewhere in the country and may disturb the ecological balance. PMID:25450799

  8. Natural herbicide resistance (HR) to broad-spectrum herbicide, glyphosate among traditional and inbred-cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerakoon, S R; Somaratne, S; Wijeratne, R G D; Ekanyaka, E M S I

    2013-08-15

    Weeds along with insect pests and plant diseases are sources of biotic stress in crop systems. Weeds are responsible for serious problems in rice worldwide affecting growth and causing a considerable reduction in quality and quantity in yield. High concentrations of pre-emergent-broad-spectrum systemic herbicide, Glyphosate is prevalently applied to control rice weeds which intern causes severe damages to cultivated rice varieties, susceptible to Glyphosate. However, there may be rice varieties with natural Herbicide Resistance (HR) which are so far, has not been evaluated. In this study Six traditional and eighteen developed-cultivated rice varieties (Bg, Bw, At and Ld series developed by Rice Research Development Institute, Sri Lanka) were used to screen their natural HR. RCBD with five replicates and three blocks in each treatment-combination was used as the experimental design. As observations, time taken-to seed germination, time taken to flowering; plant height and number of leaves at 12-weeks after sawing, leaf-length, breadth, panicle-length, number of seeds/panicle of resistant plants and controls were recorded. Plants with > or = 40% resistance were considered as resistant to Glyphosate. Ten inbred-cultivated rice varieties (Bg250, Bg94-1, Bg304, Bg359, Bg406, Bg379-2, Bg366, Bg300, Bw364, At362) and three traditional rice varieties ("Kalu Heenati", "Sudu Heenati", "Pachchaperumal") were naturally resistant to 0.25 g L(-1) Glyphosate concentration and when increased the concentration (0.5 g L(-1)) resistance was reduced. This study showed the usefulness of modern statistical method, classification and regression tree analysis (CART) in exploring and visualizing the patterns reflected by a large number of rice varieties (larger experimental database) on herbicide resistance in future. PMID:24498832

  9. Comparison of low cost materials to remove fluoride from drinking water in Sri Lanka; Response to health problems associated with contiguous hydrogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithanage, M. S.; Randiligama, S.

    2010-12-01

    Considering medical geology, Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), dental and skeletal fluorosis is emerging as major health problems in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. In the year of 2008, over 5,000 patients were under treatment for renal failure in the North Central Province. Large number of cases has been found with the dental fluorosis while few skeletal fluorosis is also reported. Recent research carried out in the CKD prevalent areas also demonstrated that there is a significant relationship between fluoride-rich areas and the high incidence of CKD. In some areas fluoride in drinking water reported as high as 9-10 ppm where the WHO maximum permissible limit is 1.5 ppm. Therefore, it is essential to remove excessive fluoride from water before drinking. This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of low cost and locally available filter materials to be used easily in household filters. Batch experiments were carried out for different fluoride loadings (10, 20 and 50 ppm) and time for diverse adsorbents such as laterite, bricks, charcoal, serpentine, tile, quartz, marble and white clay balls (impure kaolinite) based on the adsorption technique. It was found that untreated charcoal and quartz have no effect on defluoridation and local bricks as well as marble demonstrated less defluoridation ability i.e. 28.83% and 12.7% respectively. White clay and laterite showed higher adsorption efficiency than tile chips and serpentinite. When consider adsorption amounts white clay, laterite and serpentinite exhibited 96.0%, 94.25% and 93.54% % respectively for 10 ppm initial concentration of fluoride. For the rest adsorbate loadings it showed similar behavior with more than 90 % adsorption. Most of the materials attend to equilibrium after 60 minutes. The presence of aluminium and iron oxides would place these materials on top of the better adsorbent list. Column experiments, effect of temperature on the adsorbents and modeling are under investigation for white clay, laterite and serpentinite.

  10. Distribution Of Withaferin A, an Anticancer Potential Agent, In Different Parts of Two Varieties of Withania somnifera (L. Dunal. Grown in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosala Samarasinghe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera (L. Dunal. (Family: Solanaceae is a therapeutically important medicinal plant in traditional and Ayurveda systems of medicine in Sri Lanka. Witheferin A, is a potential anticancer compound found in W. somnifera. In the present study, attempts have been made to compare witheferin A content, in different parts of (root, stem, bark, leaf two varieties of (LC1 and FR1 W. somnifera grown in same soil and climatic conditions. Ground sample (1g of leaves, bark, stem and roots of two W. somnifera varieties were extracted with CHCl3 three times. Thin Layer Chromatographic analysis (TLC of withaferin A in both plant extracts were performed on pre-coated Silica gel 60 GF254 plates in hexane: ethyl acetate: methanol (2: 14: 1 mobile phase. Densitometer scanning was performed at ?max = 215 nm. HPLC of W. somnifera extracts was performed using Kromasil C18 reverse phase column. Both varieties of W. somnifera differed in withaferin A. After visualizing TLC plates with vanillin-sulphuric acid leaf and bark extracts of both varieties showed high intensity purple colour spots (Rf 0.14 than in stem and roots. The highest amount of withaferin A (3812 ppm was observed in leaves of variety LC1 while the lowest amount was observed in roots of variety FR1 (5 ppm. According to the results it could be concluded that content of Witheferin A was vary leaf> bark> stem > roots in both varieties. Therefore, there is a high potential of incorporation of leaves and bark of W. somnifera for the preparation of Ayurveda drug leading to anticancer activity instead of roots.

  11. Ministerial Presentation: Sri Lanka. Presentation by Tissa Vitarana [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thank you, Mr. Chairman for giving me the opportunity to address this distinguished audience at short notice. I would also like to thank the Government of China and the China Atomic Energy Authority together with the IAEA and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD for hosting and organizing this second ministerial meeting on nuclear energy. It takes place at a time when the world is faced with an energy crisis and also an environmental crisis. Besides cost considerations, dependence on fossil fuels is no longer feasible because of their impact on climate leading to global warming with all the adverse consequences for all forms of life on this planet. Therefore, from the point of view of generating electricity on a large scale without carbon emissions, nuclear energy is the need of the hour. This meeting is addressing the main issues that arise in expanding the use of nuclear energy as a source of power, such as fuel supply, waste management, infrastructure development, technology availability and environmental aspects. In addition by providing time for ministerial presentations the current experience and needs of the various countries are being surfaced and shared. Before discussing some issues pertaining to Sri Lanka, I wish to express my agreement with the statement made by the Vice Prime Minister of China who clearly emphasized the need for a total ban on nuclear weapons, which was supported by speakers from several other countries. The statement attributed to US Pruntries. The statement attributed to US President Barak Obama that he is prepared to work towards reducing nuclear arms in the USA is also welcome. Further, the right of every country to resort to peaceful use of nuclear energy for generating power should be respected so long as they conform to the regulations of the IAEA, including the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT). I wish to share with the learned delegates a few issues pertaining to Sri Lanka as a country which has not yet taken a firm decision to turn to nuclear energy as a part of its energy mix. Sri Lanka is a small island of 64,000 sq km with about 20 million people with an electricity generation of 6000 MWe, 60% of which is thermal and 38% hydropower and the balance 2% being provided by renewable sources including biomass. Clearly, the dependence on petroleum has to be reduced for both economic and environmental reasons. The hydropower potential has been largely exhausted and therefore the government has turned to coal which also raises environmental concerns. Therefore, resort to renewable energy is the main option and a target of 10% of the country's needs by 2015 is being aimed at. In this context, and as the terrorist problem is being successfully overcome, for the first time the nuclear option is being seriously considered by Sri Lanka (Target up to 1000 MWe). However, we need to carefully assess the feasibility and cost effectiveness in the Sri Lankan context before taking a final decision. Among the relevant issues, apart from safety and security, are the following: 1. With the limited availability of uranium in the world, the effect on future prices due to increasing demand is a factor that needs consideration. There is evidence that Sri Lanka has significant thorium deposits. Can our thorium deposits which need to be properly determined, adequately compensate for this? (Indian Sub continent ha around 30% of the world thorium reserves). Do we then need at the outset to go for a reactor that can utilize thorium? 2. Suitable sites for long term waste disposal need to be identified in Sri Lanka. It may be necessary to establish regional waste repositories that would accept high level waste for long term disposal, may be for a reasonable fee. 3. Considering the problems encountered from the public when trying to establish a coal power plant, and even in setting up the laboratory of the Atomic Energy Authority of Sri Lanka, it will be necessary to have an intensive programme of public awareness on the safety and advantages of nuclear energy. 4. Sri Lanka will need to develop the human resources,

