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Demographic implications of health care in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes changes in population size, structure, and growth in Sri Lanka. The population aged under 15 years was 37% of total population in 1946, peaked at almost 42% in 1963, and declined to 31% in 1991. The age structure is the result of population growth patterns during 1946-91. The peak in 1963 and high rates of growth were due to improved mortality, effective application of DDT in malaria areas, improved health care, improved agricultural production, subsidized distribution of food, and expanded free education. The population growth rate declined primarily due to a decline in fertility. During 1980-93 the total fertility rate declined at an average annual rate of 4.0%. Fertility decline was strongly influenced by increased age at marriage and contraceptive prevalence. The mean age at marriage increased from 20.7 years in 1946 to 25.5 years in 1993. The contraceptive prevalence rate increased from 32.0% in 1975 to 66.1% in 1993. Fertility decline was initially influenced strongly by changes in nuptiality. After the early 1970s, fertility decline was primarily due to declines in marital fertility. During 1972-82, 75% of fertility decline was accounted for by contraceptive use. Given the present trends in fertility, mortality, and international migration, it is expected that Sri Lanka will increase in population size from 18.2 million in 1995 to 22.4 million in 2020. Stabilization of population is likely to occur around 24 million by 2050. Population size at stabilization would be 33% greater than present levels. Population age structure will continue to change. By 2030, the aging process will accelerate, and the working-age proportion will expand. The demands of this expanded population will be on health care services, employment, housing, and food. The demands on health care would be the greatest among persons aged 45-49 years. PMID:12347641

Abeykoon, A T

1996-06-01

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Sri Lanka Malaria Maps  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a relatively good national case reporting system in Sri Lanka, detailed maps of malaria distribution have not been publicly available. Methods In this study, monthly records over the period 1995 – 2000 of microscopically confirmed malaria parasite positive blood film readings, at sub-district spatial resolution, were used to produce maps of malaria distribution across the island. Also, annual malaria trends at district resolution were displayed for the period 1995 – 2002. Results The maps show that Plasmodium vivax malaria incidence has a marked variation in distribution over the island. The incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria follows a similar spatial pattern but is generally much lower than that of P. vivax. In the north, malaria shows one seasonal peak in the beginning of the year, whereas towards the south a second peak around June is more pronounced. Conclusion This paper provides the first publicly available maps of both P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria incidence distribution on the island of Sri Lanka at sub-district resolution, which may be useful to health professionals, travellers and travel medicine professionals in their assessment of malaria risk in Sri Lanka. As incidence of malaria changes over time, regular updates of these maps are necessary.

van der Hoek Wim

2003-07-01

3

Tissue bank: Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human degenerative diseases and congenital defects are common throughout the world. Many people suffer also from burns, fractures and nerve damage resulting from traumatic accidents and outbreaks of violence which occur all too frequently, especially in poorer countries. Far too many people are impaired for life because they have no access to treatment or simply cannot afford it. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Division of Nuclear Medicine, to improve facilities at the Sri Lanka Tissue Bank. (IAEA)

4

Broschure_SriLanka_ck  

in the project, and to date over 60,000 mangrove plants have been grown.The trees are replanted in ...of Livelihoods – Project in Sri Lanka In response to the urgent need to rehabilitate areas affected Sri ...Juvenile mangrove plant

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War Termination in Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article has a central aim of explaining the catastrophic loss of civilian life in the last five months of the civil war in Sri Lanka. The article proposes that both the government of Sri Lanka (GoSL) and the LTTE are culpable for civilian deaths; the LTTE in an effort to stave off defeat so it might be able to re-constitute itself at a later time, and the GoSL in a determination not to allow the LTTE as an organization to survive the conflict. The article also argues that a prel...

Albert Wesley Harris

2012-01-01

6

eHealth Sri lanka 2010 Conference  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available eHealth Sri lanka 2010 - International Conference on eHealth15 & 16 September 2010at Waters Edge – Battaramulla - Sri LankaThe closing date for submission of Abstracts is 31st of July 2010.For more details, visit www.ehealth2010.hissl.org

Roshan Hewapathirana

2010-07-01

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Nuclear science training in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are two major levels of obtaining radiation or nuclear education and training in Sri Lanka : the University and training courses in nuclear related technology and radiation protection offered by the Atomic Energy Authority of the Ministry of Science and Technology . This paper summarizes the status, some of the activities and problems of radiation education in Sri Lanka. (author)

8

Matching Education with Employment in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Efforts made in Sri Lanka to restructure university courses to match the country's employment needs are chronicled, including data on employment level of college graduates in a variety of disciplines. The role of government employment is noted. (MSE)

Gunawardena, Chandra

1982-01-01

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Livelihoods in post-tsunami Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Livelihoods in Sri Lanka have been affected not only by the initial devastation of the tsunami but also by the policies and practices of the government and the humanitarian aid community’s post-disaster response.

Simon Harris

2005-07-01

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Perception and protection in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available An assessment conducted in Sri Lanka in 2008 revealed that displaced people with disabilities were extremely vulnerable to protection incidents and their vulnerability was increased by their lack of voice.

Francesca Bombi

2010-07-01

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Chronic folliculitis in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Chronic folliculitis (CF is a chronic infection of hair follicles leading to atrophy and loss of the affected hairs. This study was done on 51 patients with CF presenting at the Dermatology Clinic at General Hospital Matara, Sri Lanka, to identify specific clinical features and aetiological factors, and to study histopathology. Pus cultures were done on 25 cases. Biopsies were done on 6 patients. CF was commoner in males (59%; 76% were under 34 years, and 39% had occupational exposure to possible irritants. Thirty five precent admitted of scrubbing legs with rough objects. Ichthyosis vulgaris was evident in 47%. All pus cultures revealed Staphylococcus aureus. Clinical features and histopathological features were similar to those described by Harman (1968. Rough scrubbing, ichthyosis and occupational exposure to irritants may be aetiologically relevant.

Kumarasinghe S

1996-01-01

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Sarendib’s Sorrow: Sri Lanka’s Continued Conflict  

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Full Text Available

In this article, the author studies the conflict in Sri Lanka, and identifies and describes two sources of its intractability: fractured fronts and maximalist goals. The article seeks to reveal that while the Sri Lankan government’s recent military onslaught against the LTTE has been surprisingly successful, history is clear that a meaningful solution to the conflict in Sri Lanka will be found not on the battlefield but in the hearts and minds of the Sri Lankan people. The causes of the conflict are several – an analysis of these sources of intractability involves both a backward looking appreciation of the events, perspectives and trends that fractured a nation as well as a forward looking transformative outlook towards a shared deliberative reality. The author believes that while the current military success against the LTTE coincides with a wave of collective Sri Lankan anguish at the country’s grim predicament. For several reasons, the present represents a potential moment of critical realignment in Sri Lanka. An analysis of the institutional, historical and ideological bases of the conflict indicates different channels that the public sphere will have to simultaneously destroy and create if such a critical realignment is to be serendipitously realised.

Abhayraj Naik

2010-01-01

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Women in Higher Education in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patterns of college admission, attendance, fields of study, student background, and employment for women in Sri Lanka are examined. Sex stereotypes and lifelong sex-based socialization there are found to account for the lack of progress in women's employment and participation in higher education. (MSE)

Gunawardena, Chandra

1987-01-01

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Pre-Vocational Studies in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

An examination of problems in prevocational studies in Sri Lanka leads to the conclusion they are largely due to educator and administrator attitudes regarding the role of prevocational education. Success of the new program (which contains its own problems) depends upon changing student attitudes towards employment. (BP)

Dore, R. P.

1975-01-01

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Access to Higher Education in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is argued that, although Sri Lanka has been able to provide equal access to higher education, this does not represent total equal educational opportunity in relation to students' socioeconomic status. As is typical of developing countries, since employment remains limited, educational achievement does not outweigh antecedent social status. (MSE)

Gunawardena, Chandra

1990-01-01

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Changing demography of Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

The point to be made in this article about the changing demography of Sri Lanka is that demographic conditions (an older population and growth rate of 1.6) are favorable for economic growth. Planning for economic growth is demonstrated in discussing trends and their relationship to economic development rather than providing a macroeconomic analysis. The 1st demographic characteristic of importance is the age structure of the population, which identifies labor force potential, dependents, and those not economically active in order to calculate required social services. Consumer expenditure patterns are affected, as well as educational costs. The rapid mortality decline of the 1940's and the high fertility up to the 1960's created a broad based age structure that swelled student populations and labor force (unemployment). The 1980's is marked by 39% 15 years in 1981 versus 35% in 1971, and 6.4$ 60 years in 1981 versus 6.6% in 1971. Anticipated trends based on either 2.1, 2.5, or 2.9 children/mother indicate that the population structure would remain the same except for those 0-14 years. This amounts to 20-21.3 million by 2001 and 5.5-6.7 million 15 years. Economic planning is affected by the following age groups: preschoolers, school age children, working population, and old age population. A gradual decline in preschoolers would eventually lead to a 9% population versus a 13% in 2001. 23% of the current population of 5-14 year olds will decrease after 1996 with slow or medium growth to 19-21%. The next 2 decades will experience a swelling of the working age population from 9.56 million to 12.7 million, which was 15 years ago the total population figure. The rate change is from 58.2% to 60-63%. By 2001 the 60 year old population will be 9% (1.8 million) or equal to those 5 years. Attention, thus, needs to be paid to the equitability of distribution of services and improvement in quality rather than expansion. New jobs need to be created to prevent high unemployment, with a demand reaching, by the year 2000, 75,000/year. Transportation, housing, internal movement and overcrowding of cities by migrant workers are other areas to be addressed. With a rising population reaching early retirement of 55 years, many would be dependents without pensions or retirement benefits. More women comprise this group since life expectancy is 70.5 years versus 67.5. More women comprise this group since life expectancy is 70/.5 years versus 67.5. If the output/capital ratio of 0.25 at 1.6 growth rate could be increased with a 20% or greater investment, which means an annual growth rate of per capita product of 3-4%, economic development would be enhanced. PMID:12281615

De Silva, S

1986-06-01

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The dawn of the personal genome era in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The first Sri Lankan Personal Genome was successfully sequenced by scientists and bioinformaticians from the University of Colombo, Sri Lanka and the Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, New Delhi, India. This project was initiated by the Specialty Board in Biomedical Informatics of the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka.

BJC Perera

2011-11-01

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Renewable Energy Supply Options for Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Sri Lanka energy sector is dominated by conventional energy sources as biomass, hydropower and petroleum. The electricity sector is dominated by hydropower supplying approximately while small component is supplied by oil fired thermal plants. Sri Lanka has a relatively low household electrification level with major variations among urban, suburban and rural areas of the country. Main renewable energy sources capable of offering a substantial contribution to the Sri Lanka electricity generation sector are micro-hydro, wind, biomass and solar. Penetration of RE in the electricity generation sector has been extremely limited by the constraints in financing mechanisms and financial viability. The only exception has been micro/minihydro sector due to its relatively low capital investment and recent opportunities for grid connection. Also the recent World Bank refunded Energy Services Delivery (ESD project has helped the resurgence of MH sector during the last few years. This paper examinations the feasibility of the use of these renewable sources particularly for electricity generation in Sri Lank along the incentives and barriers to their expansion.

Priyantha D. C. Wijayatunga

2001-01-01

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Climate change and agricultural adaptation in Sri Lanka: a review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Climate change is inevitable and will continue into the next century. Since the agricultural sector in Sri Lanka is one of the most vulnerable to climate change, a thorough understanding of climate transition is critical for formulating effective adaptation strategies. This paper provides an overview of the status of climate change and adaptation in the agricultural sector in Sri Lanka. The review clearly indicates that climate change is taking place in Sri Lanka in terms of rainfall varia...

Esham, Mohamed; Garforth, Chris

2012-01-01

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Implications of global warming for regional climate and water resources of tropical islands: Case studies over Sri Lanka and Puerto Rico  

Science.gov (United States)

The IPCC AR4 identifies small islands as particularly vulnerable to climate change. Here we consider the cases of two tropical islands: Sri Lanka in the Indian Ocean and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean. The islands share a predominantly tropical climate with diverse topography and hence significant spatial variability of regional climate. Seasonal variability in temperatures is relatively small, but spatial variations can be large owing to topography. Precipitation mechanisms and patterns over the two islands are different however. Sri Lanka receives a majority of the annual rainfall from the summer and winter monsoons, with convective rainfall dominating in the inter-monsoon period. Rainfall generating mechanisms over Puerto Rico can range from orographic lifting, disturbances embedded in Easterly waves and synoptic frontal systems. Here we compare the projected changes in the regional and seasonal means and extremes of temperature and precipitation over the two islands during the middle of this century with the present conditions. Two 5-year regional climate model runs for each region, representing the present (2006-2010) and future (2056-2060) conditions, are performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with the lateral boundary conditions provided using the output from CCSM4 RCP8.5 greenhouse gas emissions pathway simulation from the CMIP5 ensemble. The consequences of global warming for water resources and the overall economy are examined. While both economies have substantial contributions from tourism, there are major differences: The agricultural sector is much more important over Sri Lanka compared to Puerto Rico, while the latter exhibits no recent growth in population or in urbanization trends unlike the former. Policy implications for water sustainability and security are discussed, which highlight how despite the differences, certain lessons learned may generalize across the two relatively small tropical islands, which in turn have diverse economic, infrastructural, and societal constraints.

Mawalagedara, R.; Kumar, D.; Oglesby, R. J.; Ganguly, A. R.

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
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Shrimp farming practices in the puttallam district of sri lanka: implications for disease control, industry sustainability, and rural development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Shrimp farming has great potential to diversify and secure income in rural Sri Lanka, but production has significantly declined in recent years due to civil conflicts, some unsustainable practices and devastating outbreaks of disease. We examined management practices affecting disease prevention and control in the Puttalam district to identify extension services outputs that could support sustainable development of Sri Lankan shrimp farming. A survey on 621 shrimp farms (603 operational and 18 nonoperational) was conducted within the Puttalam district over 42 weeks comprising a series of three-day field visits from August 2008 to October 2009, covering two consecutive shrimp crops. Fundamental deficits in disease control, management, and biosecurity practices were found. Farmers had knowledge of biosecurity but the lack of financial resources was a major impediment to improved disease control. Smallholder farmers were disproportionately constrained in their ability to enact basic biosecurity practices due to their economic status. Basic breaches in biosecurity will keep disease as the rate limiting step in this industry. Plans to support this industry must recognize the socioeconomic reality of rural Sri Lankan aquaculture. PMID:20847956

Munasinghe, M Nalaka; Stephen, Craig; Abeynayake, Preeni; Abeygunawardena, Indra S

2010-01-01

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Non-economic gains of Sri Lanka's FTAs with neighbours  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to answer the question: does a bilateral free trade agreement (FTA) lead to an improvement in the security of a member country and greater peace between two member countries in the developing world? Design/methodology/approach – This paper reviews existing literature and uses the idea of non-economic gains from regional trading agreements to explain how Sri Lanka managed to use FTAs to neutralise India and obtain military assistance from Pakistan using its FTAs with two countries during the recently concluded war. Findings – Even though political objectives were not explicitly outlined in Sri Lanka's two FTAs with its big rival neighbours (India and Pakistan), the FTAs helped Sri Lanka to successfully execute the war against the LTTE (the Tamil Tigers) by neutralising India on the one hand and gaining military assistance from Pakistan on the other. Research limitations/implications – The research approach is basically qualitative. However, there is needto develop a comprehensive theoretical model to capture non-economics gains from FTAs. Originality/value – Although there is a growing body of literature on the underlying political and strategic motivations of countries forming regional and bilateral trading arrangements, this paper adds to understanding of what motivates small developing countries to form trade agreements with big neighbours.

Bandara, Jayatilleke S.; Yu, Wusheng

2012-01-01

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Thermal comfort implications of urbanization in a warm-humid city: the Colombo Metropolitan Region (CMR), Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we analyze the historic trends in thermal comfort (measured in terms of Temperature-Humidity Index [THI] and Relative Strain Index [RSI]) in the Sri Lankan primate city of Colombo and correlate them with land cover changes in the region. Land cover is calculated from time-series aerial photographs in terms of 'hard' cover (buildings, paved areas and roads) and 'soft' cover (trees, green areas and waterbodies). The period selected for analysis includes pre-rapid (up to 1977) and rapid urban phases (1978 onwards) in the city. Contemporary Sri Lanka's urbanization is peculiar in that mid to late 20th century urban rates (approx. 22% of the population) had remained virtually unchanged till the economy was liberalized in 1977, but have recently intensified (currently at about 35%). This offers a unique window of opportunity to look at the thermal comfort transition consequent to urbanization. Since many tropical cities are at a similar stage of demographic transition, lessons from Colombo may generally be applicable to other tropical developing cities as well. An increasing trend in thermal discomfort-particularly at night-is seen especially at the suburban station and it correlates well with hard land cover changes. The study also brings out the relative importance of land cover in city center vs. rural areas (e.g. hard cover has more effect on thermal discomfort in city center than in rural areas). Based on these findings, we postulate an outline for a climate-sensitive urban design policy for tropical cities. (Author)

Emmanuel, R. [Moratuwa Univ., Dept. of Architecture, Moratuwa (Sri Lanka)

2005-12-01

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Challenges of collective humanitarian response in Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Grappling with how to respond to both conflict and tsunami-induced displacement, Sri Lanka is an ideal testing groundfor the principles of humanitarian partnership which areat the heart of the Global Humanitarian Platform (GHP.

Firzan Hashim

2007-12-01

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Investigations on Piper betle grown in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Piper betle is an economically important plant cultivated in Sri Lanka. Although more than 12 cultivars of betel are reported in Sri Lanka, very few scientific investigations have been carried out on them. Studies on the chemical constituents indicated that safrole is the major constituent, followed by chavibitol acetate, in the essential oil of common betel leaves of Sri Lanka. Investigations on the bioactivities of P. betle revealed the presence of antimicrobial, insecticidal, antioxidant, antinociceptive, antidiabetic and gastroprotective activities. In addition, P. betle was found to be safe in terms of hepatotoxicity, renotoxicity, hematotoxicity, gross morphology, weights of organs, stress or aversive behaviors in rats. The above findings indicate the vast potential of P. betle yet to be harnessed for the benefit of mankind and the betel industry of Sri Lanka. PMID:22279373

Arambewela, L S R; Arawwawala, L D A M; Kumaratunga, K G; Dissanayake, D S; Ratnasooriya, W D; Kumarasingha, S P

2011-07-01

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The Gender impact in Earnings Inequality: Evidence from Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The Gender impact in Earnings Inequality: Evidence from Sri LankaAbstract: This paper estimates an earnings function for Sri Lanka, followed by a decomposition analysis of male-female earnings suggest that the gender disparity in earnings largely represents ‘discrimination’ against women. The findings showed that irrespective of their “inferior” labour market attributes, men had average earnings that were considerably higher than the female average and that this could be attributed entirely to discrimination in favour of male earners.

Thankom Arun

2011-08-01

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Iron deficiency anaemia in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The commonest cause of nutritional anaemia in the Sri Lankan population is iron deficiency. The diets of the population belonging to the lower socio-economic groups contain little food of animal origin. Thus, their diets are deficient in easily absorbable (haem) iron; and are also heavily cereal-based. Therefore interference in the absorption of dietary iron also occurs. Iron-deficiency anaemia is not restricted to the so-called ''vulnerable groups'' in Sri Lanka, however, their greater demands make the problem not only commoner but also more severe. Among pregnant and lactating women anaemia is often associated with folate deficiency. It must also be noted that the low availability of dietary iron is compounded in large population groups. Malaria, presently raging on an epidemic scale is also a major contributory factor to the incidence of anaemia. The purpose of this study was to examine the iron status of pre-school children and pregnant women; to establish normal levels of biochemical indices at different trimesters; to record the effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy; and to record the bioavailability of iron from weaning foods and common adult diets. 6 figs, 14 tabs

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A profile of biomass stove use in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

A large body of evidence has confirmed that the indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass fuel use is a major cause of premature deaths, and acute and chronic diseases. Over 78% of Sri Lankans use biomass fuel for cooking, the major source of IAP in developing countries. We conducted a review of the available literature and data sources to profile biomass fuel use in Sri Lanka. We also produced two maps (population density and biomass use; and cooking fuel sources by district) to illustrate the problem in a geographical context. The biomass use in Sri Lanka is limited to wood while coal, charcoal, and cow dung are not used. Government data sources indicate poor residents in rural areas are more likely to use biomass fuel. Respiratory diseases, which may have been caused by cooking emissions, are one of the leading causes of hospitalizations and death. The World Health Organization estimated that the number of deaths attributable to IAP in Sri Lanka in 2004 was 4300. Small scale studies have been conducted in-country in an attempt to associate biomass fuel use with cataracts, low birth weight, respiratory diseases and lung cancer. However, the IAP issue has not been broadly researched and is not prominent in Sri Lankan public health policies and programs to date. Our profile of Sri Lanka calls for further analytical studies and new innovative initiatives to inform public health policy, advocacy and program interventions to address the IAP problem of Sri Lanka. PMID:22690185

Elledge, Myles F; Phillips, Michael J; Thornburg, Vanessa E; Everett, Kibri H; Nandasena, Sumal

2012-04-01

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A Profile of Biomass Stove Use in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available A large body of evidence has confirmed that the indoor air pollution (IAP from biomass fuel use is a major cause of premature deaths, and acute and chronic diseases. Over 78% of Sri Lankans use biomass fuel for cooking, the major source of IAP in developing countries. We conducted a review of the available literature and data sources to profile biomass fuel use in Sri Lanka. We also produced two maps (population density and biomass use; and cooking fuel sources by district to illustrate the problem in a geographical context. The biomass use in Sri Lanka is limited to wood while coal, charcoal, and cow dung are not used. Government data sources indicate poor residents in rural areas are more likely to use biomass fuel. Respiratory diseases, which may have been caused by cooking emissions, are one of the leading causes of hospitalizations and death. The World Health Organization estimated that the number of deaths attributable to IAP in Sri Lanka in 2004 was 4300. Small scale studies have been conducted in-country in an attempt to associate biomass fuel use with cataracts, low birth weight, respiratory diseases and lung cancer. However, the IAP issue has not been broadly researched and is not prominent in Sri Lankan public health policies and programs to date. Our profile of Sri Lanka calls for further analytical studies and new innovative initiatives to inform public health policy, advocacy and program interventions to address the IAP problem of Sri Lanka.

Kibri H. Everett

2012-03-01

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Sociopolitical Instability and Economic Growth Empirical Evidence from Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Sociopolitical instability severely affects economic growth in short and long run. This study analyzes that sociopolitical instability measured by proxy measure; annual growth rate of tourist arrivals in Sri Lanka during 1960-2005 adversely affects economic growth. Our empirical findings based on ordinary lease square econometric estimation, show that sociopolitical instability negatively and significantly affect economic growth. Reduction of economic growth rate (-0.032 due to the sociopolitical instability exceeds the improvement of economic growth (0.027 by increasing of physical capital accumulation. It also exceeds the improvement of economic growth (0.017 by increasing of human capital accumulation. Years which had more sociopolitical conflicts, violence within and between communities and war between government forces and Tamil tiger had lower economic growth than years which had peace talking between government and leaderships of minority, preparing political proposal for peace, effective peace or political agreements and none or less violence. Sociopolitical instability adversely affects economic growth in long runs with insignificant. Policy implications suggest that peace in Sri Lanka makes foundation for economic development based on economic growth. Sociopolitical stability plays major role in determination of economic growth.

Changsheng Xu

2007-01-01

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Unemployment tables and unemployment-free working life: Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper demonstrates the use of the life table model to depict gross and net tables of unemployment in a country, using Sri Lanka as an example. Age specific data on employment in Sri Lanka are analyzed using the lfe table technic. Unemployment-free working life declined for both males and females between 1963 and 1971, indicating deteriorating employment conditions. This measure shows the employment situation in a country better than the simple rates of unemployment or the conventional working life expectancy. It also shows working life from the point of view of the production of goods and services. PMID:12268132

Krishnan, P

1986-01-01

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Yellow Oleander Poisoning and Suicide in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Intentional yellow oleander poisoning is a growing problem that is straining the health care services of Sri Lanka as it is a readily available method of suicide. The country remains to have one the highest suicide rates in the world, and the trend of oleander poisoning has been difficult to halt due to the lack of resources to manage the problem. As mental health issues are becoming a serious public health problem in Sri Lanka, it is timely to consider what efforts could be made to manage this unique phenomenon.

Shobitha Puvaneswaralingam

2012-05-01

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A jurassic-cretaceous dolerite dike from Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A dolerite dike from southwestern Sri Lanka gave whole-rock K-Ar ages of 152.6 ± 7.6 Ma and 143.3 ± 7.2 Ma. Many of the other dolerite dikes of Sri Lanka are considered to be of Mesozoic ages judging from the present age data and tectonometamorphic history of Sri Lanka. Petrographic similarities should not be used for age correlations, because dolerites of different age may have the same petrography. Preliminary natural remanent magnetization (NRM) after AF and thermal demagnetization gave a mean inclination of 24.6deg and declination of 67.5deg with ?95=21.7deg. A virtual geomagnetic pole position calculated from the mean NRM was rotated relative to Antarctica so as to fit with that obtained from the Jurassic Ferrar dolerite of Antarctica. This rotation results in the location and attitude of Sri Lanka to attach with Antarctica at Lutzow-Holm Bay as suggested by Barron et al. (1978). (author). 18 refs

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The Labour Market Experience of University Graduates in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

Graduate unemployment has been a major socio-politico-economic problem in the small open economy of Sri Lanka for the past 35 years. The nature of the problem, causal factors and policy responses are examined in this paper with a special focus on the role of higher education within a highly competitive and knowledge-based economic environment. The…

Chandrasiri, Sunil

2008-01-01

35

Learning Organization Dimensions of the Sri Lanka Army  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This study intends to investigate the extent to which the Sri Lanka Army can be described as a learning organization. Design/methodology/approach: The main tool of analysis used was the Dimensions of the Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) developed by Marsick and Watkins, with the exclusion of the sections on financial and…

Dahanayake, Nishada Dhananjaya; Gamlath, Sharmila

2013-01-01

36

Water and wastewater related issues in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary problems concerning water resources in Sri Lanka are the depletion and degradation of the resource caused by various anthropogenic activities. Surface inland waters in urban areas are polluted heavily with domestic sewage and industrial effluents, and in rural areas with agricultural runoff. With regard to ground water in certain areas of the dry zone, there is a high fluoride content and in hard, rocky, alluvial areas, there is a high concentration of iron. In urban over-crowded cities, there is biological contamination of ground water. Over-utilization, particularly through tube wells, is another major problem affecting ground water resources in Sri Lanka. Oil spills, dumping of waste from ships, coral and sand mining, and activities are the main causes of marine pollution in the country. Except for pipe-borne water supply, irrigation and hydropower schemes, in general water resources in Sri Lanka are managed very poorly. Regulations are available to control most water related problems but enforcement of these regulations is lacking. The ultimate result of degradation and depletion of water resources is the increasing health hazards. Water-borne and vector-borne diseases are prevalent, particularly amongst urban low-income communities with poor sanitary facilities and drainage. Despite government initiatives and legislation, very slow progress has been made towards combating water pollution. This paper examines the most significant water and wastewater related issues in Sri Lanka and their controlling mechanisms. PMID:12926703

Bandara, N J G J

2003-01-01

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Stabilising a victor's peace? Humanitarian action and reconstruction in eastern Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper focuses on the 'Sri Lankan model' of counter-insurgency and stabilisation and its implications for humanitarian and development actors. The Sri Lanka case shows that discourses, policies and practices associated with 'stabilisation' are not confined to 'fragile state' contexts in which there is heavy (and often militarised) international engagement--even though exemplars such as Afghanistan and Iraq have tended to dominate debates on this issue. Rather than being a single template, the 'stabilisation agenda' takes on very different guises in different contexts, presenting quite specific challenges to humanitarian and development actors. This is particularly true in settings like Sri Lanka, where there is a strong state, which seeks to make aid 'coherent' with its own vision of a militarily imposed political settlement. Working in such environments involves navigating a highly-charged domestic political arena, shaped by concerns about sovereignty, nationalism and struggles for legitimacy. PMID:20846349

Goodhand, Jonathan

2010-10-01

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Food Crops Breeding in Sri Lanka - Achievements and challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since Rice is the staple food in Sri Lanka strong emphasis has been given for the improvement of Rice in Sri Lanka. Over the last three decades 36 high yielding rice varieties have been developed. The present yield potential of Sri Lanka's best varieties have been recorded to be be around 10 mt/ha. At present more than 90% of the total paddy extent is grown with modern high yielding rice varieties and as a result the national paddy production has increased from 1.8 mt/ha to 3.5 mt/ha. Induced mutations is used in plant breeding. Use of radiation to produce haploids and for production of transitory sexuality in apomicts have been done. Under the coarse grains and millet varietal program, maize have recorded increasing attention owing to the fact that is is used for human consumption and as feed grain for poultry. Promising varieties of Soya bean, cowpea, mung bean, black gram and ground nut have been recommended for cultivation. Research attention has also been directed towards Root and Tuber crops which have great potential in providong food for the rapidly increasing population in Sri Lanka. Potato is the most important and popular tuber crop. A number of improved varieties with respect to a number of local fruit crops such as banana, sweet orange, lemonime, avocado, pineapple, rambutan, grapes.have been introduced. New improved varieties of indigenous vegetables such as tomato, brinjal etc. have been produced. Chillies and onions with desirable qualities also have bnions with desirable qualities also have been identified. Mutation breeding provides a novel approach to the plant breeders for raising the productivity of crop plants, thus complementing conventional methods. Any way the use of induced mutations in crop improvement has not been properly exploited in Sri Lanka as yet

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Then and Now: English in Sri Lanka’s Public Sector  

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Full Text Available English was the official language of Sri Lanka during British colonization but it was replaced by Sinhala and Tamil as independence neared. The public sector was directly affected by this change although English held sway here for some years. Yet, English was made the link language for the Sinhalese and Tamils in 1987 and the state has since taken many steps to promote and improve its use in the public sector. Such change in language policy did not happen in void. It resulted from different perceptions nationalism and nationism had about English. This paper tries to understand the changing fate of English in Sri Lanka’s public sector by placing it in the context of nationalism and nationism. It aims to do two things, namely to explain nationalism and nationism in relation to Sri Lanka and to explore the presence of English in the public sector from independence until today, affected by nationalism and nationism. This investigative approach shows the influence of local ideology on language policy. It is ultimately seen that language policy concerning English in the public sector is responsive to the volatile political and social contexts of Sri Lanka.

Kumaran Rajandran

2009-01-01

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Variations in salinity tolerance of malaria vectors of the Anopheles subpictus complex in Sri Lanka and the implications for malaria transmission  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles subpictus sensu lato, a widespread vector of malaria in Asia, is reportedly composed of four sibling species A-D based on distinct cytogenetic and morphological characteristics. However An. subpictus species B specimens in Sri Lanka are termed An. subpictus B/ An. sundaicus because of recent genetic data. Differences in salinity tolerance and coastal/inland prevalence of An. subpictus sibling species that were not previously established in Sri Lanka are presented here. Results Specimens with morphological characteristics of all four Indian An. subpictus sibling species were found in Sri Lanka. Sibling species A, C and D tended to be predominant in inland, and An. subpictus species B/An. sundaicus, in coastal localities. Sibling species C was predominant in both adult and larval inland collections. Larvae of An. subpictus B/An. sundaicus were found in inland and coastal sites, including a lagoon, with salinity varying from 0 to 30 ppt. An. subpictus sibling species A, C and D larvae were present in water of salinity between 0 to 4 ppt. An. subpictus C, D and An. subpictus B/An. sundaicus larvae showed compatible differential salinity tolerance in laboratory tests. The first instar larvae of An. subpictus B/An. sundaicus showed 100% survival up to 15 ppt in comparison to species C and D where the corresponding values were 3 ppt and 6 ppt respectively. However all third instar larvae of An. subpictus B/An. sundaicus survived up to 30 ppt salinity whereas An. subpictus C and D tolerated up to 4 ppt and 8 ppt salinity respectively. Conclusions The results suggest that An. subpictus species B/An. sundaicus breed in fresh, brackish and nearly saline water while An. subpictus species C and D do so in fresh and less brackish waters in Sri Lanka, as in India. Because of the established role of An. sundaicus s.l. and An. subpictus s.l. as malaria vectors, the findings indicate a need for greater monitoring of brackish water breeding habitats in Asia. Tolerance to 15 ppt salinity may also constitute a simple method for differentiating An. subpictus B/An. sundaicus larvae from those of An. subpictus species C and D in field studies.

Jude Pavillupillai J

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
41

Where there is no information: IDP vulnerability assessments in Sri Lanka’s borderlands  

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Full Text Available A third of the estimated 600,000 IDPs in Sri Lanka live in areas controlled by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam (LTTE. Displaced people within these so-called ‘un-cleared’ or ‘liberated areas’ (termsused by the Sri Lankan government and the LTTE respectively are at especial risk. Their situation highlights the difficulties of assessing protection and assistance in the context of conflict.

Danesh Jayatilaka

2004-05-01

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Landmarks of History of Soil Science in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

Sri Lanka is a tropical Island in the Southern tip of Indian subcontinent positioned at 50 55' to 90 50' N latitude and 790 42' to 810 53' E longitude surrounded by the Indian Ocean. It is an island 435 km in length and 224 km width consisting of a land are of 6.56 million ha with a population of 20 million. In area wise it is ranked as 118th in the world, where at present ranked as 47 in population wise and ranked 19th in population density. The country was under colonial rule under Portuguese, Dutch and British from 1505 to 1948. The majority of the people in the past and present earn their living from activities based on land, which indicates the important of the soil resource. The objective of this paper is to describe the landmarks of the history of Soil Science to highlight the achievements and failures, which is useful to enrich our present understanding of Sri Lankan soils. The landmarks of the history of Soil Science in Sri Lanka can be divided to three phases namely, the early period (prior to 1956), the middle period (1956 to 1972) and the present period (from 1972 onwards). During the early period, detailed analytical studies of coffee and tea soils were compiled, and these gave mainly information on up-country soils which led to fertilizer recommendations based on field trials. In addition, rice and forest soils were also studied in less detail. The first classification of Sri Lankan soils and a provisional soil map based on parent material was published by Joachim in 1945 which is a major landmark of history of Soil Science in Sri Lanka. In 1959 Ponnamperuma proposed a soil classification system for wetland rice soils. From 1963 to 1968 valuable information on the land resource was collected and documented by aerial resource surveys funded by Canada-Ceylon Colombo plan aid project. This covered 18 major river basins and about 1/4th of Sri Lanka, which resulted in producing excellent soil maps and information of the areas called the Kelani Aruvi Ara and Walawe basins. The provisional soil map was updated by many other workers as Moorman and Panabokke in 1961 and 1972 using this information. The soil map produced by De Alwis and Panabokke in 1972 at a scale of 1:500,000 was the soil maps mostly used during the past years During the present era, the need for classification of Soils of Sri Lanka according to international methods was felt. A major leap forward in Soil Survey, Classification leading to development of a soil data base was initiated in 1995 with the commencement of the "SRICANSOL" project which was a twining project between the Soil Science Societies of Sri Lanka and Canada. This project is now completed with detail soil maps at a scale of 1:250,000 and soil classified according to international methods for the Wet, Intermediate and Dry zones of Sri Lanka. A digital database consisting of soil profile description and physical and chemical data is under preparation for 28, 40 and 51 benchmark sites of the Wet, Intermediate and Dry zones respectively. The emphases on studies on Soil Science in the country at present is more towards environmental conservation related to soil erosion control, reducing of pollution of soil and water bodies from nitrates, pesticide residues and heavy metal accumulation. Key words: Sri Lanka, Provisional soil map

Mapa, R.

2012-04-01

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Surface circulation and upwelling patterns around Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Sri Lanka occupies a unique location within the equatorial belt in the northern Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea on its western side and the Bay of Bengal on its eastern side. The region is characterised by bi-annually reversing monsoon winds resulting from seasonal differential heating and cooling of the continental land mass and the ocean. This study explored elements of the dynamics of the surface circulation and coastal upwelling in the waters around Sri Lanka using satellite imagery and the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS configured to the study region and forced with ECMWF interim data. The model was run for 2 yr to examine the seasonal and shorter term (?10 days variability. The results confirmed the presence of the reversing current system in response to the changing wind field: the eastward flowing Southwest Monsoon Current (SMC during the Southwest (SW monsoon transporting 11.5 Sv and the westward flowing Northeast Monsoon Current (NMC transporting 9.5 Sv during the Northeast (NE monsoon, respectively. A recirculation feature located to the east of Sri Lanka during the SW monsoon, the Sri Lanka Dome, is shown to result from the interaction between the SMC and the Island of Sri Lanka. Along the eastern and western coasts, during both monsoon periods, flow is southward converging along the south coast. During the SW monsoon the Island deflects the eastward flowing SMC southward whilst along the east coast the southward flow results from the Sri Lanka Dome recirculation. The major upwelling region, during both monsoon periods, is located along the south coast and is shown to be due to flow convergence and divergence associated with offshore transport of water. Higher surface chlorophyll concentrations were observed during the SW monsoon. The location of the flow convergence and hence the upwelling centre was dependent on the relative strengths of wind driven flow along the east and west coasts: during the SW (NE monsoon the flow along the western (eastern coast was stronger and hence the upwelling centre was shifted to the east (west. The presence of upwelling along the south coast during both monsoon periods may explain the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus aggregations in this region.

A. de Vos

2013-09-01

44

The practice of mindfulness based behaviour therapy in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The Buddhist practice of cultivating mindfulness has been increasingly influencing psychotherapeutic work. However, in Sri Lanka, the documentation on the use of such practice in psychotherapy is scarce. This paper aims to discuss the influence of Buddhist mindfulness practice on psychotherapy; present a case of mixed anxiety-depressive disorder where mindfulness practice and behaviour therapy were used in its treatment and discuss issues that need to be considered in the use of mindfulness practice in psychotherapy. The combined use of Buddhist mindfulness practice and behaviour therapy yielded a favourable outcome in the case reported. In Sri Lanka, a culturally rooted method such as mindfulness practice, in combination with behaviour therapy, is useful in the treatment of mixed anxietydepressive disorder. The use of mindfulness practice in psychotherapy should be undertaken by those trained in psychological assessments and by those who have their personal mindfulness practice. Future studies on the use of mindfulness practice in other psychological disorders would be useful.

P de Zoysa

2010-12-01

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COMPARISON OF E-LEARNING ACCEPTANCE AMONG POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS IN SRI LANKA AND MALAYSIA  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of innovation attributes on postgraduate students’ e-learning acceptance between Sri Lanka and Malaysia. The Diffusion of Innovation theory identifies five attributes of innovation namely relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialabiltity, observability which impact for the attitude and intention of using e- learning. Sri Lanka and Malaysia are the countries which have more similarities in terms of history, geography and culture. Therefore a comparison between Sri Lanka and Malaysia for the innovation attributes towards the attitude and intention of using e-learning is more relevant as to acquire the knowledge on how economic and technological development have an impact on postgraduate students preferences. A random sample of 400 was drawn from the postgraduate students in locally based universities in Sri Lanka and Malaysia. It was found that Sri Lanka and Malaysia has similar in e-learning acceptance in terms of observability and relative advantage which has a significant impact on attitude and intention of using e-learning and also complexity and trialability was the least significant factors on e-learning acceptance in both Sri Lanka and Malaysia.  This is the first attempt of comparing e-learning acceptance between Sri Lanka and Malaysia and discloses information on how Sri Lanka and Malaysia differ. The findings of this paper can be used by the higher educational institutions in Sri Lanka and Malaysia when implementing e learning solutions.

Kaushalya Yatigammana

2014-06-01

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The practice of mindfulness based behaviour therapy in Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Buddhist practice of cultivating mindfulness has been increasingly influencing psychotherapeutic work. However, in Sri Lanka, the documentation on the use of such practice in psychotherapy is scarce. This paper aims to discuss the influence of Buddhist mindfulness practice on psychotherapy; present a case of mixed anxiety-depressive disorder where mindfulness practice and behaviour therapy were used in its treatment and discuss issues that need to be considered in the use of mindfulness p...

Zoysa, P.

2010-01-01

47

A CBA model of a hydro project in Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study demonstrates an empirical application of a cost benefit analysis for hydro projects, which includes social and environmental as well as economic aspects. The model treats uncertain inputs by specifying them as probability distributions. A proposed hydro project in Sri Lanka is used as a case study. The study uses time variable discount rates related to economic growth and investigates the sensitivity of the net present value to the choice of a discount rate. (author)

Morimoto, Risako; Hope, C. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Judge Inst. of Management

2004-07-01

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Foreign ownership, technological capabilities, and clothing exports in Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Drawing on recent developments in applied international trade and innovation and learning in developing countries, this paper examines the links between firm-level export performance, foreign ownership, and the acquisition of technological capabilities in a sample of 205 clothing enterprises in Sri Lanka. Econometric analysis indicates that foreign ownership, firm size, human capital, technological capabilities, and geographical location are all positively associated with export shares. Furth...

Wignaraja, Ganeshan

2007-01-01

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Mobile Phone–based Infectious Disease Surveillance System, Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Because many infectious diseases are emerging in animals in low-income and middle-income countries, surveillance of animal health in these areas may be needed for forecasting disease risks to humans. We present an overview of a mobile phone–based frontline surveillance system developed and implemented in Sri Lanka. Field veterinarians reported animal health information by using mobile phones. Submissions increased steadily over 9 months, with ?4,000 interactions between field veterinarian...

Robertson, Colin; Sawford, Kate; Daniel, Samson L. A.; Nelson, Trisalyn A.; Stephen, Craig

2010-01-01

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Ethnicised entitlements? Property rights and civil war in Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present paper investigates how ethnic violence and civil war in Sri Lanka have affected local property rights institutions . I use local case studies to analyze the institutional relations and alliances between civilians and combatants in the emergent society of violence that shapes local communities in civil war. My focus will be on how civilians from different ethnic groups utilize social and political capital assets to secure entitlements to natural resources. The findings of my resear...

Korf, Benedikt

2003-01-01

51

Diversity of Snakes from the Jaffna Peninsula, Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available A herpetological survey was carried out to study the diversity of snakes from 2002 to 2004. The study revealed eighteen species of terrestrial snakes belonging to five families. Out of which four species were highly venomous species; two were mildly venomous and the rest of the twelve were non poisonous species. Two species were endemic to Sri Lanka and six out of the eighteen documented species were recorded for the first time from Jaffna Peninsula.

S. Abyerami

2008-01-01

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Diversity of snakes from the Jaffna Peninsula, Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

A herpetological survey was carried out to study the diversity of snakes from 2002 to 2004. The study revealed eighteen species of terrestrial snakes belonging to five families. Out of which four species were highly venomous species; two were mildly venomous and the rest of the twelve were non poisonous species. Two species were endemic to Sri Lanka and six out of the eighteen documented species were recorded for the first time from Jaffna Peninsula. PMID:19266902

Abyerami, S; Sivashanthini, K

2008-08-15

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Problems of Illiteracy in a Literate Developing Society: Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

With 87.0% of its population literate, Sri Lanka occupies a high ranking position among South and South-East Asian nations in educational development. The high percentage of literacy achieved through progressive measures in education spanning half a century, however, has led to a state of complacency and less priority being given to efforts at eradicating illiteracy. This paper will focus on a recent study conducted on the incidence of illiteracy in specific disadvantaged communities in the country which indicated that in the present era of technological advancement, lack of literacy will continue to affect the life-chances of people in these communities where the rate of literacy remains much lower than the national average. The study investigates into the factors associated with illiteracy, and the attitudes and perceptions of the communities themselves towards literacy programmes and regarding the modalities and strategies of providing literacy. The implications of the study and the final recommendations drawn up in consultation with the policy makers at national and provincial levels in governmental and non-governmental sectors are also discussed in the paper.

Gunawardena, Chandra

1997-09-01

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Determination of the geoid of central highlands in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

The available geoid undulations on the WGS84 ellipsoid at over two hundred GPS stations are interpolated using a least-squares surface fitting technique to determine the geoid of the central highlands in Sri Lanka. However, it is not possible to interpolate these points directly to prepare a detailed map of the geoid surface as the geoid separation varies intense due to the rugged local topography making the interpolation inaccurate. The gravity potential and subsequently the undulation of the local geoid due to the topography have been calculated separately using a topographic model and removed from the available geoid undulations. This model was created using information obtained from 1:50 000 digital topographic maps provided by the Survey department of Sri Lanka. The resulting geoid separations were interpolated and three surface polynomials were employed to determine the geoid using the least-squares surface fitting technique. To avoid possible artefacts in regions without observations, an area including central highlands was selected to determine the geoid. Finally, the geoid undulations due to the topography were added back to the Bouguer co-geoid represented by three mathematical surfaces to create a detailed map of the geoid of Sri Lanka. A local positive geoid surface superimposing a large negative regional surface has been obtained and the local maximum value of the geoid undulation is about -92.05 m in the vicinity of Piduruthalagala peak.

Prasanna, Herath Mudiyanselage Indika; Tantrigoda, Dhammika Ariyakumara

2009-06-01

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Is leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka benign and be ignored?  

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Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis is now an endemic disease in Sri Lanka. Many studies have focussed on various aspects of this disease but the knowledge, particularly on epidemiological and vector aspects is still poor and the awareness among the general public and even medical/paramedical personnel regarding this disease remains grossly inadequate. The steady increase in the numbers and spread of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in Sri Lanka and the very close similarity (genotypic and phenotypic between the local parasite Leishmania donovani MON-37 and the parasite causing visceral leishmaniasis in India (L. donovani MON-2, considered together with the more recent case reports of autochthonous cases of visceral disease in this country, calls for urgent action for setting up of a surveillance programme to estimate the true disease burden and to implement an organized control strategy, combined with operational and epidemiological research to aid control efforts to avert a potentially major catastrophe of more virulent form of leishmaniasis, particularly the visceral type becoming endemic in Sri Lanka.

N.D. Karunaweera

2009-02-01

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Prospects for a wind pump industry in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1977 considerable effort has been made in Sri Lanka to develop and disseminate wind pumping systems primarily in the small-scale agricultural sector in the island's dry zone. Through close cooperation with the Consultancy Services Wind Energy Developing Countries (CWD) in the Netherlands this programme has been successful in developing the necessary hardware but the broad objective of promoting wide spread use of wind pumping in Sri Lanka is yet to materialize. In analyzing probable reasons for this, the paper highlights that the basic arguments underlying the origin of the project in 1976, such as foreign exchange savings and local industrial development, became irrelevant to the post 1977 political and economic policies of the new government. Thus, the general economic framework adopted in Sri Lanka since 1977 does not seem to provide the necessary pre-conditions for development of a local industry for wind pumps. Due to this reason and the fact that kerosene oil used in conventional agriculturla pumps is subsidized, the ability of wind pumps to compete in the wind pump market seems highly constrained. It is concluded that under such conditions the prospects for the manufacturing and marketing of wind pumps on an industrial scale are not very favourable

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Groundwater overuse and farm-level technical inefficiency: evidence from Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

Extraction of groundwater for onion and other cash crop production has been increasing rapidly during the last two decades in the dry zone areas of Sri Lanka. As a result of overuse, the quantity of available groundwater is gradually declining, while water quality is deteriorating. The deteriorating water quality has a negative impact on agricultural production, especially for crops (such as onions) that are sensitive to increases in salinity levels. This issue is examined with respect to onion production in Sri Lanka. A stochastic frontier production function (SFPF) is used, in which technical efficiency and the determinants of inefficiencies are estimated simultaneously. The results show that farmers are overusing groundwater in their onion cultivation, which has resulted in decreasing yields. Factors contributing to inefficiency in production are also identified. The results have important policy implications.

Athukorala, Wasantha; Wilson, Clevo

2012-08-01

58

Solar photovoltaics in Sri Lanka: a short history  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With a significant unelectrified rural population, Sri Lanka has followed the evolution of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology in the West very closely since the 1970s as terrestrial applications for photovoltaics were developed. It was not until 1980 that the Sri Lankan government embarked on the promotion of solar photovoltaics for rural domestic use when the Ceylon Electricity Board formed the Energy Unit. In addition, Australian and Sri Lankan government-funded pilot projects have given the local promoters further valuable insight into how and how not to promote solar photovoltaics. The establishment of community-based solar photovoltaic programmes by non-governmental organizations has developed a novel approach to bridge the gap between this state-of-the-art technology and the remotely located end-users. (author)

59

Delineation of Tsunami Risk Zones for Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

The coastal belts of several Indian Ocean countries including Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India and Thailand suffered massive loss of life and damage to property due to the tsunami unleashed by the great earthquake of moment magnitude 9.1-9.3 in the Andaman-Sunda subduction zone on December 26, 2004. In Sri Lanka, 13 of the 14 administrative districts lying along the coastal belt were affected: the death toll was over 35,000 with 20,000 injured and about 100,000 dwellings and other buildings either completely or partially damaged leaving half a million people homeless and causing massive disruption to livelihoods. However, it was clear in the immediate aftermath of the tsunami that the degree of damage along the coastal belt of Sri Lanka was not uniform: some areas suffered more damage, some less, and in certain other areas, often not far away, there was no damage at all. This suggests that the level of risk for coastal communities from future events of tsunami exhibits considerable variation even along a short stretch of the shoreline. The high cost and the scarcity of coastal lands in many areas demand an accurate assessment of the tsunami risk rather than arbitrary conservative zonation. Moreover, information relating to the spatial distribution of tsunami risk is essential in formulating post-tsunami coastal land use plans as well as in planning of evacuation of people during tsunami warnings. However, neither comprehensive probabilistic assessments of the tsunami hazard nor detailed information pertaining to the vulnerability of coastal communities are available at present for the coastal zone of Sri Lanka. Consequently, the methodology adopted in the present paper is to use field observations and numerical simulations of the December 2004 tsunami, which may be considered a worst-case scenario, in order to obtain the variation along the coastline of three parameters that quantify the tsunami impact. These three parameters are the tsunami height, the horizontal inundation distance and the degree of damage to housing as a result of the 2004 tsunami. The tsunami heights at a spatial resolution of 250 m along the coastal belt were computed by employing a numerical model based on shallow-water equations. The inundation distances were obtained from the points of maximum penetration of inundation measured by the author at 200-400 m intervals along the affected coast using a GPS. The percentage of the number of housing units either completely damaged or partially damaged but unusable in each locality was compiled from a large volume of data gathered by the Department of Census and Statistics of the Government of Sri Lanka in the aftermath of the 2004 tsunami. A 'relative risk index' was then computed by factoring the influence of each of these three parameters normalized with the respective mean value for the entire length of the coastal sector concerned. Accordingly, the relative risk index indicates whether the risk is lower or higher at a given location compared to the mean for the respective coastline. Note also that, all three parameters were given the same weight in the present analysis. Two separate curves depicting the spatial variation of the relative risk index at 250 m intervals were compiled in this way for the east and south coasts of Sri Lanka as the geomorphology of these two coastal sectors are essentially different. These curves of the relative risk index shows significant spatial variation with prominent peaks and troughs at several locations thereby indicating likely zones of comparatively higher as well as lower tsunami risk along the east and south coasts of Sri Lanka.

Wijetunge, J. J.

2008-12-01

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Sri Lanka’s Post-Conflict Strategy: Restorative Justice for Rebels and Rebuilding of Conflict-affected Communities  

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Full Text Available Following the Sri Lankan Government’s military defeat of the internationally proscribed terrorist organisation, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE in May 2009, Sri Lanka embarked on an essential and long-term twofold post-conflict strategy: (i rehabilitation and reintegration of former LTTE combatants, and (ii the rebuilding of the conflict-affected Tamil communities of the Northern and Eastern Provinces. The rehabilitation program was by many counts a success, with demonstrated cognitive transformation in attitudes and behaviour of most of the (formerly radicalised combatants. Reconciliation initiatives were implemented to fulfill the urgent social, political, and economic needs of the conflict-affected communities of the North and East. These reconciliation efforts continue to be implemented and comprise different measures taken in: (1 resettlement and humanitarian assistance, (2 reconstruction of key transport, economic, health, and social infrastructure for reintegration, (3 political engagement, and (4 various types of peace-building work. Sri Lanka’s post-conflict strategy adopts a holistic approach, seeking the contribution of the public sector, private sector, community organisations, international organisations, NGOs, and private individuals from different segments of society in Sri Lanka. However, despite the many effective state-led and other reconciliation efforts undertaken by Sri Lanka, the author is able to present a number of recommendations to the government of Sri Lanka to overcome shortcomings in the rehabilitation and reconciliation programs adopted, as well as other challenges faced by Sri Lanka, such as the relentless disinformation campaign against the Sri Lankan state pursued by the remnant LTTE cells surviving internationally. To understand the complex nature of the Sri Lankan conflict and the skillful disinformation campaign pursued against the Sri Lankan state by the LTTE’s transnational network, a comprehensive introduction is provided as a part of this article.

Iromi Dharmawardhane

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
61

77 FR 59899 - U.S. Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

...U.S. Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka AGENCY: International Trade Administration...U.S. Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka Chennai and Cochin, India and Colombo, Sri Lanka February 3-8,...

2012-10-01

62

The Changing Times: General Education and the Vocational Training System in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

Sri Lanka is widening its scope for vocational education sub-sector. The emerging global trends and the aspirations of the emerging Sri Lanka after defeating terrorism demands the preparation of the graduating youth at different stages of the education system for employment. Vocational education faces many challenges. Though there are…

Sedere, Upali M.

2010-01-01

63

Novel sylvatic rabies virus variant in endangered golden palm civet, Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Information is scarce about sylvatic rabies virus in Asia and about rabies in palm civets. We report a novel sylvatic rabies virus variant detected in a golden palm civet in Sri Lanka. Evolutionary analysis suggests the virus diverged from canine rabies viruses in Sri Lanka in ?1933 (range 1886-1963). PMID:22172202

Matsumoto, Takashi; Ahmed, Kamruddin; Wimalaratne, Omala; Nanayakkara, Susilakanthi; Perera, Devika; Karunanayake, Dushantha; Nishizono, Akira

2011-12-01

64

BUILD BACK BETTER: LESSONS FROM SRI LANKA’S RECOVERY FROM THE 2004 INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI  

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Full Text Available The concept “Building Back Better” (BBB was formally introduced following the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, which implies using a collaborative approach to improve the physical, social and economic conditions of a community during post-disaster reconstruction and recovery. This paper introduces eight BBB Principles which contribute towards achieving BBB. The post-tsunami recovery effort in Sri Lanka was examined using the BBB Principles to determine the extent to which BBB has been incorporated in immediate and long-term disaster management practices. Reports, literature, and data collected from a site visit made to Sri Lanka in 2010/2011 were analysed to establish the findings. Although BBB concepts were recognized, failure in execution resulted in a non-BBB recovery. Lessons learnt from shortcomings have been understood and incorporated into current disaster management practices. Good BBB practices currently in effect include: hazard-based land-use planning and risk-based structural regulations; increased awareness; participatory approaches; and stakeholder training. The absence of legislative support to implement BBB initiatives is the only drawback preventing so far. Lessons from Sri Lanka can benefit disaster management practices worldwide.

Sandeeka Mannakkara

2013-11-01

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Impact on Policy Responses to Food Price Crisis and Rural Food Security in Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Sri Lanka policy responses have direct impacts on rural dwellers. Over 80% of Sri Lanka’s population live in rural areas and 90% of them represent low income dwellers. Their production system may be hampered by fragmented landholding, poor economics of scale, low investment levels resulting from poor financial services as well as inappropriate or limited technology. They are vulnerable to price hikes of basic foods and food security issues due to fragmented landholding and poor financial...

Weerasekara, W. A. Permani Chandika

2013-01-01

66

Aetiological agents in chronic suppurative otitis media in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available BackgroundChronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM is assumed to be acomplication of acute otitis media (AOM, but the riskfactors for CSOM are not clear. Objectives: 1. To study theaetiological organisms for CSOM. 2. To identify the effect ofdemographic factors on disease manifestation.MethodThis retrospective study included a case series of 234patients who had been admitted to National Hospital of SriLanka (NHSL, with the complaint of ear discharge and fromwhom the specimens were sent for microscopy and cultureat Department Of Microbiology, NHSL. The period ofanalysis was 1 year extending from 1 January 2009 to 31December 2009.Consecutive patients who fulfilled theinclusion criteria were recruited to the retrospectiveanalysis.ResultsAmong 234 patients studied, 129 (55.1% were male and150 (64.1% were under 40 yrs old. The mean age was 39.5yrs (range 12 to 60 yrs, SD = 22.6. The mean duration of eardischarge was 1.2 yrs. (range 6 weeks to 20 yrs.Pseudomonas species (29.5% was the commonestmicrobial organism to cause ear discharge, followed bystaphylococcus (20.5% and coliform (16.7 % species.Among the fungal agents identified, candida was the mostcommon. 23.1% of the cultures did not reveal anymicrobiological agent. Eighteen patients (8% had a priorhistory of trauma to the affected ear and 51 patients(21.8% were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus.ConclusionThe commonest microbial agents implicated in CSOM waspseudomonas species followed by staphylococci andcoliforms. Demographic variables such as gender or age didnot seem to affect the disease manifestation significantly,though CSOM was less common among elderly and women.

Dayasena RP

2011-02-01

67

Integrated approach for coastal hazards and risks in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

The devastating impact of the tsunami of 26 December 2004 on the shores of the Indian Ocean recalled the importance of knowledge and the taking into account of coastal hazards. Sri Lanka was one of the countries most affected by this tsunami (e.g. 30 000 dead, 1 million people homeless and 70% of the fishing fleet destroyed). Following this tsunami, as part of the French post-tsunami aid, a project to establish a Geographical Information System (GIS) on coastal hazards and risks was funded. This project aims to define, at a pilot site, a methodology for multiple coastal hazards assessment that might be useful for the post-tsunami reconstruction and for development planning. This methodology could be applied to the whole coastline of Sri Lanka. The multi-hazard approach deals with very different coastal processes in terms of dynamics as well as in terms of return period. The first elements of this study are presented here. We used a set of tools integrating a GIS, numerical simulations and risk scenario modelling. While this action occurred in response to the crisis caused by the tsunami, it was decided to integrate other coastal hazards into the study. Although less dramatic than the tsunami these remain responsible for loss of life and damage. Furthermore, the establishment of such a system could not ignore the longer-term effects of climate change on coastal hazards in Sri Lanka. This GIS integrates the physical and demographic data available in Sri Lanka that is useful for assessing the coastal hazards and risks. In addition, these data have been used in numerical modelling of the waves generated during periods of monsoon as well as for the December 2004 tsunami. Risk scenarios have also been assessed for test areas and validated by field data acquired during the project. The results obtained from the models can be further integrated into the GIS and contribute to its enrichment and to help in better assessment and mitigation of these risks. The coastal-hazards-and-risks GIS coupled with modelling thus appears to be a very useful tool that can constitute the skeleton of a coastal zone management system. Decision makers will be able to make informed choices with regards to hazards during reconstruction and urban planning projects.

Garcin, M.; Desprats, J. F.; Fontaine, M.; Pedreros, R.; Attanayake, N.; Fernando, S.; Siriwardana, C. H. E. R.; de Silva, U.; Poisson, B.

2008-06-01

68

Integrated approach for coastal hazards and risks in Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The devastating impact of the tsunami of 26 December 2004 on the shores of the Indian Ocean recalled the importance of knowledge and the taking into account of coastal hazards. Sri Lanka was one of the countries most affected by this tsunami (e.g. 30 000 dead, 1 million people homeless and 70% of the fishing fleet destroyed. Following this tsunami, as part of the French post-tsunami aid, a project to establish a Geographical Information System (GIS on coastal hazards and risks was funded. This project aims to define, at a pilot site, a methodology for multiple coastal hazards assessment that might be useful for the post-tsunami reconstruction and for development planning. This methodology could be applied to the whole coastline of Sri Lanka.

The multi-hazard approach deals with very different coastal processes in terms of dynamics as well as in terms of return period. The first elements of this study are presented here. We used a set of tools integrating a GIS, numerical simulations and risk scenario modelling. While this action occurred in response to the crisis caused by the tsunami, it was decided to integrate other coastal hazards into the study. Although less dramatic than the tsunami these remain responsible for loss of life and damage. Furthermore, the establishment of such a system could not ignore the longer-term effects of climate change on coastal hazards in Sri Lanka.

This GIS integrates the physical and demographic data available in Sri Lanka that is useful for assessing the coastal hazards and risks. In addition, these data have been used in numerical modelling of the waves generated during periods of monsoon as well as for the December 2004 tsunami. Risk scenarios have also been assessed for test areas and validated by field data acquired during the project. The results obtained from the models can be further integrated into the GIS and contribute to its enrichment and to help in better assessment and mitigation of these risks.

The coastal-hazards-and-risks GIS coupled with modelling thus appears to be a very useful tool that can constitute the skeleton of a coastal zone management system. Decision makers will be able to make informed choices with regards to hazards during reconstruction and urban planning projects.

M. Garcin

2008-06-01

69

High Recurrence Rate of Paleotsunamis in Southeastern Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

The southeastern coastline of Sri Lanka was severely impacted by the 2004 tsunami, which killed > 35,000 people. In Karagan Lagoon, on the southeastern coast of Sri Lanka, the 2004 tsunami deposited a distinct layer of coarse quartz-dominated, landward-fining sand 2 to 20 cm thick above a sharp erosional base, occasionally with subparallel laminations. In twenty-two 1 to 4 m sediment cores, siliciclastic clays, silts, and fine sands that dominate the background lagoonal sedimentation are punctuated by as many as nine coarse sand layers in sixteen cores. These sandy layers feature sharp, erosional bases, coarsen and fine upwards, vary in thickness from 1 to 22 cm, and include varying percentages of fine to very coarse sand, with a low abundance of silt and clay. On the basis of their sedimentary structures, geometry, and extent, these sandy layers are interpreted to represent paleotsunami deposits. The Karagan Lagoon paleotsunami deposits provide constraints on the recurrence interval of tsunamis similar in magnitude to the 2004 event. The uppermost paleotsunami units were deposited 1150, 4198, 4457, and 4924 calendar years before present (Cal YBP), based on AMS radiocarbon dating. Thus, including the 2004 event, five tsunamis affected Karagan Lagoon in the past 5000 years, yielding a recurrence interval of approximately 1000 years. Four additional older paleotsunami deposits occur in the deeper sections of the cores and were deposited prior to 6249, 6455, 6665, and 6840 Cal YBP, yielding a recurrence interval of approximately 200 years for this time period. Placing these deposits into a chronostratigraphic framework using AMS radiocarbon age dating suggests that tsunamis similar in magnitude to the 2004 event affected Sri Lanka more commonly in the past. Furthermore, the two time periods with increased tsunami activity from 4000 to 5000 and 6000 to 7000 YBP illustrate that large tsunamis can potentially affect Sri Lanka at relatively high frequency during certain time intervals. The irregular distribution of the nine large tsunamis recorded in Karagan Lagoon needs to be taken into consideration when such events are related to earthquake recurrence intervals.

Jackson, K. L.; Eberli, G. P.; Rankey, E. C.; Amelung, F.; Moore, A. L.

2008-12-01

70

Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth: Evidence from Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Various international organizations and foreign advisors suggested that developing countries should focusprimarily on foreign direct investment (FDI as a source of external finance. In this context, the main purpose ofthe study is to find out the impact of foreign direct investment on economic growth in the Sri LankanPerspective. Data on the foreign direct investment and economic growth from the year 1990 to 2011 werecollected for the study purpose. Further, the results revealed that, there is no significant impact of FDI on theeconomic growth, which is in lowest level. Only 4.3 percent of the variance in the dependent variable has beenfound. In contrast, we found that, in the Sri Lankan context, there is a long run equilibrium relationship betweenFDI and economic growth rate. Statistical findings on the basic regression analysis, Co integration test andGranger causality test show the contradiction in terms of the findings. Meantime, scholars in the econometricsstated that, Co integration test generally is applied among time series data. Due to that, Co integration test givethe insights to the findings in terms of long run view. Finally, we have suggested that, the Sri LankanGovernment and Central Bank of Sri Lanka jointly should take the necessary action to focus on theinfrastructure development through the FDI to get the economic growth in the long term view. Meantime, FDIshould be directed to agricultural actives to get the food sufficient aspects in the local and globalized level.

Thirunavukkarasu Velnampy

2013-12-01

71

Research and development on radiation processing in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research on radiation processing of natural polymer such as polysaccharides of chitosan, cellulose, carrageenan has been carried out in Sri Lanka since the year 2004. The research group have been involving in development activities on application of chitin and chitosan for wound dressing, irradiated chitosan on shelf life extension of fruits such as papaya, banana, mangoes, radiation crosslinked super-absorbent hydrogel from sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by radiation processing. Hydrogels prepared with PVA/Carrageenan/Agar has been studied on guinea pigs to determine the wound healing effect. Irradiated chitosan powder and chitosan solution was studied in vitro and found chitosan solution (1%) directly subjected to irradiation dosages even at 5 kGy was highly effective in control of anthracnose causing organism of papaya. In vivo studies with irradiated 1% chitosan solution on Rathana and red lady variety of papaya shows better control of spoilage of papaya to a considerable extent. The government of Sri Lanka (Ministry of Science and Technology and Atomic Energy Authority) is in the process of establishing the first government owned Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility and it will be helpful to transfer the output of R and D in radiation processing. (author)

72

A new begomovirus-betasatellite complex is associated with chilli leaf curl disease in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leaf curl disease of chilli (LCDC) is a major constraint in production of chilli in the Indian subcontinent. The objective of this study was to identify the begomovirus species occurring in chilli in Sri Lanka, where the LCDC was initially recorded in 1938. The virus samples were collected from the North Central Province, the major chilli growing region in Sri Lanka with a history of epidemic prevalence of LCDC. The virus could be readily transmitted by Bemisia tabaci to chilli, tomato and tobacco, where vein clearing followed by leaf curl developed. The genome analysis of two isolates obtained from two distantly located fields showing 100 % LCDC, revealed that the DNA-A genome (2754 nucleotides) shared 89.5 % sequence identity with each other and 68.80-84.40 % sequence identity with the other begomoviruses occurring in the Indian subcontinent. The closest identity (84.40 %) of the virus isolates was with Tomato leaf curl Sri Lanka virus (ToLCLKV). The results support that a new begomovirus species is affecting chilli in Sri Lanka and the name Chilli leaf curl Sri Lanka virus (ChiLCSLV) is proposed. Recombination analysis indicated that ChiLCSLV was a recombinant virus potentially originated from the begomoviruses prevailing in southern India and Sri Lanka. The genome of betasatellite associated with the two isolates consisted of 1366 and 1371 nucleotides and shared 95.2 % sequence identity with each other and 41.50-73.70 % sequence identity with the other betasatellite species. The results suggest that a new begomovirus betasatellite, Chilli leaf curl Sri Lanka betasatellite is associated with LCDC in Sri Lanka. This study demonstrates a new species of begomovirus and betasatellite complex is occurring in chilli in Sri Lanka and further shows that diverse begomovirus species are affecting chilli production in the Indian subcontinent. PMID:23090833

Senanayake, D M J B; Jayasinghe, J E A R M; Shilpi, S; Wasala, S K; Mandal, Bikash

2013-02-01

73

Corporate Ownership and Control Corporate Governance and Economic Development in Sri Lanka  

CERN Document Server

The governance of companies is of importance to developing countries due to the link between effective corporate governance and economic development. Ownership and control of public companies, except in the US and UK, are often in the hands of a few individuals, families or corporate groups and impact on corporate governance and economic development. Using Sri Lanka as an illustrative example, this book sets out the implications of corporate ownership and control structures on the governance of companies, and suggests a reform agenda to meet the challenges posed by such structures. Any analysi

Perera, Shalini

2010-01-01

74

Understanding the explanatory model of the patient on their medically unexplained symptoms and its implication on treatment development research: a Sri Lanka Study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS are often distressed, disabled and dissatisfied with the care they receive. Illness beliefs held by patients have a major influence on the decision to consult, persistence of symptoms and the degree of disability. Illness perception models consist of frameworks to organise information from multiple sources into distinct but interrelated dimensions: identity (the illness label, cause, consequences, emotional representations perceived control and timeline. Our aim was to elicit the illness perceptions of patients with MUS in Sri Lankan primary care to modify and improve a CBT intervention. Method An intervention study was conducted in a hospital primary care clinic in Colombo, Sri Lanka using CBT for MUS. As a part of the baseline assessment, qualitative data was collected using; the Short Explanatory Model Interview (SEMI, from 68 patients (16–65 years with MUS. We categorised the qualitative data in to key components of the illness perception model, to refine CBT intervention for a subsequent larger trial study. Results The cohort was chronically ill and 87% of the patients were ill for more than six months (range six months to 20 years with 5 or more symptoms and 6 or more visits over preceding six months. A majority were unable to offer an explanation on identity (59% or the cause (56%, but in the consequence domain 95% expressed significant illness worries; 37% believed their symptoms indicated moderately serious illness and 58% very serious illness. Reflecting emotional representation, 33% reported fear of death, 20% fear of paralysis, 13% fear of developing cancer and the rest unspecified incurable illness. Consequence and emotional domains were significant determinants of distress and consultations. Their repeated visits were to seek help to alleviate symptoms. Only a minority expected investigations (8.8 % or diagnosis (8.8%. However, the doctors who had previously treated them allegedly concentrated more on identity than cause. The above information was used to develop simple techniques incorporating analogies to alter their perceptions Conclusion The illness perception model is useful in understanding the continued distress of patients with persistent symptoms without an underlying organic cause. Hence it can make a significant contribution when developing and evaluating culturally sensitive patient friendly interventions.

Sumathipala Kethaki

2008-07-01

75

Biological Differences between Brackish and Fresh Water-Derived Aedes aegypti from Two Locations in the Jaffna Peninsula of Sri Lanka and the Implications for Arboviral Disease Transmission.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mainly fresh water arboviral vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) can also undergo pre-imaginal development in brackish water of up to 15 ppt (parts per thousand) salt in coastal areas. We investigated differences in salinity tolerance, egg laying preference, egg hatching and larval development times and resistance to common insecticides in Ae. aegypti collected from brackish and fresh water habitats in Jaffna, Sri Lanka. Brackish water-derived Ae. aegypti were more tolerant of salinity than fresh water-derived Ae. aegypti and this difference was only partly reduced after their transfer to fresh water for up to five generations. Brackish water-derived Ae. aegypti did not significantly discriminate between 10 ppt salt brackish water and fresh water for oviposition, while fresh water-derived Ae. aegypti preferred fresh water. The hatching of eggs from both brackish and fresh water-derived Ae. aegypti was less efficient and the time taken for larvae to develop into pupae was prolonged in 10 ppt salt brackish water. Ae. aegypti isolated from coastal brackish water were less resistant to the organophosphate insecticide malathion than inland fresh water Ae. aegypti. Brackish and fresh water-derived Ae. aegypti however were able to mate and produce viable offspring in the laboratory. The results suggest that development in brackish water is characterised by pertinent biological changes, and that there is restricted genetic exchange between coastal brackish and inland fresh water Ae. aegypti isolates from sites 5 km apart. The findings highlight the need for monitoring Ae. aegypti developing in coastal brackish waters and extending vector control measures to their habitats. PMID:25170879

Ramasamy, Ranjan; Jude, Pavilupillai J; Veluppillai, Thabothiny; Eswaramohan, Thampoe; Surendran, Sinnathamby N

2014-01-01

76

Predicting Seasonal Precipitation Over Sri Lanka Using Statistical Downscaling  

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October to November (ON) rains provide critical moisture for the growing period of the main rice cultivation season in Sri Lanka that lasts from October to March. Decisions on rice cultivation are made at a seasonal conference convened each year in September. Such decisions are presently based on climatological rainfall in the past 30 years, water levels in irrigation reservoirs and farmers' indigenous knowledge related to historical analogues of wind-direction in September. Past studies documented the skill in seasonal climate predictability in tropical regions in the boreal fall. In recent years there has been a proliferation of seasonal climate forecasts from Global Circulation Models (GCMs). Given the above facts, and the long record of precipitation observations at hundreds of rain gauges scattered across Sri Lanka, it is useful to examine whether statistical downscaling of precipitation could provide additional climate information that could be used for decision-making in agriculture and water resources management This paper analyzes the skill in ON precipitation totals over Sri Lanka by downscaling regional atmospheric variables, identified as affecting ON precipitation, from GCMs. A diagnostic analysis using historical precipitation observations at 145 rain gauges from 1961-2005 and reanalysis climate data reveals that ON precipitation is significantly correlated with September mean sea level pressure (MSLP) over the domain 40°E-270°E and 30°S-20°N and contemporaneous geopotential height anomalies at 200hPa and 850hPa over the domain 40°-270°E and 30°S-45°N. The Model Output Statistics (MOS) approach is utilized to develop seasonal predictions from hindcasts of September MSLP and October-November geopotential height anomalies at 200hPa and 850hPa from the ECHAM4.5 GCM (two versions: forced with constructed analogue SSTs; and persisted anomalies) and the fully-coupled NCEP-CFS GCM. ON precipitation forecasts are derived using cross validated Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA). Precipitation skill assessments are made by computing Hit Skill Scores based on downscaled tercile - i.e. whether above-normal, near-normal or below-normal - precipitation.

Fernando, D. N.; Robinson, D. A.

2008-12-01

77

Unsuspected dengue and acute febrile illness in rural and semi-urban southern Sri Lanka.  

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Dengue virus (DENV), a globally emerging cause of undifferentiated fever, has been documented in the heavily urbanized western coast of Sri Lanka since the 1960s. New areas of Sri Lanka are now being affected, and the reported number and severity of cases have increased. To study emerging DENV in southern Sri Lanka, we obtained epidemiologic and clinical data and acute- and convalescent-phase serum samples from patients >2 years old with febrile illness. We tested paired serum samples for DENV IgG and IgM and serotyped virus by using isolation and reverse transcription PCR. We identified acute DENV infection (serotypes 2, 3, and 4) in 54 (6.3%) of 859 patients. Only 14% of patients had clinically suspected dengue; however, 54% had serologically confirmed acute or past DENV infection. DENV is a major and largely unrecognized cause of fever in southern Sri Lanka, especially in young adults. PMID:22304972

Reller, Megan E; Bodinayake, Champika; Nagahawatte, Ajith; Devasiri, Vasantha; Kodikara-Arachichi, Wasantha; Strouse, John J; Broadwater, Anne; Østbye, Truls; de Silva, Aravinda; Woods, Christopher W

2012-02-01

78

Library and Information Science Education in South Asia: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews formal postgraduate-level library and information science programs offered by universities, documentation centers, and research institutions in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. Highlights include historical background; admission requirements; length of program; curricula; faculty; course content; research; administrative…

Mangla, P. B.

1994-01-01

79

The Solar Orientation of the Lion Rock Complex in Sri Lanka  

CERN Document Server

This paper discusses the solar orientation of the archaeological complex of Sigiriya, the Lion Rock, in Sri Lanka. We can see that the axis of this complex is oriented with the sunset of the zenithal sun.

Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

2013-01-01

80

Distribution of Lutra lutra in the Highlands of Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The only otter found in Sri Lanka is Lutra lutra. A survey was carried out in 1989/1990 in the highland region of the island, an area drained by four river systems. Abundant signs of otters were found. Freshwater crabs form the main part of the otters' diet in the study area, where few fish are found. Although at present, otters are plentiful, partly because access to tea plantations is limited, reducing pressure on otters living on them, this may not continue as vegetable farming increases, bringing pesticide and fertiliser washoff and soil erosion. Mining is also causing increased water turbidity, and fish farming is leading to otters being destroyed. Peak Wilderness Sanctuary and the Horton Plains National Park help to protect otters and other wildlife, but conservation measures need to be put in place now to protect otters against theses growing threats.

Silva P. K. de

1991-02-01

 
 
 
 
81

Mobile phone-based infectious disease surveillance system, Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because many infectious diseases are emerging in animals in low-income and middle-income countries, surveillance of animal health in these areas may be needed for forecasting disease risks to humans. We present an overview of a mobile phone-based frontline surveillance system developed and implemented in Sri Lanka. Field veterinarians reported animal health information by using mobile phones. Submissions increased steadily over 9 months, with ?4,000 interactions between field veterinarians and reports on the animal population received by the system. Development of human resources and increased communication between local stakeholders (groups and persons whose actions are affected by emerging infectious diseases and animal health) were instrumental for successful implementation. The primary lesson learned was that mobile phone-based surveillance of animal populations is acceptable and feasible in lower-resource settings. However, any system implementation plan must consider the time needed to garner support for novel surveillance methods among users and stakeholders. PMID:20875276

Robertson, Colin; Sawford, Kate; Daniel, Samson L A; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Stephen, Craig

2010-10-01

82

Post-Tsunami Reconstruction in Sri Lanka: Houses or Housing?  

Science.gov (United States)

Reconstruction can be an opportunity to address longer-term livelihood vulnerability within poor communities and households, and to empower the most vulnerable. The post-tsunami reconstruction efforts in Sri Lanka can be seen on two disconnected scales. On a local scale there seems to be a growing recognition by district-level government and NGOs on the importance of households in creating social, human and financial capital, as demonstrated by many programs targeted at rebuilding livelihoods and income-generating activities. On a national scale, however, programs have revealed an emphasis on houses as the physical capital rather than housing as the arena of social and economic life. The aim of national-scale programs is to deliver tangible and quantifiable products, in the form of houses built, often without regard of whether this complements or disrupts livelihoods. One example of such a directive is the implementation of a coastal buffer zone which will ban any new construction within a 100 to 200 meter band from the ocean and allowing only structures that sustained less than 40 percent damage to remain and rebuild. In general these kind of surviving structures along the coast are businesses such as hotels and restaurants. In an island nation such as Sri Lanka, where beach front property is by and large considered low-income housing, typically inhabited by fishermen who rely on the ocean for their livelihoods, the buffer zone constitutes a drastic oversight of local processes shaping these households. The product-oriented solution on the national scale has resulted in building permanent houses for fishery communities in resettlement sites kilometers away from the ocean. The focus of this presentation will be on reconciling the need for immediate shelter needs with a long-term perspective of livelihood rehabilitation using Sri Lanka as a case study. Houses themselves are often not an immediate priority for local people, whose first need is likely to resume income-generating activities. In normal times, building houses is seen as a multi-stage process often fitted around the local economic calendar: annual farming or fishing cycles for example. Disaster victims may choose to stay in makeshift shelters in the short term, hoping to have more time, money or materials for rebuilding later. A major challenge for the tsunami-stricken areas in Sri Lanka is to find ways of widening public participation in what to date has been a governmental framework that operates on two disconnected scales in its reconstruction efforts. There is a general absence of mechanisms for incorporating community participation into the governmental decision-making process. Local governments might have also been expected to play a larger role in recovery decision making, but frequently lack both the resources and the authority to become actively involved. Lack of participation in the construction process, has led on an over-reliance on outsiders, reinforcing an attitude of raised expectations.

Khazai, B.; Franco, G.; Ingram, J. C.; Rumbaitis del Rio, C.

2005-12-01

83

Coral poaching worsens tsunami destruction in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

Observations of the trail of destruction of the Sumatra tsunami of 26 December 2004 indicate remarkable, small-scale spatial variations, of the order of a few kilometers, of water inundation and destruction in southwestern Sri Lanka [Shiermeier, 2005; Liu et al., 2005] that are much smaller than the tsunami wavelength of ˜100 km.For example, the town of Peraliya, was awash with an approximately 1.5-km water inundation from a wave of 10 m in height; the inundation there carried the passenger train Samudra Devi (the “Ocean Queen”) inland some 50 m, killing 1700 people. Yet,˜3 km south, in Hikkaduwa, there was a mere 2-3 m wave height, 50-m inundation and no deaths.

Fernando, H. J. S.; McCulley, J. L.; Mendis, S. G.; Perera, K.

84

Indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka: production systems and genetic diversity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Production status, farming systems and genetic diversity of indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka were evaluated using six geographically distinct populations. The indigenous cattle population of the country is considered as a nondescript mixture of genotypes, and represents more than half of the total cattle population of 1.2 million heads. Five distinct indigenous populations were investigated for morphological analysis, and four were included in evaluating genetic differences. Farming systems were analysed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. The genetic variation was assessed within and between populations using 15 autosomal and two Y-specific microsatellite markers, and compared with two indigenous populations from the African region. Farming system analysis revealed that indigenous cattle rearing was based on traditional mixed-crop integration practices and operates under limited or no input basis. The contribution of indigenous cattle to total tangible income ranged from zero to 90% reflecting the high variation in the purpose of keeping. Morphometric measurements explained specific phenotypic characteristics arising from geographical isolation and selective breeding. Though varying according to the region, the compact body, narrow face, small horns and humps with shades of brown and black coat colour described the indigenous cattle phenotype in general. Genetic analysis indicated that indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka have high diversity with average number of ave high diversity with average number of alleles per locus ranging from 7.9 to 8.5. Average heterozygosity of different regions varied within a narrow range (0.72 ± 0.04 to 0.76 ± 0.03). Genetic distances between regions were low (0.085 and 0.066) suggesting a similar mixture of genotypes across regions. Y-specific analysis indicated a possible introgression of Taurine cattle in one of the cattle populations. (author)

85

Models for short term malaria prediction in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria in Sri Lanka is unstable and fluctuates in intensity both spatially and temporally. Although the case counts are dwindling at present, given the past history of resurgence of outbreaks despite effective control measures, the control programmes have to stay prepared. The availability of long time series of monitored/diagnosed malaria cases allows for the study of forecasting models, with an aim to developing a forecasting system which could assist in the efficient allocation of resources for malaria control. Methods Exponentially weighted moving average models, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models with seasonal components, and seasonal multiplicative autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA models were compared on monthly time series of district malaria cases for their ability to predict the number of malaria cases one to four months ahead. The addition of covariates such as the number of malaria cases in neighbouring districts or rainfall were assessed for their ability to improve prediction of selected (seasonal ARIMA models. Results The best model for forecasting and the forecasting error varied strongly among the districts. The addition of rainfall as a covariate improved prediction of selected (seasonal ARIMA models modestly in some districts but worsened prediction in other districts. Improvement by adding rainfall was more frequent at larger forecasting horizons. Conclusion Heterogeneity of patterns of malaria in Sri Lanka requires regionally specific prediction models. Prediction error was large at a minimum of 22% (for one of the districts for one month ahead predictions. The modest improvement made in short term prediction by adding rainfall as a covariate to these prediction models may not be sufficient to merit investing in a forecasting system for which rainfall data are routinely processed.

Galappaththy Gawrie NL

2008-05-01

86

Fossilized diatoms in meteorites from recent falls in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

On December 29, 2012, a bright yellow and green fireball was observed to disintegrate over the Polonnaruwa District of North Central, Sri Lanka. Many low density, black stones were recovered soon after the observed fall from rice paddy fields near the villages of Aralaganwila and Dimbulagala. These stones were initially studied by optical microscopy methods at the Medical Research Institute in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Soon thereafter, samples were sent to the UK and to the United States. More extensive Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy studies were then carried out at Cardiff University and the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center. The physico-chemical properties, elemental abundances, mineralogy and stable isotope data clearly indicate that these stones are non-terrestrial. Freshly fractured interior surfaces of the black stones have also been observed to contain the remains of fossilized diatom. Many of the diatom frustules are clearly embedded in the meteorite rock matrix and exhibit nitrogen levels below the EDX detection limits. Some of the fossil diatoms are araphid marine pennates and planktonic forms that are inconsistent with conditions associated with rice paddy fields. These observations indicate the fossilized diatoms are indigenous to the meteorites rather than post-arrival biological contaminants. The carbon content and mineralogy suggests that these stones may represent a previously ungrouped clan of carbonaceous meteorites. The extremely low density (~0.6) of the stones and their observed mineralogy was inconsistent with known terrestrial rocks (e.g., pumice, diatomite and fulgurites). The minerals detected suggest that the parent body of the Polonnaruwa stones may have been the nucleus of a comet. These observations are interpreted as supporting the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe Panspermia hypothesis and the hypothesis that diatoms and other microorganisms might be capable of living and growing in water ice and brines in comets.

Hoover, Richard B.; Wallis, Jamie; Wickramarathne, Keerthi; Samaranayake, Anil; Williams, George; Jerman, Gregory; Wallis, D. H.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.

2013-09-01

87

Supporting elephant conservation in Sri Lanka through MODIS imagery  

Science.gov (United States)

The latest national elephant survey of Sri Lanka (2011) revealed Sri Lanka has 5,879 elephants. The total forest cover for these elephants is about 19,500 sq km (2012 estimation) and estimated forest area is about 30% of the country when smaller green patches are also counted. However, studies have pointed out that a herd of elephants need about a 100 sq km of forest patch to survive. With a high human population density (332 people per sq km, 2010), the pressure for land to feed people and elephants is becoming critical. Resent reports have indicated about 250 elephants are killed annually by farmers and dozens of people are also killed by elephants. Under this context, researchers are investigating various methods to assess the elephant movements to address the issues of Human-Elephant-Conflict (HEC). Apart from various local remedies for the issue, the conservation of elephant population can be supported by satellite imagery based studies. MODIS sensor imagery can be considered as a successful candidate here. Its spatial resolution is low (250m x 250m) but automatically filters out small forest patches in the mapping process. The daily imagery helps to monitor temporal forest cover changes. This study investigated the background information of HEC and used MODIS 250m imagery to suggest applicability of satellite data for Elephant conservations efforts. The elephant movement information was gathered from local authorities and potentials to identify bio-corridors were discussed. Under future research steps, regular forest cover monitoring through MODIS data was emphasized as a valuable tool in elephant conservations efforts.

Perera, Kithsiri; Tateishi, Ryutaro

2012-10-01

88

X-ray fluorescence in IAEA Member States: Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An ED-XRF facility was established in the analytical laboratory of the Atomic Energy Authority of Sri Lanka in 2001 under the technical assistance received through a IAEA TC project. The facility comprises of a X ray tube (Rich - Seifert), a sample holder with secondary target assembly and a Si (Li) detector. The laboratory has also got the necessary facilities to analyze water samples by co-precipitating technique using APDC. Our XRF laboratory has already established analytical procedures to use emission transmission methods (AXIl-QAES, P. Kump), back-scatter fundamental parameter method (QXAS-BFP), APDC co-precipitation method and thin and thick sample analysis method. Selected activities carried out by the XRF Laboratory are: Research study on heavy metal concentration levels in crow feathers collected from different environments and in industrial effluents released to a main water body (i.e the Kelani River); Research study on hyper accumulating capacity of flora in Ussangoda area (Serpentine mineral deposited area); Study on the possibility of removing heavy metals in liquid waste by bricks (low cost waste water treatment method); Study on heavy metal contamination in soil collected from Tsunami affected areas; Elemental analysis of air particulate matter to identify pollutants and pollution sources; Provision of analytical services to archaeological studies; Alloy analysis for technical evaluations. In Sri Lanka, there is a rising demand for this analytical service as it can provide the customer relatively fast and reliable results at low cost. AEA has decided to upgrade the existing facility to TXRF through the IAEA technical assistance to meet the demand for the services to analyse water and other liquid samples. In addition, Quality Assurance and Quality control procedures have been implemented for validation of analytical methods and check of accuracy of analytical results obtained

89

Influencing factors leading to adolescent pregnancy in tea estates in Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

PROBLEM: Adolescent pregnancies are an emerging problem in Sri Lanka and particular among Indian Tamil adolescents (10-19 years) from the tea estates. The risks and consequences for health and socio-economical risks for mother and child such as increased risk for maternal and infant mortality are unacceptable large. THE RESEARCH QUESTION FOR THIS THESIS: what are the influencing factors for adolescents (10-19 years) in Sri Lanka, particularly in tea estates, that lead to pregnancy and STI inc...

Wisse, P.

2008-01-01

90

Spatiotemporal Hydrological Modelling with GIS for the Upper Mahaweli Catchment, Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sustainability of water resources is imperative for the continued prosperity of Sri Lanka where the economy is dependent upon agriculture. The Mahaweli river is the longest in Sri Lanka, with the upper catchment covering an area of 3124 sq .km .. The Mahaweli Development programme, a major undertaking in the upper catchment has been implemented with the aims of providing Mahaweli water to the dry zone of the country through a massive diversion scheme and also for generating hyd...

Premalal Silva, Ranjith

1997-01-01

91

Cnemaspis rammalensis sp. nov., Sri Lanka's largest day-gecko (Sauria: Gekkonidae: Cnemaspis) from Rammalakanda Man and Biosphere Reserve in southern Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new species of rock dwelling gecko belonging to the genus Cnemaspis is described from Sri Lanka based on a suite of morphological features. The species is the largest of its genus described from Sri Lanka so far (snout-vent length 52-54 mm) and is the second largest of the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka Biodiversity Hotspot. It may be diagnosed in details of both scalation (ventrals186-207; mid-subcaudals large; absence of precloacal pores; 15 femoral pores on each side; 22-23 and 23-25 subdigital lamellae on finger IV and on toe IV, respectively; smooth scales on tail dorsum) and colouration (five prominent trilobate shaped cream markings pointing towards head and extending from neck to vent).The species is found in a unique habitat in the Rammalakanda Forest, where it is threatened by deforestation. PMID:24869821

Vidanapathirana, Dulan Ranga; Rajeev, M D Gehan; Wickramasinghe, Nethu; Fernando, Samantha Suranjan; Wickramasinghe, L J Mendis

2014-01-01

92

Neurological manifestations of snake bite in Sri Lanka.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Snake bite is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in certain parts of Sri Lanka. This study was designed to determine the offending snakes, neurological manifestations, disease course, and outcome in neurotoxic envenomation. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Fifty six consecutive patients admitted with neurological manifestations following snake bite were studied prospectively. Data were obtained regarding the offending snakes, neurological symptoms, time taken for onset of symptoms, neurological signs, and time taken for recovery. RESULTS: The offending snake was Russell?s viper in 27(48.2%, common and Sri Lankan krait in 19(33.9%, cobra in 3(5.4%, and unidentified in 7(12.5%. Ptosis was the commonest neurological manifestation seen in 48(85.7% followed by ophthalmoplegia (75%, limb weakness (26.8%, respiratory failure (17.9%, palatal weakness (10.7%, neck muscle weakness (7.1%, and delayed sensory neuropathy (1.8%. Neurological symptoms were experienced usually within 6 hours after the bite. Following administration of antivenom, the signs of recovery became evident within a few hours to several days. The duration for complete recovery ranged from four hours to two weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Complete recovery of neuromuscular weakness was observed in all patients except for one who died with intracerebral haemorrhage shortly after admission.

Seneviratne U

2002-10-01

93

Women's labor in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka: the trade-off with technology.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article assesses the impact of technological changes on women's employment in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. The findings of the research initiated by UN University Institute for New Technologies were used to determine how globalization and technological change alter women's role in the society and the economy in two comparable yet contrasting economies. In Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, the manufacturing and service sectors have grown as a result of the globalization strategies of the two governments. The use of new technologies in work processes has been a function of the countries' participation in global trade, and high levels of foreign direct investment have been the source of much job creation. In both countries, a large proportion of the new industrial workforce consists of women. However, while creating new employment opportunities and improving pay and conditions for some women, jobs tend to be based on flexible, short-term forms of employment with serious health and safety risks. Furthermore, technological advancement like automation increases the number of unemployed "unskilled" workers. Lastly, these two countries seem unaware of the implications of new technology, which makes them vulnerable and weak participants in the global market. Therefore, awareness can be enhanced by a greater exposure to technology through work experience and good quality training. PMID:12179942

Ponniah, G; Reardon, G

1999-01-01

94

Present status of nuclear science education and training in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Like others Sri Lankans too have fear of nuclear radiation, probably because of the weak system of proper radiation education. Some National Institutes and few Universities are involved in nuclear science teaching and research. There are two major levels of obtaining radiation or nuclear education and training in Sri Lanka : the University and training courses in nuclear related technology and radiation protection offered by the Atomic Energy Authority of the Ministry of Science and Technology. This paper summarizes the status, some of the activities and problems of radiation education in Sri Lanka. (author)

95

Indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka: Production systems and genetic diversity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The production status, farming systems and genetic diversity of indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka were evaluated using six geographically distinct populations in Sri Lanka, which is a small island located below the southern tip of Indian subcontinent. The indigenous cattle population of the country is considered as a non-descript type mixture of genotypes, and represent more than the half of total cattle population of 1.2 million heads. Six distinct indigenous populations (NE, NC, So, No, TK and Th) were investigated for morphological and genetic differences. The respective farming systems were also evaluated to complete the requirement in developing conservation and utilization strategies. The sampling was carried out based on the non-existence of artificial insemination facilities to assure the target populations are indigenous. The six populations were assumed genetically isolated from each other in the absence of nomadic pattern of rearing and regular cattle migration. The farming systems were analyzed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire by single visits to each location. Single visits were practiced, as there is no variation in farming system according to the period of the year. Morphometric measurements were taken during the visit and the genetic variation was assessed within and between five populations using 15 autosomal and two Y-specific microsatellite markers. The farming system analysis revealed that indigenous cattle are reared as a traditt indigenous cattle are reared as a traditional practice in all the regions of the country under limited or no input situations. Since the low productivity masks its real contribution to the rural livelihood, the level of utilization was confounded within the attributes of respective farming systems. The contribution of indigenous cattle to total tangible income ranged from 0% to 90% in different regions reflecting the high variation in the purpose of keeping indigenous cattle. Integration with crop, especially with paddy was the common feature in systems across the regions. Morphometric measurements identified the specific phenotypic characteristics resulted by geographical isolation and selective breeding. Though vary according to the regional preferences, the compact body, narrow face, small horns and humps with shades of brown and black coat colour described the indigenous cattle phenotype in general. The diversity analysis based on microsatellite genotyping indicated that indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka has a high genetic diversity with average number of alleles per locus ranging from 7.9 to 8.5. Average heterozygosity of different regions varied within a narrow range (0.72 ± 0.04 to 0.76 ± 0.03). The genetic distances (DA) between regions were low (ranged between 0.085 and 0.066) suggesting a similar mixture of genotypes across regions despite the geographical isolation. However, two genetic clusters were visible though no relationship of those clusters with the geographical distribution of different regions could be observed. Introgression of taurine cattle was evidenced in one of the cattle populations (NC) as suggested by the Y-specific microsatellite analysis (author)

96

Anaemia among Female Undergraduates Residing in the Hostels of University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaemia is a major public health problem that has affected around 25% of the world's population. An analytical cross-sectional study was performed on 313 female undergraduates residing in hostels of University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka, during year 2011. Objective of this study was to determine prevalence and contributing factors to anaemia among the study population. Haemoglobin concentration was assayed using cyanomethaemoglobin method. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used to retrieve information regarding dietary habits and personal factors of participants. Descriptive statistical methods, chi-square test, and independent sample t-test were used to analyze data. Of the 302 females, 17.5% (n = 53) had mild anaemia and 7.9% (n = 24) had moderate anaemia. Severely anaemic individuals were not observed. Participants' dietary habits and personal factors were not significantly associated with prevalence of anaemia (whether a participant is a vegetarian or not (P = 0.525), drinking tea within one hour of a meal (P = 0.775), frequency of consumption of red meat, fish, and eggs (P = 0.499), antihelminthic treatment within past year (P = 0.792), and menorrhagia (P = 0.560)). Anaemia in the study population is below the average for Sri Lankan data. Diet and selected medical conditions were not a causative factor for anaemia in this population.