  12. Process Adaption and Modifications of a Nutrient Removing Wastewater Treatment Plant in Sri Lanka Operated at Low Loading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Morling

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sri Lankan national water authority, that is The National Water Supply and Drainage Board (NWS&DB has taken a new wastewater treatment plant into operation at Ja Ela, North of Colombo. The plant has been in operation since September 2011. In April 2012, it was concluded how a test of the aeration efficiency and a performance test should be carried out. The tests have been based on the actual loading of the plant and the analysis results from the daily process control. The evaluation of the aeration efficiency is not reported in this paper. The paper presents the overall performance of the water treatment part of the plant during start-up conditions, from fall 2011 through the first five months of 2012. The results from the operation are found in Table 1. An important circumstance at the plant is the current very low loading in comparison with the design load. This fact has resulted in an introduction of an intermittent mode of the aeration (nitrification reactor. Based on operation figures, during more than a month (May 2012, it has been possible to give a realistic assessment of the overall performance. The most striking results are summarized as follows: 1 The intermittent operation has enabled an energy efficient operation of the plant. By the introduction of the intermittent aeration, the energy consumption has been reduced by around 75%, compared with the continuous operation mode; 2 The plant performance during the intermittent operation has been improved with respect to virtually all important pollution variables. The most striking improvement is the discharge total P level, reflecting that a substantial enhanced biological phosphorus removal takes. The typical discharge levels found during May 2012, were compared with the earlier obtained values. It is important to underline that the loading on the plant has slightly increased during May as compared with the previous operation period.

  13. A natural field example indicating spinel + quartz as a non-diagnostic assemblage for ultrahigh temperature metamorphis from the Highland Complex, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksthitha Dharmapriya, Prasanna; Galli, Andrea; Prabath Malaviarachchi, Sanjeeva; Su, Ben-Xun; Deepal Subasinghe, Nalaka; Dissanayake, Chandrasekara; Nimalsiri, Thusitha; Zhu, Bin

    2014-05-01

    Though, co-existing spinel + quartz has been reported from a number of ultra-high-temperature (UHT) granulite terrains, experimental studies suggest that the stability of the assemblage could be shifted towards lower temperatures due to the incorporation into the spinel structure of Zn, Cr, Ti, Ni, V or Fe3+ at high oxidizing conditions. In this study, we report co-existing spinel + quartz within garnet-porphyroblasts in a non-UHT spinel- and cordierite-bearing garnet-sillimanite-biotite-graphite gneiss (khondalite) interbedded with orthopyroxene-garnet-biotite-bearing intermediate granulites from the Highland Complex (HC) in Sri Lanka. Zn-rich spinels were observed in four textural settings which probably formed during different stages along the PT trajectory followed by the khondalite: (a) spinel co-existing with tiny quartz (ZnO = 12.67-12.85 wt%), (b) spinel surrounded by sillimanite moats and in intergrowth with skeletal sillimanites (ZnO = 9.03-9.17 wt%), (c) symplectitic spinels at the margin of sillimanite (ZnO = 4.09-4.28 wt%), and (d) spinel co-existing with ilmenite or as isolated grains (ZnO = 7.61-7.97 wt% and Cr2O3 = 5.99-6.27 wt%). Textural settings (a) and (b) occur within garnet-porphyroblasts, while textures of (c) and (d) are present within cordierite moats after garnet in the rock matrix. Pseudosections calculated in the CNKFMASHTMnO system and conventional geothermobarometry suggest that the metamorphic peak conditions attained by the spinel + quartz bearing khondalites and associated intermediate granulites approached but not exceeded T of 900 °C at P of 7.5-8.5 kbar. After the peak of the metamorphism, the khondalite has undergone a stage of nearly-isobaric cooling down to T of 770 °C and P of 7.5 kbar, followed by a late stage of isothermal decompression down to P < 6.5 kbar and T of 770 °C. Hence, the stabilization of coexisting spinel + quartz to T < 900 °C could be due to the incorporation into spinel of large amount of Zn, which was probably associated with Zn-rich, exotic, metasomatic fluids, and possibly Fe3+ at relatively high oxidizing conditions. Thus, the khondalite of the HC provides a natural field example which shows that spinel + quartz assemblages alone cannot be used to infer UHT metamorphism for pelitic granulites.

  14. Nutrient cycling, soil properties and physiological and yield responses in a Gliricidia Maize alley cropping system in the mid-country intermediate zone of Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the research was to study the potential of alley-cropping agroforestry systems to improve degraded lands in the Mid-Country Intermediate Zone of Sri Lanka. A field experiment was carried out at the University of Peradeniya experimental station using Gliricidia as the hedgerow tree species. Gliricidia hedgerows having within row spacing of 0.75 m (8 m long rows) and between row spacing of 7 m were established. 15N-enriched ammonium sulphate (60 kg N ha1, 10 atom % 15N excess) was applied to a subplot (2.25 m wide x 3.5 m long) in the alley, which enclosed 3 Gliricidia trees. Labelled plant material was added to microplots as crop residue only (ML), Gliricidia loppings only (GL), crop residue and Gliricidia loppings (GLML), and no residues (NL) in the subsequent seasons. Soil properties, crop yields and nutrient dynamics were recorded regularly for every growing season.Addition of Gliricidia loppings and crop residues over 5 a improved soil chemical properties including soil organic matter, major (especially N) and minor nutrients and physical properties. There was no significant impact of hedgerows on soil fertility compared with the sole crop or at different distances from the hedgerow. Physiological parameters measured in this study illustrated that hedgerows may influence one or two adjacent crop rows negatively, possibly due to competition for light or water resources. Photosynthesis rates of both maize and cowpea csynthesis rates of both maize and cowpea crops were reduced near the hedgerow compared to the sole crops, due to partial shading by the hedgerow. However, leaf photosynthesis and yields were significantly greater in rows in the middle of the alleys compared with the sole-crop (control). This would suggest the existence of complementary interactions from Gliricidia hedgerows through increasing the resource availability and/or making the microenvironment more favorable for the crop species. Addition of Gliricidia and crop residues (MLGL) enhanced growth and yield of crops more than the other treatments. Addition of similar litter amounts to the sole crop also resulted in similar trends. 15N recovery by the maize crop was 25% in seeds and 23% in leaves and stems (in total 48%). (author)