Balasuriya, Thushara

2014-01-01

97

Five Years On: Tsunami Risk Mitigation and Disaster Management Initiatives in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

The Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004 caused unprecedented loss of lives and damage to property in Sri Lanka with over 35,000 killed, 20,000 injured and about 100,000 dwellings and other buildings destroyed or damaged. This catastrophic event also exposed lack of disaster preparedness at the time in Sri Lanka and underscored the need for pro-active disaster planning and risk mitigation. Given the apparently low probability of recurrence of destructive ocean-wide tsunami similar to that in 2004, Sri Lanka preferred an integrated approach to tsunami risk mitigation consisting primarily of non-structural measures, namely, public education and awareness; early warning and evacuation; hazard and risk mapping; and necessary institutional and legislative initiatives. The Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System currently under development, though by no means foolproof, will help improve Sri Lanka’s tsunami early warning capability and reliability. Yet, the more difficult and challenging task will be the dissemination of such tsunami warnings fast and effectively to the vulnerable communities so as to enable their evacuation to safe locations. The Disaster Management Centre of the Government of Sri Lanka has been coordinating all activities related to disaster risk mitigation in the country. Their efforts have indeed been commendable, particularly in setting up of institutional mechanisms to better coordinate risk mitigation activities and in strengthening, streamlining and directing the capabilities and resources of relevant governmental and non-governmental organizations towards a common goal of disaster risk reduction through a multi-hazard approach. The university system in Sri Lanka also has made many contributions towards disaster mitigation through capacity building initiatives, hazard mapping and research. On the whole, Sri Lanka has taken significant steps towards disaster risk reduction since the tsunami devastation in 2004. The country now has a sound disaster risk management institutional framework underpinned by necessary legislative provisions. A comprehensive and holistic strategy has been formulated to unify, prioritize and coordinate the disaster risk management activities that have been planned to be implemented in the next 5-10 years towards building a safer Sri Lanka. As a result, we in Sri Lanka are expected to face disasters better than what we were five years back, yet there is a long way to go to make ourselves disaster resilient.

Jayasekera Wijetunge, J.

2009-12-01

98

Adolescents perception of reproductive health care services in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent health needs, behaviours and expectations are unique and routine health care services are not well geared to provide these services. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived reproductive health problems, health seeking behaviors, knowledge about available services and barriers to reach services among a group of adolescents in Sri Lanka in order to improve reproductive health service delivery. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in a semi urban setting in Sri Lanka. A convenient sample of 32 adolescents between 17–19 years of age participated in four focus group discussions. Participants were selected from four midwife areas. A pre-tested focus group guide was used for data collection. Male and female facilitators conducted discussions separately with young males and females. All tape-recorded data was fully transcribed and thematic analysis was done. Results Psychological distresses due to various reasons and problems regarding menstrual cycle and masturbation were reported as the commonest health problems. Knowledge on existing services was very poor and boys were totally unaware of youth health services available through the public health system. On reproductive Health Matters, girls mainly sought help from friends whereas boys did not want to discuss their problems with anyone. Lack of availability of services was pointed out as the most important barrier in reaching the adolescent needs. Lack of access to reproductive health knowledge was an important reason for poor self-confidence among adolescents to discuss these matters. Lack of confidentiality, youth friendliness and accessibility of available services were other barriers discussed. Adolescents were happy to accept available services through public clinics and other health infrastructure for their services rather than other organizations. A demand was made for separate youth friendly services through medical practitioners. Conclusions and recommendations Adolescent health services are inadequate and available services are not being delivered in an acceptable manner. Proper training of health care providers on youth friendly service provision is essential. A National level integrated health care program is needed for the adolescents.

Agampodi Thilini C

2008-05-01

99

Parasitic infections in freshwater ornamental fish in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 1520 ornamental fish of 13 species from 26 export farms in Sri Lanka were collected between October 1999 and March 2000 and examined for parasites. Fish species examined were guppy Poecilia reticulata, goldfish Carassius auratus, platy Xiphophorus maculatus, molly Poecilia sphenops, angel Pterophyllum scalare, swordtail Xiphophorus helleri, tetras Hyphessobrycon species, barbs Capeota and Puntius spp., gourami Colisa sp., carp Cyprinus carpio, fighters Betta spelendens and others (Brachydanio and Astronotus spp.). Nine species of monogenean trematodes (Dactylogyrus extensus, Dactylogyrus cf. extensus, D. vastator, Dactylogyrus cf. vastator Dactylogyrus spp., Gyrodactylus turnbulli, G. katherineri, Gyrodactylus cf. katherineri, Gyrodactylus spp.), 7 protozoan species (Trichodina nigra, Trichodina spp., Tetrahymena corlissi, T. pyriformis, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Ichthyobodo necator, Piscinoodinium spp.), 3 species of copepod arthropods (Lernaea cyprinacea, Ergasilus ceylonensis, Argulus foliaceus), 1 metacercarial stage of a digenean trematode (Centrocestus spp.) and 1 nematode (Capillaria spp.) were identified. Parasites were found in fish from 23 of the 26 farms with an overall prevalence of parasitism in 45.3% of fish. The variation in farm prevalence among different parasites was significant (p Argulus foliaceus and Lernaea cyprinacea, compared with 7/1476 and 15/1476, respectively, for all other species combined (p < 0.01). Capillaria spp. was found only in guppies (4/590) and angel fish (3/92) while Centrocestus spp. was found in goldfish (12/153) only. PMID:12747641

Thilakaratne, I D S I P; Rajapaksha, G; Hewakopara, A; Rajapakse, R P V J; Faizal, A C M

2003-03-31

100

Climatic change in Asia: Sri Lanka country report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report focuses on the impacts of climate change on water resources, agriculture and the coastal zone and investigates measures to reduce greenhouse gases through changes in future energy investments. Climate change scenarios indicate significant changes in temperature and rainfall in Sri Lanka in the year 2070. The study shows the most adverse impacts of climate change will be caused by sea level rise and the increased frequency of extreme rainfall and storms causing beach erosion, damage to coastal eco-systems such as mangroves and salinity intrusion and affecting the tourist and fisheries industries. Impacts on agriculture and on water resources will be adverse, but need further study of these and also of the severity of climate change. A `no regrets` policy for climate change mitigation is advocated, promoting energy efficiency and energy markets, preventing deforestation, enhancing the ability of eco-systems to respond to sea level rise and enabling the inhabitants to respond to climate change. Greater reliance on industrialization to reduce the dependence on agriculture is included in the national response strategy. Regional cooperation, for example to research the sea level rise problem and cope with natural disasters, is necessary. 122 refs., 23 figs., 103 tabs.

NONE

1994-07-01

 
 
 
 
101

Sri Lanka : de la lutte contre le terrorisme à la catastrophe humanitaire  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La volonté du gouvernement sri lankais d’en finir militairement avec le LTTE a abouti à une catastrophe humanitaire. L’armée et les Tigres se rendent coupables de crime de guerre et de crime contre l’humanité à l’encontre des civils tamouls, qui sont piégés dans la zone de combat ou enfermés dans des camps de détention. La perception différenciée de l’opération militaire selon les communautés nécessiterait la création d’un Tribunal Pénal International pour Sri Lanka.The will of Sri Lankan government to finish militarily with LTTE has ended with an humanitarian catastrophe. Both the Sri Lankan Army and the Tigers are guilty of international war and humanitarian crimes against Tamil civilians, who are trapped in the war zone or locked in detention camps. The different perceptions of the military operation according to the communities should need the creation of an International Penal Court for Sri Lanka

Delon Madavan

2009-04-01

102

Geophysical Investigation of Lithosphere Structure Beneath Sri Lanka Using Surface and Internal Load Variations  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a method for interpreting the lateral changes in the geological structure of the lithosphere by iteratively calculating the spatial variation of a bottom-to-top loading ratio. We use Forsyth's coherence method, based on multi-taper spectral analysis on overlapping window areas. We discuss the geological findings and their comparison with existing geological interpretations for the Sri Lankan region. The low thickness of the elastic plate in the Sri Lankan region suggests a high geothermal gradient. The lithospheric geological structure beneath the Sri Lankan region is consistent with the main crustal units of Sri Lanka, which belong to different ancient plates. Together with interpretations based on metamorphic rock units, our findings support the existence of thrust contact in the central highlands of Sri Lanka.

Prasanna, H. M. I.; Chen, W.; Gómez-Ortiz, D.

2014-08-01

103

The use and abuse of female domestic workers from Sri Lanka in Lebanon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Women who migrate from Sri Lanka to become domestic workers in Lebanon face gender, class, and race discrimination that often results in abuse, yet the predicament of these women is largely ignored by local and international humanitarian and human rights agencies. Public consciousness about the plight of Asian domestic workers in the Persian Gulf region was raised in 1990 when domestic workers were repatriated in the wake of the Gulf War. In Lebanon, nearly half of the work permits granted to foreigners in 1997 were to women from Sri Lanka. This migration began in the 1970s and is sanctioned by the Sri Lanka government because of the economic benefits accruing from wages sent home by these women. Lebanese families procure domestic positions through an employment agency that arranges transportation and entry for the Sri Lankan women. These women, especially minors, often have to bribe Sri Lankan government agents to falsify travel documents. Upon arrival in Lebanon, the women have no support systems or job security. Most employment contracts last 3 years and pay $100/month with no benefits or protection from local labor laws. Domestic workers are made vulnerable by employers who withhold salaries or travel documents. Upon return to Sri Lanka, former domestic workers face social disapproval and marital problems. To redress this situation, the governments of sending and receiving countries must take action to protect female migrant workers, and nongovernmental organizations must publicize the plight of these women and take action to address the abuses they face. PMID:12321536

Abu-habib, L

1998-03-01

104

Motivations and Usage Patterns of Social Networking Sites: Exploring Cultural Differences Between United States & Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Cybernetics has experienced a major breakthrough and led to the utilization of computers at nearly all parts of daily life including social networking. Even though Social Networking Sites (SNS is a global phenomenon, it is constrained by local conditions such as culture. Thus, the purpose of the study is to incorporate cultural dimensions to the motivations and usage patterns of the SNS considering SNS as a collection of features. Present study replicates a study made in the United States in Sri Lanka, and identified differences, trace them to cultural reasons. Findings revealed that while patterns of SNS usage do not differ across cultures, some of the motivations behind them do differ. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings, possible cultural reasons for differences and directions for further research are discussed.

T. R. Wijesundara

2014-09-01

105

Telehealth - bringing healthcare to one's doorstep: how ready is Sri Lanka?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Provision of healthcare at a distance is not a new concept. However, with the advancement of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT, the term ‘Telehealth’ has been cited frequently in the health/medical literature. Similar terms such as ‘Online Health’, ‘eHealth’ and Telemedicine’ are also begining to appear. The purpose of this article is to provide readers with an understanding of telehealth with special reference to Sri Lanka. First, different terms and definitions related to telehealth will be reviewed. Then, the history of telehealth and evolutionary milestones of telecommunication activities will be examined. Next, telecommunication activities in Sri Lanka and its trend will be explored. Later, telehealth effectiveness will be examined briefly. Finally, a brief overview of telehealth activities related to Sri Lanka will be presented before suggesting a way forward.

Rohana Basil Marasinghe

2010-07-01

106

Policies and Effectiveness of Foreign Aid: The Case of Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available This empirical study investigates foreign aid’s effectiveness in stimulating growth by considering economic policies and the factors that influenced aid flow in Sri Lanka during the period of 1980-2008. For both analyses, a single-equation instrumental variable estimation method is employed. The results derived from this study suggest that aid is positively associated with growth in a good policy environment in Sri Lanka. Regarding determinants, in terms of trade openness and budget deficits the results suggest that aid was transferred into Sri Lanka under a conditional policy environment. Inflation is positively associated with aid flow. Unrest in the country and per capita growth negatively influenced aid, whereas commercial interests, natural disasters, political stability, and poverty are positively associated with aid inflow.

T. Bhavan

2013-03-01

107

USE OF AND ATTITUDES TOWARD TOBACCO AND ALCOHOL AMONG ADULTS IN SOUTHERN SRI LANKA  

Science.gov (United States)

The adverse health effects of tobacco and alcohol are well known. Alcohol consumption is increasing in Sri Lanka, but few population studies have been conducted. The objective of this study was to document tobacco and alcohol consumption levels among adults in southern Sri Lanka and to identify the main reasons for using or refraining from alcohol and tobacco products. Tobacco and alcohol use within Sri Lanka is relatively common, particularly among adult males. Reasons given for smoking and drinking frequently relate to social and image-based motivators. Women may be especially susceptible to the influence of peer pressure in social situations. Public health efforts should consider the use of demographic-specific anti-tobacco and anti-alcohol messages, as the motivators driving behavior appear to differ across gender and age groups. PMID:24437324

Lombardo, Sarah; Perera, Bilesha; Beaudry, Lauren; Grad, Jennifer; Maselko, Joanna; ?stbye, Truls

2014-01-01

108

The Energy Forum of Sri Lanka: Working toward appropriate expertise  

Science.gov (United States)

Taking my cue from the knowledge base and practices comprising appropriate technology development, and building on politics of expertise scholarship, this dissertation develops the concept of appropriate expertise: the combination of social and technical competences required to address marginalization through technological interventions. The dissertation asks what appropriate expertise looks like "on the ground" in the context of development as practiced by an exceptional group of technology designers from the Energy Forum of Sri Lanka: What design goals did they strive toward? What challenges did they face? What strategies did they employ? In an effort to answer these questions, the dissertation looks at how these designers interacted across a range of contexts with a broad spectrum of people and institutions, each with its own expertise to draw upon. In particular, it looks at how they situated their work in a highly contoured field of social power, where different types of expertise were used as resources for reinforcing or resisting existing power relations. I use the concept relations of expertise to denote the structure of expert interactions across multiple contexts of activity. Although this concept links to broad political-economic conditions that order varied expert practices, my analytic focus is at a different level: the situated experiences of expert practitioners. By starting with ground-level practices and understandings, I argue that creating new relations of expertise---that is, changing the nature of the interactions among experts and between experts and those they work with---is the key way my informants worked to legitimate marginalized perspectives and thereby empower marginalized social groups around technology-development practices. Appropriate expertise enables the creation of appropriate technologies, but it does more. It enables the creation of new relations of expertise, both through inspiring new forms of interpersonal interaction surrounding technology development and through incremental modification of existing decision-making structures to allow a more diverse group stakeholders to come together around technology decision making in the context of development.

Nieusma, Dean

109

Preliminary report on safety aspects on nuclear power generation in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document is intended as background information on nuclear energy to contribute to Sri Lanka's comparative study of alternative sources of energy. This study has considered the safety and environmental effects of nuclear power reactors. Basic concepts of nuclear physics are introduced and providing and appreciation of safety considerations and safety aspects of nuclear power plants and the personnel. Radioactive waste management, storage and disposal are also discussed. Natural radiation levels in Sri Lanka are provided as well as information on biological effects of radiation especially occupational exposure licensing procedures for nuclear power plants are outlined strategy for public awareness of nuclear power is proposed

110

Motivations for Alcohol Use among Men Aged 16-30 Years in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Psychometric properties of a new scale that measures motivations towards alcohol use were examined using a sample of 412 male alcohol users in Sri Lanka aged 16-30 years. In addition, associations between drinking motives and drinking frequency were explored. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a 3-factor model consisting of the factors personal enjoyment, tension reduction, and social pressure fit the data well. Overall, tension-reduction motivation was found to be prominent in the context of young males’ drinking behavior in Sri Lanka. Associations between stress and alcohol use among young males warrant further investigations.

Mohammad Torabi

2009-09-01

111

Corporate Governance Practices and Capital Structure: A Case in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to find out the significant mean difference in the capital structure among thecorporate governance practices, and secondary objective of the study is to suggest the listed Manufacturingcompanies in the Sri Lankan context to adopt corporate governance practices towards the capital structure. Inthis view, Twenty eight manufacturing companies listed on Colombo Stock Exchange in Sri Lanka wereselected as sample size for the periods, 2009, 2010 and 2011. The one–way Anova (f-test and independentsample t-test were used to find out the out the significant difference in capital structure among corporategovernance practices. Findings revealed that, Corporate Governance Practices contributes significantly toCapital Structure. Board Committee in the Corporate Governance Practices contributes significantly to CapitalStructure. And also Capital Structure is not contributed significantly by Board composition, Board Size, BoardMeeting, and Leadership Structure in Corporate Governance Practices. Meantime, there is no significantdifference in the capital structure in terms of leverage among corporate governance practices of the listedmanufacturing companies in Sri Lanka. Due to that, further study should focus on the determinants of capitalstructure in the listed manufacturing companies to take cues in the financial leverage of the particular companies.Further, suggestion was made that corporate governance rules should be strictly mandated by the Securities andExchange Commission of Sri Lanka. In addition, political, economic, technological and social & cultural aspectsof the Sri Lanka should be considered in the policy framework of the corporate governance.

Sivapalan Achchuthan

2013-10-01

112

Practices, advice and support regarding prolonged breastfeeding : a descriptive study from Sri Lanka.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Practice and duration of breastfeeding were examined in relation to traditional practices and modern recommendations on infant care in Sri Lanka. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 60 Sri Lankan mothers whose youngest child was 0.5-4 years. The results show that all mothers had breastfed their infants. Most respondents introduced additional foods at 4 months, as recommended by local public health services. The median age at cessation of breastfeeding was 2.9 years, in line with p...

Den Berg, M.; Ball, H. L.

2008-01-01

113

Development of a Community Based Web-Mobile Platform (CBWMP) for diabetes care in Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diabetes is a chronic disease with no permanent cure. Sri Lanka is placed among the countries with the highest diabetes prevalence rates in the world (ie. 2.8 million Sri Lankans have diabetes or pre-diabetes, and most importantly, a significant proportions of the population is yet to be diagnosed). Patients with diabetes need lifelong care to prevent complications which further impose a significant burden on the country’s expenditure on healthcare. Moreover, patients need to maintain const...

Nishan Siriwardena; Sudarshana Wickramasinghe; Dussantha Perera; Rohana Marasinghe; Lanka Katulanda; Roshan Hewapathirana

2013-01-01

114

Air pollution and health in Sri Lanka: a review of epidemiologic studies  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Air pollution is increasingly documented as a threat to public health in most developing countries. Evaluation of current air quality levels, regulatory standards and scientific literature on outdoor and indoor air pollution, and health effects are important to identify the burden, develop and implement interventions and to fill knowledge gaps in Sri Lanka. Methods PUBMED and Medline databases, local journals and conference proceedings were searched for epidemiologic studies pertaining to air pollution and health effects in Sri Lanka. All the studies pertaining to air pollution and health effects were considered. Results Sixteen studies investigated the association between exposure to ambient or indoor air pollution (IAP and various health outcomes ranging from respiratory symptoms, low birth weight and lung cancers. Of the sixteen, three used a case control design. Half of the studies collected exposure data only through questionnaires. There were positive associations between air pollution and adverse health effects in all studies. Methodological limitations in most of the studies resulted in poor quantification of risk estimates. Conclusion A limited number of epidemiological studies in Sri Lanka have investigated the health effects of air pollution. Based on findings of studies and reported air quality levels, air pollution may be considered a neglected public health problem in Sri Lanka.

Sathiakumar Nalini

2010-06-01

115

An Analysis of the Competency-Based Secondary Mathematics Curriculum in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

In education, there is a growing interest in the concept of "competency" especially in vocational training and professional development. The concept is strongly associated with the ability to apply knowledge and skills in effective ways in unanticipated situations. In Sri Lanka, a new competency-based mathematics curriculum was…

Egodawatte, Gunawardena

2014-01-01

116

Maternal employment and income affect dietary calorie adequacy in households in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nutritional deficiencies among children and mothers in lower-income households in Sri Lanka continue to be a major obstacle to the country's social and economic development. This study investigates the factors affecting dietary caloric adequacy in Sri Lanka, paying special attention to maternal income. An econometric analysis was performed using a household data set collected from a sample of 183 low-income households in the urban, rural, and estate sectors. The results showed that on average, mothers and children in the sample did not consume adequate levels of calories according to the recommendations of the Medical Research Institute of Sri Lanka. The mother's income and educational status, the number of children and adults in the family, and the ages, sexes, and birth orders of the children significantly influenced household and individual caloric adequacy. Specifically, the mother's income had a significant positive effect on the total caloric intake (CI) and caloric adequacy ratio (CAR) of the household, mother, and children and a significant negative effect on the relative caloric allocation (RCA) of the children. The results imply that when maternal employment generates extra income, the CIs of all individuals increase, yet the allocation of calories to the children of the household is reduced. Thus, provision of employment opportunities for mothers, along with adequate child-care facilities and nutritional educational programs, is a possible strategy to improve caloric adequacy among low-income households in Sri Lanka. PMID:16060223

Rathnayake, Ishara M; Weerahewa, Jeevika

2005-06-01

117

Implementation of District Health Information Software 2 (DHIS2 in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available District Health Information Software (DHIS 2 is a tool for collection, validation, analysis, and presentation of aggregate and transactional data, tailored (but not limited to integrated health information management activities (http://www.dhis2.org. In this paper we describe the introduction of DHIS2 to Sri Lanka and share our views on challenges and opportunities.

Subodha Manoj

2013-06-01

118

Women and Management in Higher Education. CHESS Workshop (Colombo, Sri Lanka, January 5-11, 1997).  

Science.gov (United States)

The Commonwealth Higher Education Support Scheme (CHESS) 1997 Workshop was designed to promote the professional development of women in leadership positions in higher education. Participants were drawn from senior university academics and administrators from five countries: Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Specific objectives…

University Grants Commission (Sri Lanka).

119

Perceptions and understanding of climate change in Sri Lanka : a case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A citizen's organization in Sri Lanka is conducting a study on current perceptions and attitudes of climate change in a small village in southern Sri Lanka just 100 km north of the capital city of Colombo. The study involves 500 villagers, of which the majority are farmers. While not yet completed, several interesting facts are emerging from this study. The 65,610 sq. km island of Sri Lanka is divided into two distinct climate regions, the wet and dry zones. The mean temperature of the island ranges from 26 to 28 degrees C. Rainfall occurs during the southwest and northeast monsoons. The three main factors for climatic change in Sri Lanka are depressions in the Bay of Bengal, intermonsoonal rain, and deforestation. A total of 500 households were given a questionnaire which was divided into the following 4 sections: (1) socio-economic situation of the household, (2) impacts of climate change, (3) behavioural intentions for actions to reduce the advance impacts of climate change, and (4) ideas about public policies to address climate change. Group discussions were also held to allow villagers to express their voices and raise questions. The study indicates that the villagers have a comprehensive perception about climate change issues in their community (experience gained by flash floods), but have less knowledge about climate change issues in the country. Many villagers believe that political intervention is necessary for any effective climate policy to emerge.

Patabendi, P. [Team for Disaster Prevention and Sustainable Development, Kaduwela (Sri Lanka)

2000-06-01

120

Feasibility of an appliance energy testing and labeling program for Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A feasibility study evaluated the costs and benefits of establishing a program for testing, labeling and setting minimum efficiency standards for appliances and lighting in Sri Lanka. The feasibility study included: refrigerators, air-conditioners, flourescent lighting (ballasts & CFls), ceiling fans, motors, and televisions.

Biermayer, Peter; Busch, John; Hakim, Sajid; Turiel, Issac; du Pont, Peter; Stone, Chris

2000-04-01

 
 
 
 
121

Dengue Virus Transmission by Blood Stem Cell Donor after Travel to Sri Lanka; Germany, 2013  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Dengue Virus Transmission by Blood Stem Cell Donor after Travel to Sri Lanka; Germany, 2013.  Created: 9/22/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/8/2014.

2014-09-22

122

Deployable Laboratory Response to Emergence of Melioidosis in Central Sri Lanka ?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A portable molecular diagnostic laboratory was used to provide molecular confirmation of suspected melioidosis cases seen at Peradeniya Hospital, central Sri Lanka. Soil supernatants from rice field and rubber plantation samples also produced PCR-positive results. These procedures could be used for melioidosis field work in other remote locations.

Inglis, Timothy J. J.; Merritt, Adam; Montgomery, Joanne; Jayasinghe, Indika; Thevanesam, Vasanthi; Mcinnes, Russell

2008-01-01

123

Livestock farming in coconut plantations in Sri Lanka: Constraints and opportunities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A study was carried out to identify biological and socio-economic constraints and opportunities for livestock development in coconut plantations in Sri Lanka. One part of the study focussed on the use of participatory rural appraisal to establish felt needs of different farmer categories in terms of feeding practices. Small coconut land holders ( 6 ha) kept livestock for indirect (secon...

Samarajeewa, A. D.; Schiere, J. B.; Ibrahim, M. N. M.; Viets, T.

2003-01-01

124

Bionomic Aspects of the Anopheles subpictus Species Complex in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Anopheles subpictus Grassi s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) functions as a secondary malaria vector to Anopheles culicifacies Giles s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) in Sri Lanka. The taxon A. subpictus is reported to exist as a species complex comprising four sibling species (A-D) that can be differentiated through polytene chromosome banding patterns and stage-specific morphometric traits in India. Based on the morphological characteristics described for the Indian Subpictus Complex, the presence of all four sibling species has been described in Sri Lanka. As sibling species show distinct bio-ecological characteristics that are important for devising appropriate vector control measures, a study was carried out in six districts in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The results confirm the presence of all four sibling species, with species C predominating in inland areas and species B in coastal areas. Species C and D were indoor-resting and indoor-feeding, while species B was outdoor-resting with no significant preference for indoor- or outdoor-resting. Species B showed distinct morphological variation in the ornamentation of wings and palpi. Blood meal analysis revealed that species B, C, and D can feed on humans as well as cattle. The differential bio-ecological traits shown by the members of the Subpictus Complex are important for developing appropriate vector control measures in Sri Lanka. PMID:25205254

Jude, Pavillupillai J; Ramasamy, Ranjan; Surendran, Sinnathamby N

2014-07-01

125

Human Bocavirus in Patients with Encephalitis, Sri Lanka, 2009-2010  

Science.gov (United States)

We identified human bocavirus (HBoV) DNA by PCR in cerebrospinal fluid from adults and children with encephalitis in Sri Lanka. HBoV types 1, 2, and 3 were identified among these cases. Phylogenetic analysis of HBoV1 strain sequences found no subclustering with strains previously identified among encephalitis cases in Bangladesh. PMID:24188380

Mori, Daisuke; Ranawaka, Udaya; Yamada, Kentaro; Rajindrajith, Shaman; Miya, Kazushi; Perera, Harsha Kumara Kithsiri; Matsumoto, Takashi; Dassanayake, Malka; Mitui, Marcelo Takahiro; Mori, Hisashi; Nishizono, Akira; Soderlund-Venermo, Maria

2013-01-01

126

Temporal variation of microbiological and chemical quality of noncarbonated bottled drinking water sold in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Use of bottled water in Sri Lanka has increased over the last decade, while new brands of bottled water are often introduced to the market. However, the manufacturers' adherence to bottled water regulations is questionable, raising concerns regarding the quality of bottled water. The objective of the current study was to investigate the microbiological and chemical quality of bottled water in Sri Lanka. Thirty bottled water brands were sampled and their chemical and microbiological parameters were analyzed. Microbiological analysis was carried out within 1 to 3, 3 to 6, 6 to 9, and 9 to 12 mo after the date of manufacture. The results indicated that 63% of brands tested exceeded the levels permitted by the Sri Lanka Standards Institution (SLSI) for presumptive total coliforms (TC) (heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) which exceeded the WHO guidelines for bottled drinking water. Throughout their shelf life, the counts of TC, FC, and HPC bacteria decreased. Bacteria identified were Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pasteurella haemolytica, the most frequently being P. aeruginosa. The dominant fungi identified were Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. Inorganic chemical parameters were within permitted levels for all brands except for initial content of ammonia. The results of this study show the need for the bottling industry to be monitored closely by relevant authorities, in order to provide safe bottled drinking water to consumers in Sri Lanka. PMID:22384963

Herath, A T; Abayasekara, C L; Chandrajith, Rohana; Adikaram, N K B

2012-03-01

127

Duty and Service: Life and Career of a Tamil Teacher of English in Sri Lanka  

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This article discusses the life and career of a Tamil teacher of English working in the government education system in northern Sri Lanka. Based on data gathered in an extended life history interview, the article explores the teacher's own experiences of schooling, his reasons for entering teaching as a profession, his professional training, and…

Hayes, David

2010-01-01

128

Beta-orcinol depsidones from the lichen Usnea sp. from Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two beta-orcinol depsidone lactones, the methyl ethers of menegazziaic acid and stictic acid were isolated along with glyceryl trilinolate and usnic acid from an Usnea sp. new to Sri Lanka growing on rotting trees of Acacia decurrans. Usnic acid exhibited potent antitermite activity against a common pest of tea, Glyptotermes dilatatus, at low elevations. PMID:16076641

Kathirgamanathar, Selvaluxmy; Williams, David E; Andersen, Raymond J; Bombuwela, Karunananda; De Silva, Dilip; Karunaratne, Veranja

2005-10-01

129

Heavy metals in Ratnapura alluvial gem sediments, Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

The valuable gems in Sri Lanka are found from the sedimentary gem deposits in Ratnapura District, which are found as alluvial deposits some are about >50 m deep. Gem bearing gravel layer is taken out from the mine, washed by panning to recover the gem minerals in the heavy mineral fraction, is a common practice in the gem mining area. Gem bearing sediment layer is associated with different heavy minerals in which different trace metals as Co, Cr, Cu, Al, Zr, Pb and As also can be present. During panning, the sediment is washed away and the heavy metals attached to the sediments are released into the environment. Hence we studied the lability and bioavailability of arsenic and other heavy metals from the gem sediments. Sediment samples were collected from 15 small scale gem mines (3 soil layers- top, gem mineral layer and layer below gem bearing gravel layer), air dried and sieved to obtain microwave digestion using HF, HNO3 and HClO4. Filtered samples were analyzed for As, Co, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Pb and Fe using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (GBC 933AA). Total digestion results in different layers indicated that heavy metals show an increasing pattern with depth. About 4 gem bearing gravel layers were consist of high concentrations of Ni (>150 mg/kg), Cu (>150 mg/kg), Pb (>400 mg/kg), Zn (>600 mg/kg) and Co ions (>100 mg/kg). Arsenite in the gem sediments were low and recorded as Co>Zn>Mn>Ni>Cu>Pb. Sediments from few gem pits showed considerably high concentrations of metals analyzed. In some places Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn reported high in bioavailable fractions 70, 25, 20, 10 mg/kg respectively. Mobilization of these metals may increase due to changes in the pH and the presence of other ions in the environment. High concentrations of toxic metals in exchangeable and bioavailable fractions indicate the risk on plant and animals as well as the open water bodies and groundwater sources.

Vithanage, M. S.; Hettiarachchi, J. K.; Rajapaksha, A. U.; Wijesekara, H.; Hewawasam, T.

2011-12-01

130

Twelve Years of Rabies Surveillance in Sri Lanka, 1999–2010  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Rabies is endemic in Sri Lanka, but little is known about the temporal and spatial trends of rabies in this country. Knowing these trends may provide insight into past control efforts and serve as the basis for future control measures. In this study, we analyzed distribution of rabies in humans and animals over a period of 12 years in Sri Lanka. Methods Accumulated data from 1999 through 2010 compiled by the Department of Rabies Diagnosis and Research, Medical Research Institute (MRI), Colombo, were used in this study. Results The yearly mean percentage of rabies-positive sample was 62.4% (47.6–75.9%). Three-fourths of the rabies-positive samples were from the Colombo, Gampaha, and Kalutara districts in Western province, followed by Galle in Southern province. A high percentage of the rabies samples were from dogs (85.2%), followed by cats (7.9%), humans (3.8%), wild animals (2.0%), and livestock (1.1%). Among wild animals, mongooses were the main victims followed by civets. The number of suspect human rabies cases decreased gradually in Sri Lanka, although the number of human samples submitted for laboratory confirmation increased. Conclusions The number of rabid dogs has remained relatively unchanged, but the number of suspect human rabies is decreasing gradually in Sri Lanka. These findings indicate successful use of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) by animal bite victims and increased rabies awareness. PEP is free of charge and is supplied through government hospitals by the Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka. Our survey shows that most positive samples were received from Western and Southern provinces, possibly because of the ease of transporting samples to the laboratory. Submissions of wild animal and livestock samples should be increased by creating more awareness among the public. Better rabies surveillance will require introduction of molecular methods for detection and the establishment of more regional rabies diagnostic laboratories. PMID:25299511

Karunanayake, Dushantha; Matsumoto, Takashi; Wimalaratne, Omala; Nanayakkara, Susilakanthi; Perera, Devika; Nishizono, Akira; Ahmed, Kamruddin

2014-01-01

131

Sri Lanka president lubab sõjalõksus riiki tänapäeva tuua / Allan Espenberg  

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Presidendivalimistest Sri Lankal. Uus president Mahinda Rajapaksa on valmis kohtuma tamilite mässu juhtidega ning arutama rahu taastamise võimalusi. Presidendi eesmärgid. Lisa: Pommirünnakud poliitikute vastu

Espenberg, Allan

2005-01-01

132

Current Status of Marine Snakes from Jaffna Peninsula, Sri Lanka with Description of Hitherto Unrecorded Hydrophis fasciatus fasciatus (Schneider, 1799  

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Full Text Available As only a few study reported on sea snakes of Sri Lanka, a study was undertaken from June 2003 to November 2004 in the coast of Jaffna Peninsula which lies in the Northern part of Sri Lanka. Out of the 121 specimens examined, 9 species under 5 genera in two families were documented in the coastal waters of both Valvettiturai to Point Pedro and the Jaffna lagoon waters. This includes Hydrophis fasciatus fasciatus which is no longer known in Sri Lanka increased the number of Hydrophis species to 8, thus the total number of sea snakes inhabiting the coastal waters of Sri Lanka become 14 in Hydrophiidae. Of the sea snakes collected, Lapemis curtus (33.88% and Praescutata viperina (23.97% were the commonly recorded species. Least recorded species were H. lapemoides, H. fasciatus fasciatus, Kerilia jerdonii jerdonii and Acrochordus granulatus (0.83, 0.83, 2.47 and 2.47%, respectively.

K. Sivashanthini

2008-01-01

133

The contribution of microenergy systems towards poverty reduction. Sociotechnological investigation of three types of constellations in Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the dissertation is to analyse different Microenergy Systems in terms of implementation strategies and their contributions towards poverty alleviation in rural areas of developing countries, via four case studies in Sri Lanka. Off-grid Solar Photovoltaic-Systems, known as “Solar Home Systems (SHS)”, provide electricity for single households. In Sri Lanka they are mainly financially affordable for customers, if micro loans in combination with subsidies are available. Hydro and g...

Laufer, Dino

2011-01-01

134

Acute pituitary insufficiency and hypokalaemia following envenoming by Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) in Sri Lanka: Exploring the pathophysiological mechanisms.  

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Russell's viper envenoming is associated with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality. Hypopituitarism following envenoming by Russell's vipers is a well recognized sequel in Burma and parts of India but has been reported only once in Sri Lanka. Hypokalaemia following envenoming by Russell's viper has not been described. Here we describe the association of acute pituitary insufficiency and hypokalaemia following Russell's viper envenoming in Sri Lanka and review the literature in order to...

Jeevagan, V.; Katulanda, P.; Gnanathasan, Ca; Warrell, DA

2013-01-01

135

Socio-Environmental Impact of Water Pollution on the Mid-canal (Meda Ela), Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Unplanned urban population growth in developing countries such as Sri Lanka exert pressures on the sectors of water supply, sewage disposal, waste management, and surface drainage in the cities as well as their surrounding areas. The Mid-canal is considered the most polluted surface water body in the Kandy district of Sri Lanka and contributes significantly to pollution of the Mahaweli River. Health problems in the nearby population may well be associated with environmental degradation and re...

Jing Yuan Wang; Soon Keat Tan; Kalpage, C. S.; Gersberg, Richard M.; Dong Qing Zhang; Wijewardena, S. K. I.; Jinadasa, K. B. S. N.; Wun Jern Ng

2012-01-01

136

EXPLORING GOOD PRACTICE KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER RELATED TO POST TSUNAMI HOUSING (RE-CONSTRUCTION IN SRI LANKA  

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Full Text Available Sri Lanka was badly affected by the tsunami that occurred on 26th December 2004. The tsunami destroyed about two-thirds of the Sri Lankan coastline and affected more than 1,000,000 people. It does not only affected the lives of the community, but also had a devastating effect on their housing and livelihoods. The overall loss of 100,000 or more houses due to the tsunami proved to be a major challenge to the emergency response teams and disaster planners. Although several major disasters of varying magnitudes have occurred in the world, the body of knowledge related to post-disaster housing reconstruction and rehabilitation appears fragmented and poorly integrated. This paper attempts to fill this theoretical gap by focusing on the extent to which good practice knowledge transfer helps in overcoming this problem for more effective and efficient delivery of post-tsunami housing in Sri Lanka. The paper applied knowledge transfer principles within the context of the two housing reconstruction strategies employed in post-tsunami housing reconstruction in Sri Lanka; namely donor-driven housing and owner driven housing. The results of this study reveal that the knowledge transfer within this context cannot be simply copied and inserted from one context without any localisation. Therefore, the paper proposes a high-level abstraction of the core principles of community engagement through participatory techniques associated with appropriate capacity and capability building techniques that will enable the various stakeholders to create a new application to suit the appropriate context of the transfer destination (post-tsunami context in Sri Lanka.

Bingunath Ingirige

2008-12-01

137

Preliminary investigation of genetic characterization of native and endemic fowl types of Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus gallus) is generally considered to be main ancestor of the domestic fowl (Callus domesticus). However, it is also believed that other wild Callus species might have contributed to the modern genetic make-up of the domestic fowl, one wild species being the Ceylon Jungle Fowl (Gallus lafayetti), endemic to Sri Lanka, which could have contributed to the domestic stock of Sri Lankan native poultry. The present study was conducted in order to investigate the origin of native fowl in Sri Lanka and to establish genetic relationships among them and the Ceylon Jungle Fowl. Morphological characters of endemic, indigenous and exotic fowl types were recorded. These included Ceylon Jungle fowl; eleven types of native chicken from Sri Lanka; and two exotic chicken breeds (Cornish and Rhode Island Red). Blood samples were collected for DNA extraction. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was carried out using sixteen non-specific primers. The results of morphological characterization revealed many variations in plumage and colour pattern. Single and pea comb types were found in both native and exotic types of chicken. A prominent yellow colour marking on a red comb was a unique feature in Ceylon Jungle fowl. The presence of white spots in red earlobes was a distinguishing feature of all native chicken types. Sixteen non-specific primers were used in the study, and produced 22 polymorphic bands ranging from 500 to 1960 bp. Genetic similarity g from 500 to 1960 bp. Genetic similarity indices ranged from 0.5 to 1.1 in average genetic distance scale, indicating a broad genetic base in the samples studied. Cluster analysis revealed a clear separation of Ceylon Jungle Fowl from all other types studied, indicating that contribution in data analysis, and the Director and staff, National Zoological Gardens, Sri Lanka, for their help in sampling Ceylon Jungle Fowl. (author)

138

A retrospective analysis of cannabis use in a cohort of mentally ill patients in Sri Lanka and its implications on policy development  

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Abstract Background Several epidemiological studies have shown that cannabis; the most widely used illegal drug in the world, is associated with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD). Aims To assess the characteristics of cannabis use and its association with SSD in a cohort of psychiatrically ill patients and discuss the implications for policy development Methods This is a retrospective analytical study of a cohort of psychiatric patients who re...

Maithripala Chinthaka; Gunawardana Alwis; Welgama Srina; Rodrigo Chaturaka; Jayananda Gamini; Rajapakse Senaka

2010-01-01

139

Protecting housing rights for IDPs in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The return and relocation of IDPs in the East of Sri Lankaoffer lessons on the critical issues that must be addressed ifthe housing rights of IDPs in the North are to be respected.

Todd Wassel

2009-09-01

140

Home gardens and Dioscorea species – A case study from the climatic zones of Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Home gardens are considered as vital units for enhancing food security particularly in developing nations of South Asia, such as Sri Lanka. Although the yam crop Dioscorea spp. constitute a popular but still minor component in Sri Lankan home gardens, they have the potential of producing large quantities of edible material with minimal inputs. However, their real value in South Asian home gardens is not yet reported. Hence, this study was carried out to get insights into home garden characteristics, gardener demography as well as current management practices within 300 Sri Lankan home garden systems that are located along a climatic gradient. By using interviews and field observations, gardeners, who cultivated in particular Dioscorea species, were studied within 10 of the 25 administrative districts distributed in the wet, intermediate and dry climatic zone of Sri Lanka. Furthermore, current management practices of yams cultivation were analyzed on local scale and compared afterwards with management recommendations published in the year 2006 by the Department of Agriculture. Dioscorea species were found in a majority of home gardens, especially in wet and intermediate zones of Sri Lanka. D. alata was the most prominent species and was managed at a subsistence level and not as per recommendations developed by the Department of Agriculture. Our results revealed that Dioscorea alata is an essential component of Sri Lankan home gardens in rural areas and can yield substantial quantities of edible tubers with low input, especially during times of food scarcities, and has therefore the potential to enhance food security and rural development.

Ravi Sangakkara

2014-08-01

 
 
 
 
141

Staging of lung cancer in a tertiary care setting in Sri Lanka, using TNM 7th edition. A comparison against TNM6  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in Sri Lanka and throughout the world. The latest staging system for lung cancer is the tumor node metastasis (TNM) 7th edition in which there are major changes to the previous version. The objective of our study was to find out the implications of TNM7th edition on lung cancer staging in a resource limited setting, and to compare it with the previous TNM 6th editio...

Lb, Dassanayake Dinesh; Muthunayake Thushara M; Hmp, Senevirathna Kapila; Siribaddana Anoma

2012-01-01

142

Rediscovery of a long lost endemic damselfly Sinhalestes orientalis (Hagen in Selys, 1862 from Peak Wilderness Sanctuary, Sri Lanka (Zygoptera: Lestidae  

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Full Text Available Sinhalestes orientalis (Hagen in Selys, 1862 the only representative of its genus, is an endemic and globally critically endangered damselfly in Sri Lanka. It was first collected from Rambodde, Sri Lanka in 1858 and after that no new information on this species has been available. Here, we report on the re-discovery of Sinhalestes orientalis from the Peak Wilderness Sanctuary, Sri Lanka after 154 years from its last and only record.

A. P. Sumanapala

2013-07-01

143

Distribution pattern of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter (pfcrt) gene haplotypes in Sri Lanka 1996-2006  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract. Widespread antimalarial resistance has been a barrier to malaria elimination efforts in Sri Lanka. Analysis of genetic markers in historic parasites may uncover trends in the spread of resistance. We examined the frequency of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter (pfcrt; codons 72-76) haplotypes in Sri Lanka in 1996-1998 and 2004-2006 using a high-resolution melting assay. Among 59 samples from 1996 to 1998, we detected the SVMNT (86%), CVMNK (10%), and CVIET (2%) haplotypes, with a positive trend in SVMNT and a negative trend in CVMNK frequency (P = 0.004) over time. Among 24 samples from 2004 to 2006, we observed only the SVMNT haplotype. This finding indicates selection for the SVMNT haplotype over time and its possible fixation in the population.

Zhang, Jenny J; Senaratne, Tharanga N

2011-01-01

144

Firm Size and Profitability: A Study of Listed Manufacturing Firms ed Manufacturing Firms in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of firm size on profitability of quoted manufacturing firms inSri Lanka. In this study, data of 15 companies which were active in Colombo Stock Exchange (CSE betweenthe years 2008 to 2012 has been used. As indicators of firm profitability, Return on Assets and Net Profit havebeen used whereas Total Assets and Total Sales have been utilized as indicators of firm size. Correlation andregression methods have been used in the empirical analysis. There is no indicative relationship between firmsize and profitability of listed manufacturing firms, the findings reveal. In addition, the results showed that firmsize has no profound impact on profitability of the listed manufacturing firms in Sri Lanka.

J. Aloy Niresh

2014-03-01

145

Developing tools to link environmental flows science and its practice in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

The term "Environmental Flows (EF)" may be defined as "the quantity, timing and quality of water flows required to sustain freshwater and estuarine ecosystems and the human livelihoods and well-being that depend on these ecosystems". It may be regarded as "water for nature" or "environmental demand" similar to crop water requirements, industrial or domestic water demand. The practice of EF is still limited to a few developed countries such as Australia, South Africa and the UK. In many developing countries EF is rarely considered in water resources planning and is often deemed "unimportant". Sri Lanka, being a developing country, is no exception to this general rule. Although the country underwent an extensive irrigation/water resources development phase during the 1960s through to the 1980s, the concept of EF was hardly considered. However, as Sri Lanka's water resources are being exploited more and more for human usage, ecologists, water practitioners and policymakers alike have realized the importance of EF in sustaining not only freshwater and estuarine ecosystems, but also their services to humans. Hence estimation of EF has been made mandatory in environmental impact assessments (EIAs) of all large development projects involving river regulation/water abstraction. Considering EF is especially vital under the rapid urbanization and infrastructure development phase that dawned after the end of the war in the North and the East of the country in 2009. This paper details simple tools (including a software package which is under development) and methods that may be used for coarse scale estimation of EF at/near monitored locations on major rivers of Sri Lanka, along with example applications to two locations on River Mahaweli. It is hoped that these tools will help bridge the gap between EF science and its practice in Sri Lanka and other developing countries.

Eriyagma, N.; Jinapala, K.

2014-09-01

146

Entrepreneurial Orientation and Business Performance of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises of Hambantota District Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Entrepreneurship has played an important role in economic growth, innovation, competitiveness and in poverty alleviation. This study investigated the degree of Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO) of twenty five manufacturing Small and Medium scale Enterprises (SMEs) in Hambantota District, Sri Lanka (HDSL) and the effects of EO dimensions including proactiveness, innovativeness, and risk taking to business performance. Interviews were used as the main instrument for data collection. Qualitative ...

Fauzul Mafasiya Fairoz; Takenouchi Hirobumi; Yukiko Tanaka

2010-01-01

147

Symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescent students; a perspective from Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Sri Lanka recorded an extraordinary high suicide rate for adolescents aged 15 - 19 in the early 1990s (46.5/100,000. With this in perspective, the Ministry of Health in Sri Lanka recommends school programmes for adolescents by mental health units of local hospitals. Methods We conducted cross sectional surveys to screen for symptoms of anxiety and depression among students aged 14 - 18 during school mental health programmes. Two schools were randomly selected within the Ratnapura municipality (urban population of approx. 50,000, Sri Lanka and all students aged 14-18 were assessed with self administered (pre tested, Sinhalese translations questionnaires [Center for epidemiologic studies depression scale, Anxiety screening test of suicide and mental health association international]. Results A total of 445 students were assessed (male-54.4%, female 45.6%. Thirty six percent screened positive for depression (mild depression-17%, severe depression-19% and 28% screened positive for severe anxiety. Females screened positive for depression and anxiety significantly more than the males (p = 0.0001, 0.005 respectively. Students in classes facing barrier examinations at the end of the year had the highest positivity rates. Examination related issues (36% were the most commonly cited problem. Recommendations It is recommended that: 1. School mental health development programmes in Sri Lanka concentrate more on reducing examination related stress, and in particular focus on the female students 2. Policy decisions are made to reduce competition for higher education 3. A nationally coordinated survey on mental health of adolescent students is carried out utilizing the island-wide network of medical officers of mental health.

Wijeratne Thilina

2010-03-01

148

Unmarried women's ways of facing single motherhood in Sri Lanka : a qualitative interview study  

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Background: In Sri Lanka, motherhood within marriage is highly valued. Sex out of wedlock is socially unacceptable and can create serious public health problems such as illegal abortions, suicide and infanticide, and single motherhood as a result of premarital sex is considered shameful. The way unmarried women facing single motherhood reflect on and make use of their agency in their social environments characterised by limited social and financial support has consequences for the health and ...

Jordal, Malin; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Olsson, Pia

2013-01-01

149

A Comparative Approach to Multigrade Class Implementation: Examples of Vietnam, Peru, Sri Lanka and Colombia  

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This article compares and evaluates the implementation of multi-grade class teaching in Turkey with similar applications in countries such as Vietnam, Peru, Sri Lanka and Colombia. From the comparison it was revealed that all dimensions of teacher training related to the method applied in Turkey should be reviewed in detail and the related curricula should be restructured; the application should be improved; the problems of the teachers working in these schools should be solved. A review of t...

Kazu, I?brahim Yas?ar; Aslan, Serkan

2011-01-01

150

Student Perceptions of an Online Post Graduate Course in Family Medicine in Sri Lanka  

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BackgroundThe online Diploma course in Family Medicine (DFM) of the Post Graduate Institute of Medicine (PGIM) of the University of Colombo is one of the pioneering online post graduate medical courses in Sri Lanka.ObjectivesTo describe student perceptions on the online DFM course.MethodsThe study population comprised of all the students (19) of the first batch of the course. Pre- tested self administered questionnaires were administered to all students. A Likert scale was used to assess the ...

Sumanasekera, D. R. N.; Fernando, J.; Silva, R. E. E.; Liyanagama Mail, S. D.

2010-01-01

151

Factors influencing household nutritional status in relation to increasing food prices in Kandy, Sri Lanka  

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The food crisis of 2008 exacerbated the nutritional insecurity of poor people around the world. Still today, unprecedented numbers of people do not have access to food because of insufficient economic potential. Sri Lanka is a low income food deficit country which has, until recently experienced civil war, and has high numbers of malnourished people. The objective of this thesis was to identify factors that influence a households susceptibility to food insecurity and to determine how househo...

Nelson, Hana

2012-01-01

152

Inter-Annual Variability in Blue Whale Distribution off Southern Sri Lanka between 2011 and 2012  

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Full Text Available Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus movements are often driven by the availability of their prey in space and time. While globally blue whale populations undertake long-range migrations between feeding and breeding grounds, those in the northern Indian Ocean remain in low latitude waters throughout the year with the implication that the productivity of these waters is sufficient to support their energy needs. A part of this population remains around Sri Lanka where they are usually recorded close to the southern coast during the Northeast Monsoon. To investigate inter-annual variability in sighting locations, we conducted systematic Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD and visual surveys between January–March 2011 and January–March 2012. In 2011, there was a notable decrease in inshore sightings compared to 2009 and 2012 (p < 0.001. CTD data revealed that in 2011 there was increased freshwater in the upper water column accompanied by deeper upwelling than in 2012. We hypothesise that anomalous rainfall, along with higher turbidity resulting from river discharge, affected the productivity of the inshore waters and caused a shift in blue whale prey and, consequently, the distribution of the whales themselves. An understanding of how predators and their prey respond to environmental variability is important for predicting how these species will respond to long-term changes. This is especially important given the rapid temperature increases predicted for the semi-enclosed northern Indian Ocean.

Asha de Vos

2014-07-01

153

Testimony ceremonies in Asia: integrating spirituality in testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines.  

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This study explores the therapeutic implications of including culturally adapted spiritual ceremonies in the process of testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines. Data were collected through an action research process with Asian mental health and human rights organizations, during which the testimonial method was reconceptualized and modified to include four sessions. In the first two sessions, community workers assist survivors in the writing of their testimony, which is their narrative about the human rights violations they have suffered. In the third session, survivors participate in an honour ceremony in which they are presented with their testimony documents. In the fourth session, the community workers meet with the survivors for a reevaluation of their well-being. The honour ceremonies developed during the action research process came to employ different kinds of symbolic language at each site: human rights (India), religious/Catholic (Sri Lanka), religious/Buddhist (Cambodia), and religious/Moslem (Philippines). They all used embodied spirituality in various forms, incorporating singing, dancing, and religious purification rituals in a collective gathering. We suggest that these types of ceremonies may facilitate an individual's capacity to contain and integrate traumatic memories, promote restorative self-awareness, and engage community support. Additional research is needed to determine the method's applicability in other sociopolitical contexts governed by more Western-oriented medical traditions. PMID:22637721

Agger, Inger; Igreja, Victor; Kiehle, Rachel; Polatin, Peter

2012-07-01

154

Environmental exposures and their genetic or environmental contribution to depression and fatigue: a twin study in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There is very little genetically informative research identifying true environmental risks for psychiatric conditions. These may be best explored in regions with diverse environmental exposures. The current study aimed to explore similarities and differences in such risks contributing to depression and fatigue. Methods Home interviews assessed depression (lifetime-ever, fatigue and environmental exposures in 4,024 randomly selected twins from a population-based register in the Colombo district of Sri Lanka. Results Early school leaving and standard of living showed environmentally-mediated effects on depression, in men. In women, life events were associated with depression partly through genetic pathways (however, the temporal order is consistent with life events being an outcome of depression, as well as the other way around. For fatigue, there were environmentally mediated effects (through early school leaving and life events and strong suggestions of family-environmental influences. Conclusions Compared to previous studies from higher-income countries, novel environmentally-mediated risk factors for depression and fatigue were identified in Sri Lanka. But as seen elsewhere, the association between life events and depression was partially genetically mediated in women. These results have implications for understanding environmental mechanisms around the world.

Kovas Yulia

2010-02-01

155

Testimony ceremonies in Asia: Integrating spirituality in testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines  

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This study explores the therapeutic implications of including culturally adapted spiritual ceremonies in the process of testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines. Data were collected through an action research process with Asian mental health and human rights organizations, during which the testimonial method was reconceptualized and modified to include four sessions. In the first two sessions, community workers assist survivors in the writing of their testimony, which is their narrative about the human rights violations they have suffered. In the third session, survivors participate in an honour ceremony in which they are presented with their testimony documents. In the fourth session, the community workers meet with the survivors for a reevaluation of their well-being. The honour ceremonies developed during the action research process came to employ different kinds of symbolic language at each site: human rights (India), religious/Catholic (Sri Lanka), religious/Buddhist (Cambodia), and religious/Moslem (Philippines). They all used embodied spirituality in various forms, incorporating singing, dancing, and religious purification rituals in a collective gathering. We suggest that these types of ceremonies may facilitate an individual’s capacity to contain and integrate traumatic memories, promote restorative self-awareness, and engage community support. Additional research is needed to determine the method’s applicability in other sociopolitical contexts governed by more Western-oriented medical traditions. PMID:22637721

Agger, Inger; Igreja, Victor; Kiehle, Rachel; Polatin, Peter

2012-01-01

156

The economic, demographic, sociocultural and political setting for emigration from Sri Lanka.  

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This study of emigration from Sri Lanka is introduced by a brief review of the situation during the colonial period and an overview of recent migration experience. The second section of the paper deals with data collection and sources for labor migration, political migration, and estimates of total net migration. The third section looks at economic and demographic trends in terms of the growth of the economy, population growth and social well-being, the growth of the labor force, unemployment, the structure of the work force, internal migration and access to agricultural lands, and income distribution and poverty. The sociocultural setting is then explored by considering exposure to the international environment, ethnicity and cultural affinity, the formation of information and job placement networks, the supportive role of the family, and the impact of success and failure. Moving on the influence of the political setting, the paper then discusses the government policy of foreign employment promotion as well as the influence of political developments on migration. In conclusion, the paper notes that future demand for domestic service workers will likely increase, and that Sri Lanka will continue to have a surplus of workers to fill this demand until the end of the 1990s, when a tightening domestic labor market and increased real wages will ease the push for migration. Political factors will continue to favor migration, however, unless a liberal democratic regime becomes the governing force in Sri Lanka. PMID:12347013

Gunatilleke, G

1995-01-01

157

Pass through Effect of Exchange Rate and Monetary Policy in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available This study examined the effectiveness of monetary policy in targeting exchange rate shock between different periods in Sri Lanka. After the trade liberalization in 1977, Sri Lanka became a small open economy. Therefore, monetary policy targeting the exchange rate also became an important issue. Sri Lanka introduced floating exchange rate system in 1990. A Vector Error Correction model and impulse response function were estimated to examine the effectiveness of monetary policy in targeting exchange rate shock for whole period from 1977 to 2007 and also separately for the periods from 1977 to 1990 and from 1990 to 2007. The results show that monetary policy is targeting exchange rate much for recent period but not targeting inflation. Inflation rate was high in the recent period. Central bank was purchasing bonds issued by the government to monetize defense spending and to increase the salaries of government employees in this period for political purpose, hence, leading to inflation and monetary policy distortion. Economic growth may be declined in long term if monetary policy is not operating optimally on targeting inflation and exchange rate.

Sooriyakumar Krishnapillai

2012-01-01

158

Ethics of cancer palliative care in Sri Lanka. A cross- cultural perspective.  

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Full Text Available The diagnosis of cancer is associated with an unexpected breakdown of the physical, psychological and social well being. In addition to cancer related physical outcomes, cross-cultural issues are known to hasten patients’ clinical deterioration and can impact upon orientation as a healthy human being in society. As members of a developing nation in the second world, to provide patient oriented quality care while maintaining high standards of ethical practice, health care workers in Sri Lanka have to be culturally competent. In Sri Lanka, the cross-cultural ethical issues related to patients with a diagnosis of cancer include, awareness of one’s own cultural identity, gaining knowledge of different cultural issues, verbal and non verbal communication skills, respect for patients’ autonomy, involvement of the family and the relatives, addressing moral and spiritual backgrounds, development of effective communication skills and provision of social support. Therefore in the management of cancer patients in Sri Lanka, cultural issues should be given a high priority to maintain ethical standards and quality in palliative care. Culturally competent Health care workers safeguard the rights of patients, as well as providing optimal medical and surgical care.

Dayasiri MBKC

2010-12-01

159

Information and Communication Technology: A Comparison of Pakistan and Sri-Lanka  

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Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to examine the information and communication technology sector in Pakistan and Sri-Lanka because they are among top five countries in ICT in the South Asian region. The research is helpful for decision makers to channel ICT related resources where they are required the most. ICT oriented data have been collected by International Telecommunication Union but no comparison exists between the countries included in the research. Therefore, the sources of data are ITU who has identified twenty three parameters individually; they have been rearranged under three subjects: ICT infrastructure, usage and economic impact on the economies of the countries concerned. It is found that the infrastructure of Sri-Lanka is better than Pakistan while both countries are using their resources equally. However, the economic impacts are less visible in Pakistan than its counterpart. Overall the ICT score of Sri Lanka is better than Pakistan. It suggests that policy makers in both nations have to rethink to deploy their resources to take maximum benefit as par to the international standards.

Javed Iqbal

2013-04-01

160

A survey of odonate assemblages associated with selected wetland localities in southern Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The dragonflies and damselflies are a major insect group (Class Insecta; Order Odonata associated with water courses. Odonate assemblages with reference to their habitat characters have not been widely studied in Sri Lanka. We have investigated odonate assemblages for a period of three months in selected localities in southern Sri Lanka with reference to the habitat characters. Bundala and Embillakala lagoons in Bundala National Park (A Ramsar wetland in Sri Lanka, “Kirala Kele” Eco-tourism Zone-Matara, Bandaththara marshland system-Matara, “Kirala Kele” Biological Garden-Ambalanthota and Kosgahadola stream which belongs to Mulatiyana Rain forest reserve were selected as study sites since these sites are important in conservation of biodiversity. A total of 28 species were identified during the study period. Our data reveals odonate assemblages specific to the studied habitats such as bushlands, marshlands, lagoons, flowing water bodies, stagnant water bodies and vegetation type (wet zone and dry zone. These data will be useful in future studies and conservation of biodiversity in the studied habitats.

Chandana, E.P.S.

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

Isotopic mapping of age provinces in Precambrian high-grade terrains: Sri Lanka  

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Nd model ages of amphibolite- and granulite-grade rocks in Sri Lanka form a simple region pattern that broadly correlates with mappable geological units, and is in effect an isotopic map of the island's basement. The granulite-grade units of the Highland Group and Southwest Group have model ages of 2.2-3.0 Ga indicating derivation mainly from late Archean sources. They are bounded to the east and west by late Proterozoic gneisses of the Vijayan Complex with model ages of 1.1-2.0 Ga. The isotopic data identify three distinct crustal provinces and are not consistent with earlier suggestions that the Vijayan gneisses are retrograde equivalents of the Highland granulites. Sri Lanka is not a direct continuation of the Archean Dharwar Craton of southern India. Identification of Vijayan-type juvenile crustal terrains in other Gondwana fragments may play a key role in determining the precise attachment of southern India-Sri Lanka in eastern Gondwana.

Milisenda, C.C.; Liew, T.C.; Hofmann, A.W.; Kroener, A.

1988-09-01

162

Liquidity Management and Profitability: A Case Study of Listed Manufacturing Companies in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available — Liquidity management and profitability are very important issues in the growth and survival of business and the ability to handle the trade-off between the two a source of concern for financial managers.The study is also aimed at finding the effect of changes in liquidity levels on profitability of manufacturing companies in Sri Lanka. The study covered listed manufacturing companies in Sri Lanka over a period of past 5 years from 2008 to 2012. Correlation and regression analysis were used in the analysis and findings suggest that there is a significant relationship exists between liquidity and profitability among the listed manufacturing companies in Sri Lanka. Suggested that Inventory Sales Period (ISP, Current Ratio (CRand are significantly correlated with Return on Asset (ROA, Operating Cash Flow Ratio (OCFRare significantly correlated with Return on Equity (ROE 5 percent level of significance. At the same time ISP and OCFR also are significantly correlated with ROA, Creditors Payment Period (CPP also is significantly correlated with ROE at 1 percent level of significance.

Priya,K

2013-08-01

163

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Mullaitivu, Sri Lanka: a missing endemic district in the leishmaniasis surveillance system.  

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The purpose of this study was to describe the emergence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a district of Sri Lanka, documented at the national level as having zero incidence. We analyzed data from the Sri Lanka Army (SLA) to describe reported cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis for all armed forces personnel located in all 24 districts of Sri Lanka. These data are not included in the National Surveillance System. From January 2011 through February 2013, 314 armed forces personnel were confirmed as having leishmaniasis. Of these, 223 (81.4%) were working within the district of Mullaitivu at the time of investigation and another 21 (6.5%) reported that the lesion first appeared when they were working in Mullaitivu. The reported cumulative annual incidence of leishmaniasis among the army population was 7.5 per 10000, while in the general area of Mullaitivu the incidence was 234 per 10000. Leishmaniasis is emerging in epidemic proportions in Mullaitivu and is still not detected through the public health surveillance system. Urgent attention directed at disease surveillance and control activities is needed to control this emerging public health threat. PMID:24858902

Semage, S N; Pathirana, K P N; Agampodi, S B

2014-08-01

164

Entrepreneurial Competencies and Entrepreneurial Orientation of Tea Manufacturing Firms in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Throughout the past few decades, significance of entrepreneurial competencies has been amplified due to the strategic role take part by the entrepreneur of a business enterprise. Therefore, the aim of the study is to examine the impact of owner/managers entrepreneurial competencies on Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO of tea manufacturing firms in Sri Lanka and the relationship between background characteristics of owner/managers and entrepreneurial competencies. Primary data was collected in low country tea manufacturing firms in Sri Lanka. The sample includes 109 private sector tea factories. Entrepreneurial competencies were operationalized as opportunity, organizing, strategic, relationship, commitment and conceptual competencies. Data were analyzed by using multiple regression analysis. It was found that background characteristics of owner/managers have direct impact on entrepreneurial competencies. Further it implies that entrepreneurs strategic and commitment competencies have direct positive relationship with EO. When considering the dimensions of EO, innovativeness was greatly affected by owner/managers competencies whereas risk taking behavior was less affected by competencies. Hence, findings of the present study would be essential for owner/managers and strategy makers to enhance the EO of tea manufacturing firms in Sri Lanka towards global competition in the tea industry by knowing what competencies are crucial for EO.

Aruni Wickramaratne

2014-08-01

165

Development of a Community Based Web-Mobile Platform (CBWMP for diabetes care in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic disease with no permanent cure. Sri Lanka is placed among the countries with the highest diabetes prevalence rates in the world (ie. 2.8 million Sri Lankans have diabetes or pre-diabetes, and most importantly, a significant proportions of the population is yet to be diagnosed. Patients with diabetes need lifelong care to prevent complications which further impose a significant burden on the country’s expenditure on healthcare. Moreover, patients need to maintain constant contact with the healthcare provider for the optimal management of diabetes. However, such arrangement is often costly and time consuming and therefore it ultimately aggravates the burden to patients, the healthcare system and the economy.With the development of telecommunication technologies, Telemedicine (i.e. the use of Information Communication Technology to provide healthcare at a distance has gained attention. Telemedicine can enhance communication between patient and healthcare provider without needing physical presence in one place. Telemedicine can link healthcare professionals from different corners of the globe to share knowledge and expertise. Moreover, evidence is surfacing to suggest that the telemedicine would be a viable alternative to conventional care.This article showcases a Sri Lankan study which describes the development of a Telemedicine system for Sri Lanka - Community Based Web-Mobile Platform (CBWMP. The concept of the platform is to maintain an electronic Personal Health Record (e-PHR in order to provide communication between different parties to optimise patient health information flow and also to coordinate the continuity of care at minimal cost. The CBWMP - integrated mobile phones and e-PHR - is capable of delivering diabetes education, co-ordinating effective management, and screening diabetes status. To avoid any cultural marginalisation, all the services can be accessed in the user’s preferred native language in Sri Lanka viz. Sinhala, Tamil, and English.

Nishan Siriwardena

2013-05-01

166

International Enterprise Education in Sri Lanka: A Blended Approach  

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Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how enterprise education was adapted from a UK higher education institution (HEI) setting into an international context through collaboration with two Sri Lankan universities. It demonstrates the value of enterprise education in different cultures, and presents learning from the challenges faced by…

Kasturiratne, Dulekha; Lean, Jonathan; Phippen, Andy

2012-01-01

167

Theorising the practice of language mixing in music: an interdisciplinary (linguistic and musicological) investigation of Sri Lanka’s leading genre of contemporary popular song and its community.  

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This thesis represents the first ever study of Sri Lanka’s leading genre of contemporary popular song covering a period of over twelve years, and how its artists and principal audience interpolate ‘global’ and ‘local’ (linguistic and musical) elements in their invention and negotiation of the genre. The central objective is to articulate the collective linguistic identity of the genre’s artists and principal audience. They are shown to constitute a community of over...

Ekanayaka, Tanya Nissani Ilangakkone

2011-01-01

168

Application of Modis Data to Assess the Latest Forest Cover Changes of Sri Lanka  

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Assessing forest cover of Sri Lanka is becoming important to lower the pressure on forest lands as well as man-elephant conflicts. Furthermore, the land access to north-east Sri Lanka after the end of 30 years long civil war has increased the need of regularly updated land cover information for proper planning. This study produced an assessment of the forest cover of Sri Lanka using two satellite data based maps within 23 years of time span. For the old forest cover map, the study used one of the first island-wide digital land cover classification produced by the main author in 1988. The old land cover classification was produced at 80 m spatial resolution, using Landsat MSS data. A previously published another study by the author has investigated the application feasibility of MODIS and Landsat MSS imagery for a selected sub-section of Sri Lanka to identify the forest cover changes. Through the light of these two studies, the assessment was conducted to investigate the application possibility of MODIS 250 m over a small island like Sri Lanka. The relation between the definition of forest in the study and spatial resolution of the used satellite data sets were considered since the 2012 map was based on MODIS data. The forest cover map of 1988 was interpolated into 250 m spatial resolution to integrate with the GIS data base. The results demonstrated the advantages as well as disadvantages of MODIS data in a study at this scale. The successful monitoring of forest is largely depending on the possibility to update the field conditions at regular basis. Freely available MODIS data provides a very valuable set of information of relatively large green patches on the ground at relatively real-time basis. Based on the changes of forest cover from 1988 to 2012, the study recommends the use of MODIS data as a resalable method to forest assessment and to identify hotspots to be re-investigated. It's noteworthy to mention the possibility of uncounted small isolated pockets of forest, or sub-pixel size forest patches when MODIS 250 m x 250 m data used in small regions.

Perera, K.; Herath, S.; Apan, A.; Tateishi, R.

2012-07-01

169

The Global Financial Crisis Impact on Ethnic Diversity of Sri Lanka Boards  

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This study investigates the link between ethnic minority directors and agency conflict in Sri Lankan listed companies during a global financial crisis.  Due to social and economic pressures in recent decades, ethnic minorities now make up a larger proportion of directors on corporate boards in Sri Lanka. In addition, the global financial crisis has increased demand for boards to strengthen their ethnic diversity in workplaces.  This study shows that while Sri Lankan boards increased the number of ethnic minority directors during the global financial crisis, heterogeneous boards increased company agency costs.  This evidence provides insights for governments and policy makers as they consider board ethnic diversification in an emerging and highly uncertain environment.

Stuart Locke

2012-01-01

170

Viper bites complicate chronic agrochemical nephropathy in rural Sri Lanka  

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Snakebite is a common occupational health hazard among Sri Lankan agricultural workers, particularly in the North Central Province. Viperine snakes, mainly Russell’s viper envenomation, frequently lead to acute renal failure. During the last two decades, an agrochemical nephropathy, a chronic tubulointerstitial disease has rapidly spread over this area leading to high morbidity and mortality. Most of the epidemiological characteristics of these two conditions overlap, increasing the chances of co-occurrence. Herein, we describe four representative cases of viperine snakebites leading to variable clinical presentations, in patients with chronic agrochemical nephropathy, including two patients presented with acute and delayed anuria. These cases suggest the possibility of unusual manifestations of snakebite in patients with Sri Lankan agrochemical nephropathy, of which the clinicians should be aware. It could be postulated that the existing scenario in the Central America could also lead to similar clinical presentations. PMID:25136354

2014-01-01

171

Viper bites complicate chronic agrochemical nephropathy in rural Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Snakebite is a common occupational health hazard among Sri Lankan agricultural workers, particularly in the North Central Province. Viperine snakes, mainly Russell’s viper envenomation, frequently lead to acute renal failure. During the last two decades, an agrochemical nephropathy, a chronic tubulo [...] interstitial disease has rapidly spread over this area leading to high morbidity and mortality. Most of the epidemiological characteristics of these two conditions overlap, increasing the chances of co-occurrence. Herein, we describe four representative cases of viperine snakebites leading to variable clinical presentations, in patients with chronic agrochemical nephropathy, including two patients presented with acute and delayed anuria. These cases suggest the possibility of unusual manifestations of snakebite in patients with Sri Lankan agrochemical nephropathy, of which the clinicians should be aware. It could be postulated that the existing scenario in the Central America could also lead to similar clinical presentations.

Anjana, Silva; Rivikelum, Samarasinghe; Senaka, Pilapitiya; Niroshana, Dahanayake; Sisira, Siribaddana.

2014-09-02

172

Epidemiology and clinical effects of hump-nosed pit viper (Genus: Hypnale) envenoming in Sri Lanka.  

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Hump-nosed pit vipers of Genus Hypnale are the commonest cause of snake bite in Sri Lanka. Although there are many reports of local effects, coagulopathy and acute kidney injury, it remains unclear how frequent these clinical effects are and therefore the medical importance of this snake genus. The genus has been recently revised to include Hypnale hypnale from Sri Lanka and Western Ghats of Southern India, and the two endemic species to Sri Lanka, Hypnale zara and Hypnale nepa. This was a prospective hospital-based clinical study of definite Hypnale spp. bites from July 2008 to July 2010 in six Sri Lankan hospitals. There were 114 patients included and all snakes were correctly identified by hospital staff as Hypnale spp. Of these, 93 snakes were identified as H. hypnale by an expert, 16 as H. zara and five as H. nepa. Most bites occurred on the lower limbs in the daytime. There was no difference in the clinical effects between the three species. Pain and fang marks were present in all patients, 101 had local swelling and only 16 (14%) developed extensive local swelling that spread proximally and involved more than half of the bitten limb. Systemic symptoms occurred in 18 patients; four patients had an abnormal 20 min whole blood clotting test and one patient developed an acute kidney injury that required haemodialysis. All patients were discharged alive with a median length of stay of 2 days. This study confirms that hump-nosed viper bites cause only minor effects in most cases. Future studies need to undertake formal coagulation studies and identify important early indicators of renal impairment. PMID:23127899

Maduwage, Kalana; Isbister, Geoffrey K; Silva, Anjana; Bowatta, Sunil; Mendis, Suresh; Gawarammana, Indika

2013-01-01

173

Changing epidemiologic patterns of deliberate self poisoning in a rural district of Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute poisoning is a major public health issue in many parts of the world. The epidemiology and the mortality rate is higher in low and middle income countries, including Sri Lanka. The aim of this study was to provide details about the epidemiology of acute poisoning in a rural Sri Lankan district and to identify the changing patterns and epidemiology of poisoning. Methods A prospective study was conducted from September 2008 to January 2010 in all hospitals with inpatient facilities in Anuradhapura district of North Central Province of Sri Lanka. Acute poisoning data was extracted from patient charts. Selected data were compared to the data collected from a 2005 study in 28 hospitals. Results There were 3813 poisoned patients admitted to the hospitals in the Anuradhapura district over 17 months. The annual population incidence was 447 poisoning cases per 100,000 population. The total number of male and female patients was approximately similar, but the age distribution differed by gender. There was a very high incidence of poisoning in females aged 15–19, with an estimated cumulative incidence of 6% over these five years. Although, pesticides are still the most common type of poison, medicinal drug poisonings are now 21% of the total and have increased 1.6 fold since 2005. Conclusions Acute poisoning remains a major public health problem in rural Sri Lanka and pesticide poisoning remains the most important poison. However, cases of medicinal drug poisoning have recently dramatically increased. Youth in these rural communities remain very vulnerable to acute poisoning and the problem is so common that school-based primary prevention programs may be worthwhile. Lalith Senarathna, Shaluka F Jayamanna, Patrick J Kelly, Nick A Buckley,michael J Dibley, Andrew H Dawson. These authors contributed equally to this work.

Senarathna Lalith

2012-08-01

174

The Pearl of Great Price: Achieving Equitable Access to Primary and Secondary Education and Enhancing Learning in Sri Lanka. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 29  

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The experience of public policy in Sri Lanka has had a profound impact on the thinking of the global development community in relation to the role of education in economic development. In particular, the example of Sri Lanka helped to persuade policy makers around the world that governments can successfully develop a general education system to…

Aturupane, Harsha

2009-01-01

175

A Qualitative Assessment of the Health Information System in Sri Lanka using HMN assessment tool  

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Full Text Available Informed decisions are better decisions. Unfortunately, sound information is rarely available in low-income developing countries. Health Metrics Network (HMN is the first global health partnership that focuses on strengthening a country’s health information system (HIS. Sri Lanka is one of the countries that are supported by HMN to strengthen the health information system. To do this HMN has developed a framework that provides a comprehensive approach to improving the health information system and has developed tools to assess and plan a country’s health information system. Sri Lankan National Health Information System was assessed using the Health Information System (HIS assessment tool developed by the HMN. The assessments were conducted through national and provincial level stakeholder workshops and individual expert group interviews. The assessments identified gaps in the health information system in reference to HMN gold standards particularly in areas such as data management and resource available for the health information system. However in-depth analysis is needed to identify the gaps and the causes that contribute to it to develop a good health information systems strategic plan for Sri lanka.

Mohamed H Abusayeed

2010-04-01

176

The influence of gender, ethnicity, class, race, the women's and labour movements on the development of nursing in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper reveals that historically various socio-political factors, including gender, class, ethnicity, race, waves of colonization, decolonization, the civil and ethnic wars, the women's and labour movements, have influenced the development of nursing in Sri Lanka. However, literature presenting the development of nursing in Sri Lanka is sparse. All relevant journals and books published in the English and Sinhalese languages on nursing in Sri Lanka between the years 1878-2011 were examined. Because there are no nursing journals currently produced in Sri Lanka, CINAHL and Medline databases were accessed and relevant literature published in the English language on Sri Lanka was examined. Government, nurses' union and association reports, other unpublished reports and websites such as Google were also searched to access information related to the influence of gender, race, class, ethnicity, women's and labour movements in Sri Lanka. Poor pay, shortages of resources, failure in recruitment and retention and limited opportunity for career progression have acted as deterrents to persons entering and remaining in the nursing profession. Being non-British was a key issue in terms of race. Further, the shift from a colonized state to a welfare state resulted in a class shift from upper middle class to middle and lower class persons entering into nursing. Although there is a paucity of information available in the nursing literature, this analysis offers an intriguing insight into an angle that may be used to examine the influence of gender, ethnicity, class, race and the women's and labour movements in other contextual situations. PMID:22515570

Aluwihare-Samaranayake, Dilmi; Paul, Pauline

2013-06-01

177

Sociodemographic factors associated with aggressive driving behaviors of 3-wheeler taxi drivers in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about the nature and scope of aggressive driving in developing countries. The objective of this study is to specifically examine the sociodemographic factors associated with aggressive driving behavior among 3-wheeler taxi drivers in Sri Lanka. Convenience samples of 3-wheeler taxi drivers from Rathnapura, Ahaliyagoda, Sri Lanka were surveyed from June to August 2006. Analyses included bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Drivers with less than high school education were 3.5 times more likely to drive aggressively (odds ratio [OR] = 3.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 11.1). Single drivers were 9 times more likely to run red lights (OR = 8.74; 95% CI = 2.18, 35.0), and being single was a major risk factor for drunk driving (OR = 4.80; 95% CI = 1.23, 18.7). Furthermore, high school completers were 4 times more likely to bribe a policeman (OR = 4.27; 95% CI = 1.23, 14.9) when caught violating the road rules. Aggressive driving and risk-taking behavior are amenable to policy initiatives, and preventive programs targeted at key groups could be used to improve road safety in Sri Lanka. This study demonstrates that aggressive driving behavior is associated with sociodemographic factors, including the level of education, marital status, and other socioeconomic factors. Hence, economic factors should be addressed to find solutions to traffic-related issues. It will be the government's and policy makers' responsibility to try and understand the economic factors behind risky road behavior and bribe-taking behavior prior to legislating or enforcing new laws. PMID:20685667

Akalanka, Ediriweera Chintana; Fujiwara, Takeo; Desapriya, Ediriweera; Peiris, Dinithi C; Scime, Giulia

2012-01-01

178

Quantitative and Public Perception of Landslide Risk in Badulla, Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

Landslides are often triggered by intense precipitation and are exacerbated by increased urbanisation and human activity. There is a significant risk of large scale landslides in Sri Lanka and when they do occur, they have the potential to cause devastation to property, lives and livelihoods. There are several high landslide risk areas in seven districts (Nuwara Eliya, Badulla, Ratnapura, Kegalle, Kandy, Matale and Kalutara) in Sri Lanka. These are also some of the poorest areas in the country and consequently the recovery process after catastrophic landslides become more problematic. Therefore landslide risk management is an important concern in poverty reduction strategies. We focused on the district of Badulla, Sri Lanka to evaluate the a) quantitative scientific analysis of landslide risk and b) qualitative public perception of landslides in the area. Combining high resolution, hazard and susceptibility data we quantified the risk of landslides in the area. We also evaluated the public perception of landslides in the area using participatory GIS techniques. The evaluation of public perception of landslide risk has been complemented by use of Landscan data. The framework of the methodology for Landscan data is based on using the second order administrative population data from census, each 30 arc-second cell within the administrative units receives a probability coefficient based on slope, proximity to roads and land cover. Provision of this information from these complementary methods to the regional planners help to strengthen the disaster risk reduction options and improving sustainable land use practices through enhanced public participation in the decision making and governance processes.

Gunasekera, R.; Bandara, R. M. S.; Mallawatantri, A.; Saito, K.

2009-04-01

179

An alternative approach for Chemical Restraint of Domesticated Elephants in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The Asian elephant (Elephas maximus represents one of the most seriousendangered species. Capturing and domestication of these wild elephantscan be considered as one of the measures of elephant conservation.Domesticated elephants play a major role during festival processions in SriLanka. However, there is always a risk of getting panic and disobeying ofthese animals to the mahout's order. Self-Tranquilizer was invented toovercome the constraint such as difficulty of reaching and targeting theelephant in a crowded area, prolong loading time of the tranquilizer drug etc,experienced when palmer cap-chur gun is used. Current study was mainlybased on data collected through primary survey and experimental form.Target people of the study were, elephant owners and senior officersattached to Wild Life Department of Sri Lanka. Data were collected usingstructural questionnaire which included general information about captiveelephant management. Survey was concluded that approximately 115 oftamed elephants were rared in the Sri Lanka. Objective of this study was todo a feasibility assessment about Self-Tranquilizer as a safe, reliable anduser friendly method to tranquilize elephants during festive processions.Novel device of the “Self- Tranquilizer was experimented by using the deadelephant's skin. Mechanical background of this machine was fullytelephone operated. Major important part of this machine was auto-plunger.The auto-plunger can be used as a proper “Intramuscular drugadministrating” device. This machine was prepared to fix on the neck of theelephant. In any elephant was out of control, the veterinary surgeon cantranquilize the elephants just by dialing the secrete mobile number that isassigned to the particular elephant. “Self- Tranquilizer” found to beimportant to regain and safeguard the public confidence and safety,respectively.

Sumanasiri, W.G.C.S.B.

2009-06-01

180

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus among nurses in a tertiary care hospital in northern Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in the hands among 109 nursing staffs of Teaching Hospital, Jaffna, Sri Lanka was screened. Of those screened, 43 (39.44%) strains of S. aureus were isolated and among that one third were MRSA. Antibiotic resistant pattern of MRSA strains were found to be highly variable. Resistance to ampicillin, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin, netilmicin and amikacin were found to be 76.9%, 76.9%, 53.8%, 23% and 23% respectively. More than one tenth of the nursing staff were at risk of transmitting the infection and therefore standard infection control precautions should be followed to minimise carriage and transmission. PMID:24977426

Mahalingam, U; Thirunavukarasu, K; Murugananthan, K

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
181

Desiccated coconut industry of Sri Lanka: opportunities for energy efficiency and environmental protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The desiccated coconut (DC) industry is one of the major export oriented food processing industries in Sri Lanka. This paper discusses the production processes, types of fuel used, energy use pattern and the overall specific thermal and electrical energy consumption in the DC sector. An analysis of the energy use highlights the inefficient processes and the key energy loss areas. Options for energy conservation in the DC mills have been discussed, and carbon dioxide emissions from this sector and its mitigation potential are estimated. Other options to improve efficiency and reduce other pollution and policy aspects have been presented.

Kumar, S. E-mail: kumar@ait.ac.th; Senanayake, G.; Visvanathan, C.; Basu, B

2003-08-01

182

The Ireland of Asia: trends in marriage timing in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines marriage patterns among ever married women in Sri Lanka. Data are obtained from the 1987 and 1993 Sri Lanka Demographic and Health Surveys and population censuses during 1946-81. The greatest change in marriage patterns in Sri Lanka is the shift from arranged marriages to individual choice of partners. The individual attributes of the nuclear family have replaced household attributes, such the primacy of the family and hard work. Increased educational levels are desired for a marriage partner. Premarital sex behavior resulted in premarital first births among 1 in 6 married women 20-24 years old at the time of the survey. The singulate mean age of marriage increased from 18.3 years to 25.1 years during 1901-75, which means a long exposure to potential sexual activity. During 1975-80, SMAM has declined for both sexes, and then increased by 1 year. Rates of divorce and widowhood were quite low. The proportion of never married steadily increased over the decades. During 1946-93, the proportion of never married among women 15-19 years old increased from 75% to 93%. Among women 20-24 years old, the proportion increased from 29% to 61%. Marriage timing patterns in Sri Lanka are dissimilar to other South Asian countries and similar to Ireland's patterns. The age at first marriage increased from 20.8 years in the oldest cohort to 24.3 years in the cohort 35-39 years old. Cohorts younger than 35 years show a declining trend in marriage age. It is argued that marriage was delayed during the mid-1970s due to dowry, housing, and wedding expenses. Late marriage was due to the marriage squeeze and socioeconomic change. Mortality declined during the anti-malarial campaign of the late 1940s, with the result that more females were born during 1947-51 than males were born during 1942-46. First marriage ages range from 15 to 29 years for females and from 20 to 34 years for males. PMID:12348099

De Silva, W I

1997-06-01

183

The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Sri Lanka 1983-1993 country programme summaries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Sri Lanka carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

184

Indian flying fox Pteropus giganteus colony in Peradeniya Botanical Gardens, Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available A colony of Indian flying foxes in Peradeniya Botanical Gardens near Kandy, Sri Lanka, was spread over 20 hectares and numbered 24,480 bats in September 2002. The number of bats per tree varied between ten and 1200. The median value was low (= 50 bats per tree and half of the trees contained between 30 and 100 bats. The mean density was c. 1200 bats per hectare, but was significantly higher along the western margin of the colony (3250 bats per hectare. Peradeniya possibly supports the largest aggregation of the Indian flying fox known currently.

Boris Krystufek

2009-11-01

185

Use of illicit substances among schoolchildren in colombo district, Sri Lanka.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to understand the usage patterns and correlates of illicit drug use among schoolchildren in Colombo district, Sri Lanka. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among grade 10 and 12 students using a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: From the 6000 students selected, 5353(89.22%) responded. Betel chewing with tobacco was seen in 28.48% males and 10.44% females. Substances such as Barbul, Madana Modaka, and cough syrups that are not established as il...

Liyanage, Ik; Wickramasinghe, K.; Ratnayake, He; Palmer, P.; Matthews, DR; Katulanda, P.

2013-01-01

186

Desiccated coconut industry of Sri Lanka: opportunities for energy efficiency and environmental protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The desiccated coconut (DC) industry is one of the major export oriented food processing industries in Sri Lanka. This paper discusses the production processes, types of fuel used, energy use pattern and the overall specific thermal and electrical energy consumption in the DC sector. An analysis of the energy use highlights the inefficient processes and the key energy loss areas. Options for energy conservation in the DC mills have been discussed, and carbon dioxide emissions from this sector and its mitigation potential are estimated. Other options to improve efficiency and reduce other pollution and policy aspects have been presented

187

Report on work done in Sri Lanka [Management of water hyacinth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main emphasis of the work in Sri Lanka during the period under review has been on: the collection of available information on the biology of the plant and attempts to gain a more complete understanding of the biology by direct observation and experimentation; the study of the ecology of the plant with special reference to its competition with the other prevalent aquatic weeds in this country, viz Salvinia molesta; the study of the fauna and flora associated with the plant with a view to isolating some organisms that may prove to be suitable agents for its biological control

188

The attitudes of doctors and students towards a genetic service in an Asian country: Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study comparing the views on the acceptance of a genetic service of 302 doctors and 143 final year medical students from Colombo, Sri Lanka, showed both groups have strong positive views on the provision and use of genetic counselling, prenatal diagnosis of genetic disorders and therapeutic abortion. The students responded with greater restraint possibly due to being a younger cohort with less clinical experience. Both groups, however, showed little support for the use of prenatal diagnosis purely to determine fetal sex. PMID:2597090

Jayasekara, R W

1989-09-01

189

Poisoning with plants and mushrooms in Sri Lanka: a retrospective hospital based study.  

Science.gov (United States)

A retrospective hospital-based study in Sri Lanka showed that out of 4556 cases of poisoning, 2.5% were caused by plants and mushrooms. Gloriosa superba (44%), and Ricinus communis (24%) were the commonest plants responsible for poisoning; 39% of the victims were less than 15 y old. Gastric lavage and iv fluids were the most common therapeutic measures used. There were 8 deaths, all due to G superba. There is a need for public education to prevent poisoning, which is a major health concern. PMID:2264272

Fernando, R; Fernando, D N

1990-12-01

190

Indian flying fox Pteropus giganteus colony in Peradeniya Botanical Gardens, Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A colony of Indian flying foxes in Peradeniya Botanical Gardens near Kandy, Sri Lanka, was spread over 20 hectares and numbered 24,480 bats in September 2002. The number of bats per tree varied between ten and 1200. The median value was low (= 50 bats per tree) and half of the trees contained between 30 and 100 bats. The mean density was c. 1200 bats per hectare, but was significantly higher along the western margin of the colony (3250 bats per hectare). Peradeniya possibly supports the large...

Boris Krystufek

2009-01-01

191

Re-discovery of Pouch bearing sheath tailed bat Saccolaimus saccolaimus Temminck (Chiroptera: Emballonuridae from Sri Lanka after 75 years  

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Full Text Available Saccolaimus saccolaimus Temminck, 1838, was first collected by the Museum of Natural History of Sri Lanka in the year 1919 and the first published record of this bat was in 1935 by W.W.A. Philips, though specimens were collected at various times for the collection of the Natural History Museum of Sri Lanka. However, after 1936 there were no records of the species, though, several surveys were conducted on the bat fauna of the island. The species had not been reported since, and was considered as Data Deficient according to latest literature. Here we report on its re-discovery.

Ranil P. Nanayakkara

2012-12-01

192

The Role and Perceptions of Middle Managers and Their Influence on Business Performance: The Case of Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available This paper investigates the role and perceptions of middle managers and how they influence business performance in Sri Lankan companies. The study presented here is based on a questionnaire survey of 121 middle managers regarding issues of communication, group decision making, and organizational leadership. Quantitative analysis of the responses suggests that organizations with collectivistic leaders achieve better performance. As a result, it is argued that collectivism, which includes middle management, can positively contribute to Sri Lanka’s business development and economic recovery.

Sriya Kumarasinghe

2010-09-01

193

International contract migration and the reintegration of return migrants: the experience of Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

"This article attempts to shed light on the issue of how far the labor exporting countries can monitor the process of reinsertion of return migrants in the domestic economy, with a view to maximizing net gains from international labor migration, drawing upon the experience of Sri Lanka. It begins with an examination of the socioeconomic characteristics of migrant workers with special emphasis on their post-migration activity status and the pattern of remittance utilization. Then it proceeds to evaluate critically the self-employment scheme that has been introduced by the Sri Lankan labor administration to advise and train return migrants in establishing themselves in business. The findings point to the danger of expecting too much from policy initiatives in this sphere." PMID:12283037

Athukorala, P

1990-01-01

194

Patterns of hospital transfer for self-poisoned patients in rural Sri Lanka: implications for estimating the incidence of self-poisoning in the developing world / Modalités d'hospitalisation des cas d'autoempoisonnement délibéré en milieu rural au Sri Lanka: ce qu'elles impliquent pour l'estimation de l'incidence des autoempoisonnements dans le monde en développement / Perfil de traslados interhospitalarios de pacientes autointoxicados en una zona rural de Sri Lanka: implicaciones para la estimación de la incidencia de autointoxicaciones en el mundo en desarrollo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVOS: La mayoría de los datos sobre autointoxicaciones en las zonas rurales de Asia proceden de hospitales secundarios. Nuestros objetivos fueron los siguientes: evaluar cómo influyen los traslados de hospitales primarios a hospitales secundarios en las estimaciones de la tasa de letalidad; det [...] erminar si había algún sesgo de derivación según el sexo o el tipo de intoxicación; y estimar la incidencia anual de todos los tipos de autointoxicación, así como de las autointoxicaciones mortales, en un entorno rural del mundo en desarrollo. MÉTODOS: Entre el 1 de julio y el 31 de diciembre de 2002 se examinó en el momento del ingreso a los autointoxicados llegados al Hospital General de Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. Revisamos además las notas médicas correspondientes a los pacientes autointoxicados ingresados en 17 de los 34 hospitales periféricos de los alrededores durante el mismo periodo. RESULTADOS: En total fueron ingresadas en el hospital secundario 742 víctimas de autointoxicaciones, de las cuales fallecieron 81 (tasa de letalidad: 10,9%). Un total de 483 pacientes fueron ingresados en 17 hospitales periféricos de los alrededores. Seis pacientes (1,2%) murieron en esos hospitales, 249 fueron dados de alta, y 228 fueron trasladados al hospital secundario. No se observó ningún efecto del sexo o la edad sobre la probabilidad de traslado; sin embargo, los pacientes que habían ingerido adelfa o paraquat tenían más probabilidades de ser trasladados que los que habían tomado plaguicidas organofosforados u otros productos tóxicos. La incidencia anual estimada de autointoxicaciones y de autointoxicaciones mortales fue de 363 y 27 por 100 000 habitantes, respectivamente, con una tasa de letalidad global del 7,4% (intervalo de confianza del 95%: 6,0-9,0). CONCLUSIÓN: Un 50% de los pacientes ingresados en hospitales periféricos fueron dados de alta, lo que demuestra que las tasas de letalidad basadas en los datos de hospitales secundarios están infladas. No obstante, si bien la incidencia de autointoxicaciones es semejante a la de Inglaterra, en Sri Lanka las autointoxicaciones mortales son tres veces más frecuentes que las autolesiones mortales por cualquier método registradas en Inglaterra. Los datos basados en la población son esenciales para realizar comparaciones internacionales de la letalidad y la incidencia y para evaluar las intervenciones de salud pública. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: Most data on self-poisoning in rural Asia have come from secondary hospitals. We aimed to: assess how transfers from primary to secondary hospitals affected estimates of case-fatality ratio (CFR); determine whether there was referral bias according to gender or poison; and estimate the a [...] nnual incidence of all self-poisoning, and of fatal self-poisoning, in a rural developing-world setting. METHODS: Self-poisoning patients admitted to Anuradhapura General Hospital, Sri Lanka, were reviewed on admission from 1 July to 31 December 2002. We audited medical notes of self-poisoning patients admitted to 17 of the 34 surrounding peripheral hospitals for the same period. FINDINGS: A total of 742 patients were admitted with self-poisoning to the secondary hospital; 81 died (CFR 10.9%). 483 patients were admitted to 17 surrounding peripheral hospitals. Six patients (1.2%) died in peripheral hospitals, 249 were discharged home, and 228 were transferred to the secondary hospital. There was no effect of gender or age on likelihood of transfer; however, patients who had ingested oleander or paraquat were more likely to be transferred than were patients who had taken organophosphorus pesticides or other poisons. Estimated annual incidences of self-poisoning and fatal self-poisoning were 363 and 27 per 100 000 population, respectively, with an overall CFR of 7.4% (95% confidence interval 6.0-9.0). CONCLUSION: Fifty per cent of patients admitted to peripheral hospitals were discharged home, showing that CFRs based on secondary hospital

Michael, Eddleston; K, Sudarshan; M, Senthilkumaran; K, Reginald; Lakshman, Karalliedde; Lalith, Senarathna; Dhammika de, Silva; MH, Rezvi Sheriff; Nick A, Buckley; David, Gunnell.