  15. How does the quality of life and the underlying biochemical indicators correlate with the performance in academic examinations in a group of medical students of Sri Lanka?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Hettiarachchi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Individual variation of examination performance depends on many modifiable and non-modifiable factors, including pre-examination anxiety. Medical students’ quality of life (QoL and certain biochemical changes occurring while they are preparing for examinations has not been explored. Purpose: We hypothesize that these parameters would determine the examination performance among medical students. Methods: Fourth-year medical students (n=78 from the University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka, were invited. Their pre- and post-exam status of QoL, using the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire, and the level of biochemical marker levels (i.e., serum levels of thyroid profile including thyroglobulin, cortisol and ferritin were assessed. Differences between the scores of QoL and serum parameters were compared with their performance at the examination. Results: The mean QoL score was significantly lower at pre-exam (56.19±8.1 when compared with post-exam (61.7±7.1 levels (p<0.001. The median serum TSH level prior to the exam (0.9 mIU/L; interquartile range 0.74–1.4 mIU/L was significantly lower (p=0.001 when compared with the level after the exam (median of 2.7 mIU/L; IQR 1.90–3.60. The mean±SD fT4 level was significantly higher before the exam (19.48±0.4 pmol/L at study entry vs. 17.43±0.3 pmol/L after the exam; p<0.001. Median serum ferritin (SF level prior to the exam (43.15 (23.5–63.3 µg/L was significantly lower (p?0.001 when compared with after-exam status (72.36 (49.9–94.9 µg/L. However, there was no difference in mean serum cortisol levels (16.51±0.7 at pre-exam and 15.88±0.7 at post-exam, respectively; p=0.41. Conclusions: Students had higher fT4 and low ferritin levels on pre-exam biochemical assessment. It was evident that students who perform better at the examination had significantly higher QoL scores at each domain tested through the questionnaire (Physical health, Psychological, Social interaction and Environment. The higher the QoL scores, the better the grades were. It was also found that students who failed exhibited profound differences in the QoL score.

  16. Prediction of Ungauged River Basin for Hydro Power Potential and Flood Risk Mitigation; a Case Study at Gin River, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    The most of the primary civilizations of the world emerged in or near river valleys or floodplains. The river channels and floodplains are single hydrologic and geomorphic system. The failure to appreciate the integral connection between floodplains and channel underlies many socioeconomic and environmental problems in river management today. However it is a difficult task of collecting reliable field hydrological data. Under such situations either synthetic or statistically generated data were used for hydraulic engineering designing and flood modeling. The fundamentals of precipitation-runoff relationship through synthetic unit hydrograph for Gin River basin were prepared using the method of the Flood Studies Report of the National Environmental Research Council, United Kingdom (1975). The Triangular Irregular Network model was constructed using Geographic Information System (GIS) to determine hazard prone zones. The 1:10,000 and 1:50,000 topography maps and field excursions were also used for initial site selection of mini-hydro power units and determine flooding area. The turbines output power generations were calculated using the parameters of net head and efficiency of turbine. The peak discharge achieves within 4.74 hours from the onset of the rainstorm and 11.95 hours time takes to reach its normal discharge conditions of Gin River basin. Stream frequency of Gin River is 4.56 (Junctions/ km2) while the channel slope is 7.90 (m/km). The regional coefficient on the catchment is 0.00296. Higher stream frequency and gentle channel slope were recognized as the flood triggering factors of Gin River basin and other parameters such as basins catchment area, main stream length, standard average annual rainfall and soil do not show any significant variations with other catchments of Sri Lanka. The flood management process, including control of flood disaster, prepared for a flood, and minimize it impacts are complicated in human population encroached and modified floodplains. Thus modern GIS technology has been productively executed to prepare hazard maps based on the flood modeling and also it would be further utilized for disaster preparedness and mitigation activities. Five suitable hydraulic heads were recognized for mini-hydro power sites and it would be the most economical and applicable flood controlling hydraulic engineering structure considering all morphologic, climatic, environmental and socioeconomic proxies of the study area. Mini-hydro power sites also utilized as clean, eco friendly and reliable energy source (8630.0 kW). Finally Francis Turbine can be employed as the most efficiency turbine for the selected sites bearing in mind of both technical and economical parameters.

  17. Formation of garnet + corundum during isobaric cooling at UHT conditions: an example from pelitic granulites of the Highland Complex, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksthitha Dharmapriya, Prasanna; Galli, Andrea; Prabath Malaviarachchi, Sanjeeva; Su, Ben-Xun

    2014-05-01

    Coexisting garnet and corundum have been reported from different rock types such as UHP rocks, aluminous eclogites, kimberlites and numerous granulites worldwide which experienced UHT conditions of 900-1050 °C at relatively high but not eclogitic pressures of 10-12 kbar. In pelitic granulites the assemblage garnet + corundum is usually interpreted to form at peak P during prograde heating along a clock-wise metamorphic path and subsequently breaks down during decompression to form sapphirine, cordierite-sapphirine-spinel or spinel-sillimanite bearing assemblages, depending on the PT-trajectory and bulk rock composition. In any cases, coexisting garnet + corundum are rarely preserved. Even less usual is the occurrence of garnet + corundum in pyroxene-free rocks. In this study, we report the occurrence of coexisting garnet + corundum within spinel- and corundum-bearing, orthopyroxene-free garnet-sillimanite-biotite-graphite gneisses from the Highland Complex (HC), Sri Lanka. In the investigated pelitic granulites, quartz-saturated domains and quartz-deficient domains are distinguishable. Quartz-saturated domains consist of quartz, plagioclase, alkali-feldspar, garnet-porphyroblasts and biotite flakes around garnet. Quartz-deficient domains are constituted of sillimanite, plagioclase, alkali-feldspar, corundum, spinel, biotite and two generations of garnet. Grt1 is coarse- to medium-grained (0.5-3 cm in diameter) and encloses rare Ti-rich biotite and numerous rutile needles and apatite rods. Grt2 is medium- to fine-grained (0.25-1 cm in diameter), contains rare sillimanite and/or spinel inclusions and is always associated with corundum. Corundum occurs in mutual contact with Grt2, partially embedded within rim area of Grt2 or as inclusions in Grt2. Rarely, tiny spinel inclusions can be observed in corundum. The chemistry of minerals preserved as inclusion in Grt1 indicates that pelitic granulites attained maximal P of 10.5-11 kbar at T around 850°C during their prograde history. Further heating induced a series of biotite-melting reactions which progressively consumed biotite and quartz from the rock matrix and produced garnet-porphyroblasts and spinel. Textural observations coupled with both pseudosections calculated in the CNKFMASHTMnO system and Ti-in-garnet geothermobarometry suggest that peak metamorphic temperature occurred at UHT conditions of 950-975 0C and pressures of 9-9.5 kbar. Peak T was followed by a period of isobaric cooling responsible for the formation of corundum and Grt2 via the reaction Spl + Sil = Grt2 + Crn at around 930 °C, as well as exsolution of rutile needles and apatite rods from Grt1. Modelling of the mode of spinel, sillimanite, corundum and garnet confirms that along an isobaric cooling path at about 920-930 °C and 9-9.5 kbar corundum appears and spinel contemporaneously disappears. At the same PT conditions, our model predicts a decrease of sillimanite and an increase of garnet content. Further isobaric cooling produced a second generation of biotite at the rim of large Grt1-porphyroblasts at ca. 800 °C. Therefore, the investigated granulites provide a rare but meaningful example where garnet + corundum formed along a retrograde metamorphic trajectory under UHT conditions, forcing to consider isobaric cooling at the base of the crust as an alternative process to explain the formation of coexisting garnet + corundum, especially if the studied rock lacks of cordierite or orthopyroxene.