195

Molecular mechanisms of ?-lactam resistance in carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae from Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbapenemases are increasingly important antimicrobial resistance determinants. Little is known about the carbapenem resistance mechanisms in Sri Lanka. We examined 22 carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae from Sri Lanka to determine their ?-lactam resistance mechanisms. The predominant resistance mechanisms we detected in this study were OXA-181, NDM-1 carbapenemases and extended-spectrum ?-lactamase CTX-M-15. All isolates were then genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, variable-number tandem repeat sequence analysis and multilocus sequence typing, and seven distinct genotypes were observed. Five OXA-181-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were genotypically related to an isolate of Indian origin. Multilocus sequence typing found that these related isolates belong to ST-14, which has been associated with dissemination of OXA-181 from the Indian subcontinent. Other genotypes we discovered were ST-147 and ST-340, also associated with intercontinental spread of carbapenemases of suspected subcontinental origin. The major porin genes ompK35 and ompK36 from these isolates had insertions, deletions and substitutions. Some of these were exclusive to strains within single pulsotypes. We detected one ompK36 variant, ins AA134-135GD, in six ST-14- and six ST-147, blaOXA-181-positive isolates. This porin mutation was an independent predictor of high-level meropenem resistance in our entire Sri Lankan isolate collection (P=0.0030). Analysis of the Sri Lankan ST-14 and ST-147 ins AA134-135GD-positive isolates found ST-14 was more resistant to meropenem than other isolates (mean MIC: 32±0 µg ml(-1) and 20±9.47 µg ml(-1), respectively, P=0.0277). The likely international transmission of these carbapenem resistance determinants highlights the need for regional collaboration and prospective surveillance of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:24855071

Hall, Jarrad M; Corea, Enoka; Sanjeewani, H D Anusha; Inglis, Timothy J J

2014-08-01

196

Malathion resistance and prevalence of the malathion carboxylesterase mechanism in populations of mosquito vectors of disease in Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels of malathion resistance and prevalence of the malathion carboxylesterase mechanism among mosquitoes in Sri Lanka. METHODS: Bioassays were carried out using WHO-recommended methods on samples of the following Sri Lankan mosquito vectors: Culex quinquefasciatus, C. tritaeniorhynchus, C. gelidus; Anopheles culicifacies B, A. subpictus; Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. FINDINGS: Malathion-specific carboxylesterase mechanisms were found in A. culicifacies and A. ...

Karunaratne S.H.P.P.; Hemingway J.

2001-01-01

197

A Critical Review of Environmental Impact Statements in Sri Lanka with Particular Reference to Ecological Impact Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

This article critically reviews environmental assessment (EA) practices in Sri Lanka, with a particular focus on ecology. An overview is provided of the domestic and international influences which have shaped the administrative process which is currently a two-tiered scheme. An Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) provides a preliminary screening tool, prior to the requirement for a full Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). A comprehensive survey of Sri Lankan national archives showed that 463 EAs were completed in the period 1981 2005, with the bulk of these in the more populated Western and North Western Provinces. Two-thirds were IEE surveys, while the remaining third advanced to full EIA. A representative sample of 130 EAs (both IEEs and full EIAs) spanning a broad range of project types, scales, and environmental settings was selected to evaluate the quality of the ecological investigations within the published environmental impact statements (EISs). These were assigned into five classes of “explanatory power”, on the basis of their scientific content in relation to survey, analysis, and reporting of ecological interests. Within most EISs, the ecological impact assessment (EcIA) was restricted to the lowest two categories of ecological assessment, i.e., tokenistic presentation of reconnaissance-level species lists without further analysis of the development implications for individual organisms or communities. None of the assessments reviewed provided statistically rigorous analysis, which would be required if ecological impact studies are to include quantitative and testable predictions of impact, which could then be followed up by appropriate post-impact monitoring programs. Attention to key local issues such as biodiversity or ecosystem services, which also have strong social dimensions in the developing world, was also notably underrepresented. It was thus concluded that despite the existence of a sound legislative framework in Sri Lanka, the analysis contained within EISs generally fails to convey meaningful information to the relevant stakeholders and decision makers involved in protecting ecological interests and promoting sustainable development. The introduction of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is considered an important tool to strengthen the institutional capacity of Sri Lankan government to implement current regulations and, in particular, to combat the cumulative effects of incremental development.

Samarakoon, Miriya; Rowan, John S.

2008-03-01

198

Initial Teacher Training: South Asian Approaches. Quality in Basic Education: Professional Development of Teachers. Papers Prepared for a South Asian Colloquium on Teacher Training in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka (Colombo, Sri Lanka, April 1992).  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication is one of two prepared for a South Asian Colloquium on issues related to teacher training in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. The papers in this volume focus on innovations and alternative strategies designed to improve quality in teacher education at preservice phase. The publication is in five sections. The first four…

Commonwealth Secretariat, London (England).

199

The feminization of foreign currency earnings: women's labor in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper considers women's participation in foreign currency earning activities in Sri Lanka. The author first analyzes the structure of women's participation patterns in the major foreign currency earning activities in the country, including consideration of their wage levels and the impact of ethnicity, age, educational levels, and skills upon the different components of those activities in which women participate. She then probes the applicability for Sri Lanka of Guy Standing's argument that structural adjustment policies (SAP) have triggered a change in labor force practices leading to a feminization through flexible labor. Many studies have shown that cutbacks in subsidies mandated by SAPs and initiated in the 1980s among developing countries have adversely affected poor women. Women have adjusted to the new situation in a variety of ways, ranging from cutting their household budgets for basic needs to seeking income-generating work in the informal sector and participating in labor-intensive manufacturing activities. In closing, the author assesses the degree to which the new demands made upon women resulting from the effect of SAPs upon their households have stimulated women's increasing participation in foreign currency earning activities. PMID:12349170

Samarasinghe, V

1998-01-01

200

Economic valuation of a mangrove ecosystem threatened by shrimp aquaculture in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mangrove ecosystems in Sri Lanka are increasingly under threat from development projects, especially aquaculture. An economic assessment is presented for a relatively large (42 ha) shrimp culture development proposed for the Rekawa Lagoon system in the south of Sri Lanka, which involved an extended cost-benefit analysis of the proposal and an estimate of the "total economic value" (TEV) of a mangrove ecosystem. The analysis revealed that the internal benefits of developing the shrimp farm are higher than the internal costs in the ratio of 1.5:1. However, when the wider environmental impacts are more comprehensively evaluated, the external benefits are much lower than the external costs in a ratio that ranges between 1:6 and 1:11. In areas like Rekawa, where agriculture and fisheries are widely practiced at subsistence levels, shrimp aquaculture developments have disproportionately large impacts on traditional livelihoods and social welfare. Thus, although the analysis retains considerable uncertainties, more explicit costing of the environmental services provided by mangrove ecosystems demonstrates that low intensity, but sustainable, harvesting has far greater long-term value to local stakeholders and the wider community than large shrimp aquaculture developments. PMID:16151655

Gunawardena, M; Rowan, J S

2005-10-01

 
 
 
 
201

International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sri Lanka is essentially a detached portion of the Deccan Plateau of south India and like it, is underlain almost everywhere by hard old Precambrian rocks. Prior to 1940 there was no systematic organised geological survey work on the island. Between 1957 and 1962 a partial aerial survey and field traverses were conducted in a search for radio- active minerals. Since then a modest programme has continued. Thorianite was first discovered in placer deposits in 1903 and prospecting has found many other refractory radioactive minerals probably derived from the weathering of pegmatites. Monazite is found as an important constituent of beach placer deposits and it is estimated to have an average content of 8-10%ThO2 and 0.3 - 0.5% U3O8. Up to 1000 tons monazite per year could be produced from the beach sand industry. Sri Lanka has had very little systematic exploration for uranium and as it is largely composed of Precambrian rocks it deserves closer attention. On the other hand it is part of a thorium rich province and there is a body of technical opinion that believes that thorium rich provinces are unlikely to contain significant uranium deposits. For these reasons it is estimated that the Speculative Potential may be within the range of 1000 to 10,000 tonnes uranium. In addition it maybe possible to produce up to 5 tonnes uranium and 100 tonnes thorium from the beach sand industry on an annual basis. (author)

202

The impact of electricity supply on economic growth in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

World net electricity consumption is expected to double over the next two decades. With increasing demand, electricity shortages will be prevalent, particularly in developing countries. An adequate and regular power supply would support economic growth in developing countries. Previous studies have demonstrated a strong correlation between electricity use and economic development. Studies have shown that there is a bi-directional causal relationship between gross domestic product and electricity consumption in Taiwan for the period 1954 to 1997. In order to examine the impact of electricity supply on economic growth in Sri Lanka, this paper presented the results of a study that applied Yang's model, using a simple regression analysis. The paper presented the methodology and estimation results. The study incorporated a cost benefit analysis model which assessed the economic, social and environmental impacts of dam projects in Sri Lanka. It was concluded that the application of Yang's regression analysis is one possible approach to estimate a better range for the expected increase in economic output parameter. 14 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

203

The geology, mineralogy and rare element geochemistry of the gem deposits of Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The gem deposits of Sri Lanka are studied from the point of view of their geology, mineralogy and geochemistry. Nearly all the gem formations are located in the central high-grade metamorphic terrain of the Highland Complex. The gem deposits are classified as sedimentary, metamorphic and magmatic; the sedimentary types being the most abundant. The mineralogy of the gem deposits varies widely with, among others, corundum, chrysoberyl, beryl, spinel, topaz,zircon, tourmaline, garnet and sphene being common.Rare element concentrations in sediments from the three main gem fields of Sri Lanka, namely Ratnapura, Elahera and Walawe, were studied. It was found that some sediments are considerably enriched in certain elements compared to their average continental crustal abundances. The Walawe Ganga sediments show anomalous enrichments of the high field strength and associated elements, particularly Zr, Hf, W and Ti. This is attributed to the presence of accessory mineralssuch as zircon, monazite and rutile. Some of these heavy minerals comprise as much as 50 wt% of sediment. The geochemical enrichment of some trace elements compared to their average crustal abundances indicates that highly differentiated granites and associated pegmatites have provided the source materials for enrichment.

C. B. Dissanayake

2000-01-01

204

An Overview: Vaccination to control fowl typhoid in Commercial layers, Sri Lanka.  

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Full Text Available Poultry production and consumption in Sri Lanka, has been dramatically increased during last two decades and Salmonellosis was reported as one of the prevalent diseases in commercial layers. Both S.Gallianrum as well as S.Pullorum is causing severe economical impact to the industry, while S.Typhimurium and S.Enteritidis are also important in the public health aspects. Vaccination against Salmonellosis is widely practiced in several countries in the world to control the infection: In Sri Lanka, killed vaccine is permitted only for commercial layer, while breeder birds, commercial broilers are prohibited by regulation.Both Live attenuated and killed vaccine have many benefits, and proven results for controlling of none host- specific Salmonella in poultry and also in reducing the occurrence of human food born infections. Both vaccines were considered as potential to control the host specific Salmonella in poultry by reducing the mortality and feacal shedding to the environment. Evidencely, live vaccines are capable of controlling the human infections caused by non host specific Salmonella as a result of cross immunization in poultry. Since, Both vaccine given positive effect as well as negative effect to control the Salmonellsois in chicken and further studies are encouraged relevant to local situation.

M.A.R. Priyantha

2009-12-01

205

Tobacco use among students aged 13-15 years--Sri Lanka, 1999-2007.  

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Tobacco use is one of the major preventable causes of premature death and disease in the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) attributes approximately 5 million deaths per year to tobacco use, a number expected to exceed 8 million per year by 2030. In 1999, the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) was initiated by WHO, CDC, and the Canadian Public Health Association to monitor tobacco use, attitudes about tobacco use, and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) among students aged 13-15 years. Since 1999, the survey has been completed by approximately 2 million students in 151 countries. A key goal of GYTS is for countries to repeat the survey every 4 years. This report summarizes results from GYTS conducted in Sri Lanka in 1999, 2003, and 2007. The findings indicated that during 1999-2007, the percentage of students aged 13-15 years who reported current cigarette smoking decreased, from 4.0% in 1999 to 1.2% in 2007. During this period, the percentage of never smokers in this age group likely to initiate smoking also decreased, from 5.1% in 1999 to 3.7% in 2007. Future declines in tobacco use in Sri Lanka will be enhanced through development and implementation of new tobacco-control measures and strengthening of existing measures that encourage smokers to quit, eliminate exposure to SHS, and encourage persons not to initiate tobacco use. PMID:18496502

2008-05-23

206

Demographic Variables of University Teachers and Usage of Electronic Information Resources: A Case in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The primary aim of the study is to identify whether there are any significant mean differences amongdemographic variables such as gender, age group, faculty, teaching language and experience of universityteachers employed at the University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka on the usage of electronic information resources (EIR.The study employs independent samples t- test and one-way ANOVA (f-test to test the operational hypotheses.The survey method used in this study is a questionnaire and a total of 75 usable responses were obtained usingstratified random sampling technique. The t-test revealed a statistically significant difference between the meannumber of usage of electronic information resources and gender (t = 5.099, p < 0.05 with the highest meanvalue of male university teachers. According to the f-test, there are significant mean differences among agegroup, teaching language and experiences of teachers on the usage of electronic information resources, whereasmean usage of electronic information resources do not differ significantly among five different faculties (F =2.075, p > 0.05. This study would hopefully benefit to the academicians, researchers, policy makers, andpractitioners of Sri Lanka as well as other countries. 

Nadarajah Sivathaasan

2013-09-01

207

Environmental, economic and social analysis of materials for doors and windows in Sri Lanka  

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This paper compares the environmental, economic and social impacts of two types of doors and windows (elements), namely timber and aluminum taking into consideration the life cycle perspective. These elements are widely used for the buildings in Sri Lanka. Thus, it will help in the decision-making process when selecting materials for these elements. Major materials used for these elements are timber, brass, glass, paint, aluminum, rubber, steel and PVC boards. Environmental burdens associated with these materials are analyzed in terms of embodied energy, and environmental impacts that are relevant to Sri Lanka, such as global warming (GWP), acidification (ACP) and nutrient enrichment (NEP). Economic analysis is done using market prices of materials and affordability for those materials. Social concerns such as thermal comfort, good interior (aesthetics), ability to construct fast, and durability are analyzed based on the data collected through the questionnaires and also, interviews with the stakeholders of the buildings such as engineers, architects, building contractors and building users. It was found that timber elements are superior to aluminum elements in environmental scores (GWP, ACP and NEP). On economic score, also, timber elements are better. But on social score, aluminum elements are better than timber. It was also found that the higher the recycling percentage of aluminum, the higher the environmental favorability of the aluminum. (author)

Abeysundra, U.G. Yasantha; Babel, Sandhya; Sharp, Alice [Environmental Technology Program, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology (SIIT), Thammasat University, P.O. Box 22, Pathumthani 12121 (Thailand); Gheewala, Shabbir [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology, School of Energy and Materials Building, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

2007-05-15

208

Selenium and iodine in soil, rice and drinking water in relation to endemic goitre in Sri Lanka  

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Endemic goitre has been reported in the climatic wet zone of south-west Sri Lanka for the past 50 years, but rarely occurs in the northern dry zone. Despite government-sponsored iodised salt programmes, endemic goitre is still prevalent. In recent years, it has been suggested that Se deficiency may be an important factor in the onset of goitre and other iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). Prior to the present study, environmental concentrations of Se in Sri Lanka and the possible relationships between Se deficiency and endemic goitre had not been investigated. During the present study, chemical differences in the environment (measured in soil, rice and drinking water) and the Se-status of the human population (demonstrated by hair samples from women) were determined for 15 villages. The villages were characterised by low (25%) goitre incidence (NIDD, MIDD and HIDD, respectively). Results show that concentrations of soil total Se and iodine are highest in the HIDD villages, however, the soil clay and organic matter content appear to inhibit the bioavailability of these elements. Concentrations of iodine in rice are low (?58 ng/g) and rice does not provide a significant source of iodine in the Sri Lankan diet. High concentrations of iodine (up to 84 ?g/l) in drinking water in the dry zone may, in part, explain why goitre is uncommon in this area. This study has shown for the first time that significant proportions of the Sri Lankan nificant proportions of the Sri Lankan female population may be Se deficient (24, 24 and 40% in the NIDD, MIDD and HIDD villages, respectively). Although Se deficiency is not restricted to areas where goitre is prevalent, a combination of iodine and Se deficiency could be involved in the pathogenesis of goitre in Sri Lanka. The distribution of red rice cultivation in Sri Lanka is coincident with the HIDD villages. Varieties of red rice grown in other countries contain anthocyanins and procyanidins, compounds which in other foodstuffs are known goitrogens. The potential goitrogenic properties of red rice in Sri Lanka are presently unknown and require further investigation. It is likely that the incidence of goitre in Sri Lanka is multi-factorial, involving trace element deficiencies and other factors such as poor nutrition and goitrogens in foodstuffs

209

Escalating chronic kidney diseases of multi-factorial origin in Sri Lanka: causes, solutions, and recommendations.  

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During the last two decades, Sri Lanka, located close to the equator, has experienced an escalating incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown aetiology (CKDue) in dry zonal areas. Similar incidences of unusual CKDs have been reported in the dry zonal, agricultural areas of several other equatorial countries. In Sri Lanka, the incidence of CKDue is highest in the North Central Province (NCP), where approximately 45 % of the country's paddy fields are located. However, in recent years, the disease has spread into areas adjacent to as well as distant from the NCP. The cause of CKD in Sri Lanka is unknown, and may likely due to interactions of different potential agents; thus, CKD is of multi-factorial origin (CKD-mfo). These factors include, the negative effects from overuse of agrochemicals. Nevertheless, the potential interactions and synergism between probable agents have not been studied. This systematic review discusses the proposed hypotheses and causes of CKD-mfo in Sri Lanka, and ways to decrease the incidence of this disease and to eradicate it, and provide some recommendations. During the past decade, a number of groups have investigated this disorder using different methodologies and reported various correlations, but failed to find a cause. Research has focussed on the contamination of water with heavy metals, agrochemicals, hard water, algae, ionicity, climate change, and so forth. Nevertheless, the levels of any of the pollutants or conditions reported in water in NPC are inconsistent not correlated with the prevalence of the disease, and are too low to be the sole cause of CKD-mfo. Meanwhile, several nephrotoxins prevalent in the region, including medications, leptospirosis, toxic herbs, illicit alcohol, locally grown tobacco, and petrochemicals, as well as the effects of changed habits occured over the past four decades have not been studied to date. Taken together, the geographical distribution and overall findings indicate that combinations of factors and/or their interactions are likely to precipitate CKD-mfo, which kills more than 5,000 people annually in Sri Lanka; most victims are middle-aged male farmers. Much anecdotal evidence from this region suggests that consumption of contaminated water is the most likely source of this deadly disease. Although the aetiology is unknown, prevention of this "environmentally acquired" disease seems relatively straightforward. Solutions include (a) preventing environmental pollution, (b) stopping the irresponsible use and decreasing the usage of agrochemicals, and encouraging the use of environmentally friendly agricultural methods, (c) taking proper precautions when using agrochemicals and safe disposal of their containers, (d) changing the risky behaviour of farmers and educating them to preserve the environment, and (e) providing clean potable water to all affected regions. Implementing a well-coordinated, in-depth, region-wide, broad-based research study together with a long-term effective surveillance programme across the country is essential to curbing this disease. Unless firm actions are taken promptly, more than three million healthy people in the country, live in agricultural regions, are at risk for contracting CKD-mfo and succumb to premature deaths, which are preventable. PMID:25239006

Wimalawansa, Sunil J

2014-11-01

210

Comparative Study of Pre-Service Teacher Education Programme at Secondary Stage in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka  

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The present research work has studied and compared the different issues of pre-service teacher education programme in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Pakistan. The data were collected from 24 principals, 88 teacher educators and 157 student teachers from institutions and universities where Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) course were. The data were…

Yadav, S. K.

2011-01-01

211

Molecular Epidemiology of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus among Humans and Swine, Sri Lanka.  

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After multiple discrete introductions of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus into Sri Lanka, the virus was transmitted among humans, then swine. The spread of virus between geographically distant swine farms is consistent with virus dispersal associated with a vehicle used for swine transportation, although this remains unproven. PMID:25417652

Perera, Harsha K K; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Premarathna, Akuratiya G; Jayamaha, Chrishan J S; Wickramasinghe, Geethani; Cheung, Chung L; Yeung, Ming F; Poon, Leo L M; Perera, Aluthgama K C; Barr, Ian G; Guan, Yi; Peiris, Malik

2014-12-01

212

Leishmanization revisited: immunization with a naturally attenuated cutaneous Leishmania donovani isolate from Sri Lanka protects against visceral leishmaniasis.  

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Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by Leishmania protozoa and associated with three main clinical presentations: cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis is the second most lethal parasitic disease after malaria and there is so far no human vaccine. Leishmania donovani is a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in South East Asia and Eastern Africa. However, in Sri Lanka, L. donovani causes mainly cutaneous leishmaniasis, while visceral leishmaniasis is rare. We investigate here the possibility that the cutaneous form of L. donovani can provide immunological protection against the visceral form of the disease, as a potential explanation for why visceral leishmaniasis is rare in Sri Lanka. Subcutaneous immunization with a cutaneous clinical isolate from Sri Lanka was significantly protective against visceral leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice. Protection was associated with a mixed Th1/Th2 response. These results provide a possible rationale for the scarcity of visceral leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka and could guide leishmaniasis vaccine development efforts. PMID:23219435

McCall, Laura-Isobel; Zhang, Wen-Wei; Ranasinghe, Shanlindra; Matlashewski, Greg

2013-02-27

213

Molecular evidence for the presence of malaria vector species a of the Anopheles annularis complex in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles annularis s.l. is a wide spread malaria vector in South and Southeast Asia, including Sri Lanka. The taxon An. annularis is a complex of two sibling species viz. A and B, that are differentiated by chromosome banding patterns and ribosomal gene sequences in India. Only species A is reported to be a malaria vector in India while the occurrence of sibling species in Sri Lanka has not been documented previously. Findings Anopheline larvae were collected at a site in the Jaffna district, which lies within the dry zone of Sri Lanka, and reared in the laboratory. Emerged adults were identified using standard keys. DNA sequences of the D3 domain of 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA and the internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS-2 of the morphologically identified An. annularis were determined. BLASTn searches against corresponding An. annularis sequences in GenBank and construction of phylogenetic trees from D3 and ITS-2 rDNA sequences showed that the Sri Lankan specimens, and An. annularis s.l. specimens from several Southeast Asian countries were closely related to species A of the Indian An. annularis complex. Conclusions The results show the presence of the malaria vector An. annularis species A in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. Because An. annularis vectors have been long associated with malaria transmission in irrigated agricultural areas in the Sri Lankan dry zone, continued monitoring of An. annularis populations, and their sibling species status, in these areas need to be integral to malaria control and eradication efforts in the island.

Surendran Sinnathamby N

2011-12-01

214

Studies on prevalence of anopheline species and community perception of malaria in Jaffna district, Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives: Over two decades of civil unrest and the conflict situation have had detrimental effects on vector control activities and management of malaria in Jaffna district which is an endemic region for malaria in Sri Lanka. With the background that only a few small-scale studies on malaria and its vectors have been reported from this district, a study was designed to explore the current status of malaria in the Jaffna district in relation to vector and community aspects.Methods: Adults and larvae of anopheline mosquitoes were collected monthly from selected endemic localities. Species prevalence of the collected mosquitoes was studied while the collected adults of Anopheles subpictus, a potential vector in the district, was screened for sibling species composition based on morphological characteristics and exposed to common insecticides using WHO bioassay kits. Knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP of the community were tested using a pre-tested structured questionnaire in high-risk and low-risk localities in the district.Results: The anopheline mosquito species distribution in the district was—An. culicifacies (0.5%, An. subpictus (46%, An. varuna (4%, An. nigerrimus (44% and An. pallidus (5.5%. Among the collected larvae the percent prevalence of An. culicifacies was 13% and other species follows as: An. subpictus (71%, An. varuna (4%, An. nigerrimus (10% and An. pallidus (2%. Sibling species B, C and D of An. subpictus were present in the district with the predominance of B in both coastal and inland areas, while all members showed both indoor and outdoor resting characteristics, they were highly resistant to DDT (4% and highly susceptible to malathion (5%. KAP study in the district showed a reasonable level of knowledge, positive attitude and practices towards malaria.Conclusion: An. subpictus, the reported major vector of Jaffna and a well-established secondary vector of malaria in the country, continues to be the predominant anopheline species. The distribution of sibling species of An. subpictus complex in the Jaffna district, revealed for the first time, has implications for future studies on its bionomics and malaria transmission pattern in this area and the planning of control strategies for this region. The community perception of disease, which revealed a satisfactory knowledge indicates the potential for better community participation in future malaria control activities in this region. As potential vectors are still present, health authorities need to be vigilant to prevent any future epidemics of malaria.

N.D. Karunaweera

2008-08-01

215

Influence of pesticide regulation on acute poisoning deaths in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess in a developing Asian country the impact of pesticide regulation on the number of deaths from poisoning. These regulations, which were implemented in Sri Lanka from the 1970s, aimed to reduce the number of deaths - the majority from self-poisoning - by limiting the availability and use of highly toxic pesticides. METHODS: Information on legislative changes was obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture, national and district hospital admission data were obtained from the Sri Lanka Health Statistics Unit, and individual details of deaths by pesticide poisoning were obtained from a manual review of patients' notes and intensive care unit records in Anuradhapura. FINDINGS: Between 1986 and 2000, the total national number of admissions due to poisoning doubled, and admissions due to pesticide poisoning increased by more than 50%. At the same time, the case fatality proportion (CFP fell for total poisonings and for poisonings due to pesticides. In 1991_92, 72% of pesticide-induced deaths in Anuradhapura were caused by organophosphorus (OP and carbamate pesticides - in particular, the WHO class I OPs monocrotophos and methamidophos. From 1991, the import of these pesticides was reduced gradually until they were banned for routine use in January 1995, with a corresponding fall in deaths. Unfortunately, their place in agricultural practice was taken by the WHO class II organochlorine endosulfan, which led to a rise in deaths from status epilepticus - from one in 1994 to 50 in 1998. Endosulfan was banned in 1998, and over the following three years the number of endosulfan deaths fell to three. However, at the end of the decade, the number of deaths from pesticides was at a similar level to that of 1991, with WHO class II OPs causing the most deaths. Although these drugs are less toxic than class I OPs, the management of class II OPs remains difficult because they are, nevertheless, still highly toxic, and their toxicity is exacerbated by the paucity of available facilities. CONCLUSION: The fall in CFP amidst a rising incidence of self-poisoning suggests that Sri Lanka's programmes of pesticide regulation were beneficial. However, a closer inspection of pesticide-induced deaths in one hospital revealed switching to other highly toxic pesticides, as one was banned and replaced in agricultural practice by another. Future regulation must predict this switching and bear in mind the ease of treatment of replacement pesticides. Furthermore, such regulations must be implemented alongside other strategies, such as integrated pest management, to reduce the overall pesticide availability for self-harm.

Roberts Darren M.

2003-01-01

216

Use of culture and immunochromatographic technique for diagnosis of trichomoniasis in Sri Lanka.  

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As a majority of the trichomoniasis patients are asymptomatic, laboratory tests are crucial in case detection. The usefulness of culture and immunochromatographic technique (ICT) compared to microscopy for detection of trichomoniasis in Sri Lanka was assessed. Females (16-45 years) from Colombo district were screened for Trichomonas vaginalis using three laboratory tests namely, microscopy of wet smear, Trichomonas liquid culture and ICT (OSOM® trichomonas rapid test). Trichomoniasis by at least one test being positive was 4.8%. Microscopy, culture and ICT detected 2.8%, 4.2% and 10% cases respectively. Microscopy missed 32% of culture positives. ICT is a simple, practical and reliable alternative to microscopy in laboratory diagnosis of trichomoniasis. PMID:24081173

Banneheke, H; Fernandopulle, R; Prathanapan, S; de Silva, G; Fernando, N; Wickremasinghe, R

2013-09-01

217

A Comparative Approach to Multigrade Class Implementation: Examples of Vietnam, Peru, Sri Lanka and Colombia  

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Full Text Available This article compares and evaluates the implementation of multi-grade class teaching in Turkey with similar applications in countries such as Vietnam, Peru, Sri Lanka and Colombia. From the comparison it was revealed that all dimensions of teacher training related to the method applied in Turkey should be reviewed in detail and the related curricula should be restructured; the application should be improved; the problems of the teachers working in these schools should be solved. A review of the related literature was carried out and it was found that multi-grade class teaching was more common than had been assumed and it had an important place in first stage elementary schools in Turkey.

?brahim Ya?ar KAZU

2011-12-01

218

Municipal solid waste management in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka: Problems, issues and challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the problems, issues and challenges faced by Sri Lanka based on the outcome of a recent study conducted in the country's Southern Province. The study consists of a public survey, discussions with local authority staff involved in waste management, discussions with Provincial Council and Government officials, dialogue with local politicians, review of documents and field observations. The study revealed that only 24% of the households have access to waste collection and that in rural areas it was less than 2%. A substantial number of households in areas without waste collection expect local authorities to collect their waste. The study also showed that most sites in the province are under capacity to handle any increased demand. Urgent and immediate improvement of the waste disposal sites is necessary to meet the current demand for improved waste collection. The study also revealed that there is a high willingness of people for home composting

219

Ultra-micro trace element contents in spices from Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spices were analyzed by ICP-MS for determination of the ultra-micro trace elements in the human adult, Bi, Cd, Co, Ni, Pd, Pt, Se, Sn, Te, Tl, to complement previous results obtained by INAA and by EDXRF. The spices, originating from Sri Lanka, were curry, chilli powder and turmeric powders, coriander, cinnamon, black pepper, fennel, rampeh and curry leaves, and cumin. The analytical procedure was validated by analyzing the certified reference materials NIST SRM 1572 Citrus Leaves and NIST SRM 1573 Tomato Leaves. The results indicate that spices may contribute well to the daily optimal uptake of nutrients of a human adult. The adequacy of spices as a reference material with certified ultra micro trace elements is suggested. (author)

220

Entrepreneurial Orientation and Business Performance of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises of Hambantota District Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Entrepreneurship has played an important role in economic growth, innovation, competitiveness and in poverty alleviation. This study investigated the degree of Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO of twenty five manufacturing Small and Medium scale Enterprises (SMEs in Hambantota District, Sri Lanka (HDSL and the effects of EO dimensions including proactiveness, innovativeness, and risk taking to business performance. Interviews were used as the main instrument for data collection. Qualitative and quantitative techniques were applied for data analysis. Findings showed about 52% of SMEs in HDSL represented moderate level of EO. Proactiveness, innovativeness, risk taking and overall EO were significantly correlated with market share growth. Results further indicated there were positive correlations among proactiveness and EO with business performance. This study could be useful for policy makers to plan their activities towards entrepreneurship development of SMEs in HDSL.

Fauzul Mafasiya Fairoz

2010-02-01

 
 
 
 
221

Instructors’ Perspective on E-Learning Adoption in Sri Lanka: A Preliminary Investigation  

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Full Text Available E-Learning has become an increasingly popular mode of instruction in higher education due to advances in the Internet and multimedia technologies. The purpose of the study is to gauge the perception and views of the lecturers at South Eastern University (SEUSL. As it is an exploratory study, the case study method was undertaken. The result of the study indicates that the lecturers are with positive attitude and supportive mindset to embark on e-learning initiative and it also identified a number of factors that could potentially influence the e-learning implementation in the university. Moreover the findings are instrumental and directing in undertaking a comprehensive study to understand the overall perception of lecturers towards e-learning implementation at the tertiary educational institutions in Sri Lanka.

Husnayati Hussin

2008-12-01

222

An evaluation of the undergraduate teaching programme in ophthalmology in Sri Lanka and Malaysia.  

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The knowledge and clinical and minor surgical skills acquired by 257 medical students in three universities in Sri Lanka and Malaysia were assessed by a questionnaire after they had completed their training period in ophthalmology. This study showed that many medical students graduating from these universities lacked the basic clinical and minor surgical skills essential for a doctor practising in a community in south-east Asia. The responses also indicated that teaching by consultants in all three universities was inadequate and due to these inadequacies the students requested that the duration of their training period be doubled. Ophthalmology is an important component of clinical practice and proper education in this subject is important. An urgent revision of the aims and objectives of the curriculum in ophthalmology is essential to place greater emphasis on this important and much neglected subject, for which very little curricular time is allotted. PMID:3626901

Dias, P L

1987-07-01

223

Neighborhood Environment and Self-Rated Health among Adults in Southern Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The prevalenceof different neighborhood environmental stressors and associations between the stressors and self-rated health are described in a representative sample of 2,077 individuals, aged 18-85 years, in southern Sri Lanka. Mosquito menace (69.4%, stray dog problems (26.8%, nuisance from neighbors (20.3%, and nuisance from drug users (18.7% were found to be the most prevalent environmental stressors. None of the stressors investigated were associated with self-rated physical health, but nuisance from neighbors, nuisance from drug users, shortage of water and having poor water/ sewage drainage system were associated with self-rated mental health among the respondents.

Truls Østbye

2009-07-01

224

Informed consent in Sri Lanka: A survey among ethics committee members  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Approval of the research proposal by an ethical review committee from both sponsoring and host countries is a generally agreed requirement in externally sponsored research. However, capacity for ethics review is not universal. Aim of this study was to identify opinions and views of the members serving in ethical review and ethics committees in Sri Lanka on informed consent, essential components in the information leaflet and the consent form. Methods We obtained ethical approval from UK and Sri Lanka. A series of consensus generation meetings on the protocol were conducted. A task oriented interview guide was developed. The interview was based on open-ended questionnaire. Then the participants were given a WHO checklist on informed consent and requested to rate the items on a three point scale ranging from extremely important to not important. Results Twenty-nine members from ethics committees participated. Majority of participants (23, believed a copy of the information leaflet and consent form, should accompany research proposal. Opinions about the items that should be included in the information leaflets varied. Participants identified 18 criteria as requirements in the information leaflet and 19 for the consent form. The majority, 20 (69%, believed that all research need ethical approval but identified limited human resource, time and inadequate capacity as constraints. Fifteen (52% believed that written consent is not required for all research. Verbal consent emerged as an alternative to written consent. The majority of participants rated all components of the WHO checklist as important. Conclusion The number of themes generated for the consent form (N = 18 is as many as for the information leaflet (N = 19 and had several overlaps. This suggests that the consent form should be itemized to reflect the contents covered in the information leaflet. The participants' opinion on components of the information leaflets and consent forms proved to be similar with WHO checklist on informed consent.

Siriwardhana Chesmal

2008-05-01

225

Assessment of economic impact of electricity supply interruptions in the Sri Lanka industrial sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the outcome of the Sri Lanka case study on assessing the economic impact of power interruptions on industry in the South Asia region, comprising the countries of Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh and India. The technical assessment evaluates the cost to the country's economy in terms of the industrial loss due to supply interruptions and environmental impacts from standby generation used to supplement the power requirements of the industrial sector. The study found that the main economic impact of the power interruptions, both planned and unplanned, is the loss of output in the industrial sector. In a typical year of power shortages, such as 2001, arising from a deficit in generation capacity, these losses can be as high as approximately US$ 81 million a year, which is approximately 0.65% of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). Also, the economic impact due to unplanned outages can be around US$ 45 million (0.3% of GDP) in a typical year. On average, these values for planned and unplanned outages are US$ 0.66 and US$ 1.08 per kW h of energy loss, respectively. It is also observed that 92% of the sampled industries have standby generation facilities to satisfy either, in full or partially, their own power requirements, which produced approximately 146 GW h of energy in 2001. The serious economic and environmental impacts of power interruptions, both planned and unplanned, underlines the importance of timely implementation of the long term least cost generation expansion plan and proper maintenance of transmission and distribution networks to ensure their high reliability. Therefore, it is clear that the utility needs to take immediate steps to improve its supply reliability in order to retain consumers and justify the existence of a centralised generation facility

226

Impact of distributed and independent power generation on greenhouse gas emissions: Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sri Lanka has a hydropower dominated power system with approximately two thirds of its generation capacity based on large hydro plants. The remaining one third are based on oil fired thermal generation with varying technologies, such as oil steam, Diesel, gas turbines and combined cycle plants. A significant portion of this capacity is in operation as independent power plants (IPPs). In addition to these, Sri Lanka presently has about 40 MWs of mini-hydro plants, which are distributed in the highlands and their surrounding districts, mainly connected to the primary distribution system. Further, there are a few attempts to build fuel wood fired power plants of small capacities and connect them to the grid in various parts of the country. The study presented in this paper investigates the impact of these new developments in the power sector on the overall emissions and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in particular. It examines the resulting changes to the emissions and costs in the event of developing the proposed coal power plant as an IPP under different investment and operational conditions. The paper also examines the impact on emissions with 80 MWs of distributed power in different capacities of wind, mini-hydro and wood fired power plants. It is concluded that grid connected, distributed power generation (DPG) reduces emissions, with only a marginal increase in overall costs, due to the reduction in transmission and distribution network losses that result from the distributed nature of generation. These reductions can be enhanced by opting for renewable energy based DPGS, as the case presented in the paper, and coupling them with demand side management measures. It is also concluded that there is no impact on overall emissions by the base load IPPs unless they are allowed to change over to different fuel types and technologies. (author)

Wijayatunga, P.D.C. [University of Moratuwa (Sri Lanka). Centre for Energy Studies; Fernando, W.J.L.S. [Sri Lanka Energy Managers Association, Colombo (Sri Lanka); Shrestha, R.M. [Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani (Thailand). Energy Program

2004-12-01

227

Impact of distributed and independent power generation on greenhouse gas emissions: Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sri Lanka has a hydropower dominated power system with approximately two thirds of its generation capacity based on large hydro plants. The remaining one third are based on oil fired thermal generation with varying technologies, such as oil steam, Diesel, gas turbines and combined cycle plants. A significant portion of this capacity is in operation as independent power plants (IPPs). In addition to these, Sri Lanka presently has about 40 MWs of mini-hydro plants, which are distributed in the highlands and their surrounding districts, mainly connected to the primary distribution system. Further, there are a few attempts to build fuel wood fired power plants of small capacities and connect them to the grid in various parts of the country. The study presented in this paper investigates the impact of these new developments in the power sector on the overall emissions and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in particular. It examines the resulting changes to the emissions and costs in the event of developing the proposed coal power plant as an IPP under different investment and operational conditions. The paper also examines the impact on emissions with 80 MWs of distributed power in different capacities of wind, mini-hydro and wood fired power plants. It is concluded that grid connected, distributed power generation (DPG) reduces emissions, with only a marginal increase in overall costs, due to the reduction in transmission and distribution network losses that result from tribution network losses that result from the distributed nature of generation. These reductions can be enhanced by opting for renewable energy based DPGS, as the case presented in the paper, and coupling them with demand side management measures. It is also concluded that there is no impact on overall emissions by the base load IPPs unless they are allowed to change over to different fuel types and technologies. (author)

228

Board Leadership Structure, Audit Committee and Audit Quality: Evidence from Manufacturing Companies in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Purpose: This paper aims to analyze whether the corporate governance attributes such as board leadershipstructure, audit committee meetings held, size of independent non-executive directors and size of non-executivedirectors have significant impact on audit quality of manufacturing companies listed on Colombo Stock Exchange,Sri Lanka during 2011 to 2013.Research Design: The study takes 32 manufacturing companies listed in Sri Lanka out of 36 as sample andemploys binary logistic regression method for modeling the association between a binary dependent variable suchas audit quality and multiple independent variables such as board leadership structure, audit committee meetingsheld, size of independent non-executive directors, and size of non-executive directors.Findings: The study finds the logistic regression model for overall evaluation, statistical tests of individualpredictors and goodness-of-fit. As per the output, Hosmer and Lemeshow test reveals the model for goodness offit with chi-square of 17.503 and with probability value of 0.008, which is significant at five percent levels. Cox &Snell R Square reveal 56.2 % of the variance in audit quality. Whereas board leadership structure and auditcommittee meetings held have significant relationship with audit quality, size of non-executive directors and sizeof independent non-executive directors have shown insignificant association.Research Limitation-As sample size is relatively small, there may be a challenge to generalize the results ofthis study widely.Originality-This research contributes to the literature by adding the significant association between somecorporate governance variables and audit quality. The findings from this research could be generalized to thecompanies similar to this category.

Thirunavukarasu Velnampy

2014-03-01

229

Poverty Incidence and its Determinants in the Estate Sector of Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Poverty measurement and analysis are needed to identify the poor, the nature and extent of poverty and its determinants, and to assess the impact of policies and programmes on the poor. The government of Sri Lanka has been spending huge sums of money for poverty alleviation and social welfare since its independence. Yet, poverty is still severe and widespread in Sri Lanka, especially in the estate and rural areas .The objective of this study is to find out and analyze the significant determinants of the incidence of poverty in the estate sector where the highest level of chronic poverty and unemployment exist. The national and regional poverty survey data and other official socio economic cross sectional data from selected provinces were used to analyze the extent of poverty in plantation sector in which 89 Divisional Secretariat from provinces such as Subaragamuva, Central and Uva were considered for the analysis. The econometric model were fitted and estimated in this study. Furthermore, Log transformation was conducted and heteroskedasticity problem was detected with the use of statistical software. The Ordinary Least Square (OLS regression analysis clearly indicates that, variables such as industrial employment, education, access to market and infrastructure significantly and negatively affect the poverty incidence of the estate sector. Also, agricultural employment has a negative impact but not significant. The R2 of 0.82 explains the statistical fitness of the model and the Prob (F-statistics also confirms it. Analysis with the Durbin–Watson stat confirms that, there is no auto correlation between the variables. The results emphasize the need for adapting policies for regional infrastructural improvement as well as market and educational development in the plantation sector.

B?ezinová Olga

2012-03-01

230

A deterministic analysis of tsunami hazard and risk for the southwest coast of Sri Lanka  

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This paper describes a multi-scenario, deterministic analysis carried out as a pilot study to evaluate the tsunami hazard and risk distribution in the southwest coast of Sri Lanka. The hazard and risk assessment procedure adopted was also assessed against available field records of the impact of the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004. An evaluation of numerically simulated nearshore tsunami amplitudes corresponding to ‘maximum-credible' scenarios from different subduction segments in the Indian Ocean surrounding Sri Lanka suggests that a seismic event similar to that generated the tsunami in 2004 can still be considered as the ‘worst-case' scenario for the southwest coast. Furthermore, it appears that formation of edge waves trapped by the primary waves diffracting around the southwest significantly influences the nearshore tsunami wave field and is largely responsible for relatively higher tsunami amplitudes in certain stretches of the coastline under study. The extent of inundation from numerical simulations corresponding to the worst-case scenario shows good overall agreement with the points of maximum penetration of inundation from field measurements in the aftermath of the 2004 tsunami. It can also be seen that the inundation distribution is strongly influenced by onshore topography. The present study indicates that the mean depth of inundation could be utilised as a primary parameter to quantify the spatial distribution of the tsunami hazard. The spatial distribution of the risk of the tsunami hazard to the population and residential buildings computed by employing the standard risk formula shows satisfactory correlation with published statistics of the affected population and the damage to residential property during the tsunami in 2004.

Wijetunge, J. J.

2014-05-01

231

Susceptibility of New Entrant University students in Sri Lanka to varicella zoster infection.  

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To investigate the susceptibility of Sri Lankan new entry university students to varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection, a cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among new entrant medical and engineering students of the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. Self-reported history of chicken pox was studied first, followed by serological evaluation for VZV IgG antibodies. A total of 451 students participated in the study out of which 189 (41.9%) reported a history of chicken pox. Median age of reported age of acquiring the disease was 14 years with an interquartile range of 10 to 17 years. Only 25% of the population reported history of infection prior to age of 10 years. The seropositive rate of VZV IgG antibodies among undergraduates with a negative history of chicken pox was 10.1% ( 25/247). The present study indicates that nearly half (222/436) of the study population (50.9%, 95% CI 46.2-55.6) was susceptible to VZV infection. PMID:19411280

Kurukulasooriya, G M P C P; Thevanesam, V; Agampodi, S B; Abeykoon, A M S B; Amarasiri, S P; Goonasekera, K P C

2010-04-01

232

Non-cognitive characteristics predicting academic success among medical students in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify non-cognitive and socio-demographic characteristics determining academic success of Sri Lankan medical undergraduates. Methods A retrospective study among 90 recently graduated students of the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka. Students were stratified into two equal groups; ‘High-achievers’ (honours degree at the final MBBS examination and ‘Low-achievers’ (repeated one or more subjects at the same examination. A revised version of the Non-cognitive Questionnaire (NQ with additional socio-demographic data was the study instrument. Academic performance indicator was performance at the final MBBS examinations. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed using the dichotomous variable ‘Honours degree at final MBBS’ as the dependant factor. Results Males were 56.7%. Mean age?±?SD was 26.4?±?0.9?years. ‘High-achievers’ were significantly younger than ‘Low-achievers’. Significant proportion of ‘High-achievers’ were from the Western province and selected to university from Colombo district. A significant majority of ‘High-achievers’ entered medical school from their first attempt at GCE A/L examination and obtained ‘Distinctions’ at the GCE A/L English subject. ‘High-achievers’ demonstrated a significantly higher mean score for the following domains of NQ; Positive self-concept and confidence, realistic self-appraisal, leadership, preference of long range goals and academic familiarity. The binary logistic regression indicates that age, being selected to university from Colombo district, residency in Western province, entering university from GCE A/L first attempt, obtaining a ‘Distinction’ for GCE A/L English subject, higher number of patient-oriented case discussions, positive self-concept and confidence, leadership qualities, preference of long range goals and academic familiarity all significantly increased the odds of obtaining a Honours degree. Conclusion A combined system incorporating both past academic performance and non-cognitive characteristics might help improve the selection process and early recognition of strugglers.

Ranasinghe Priyanga

2012-08-01

233

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka. An imported disease linked to the Middle East and African employment boom.  

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Cutaneous leishmaniasis acquired by two Sri Lankan nationals while they were employed in Iraq and Northern Nigeria respectively constitutes examples of an imported disease related to the 'Middle East and African employment boom'. In both cases the diagnoses were confirmed by demonstrating the parasites in smears from the lesions and in tissue sections, and by culturing the parasites in vitro. Since leishmaniasis, neither visceral nor cutaneous is prevalent in Sri Lanka the risks of 'introduced' diseases is discussed here in the context of these two cases. PMID:2260200

Naotunne, T D; Rajakulendran, S; Abeywickreme, W; Kulasiri, C D; Perera, J; Premaratne, U N; Attygalle, D; Mendis, K N

1990-01-01

234

Establishment of multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) technology for goats in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) has been done successfully in goats in some countries (Chen et al., 2008). It can be used to multiply the genetically superior animals and to make elite herds with increased production potential. There have been no previous reports on successful MOET in goats in Sri Lanka. Therefore, this study was carried out to establish techniques for in vivo production and transfer of goat embryos in Sri Lanka. Genetically superior does (n = 7) were subjected to super ovulation for in vivo embryo production using a protocol modified from that of Batt et al (1993). Progesterone releasing intravaginal pessaries (45 mg, Cronolone) was inserted on Day 1 of the programme. The does in group 1 (n = 3) were stimulated on Day 8 with injections of pure porcine Follicular Stimulating Hormone (pFSH), while those in group 2 (n = 4) were stimulated with pure ovine Follicular Stimulating Hormone (oFSH). Equine Chorionic Gonadotrophin (eCG) was given to all does in the evening of Day 8. Subsequent injections of pFSH (group 1) or oFSH (group 2) were given in the morning and evening on Day 9 and Day 10. All does were injected with prostaglandin analogue (263 ?g/ml cloprostenol sodium) in the morning of Day 9 and vaginal pessaries were removed in the evening of Day 10. On Day 11, pFSH or oFSH was injected in the morning and Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) was injected in the evening. Immediately after the GnRH injection does were exposed to breedinRH injection does were exposed to breeding with a genetically superior Jamnapari buck for 48 hours. Embryos were collected surgically 7 d after oestrus, by flushing of the uterus with embryo flushing medium containing lactated Ringer's solution with 1% bovine serum albumin at 37 deg C through a mid ventral laparotomy. The quality of the embryos was assessed microscopically and those considered to be of good and excellent quality were transferred surgically to oestrus synchronized recipient goats (n = 6) 7 d post-oestrus. The ovarian parameters measured and mean numbers of embryos recovered after superovalation are given. The total number and the quality of the embryos recovered from each group of does are shown in Table II. Following embryo transplantation, 4 of the 6 recipient does were diagnosed pregnant by ultrasound at day 35. The first goat kid born (named 'Peradeniya Kumari') was a single healthy female with 3.6 kg birth weight at full term. Two more does kidded, resulting in four healthy kids with birth weights of 3.2 kg (female), 1.8 kg (female), 1.6 kg (male) and 1.2 kg (male), while an abortion was observed in one doe. During the first six weeks the average weight gains of the first two kids born were 152.3 and 149.2 g/d, respectively. The results showed that valuable, genetically superior female goats can be multiplied using embryo transfer. The superovulatory response, quality and quantity of the embryos were better with oFSH than with pFSH. Although the number of embryos recovered was high in both groups, only some of the embryos were transferred due to the lack of sufficient number of recipient goats. The resulting offspring showed high growth rates and good survivability. Further experiments are warranted to optimize the protocols under Sri Lankan conditions and to compare the data statistically. In conclusion, the birth of healthy goat offspring through MOET technology is reported for the first time in Sri Lanka, indicating the feasibility of multiplying superior goats through this technology. (author)

235

The Range Extension of the Critically Endangered, Poecilotheria smithi in Sri Lanka, with Notes on its Sociality  

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Full Text Available Poecilotheria smithi is a Critically Endangered Theraposid known only from the type locality Haragama in the Kandy District, Sri Lanka. It was thought to be distribution specific to Haragama. During a survey on the genus Poecilotheria, which was initiated in 2011 by the authors, P. smithi was recorded,  the first confirmed observation of P. smithi outside of its type locality from the Matale district about 31.42 Km in aerial distance northwest of the type locality. Distribution of this species extended in Sri Lanka by this novel record. P. smithi displays the social behaviour of sharing same microhabitat with few individuals. As demonstrated for P. smithi, we suggest the large group size and social behaviour observed was in response to unavailability of suitable micro habitat for the mature individuals.

Ranil P. Nanayakkara

2013-07-01

236

TSUNAMI ON 26 DECEMBER 2004: SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF TSUNAMI HEIGHT AND THE EXTENT OF INUNDATION IN SRI LANKA  

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Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of the massive tsunami of 26 December 2004 on Sri Lanka bytracing the tsunami height, the extent of inundation and the level of damage along the affectedcoastal belt. The results of an extensive field survey that was carried out in the east, south andwest coasts to record the evidence of water levels left behind by the tsunami clearly indicate non-uniform spatial distribution of inundation along the affected coastline of the country. Thetsunami inundation had been significantly greater for most parts of the east and the south-eastcoastal areas than the south, south-west and the west coasts of Sri Lanka. The results alsoindicate the possible influence of the coastal geomorphology on the extent of inundation. On theother hand, the measurements suggest maximum tsunami heights of 3 m – 7 m along the eastcoast, 3 m – 11 m on the south coast, and 1.5 m – 6 m on the west coast.

Janaka J. Wijetunge

2006-01-01

237

Socio-Environmental Impact of Water Pollution on the Mid-canal (Meda Ela, Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Unplanned urban population growth in developing countries such as Sri Lanka exert pressures on the sectors of water supply, sewage disposal, waste management, and surface drainage in the cities as well as their surrounding areas. The Mid-canal is considered the most polluted surface water body in the Kandy district of Sri Lanka and contributes significantly to pollution of the Mahaweli River. Health problems in the nearby population may well be associated with environmental degradation and related to deteriorated water quality. The overall objectives of this study were to identify the socio-economic status of the community settled along the Meda Ela banks, and to examine the current water quality status of the Meda Ela and possible impacts of the nearby residents on water quality. Additionally, we propose remedial measures concerning wastewater and solid waste disposal to improve environmental conditions in this area.

Jing Yuan Wang

2012-07-01

238

Using focus groups to investigate service quality determinants for customer satisfaction in selected university libraries in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available This study aimed at establishing service quality determinants which may affect customer satisfaction in university libraries in Sri Lanka. Using the literature, 113 service quality determinants were identified. These were then reviewed by eight focus groups in four different universities. Forty of the determinants were perceived to be applicable to their context. The participants also added 14 quality requirements which they thought were not provided for in the list. Finally, the content and face validity of the 54 determinants were evaluated by a panel of experts who ultimately reduced them to 50. This study recommends the use of the identified quality determinants by library administrators and policymakers in the higher education sector in Sri Lanka to gauge the levels of customer satisfaction and assure quality of service.

Chaminda Jayasundara

2010-01-01

239

Revisiting Russell's Viper (Daboia russelii) Bite in Sri Lanka: Is Abdominal Pain an Early Feature of Systemic Envenoming?  

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The Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) is responsible for 30–40% of all snakebites and the most number of life-threatening bites of any snake in Sri Lanka. The clinical profile of Russell's viper bite includes local swelling, coagulopathy, renal dysfunction and neuromuscular paralysis, based on which the syndromic diagnostic tools have been developed. The currently available Indian polyvalent antivenom is not very effective in treating Russell's viper bite patients in Sri Lanka and the decision regarding antivenom therapy is primarily driven by clinical and laboratory evidence of envenoming. The non-availability of early predictors of Russell's viper systemic envenoming is responsible for considerable delay in commencing antivenom. The objective of this study is to evaluate abdominal pain as an early feature of systemic envenoming following Russell's viper bites. We evaluated the clinical profile of Russell's viper bite patients admitted to a tertiary care centre in Sri Lanka. Fifty-five patients were proven Russell's viper bite victims who produced the biting snake, while one hundred and fifty-four were suspected to have been bitten by the same snake species. Coagulopathy (159, 76.1%), renal dysfunction (39, 18.7%), neuromuscular paralysis (146, 69.9%) and local envenoming (192, 91.9%) were seen in the victims, ranging from mono-systemic involvement to various combinations. Abdominal pain was present in 79.5% of these patients, appearing 5 minutes to 4 hours after the bite. The severity of the abdominal pain, assessed using a scoring system, correlated well with the severity of the coagulopathy (p<0.001) and the neurotoxicity (p<0.001). Its diagnostic validity to predict systemic envenoming is – Sensitivity 81.6%, Specificity 82.4%, Positive predictive value 91.2%. Thus, abdominal pain is an early clinical feature of systemic Russell's viper bite envenoming in Sri Lanka. However, it is best to judge abdominal pain together with other clinical manifestations on decision making. PMID:24587278

Kularatne, Senanayake A. M.; Silva, Anjana; Weerakoon, Kosala; Maduwage, Kalana; Walathara, Chamara; Paranagama, Ranjith; Mendis, Suresh

2014-01-01

240

Optimization of the performance ofdown-draft biomass gasifier installedat National Engineering Research &Development (NERD) Centre ofSri Lanka  

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Using biomass gasification to produce combustible gas is one of the promising sustainable energy optionsavailable for many countries. At present, a few small scale community based power generation systemsusing biomass gasifiers are in operation in Sri Lanka. However, due to the lack of proper knowledge, thesesystems are not being operated properly in full capacity. This stands as an obstacle for further expansionof the use of gasifier technology.The objective of this study was to identify the...

Gunarathne, Duleeka

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Diversity and Population status of Bats in Pilikuttuwa ancient cave temple in the Gampaha District, Sri Lanka  

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Due to two unique specializations - echolocation and flight, bats have become one of the most successful groups of extant mammals in the world. Pilikuttuwa rajamaha viharaya, an ancient meditation monastery complex is a one of best places for bats which gives protection in Sri Lanka. In the present study, we evaluate the species diversity and population status of bats in Pilikuttuwa ancient meditation monastery complex with regard to their roosting ecology. Six species of bats including Tapho...

Tharaka Kusuminda, T. G.; Edirisinghe, W. G. M.; Nanayakkara, Ranil P.; Nilantha Vishvanath

2013-01-01

242

Aligning graduate competence with occupational standards An analysis of medico legal training and practice in Sri Lanka  

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This paper highlights the necessity to aligning graduate competence with occupational standards in workforce development and discusses the existing gap between the service recipient (ministry of justice), service provider (ministry of health), higher education regulatory bodies (University Grants Commission/Sri Lanka Medical Council), the pre service training institutions (ministry of higher education) and students with special reference to medico legal practice.It considers the options avail...

Dh, Edussuriva; Kn, Marambe; Abevasinghe, B.; Pt, Jayawickramarajah

2013-01-01

243

Revisiting Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) bite in Sri Lanka: is abdominal pain an early feature of systemic envenoming?  

Science.gov (United States)

The Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) is responsible for 30-40% of all snakebites and the most number of life-threatening bites of any snake in Sri Lanka. The clinical profile of Russell's viper bite includes local swelling, coagulopathy, renal dysfunction and neuromuscular paralysis, based on which the syndromic diagnostic tools have been developed. The currently available Indian polyvalent antivenom is not very effective in treating Russell's viper bite patients in Sri Lanka and the decision regarding antivenom therapy is primarily driven by clinical and laboratory evidence of envenoming. The non-availability of early predictors of Russell's viper systemic envenoming is responsible for considerable delay in commencing antivenom. The objective of this study is to evaluate abdominal pain as an early feature of systemic envenoming following Russell's viper bites. We evaluated the clinical profile of Russell's viper bite patients admitted to a tertiary care centre in Sri Lanka. Fifty-five patients were proven Russell's viper bite victims who produced the biting snake, while one hundred and fifty-four were suspected to have been bitten by the same snake species. Coagulopathy (159, 76.1%), renal dysfunction (39, 18.7%), neuromuscular paralysis (146, 69.9%) and local envenoming (192, 91.9%) were seen in the victims, ranging from mono-systemic involvement to various combinations. Abdominal pain was present in 79.5% of these patients, appearing 5 minutes to 4 hours after the bite. The severity of the abdominal pain, assessed using a scoring system, correlated well with the severity of the coagulopathy (p<0.001) and the neurotoxicity (p<0.001). Its diagnostic validity to predict systemic envenoming is - Sensitivity 81.6%, Specificity 82.4%, Positive predictive value 91.2%. Thus, abdominal pain is an early clinical feature of systemic Russell's viper bite envenoming in Sri Lanka. However, it is best to judge abdominal pain together with other clinical manifestations on decision making. PMID:24587278

Kularatne, Senanayake A M; Silva, Anjana; Weerakoon, Kosala; Maduwage, Kalana; Walathara, Chamara; Paranagama, Ranjith; Mendis, Suresh

2014-01-01

244

Occurrence and exposure assessment of perchlorate, iodide and nitrate ions from dairy milk and water in Japan and Sri Lanka.  

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Perchlorate is known to competitively interfere with iodide uptake by the thyroid gland and thereby human exposure to perchlorate is a public health concern. Prevalence of perchlorate in dairy milk is documented; nevertheless, co-occurrence of perchlorate with other thyroid-binding monovalent ions such as iodide and nitrate is not well understood. In this study, we analyzed perchlorate, iodide, and nitrate-N in dairy milk, water and other dairy-related samples collected from Japan and Sri Lanka. Concentrations of perchlorate in Japanese dairy milk samples ranged from 1.03 to 14.1 ng ml(-1); the corresponding concentrations in dairy milk and powdered milk from Sri Lanka were 1.14-38.5 ng ml(-1). Perchlorate concentrations in commercial milk were significantly higher in Japan than in Sri Lanka, while iodide and nitrate levels in milk between the two countries were comparable. All three ions were ubiquitously found in water samples from Japan and Sri Lanka. Analysis of colostrum and raw milk collected from cows fed with the same feed for over 30 days showed no significant temporal variations in perchlorate, iodide and nitrate-N concentrations. A significant positive correlation was found between the concentrations of perchlorate and iodide in Japanese commercial milk. The concentrations of perchlorate and nitrate-N in water samples analyzed from both countries also showed a significant positive correlation. The exposure estimation revealed that dairy milk provides a greater source for perchlorate and iodide, while water predominantly contributes nitrate-N intake for all age groups in both counties. Infants and children demonstrated the highest estimated perchlorate, iodide and nitrate-N intake on a body weight basis in comparison to other age groups. Therefore, further studies of risk associated with perchlorate may need to reconsider co-existence of iodine and other iodide transport inhibitors in food. PMID:21738937

Guruge, Keerthi S; Wu, Qian; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2011-08-01

245

The role of private drug vendors as malaria treatment providers in selected malaria endemic areas of Sri Lanka  

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Background & objectives: The involvement of private drug vendors in malaria treatment isparticularly high in developing countries and understanding their practices and knowledge aboutantimalarials and malaria treatment will aid in devising strategies to increase the correct use ofantimalarials and improve adherence to the government’s malaria drug policy. Results of a study onthe knowledge and practices of the private drug vendors conducted in seven districts in Sri Lanka,mostly in malariou...

R S Rajakaruna, M. Weerasinghe

2006-01-01

246

The impact of rural poverty on human development in Sri Lanka :A case study from a village in Kandy District  

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The study has examined the impacts of rural poverty on human development in Sri Lanka. Recently, human development became one of the most important facts of the development process. Meanwhile it is obvious that the two concepts of ‘human development’ and ‘poverty’have a close relationship. Therefore it is important to identify this relationship to overcome the poverty and increase the quality of human development. When the poverty incident is high, it automatically leads to human pove...

Prathapage, Sujeewa

2006-01-01

247

Armed Conflict Termination in Sri Lanka: An Opportunity to End Displaced Life and Renew Tamil-Muslim Relations  

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Full Text Available The 30 years of local armed conflict in Sri Lanka that broke out between the state security forces and Liberation Tigers of Tamil Ealam (LTTE in early 1980s came to an end after Sri Lankan government demolished the LTTE in 2009. A termination of such civil war was highly hoped by the people displaced by the same armed conflict, mainly Tamils and Muslims, to be an opportunity to return to their homes ending their protracted displaced live. The termination was also widely interpreted by Tamil and Muslim communities as an opportunity to renew their onetime ethnic relations, which today remained vulnerably damaged after this armed conflict. The return and the renewal of Tamil-Muslim relations have been two most notable aspects that have received a dominant position in social development programme and Tamil-Muslim public discourse of the post-conflict Sri Lanka. This paper is an attempt to examine if the Sri Lanka’s conflict termination has really served to end the displaced life and to bring Tamil-Muslim relations back. The paper focuses only on Muslims. This is a qualitative study. 11 Muslims, five from north and six from east, were recruited with purposive sample. The data was collected by one-on-one interviews with respondents and analysed with a descriptive method. The findings suggested that the conflict termination has hardly satisfied people’s hope to end their displaced live and renew their former ethnic relations. The paper, therefore, proposed some recommendations that need to be effectively advanced by government, civil communities and even non-governmental actors.

Salithamby Abdul Rauff

2013-01-01

248

Use of dietary diversity score as a proxy indicator of nutrient adequacy of rural elderly people in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Macro and micro nutrient deficiencies are public health concerns in most developing countries including Sri Lanka, partly due to monotonous, cereal-based diet that lacks diversity. The objective of the study was to assess validity of food variety score (FVS, dietary diversity score (DDS and dietary serving score (DSS as indicators of nutrient adequacy of rural elderly people in Sri Lanka. Findings A sample of 200 apparently healthy elderly people >60y of age were studied. A single 24?h recall was performed to compute dietary diversity indicators. Pearson’s correlation was used to assess the utility of FVS, DDS and DSS as indicators of nutrient adequacy. Sensitivity (Se and specificity (Spe analysis were done to determine the most appropriate cut-off points for using FVS and DDS to categorize elderly people with adequate nutrient intake. The average (standard deviation of the food variety score, dietary diversity score and dietary serving score was 8.4 (2, 4.4 (0.9 and 11.4 (2.5, respectively. Mean adequacy ratio (MAR of 12 nutrients was 0.39 (39%. Pearson’s correlation coefficients between MAR and FVS was 0.45 (P?P?P? Conclusion In conclusion, FVS, DDS and DSS were useful proxy indicators of nutrient adequacy of rural elderly people in Sri Lanka. Indeed, the performance of the indicators is improved when considering the quantities of food consumed.

Rathnayake Kumari

2012-08-01

249

Morphology and surface topography of the schistosome Bivitellobilharzia nairi from the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus maximus) in Sri Lanka.  

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Bivitellobilharzia nairi was first recorded from an Indian elephant (Elephas maximus) in Berlin. Infections with this parasite have become increasingly important in E. maximus maximus populations in Sri Lanka. The present work is the first morphological description of this schistosome from Sri Lanka. A number of adult worms were recovered from a dead Asian elephant near the elephant orphanage, Pinnawala, in Sri Lanka. The observed clinical features of the infected elephant included emaciation, subventral oedema and anaemia. Post-mortem results indicated that the liver was enlarged and adult schistosomes were found in the blood vessels of the liver parenchyma. The total number of worms recovered from a portion of the liver was 129,870, which is an average of 22 worms per 100 g of liver. The present study uses both light microscopic and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques for the morphological and topographical characterization of this parasite and to permit comparison with other species of schistosomes. Morphologically, these worms correspond very well to the description of B. nairi by Dutt & Srivastava (1955). Moreover, it is clear that B. nairi is a distinctive species easily differentiated from other schistosomes. The SEM study of the tegument of male worms shows that the surface of B. nairi is smoother than in other schistosomes. PMID:22989615

Rajapakse, R P V J; Iwagami, M; Wickramasinghe, S; Walker, S M; Agatsuma, T

2013-09-01

250

A pilot health information management system for public health midwives serving in a remote area of Sri Lanka.  

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We developed an electronic Health Information Management System (HIMS) for Public Health Midwives (PHMs) in Sri Lanka. We conducted a needs analysis amongst 16 PHMs, which found that they spent most of their time managing health records. The HIMS was designed so that it could accept data from the PHMs, and generate reports which could be used by the PHMs themselves as well as by their supervisors. The HIMS was trialled by a group of 16 PHMs in a remote area of the Ratnapura district of Sri Lanka. Mini-laptops with the software were distributed to the PHMs and they were given the necessary training. They started entering historical data from the registers into the system by themselves. Nearly 10,000 public health records were generated in the first three months. In a subsequent survey, the PHMs all gave positive answers indicating that they were happy with the pilot system, they would like to continue using it to enhance their service and they wanted to see it expanded across the whole of Ratnapura district. The system seems to be a practical solution for the field activities of PHMs in Sri Lanka. PMID:22362835

Rodrigo, E Shan S; Wimalaratne, Samantha R U; Marasinghe, Rohana B; Edirippulige, Sisira

2012-04-01

251

A theoretical model to predict customer satisfaction in relation to service quality in selected university libraries in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available University library administrators in Sri Lanka have begun to search for alternative ways to satisfy their clientele on the basis of service quality. This article aims at providing a theoretical model to facilitate the identification of service quality attributes and domains that may be used to predict customer satisfaction from a service quality perspective. The effectiveness of existing service quality models such as LibQUAL, SERVQUAL and SERVPREF have been questioned. In that regard, this study developed a theoretical model for academic libraries in Sri Lanka based on the disconfirmation and performance-only paradigms. These perspectives were considered by researchers to be the core mechanism to develop service quality/customer satisfaction models. The attributes and domain identification of service quality was carried out with a stratified sample of 263 participants selected from postgraduate and undergraduate students and academic staff members from the faculties of Arts in four universities in Sri Lanka. The study established that responsiveness, supportiveness, building environment, collection and access, furniture and facilities, technology, Web services and service delivery were quality domains which can be used to predict customer satisfaction. The theoretical model is unique in its domain structure compared to the existing models. The model needs to be statistically tested to make it valid and parsimonious.

Chaminda Jayasundara

2009-01-01

252

Enhydrina schistosa (Elapidae: Hydrophiinae) the most dangerous sea snake in Sri Lanka: three case studies of severe envenoming.  

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Sea snakes are highly venomous and inhabit tropical waters of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Enhydrina schistosa is a common species of sea snake that lives in the coastal waters, lagoons, river mouths and estuaries from the Persian Gulf through Sri Lanka and to Southeast Asia. It is considered one of the most aggressive sea snakes in Sri Lanka where fishermen and people wading are at high risk. However, sea snake bites are rarely reported. In this report, we describe three cases where E. schistosa was the offending species. These three patients presented to two hospitals on the west coast of Sri Lanka within the course of 14 months from November 2011 with different degrees of severity of envenoming. The first patient was a 26-year-old fisherman who developed severe myalgia with very high creatine kinase (CK) levels lasting longer than 7 days. The second patient was a 32-year-old fisherman who developed gross myoglobinuria, high CK levels and hyperkalaemia. Both patients recovered and their electromyographic recordings showed myopathic features. The nerve conduction and neuromuscular transmission studies were normal in both patients suggesting primary myotoxic envenoming. The third patient was a 41-year-old man who trod on a sea snake in a river mouth and developed severe myalgia seven hours later. He had severe rhabdomyolysis and died three days later due to cardiovascular collapse. In conclusion, we confirm that E. schistosa is a deadly sea snake and its bite causes severe rhabdomyolysis. PMID:24239658

Kularatne, S A M; Hettiarachchi, R; Dalpathadu, J; Mendis, A S V; Appuhamy, P D S A N; Zoysa, H D J; Maduwage, K; Weerasinghe, V S; de Silva, A

2014-01-01

253

Malathion resistance and prevalence of the malathion carboxylesterase mechanism in populations of mosquito vectors of disease in Sri Lanka / Résistance au malathion et prévalence du mécanisme de la malathion carboxylestérase dans des populations de moustiques vecteurs de maladies à Sri Lanka / Resistencia al malatión y prevalencia del mecanismo de la malatión-carboxilesterasa en las poblaciones de mosquitos vectores de enfermedades en Sri Lanka  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Determinar los niveles de resistencia al malatión y la prevalencia del mecanismo de actividad carboxilesterasa sobre este producto entre los mosquitos en Sri Lanka. MÉTODOS: Empleando métodos recomendados por la OMS, se llevaron a cabo bioensayos en muestras de los siguientes mosquitos vec [...] tores de Sri Lanka: Culex quinquefasciatus, C. tritaeniorhynchus, C. gelidus; Anopheles culicifacies B, A. subpictus; Aedes aegypti y A. albopictus. RESULTADOS: Se detectaron mecanismos de actividad carboxilestarasa específicos para el malatión en A. culicifacies y A. subpictus, dato indicativo de una alta tasa de metabolización del insecticida. Por el contrario, la resistencia de C. quinquefasciatus y C. tritaeniorhynchus al malatión está mediada por una resistencia de amplio espectro a los compuestos organofosforados, debida a unos niveles elevados de esterasas que secuestran el malaoxón pero son incapaces de metabolizar el malatión. CONCLUSIÓN: La resistencia desarrollada por Anopheles spp. tiene que ser una consecuencia directa de las actividades de lucha antipalúdica, dado que en Sri Lanka el malatión sólo se emplea con fines de salud pública. La resistencia observada en Culex spp., en cambio, se debe al uso en gran escala de insecticidas organofosforados como larvicidas contra la filariasis, y con fines agrícolas en arrozales, espacios preferidos como criaderos por C. tritaeniorhynchus. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels of malathion resistance and prevalence of the malathion carboxylesterase mechanism among mosquitoes in Sri Lanka. METHODS: Bioassays were carried out using WHO-recommended methods on samples of the following Sri Lankan mosquito vectors: Culex quinquefasciatus, C. t [...] ritaeniorhynchus, C. gelidus; Anopheles culicifacies B, A. subpictus; Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. FINDINGS: Malathion-specific carboxylesterase mechanisms were found in A. culicifacies and A. subpictus, both giving high rates of insecticide metabolism. In contrast, malathion resistance in C. quinquefasciatus and C. tritaeniorhynchus is linked to broad-spectrum resistance to organophosphorus compounds due to elevated levels of esterases that sequester malaoxon, but are unable to metabolize malathion. CONCLUSIONS: Resistance among the Anopheles spp. must have occurred as a direct result of antimalarial activities, since malathion use in Sri Lanka is limited to public health treatments. In contrast, resistance among Culex spp. has resulted from large-scale use of the organophosphorus insecticide group as larvicides for filariasis control and on rice paddy, where C. tritaeniorhynchus predominantly breeds, for agricultural purposes.

S.H.P.P., Karunaratne; J., Hemingway.

1060-10-01

254

Malathion resistance and prevalence of the malathion carboxylesterase mechanism in populations of mosquito vectors of disease in Sri Lanka / Résistance au malathion et prévalence du mécanisme de la malathion carboxylestérase dans des populations de moustiques vecteurs de maladies à Sri Lanka / Resistencia al malatión y prevalencia del mecanismo de la malatión-carboxilesterasa en las poblaciones de mosquitos vectores de enfermedades en Sri Lanka  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Determinar los niveles de resistencia al malatión y la prevalencia del mecanismo de actividad carboxilesterasa sobre este producto entre los mosquitos en Sri Lanka. MÉTODOS: Empleando métodos recomendados por la OMS, se llevaron a cabo bioensayos en muestras de los siguientes mosquitos vec [...] tores de Sri Lanka: Culex quinquefasciatus, C. tritaeniorhynchus, C. gelidus; Anopheles culicifacies B, A. subpictus; Aedes aegypti y A. albopictus. RESULTADOS: Se detectaron mecanismos de actividad carboxilestarasa específicos para el malatión en A. culicifacies y A. subpictus, dato indicativo de una alta tasa de metabolización del insecticida. Por el contrario, la resistencia de C. quinquefasciatus y C. tritaeniorhynchus al malatión está mediada por una resistencia de amplio espectro a los compuestos organofosforados, debida a unos niveles elevados de esterasas que secuestran el malaoxón pero son incapaces de metabolizar el malatión. CONCLUSIÓN: La resistencia desarrollada por Anopheles spp. tiene que ser una consecuencia directa de las actividades de lucha antipalúdica, dado que en Sri Lanka el malatión sólo se emplea con fines de salud pública. La resistencia observada en Culex spp., en cambio, se debe al uso en gran escala de insecticidas organofosforados como larvicidas contra la filariasis, y con fines agrícolas en arrozales, espacios preferidos como criaderos por C. tritaeniorhynchus. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels of malathion resistance and prevalence of the malathion carboxylesterase mechanism among mosquitoes in Sri Lanka. METHODS: Bioassays were carried out using WHO-recommended methods on samples of the following Sri Lankan mosquito vectors: Culex quinquefasciatus, C. t [...] ritaeniorhynchus, C. gelidus; Anopheles culicifacies B, A. subpictus; Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. FINDINGS: Malathion-specific carboxylesterase mechanisms were found in A. culicifacies and A. subpictus, both giving high rates of insecticide metabolism. In contrast, malathion resistance in C. quinquefasciatus and C. tritaeniorhynchus is linked to broad-spectrum resistance to organophosphorus compounds due to elevated levels of esterases that sequester malaoxon, but are unable to metabolize malathion. CONCLUSIONS: Resistance among the Anopheles spp. must have occurred as a direct result of antimalarial activities, since malathion use in Sri Lanka is limited to public health treatments. In contrast, resistance among Culex spp. has resulted from large-scale use of the organophosphorus insecticide group as larvicides for filariasis control and on rice paddy, where C. tritaeniorhynchus predominantly breeds, for agricultural purposes.

S.H.P.P., Karunaratne; J., Hemingway.

255

Thalassemia treatment and prevention in Uva Province, Sri Lanka: a public opinion survey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to its excessive cost thalassemia management is a major health care problem in Sri Lanka. The majority of doctors are using only desferrioxamine (DFO), in grossly inadequate doses mainly because of its unavailability. Deferiprone (L1), which is more affordable, is not used due to fear of toxicity, as previously reported. Arthropathy attributed to L1 has been observed in some patients, and has led to the discontinuation of the drug in all patients, without scientific rationale. The proposed thalassemia prevention project for Uva Province is based on prevention of marriages between carriers. This could be achieved by carrier screening and counseling of teenagers and adolescents well before they select their partners. In Sri Lanka, people find their marriage partners at their work place or universities, by themselves, or with the help of professional marriage brokers (they are called Kapuwa), through relatives and close friends. This process of finding a partner may also be helped by paper advertisements. However, in addition to the appearance and attitude of the prospective partner, the caste, social background and horoscope are major considerations in selecting a partner. Even when they select partners on their own at the work place or university, they keep these factors in the back of their minds to ensure social acceptance. Many relationships are given up due to objections and advice from parents when the caste or social background does not match. A horoscope is a written document that almost every child gets, written by a professional horoscope reader and depending on the time of birth. It is believed, according to the horoscope, that a person's attitudes, desires, future prospects of finding a suitable partner, could be predicted. It is rare to proceed with a marriage if the horoscope does not match. These customs are considered less seriously among educated people when they find their partner at the work place or university. The concept of thalassemia risk-free marriages advocates promotion of marriages where at least one partner is a non-carrier. Success of such a project could be monitored at the time of marriage. This opinion survey indicates that the public is motivated to promote carrier screening and the prevention of thalassemia. PMID:16798653

Mudiyanse, Rasnayaka M

2006-01-01

256

Establishment of Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer (MOET) technology for goats in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was conducted to determine a suitable follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) preparation for superovulation in goats, establish techniques for embryo production and transfer in goats, and to examine the feasibility of applying such techniques in Sri Lanka. Two groups of genetically superior does were inserted with progesterone releasing intravaginal pessaries (45 mg Cronolone) on d 1 of the programme. On d 8, the does in Group 1 (n = 3) and Group 2 (n = 4) were given 2.5 mL injections of pure porcine FSH (pFSH, 20 mg/mL) or pure ovine FSH (oFSH, 0.88 mg/mL), respectively. On the same day, all animals were injected with 300 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG, 500 ?g/mL). Subsequent injections of 1.25 mL pFSH or oFSH were given in the morning and evening on d 9 and 10. Does were injected with 197 ?g prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?, 263 ?g/mL) in the morning of d 9 and vaginal pessaries were removed on the even- ing of d 10. On d 11, 1.25 mL of pFSH or oFSH and 1 mL of luteinising hormone releasing hormone (LHRH, 50 ?g/mL) injections were given in the morning and evening, respectively. On the same day, does in oestrus were bred to two Jamnapari bucks. Seven d post- oestrus, embryos were collected surgically, using embryo flushing medium. The quality of the embryos was assessed and the recovered embryos were transplanted surgically to oestrus synchronised goat recipients (n = 4/group) at 7 d post-oestrus. Following embryo transplantation, four does (Group 1 transplantation, four does (Group 1, n = 1, Group 2, n = 3) were found to be pregnant by ultrasound scanning at 35 d into pregnancy. One healthy female offspring (Peradeniya Kumari) was born to Group 1. Another four goat kids were born to Group 2, while one kid died. In the same group, one abortion was reported. The results suggest that oFSH is better than pFSH for the superovulation of goats and that embryo transfer technology can be used in goats in Sri Lanka. (author)

257

Epochal changes in the association between malaria epidemics and El Niño in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background El Niño events were suggested as a potential predictor for malaria epidemics in Sri Lanka based on the coincidence of nine out of 16 epidemics with El Niño events from 1870 to 1945. Here the potential for the use of El Niño predictions to anticipate epidemics was examined using enhanced climatic and epidemiological data from 1870 to 2000. Methods The epidemics start years were identified by the National Malaria Control Programme and verified against epidemiological records for consistency. Monthly average rainfall climatologies were estimated for epidemic and non-epidemic years; as well El Niño, Neutral and La Niña climatic phases. The relationship between El Niño indices and epidemics was examined to identify 'epochs' of consistent association. The statistical significance of the association between El Niño and epidemics for different epochs was characterized. The changes in the rainfall-El Niño relationships over the decade were examined using running windowed correlations. The anomalies in rainfall climatology during El Niño events for different epochs were compared. Results The relationship between El Niño and epidemics from 1870 to 1927 was confirmed. The anomalies in monthly average rainfall during El Niño events resembled the anomalies in monthly average rainfall during epidemics during this period. However, the relationship between El Niño and epidemics broke down from 1928 to 1980. Of the three epidemics in these six decades, only one coincided with an El Niño. Not only did this relationship breakdown but epidemics were more likely to occur in periods with a La Niña tendency. After 1980, three of four epidemics coincided with El Niño. Conclusion The breakdown of the association between El Niño and epidemics after 1928 is likely due to an epochal change in the El Niño-rainfall relationship in Sri Lanka around the 1930's. It is unlikely that this breakdown is due to the insecticide spraying programme that began in 1945 since the breakdown started in 1928. Nor does it explain the occurrence of epidemics during La Niña phase from 1928 to 1980. Although there has been renewed coincidence with El Niño after 1980, this record is too short for establishing a reliable relationship.

Amerasinghe Priyanie

2008-07-01

258

Meteorological and internal wave forcing of seiches along the Sri Lanka coast  

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Regularly observed seiches from tide gauge records around the Sri Lanka coast have been analyzed to determine the forcing mechanisms. The seiche periods range from a few 10s of min to 2 h. Fortnightly and seasonal variations of seiche amplitudes are clearly visible on the east coast. These seiche amplitudes are particularly large approximately 6-8 days after spring tides, with maximum seiche amplitudes observed during March-April and October-November, suggesting that the seiche variation could be related to stratification and internal wave activity. There is no visible fortnightly and seasonal variation of seiche amplitudes in west coast records. Instead, they show a daily pattern with relatively larger seiches around 1000 LT, suggesting that the seiches on the west coast could result from diurnal atmospheric forcing. Barotropic and two-layer models have been developed to investigate the influence of atmospheric forcing and internal wave activity on the seiches. A barotropic model applied to the west coast shows that the daily seiche amplitude variation could be simulated with cyclic diurnal meteorological forcing. Two-layer model runs for Trincomalee Bay and the adjacent east coast shelf suggest that seiche amplitudes are proportional to vertical stratification and mixed layer depths. Therefore, the observed seiches there could be excited by internal waves, which originate as far away as the Andaman Sea during spring tides and have a travel time of 6-8 days to the Sri Lankan east coast. However, further studies, including direct measurements of internal wave activity within the region, are required to confirm this hypothesis.

Wijeratne, E. M. S.; Woodworth, P. L.; Pugh, D. T.

2010-03-01

259

Histopathological diagnosis of myocarditis in a dengue outbreak in Sri Lanka, 2009  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2009, an outbreak of dengue caused high fatality in Sri Lanka. We conducted 5 autopsies of clinically suspected myocarditis cases at the General Hospital, Peradeniya to describe the histopathology of the heart and other organs. Methods The diagnosis of dengue was confirmed with specific IgM and IgG ELISA, HAI and RT-PCR techniques. The histology was done in tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Results Of the 319 cases of dengue fever, 166(52% had severe infection. Of them, 149 patients (90% had secondary dengue infection and in 5 patients, DEN-1 was identified as the causative serotype. The clinical diagnosis of myocarditis was considered in 45(27% patients. The autopsies were done in 5 patients who succumbed to shock (3 females and 2 males aged 13- 31 years. All had pleural effusions, ascites, bleeding patches in tissue planes and histological evidence of myocarditis. The main histological findings of the heart were interstitial oedema with inflammatory cell infiltration and necrosis of myocardial fibers. One patient had pericarditis. The concurrent pulmonary abnormalities were septal congestion, pulmonary haemorrhage and diffuse alveolar damage; one case showed massive necrosis of liver. Conclusions The histology supports occurrence of myocarditis in dengue infection.

Gunatilake Laxman PG

2011-07-01

260

The effects of the 2004 tsunami on a coastal aquifer in Sri Lanka.  

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On December 26, 2004, the earthquake off the southern coast of Sumatra in the Indian Ocean generated far-reaching tsunami waves, resulting in severe disruption of the coastal aquifers in many countries of the region. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of the tsunami on groundwater in coastal areas. Field investigations on the east coast of Sri Lanka were carried out along a transect located perpendicular to the coastline on a 2.4 km wide sand stretch bounded by the sea and a lagoon. Measurements of groundwater table elevation and electrical conductivity (EC) of the groundwater were carried out monthly from October 2005 to August 2007. The aquifer system and tsunami saltwater intrusion were modeled using the variable-density flow and solute transport code HST3D to understand the tsunami plume behavior and estimate the aquifer recovery time. EC values reduced as a result of the monsoonal rainfall following the tsunami with a decline in reduction rate during the dry season. The upper part of the saturated zone (down to 2.5 m) returned to freshwater conditions (EC < 1000 µS/cm) 1 to 1.5 years after the tsunami, according to field observations. On the basis of model simulations, it may take more than 15 years for the entire aquifer (down to 28 m) to recover completely, although the top 6 m of the aquifer may become fresh in about 5 years. PMID:22171954

Vithanage, Meththika; Engesgaard, Peter; Villholth, Karen G; Jensen, Karsten H

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Socio-geographic perception in the diffusion of innovation: Solar energy technology in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Understandings of the diffusion process have tended to emphasize either the adoption perspective, which focuses on individual characteristics, or the market perspective, which focuses on institutional context. In this paper we bring these two perspectives together by recognizing that people are embedded in socio-geographic contexts that affect their perceptions of their situations, which in turn shape the innovativeness of individuals and places. Focusing on the diffusion of Solar Home Systems (SHS) in Sri Lanka, we explore the role of context at the village (by comparing adoption rates among villages) and individual (by comparing time-to-adoption among household decision makers in a case-study village) scales. At the village scale, we find that expectations of government policy based on interactions related to ethnicity and politicians' previous power-grid connection promises are significant drivers of SHS adoption, along with perceived tolerance levels in the village for non-conformist behavior. Among household decision makers within the case-study village, we analyze relative adoption time and the duration of the innovation-decision process and find that perceiving strong village-level social control inhibits SHS adoption decision making. The results add to innovation diffusion theory and provide policy recommendations for agencies promoting solar energy in developing countries

262

Zebu cattle farming in Sri Lanka: Production systems and reproductive characteristics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zebu cattle (Bos indicus) constitute 72.3% of the cattle population in Sri Lanka and consist of indigenous exotic and crosses. Indigenous Zebu cattle were primarily found in the dry and the intermediate zones with the remainder in the wet zone. In the latter two zones the indigenous Zebu have been gradually replaced by dairy-type exotic genotypes. In the dry zone Zebu cattle farming is done as a traditional village system (DTVS) and irrigated settlement system (DISS). The DTVS is the most prevalent system and 24% of small holdings within this system rear cattle. In 91.4% of these households cattle farming is either a primary or secondary occupation. Zebu cattle farming provides a modest income with meat, milk, draught and manure contribution 45%, 34%, 9% and 12%, respectively to the total income. Scarcity of grazing lands, high incidence of crop damages by cattle, an inadequate veterinary service and poor milk collecting network are having adverse effects on the sustainability of the system. The objective of the present study were to assess the distribution, production systems and reproductive patterns of cattle with special reference to indigenous Zebu cattle in traditional management systems. 39 refs, 4 figs, 7 tabs

263

Self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka: small-area variations in incidence  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-poisoning is one of the most common methods of suicide worldwide. The intentional ingestion of pesticides is the main contributor to such deaths and in many parts of rural Asia pesticide self-poisoning is a major public health problem. To inform the development of preventive measures in these settings, this study investigates small-area variation in self-poisoning incidence and its association with area-based socioeconomic and agricultural factors. Methods Ecological analysis of intentional self-poisoning in a rural area (population 267,613 of Sri Lanka in 2002. The geographic distribution of cases was mapped to place of residence. Using administrative division (GN, median population size 1416, as unit of analysis, associations with socioeconomic and agricultural indicators were explored using negative binomial regression models. Results The overall incidence of intentional self-poisoning in the study area was 315 per 100,000 (range: 0 – 2168 per 100,000 across GNs. Socioeconomic disadvantage, as indexed by poor housing quality (p = 0.003 and low levels of education (p Conclusion Considerable small-area variation in incidence rates of intentional self-poisoning was found. The noteworthy concentration of cases in certain areas and the inverse association with socioeconomic deprivation merit attention and should be investigated using individual-level exposure data.

Dawson Andrew

2008-01-01

264

Reproductive health concerns in six conflict-affected areas of Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article draws on a study conducted by the Women and Media Collective between 2004 and 2005 to highlight some of the reproductive health concerns of women from Sinhalese, Tamil and Muslim ethnic groups, living in situations of conflict in Sri Lanka. The study focussed on women from six conflict-affected areas in the north and east of the country: Jaffna (Northern Province), Mannar and Puttalam (North-Western Province), Polonnaruwa (North-Central Province), Batticaloa and Ampara (Eastern Province). Higher levels of poverty, higher rates of school drop-out, low pay and precarious access to work, mainly in the informal sector, higher rates of early marriage, pregnancy and home births, higher levels of maternal mortality and lower levels of contraceptive use were found. Economic, social and physical insecurity were key to these phenomena. Physically and psychologically, women were at high risk of sexual and physical violence, mainly from their partners/spouses but also from family members, often related to dowry. The article brings out the voices of women whose lives have been overshadowed by conflict and displacement, and the nature of structural barriers that impede their right to health care services, to make informed decisions about their lives and to live free of familial violence. PMID:18513609

Kottegoda, Sepali; Samuel, Kumudini; Emmanuel, Sarala

2008-05-01

265

EFFECT OF THE INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI ON GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN COASTAL AQUIFERS IN EASTERN SRI LANKA  

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Full Text Available ABSTRACTChanges in water quality of a sand aquifer on the east coast of Sri Lanka due to the December 26, 2004 tsunami and subsequent disturbance due to well pumping and flushing by precipitation were investigated. Two closely spaced tsunami affected transects, spanning the ocean and an interior lagoon across a 2 km wide land strip were monitored from October, 2005 to September, 2006. Water samples were collected from 15 dug wells and 20 piezometers, from the disturbed and undisturbed sites respectively to evaluate the temporal and spatial trends in water quality.The EC values observed from the undisturbed area showed a significant decrease (3000 to 1200 ?S/cm with the rain from November 2005 to March 2006, while the values in the disturbed area appeared to have stabilized without further decline through the same period. The concentration range of EC, Ca, K, Na, alkalinity, total hardness and sulphate were higher in the disturbed site than in the undisturbed site. PHREEQC modeling showed that the mixed sea water fraction is higher in the disturbed site than in the undisturbed site, and this is likely due to the movement of the disturbed plume by water extraction through pumping and extensive well cleaning after the tsunami, causing forced diffusion and dispersion. No arsenic contamination was observed as all observed arsenic concentrations were below 10 ?g/L. For the sites investigated, there are clear indications of only a slow recovery of the aquifer with time in response to the onset of the monsoon.

Meththika Vithanage

2009-01-01

266

Seroepidemiology of rinderpest in bovines in Sri Lanka using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is the first inland wide study on seroprevalence of rinderpest in Sri Lanka. This study shows the advantages of using a serologically sensitive test, such as ELISA, in studying the seroepidemiology of a disease with low prevalence. The prevalence was highest in the northern, eastern and north-central provinces. The spread of rinderpest from the first location of the outbreak, which was in the eastern province in 1987, is attributed to the movement of bovines for slaughtering purposes. It appears that the spread of rinderpest could be reduced by controlling animal movement. Apparently, rinderpest had shifted from an epidemic form in the 1987-1989 period to an epidemic form from 1990 onwards, towards areas with high bovine density (>0.3 bovines/hectare). Furthermore, the extensive management system mostly practiced in the DL regions, in which animal-to-animal contact is more frequent, had contributed to the spread of rinderpest. The prevalence was higher in older bovines, probably because of exposure to natural infection during the last epidemic

267

Impact of Corporate Governance on Firm Performance A Study on Financial Institutions in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Now corporate governance issues have received wide attention of researchers for more than three decades due to the increasing economic crisis around the world. This research study consider the impact of corporate governance on the performance of listed financial institutions in Sri Lanka as main objective and recommend a suitable corporate governance practices for improving performance of listed financial institutions. To achieve these objectives, the researcher use Return on equity, Return on assets, as the key variables that defined the performance of the firm. On the other hand, Board size, Meeting frequency and audit committee of the company are used as variables to measure the corporate governance. Twenty five listed financial institutions were selected as sample size for the sample period of 2008-2012. The data will be collected by using the secondary sources. According to the analysis, variables of corporate governance significantly impact on firm’s performance and board size and audit committee size have positive impact on firm’s performance. However, meeting frequency has negatively impact on firm’s performance.

S.Danoshana

2014-02-01

268

Late Quaternary climate history of the Horton Plains, central Sri Lanka  

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A 6 m long core was retrieved from a mire at ca 2200 m a.s.l. in the Horton Plains National Park, central Sri Lanka. The material collected consists of a mixture of organic matter and clastic particles, which have been subject to bio-, litho- and chronostratigraphic analyses. The pollen spectra suggest semi-arid conditions and a relatively species-poor plant community from >24,000 until 18,500 cal yr BP associated with a weaker South West Monsoon (SWM). During the late Pleistocene, the climate was fluctuating between relatively dry and humid conditions as the result of changes in the monsoonal regime. The onset of the moonson caused a semi-humid climate resulting in an expansion of the Upper Montane Rain Forest (UMRF). The strengthening of the SWM was interrupted by two relatively dry climatic events, each lasting ca 2000 years. The early Holocene was characterised by a per-humid event followed by a hyper-humid event, both influenced by a further strengthening of the SWM due to the orbitally induced maximum increment of summer insolation. The middle Holocene was marked by a trend towards semi-arid climatic conditions. During the late Holocene, the SWM rains strengthened again.