  18. How does the quality of life and the underlying biochemical indicators correlate with the performance in academic examinations in a group of medical students of Sri Lanka?

    OpenAIRE

    Manjula Hettiarachchi; Chathuranga Lakmal Fonseka; Priyanka Gunasekara; Prasanjanie Jayasinghe; Dasun Maduranga

    2014-01-01

    Background: Individual variation of examination performance depends on many modifiable and non-modifiable factors, including pre-examination anxiety. Medical students’ quality of life (QoL) and certain biochemical changes occurring while they are preparing for examinations has not been explored. Purpose: We hypothesize that these parameters would determine the examination performance among medical students. Methods: Fourth-year medical students (n=78) from the University of Ruhuna, Sri Lank...

  19. Investigation of Socially Responsible Investment Markets (SRI) Using Dynamic Conditional Correlation (DCC) Method: Implications for Diversification

    OpenAIRE

    Gurudeo Anand Tularam; Eduardo Roca; Wong, Victor S. H.

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Over the last ten years there has been a phenomenal growth in the amount of funds placed in SRI globally estimated to be around US$6.5 trillion while around US$55 billion in the Australian market. Accurate knowledge of correlation of the Australian SRI market with other SRI markets overseas is crucially important for Australian (SRI) investors for international portfolio diversification since portfolio diversification theory posits that the lower (higher...

  20. Applicability of a Surveillance Methodology for the Microbiological Safety of Well Water Supplies, in a Highly Vulnerable Hydrogeological Setting——A Case Study Based Findings from the West Coastal Area of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivasorupy Barthiban

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A well surveillance study carried out in nine Divisional Secretariat Divisions on the west coast of Sri Lanka showed that 70.3% of 101 well sampling points were microbially contaminated with equal to, or greater than, faecal coliform grade C (11 - 100 cfu/100 mL. Due to the very vulnerable hydro-geological setting of the coastal sand, laterite and alluvium aquifers occurring in the study areas, the recommended safe separation distance between an on-site sanitation system and a well could not be achieved. Hence, a cardinal rule of well protection was observed to be broken at almost every well study site. The existing excreta disposal systems need to be improved or replaced with more efficient ones before the impact of other sanitary hazards at the well, and wellhead area, on the microbial quality of well water, can be determined and addressed. The published (WHO, 1997 sanitary survey forms for open dug wells and tube wells need to be modified in the context of the study areas described. Based on a comparison of three different statistical methods used to assess the relative significance of each sanitary hazard modification to the methodology for determining the sanitary hazard index (SHI was prescribed.

  1. Awareness and views of the law on termination of pregnancy and reasons for resorting to an abortion among a group of women attending a clinic in Colombo, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyasinghe, N L; Weerasundera, B J; Jayawardene, P A; Somarathna, S D

    2009-04-01

    In Sri Lanka, induced abortion is a criminal offence except to save the life of the mother. This study determined the awareness and views of the law on abortion among women seeking an abortion. Three hundred and thirteen women were interviewed. The characteristics of the study group are discussed. 65.8% of the respondents stated they knew the current law, 25.6% stated they did not and 8.3% were unsure. On detailed analysis of each respondent's knowledge regarding the situations where abortion is legalized including those who stated that they did not know the law, only 11.2% had an accurate knowledge. More than 75% stated that abortion should be legalized when the mother's life was in danger, where there was pregnancy after rape or incest, when there was psychiatric illness in the mother and when there were fetal anomalies. Reasons for resorting to an abortion are discussed. Although 11.2% were aware of the law, there was no difference in the reasons for resorting to an abortion when compared with those who were unaware of the law. This study highlights the fact that availability of abortion services to women depend not only on the law and its awareness, but on how it is interpreted and enforced. PMID:19239963

  2. Rates and Psychological Effects of Exposure to Family Violence among Sri Lankan University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.; de Zoysa, Piyanjli

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The study had two objectives: to examine the rates of exposure to family violence among students in a non-Western society, with Sri Lanka as a case study and to examine the psychological effects of their exposure. Method: Four hundred seventy six medical students in Sri Lanka were surveyed. A self-administered questionnaire was…

  3. Migration of Sri Lankan medical specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The migration of health-care workers contributes to the shortage of health-care workers in many developing countries. This paper aims to describe the migration of medical specialists from Sri Lanka and to discuss the successes and failures of strategies to retain them. Methods This paper presents data on all trainees who have left Sri Lanka for postgraduate training through the Post Graduate Institute of Medicine, University of Colombo, from April 1980 to June 2009. In addition, confidential interviews were conducted with 30 specialists who returned following foreign training within the last 5 years and 5 specialists who opted to migrate to foreign countries. Results From a total of 1,915 specialists who left Sri Lanka for training, 215 (11%) have not returned or have left the country without completing the specified bond period. The majority (53%) migrated to Australia. Of the specialists who left before completion of the bond period, 148 (68.8%) have settled or have started settling the bond. All participants identified foreign training as beneficial for their career. The top reasons for staying in Sri Lanka were: job security, income from private practice, proximity to family and a culturally appropriate environment. The top reasons for migration were: better quality of life, having to work in rural parts of Sri Lanka, career development and social security. Conclusions This paper attempts to discuss the reasons for the low rates of emigration of specialists from Sri Lanka. Determining the reasons for retaining these specialists may be useful in designing health systems and postgraduate programs in developing countries with high rates of emigration of specialists. PMID:23693092

  4. “Don’t forget the migrants”: exploring preparedness and response strategies to combat the potential spread of MERS-CoV virus through migrant workers in Sri Lanka [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1hs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolitha Wickramage

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available From September 2012 to July 2013, 81 laboratory-confirmed cases of infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV, including 45 deaths (a case fatality ratio of 55% have been reported from eight countries. Human-to-human transmission is now confirmed showing potential for another pandemic of zoonotic disease, with an extremely high mortality rate. Effective surveillance strategies are required in countries with a high influx of migrants from the Middle East to mitigate the probable importation of MERS-CoV. We discuss here the risk of MERS-CoV in major labor sending countries and list the probable strategies for control and prevention of MERS-CoV using Sri Lanka as an example. It is conservatively estimated that 10% of Sri Lanka’s population work as international labor migrants (1.8 to 2 million workers, with 93% residing in the Middle East. An average of 720 workers depart each day, with the majority of these workers (71% departing to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (the country with 81.5% of total MERS-CoV cases. We also describe other inbound migration categories such as tourists and resident visa holders relevant to the context of preparedness and planning. The importance of partnerships between public health authorities at national and regional levels with labor migration networks to establish institutional and/or policy mechanisms are highlighted for ensuring effective preparedness and response planning. Strategies that can be taken by public health authorities working in both labor sending and labor receiving counties are also described.  The strategies described here may be useful for other labor sending country contexts in Asia with a high frequency and volume of migrant workers to and from the Gulf region.

  5. Was there a disparity in age appropriate infant immunization uptake in the theatre of war in the North of Sri Lanka at the height of the hostilities?: a cross-sectional study in resettled areas in the Kilinochchi district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameswaran Ananthan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It was long speculated that there could be under-immunized pockets in the war affected Northern part of Sri Lanka relative to other areas. With the cessation of hostilities following the military suppression of the rebellion, opportunities have arisen to appraise the immunization status of children in areas of re-settlement in former war ravaged districts. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to describe the coverage and age appropriateness of infant vaccinations in a former conflict district during the phase of re-settlement. The target population comprised all children of re-settled families in the age group of 12 – 23 months in the district. We selected a study sample of 300 children from among the target population using the WHO’s 30 cluster EPI survey method. Trained surveyors collected data using a structured checklist. The infant vaccination status was ascertained by reviewing vaccination records in the Child Health Development Record or any other alternative documentary evidence. Results The survey revealed that the proportion of fully vaccinated children in the district was 91%. For individual vaccines, it ranged from 92% (measles to 100% (BCG, DPT/OPV1. However, the age appropriateness of vaccination was less than 50% for all antigens except for BCG (94%. The maximum number of days of delay of vaccinations ranged from 21 days for BCG to 253 days for measles. Age appropriate vaccination rates significantly differed for DPT/OPV1-3 and measles during the conflict and post-conflict stages while it did not for the BCG. Age appropriate vaccination rates were significantly higher for DPT/OPV1-3 during the conflict while for the measles it was higher in the post conflict stage. Conclusions Though the vaccination coverage for infant vaccines in the war affected Kilinochchi district was similar to other districts in the country, it masked a disparity in terms of low age-appropriateness of infant immunizations given in field settings. This finding underscores the need for investigation of underlying reasons and introduction of remedial measures in the stage of restoring Primary Health Care services in the ex-conflict zone.

  6. Investigation of Socially Responsible Investment Markets (SRI Using Dynamic Conditional Correlation (DCC Method: Implications for Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurudeo Anand Tularam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Over the last ten years there has been a phenomenal growth in the amount of funds placed in SRI globally estimated to be around US$6.5 trillion while around US$55 billion in the Australian market. Accurate knowledge of correlation of the Australian SRI market with other SRI markets overseas is crucially important for Australian (SRI investors for international portfolio diversification since portfolio diversification theory posits that the lower (higher the correlation between markets, the higher (lower the gains to be made. The study examines the relationship of the Australian SRI market with fourteen other markets-Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Ireland, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom and the United States. Approach: The relationships of the Australian Socially Responsible Investment (SRI market with other SRI markets worldwide during the period 1994-2009 are examined based on the dynamic conditional correlation multivariate GARCH model (DCCMVGarch. In the DCC method, the multivariate conditional variance estimation is simplified by estimating univariate GARCH models for each market. Using the transformed residuals resulting from the first stage, the authors can estimate a conditional correlation estimator. The standard errors for the first stage parameters remain while the standard errors for the correlation parameters are modified. Results: Our results showed that the Australian market experienced a surge in correlation with all other markets during the global financial crisis. During the period of study, the correlation of Australia with Canada, Denmark, Norway and the United Kingdom increased over time while its correlation with other countries remained stationary. This implies that the Australian SRI market is becoming more integrated with those of Canada, Denmark, Norway and the United Kingdom. Therefore, these overseas markets provide less portfolio diversification benefits to Australian SRI investors while the other markets still offer some opportunities. Conclusion/Recommendations: This study examined the relationship of the Australian Socially Responsible Investment (SRI market with other SRI markets worldwide during the period 1994-2009 based on dynamic conditional correlation multivariate GARCH model that provides accurate correlations over time that can be incorporated into portfolio models. Australian SRI market was analyzed with fourteen other markets around the world such as Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Ireland, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom and the United States. The results showed that the Australian market experienced a spike in correlation with the other markets during periods of market distress; for example, during the recent global financial crisis. In spite of the fluctuations in the correlations of Australian with the other markets the correlations generally remain below 1. Australia?s correlation with Denmark, Norway and Japan increased while with others our market was more or less stationary except from 2007 onwards-global financial crisis. Clearly, it still pays for Australian investors to diversify internationally since the correlations are still less than 1. However, it pays less to diversify to such markets as Japan, Norway and Denmark while diversification benefits can be obtained from the other markets. Importantly, our results suggested that diversification to other SRI markets is less effective during periods of market distress. A number of other DCC models exist and it is possible to explore more of these that incorporate other influencing variables for more accurate portfolio analysis.

  7. Styling One's Own in the Sri Lankan Tamil Diaspora: Implications for Language and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canagarajah, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the ways youth in the Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora in Canada, Britain, and the United States construct their ethnic identity when proficiency in their heritage language is limited. Though these youth claim only rudimentary proficiency in Tamil and identify English as their dominant language, they are nonetheless able to claim…

  8. Effects of the Sri Lankan medicinal plant, Salacia reticulata, in rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Sekiguchi, Yuusuke; Mano, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Sachie; Shimizu, Jun; Wada, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Salacia reticulata is a native plant of Sri Lanka. In the traditional medicine of Sri Lanka and India, Salacia reticulata bark is considered orally effective in the treatment of rheumatism, gonorrhea, skin disease and diabetes. We have investigated, both in vivo and in vitro, whether the leaf of Salacia reticulata (SRL) can ameliorate collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) in mice as the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) model. The mice were fed a lard containing chow diet (AIN-93G) or the same d...

  9. Understanding of research: a Sri Lankan perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Siriwardhana Chesmal; Athukorale Manjula; Lekamwattage Manura; Hewage Suwin; Siribaddana Sisira; Sumathipala Athula; Munasinghe Kumudu; Sumathipala Kethakie; Murray Joanna; Prince Martin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Lack of proper understanding on the part of researchers about public understanding of research and informed consent will increase the potential for malpractice. As a part of a larger study on ethics and informed consent in Sri Lanka, this study aimed to ascertain the level of understanding of 'research' by exploring the views of the public and professionals. Methods Convenience sampling and snow ball technique were used for recruitment with an emphasis on balanced age and ...

  10. POLITICAL SOLUTION GARNERED BY THE PRINT MEDIA IN RESOLVING THE SRI LANKAN CONFLICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Viswam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The 30 years of local armed conflict in Sri Lanka that broke out between the state security forces and Liberation Tigers of Tamil Ealam (LTTE in early 1980s came to an end after Sri Lankan government demolished the LTTE in 2009. A end of such civil war was highly hoped by the people displaced by the same armed conflict to be an opportunity to return to their homes ending their protracted displaced live. The end of the war was also widely interpreted as an opportunity to renew their onetime ethnic relations, which remained vulnerably damaged after this armed conflict. Sri Lanka entered an uncertain phase of post-civil war political reconstruction. The announcement to hold early presidential elections in January 2010 added to uncertainties to Sri Lanka's post civil war political process.

  11. The Impact of Education Investment on Sri Lankan Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganegodage, K. Renuka; Rambaldi, Alicia N.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the contribution of investment on education to Sri Lanka's economic growth during the period 1959-2008. Physical capital, economic policy changes and the ethnic war are also evaluated due to their substantial importance. This study uses a framework encompassing both the neoclassical and endogenous growth model. The impact of education…

  12. Learning from empowerment of Sri Lankan refugees in India

    OpenAIRE

    K C Saha

    2004-01-01

    Some 65,000 Tamil refugees from conflict in SriLanka live in 133 camps in the Indian state ofTamil Nadu. As peace talks generate hope for theirrepatriation, the work of a self-help group, theOrganization for Eelam Refugees Rehabilitation(OfERR), shows how refugees can equip themselveswith skills to be used to rebuild their homeland.