Premathilake, Rathnasiri; Risberg, Jan

2003-06-01

269

Trophic interactions in the coastal ecosystem of Sri Lanka: An ECOPATH preliminary approach  

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This study attempts to assemble and summarize existing information in order to build a general representation of the trophic interactions within the shallow coastal ecosystem of Sri Lanka. A multispecific ecosystem-based approach on trophic relationships and their possible variations was performed using ECOPATH. Thirty-nine functional groups were considered representing all trophic levels in the food web. Time-dynamic simulation was carried out using the ECOSIM routine to evaluate the impact of the 1998 El Niño event on key functional groups. Results show that the time needed for any impacted functional group to recover to its initial abundance increased with the trophic level. Two time-series data sets derived from commercial catch and effort statistics were used for validation of ECOSIM results. The El Niño simulation results validated by the time-series data confirmed the ability of the proposed multispecies model to describe the sudden environmental changes. Possible impacts due to increase of fishing effort were also simulated by separately considering frequently used fishing gears. The analysis revealed that small-mesh gillnet fishery operates independently from the other existing developing fisheries in the same area and can be managed accordingly. Fishing-effort simulations suggest that the increase of fishing intensity by small-mesh gillnets would contribute to the decline of small pelagic catch. This was also found to influence the overall catch. The present level of exploitation of small pelagic fishery resources does not seem sustainable.

Haputhantri, S. S. K.; Villanueva, M. C. S.; Moreau, J.

2008-01-01

270

Lithium electrochemical intercalation into mechanically and chemically treated Sri Lanka natural graphite  

Science.gov (United States)

Graphite is a host material for lithium intercalation and can be used as an active anode material in rechargeable lithium cells. The battery performances and cycling depends on the type and morphology of graphite. The advantage of natural graphite is the possibility of enhancing the electrochemical intercalation by simple mechanical or chemical treatments. Sri Lanka natural graphite is found in various morphologies with different structural and physical characteristics. The most abundant morphology, the shiny slippery fibrous graphite found in Kahatagaha/Kolongaha mines, has a very high purity of over 98% and high crystallinity. Lithium has been electrochemically intercalated into different morphologies of pure natural graphite as well as into treated graphite. The ball milling facilitates partial conversion of hexagonal into rhombohedral phase, which increases structural defects lowering the tendency to solvent co-intercalation and exfoliation and increasing the reversible capacity. Chemical treatments on graphite show improvements in reversible capacity. The mechanical ball milling and the chemical oxidation in air and (NH4)2S2O8 are simple and effective methods to enhance the electrochemical intercalation of lithium ions into natural graphite.

Balasooriya, N. W. B.; Touzain, Ph.; Bandaranayake, P. W. S. K.

2006-05-01

271

A matrix in life cycle perspective for selecting sustainable materials for buildings in Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a matrix to select sustainable materials for buildings in Sri Lanka, taking into consideration environmental, economic and social assessments of materials in a life cycle perspective. Five building elements, viz., foundations, roofs, ceilings, doors and windows, and floors are analyzed based on materials used for these elements. Environmental burdens associated with these elements are analyzed in terms of embodied energy and environmental impacts such as global warming, acidification and nutrient enrichment. Economic analysis is based on market prices and affordability of materials. Social factors that are taken into account are thermal comfort, interior (aesthetics), ability to construct quickly, strength and durability. By compiling the results of analyses, two building types with minimum and maximum impacts are identified. These two cases along with existing buildings are compared in a matrix of environmental, economic and social scores. Analysis of the results also indicates need for higher consideration of environmental parameters in decision-making over social and economic factors, as social and economic scores do not vary much between cases. Hence, this matrix helps decision-makers to select sustainable materials for buildings, meaningfully, and thus helps to move towards a more sustainable buildings and construction sector. (author)

Abeysundara, U.G. Yasantha [Ministry of Education, Isurupaya, Battaramulla (Sri Lanka); Babel, Sandhya [Environmental Technology Program, School of Biochemical Engineering and Technology, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasat University, P.O. Box 22, Pathumthani 12121 (Thailand); Gheewala, Shabbir [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

2009-05-15

272

The effects of the 2004 tsunami on a coastal aquifer in Sri Lanka  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

On December 26, 2004, the earthquake off the southern coast of Sumatra in the Indian Ocean generated far-reaching tsunami waves, resulting in severe disruption of the coastal aquifers in many countries of the region. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of the tsunami on groundwater in coastal areas. Field investigations on the east coast of Sri Lanka were carried out along a transect located perpendicular to the coastline on a 2.4 km wide sand stretch bounded by the sea and a lagoon. Measurements of groundwater table elevation and electrical conductivity (EC) of the groundwater were carried out monthly from October 2005 to August 2007. The aquifer system and tsunami saltwater intrusion were modeled using the variable-density flow and solute transport code HST3D to understand the tsunami plume behavior and estimate the aquifer recovery time. EC values reduced as a result of the monsoonal rainfall following the tsunami with a decline in reduction rate during the dry season. The upper part of the saturated zone (down to 2.5 m) returned to freshwater conditions (EC < 1000 µS/cm) 1 to 1.5 years after the tsunami, according to field observations. On the basis of model simulations, it may take more than 15 years for the entire aquifer (down to 28 m) to recover completely, although the top 6 m of the aquifer may become fresh in about 5 years

Vithanage, Meththika Suharshini; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard

2012-01-01

273

Challenging epilepsy with antiepileptic pharmacotherapy in a tertiary teaching hospital in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The goal of antiepileptic drug (AED therapy is to achieve a seizure-free state and eliminate the medical and psychosocial risks of recurrent seizures. Burden of epilepsy on the economy of a country may be largely due to the expenditure on AEDs. The adverse effects may influence the compliance to AEDs and effective control of epilepsy. We determined the pattern of AED use, the degree of epileptic control achieved and the adverse effects experienced by the epileptics in a Tertiary Teaching Hospital in Sri Lanka. Carbamazepine was found to be the most frequently used AED. Monotherapy was used on 70.8% of subjects. 86.27% of the study sample had achieved effective control of epilepsy with a 50% or more reduction in seizure frequency. Of them 72.64% were on monotherapy and they were either on carbamazepine, sodium valproate, phenytoin sodium or phenobarbitone. None of the new AEDs were prescribed to these patients. 50.9% on monotherapy and 51.5% on polytherapy reported adverse effects. Somnolence followed by headache was found to be the most frequently reported adverse effects by those on monotherapy and polytherapy both. This study shows that most epileptics can be effectively managed with the conventional AEDs with clinical monitoring.

Kariyawasam S

2004-04-01

274

An investigation into the role of alcohol in self-harm in rural Sri Lanka: a protocol for a multimethod, qualitative study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Introduction: Sri Lanka has one of the highest suicide and self-harm rates in the world and although alcohol has been found to be a risk factor for self-harm in Sri Lanka, we know little about the connection between the two. This paper comprises a protocol for a qualitative study investigating alcohol’s role in selfharm in rural Sri Lanka at three levels: the individual, community and policy level. The analysis will bring new understanding of the link between alcohol and self-harm in Sri Lanka, drawing on structural, cultural and social concepts. It will equip researchers, health systems and policy makers with vital information for developing strategies to address alcohol-related problems as they relate to self-harm. Methods and analysis: To capture the complexity of the link between alcohol and self-harm in the Anuradhapura district in the North Central Province in Sri Lanka, qualitative methods will be utilised. Specifically, the data will consist of serial narrative life-story interviews with up to 20 individuals who have non-fatally selfharmed and where alcohol directly or indirectly was involved in the incidence as well as with their significant others; observations in communities and families; six focus group discussions with community members; and key-informant interviews with 15–25 stakeholders who have a stake in alcohol distribution, marketing, policies, prevention and treatment as they relate to self-harm. Ethics and dissemination: The study has received ethical approval from the Ethical Review Committee of the Faculty of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka. A sensitive data collection technique will be used and ethical issues will be considered throughout the study. Results: The results will be disseminated in scientific peer-reviewed articles in collaboration with Sri Lankan and other international research partners.

Rheinländer, Thilde; SØrensen, Jane Brandt

2014-01-01

275

An investigation into the role of alcohol in self-harm in rural Sri Lanka: a protocol for a multimethod, qualitative study  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Sri Lanka has one of the highest suicide and self-harm rates in the world and although alcohol has been found to be a risk factor for self-harm in Sri Lanka, we know little about the connection between the two. This paper comprises a protocol for a qualitative study investigating alcohol's role in self-harm in rural Sri Lanka at three levels: the individual, community and policy level. The analysis will bring new understanding of the link between alcohol and self-harm in Sri Lanka, drawing on structural, cultural and social concepts. It will equip researchers, health systems and policy makers with vital information for developing strategies to address alcohol-related problems as they relate to self-harm. Methods and analysis To capture the complexity of the link between alcohol and self-harm in the Anuradhapura district in the North Central Province in Sri Lanka, qualitative methods will be utilised. Specifically, the data will consist of serial narrative life-story interviews with up to 20 individuals who have non-fatally self-harmed and where alcohol directly or indirectly was involved in the incidence as well as with their significant others; observations in communities and families; six focus group discussions with community members; and key-informant interviews with 15–25 stakeholders who have a stake in alcohol distribution, marketing, policies, prevention and treatment as they relate to self-harm. Ethics and dissemination The study has received ethical approval from the Ethical Review Committee of the Faculty of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka. A sensitive data collection technique will be used and ethical issues will be considered throughout the study. Results The results will be disseminated in scientific peer-reviewed articles in collaboration with Sri Lankan and other international research partners. PMID:25293385

Sørensen, Jane Brandt; Rheinländer, Thilde; Sørensen, Birgitte Refslund; Pearson, Melissa; Agampodi, Thilini; Siribaddana, Sisira; Konradsen, Flemming

2014-01-01

276

Sri Lanka in global medical research: a scientific analysis of the Sri Lankan research output during 2000-2009  

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Abstract Background Scientific research is an essential component in guiding improvements in health systems. There are no studies examining the Sri Lankan medical research output at international level. The present study evaluated the Sri Lankan research performance in medicine as reflected by the research publications output between years 2000-2009. Methods This study was based on Sri Lankan medical research publication data, retrieved from the SciVerse Scopus<...

Ranasinghe Priyanga; Jayawardena Ranil; Katulanda Prasad

2012-01-01

277

A Comprehensive Assessment of Lymphatic Filariasis in Sri Lanka Six Years after Cessation of Mass Drug Administration  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The Sri Lankan Anti-Filariasis Campaign conducted 5 rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) with diethycarbamazine plus albendazole between 2002 and 2006. We now report results of a comprehensive surveillance program that assessed the lymphatic filariasis (LF) situation in Sri Lanka 6 years after cessation of MDA. Methodology and Principal Findings Transmission assessment surveys (TAS) were performed per WHO guidelines in primary school children in 11 evaluation units (EUs) in all 8 formerly endemic districts. All EUs easily satisfied WHO criteria for stopping MDA. Comprehensive surveillance was performed in 19 Public Health Inspector (PHI) areas (subdistrict health administrative units). The surveillance package included cross-sectional community surveys for microfilaremia (Mf) and circulating filarial antigenemia (CFA), school surveys for CFA and anti-filarial antibodies, and collection of Culex mosquitoes with gravid traps for detection of filarial DNA (molecular xenomonitoring, MX). Provisional target rates for interruption of LF transmission were community CFA mosquitoes mosquitoes exceeded 0.25% in 10 PHI areas. Conclusions Comprehensive surveillance is feasible for some national filariasis elimination programs. Low-level persistence of LF was present in all study sites; several sites failed to meet provisional endpoint criteria for LF elimination, and follow-up testing will be needed in these areas. TAS was not sensitive for detecting low-level persistence of filariasis in Sri Lanka. We recommend use of antibody and MX testing as tools to complement TAS for post-MDA surveillance. PMID:25393404

Rao, Ramakrishna U.; Nagodavithana, Kumara C.; Samarasekera, Sandhya D.; Wijegunawardana, Asha D.; Premakumara, Welmillage D. Y.; Perera, Samudrika N.; Settinayake, Sunil; Miller, J. Phillip; Weil, Gary J.

2014-01-01

278

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a rural, physically active, low income population in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is recognized as a metabolic disorder largely seen in urbanized populations. The purpose of this study was to assess prevalence and risk factors for NAFLD in a rural, physically active, economically deprived population in Sri Lanka. Methods By visiting individual households in the community, 35-64 year old adults resident in two selected estates in the Nuwara Eliya District of Sri Lanka, were invited to participate in the study. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were made on all participants. Blood samples were obtained for the assay of fasting glucose, serum lipids, serum insulin and alanine aminotransferase. NAFLD was diagnosed on established ultrasound criteria for fatty liver in the absence of hepatitis B and C markers and high alcohol consumption. Results Of those invited, 403 (65% participated in the study. Almost all participants were either Indian or Sri Lankan Tamils and 53% were females. Prevalence of NAFLD was 18% in this population. Twice as many males were diagnosed as having NAFLD compared to females. Male sex, high BMI, high waist circumference, high diastolic blood pressure and high plasma glucose levels were significant predictors of NAFLD. Conclusion Nearly one in five people in this predominantly Indian Tamil, rural, physically active, economically deprived population had NAFLD. The condition was associated with constituent features of the metabolic syndrome. These results support studies reporting ethnic variations in disease susceptibility and suggest that genetic factors may also play a role in determining disease risk.

Pinidiyapathirage M

2011-11-01

279

Drought Induced Fine Root Growth and Canopy Green-up of Tropical Dry Zone Vegetations in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Fine roots in forest soils have important implications for global carbon (C balance, but processesunderlying this C sink are not well understood. This study evaluates year round dynamics of fine roots ina tropical dry mixed evergreen forest and an arboretum in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Monthly soil coresamples (up to 25 cm depth were collected randomly to cover a whole annual cycle of the two sites. Thesoils were air dried, sieved (< 2 mm, and fine roots (? 2 mm were separated by handpicking coupledwith a water floating technique. Then, fine root biomass and C density were calculated using oven dryweight. Annual mean fine root biomass of the dry zone forest and the arboretum were found to be 5.72 ±0.57 t/ha and 7.88 ± 0.81 t/ha, respectively, with C densities of 2.69 ± 0.27 t/ha and 3.7 ± 0.38 t/ha,respectively. Thus, dry zone arboretum showed a higher growth and biomass, and hence a C pool of fineroots, than the dry zone forest, possibly due to a younger forest stand with fast fine root turnover rate. Inboth sites during the dry spell, there was an increased production of fine roots and a simultaneous leafflush on the canopy with a green-up. The increased fine root growth during the dry season generallyallows the trees to absorb more water under water-stressed situations. These events may be due to anundisclosed survival mechanism of such ecosystems under drought, which needs further studies.Key words: Drought, Fine root growth and canopy green-up, Tropical dry zone vegetation

K. A. J. M. Kuruppuarachchi

2013-04-01

280

Degradation of 14C ring labelled pesticides in selected soils of Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ground water resources in Sri Lanka are largely derived from direct rainfall seepage and recharge from surface water bodies. Ground water contamination potential of pesticides is governed by many soil, pesticide and environmental factors. One of the critical factors that affects is the rate at which pesticides degrade in the soil. This is the process that eliminates the chemical from the environment. Therefore the knowledge of degradation rates of pesticides is essential for pollution control management. Degradation and dissipation rates of 14C ring labelled carbofuran and diazinon in selected Sri Lankan soils were studied under laboratory conditions. 0.1 Ci/10 g soil of ring labelled carbofuran and diazinon-were added to Nuwara Eliya (Red yellow podzolic), Pugoda (Alluvials) Kalpitiya and Negombo (Regosols) soils and incubated in 75% of maximum water holding capacity and 28 degree C of temperature for 13 hours light and 11 hours dark conditions. Liberated 14CO2 was collected after 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28, 36, 42 and 58 days to an alkaline solution and analyzed using Liquid Scintillation Counter. Carbofuran has a mineralization rate of 12.5% in Kalpitiya regosols, 7.5% in Pugoda alluvials and lower rates in other two soils after 20 days. After 40 days it increases over 20% in Kalpitiya and in other three soils it was less than 15%. After-58 days the mineralization was over 60% in Kalpitiya soils but less than 500/o in other three soils. During the whole period the mineralization was less than 10% in Nuwara Eliya red yellow podzolic soils. Diazinon exhibited 25% mineralization in Nuwara Eliya and Kalpitiya soils after ten days but in Pugoda and Negombo soils it was less than 20%. After 40 days it was 80% in Kalpitiya soil and 60% in Nuwara Eliya. During the total period the mineralization is less than 25% in Negombo and Pugoda soils. Overall, the degradation rate of carbofuran is much lower than diazinon for all selected soils. Therefore the contamination risk by leaching of pesticide is much higher for carbofuran.

 
 
 
 
281

Preliminary investigation on genetic characterization of native and endemic fowl types in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

e, the present study was conducted, in order to investigate the origin of native fowl in Sri Lanka and to find out the genetic relationship among them. Observations of morphological characters of endemic, indigenous and exotic fowl types were carried out using Ceylon Jungle fowl, eleven types of native chicken and two exotic chicken breeds (Cornish and Rhode Island Red). Blood samples for DNA extraction were collected from the above three categories of chicken. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis were carried out using sixteen non-specific primers. The results of morphological characterization revealed many variations in plumage color pattern. Single and pea comb types were found in both native and exotic types of chicken. A prominent yellow color marking on red color comb was a unique feature in Ceylon Jungle fowl. In the sample tested only one indigenous chicken type showed feathered shank character. Another distinguishing feature observed was the presence of white spot in red color earlobes of all native chicken types except naked neck type, which is believed to be a cross of exotic and indigenous. Sixteen non-specific primers used in the study produced 22 polymorphic bands ranging from 500 base pair (bp) to 1957.6 bp. There were two monomorphic bands common to all chicken types tested. Genetic similarity coefficient detected according to Noeingen Index ranged from 0.5 to 1.1 indicating a wide genetic base of tested samples of chicken. According to the results of cluster analysis there was a clear separation of Ceylon Jungle fowl from the other chicken types used in the study. This indicates that there was an early separation and divergent evolution of Ceylon Jungle fowl from all the other domestic chicken types tested. It appears that the contribution of Ceylon Jungle Fowl in development of Sri Lankan native chicken is minute or very marginal. However, the present study was carried out with limited sample size and from the present results it can be confirmed that RAPD is an effective method, though the repeatability is low, in genetic characterization of animal populations with wide genetic basis. (author)

282

Pre-elimination stage of malaria in Sri Lanka: assessing the level of hidden parasites in the population  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background With the dramatic drop in the transmission of malaria in Sri Lanka in recent years, the country entered the malaria pre-elimination stage in 2008. Assessing the community prevalence of hidden malaria parasites following several years of extremely low transmission is central to the process of complete elimination. The existence of a parasite reservoir in a population free from clinical manifestations, would influence the strategy for surveillance and control towards complete elimination. Methods The prevalence of hidden parasite reservoirs in two historically malaria endemic districts, Anuradhapura and Kurunegala, previously considered as high malaria transmission areas in Sri Lanka, where peaks of transmission follow the rainy seasons was assessed. Blood samples of non-febrile individuals aged five to 55 years were collected from randomly selected areas in the two districts at community level and a questionnaire was used to collect demographic information and movement of the participants. A simple, highly sensitive nested PCR was carried out to detect both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, simultaneously. Results In total, 3,023 individuals from 101 villages participated from both districts comprising mostly adults between the ages 19-55 years. Out of these, only about 1.4% of them (n = 19 could recall having had malaria during the past five years. Analysis of a subset of samples (n = 1322 from the two districts using PCR showed that none of the participants had hidden parasites. Discussion A reservoir of hidden parasites is unlikely to be a major concern or a barrier to the ongoing malaria elimination efforts in Sri Lanka. However, as very low numbers of indigenous cases are still recorded, an island-wide assessment and in particular, continued alertness and follow up action are still needed. The findings of this study indicate that any future assessments should be based on an adaptive sampling approach, involving prompt sampling of all subjects within a specified radius, whenever a malaria case is identified in a given focus.

Amerasinghe Priyanie H

2010-01-01

283

Blending satellite data and RADAR tool for rapid flood damage assessment in Agriculture: A case study in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

During the catastrophic flooding it is critically important to estimate losses as it is essential for facilitating good decision making at the district, province and national levels of government and to appraise aid agencies for necessary assistance. Flood loss estimates can also be used to evaluate the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to strengthening flood control measures. In the case of Sri Lanka there were limited knowledge and application system exist for carrying out rapid damage assessment for Agriculture in Sri Lanka. FAO has developed the tool "Rapid Agricultural Disaster Assessment Routine" (RADAR) based on theoretical approach that uses simple tools for assessing the impact on agriculture of a disastrous event. There are two knowledge bases that contain information needed for calculation of the value loss or damage. The procedure of rapid impact assessment implies the use of knowledge-bases, database and GIS. In this study, the user friendly application of RADAR system has been developed. Three components were considered including agriculture, livestock and farmers asset to estimate the losses. The application will allow estimating flood damage at various scales and this being tested at district level and specific example for the 2011 floods in Sri Lanka. In order to understand flood inundation cycle, time-series optical MODIS satellite data (2000-2011) and microwave ALOS PALSAR (2006-2011) were used to derive annual flood extent, flood duration and recurrent areas to identify flood risk and impact of seasonal flooding on agriculture. This study demonstrates how RADAR & satellite-based flood products can be effectively used for rapid damage assessment and managing the floods.

Amarnath, Giriraj; Inada, Yoshiaki; Inoue, Ryosuke; Alahacoon, Niranga; Smakhtin, Vladimir

2014-05-01

284

Geochemical and isotope characterization of geothermal spring waters in Sri Lanka: Evidence for steeper than expected geothermal gradients  

Science.gov (United States)

SummarySeven geothermal springs from the Precambrian high-grade metamorphic terrain of Sri Lanka were investigated to assess their formation processes and to determine reservoir temperatures based on their chemical compositions. Silica-based geothermometric calculations for the Marangala and Nelumwewa springs showed the highest average reservoir temperatures of 122 °C and 121 °C, respectively. Samples of low temperature (waters varied from 39-62 °C. These waters showed low concentrations of selected trace elements (Fe waters ranged from -6.5 to -5.0‰ for ?18OH2O and between -39 ‰ to -28 ‰ for ?2HH2O. In the non-geothermal waters, the isotope values were almost identical within the analytical uncertainties of 0.1‰ and 1‰ for ?2HH2O and ?18OH2O, respectively. In addition, all isotope ratios of geothermal and non-geothermal water samples scattered around the local meteoric water lines for the dry and intermediate climatic regions of Sri Lanka, thus indicating origin from precipitation without further influences of evaporation or water rock interaction. This similarity to the local meteoric water lines also makes influences of seawater an unlikely factor. Close matches of geochemical and isotope data from geothermal and corresponding non-geothermal waters confirm the hypothesis of a common source. The proposed model for Sri Lanka subsurface waters is that rainfall from the dry and/or intermediate climatic zones percolates with little time delay downward through structurally weaker zones in high-grade metamorphic rocks. They are subsequently heated by steep or heterogeneous geothermal gradients that are most likely associated with the Highland-Vijayan thrust zone.

Chandrajith, Rohana; Barth, Johannes A. C.; Subasinghe, N. D.; Merten, Dirk; Dissanayake, C. B.

2013-01-01

285

Production systems and characteristics of indigenous small ruminants in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Farming operations of small ruminants is one of the most common features in the small-scale livestock farmers, which represents 99% of the total farming population in Sri Lanka. However, the distribution of native small ruminants; goats and sheep, are scattered. The goat population is distributed mostly (72%) in drier areas whereas sheep are concentrated mainly in northern area of the country. Therefore the management systems of these farm animal genetic resources are largely influenced by the socio cultural conditions of the respective areas. The data collection on farming systems and production characteristics were carried out during the years 2007 and 2008 from the areas in the north central, north-western and northern parts of the island. The farms were randomly chosen based on their representativeness of indigenous small ruminant populations, having confirmed that there was no introduction of exotic breeds within documented past. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used for data collection from 40 farm families for each small ruminant species. The production status of each species was analyzed separately as they belong to separate regional, social and ethnic categories. Native goats are kept mainly for meat and manure and rarely for milk under extensive management conditions. The input levels were low, ranging from sub-standard levels to zero level. According to farmers' perspective, native goats are hardy and resistant to common diseases. This was further tant to common diseases. This was further revealed by absence of disease incidence recorded during the survey. The herd size varies according to the area ranging from 1-2 goat on average in northern area and 6-7 on average in the north-central and north-western areas. The animals were recorded as small compact animals with varying coat colours either polled or horned. Females are prolific, however kids show low growth rates and high mortality before weaning. Breeding is done based on community arrangement using a hired buck. Low milk yield and low growth performance after weaning hinder their chances of being attracted as a genetic asset among rural community. This is mostly highlighted since the goat production is a part of mixed crop-livestock production system. The role-play of goat as an income generator was minimum (0%-20% of the total income) even in the areas, where the goat production is popular. Native sheep, know as Jaffna Local sheep are reared in very specific farming system prevailing in northern area of the island. The flock size of native sheep varies from 12-254 animals. There were only two farms having more than 200 animals. Animals are usually white with patches of various colours (brown and black), and have extremely short tails. Females usually have no horns but half of males do. Indigenous sheep are small animals with no production potential of wool. Breeding occurs naturally in a close system and no attention has paid for performance improvement but for the number. Single birth is most common though there were very few twinning (2.5%) recorded in the survey area. High lamb mortality rate could be seen due to harsh environmental conditions and lack of attention paid by the farmer s during lambing season. However, Jaffna Local is the hardy native sheep breed and it is the only local sheep breed in Sri Lanka. Majority of farmers kept sheep as a tradition and as an inherent property while few others (35%) recorded a family income born by selling manure and animals. Hence sheep production system is essentially a low-input, low-risk and low-return system specific to the area. (author)

286

Genetic evidence for malaria vectors of the Anopheles sundaicus complex in Sri Lanka with morphological characteristics attributed to Anopheles subpictus species B  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles subpictus sensu lato, a widespread malaria vector in Asia, is reportedly composed of four sibling species A - D. Mosquitoes morphologically identified as belonging to the Subpictus complex were collected from different locations near the east coast of Sri Lanka, and specific ribosomal DNA sequences determined to validate their taxonomic status. Methods Anopheles subpictus s.l. larvae and blood-fed adults were collected from different locations in the Eastern province and their sibling species status was determined based on published morphological characteristics. DNA sequences of the D3 domain of 28 S ribosomal DNA (rDNA and the internal transcribed spacer -2 (ITS-2 of mosquitoes morphologically identified as An. subpictus sibling species A, B, C and D were determined. Results Phylogenetic analysis based on D3 domain of rDNA resulted in two clades: one clade with mosquitoes identified as An. subpictus species A, C, D and some mosquitoes identified as species B, and another clade with a majority of mosquitoes identified as species B with D3 sequences that were identical to Anopheles sundaicus cytotype D. Analysis of ITS-2 sequences confirmed a close relationship between a majority of mosquitoes identified as An. subpictus B with members of the An. sundaicus complex and others identified as An. subpictus B with An. subpictus s.l. Conclusions The study suggests that published morphological characteristics are not specific enough to identify some members of the Subpictus complex, particularly species B. The sequences of the ITS-2 and D3 domain of rDNA suggest that a majority that were identified morphologically as An. subpictus species B in the east coast of Sri Lanka, and some identified elsewhere in SE Asia as An. subpictus s.l., are in fact members of the Sundaicus complex based on genetic similarity to An. sundaicus s.l. In view of the well-known ability of An. sundaicus s.l. to breed in brackish and fresh water and its proven ability to transmit malaria in coastal areas of many Southeast Asian countries, the present findings have significant implications for malaria control in Sri Lanka and neighbouring countries.

Jude Pavillupillai J

2010-11-01

287

A cross-sectional survey of critical care services in Sri Lanka: A lower middle-income country  

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Purpose: To describe the extent and variation of critical care services in Sri Lanka as a first step towards the development of a nationwide critical care unit (CCU) registry. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in all state CCUs by telephone or by visits to determine administration, infrastructure, equipment, staffing, and overall patient outcomes. Results: There were 99 CCUs with 2.5 CCU beds per 100. 000 population and 13 CCU beds per 1 000 hospital beds. The medi...

Haniffa, R.; Silva, Ap; Iddagoda, S.; Batawalage, H.; Silva, St; Mahipala, Pg; Dondorp, A.; Keizer, N.; Jayasinghe, S.

2014-01-01

288

Perfluorinated compounds in human serum and seminal plasma from an urban and rural population in Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fluorinated organic compounds (FOCs) have been used for variety of industrial applications such as surfactants, adhesives, insecticides, and their global production increase since 1970s. These compounds repel both water and oil. The high-energy carbon-fluorine covalent bonds in FOCs are strong enough to have high persistency in the environment. These compounds emerged as priory environmental pollutants since they are found in various biota throughout the world. Human contamination of some FOCs was reported mostly in developed countries such as USA, Japan and from Europe. In the present study, we report 10 FOCs in human serum including seminal plasma for the first time, collected from volunteers from Sri Lanka.

Guruge, Keerthi; Miyazaki, Shigeru; Yamanaka, Noriko [National Institute of Animal Health, Tsukuba (Japan); Taniyasu, Sacgu; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi [National Institute of Advance Industrial and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan); Wijeratna, S.; Seneviratne, H. [Colombo Univ. (Sri Lanka)

2004-09-15

289

Scale-Up and Commercialisation of Improved Cookstoves in Sri Lanka: Lessons Learnt from the Anagi Experience  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Interest in cook stove improvement in Sri Lanka started in the early 1950s. These activities were initiated among the migrant South Indian community that worked in tea plantations concentrated in the central part of the country who had been influenced by the interest generated in the South India. However, these were not replicated in other parts of the country, possibly due to the abudance of the fuel-wood in those areas and also due to a lack of wider interest and awareness of the significance if Improved Cook Stoves (ICS).

Nissanka, Ramani [Practical Action Consulting in Eastern Africa, Nairobi (Kenya)

2009-12-15

290

The prevalence and pattern of wife beating in the Trincomalee district in eastern Sri Lanka.  

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A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and to identify some socio-demographic factors associated with wife beating in the Medical Officer of Health (MOH) area of Kantale in the Trincomalee district of eastern Sri Lanka. A random sample of 417 women in the age category 18-49 years constituted the sample population. Data were obtained by focus group discussions followed by the administration of a structured questionnaire by trained interviewers. The prevalence of reported wife beating among ever-married women was 30% and the prevalence of wife beating in the year preceding the study was 22%. There was no significant association between wife beating and ethnicity of the study population or a particular age group of either the batterer or the victim. Moreover, wife beating was associated with an early age at marriage for women, low-income, a low standard of living index, large families and alcohol consumption by the batterer. A significant inverse relationship between domestic violence and the level of education of both the batterer and the victim was also identified. Contusions, typically distributed in the region of the head, face and neck were found to be the commonest type of injury suffered by battered women. A majority of women, irrespective of their level of education and employment status placed the welfare of their children as the prime reason for continuing to stay in an abusive relationship. The study concludes that wife beating is a serious health and social problem for the women population of Kantale. Intervention is recommended in relation to key issues identified by the study, including alcohol abuse by men, relative lack of education among the population, lack of family planning, societal influences promoting teenage marriages of the girl-child and absence of programs aimed at creating awareness on wife beating. PMID:11485084

Subramaniam, P; Sivayogan, S

2001-03-01

291

Induced abortion in Sri Lanka: who goes to providers for pregnancy termination?  

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The sociodemographic characteristics of abortion seekers and the reasons they give for procuring termination were studied in 356 clients selected from two abortion clinics in the city of Colombo. Nearly 80% were Buddhists and about 10% were Christians. Almost all had some formal education but only 20% were employed outside the home. Over 95% were currently married and at the peak of their childbearing age. More than one-half were aged 30 years or over, while adolescents only constituted about 3%. Fourteen per cent were nulliparous and about two-thirds had one or two living children at the time of obtaining the abortion. A significantly high proportion also had a very young child. In total, the 356 women had had 1130 pregnancies, and the mean rate of abortion was 42 per 100 pregnancies. Over one-quarter had had more than one abortion and about 10% had had three or more. Almost all abortions were performed within the first trimester with a mean gestation period of 6 weeks. About one-third of the clients were using some method of contraception at the time they became pregnant. The most common reasons cited for the present abortion were 'pregnancy too soon after previous delivery', 'no more children desired' or 'curtailment of opportunity for foreign employment'. Unmarried women constitute a special group of abortion seekers who have different needs and behave differently from married women. Their needs are not currently being met by reproductive health programmes in Sri Lanka, and it is important that they should be given special attention in the future. An interesting finding is that a significant minority of the abortion seekers answered negatively to the question regarding providing medical facilities for abortions without difficulty. This underscores the ambivalence many people have to abortion. PMID:12117211

Ban, Deok Jin; Kim, Jinhyun; De Silva, W Indralal

2002-07-01

292

Medical students’ willingness to work in post-conflict areas: A qualitative study in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Background: The north-east (NE region of Sri Lanka observed a critical health workers’ shortage after the long-lasting armed conflict. This study aimed to explore medical students’ attitudes towards working in the NE and to identify factors determining such attitudes. Methods: A semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted in two medical schools, one in the NE and the other near the capital, in October 2004. Data were qualitatively analysed using the framework approach. Results: Three main themes were identified: 1 Professional motives and career plans; 2 Students’ perceptions of the healthcare situation in the NE; and 3 Students’ choice of the NE as a future practice location. It was found that familiarity with the difficulties faced by the NE people was a major motivation for medical students to work in the NE in the future. For NE students, familiarity was linked to their sense of belonging. For non-NE students, their personal experience of the NE familiarized them with the difficult situation there, which positively influenced their willingness to work there. Demotivations to work in the NE were poor working and living conditions, fewer opportunities for postgraduate education, language differences, insecurity, and fear of an unpleasant social response from the NE communities. Conclusions: NE local medical students had a sense of belonging to the NE and compassion for the Tamil people as members of the ethnic group. They were willing to work in the NE if their concerns about difficult working and living conditions and postgraduate education could be solved. Non-NE students who were familiar with the NE situation through their personal experience also showed a willingness to work there; thus, early exposure programmes in medical education might help to increase the health workforce in the NE. It is also expected that non-NE physicians working for the NE people would facilitate reconciliation and the rebuilding of trust between two ethnic groups.

Azeem Dad Gadi

2012-10-01

293

Systematic relationships and taxonomy of Suncus montanus and S. murinus from Sri Lanka.  

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Here we use nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data, combined with morphometric analyses, to clarify the systematic relationships and taxonomy of two complex species of shrews, Suncus montanus and S. murinus, in Sri Lanka. We find that subspecies of S. murinus, Suncus murinus murinus from Anuaradhapura and S. m. caerulescens from Colombo, show little or no genetic difference in the mitochondrial (cytochrome-b and 16SrRNA) and nuclear (Rag 1, aldolase C and EF-1 alpha intron) genes, confirming their classification as a single species. However, two populations of S. murinus from Peradeniya and Udawalawe are identified as putative hybrids of S. murinus and S. montanus. Shrews collected from Peradeniya are best described as a population of S. murinus, but could be identified as S.m. kandianus using morphological features. Nuclear DNA sequence data places this population in a clade with other S. murinus, but mtDNA sequences of the population nests within a clade of S. montanus haplotypes. This discordant pattern of nuclear and mitochondrial genes suggests either hybridization between S. murinus and S. montanus or introgression of S. montanus mitochondrial DNA into S. m. kandianus. S. m. murinus from Udawalawe, which shows no distinct morphological difference from S. m. murinus from Anuradhapura, falls in the clade of S. murinus in both nuclear and mitochondrial trees. In the nuclear gene tree however, S. m.murinus from Udawalawe is placed as a sister taxon to the clade including other S. murinus. Rag 1 gene sequences in Udawalawe individuals suggest recombination of S. murinus and S. montanus DNA within the gene. However, additional nuclear genes are necessary to study the extent of the hybridization of S. murinus and S. montanus. PMID:20138225

Meegaskumbura, Suyama; Meegaskumbura, Madhava; Schneider, Christopher J

2010-05-01

294

Feeding of dairy cattle in the forest-garden farms of Kandy, Sri Lanka.  

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A survey on feeding practices was conducted with 60 farmers belonging to four categories (15 farmers in each): male farmers without off-farm income (M-), male farmers with off-farm income (M+), female farmers without off-farm income (W-), and female farmers with off-farm income (W+). Data on herd size, feeds offered, milk production, chest girth, reproduction and management were collected monthly over a period of 1 year. In addition, samples of fodder and concentrates were collected monthly and analysed for dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (OMD). Of the 550 rations analysed, grass was included in 99.8% of all rations, followed by gliricidia (65%), creepers (50%) and jak leaves (32%). Consequently, the rations were high in OMD (47-59%) and CP (7.8-23.5%). High-protein forage or coconut cake or both were also included as a supplement in 92% of the rations. Both M- and W- farmers had larger (p < 0.001) herds (mean 1.8 animal units (AU) per household) than their counterparts with off-farm income (mean 1.44 AU/household), but only the male farmers without off-farm income achieved higher feeding levels (84.4 vs 65.6 72.1 g digestible organic matter (DOM)/kg0.75 per day) and milk production (6.4 vs 5.3-5.7 L/lactating cow). The lower production of animals kept by female and M+ farmers was related to lower feeding levels. M- farmers realized higher feeding levels than their M+ counterparts. W- farmers did not collect extra feed in response to higher levels of production. It was concluded that dairy farming in the mid-country of Sri Lanka is particularly important for poorer households without income from off-farm employment. PMID:10509423

Zemmelink, G; Premaratne, S; Ibrahim, M N; Leegwater, P H

1999-10-01

295

Caregiver strain and symptoms of depression among principal caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Data on caregiver strain and depression of principal caregivers of patients with mental illnesses are few in developing countries. Findings from developed countries cannot be applied directly to developing countries as culture specific factors may influence the outcome. Methods A prospective study was carried out in the University Psychiatry Unit of the National Hospital of Sri Lanka (NHSL to identify symptoms of depression, caregiver strain and dissatisfaction with life in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Participants were assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies – Depression Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Modified Caregiver Strain Index. Results and discussion Eighty caregivers were interviewed (males; 36, 45%. Symptoms of depression were significant in 37.5%, while 48.8% had unsatisfactory scores on the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Depression and higher caregiver strain were associated with spending more time with the patient, interruption to work, disputes with relations, being assaulted by patient and self admission of needing professional help to overcome mental stress. Conclusion This study identified several associations for depression and increased caregiver strain among caregivers in a subset of patients with mental disorder in Sri Lanka. These can be used as markers to screen and increase pretest probability to identify caregivers needing help rather than applying the cumbersome questionnaires to all.

Rodrigo Chaturaka

2013-01-01

296

Teachers’ Levels of Use of the 5E Instructional Model in the Implementation of Curriculum Reforms in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The 5E instructional model is an innovative approach for constructive classroom instruction. First introduced in competency-based curriculum reforms in Sri Lanka, this is an inquiry-based model that allows students to engage in the self-learning process, in which teachers act as facilitators. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of teachers’ participation (through Levels of Use or LoU in implementing the 5E instructional model in Sri Lanka. The Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM was used to identify teachers’ LoU. Using the qualitative method, 9 out of 305 secondary school Geography teachers from the Kalutara district were selected as respondents in this survey. We used the basic interview protocol adopted from CBAM instruments. Our results revealed that many teachers were either non-users or were at the initial stage of use. The overall results revealed that the use of innovation was unsatisfactory. Thus, these teachers must be engaged in training programs, provided with the necessary materials and resources and must be continuously monitored to help those who want to qualify for a user profile and those who want to move up into the higher user profiles.

Fareed Mohamed Nawastheen

2014-05-01

297

Acute pituitary insufficiency and hypokalaemia following envenoming by Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) in Sri Lanka: Exploring the pathophysiological mechanisms.  

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Russell's viper envenoming is associated with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality. Hypopituitarism following envenoming by Russell's vipers is a well recognized sequel in Burma and parts of India but has been reported only once in Sri Lanka. Hypokalaemia following envenoming by Russell's viper has not been described. Here we describe the association of acute pituitary insufficiency and hypokalaemia following Russell's viper envenoming in Sri Lanka and review the literature in order to understand its pathophysiological basis. A previously healthy 21-year-old man was envenomed by a Russell's viper and treated with antivenom. Ten hours after the bite, he developed persistent hypotension, which responded promptly to intravenous dexamethasone. His hormone profiles were consistent with hypocortisolism secondary to acute pituitary insufficiency. He also developed hypokalaemia. Analysis of urine and serum electrolytes suggested redistribution of potassium in to the cells rather than renal loss. Hypotension and hypoglycaemic coma are life-threatening manifestations of acute pituitary insufficiency. Therefore prompt steroid administration in these setting is life saving. Awareness of these complications among physicians would help to make prompt diagnosis and initiate immediate life saving treatment. PMID:23212048

Jeevagan, Vijayabala; Katulanda, Prasad; Gnanathasan, Christeine Ariaranee; Warrell, David A

2013-03-01

298

Rapid assessment procedures to detect hidden endemic foci in areas not subjected to mass drug administration in Sri Lanka.  

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For the declaration of elimination of lymphatic filariasis, reliable epidemiological data in all parts of a country are required. In Sri Lanka, due to social disturbance, there are 3 provinces whose endemicity has been declared unknown. Further, a recent report revealed an endemic pocket, which is on the border with the district that was not covered by the national elimination program. These facts indicate the necessity of more extensive studies to discover hidden endemic foci. To facilitate such studies, we evaluated 2 methods of Rapid Assessment Procedure (RAP) in Hambantota district, where the filariasis endemicity was low: (1) indirect questioning by mailing a questionnaire to each local leader (IndQ), asking about the presence of clinical cases, and (2) focus group discussion (FGD) by villagers. The information given by people was validated with clinical examination by doctors (CE) and IgG4 ELISA using urine samples. In the results: there was a strong positive correlation between CE and ELISA rates. The hydrocele rates obtained by FGD or IndQ were associated significantly with CE rates. The rates by FGD or Cluster-IndQ ('modified' IndQ) were also associated significantly with ELISA rates. The IndQ was most cost-effective. Based on these findings, we have concluded that screening by IndQ and confirmation by the ELISA would be an effective and practical way in Sri Lanka to locate endemic foci in hitherto unsurveyed districts. PMID:24060539

Yahathugoda, Thishan C; Weerasooriya, Mirani V; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Kimura, Eisaku; Samarawickrema, Wilfred A; Itoh, Makoto

2014-02-01

299

Diagnosis of dengue in Sri Lanka: improvements to the existing state of the art in the island.  

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Dengue fever (DF) is a mosquito borne virus infection which is endemic to the tropical regions of the world. In Sri Lanka, the first sero-positive case was reported in the 1960s; since then the island has experienced several outbreaks of DF/dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). The disease is more prevalent in some parts of the country where rapid urbanisation has taken place. Diagnosis of DF/DHF is mainly done using the clinical features only due to the unavailability of laboratory diagnosis in many parts of the country and this might lead to over or under diagnosis of the disease. A rational diagnostic approach which combines the history and clinical profiles together with specific virological laboratory data would help in the correct identification of the disease. Furthermore, a feasible algorithm for the laboratory diagnosis of dengue will help to confirm the cases with a high level of clinical suspicion. This would then facilitate the notification of correctly identified cases to the public health authorities to assess the dengue burden. The scope of this review is to improve the existing laboratory diagnosis of DF/DHF by proposing a feasible algorithm to implement in Sri Lanka that would enable better detection of cases. PMID:25233937

Senaratne, Thamarasi N; Noordeen, Faseeha

2014-11-01

300

EQ-5D-3L Derived Population Norms for Health Related Quality of Life in Sri Lanka  

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Background Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) is an important outcome measure in health economic evaluation that guides health resource allocations. Population norms for HRQoL are an essential ingredient in health economics and in the evaluation of population health. The aim of this study was to produce EQ-5D-3L-derived population norms for Sri Lanka. Method A population sample (n?=? 780) was selected from four districts of Sri Lanka. A stratified cluster sampling approach with probability proportionate to size was employed. Twenty six clusters of 30 participants each were selected; each participant completed the EQ-5D-3L in a face-to-face interview. Utility weights for their EQ-5D-3L health states were assigned using the Sri Lankan EQ-5D-3L algorithm. The population norms are reported by age and socio-economic variables. Results The EQ-5D-3L was completed by 736 people, representing a 94% response rate. Sixty per cent of the sample reported being in full health. The percentage of people responding to any problems in the five EQ-5D-3L dimensions increased with age. The mean EQ-5D-3L weight was 0.85 (SD 0.008; 95%CI 0.84-0.87). The mean EQ-5D-3L weight was significantly associated with age, housing type, disease experience and religiosity. People above 70 years of age were 7.5 times more likely to report mobility problems and 3.7 times more likely to report pain/discomfort than those aged 18-29 years. Those with a tertiary education were five times less likely to report any HRQoL problems than those without a tertiary education. A person living in a shanty was 4.3 more likely to have problems in usual activities than a person living in a single house. Conclusion The population norms in Sri Lanka vary with socio-demographic characteristics. The socioeconomically disadvantaged have a lower HRQoL. The trends of population norms observed in this lower middle income country were generally similar to those previously reported in high income countries. PMID:25365171

Kularatna, Sanjeewa; Whitty, Jennifer A.; Johnson, Newell W.; Jayasinghe, Ruwan; Scuffham, Paul A.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Determinants of Tobacco Use among Students Aged 13-15 Years in Nepal and Sri Lanka: Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 2007  

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Objectives: This study aimed to investigate tobacco use behaviours and their correlates among secondary school students in Nepal and Sri Lanka together with cross-country comparisons. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Methods and Settings: The data were obtained from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), 2007. Current tobacco use was considered as…

Kabir, M. A.; Goh, Kim-Leng

2014-01-01

302

Identification, evaluation and change detection of highly sensitive wetlands in South-Eastern Sri Lanka using ALOS (AVNIR2, PALSAR) and Landsat ETM+ data  

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Sri Lanka is an island consists of numerous wetlands and many of these ecosystems have been indiscriminately exploited for a commercial, agricultural, residential and industrial development and waste dumping. Eastern River Basin Region in Sri Lanka is rapidly urbanizing, which leads more threats to the surrounding wetland ecosystems considerably. Therefore, it is important to identify and designated them as reserved areas where necessary in order to protect them under the National Environmental Act of Sri Lanka. Mapping and change detection of wetlands in the selected region is a key requirement to fulfill the above task. GIS and Remote Sensing techniques were used to identify and analyze the wetland eco systems. In this study Landsat ETM+, ALOS-AVNIR2, ALOS-PALSAR images were analyzed for identifying and change detection of wetlands. The secondary information and data were collected through a questionnaire survey to recognize the possible threats and benefits. The collected data and information were incorporated in identification, analyzing and ranking the wetlands. The final outcome of the project is to correlate the satellite data with the field observations to quantify the highly sensitive wetlands to declare as Environmental Protection Areas under the National Environment Act of Sri Lanka.