  13. The Securitisation of Sri Lankan Tourism in the Absence of Peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hyndman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The military conflict in Sri Lanka may be over officially, but conflict continues as a ‘war without sound’ (community informant, Mullaitivu 2013, or as war by other means (Dahlman 2011. In the absence of peace and reconciliation, but the presence of economic growth, development by stealth proceeds. Much has been written about the militarisation of civilian life in Sri Lanka (Kadirgamar 2013; David 2013, but this paper focuses specifically on how militarisation has proceeded with little public protest or pushback. The political work accomplished by ‘securitisation’ is used to gain consent and create new space and capacity for state security measures and militarisation. This paper recasts the connections between security, peace, and development in post-war Sri Lanka, drawing on fieldwork in one area that connects all of these projects: tourism. An analysis of ‘war tourism’ in Sri Lanka shows how it reproduces threats to Sri Lanka’s security at the same time that it celebrates military victory and might. Tourism encapsulates economic, security, and development agendas in very specific ways. Tourist sites mobilise fear of potential terrorism and return to the rule of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE, if vigilance and militarisation are not maintained. In such a context of risk, development is best done by the military. Within this logic of securitisation, militarisation becomes a common sense approach. How is this common sense produced? The securitisation of development is vivid in the post-war context of Sri Lanka, inextricably tied to neoliberal imperatives to convey a democratic, stable country that is open to and good for business.

  14. Implications for Improving Accessibility to E-Commerce Websites in Developing Countries: A Subjective Study of Sri Lankan Hotel Websites

    OpenAIRE

    Sambhanthan, Arunasalam; Good, Alice

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the accessibility issues with regard to the e-commerce websites in developing countries, through a subjective study of Sri Lankan hotel websites. A web survey and a web content analysis were conducted as the methods to elicit data on web accessibility. Factors preventing accessibility were hypothesized as an initial experiment. Hazardous design elements are identified through web content analysis, the results of which are utilized to develop specific i...

  15. Introduction of Computer Studies to non-science university students: The Sri Lankan experience

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Chandima H.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction of computer studies as a subject to students in the Faculties of Humanities and Social Sciences in Sri Lankan universities is a relatively recent experience. University of Kelaniya was the first university in Sri Lanka that offered computer studies as a subject to its Bachelor of Arts Degree programme starting in 2001. This paper attempts to analyze the relative performance of science and non-science students offering the same module under the new computer studies curriculum.

  16. Z-Score Demystified: A Critical Analysis of the Sri Lankan University Admission Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnapala, Yajni; Silva, Karishma

    2011-01-01

    In the year 2001, the University Grants Commission of Sri Lanka successfully appealed to change the method of determining the cut-off scores for university admissions from raw scores to standardized z-scores. This standardization allegedly eliminated the discrepancy caused due to the assumption of equal difficulty levels across all subjects. This…

  17. Cross-ethnic Collaboration at a Sri Lankan Telecentre - Barriers for Effective E-learning in Rural Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Mozelius, Peter; Megammaana, Niranjan

    2011-01-01

    In post war Sri Lanka there is still a big social and cultural gap between the different population groups. English has recently been suggested as the new official common language for Singalese, Tamils, Muslims and other Sri Lankan citizens. But in rural areas today the question is more about how to provide content for training in the different mother-tongues. This article is based on observations and interviews with the owner, manager, operators and visitors at the Haldemmulla telecentre du...

  18. Upwelling features near Sri Lanka in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ShreeRam, P.; Rao, L.V.G.

    2005-01-01

    The Bay of Bengal is a semi-enclosed tropical ocean basin that is highly influenced by monsoons and receives large volume of freshwater from both river discharge and rainfall. Over the Bay of Bengal two distinct wind systems prevail during the year...

  19. Hypoglycaemic activity of some medicinal plants in Sri-Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, M R; Thabrew, M I; Karunanayake, E H

    1990-01-01

    1. Investigations were carried out to determine whether aqueous extracts of Osbeckia octandra, Artocarpus heterophyllus and Bambusa vulgaris truly possess oral hypoglycaemic activity. 2. All three plant extracts significantly lowered the fasting blood glucose level and markedly improved glucose tolerance in Sprague-Dawley rats. 3. A maximum hypoglycaemic activity was observed at +3 hr with O. octandra and B. vulgaris; with A. heterophyllus a maximum effect was not observed even at +5 hr. 4. The hypoglycaemic activity of O. octandra was comparable with that of tolbutamide while that of A. heterophyllus or B. vulgaris was better than that of tolbutamide. 5. The magnitude of the hypoglycaemic effects varied with the dosage used and the time of storage (except with A. heterophyllus, whose activity did not change with storage even up to 3 days). PMID:2276596

  20. Seafloor spreading magnetic anomalies south off Sri Lanka

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, M.; Ramana, M.V.; Ramprasad, T.

    2006-01-01

    and the contiguous Antarctica-Australia continent has been suggested to occur prior to M11 time (134 Ma) (Ramana et al., 1994; 2001). The first major plate reorganization began around M0 time and the direction of motion of the Indian plate changed from NNW...; Larson, 1977; Robb et al., 2005). Further, recent studies by Ramana et al., (1994; 2001) reveal the presence of Mesozoic magnetic anomaly sequence M11 to M0 in the Bay of Bengal and its conjugate, the Enderby Basin, East Antarctica, and the Cretaceous...

  1. Paul Hermann: Plant Specimens and Drawings from Sri Lanka (Ceylon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Natural History Museum (London UK) has launched this magnificent new Website dedicated to early botanical collector Paul Hermann. In addition to providing background information on the collector and his significant botanical contributions, the site allows users to view the collection "virtually" first-hand. The database is searchable and browseable (including thumbnail images), and contains specimens and drawings from the author's important works during the 1600s. The database is accompanied by a bibliography, glossary, and additional resources.

  2. Kaheksas maailmaime asus Sri Lanka saarel / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2000-01-01

    Sigiriya Lõvikalju on 370 meetri kõrgune kaljurahn keset dzunglit, mille tipus asunud lossist on säilinud kuninglik trooniiste vaatega kümnete kilomeetrite kaugusele ning 1500 aastat vana ujumisbassein siiani töökorras veevärgiga

  3. Students' experiences of learning in undergraduate education in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Wijesundera, Subhashinie D. K.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis argues that to better understand student learning in undergraduate education, it is useful to focus not only on how students are affected by the context of learning but also how they act on the context to achieve their own valued outcomes. The thesis specifically explored the question of ‘how do students regulate their learning in relation to the contextual demands and their own valued outcomes?’ This longitudinal qualitative study has focused on a group of undergraduates...

  4. Are consultants in Colombo, Sri Lanka satisfied with their job?

    OpenAIRE

    S. Cooray; K. Wijewardene; Dawson, A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Job stress and job satisfaction play a key role in the work environment of an organization. These influence the behaviour of a doctor towards his or her co-workers, administration and, most importantly towards the patients. Objective: To assess job stress among consultants working in Colombo group of hospitals and to identify the factors that affect job satisfaction. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted by using postal questionnaire on 262 consultants worki...

  5. Sustainable biomass production for energy in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study concentrates mainly on the estimation of land availability for biomass production and the estimation of sustainable biomass production potential for energy. The feasible surplus land area available for bioenergy plantation is estimated assuming two land availability scenarios (Scenarios 1 and 2) and three biomass demand scenarios (IBD Scenario, SBD Scenario and FBD Scenario). Scenario 1 assumes that 100% of the surplus area available in base year 1997 will be suitable for plantation without considering population growth and food production and that 75% of this surplus land is feasible for plantation. Scenario 2 assumes that future food requirement will grow by 20% and the potential surplus area will be reduced by that amount. The incremental biomass demand scenario (IBD Scenario) assumes that only the incremental demand for biomass in the year 2010 with respect to the base year 1997 has to be produced from new plantation. The sustainable biomass demand scenario (SBD Scenario) assumes that the total sustainable supply of biomass in 1997 is deducted from the future biomass demand in 2010 and only the balance is to be met by new plantation. The full biomass demand scenario (FBD Scenario) assumes that the entire projected biomass demand of the year 2010 needs to be produced from new plantation. The total feasible land area for the scenarios IBD-1, 1BD-2, SBD-1, SBD-2, FBD-1 and FBD-2 are approximately 0.96, 0.66, 0.80, 0.94, 0.60 and 0.30 Mha, respective 0.80, 0.94, 0.60 and 0.30 Mha, respectively. Biomass production potential is estimated by selecting appropriate plant species, plantation spacing and productivity level. The results show that the total annual biomass production in the country could vary from 2 to 9.9 Mt. With the production option (i.e. 1.5 mx1.5 m spacing plantation with fertilizer application) giving the highest yield, the total biomass production for energy under IBD Scenario would be 9.9 Mt yr-1 for Scenario 1 and 6.7 Mt yr-1 for Scenario 2. Under SBD Scenario, the corresponding values are 8.2 Mt yr-1 for Scenario 1 and 5.0 Mt yr-1 for scenario 2. Finally, FBD Scenario leads to a total biomass production of 6.2 Mt yr-1 for Scenario 1 and 3.0 Mt yr-1 for Scenario 2. The total investment for bioenergy plantation is estimated, and the barriers and policy options for biomass production for energy are also presented in this study

  6. A new monospecific ovine Fab fragment antivenom for treatment of envenoming by the Sri Lankan Russell's viper (Daboia Russelii Russelii): a preliminary dose-finding and pharmacokinetic study.

    OpenAIRE

    Ariaratnam, CA; Meyer, WP; Perera, G.; Eddleston, M.; Kuleratne, SA; Attapattu, W; Sheriff, R; Richards, AM; Theakston, RD; Warrell, DA

    1999-01-01

    Russell's viper is the most important cause of life-threatening snake bite and acute renal failure in Sri Lanka. Only equine polyspecific antivenoms imported from India are available. They have not proved effective clinically or in clearing venom antigenemia and they frequently cause reactions. In an attempt to reduce mortality and morbidity, a new monospecific ovine Fab fragment antivenom (PolongaTab; Therapeutic Antibodies, Inc., London, United Kingdom) was raised against Sri Lankan Russell...

  7. An open, randomized comparative trial of two antivenoms for the treatment of envenoming by Sri Lankan Russell's viper (Daboia russelii russelii).

    OpenAIRE

    Ariaratnam, CA; Sjöström, L; Raziek, Z; Kularatne, SA; Arachchi, RW; Sheriff, MH; Theakston, RD; Warrell, DA

    2001-01-01

    Russell's viper (Daboia russelii russelii) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Sri Lanka. In a study in 1985, Haffkine equine polyspecific antivenom in doses up to 20 g proved ineffective in clearing antigenaemia and caused a high incidence of anaphylactoid reactions. A new, monospecific ovine Fabantivenom (Polonga TAb) has been developed against the venom of Sri Lankan Russell's viper and, to assess its safety and efficacy, we carried out (in 1997) an open, randomized compari...

  8. Radiation dose to Sri Lankan infants from Caesium-137 in contaminated milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation dose to infants due to ingestion of milk containing the maximum limit of radioactivity in milk powder imported to Sri Lanka has been calculated. The radioactivity of Cs-137 was used as an index of fission products for setting radioactivity limits. The computation for milk powder was based on an average daily intake of 125 g by infants, (a critical group of population) during the first year after birth. The recommended dose commitment to the general public is 1 mSv/y. The maximum permissible limit of 20 Bq/kg of Cs-137 in milk powder as stipulated by the Atomic Energy Authority for milk powder imported to Sri Lanka would yield a dose equivalent of 12.6 micro seivert/y from Cs-137

  9. Sri Lankan livelihoods after the tsunami: searching for entrepreneurs, unveiling relations of power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the performance of aid-funded livelihoods recovery efforts in Sri Lanka following the Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004, with special attention paid to the effects on the rural poor. It argues that successful livelihoods recovery was hampered by an excessive focus by aid agencies on entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship, and by the lack of a politically informed understanding of the economy. Based on ethnographic and survey-based research, the study demonstrates that the category of 'entrepreneur' is misleading for large parts of the economy. Indeed, the desire to build an entrepreneurial economy actually hampered successful livelihoods recovery in Sri Lanka and, in some cases, reinforced inequitable relations of power. The paper concludes that for livelihoods recovery programmes to be effective, they must be founded on an understanding of the relations of power that constitute the economy; these relations operate across scales, and are historically and geographically specific. PMID:25231676

  10. Computer Literacy and Attitudes towards eLearning among Sri Lankan Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Yapa, Y. M. M. M.; Dilan, M. M. N. S.; Karunaratne, W. C. D.; Widisinghe, C. C.; Roshan Hewapathirana; Indika Karunathilake

    2013-01-01

    E-learning which is gaining popularity among medical faculties in Sri Lanka requires access to computers and considerable knowledge on information technology. The aim of this study was to assess the computer literacy and attitudes towards e-learning among second year medical students of the Faculty of Medicine, Colombo (n=138) using a self administered, anonymous questionnaire.Results showed that 93.5% of students owned a computer and 95% of them had internet connection. Use of Microsoft Offi...

  11. Quality assurance in Sri Lankan Teacher Training : evaluation procedures for the assessment of the internship period

    OpenAIRE

    Senarath Nanayakkara, G. L.; Neumann, Klaus D.; Pohlenz, Philipp

    2006-01-01

    In 2002 guidelines for the implementation of the internship programme for prospective teachers have been released in a joint venture by the Basic Education Sector Programme(BESP) of the GTZ (Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit/German Technical Cooperation) and the Professional Development Centre (Teacher Education) of the National Institute for Education of Sri Lanka (NIE). These guidelines aim at assisting the National Colleges of Education (NCOEs) and internship schools in implement...

  12. Information Technology Education in the Sri Lankan School System: Challenges and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Chandima H.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction of Information Technology into the secondary school curriculum in Sri Lanka is a very recent development. The subject General Information Technology (GIT) was included for G.C.E. Advanced Level Examination in 2005 while plans are afoot to introduce Information Technology as a subject for G.C.E. Ordinary Level from 2008. Results of the first GIT examination held in 2005 clearly show poor performance by students. Considering the large amount of money spent for Information Technolog...

  13. Guardians of childhood: state, class and morality in a Sri Lankan bureaucracy

    OpenAIRE

    Amarasuriya, Harini Nireka

    2011-01-01

    This thesis explores the everyday practices, relationships and interactions in a Probation Unit of the Department of Probation and Child Care Services in the Central Province in Sri Lanka. Using multi-sited ethnography and the ethnographer’s own experiences in this sector it examines how frontline workers at the Probation Unit engage and draw upon international and national development discourse, ideas and theories of children and childhood to engage with colleagues and clien...

  14. The Classification of Sri Lankan Medicinal Herbs: An Extensive Comparison of the Antioxidant Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Waisundara, Viduranga Y.; Watawana, Mindani I.

    2014-01-01

    Sri Lanka has variety of herbs whose effectiveness has been proven across many generations. These herbs are classified into two groups — ‘heating’ and ‘cooling’, based on the physiological reactions upon consumption. Application-wise, the ‘cooling’ herbs are administered to patients contracted with diabetes, imbalances in the lipid profile, or even cancer. However, this classification has been misunderstood due to inconsistent interpretations and lack of scientific reasoning. Th...

  15. Use of household ingredients as Complementary medicines for perceived hypoglycaemic benefit among Sri Lankan diabetic patients; a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjuna Bandara Medagama

    2015-06-01

    The practice of using household ingredients as complementary medicines is common in Sri Lanka. Few herbal remedies and their methods of preparation have limited evidence for efficacy. In view of the frequent use by diabetic patients each needs to be documented for reference and scientifically explored with regard to their hypoglycaemic potential. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 138-142

  16. Developing government policies for distance education: Lessons learnt from two Sri Lankan case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanagunawardena, Tharindu Rekha; Adams, Andrew A.; Rassool, Naz; Williams, Shirley A.

    2014-12-01

    Education, especially higher education, is considered vital for maintaining national and individual competitiveness in the global knowledge economy. Following the introduction of its "Free Education Policy" as early as 1947, Sri Lanka is now the best performer in basic education in the South Asian region, with a remarkable record in terms of high literacy rates and the achievement of universal primary education. However, access to tertiary education is a bottleneck, due to an acute shortage of university places. In an attempt to address this problem, the government of Sri Lanka has invested heavily in information and communications technologies (ICTs) for distance education. Although this has resulted in some improvement, the authors of this article identify several barriers which are still impeding successful participation for the majority of Sri Lankans wanting to study at tertiary level. These impediments include the lack of infrastructure/resources, low English language proficiency, weak digital literacy, poor quality of materials and insufficient provision of student support. In the hope that future implementations of ICT-enabled education programmes can avoid repeating the mistakes identified by their research in this Sri Lankan case, the authors conclude their paper with a list of suggested policy options.

  17. Differently-Abled Persons with ICT Ability - Inclusion and Empowerment in Sri Lankan Rural Areas via Telecentres

    OpenAIRE

    Mozelius, Peter; Megammaana, Niranjan

    2011-01-01

    ICT facilities are unevenly spread in many countries and Sri Lanka definitely has its internal digital divide. The fast growth of ICT services in urban areas are not matched on the countryside. Telecentres in the Sri Lankan Nenasala network have frequently been used to support poor and isolated regions in a try to bridge the digital divide. This article is based on observations and interviews with the staff at the Koslanda Nenasala during two visits to the telecentre. The aim of this case stu...

  18. Development of the Sri Lankan Early Teenagers' Violence Inventory: An Instrument to Measure Peer Violence in Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Wijeratne, Monika; Seneviratne, Rohini; Gunawardena, Nalika; Østbye, Truls; Lynch, Catherine; Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to develop an inventory to measure peer violence among early teens (13–15 years of age) in schools in Sri Lanka. Development of SLETVI was carried out in two phases. In phase I, development of an operational definition for peer violence, identification, and finalizing violent acts for inventory was done by a combination of qualitative methods: a comprehensive literature review, focus group discussions among 13–15-year-old adolescents, their teachers and parents, an...

  19. Are Green Jobs Sustainable for Sri Lankan Economy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jayaweera

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is imperative that Sri Lanka grasps the concepts of green jobs to meet the most vital but intricatechallenge of the 21st Century, which is the transformation to a sustainable and a low-carbon economy.Such a transformation or a paradigm shift, which can be gradual or rapid depending on the circumstances,will undoubtedly have a considerable positive effect on the way we produce and/or consume goods andservices. The speed at which this transformation would occur is likely to accelerate in the near future asthere is a trend of global transition from a traditional to a low-carbon economy, in order to attainsustainable economies. Such trends will help create an array of different forms of green jobs across manysectors, and most probably can become a catalyst for further development. The International LabourOrganization (ILO has defined green jobs as “Jobs created when they help in reducing the negativeenvironmental impacts ultimately leading to environmentally, economically and socially sustainableenterprises and economies”. Green jobs, in general, stand on two pillars: decent work and environmentalsustainability. Thus, green jobs can be defined as decent work that contributes to environmentalsustainability. In a broader sense decent work needs to address the core of international labour standardssuch as freedom of association and effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining, eliminationof all forms of forced or compulsory labour, effective abolition of child labour, elimination ofdiscrimination in respect of employment and occupation, occupational health and safety, etc. whilstaligning to laws applicable to Sri Lanka. Environmental sustainability addresses issues such as effectivelycombating climate change, pollution prevention and control, conservation of eco-systems and biodiversityetc. (ILO, 2007.

  20. Clean energy technology and regulatory interventions for Greenhouse Gas emission mitigation: Sri Lankan power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the impact of technological and regulatory interventions, specifically the impact of the Renewable Energy Portfolio Standards (RPS) on the least-cost electricity generation expansion plan in a country. The case study used in the paper is the power generation system in Sri Lanka where the current policy is to have a renewable energy based generation penetration level of 10% by 2015. This study considers available renewable technologies as supply-side options together with their technical potential and economic feasibility. It also examines the impact of these interventions on overall power sector emissions including Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. It has been found that the 10% RPS target by 2015 can be achieved with an additional cost burden of only 1.3% of the total cost of the plan. The results also show that small hydropower is the best non-conventional renewable energy technology needing minimum financial incentives in achieving the target. Fuelwood-fired thermal power and wind power require significant level of government incentives if they are to play a role in the declared RPS of Sri Lanka. It is concluded that small power systems like the one in Sri Lanka can still contribute to emission mitigation with regulatory interventions such as RPS without significant additional costs. It is important to select the appropriate technologies, decide on their individual allocations and the optimal timing and level of penetration of these technologies tvel of penetration of these technologies to minimize the economic impact. Further, internalizing the use of these technologies in the planning process strengthens the hands of the planners in justifying their contributions to supplying demand while mitigating emissions. (author)

  1. Clean energy technology and regulatory interventions for Greenhouse Gas emission mitigation: Sri Lankan power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the impact of technological and regulatory interventions, specifically the impact of the Renewable Energy Portfolio Standards (RPS) on the least-cost electricity generation expansion plan in a country. The case study used in the paper is the power generation system in Sri Lanka where the current policy is to have a renewable energy based generation penetration level of 10% by 2015. This study considers available renewable technologies as supply-side options together with their technical potential and economic feasibility. It also examines the impact of these interventions on overall power sector emissions including Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. It has been found that the 10% RPS target by 2015 can be achieved with an additional cost burden of only 1.3% of the total cost of the plan. The results also show that small hydropower is the best non-conventional renewable energy technology needing minimum financial incentives in achieving the target. Fuelwood-fired thermal power and wind power require significant level of government incentives if they are to play a role in the declared RPS of Sri Lanka. It is concluded that small power systems like the one in Sri Lanka can still contribute to emission mitigation with regulatory interventions such as RPS without significant additional costs. It is important to select the appropriate technologies, decide on their individual allocations and the optimal timing and level of penetration of these technologies tvel of penetration of these technologies to minimize the economic impact. Further, internalizing the use of these technologies in the planning process strengthens the hands of the planners in justifying their contributions to supplying demand while mitigating emissions.

  2. The discovery of Javanese writing in a Sri Lankan Malay manuscript

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronit Ricci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Beyond the boundaries of what is typically considered the Indonesian-Malay world, a small community known today as the Sri Lanka Malays continued to employ the Malay language in writing and speech long after its ancestors left the Indonesian archipelago and Malay peninsula for their new home. Although it is reasonable to assume that the ancestors of the Malays spoke a variety of languages, at least initially, no traces of writing in another Indonesian language have ever been found. Below I present the first evidence of such writing, in Javanese, encountered in an early nineteenth century manuscript from Colombo.