Gunawardena, Ajith; Fernando, Tamasha; Takeuchi, Wataru; Wickramasinghe, Chathura H.; Samarakoon, Lal

2014-06-01

303

Artificial insemination of cattle in Sri Lanka: Status, performance and problems  

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Artificial insemination (AI) has been accepted as the primary breeding tool in genetic upgrading programmes of cattle in Sri Lanka. Three studies were conducted, to determine the coverage and performance of AI at national, provincial and district levels (Study 1), the success rate and factors affecting success rate of AI in wet zone mid-country smallholder farms (Study 2) and in wet zone up-country large multiplier farms (Study 3). The objective was to design, implement remedial measures and/or determine future studies necessary to improve the efficiency of AI services. Study 1 revealed that at national level the AI service reached less than 15% of the breedable cattle and accounted for less than 6% of estimated annual calvings. The coverage reached above 50% of the breedable cattle only in the wet zone while in the intermediate and dry zone areas it was negligible. Study 2 revealed that the mean calving to first service interval (CFSI) in cattle of the wet zone mid-country small holdings was 183 ± 87.1 days (n=211) and the calving to conception interval (CCI) was 194 ± 93.9 days (n=143). The first service conception rate (FSCR) was 45% and the overall conception rate (OCR) was 50.2%, with an average of 1.99 services per conception (S/C). Study 3 showed that the mean CFSI and CCI in wet zone upcountry multiplier farmers were 111.2 ± 74.2 days (n=133) and 156 ± 92.7 days (n=170) respectively. The average FSCR and OCR were 50.4% and 53.6% respectively and the average S/C was 1.9. Study 1 showed that the AI coverage of the island is very low and the proportion of calvings from AI is too low to have a significant impact on genetic composition of the national cow population. Studies 2 and 3 showed that the success rate of the AI service in the more favourable and extensively covered wet zone areas was also low. These studies revealed that factors associated with the chain of events from farmer, cow, semen to the technician contributed to poor fertility. (author)

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Influence of pesticide regulation on acute poisoning deaths in Sri Lanka / Influence de la législation concernant les pesticides sur les décès par intoxication aiguë à Sri Lanka / Influencia de la regulación de los plaguicidas en las defunciones por intoxicación aguda en Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Evaluar en un país asiático en desarrollo la repercusión de la regulación de los plaguicidas en el número de defunciones por intoxicación. Estas normas¸ que entraron en vigor en Sri Lanka a partir de los años setenta, tenían por objeto reducir el número de defunciones por intoxicación -aut [...] ointoxicaciones deliberadas la mayoría de las veces- mediante la limitación de la disponibilidad y el uso de plaguicidas altamente tóxicos. MÉTODOS: La información sobre los cambios legislativos procede del Ministerio de Agricultura, los datos de ingreso en hospitales nacionales y de distrito se obtuvieron de la Unidad de Estadísticas Sanitarias de Sri Lanka, y los datos particulares sobre las defunciones por intoxicación con plaguicidas son el resultado de un examen manual de las notas de los pacientes y de los registros de la unidad de cuidados intensivos de Anuradhapura. RESULTADOS: Entre 1986 y 2000 se duplicó la cifra total de ingresos por intoxicación a nivel nacional, y los ingresos por intoxicación con plaguicidas aumentaron en más de un 50%. Al mismo tiempo, la tasa de letalidad descendió para las intoxicaciones totales y para las intoxicaciones por plaguicidas. En 1991-1992, el 72% de las defunciones por plaguicidas registradas en Anuradhapura se debieron a plaguicidas organofosforados (OF) y de carbamato -en particular a los productos monocrotofos y metamidofos, clasificados por la OMS como OF de tipo I. A partir de 1991, la importación de estos plaguicidas se redujo gradualmente hasta que se prohibieron para uso corriente en enero de 1995, con la correspondiente caída de las defunciones. Lamentablemente, su desaparición en las tareas agrícolas dio paso al endosulfán organoclorado, un OF de tipo II que causó un aumento de las defunciones por status epilepticus, de una en 1994 a 50 en 1998. El endosulfán fue prohibido en 1998, y durante los tres años siguientes el número de muertes por endosulfán se redujo a tres. Sin embargo, al final de la década el número de defunciones por plaguicidas había vuelto a ser similar al de 1991, atribuyéndose la mayoría de las defunciones a los OF de tipo II. Aunque estos productos son menos tóxicos que los OF de tipo I, su gestión sigue planteando problemas, pues son todavía muy tóxicos y su toxicidad se ve agravada por la escasez de servicios. CONCLUSIÓN: La caída de la tasa de letalidad en el contexto de una incidencia creciente de casos de autointoxicación indica que los programas de regulación de los plaguicidas en Sri Lanka fueron beneficiosos. Sin embargo, una inspección más atenta de la mortalidad por plaguicidas en un hospital reveló un desplazamiento hacia otros plaguicidas altamente tóxicos, pues al prohibirse el uso de uno de ellos en la agricultura no tardó en ser reemplazado por otro. En la futura reglamentación habría que prever tanto ese tipo de sustituciones como la posibilidad de tratar fácilmente las intoxicaciones por los plaguicidas de sustitución. Además, la regulación al efecto debe aplicarse al mismo tiempo que otras estrategias, como el manejo integrado de plagas, a fin de reducir la disponibilidad general de plaguicidas para autolesiones. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To assess in a developing Asian country the impact of pesticide regulation on the number of deaths from poisoning. These regulations, which were implemented in Sri Lanka from the 1970s, aimed to reduce the number of deaths - the majority from self-poisoning - by limiting the availability [...] and use of highly toxic pesticides. METHODS: Information on legislative changes was obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture, national and district hospital admission data were obtained from the Sri Lanka Health Statistics Unit, and individual details of deaths by pesticide poisoning were obtained from a manual review of patients' notes and intensive care unit records in Anuradhapura. FINDINGS: Between 1986 and 2000, the total national number of admissions due t

Darren M., Roberts; Ayanthi, Karunarathna; Nick A., Buckley; Gamini, Manuweera; M.H. Rezvi, Sheriff; Michael, Eddleston.

305

The Impacts Of The Indian Ocean Tsunami On Coastal Ecosystems And Resultant Effects On The Human Communities Of Sri Lanka  

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The devastating tsunami that hit Sri Lanka on December 26, 2004 has demonstrated vividly the inter-connections between social and ecological resilience. Before the tsunami, the coastal zone of Sri Lanka was inhabited by predominantly poor populations, most of whom were directly dependent upon coastal natural resources, such as fisheries and coconut trees, for supporting their livelihoods. Many of these people have now lost their livelihoods through the destruction of their boats and nets for fishing, the contamination of drinking sources, homes, family members and assets. This presentation focuses on observations of the tsunami impacts on both social and ecological communities made along the affected coastline of Sri Lanka in April-May 2005. This assessment recorded patterns of ecological resistance and damage resulting from the tsunami in relation to damage on the human environment, with an exploration of the physical factors that may have contributed to vulnerability or resistance. This work also involved a preliminary assessment of the resilience and recovery of different natural resource based livelihood strategies following the disaster and an exploration of livelihood possibilities in proposed resettlement sites. From observations made in this and other recent studies, it is apparent that intact ecosystems played a vital role in protection from the impact of the tsunami and are vital for supporting people as they seek to rebuild their livelihoods. However, certain structural and biological characteristics appear to offer certain tree species, such as coconut (Cocos nucifera), an advantage in surviving such events and have been important for providing food and drink to people in the days after the tsunami. Areas where significant environmental damage had occurred prior to the tsunami or where there were few natural defenses present to protect human communities, devastation of homes and lives was extremely high. Although, there is evidence that many previously intact ecological systems were little affected or will recover from this large disturbance, major impacts on the natural environment may come in the aftermath of the tsunami during the rebuilding and reconstruction phase. The ability of communities to recover from disasters and to rebuild their lives is dependent on both an intact natural resource base and the maintenance of social networks for learning, adapting and managing resources. The potential impacts of rebuilding on the natural environment combined with policies on resettlement may influence the ability to learn, cope and manage such events and resources in the future.

Ingram, J.; Rumbaitis-del Rio, C.; Franco, G.; Khazai, B.

2005-12-01

306

Organizational health and the achievement level of students in science at the secondary-level schools in Sri Lanka  

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This study sought to identify those organizational health factors that might have overriding influence on the achievement level of students in science in Sri Lankan secondary schools. This study involved 752 students, 33 science teachers, and 10 principals from two different districts, Ampara and Colombo, in Sri Lanka. Ten Tamil medium, secondary level, public schools were selected to participate in this study. Data were collected using four types of instruments: a questionnaire for pupils; interview schedules for science teachers and principals; checklists for classroom/school facilities, science laboratory facilities, and science practicals; and a science achievement test. The analysis focused on the collective perceptions of students, science teachers, and principals. Regression and path analyses were used as major analysis techniques, and the qualitative data provided by science teachers and principals were considered for a crosschecking of the quantitative inferences. The researcher found teacher affiliation, academic emphasis, and instructional leadership of the principal, in descending order, were the overriding influential factors on the achievement level of students in science in Sri Lankan secondary schools. At the same time a similar descending order was found in their mean values and qualities. The researcher concluded that increasing the quality of the organizational health factors in Sri Lankan secondary schools would result in improved better achievement in science. The findings further indicate that instructional leadership of the principal had both direct and indirect effects on students' achievement in science when academic emphasis and teacher affiliation were taken into account. In addition, the resource support of the principal did not make any difference in students' science achievement and the findings stress the availability of the resources for individual students instead of assuming the general facilities of the school are available to all students of the school.

Pakkeer-Jaufar, Pakkeer Cadermohideen

307

Social factors and oral hygiene habits among caries free children in a low fluoride area in Sri Lanka.  

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The relationship of toothcleaning habits and caries free status of a group of 13-16-yr-old children who were not subjected to any caries preventive measures in Sri Lanka were studied. Despite lack of prevention, 31% of the subjects were caries free, and a higher proportion of these were boys. All subjects reported brushing their teeth at least once a day. The study failed to show any relationship between either brushing frequency or the use of brush or finger for toothcleaning, and caries. Although social status by father's employment was not related to the caries status, it was seen that a higher proportion of children of employed mothers' were caries free. Significant differences in oral hygiene habits except brushing frequency were noted among different social groups. PMID:3165746

Warnakulasuriya, K A

1988-08-01

308

JOB SATISFACTION AND EMPLOYEES’ WORK PERFORMANCE: A CASE STUDY OF PEOPLE’S BANK IN JAFFNA PENINSULA, SRI LANKA  

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Full Text Available Abstract:For the purpose of this study, the data was extracted from the branches of people’s bank operating within Jaffna peninsula, Sri Lanka. Here, we analysed the data by employing simple correlation analysis. In the analysis, it is found that there is a positive relationship between job satisfaction and employees’ work performance. That is high level of fair promotion, reasonable pay system appropriate work itself and good working condition leads to high level of employees’ performance. In other words, employee’s job satisfaction has positive impact on their performance. Moreover, outcome of the research would be helpful to the academicians, practitioners, researchers, planners, and policy makers who are involved in the concerned area.

Balasundaram NIMALATHASAN

2010-01-01

309

Diversity and Population status of Bats in Pilikuttuwa ancient cave temple in the Gampaha District, Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Due to two unique specializations - echolocation and flight, bats have become one of the most successful groups of extant mammals in the world. Pilikuttuwa rajamaha viharaya, an ancient meditation monastery complex is a one of best places for bats which gives protection in Sri Lanka. In the present study, we evaluate the species diversity and population status of bats in Pilikuttuwa ancient meditation monastery complex with regard to their roosting ecology. Six species of bats including Taphozous melanopogon, Rhinolophus beddomei, Rhinolophus rouxii, Hipposideros galeritus, Hipposideros speoris and Megaderma spasma were recorded with the following conservation status, four in Vulnerable and two in Least Concerned. Taphozous melanopogon was the most abundant, and had the largest population with the widest distribution at the study site. A Natural predator of bats, Paradoxurus hermaphoditus was recorded in one roosting site.

T. G. Tharaka Kusuminda

2013-12-01

310

Mental Health and the Role of Cultural and Religious Support in the Assistance of Disabled Veterans in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence of PTSD and CES-D depressive symptoms, their association with previously untested supportive resources such as Buddhist religious activities, Buddhist bodhipuja rituals and horoscope readings for 45 recently wounded veterans in Sri Lanka. The results revealed an 85.4% prevalence rate of clinical levels of CES-D depression and a 42.2% prevalence rate of clinical levels of PTSD. The results of this study provide unique evidence for the significant role of Buddhist religious activities, the cultural activity of horoscope reading, and the support of family and friends in reducing the depressive symptoms in disabled veterans. Moreover, with the present study we were able to conclude that the support of family and friends reduced both perceived depressive symptoms and the PTSD symptoms of wounded veterans.

Thulitha Wickrama

2011-07-01

311

Heavy metal pollution of the mid-canal of Kandy: an environmental case study from Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mid-canal of Kandy, a 8-km effluent canal that runs through the city, collects massive quantities of domestic, municipal, and agricultural waste products. In this study, 37 samples from canal water and 13 from nearby drinking water wells were analyzed for their total Pb, Cd, V, Fe, and ferrous ion content. The following average values for the canal water were recorded: Pb, 269 micrograms/liter; Cd, 138 micrograms/liter; V, 18 micrograms/liter; total Fe, 4 mg/liter. These values indicate the relative levels of metal input from the effluent sources of the city of Kandy, the second largest city in Sri Lanka. The analysis of water from drinking wells near the canal showed high concentrations of metals, in some cases exceeding the maximum tolerance limits as recommended by WHO. The environmental impact of polluted city canals running through densely populated cities, particularly in developing countries, can assume serious proportions. PMID:3803341

Dissanayake, C B; Niwas, J M; Weerasooriya, S V

1987-02-01

312

Heavy metal pollution of the mid-canal of Kandy: an environmental case study from Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mid-canal of Kandy, a 8-km effluent canal that runs through the city, collects massive quantities of domestic, municipal, and agricultural waste products. In this study, 37 samples from canal water and 13 from nearby drinking water wells were analyzed for their total Pb, Cd, V, Fe, and ferrous ion content. The following average values for the canal water were recorded: Pb, 269 micrograms/liter; Cd, 138 micrograms/liter; V, 18 micrograms/liter; total Fe, 4 mg/liter. These values indicate the relative levels of metal input from the effluent sources of the city of Kandy, the second largest city in Sri Lanka. The analysis of water from drinking wells near the canal showed high concentrations of metals, in some cases exceeding the maximum tolerance limits as recommended by WHO. The environmental impact of polluted city canals running through densely populated cities, particularly in developing countries, can assume serious proportions.

Dissanayake, C.B.; Niwas, J.M.; Weerasooriya, S.V.

1987-02-01

313

Identification of forest cover changes by landsat MSS data and environmental effects of such changes in Central South Sri Lanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on Landsat MSS data of 1977 and 1987 together with in situ surveys, landcover and landuse maps are made for central southern part of Sri Lanka then the change of landcover and deforestation on 10 years period is estimated. The change amounts to a 16% decrease in evergreen forests, a 39% increase in scrublands and a 63% decrease in open water areas. Data of 30 years monthly and annual mean precipitation and air temperature are collected from the surrounding observing stations. Analyses of these data indicate a complicated distribution pattern including a fairly large variability and little variability in case of precipitation, while in case of air temperature 5 years moving average of the annual air temperature indicates a steady increase. The composite analyses based on Landsat MSS data together with the local environmental data suggest that there is a connection between deforestation and micro level climatological and environmental changes. 12 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Perera, L. (Chiba University, Chiba (Japan). Remote Sensing and Image Research Center); Tsuchiya, K. (Teikyo University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering); Toyota, H. (Seikei University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

1992-08-25

314

Vulnerability analysis in terms of food insecurity and poverty using GIS and remote sensing technology applied to Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

It is becoming increasingly recognized that computer methods such as models and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be valuable tools for analyzing a geographical area in terms of it's hazards vulnerability, Vulnerability is an important aspect of households' experience of poverty. The measurement and analysis of poverty, inequality and vulnerability are crucial for cognitive purposes (to know what the situation is), for analytical purposes (to understand the factors determining this situation), for policy making purposes (to design interventions best adapted to the issues), and for monitoring and evaluation purposes (to assess whether current policies are effective, and whether the situation is changing). Here vulnerability defined as the probability or risk today of being in poverty - or falling deeper into poverty - in the future. Vulnerability is a key dimension of well being since it affects individuals' behavior (in terms of investment, production patterns, coping strategies) and their perception of their own situation. This study has been conducted with the joint collaboration of World Food Programme (WFP) and International Water Management Institute (IWMI) in Sri Lanka for identifying regions and population which are food insecure, for analyzing the reasons for vulnerability to food insecurity in order to provide decision-makers with information to identify possible sectors of intervention and for identifying where and for whom food aid can be best utilized in Sri Lanka. This new approach integrates GIS and Remote sensing with other statistical packages to allow consideration of more spatial/physical parameters like accessibility to economic resources, particularly land and the assets of the built environment, creating employment, and attracting investment in order to improve the quality and quantity of goods and services for the analysis which leads the analysis to represent the real scenario. For this study a detailed topographic data are being used along with MODIS EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index)

Shahriar, Pervez M.; Ramachandran, Mahadevan; Mutuwatte, Lal

2003-03-01

315

The role of private drug vendors as malaria treatment providers in selected malaria endemic areas of Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives: The involvement of private drug vendors in malaria treatment isparticularly high in developing countries and understanding their practices and knowledge aboutantimalarials and malaria treatment will aid in devising strategies to increase the correct use ofantimalarials and improve adherence to the government’s malaria drug policy. Results of a study onthe knowledge and practices of the private drug vendors conducted in seven districts in Sri Lanka,mostly in malarious areas are presented.Methods: Data on awareness of government’s malaria drug policy, practice of issuing antimalarials,knowledge about malaria and antimalarial drugs were collected from the drug vendors using pretestedquestionnaire in vernacular language. Data were statistically analysed using Stata 8.2. Chisquaretest was carried out for individual explanatory variables and a logistic regression model wasapplied taking all response variables as binary outcome.Results: Vendors’ knowledge on antimalarials was poor with 58% of the vendors being unaware ofthe government malaria drug policy in the country. Also, the advice provided to customers buyingantimalarials was limited. However, the majority of the private vendors emphasised that they wereaware of the importance of case confirmation before treatment as stressed in the national policy.Although, the vendors did not have a high awareness of national drug policies they were only foundselling chloroquine and primaquine as recommended by the Ministry of Health.Interpretation & conclusion: In recent years Sri Lanka, as a whole, has experienced very littlemalaria. The reduction in demand for antimalarials due to low incidence levels may have influencedthe knowledge and awareness on antimalarials and government drug policies. However, since lowlevels of malaria do not guarantee that epidemics will not occur, attempts to educate private drugvendors as a part of an organised control programmes are of major importance.

R.S. Rajakaruna, M. Weerasinghe, M. Alifrangis, P.H. Amerasinghe & F. Konradsen

2006-06-01

316

Quantification of groundwater-seawater interaction in a coastal sandy aquifer system: a study from Panama, Sri Lanka  

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The Panama coastal aquifer system is an important water resource in the southeast coast of Sri Lanka that provides adequate supplies of water for agriculture and domestic uses. One of the biggest threats to these fragile aquifers is seawater intrusion. In this study [1], recharging mechanism and geochemical evaluation of groundwater in the coastal sandy aquifer of Panama were evaluated using chemical and stable isotope techniques. Thirty groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for their major ion concentrations and stable isotope ratios of oxygen (?18O) and hydrogen (?2H). All samples showed a decreasing order of concentrations for major anions in the order Cl- > HCO3- > SO42- > N-NO3- while cation concentrations decreased with Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+. Dominant hydrogeochemical characterizations of the groundwater were Na-Cl and mixed Ca-Mg-Cl types of water. Results of saturation index calculations indicate that the investigated groundwater body was mostly saturated with respect to calcite, dolomite and gypsum. In addition, stable isotope and geochemical data suggest that fresh groundwater in the aquifer is recharged mainly by local precipitation with only slight modification from evaporation and saline water intrusions. The communities in the study area depend almost exclusively on groundwater a better understanding of the hydrogeochemical characteristics of the aquifer system becomes increasingly important in the future for better local water resource management. References [1] Chandrajith, R., Chaturangani, D., Abeykoon, S., Barth, J.C., van Geldern, R., Edirisinghe, E.A.N.V. and Dissanayake, C.B. (in press): Quantification of groundwater-seawater interaction in a coastal sandy aquifer system: a study from Panama, Sri Lanka. - Environmental Earth Sciences, [doi:10.1007/s12665-013-3010-y].

Chandrajith, Rohana; Chaturangani, Dinusha; Abeykoon, Sumith; Barth, Johannes A. C.; van Geldern, Robert; Edirisinghe, Viraj; Dissanayake, Chandra B.

2014-05-01

317

Strategies to overcome barriers for cleaner generation technologies in small developing power systems: Sri Lanka case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The penetration of cleaner and energy efficient technologies in small power systems such as the one in Sri Lanka has encountered many problems. This has caused major concerns among the policy makers, mainly in the context of the growing need to reduce harmful emissions in the electricity supply industry from the point of view of both local environmental pollution as well as the global warming concerns. This paper presents the outcome of a study involved in identifying and ranking the barriers to the promotion of cleaner and energy efficient technologies and strategies to overcome these barriers in Sri Lanka. Barriers for renewable energy based systems such as wind and wood fuel fired plants (dendro thermal power) and cleaner technologies such as liquefied natural gas (LNG) fired combined cycle and IGCC (coal) were identified based on a survey. A direct assessment multi-criteria decision making method called Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to rank the barriers. The most effective strategies are proposed to address the three major barriers for each of these technologies based on extensive discussions with all the stakeholders in the electricity industry. It was found that lack of financing instruments, high initial cost and lack of assurance of resource supply or availability are the main barriers for renewable technologies. As for cleaner fuel and technology options associated with conventional generation systems, the lack of a clear government policy, uncertainty of fuel supplies and their prices and the reliability of the technologies themselves are the major barriers. Strategies are identified to overcome the above barriers. Establishment of a proper feed in tariff, geographical diversification of installations and capacity building in commercial banks are suggested for wind power. Investment incentives, streamlining of wood production and research on site identification are proposed for wood fuel fired plants. Also the study suggests delayed implementation, combined planning with other sectors of the economy, incorporating environmental cost in planning and investment incentives as strategies for IGCC and LNG based technologies

318

Impact of Dividend Policy on Share Holders’ Wealth A Study of Listed Companies in Hotels and Travels Sector of Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available this research intends to study the impact of firm’s dividend policy on shareholders’ wealth. The objective of the company is to increase the wealth of its shareholders. It is therefore necessary, to understand the nature of the relationship between dividend and shareholders' wealth. Tourism remains the fastest growing service industry in the economies of most of developing countries. Sri Lanka entered the international tourism market in the 1960s. Since then, Hotel and Travel sector has been growing steadily as a promising sector. In particular, the contribution of Hotel and Travel sector to Gross Domestic Product was 2% in Sri Lankan economy. In attempt to fill this research gap the present study was initiated to find out the impact of dividend policy on shareholders’ wealth of top ten listed companies under hotel and travel sector in Sri Lanka during the period from 2008 to 2012. Secondary data is collected from company annual report. This research used the correlation, regression and descriptive statistics to evaluate the data collected from the top ten listed companies under hotel and travel sector. In addition the dividend policy has significant impact on shareholders' wealth. There are Positive relationship between Return on Equity, dividend per share and Dividend payout ratio and Shareholders’ wealth of top ten listed companies under hotel and travel sector in Sri Lanka and mean while there is a negative relationship between retention ratio and Shareholders’ wealth.

Sinthuja Kumaresan

2014-02-01

319

From pesticides to medicinal drugs: time series analyses of methods of self-harm in Sri Lanka / Des pesticides aux médicaments: analyses de séries chronologiques des méthodes d'automutilation au Sri Lanka / De los pesticidas a los fármacos: análisis de series temporales de los métodos de autolesión en Sri Lanka  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Examinar si los cambios recientes en los métodos de autolesión en Sri Lanka podrían explicar el descenso de la incidencia de suicidio en dicho país. MÉTODOS: Se llevaron a cabo análisis de series temporales de las tasas de suicidio y hospitalización por diferentes tipos de intoxicación. RE [...] SULTADOS: Entre 1996 y 2008, la incidencia anual de admisión hospitalaria provocada por intoxicación por sustancias farmacológicas o biológicas incrementó exponencialmente de 48,2 a 115,4 ingresos por cada 100 000 habitantes. Durante el mismo periodo, los ingresos anuales provocados por intoxicación con pesticidas se redujeron de 105,1 a 88,9 casos por cada 100 000 habitantes. La incidencia anual de suicidio se redujo exponencialmente, de un pico de 47,0 casos por cada 100 000 habitantes en 1995 a 19,6 por 100 000 habitantes en 2009. Las intoxicaciones fueron las responsables de 37,4 suicidios por cada 100 000 habitantes en 1995, pero en el año 2009 solo representaron 11,2 suicidios por cada 100 000 habitantes. La tasa de letalidad de las intoxicaciones por pesticidas presentó una reducción lineal, de 11,0 muertes por cada 100 casos de ingreso en el hospital en 1997 a 5,1 por cada 100 casos en el año 2008. CONCLUSIÓN: Desde mediados de la década de 1990 se ha experimentado una tendencia entre aquellas personas que pretenden autolesionarse en Sri Lanka que se aleja del uso inadecuado de los pesticidas (a pesar de que no se ha producido una reducción en la disponibilidad de los mismos) y que se acerca a un mayor uso de sustancias farmacológicas y de otro tipo. Estas tendencias unidas a una reducción de la mortalidad entre aquellos que sufrieron una intoxicación por pesticidas han dado como resultado un descenso global de la incidencia nacional de suicidio consumado. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To explore if recent changes in methods of self-harm in Sri Lanka could explain the decline in the incidence of suicide. METHODS: Time series analyses of suicide rates and hospitalization due to different types of poisoning were carried out. FINDINGS: Between 1996 and 2008 the annual inci [...] dence of hospital admission resulting from poisoning by medicinal or biological substances increased exponentially, from 48.2 to 115.4 admissions per 100 000 population. Over the same period, annual admissions resulting from poisoning with pesticides decreased from 105.1 to 88.9 per 100 000. The annual incidence of suicide decreased exponentially, from a peak of 47.0 per 100 000 in 1995 to 19.6 per 100 000 in 2009. Poisoning accounted for 37.4 suicides per 100 000 population in 1995 but only 11.2 suicides per 100 000 in 2009. The case fatality rate for pesticide poisoning decreased linearly, from 11.0 deaths per 100 cases admitted to hospital in 1997 to 5.1 per 100 in 2008. CONCLUSION: Since the mid 1990s, a trend away from the misuse of pesticides (despite no reduction in pesticide availability) and towards increased use of medicinal and other substances has been seen in Sri Lanka among those seeking self-harm. These trends and a reduction in mortality among those suffering pesticide poisoning have resulted in an overall reduction in the national incidence of accomplished suicide.

Varuni A de, Silva; SM, Senanayake; P, Dias; R, Hanwella.

320

From pesticides to medicinal drugs: time series analyses of methods of self-harm in Sri Lanka / Des pesticides aux médicaments: analyses de séries chronologiques des méthodes d'automutilation au Sri Lanka / De los pesticidas a los fármacos: análisis de series temporales de los métodos de autolesión en Sri Lanka  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Examinar si los cambios recientes en los métodos de autolesión en Sri Lanka podrían explicar el descenso de la incidencia de suicidio en dicho país. MÉTODOS: Se llevaron a cabo análisis de series temporales de las tasas de suicidio y hospitalización por diferentes tipos de intoxicación. RE [...] SULTADOS: Entre 1996 y 2008, la incidencia anual de admisión hospitalaria provocada por intoxicación por sustancias farmacológicas o biológicas incrementó exponencialmente de 48,2 a 115,4 ingresos por cada 100 000 habitantes. Durante el mismo periodo, los ingresos anuales provocados por intoxicación con pesticidas se redujeron de 105,1 a 88,9 casos por cada 100 000 habitantes. La incidencia anual de suicidio se redujo exponencialmente, de un pico de 47,0 casos por cada 100 000 habitantes en 1995 a 19,6 por 100 000 habitantes en 2009. Las intoxicaciones fueron las responsables de 37,4 suicidios por cada 100 000 habitantes en 1995, pero en el año 2009 solo representaron 11,2 suicidios por cada 100 000 habitantes. La tasa de letalidad de las intoxicaciones por pesticidas presentó una reducción lineal, de 11,0 muertes por cada 100 casos de ingreso en el hospital en 1997 a 5,1 por cada 100 casos en el año 2008. CONCLUSIÓN: Desde mediados de la década de 1990 se ha experimentado una tendencia entre aquellas personas que pretenden autolesionarse en Sri Lanka que se aleja del uso inadecuado de los pesticidas (a pesar de que no se ha producido una reducción en la disponibilidad de los mismos) y que se acerca a un mayor uso de sustancias farmacológicas y de otro tipo. Estas tendencias unidas a una reducción de la mortalidad entre aquellos que sufrieron una intoxicación por pesticidas han dado como resultado un descenso global de la incidencia nacional de suicidio consumado. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To explore if recent changes in methods of self-harm in Sri Lanka could explain the decline in the incidence of suicide. METHODS: Time series analyses of suicide rates and hospitalization due to different types of poisoning were carried out. FINDINGS: Between 1996 and 2008 the annual inci [...] dence of hospital admission resulting from poisoning by medicinal or biological substances increased exponentially, from 48.2 to 115.4 admissions per 100 000 population. Over the same period, annual admissions resulting from poisoning with pesticides decreased from 105.1 to 88.9 per 100 000. The annual incidence of suicide decreased exponentially, from a peak of 47.0 per 100 000 in 1995 to 19.6 per 100 000 in 2009. Poisoning accounted for 37.4 suicides per 100 000 population in 1995 but only 11.2 suicides per 100 000 in 2009. The case fatality rate for pesticide poisoning decreased linearly, from 11.0 deaths per 100 cases admitted to hospital in 1997 to 5.1 per 100 in 2008. CONCLUSION: Since the mid 1990s, a trend away from the misuse of pesticides (despite no reduction in pesticide availability) and towards increased use of medicinal and other substances has been seen in Sri Lanka among those seeking self-harm. These trends and a reduction in mortality among those suffering pesticide poisoning have resulted in an overall reduction in the national incidence of accomplished suicide.

Varuni A de, Silva; SM, Senanayake; P, Dias; R, Hanwella.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Evidence of Sexual Selection for Evening Orientation in Human Males: A Cross Cultural Study in Italy and Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Previous research has established the existence of individual differences with regards to individuals’ optimum time of well-functioning; specifically in terms of being either morning or evening oriented. An association has also emerged between being more evening, as opposed to morning, oriented and having a greater number of sexual partners. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether "eveningness” in males is an evolved sexually dimorphic trait consistent across different cultures. A sample of 179 male Sri Lankan men residing in two different cultural and economic settings, Italy and Sri Lanka, were administered the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ followed by assessing their sexual behavior history. The results robustly portrayed a highly significant main effect of MEQ types highlighting the twofold sexual success enjoyed by the evening individuals in both regional locations. Morning oriented individuals, showed a stronger preferece for going out and partying than evening-types, suggesting that the higher mating success of evening types is not due to their different lifestyles allowing more opportunities to encounter females. However, evening types exhibited a preference for flirtatious behaviors in the later part of the day. Shoulder-to-hip and handgrip strength, as measures of testosterone levels, were not significantly associated with eveningness. The results are discussed in terms of sexual selection and its interplay with human cultural variation.

Davide Piffer

2011-10-01

322

Public acceptance and trade development of irradiated food in Sri Lanka with special reference to spices and onions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sri Lankan spices, onion, shallots and dried chillies suffer considerable storage losses due to inadequate preservation method. Irradiation to a dose 7 kGy was found to be effective technique to reduce storage losses and improve quality of different spices. Preliminary results showed prospect of using irradiation for large scale preservation of dried chillis. But due to lack of irradiation, facility scaled- up irradiation and storage trials could not be undertaken. Based on study conducted by the Ceylon Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, a report was submitted to the Atomic Energy Authority of Sri Lanka on the current demand for a multi-purpose irradiation facility. The food items identified for irradiation processing include spices, desiccated coconut, shrimps for export; and onions, chillies and dried fish products, foliage plants and medical products for local trade. The volume of products for commercial processing has also been indicated in the survey report. Steps for approval of the Harmonised Regulations on Food Irradiation as adopted in the RCA Workshop in Seoul, 1998 are at the processing level for submission as a parliamentary bill. A consumer acceptance survey was carried out in 1997; the outcome showed a low acceptance for irradiated spices. About 200 participants comprising private exporters, govt. officials and students were made aware of the irradiation process and benefits of irradiation treatment through the training programmes on post-harvest management at the CISIR. (author)

323

Economy wide emission impacts of carbon and energy tax in electricity supply industry: A case study on Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results and analysis of a study conducted with the objective of investigating the impact on economy wide emissions due to carbon and energy taxes levied within the electricity generation sector of Sri Lanka. This exercise is mainly based on the input-output table developed by the national planning department. An input-output decomposition technique is used to analyze four types of effects that contribute to the overall reduction in equivalent carbon, NO x and SO2 emissions. These four effects are: fuel mix effect (i.e. the change in emissions due to variation I fuel mix), structural effect (i.e. change in emissions due to changes in technological coefficients with taxes compared to that without taxes), final demand effect (i.e. the change in emissions associated with changes in final demand) and joint effect (i.e. the interactive effect between or among the fuel mix, structural and final demand effects). The polluting fuel sources and low energy efficiency generation technologies are less preferred under these tax regimes. Of the four effects, a change in fuel mix in thermal electricity generation and a change final demand for electricity were found to be the main contributors in achieving economy wide emission reductions. It was found in the analysis that a minimum of US$ 50/tC tax or US$ 1.0/MBtu of energy tax is required to have a significant impact on economy wide emissions in the Sri Lankan context. This translates inthe Sri Lankan context. This translates into an overall increase in electricity generation cost of approximately USCts 0.9 kW-1 h-1 and USCts 0.6 kW-1 h-1 under the carbon and energy tax regimes, respectively. The reduction in emissions is also strongly coupled with the value of the price elasticity of electricity

324

Staging of lung cancer in a tertiary care setting in Sri Lanka, using TNM 7th edition. A comparison against TNM6  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in Sri Lanka and throughout the world. The latest staging system for lung cancer is the tumor node metastasis (TNM 7th edition in which there are major changes to the previous version. The objective of our study was to find out the implications of TNM7th edition on lung cancer staging in a resource limited setting, and to compare it with the previous TNM 6th edition. Methods Patients with histologically proven lung cancer consecutively presented to respiratory unit of Teaching Hospital Kandy, Sri Lanka were recruited to the study over a period of one year from April 2010 to March 2011. They were staged using CT, ultrasound scan of abdomen, bronchoscopy and CT spine and brain when necessary. Staging was done using TNM 7 as well as TNM6. Surgical or non-surgical treatment arms were decided on staging and the number of patients in each treatment arm was compared between the two staging systems. Results Out of 62 patients, thirty four patients (54% had metastatic disease and 19 (30% of them had pleural effusions (M1a, while 15 (24% had distant metastasis (M1b. When compared to TNM6 there was no difference in the number of patients in T1 category, but the number in T2 was higher in TNM7 (25 Vs 20. Similarly the number in T3 group was higher in TNM7 (11 Vs 5 and the number in M category was doubled (34 Vs 17 [Chi-6.46, p = 0.011] compared to TNM 6. The number of patients suitable for surgery were 17(27.5% in TNM 7 and 18(29% [Chi-0.02, p = 0.88] in TNM6. Conclusions This study shows that a significant proportion of patients were having advanced disease with distant metastasis on presentation. The number of patients falling to stage IV is significantly higher when staged with TNM7 but there was no significant difference in the number of patients undergoing surgery when TNM 7 was used compared to TNM6.

Dassanayake Dinesh LB

2012-03-01

325

A study of snake bite among children presenting to a paediatric ward in the main Teaching Hospital of North Central Province of Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Snake bite is a common problem in the North Central province of Sri Lanka. Common krait (Bungarus careuleus), Ceylon krait (Bungarus ceylonicus), Cobra (Naja naja), Russell’s viper (Daboia russelii), Saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) and Hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale) are the six species of venomous land snakes in Sri Lanka. A significant number of adults and children are bitten by snakes every year. However, the majority of research studies done in Sri Lanka and other countries show adults bitten by snakes and studies describing children bitten by snakes are very sparse. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study was performed in the Teaching Hospital Anuradhapura in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka from May 2010 to 2011 May to describe the characteristics associated with cases of snake bite. Results There were 24 males and 20 females. The highest numbers of bites (48%) were in the range of ages 6-12 years. The majority of the bites occurred between 6 pm to 6 am (59%).The foot was the most common bitten site (48%). Out of all the venomous bites, the Hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale) accounted for the highest number (44%) and Russell’s viper (Daboia ruselii) accounted for the second highest number (27%). A significant number of venomous bites occurred indoors while sleeping (22%). Antivenom serum was given to (39%) of venomous bites. Deaths occurred in (11%) of the venomous bites. Conclusions Hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale) accounted for the highest number of venomous bites. Majority of the bites occurred between 6 pm and 6 am. Foot was the most common bitten site. A significant number of venomous bites occurred indoor while sleeping. Antivenom serum was given to a significant number of venomous bites. Educating the public on making their houses snake proof and using a torch when going out during night time will help in the prevention of getting bitten by snakes. PMID:25073710

2014-01-01

326

Treating children traumatized by war and Tsunami: A comparison between exposure therapy and meditation-relaxation in North-East Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The North-Eastern part of Sri Lanka had already been affected by civil war when the 2004 Tsunami wave hit the region, leading to high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children. In the acute aftermath of the Tsunami we tested the efficacy of two pragmatic short-term interventions when applied by trained local counselors. Methods A randomized treatment comparison was implemented in a refugee camp in a severely affected community...

Ruf Martina; Kohiladevy Mahendran; Catani Claudia; Schauer Elisabeth; Elbert Thomas; Neuner Frank

2009-01-01

327

Development of Lifelong learning through libraries- use of the web pages as a marketing channel in University Libraries of Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lifelong learning is a concept that a person engages in learning process throughout the whole his/her lifetime by using acquired knowledge and skills, by experiencing in different circumstances, and critical thinking. It also means the obtaining of knowledge and know- how required for one’s living. Objective of this paper was to identify the role of libraries in Sri Lanka for the process of improving lifelong learning and identify strategies applicable from the e-marketing concept. Use o...

Garusing Arachchige, J. J.

2007-01-01

328

Haemostatic dysfunction and acute renal failure following envenoming by Merrem's hump-nosed viper (Hypnale hypnale) in Sri Lanka: first authenticated case.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A five years old boy was bitten by a Merrem's hump-nosed viper (Hypnale hypnale) in Central Province, Sri Lanka. He developed local swelling, incoagulable blood, thrombocytopenia, bleeding into the gastrointestinal tract, and acute renal failure. Treatment with Serum Institute of Indian polyspecific antivenom (specific for venoms of cobra, common krait, Russell's viper and saw-scaled viper) had no effect on the coagulopathy, which persisted for more than a week. The boy recovered after 27 d i...

Silva, A.; Wijekoon, As; Jayasena, L.; Abeysekera, Ck; Bao, Cx; Hutton, Ra; Warrell, DA

1994-01-01

329

Effect of Growth Rate on Wood Specific Gravity of Three Alternative Timber Species in Sri Lanka; Swietenia macrophylla, Khaya senegalensis and Paulownia fortunei  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With increasing private sector investments in commercial forestry, it is apparent that plantationforestry in Sri Lanka is moving in the direction of managing fast growing timber species for shorterrotations. However, there’s a perceptionthat accelerated growth rates induced by improved forestmanagement practices can result in inferior wood quality. This study tested this perceptionby studyingthe effect of growth rate on the specific gravity, as a proxy for wood quality, of three alternative...

Priyan Perera; Hiran Amarasekera; Weerawardena, N. D. R.

2012-01-01

330

Quality management system of secondary standards dosimetry laboratory in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Application of Quality Management System (QMS) of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) of the Atomic Energy Authority (ALA) of Sri Lanka provides path of workflow and information on laboratory operations, management and competence of staff that would assist the laboratory in continual improvement of its processes and meeting accreditation requirements in compliance with IS017025. Thus provision of customers' satisfied accredited dosimetry calibration services is needed for the country. The SSDL currently possesses a reference electrometer (PTW Unidos) with protection level ion- chambers (NE2575, 600cc ion-chamber and PTW - lOLt ion-chamber) and therapy level ion-chambers (NE2571, 0.6cc thimble ion-chamber). Also the laboratory is also having measuring standards (NE2570 electrometer with NE2575, 600cc ion-chamber and NE2571, 0.6cc thimble ion-chamber) . A gamma irradiator which contains two gamma sources (Co-60 and Cs-137) and a X-ray system with six ISO 4037 beam qualities (narrow spectrum of energy range: 33keV - 118keV) are available for protection level X-ray calibrations. Stability of the electrometers with Ion- chambers is performed with Sr-90 check sources, which are specially designed for each type of chambers in order to fix the set-up maintaining the same geometry for every measurement. An average of reading of ten consecutive measurements of which each measurement was made for 300s is taken for stability measurement. Each reading is corrtability measurement. Each reading is corrected for ambient temperature and pressure. Acceptance of percentage deviation of stability results with respect to reference reading of respective chamber is ±1% for protection level and ± 0.5% for therapy level. All these equipments, when they are not in used are kept in a dry cabinet in order to control humidity. The SSDL of AEA has become a part of an international network of dosimetry laboratories established by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO). This network provides assistance for members to maintain consistency of Radiation Standard measurements in their dosimetry laboratories. Reference electrometer with ion-chambers has been calibrated from IAEA Radiation Standard Laboratory at Seibersdorf in Austria which is traceable to primary standards at BIPM. Measuring standards are calibrated using these reference standards. The SSDL also participates IAEA TLD dose audit program to ensure the accuracy of radiation standards and is firmly committed to achieve global harmonization wherever possible. Hence the QMS assures the quality and accuracy of the services provided to institutions such as hospitals, research institutes, industries for the safety of their radiation workers. Reference electrometer with ion-chambers is used to standardize the gamma radiation fields. Measurements are made from 1 m onwards from the source with 25 cm step increment along the beam axis. Ten consecutive readings are taken for the measurement of air-kerma rate at a point. Ambient temperature, pressure and humidity at the beginning and end of measurements of each measurement are taken by using calibrated ancillary instruments, which are traceable to national and international standards, for correction of density of air mass in the ion-chamber. This air-kerma rate is converted to ambient dose equivalent rate (ADER) for the calibration of area monitors and personal dose equivalent rate (PDER) for calibration of personal monitoring instruments/devices as recommended in IAEA Safety Report Series 16. Graphs, Distance Vs dose rate for ADER and PDER using power fitting formula are established. Decay correction is applied for each data point measured and a fresh graph, Distance Vs dose rate is prepared each day prior to calibration of instruments. Verification of dose given by the software program is done with manual calculation of three data points. Energies of X-ray beams used for protection level calibration are verified with first and second half-value thicknesses of each X-ray beam. Measure

331

Syndromic approach to treatment of snake bite in Sri Lanka based on results of a prospective national hospital-based survey of patients envenomed by identified snakes.  

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Of 860 snakes brought to 10 hospitals in Sri Lanka with the patients they had bitten, 762 (89%) were venomous. Russell's vipers (Daboia russelii) and hump-nosed pit vipers (Hypnale hypnale) were the most numerous and H. hypnale was the most widely distributed. Fifty-one (6%) were misidentified by hospital staff, causing inappropriate antivenom treatment of 13 patients. Distinctive clinical syndromes were identified to aid species diagnosis in most cases of snake bite in Sri Lanka where the biting species is unknown. Diagnostic sensitivities and specificities of these syndromes for envenoming were 78% and 96% by Naja naja, 66% and 100% by Bungarus caeruleus, 14% and 100% by Daboia russelii, and 10% and 97% by Hypnale hypnale, respectively. Although only polyspecific antivenoms are used in Sri Lanka, species diagnosis remains important to anticipate life-threatening complications such as local necrosis, hemorrhage and renal and respiratory failure and to identify likely victims of envenoming by H. hypnale who will not benefit from existing antivenoms. The technique of hospital-based collection, labeling and preservation of dead snakes brought by bitten patients is recommended for rapid assessment of a country's medically-important herpetofauna. PMID:19815895

Ariaratnam, Christeine A; Sheriff, Mohamed H Rezvi; Arambepola, Carukshi; Theakston, R David G; Warrell, David A

2009-10-01

332

"e-Praja Suwa Arunalu": A Pilot Study of a Health Information Management System for Public Health Midwives in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available We conducted a needs analysis amongst 16 Public Health Midwives (PHMs in Sri Lanka and found that they spend most of their time on managing health records. We developed an electronic Health Information Management System (HIMS to help them with their work. The HIMS was designed so that it could accept data from the PHMs, and generate reports which could be used by the PHMs themselves as well as by their supervisors. The HIMS was tested by a group of 16 PHMs in a remote area in the Rathnapura district. Mini-laptops with the software were distributed to the PHMs and they were given the necessary training. They started entering historical data from the registers into the system by themselves. Nearly 10,000 public health records were generated in the first three months. In a subsequent survey, all the PHMs gave positive answers indicating that they were happy with the pilot project and that they would like to continue using it to enhance their service. The system seems to be a practical solution for the field activities of PHMs in Sri Lanka. The knowledge gained from this study would be useful for future e-Health implementations in the public health sector of Sri Lanka.

E. Shan S. Rodrigo

2013-02-01

333

Rebuilding community resilience in a post-war context: developing insight and recommendations - a qualitative study in Northern Sri Lanka  

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Background Individuals, families and communities in Northern Sri Lanka have undergone three decades of war trauma, multiple displacements, and loss of family, kin, friends, homes, employment and other valued resources. The objective of the study was understanding common psychosocial problems faced by families and communities, and the associated risk and protective factors, so that practical and effective community based interventions can be recommended to rebuild strengths, adaptation, coping strategies and resilience. Methods This qualitative, ecological study is a psychosocial ethnography in post-war Northern Sri Lanka obtained through participant observation; case studies; key- informant interviews; and focus groups discussions with mental health and psychosocial community workers as well as literature survey of media and organizational reports. Qualitative analysis of the data used ethnography, case studies, phenomenology, grounded theory, hermeneutics and symbolic interactionism techniques. Quantitative data on suicide was collected for Jaffna and Killinochchi districts. Results Complex mental health and psychosocial problems at the individual, family and community levels in a post-war context were found to impair recovery. These included unresolved grief; individual and collective trauma; insecurity, self-harm and suicides; poverty and unemployment; teenage and unwanted pregnancies; alcoholism; child abuse and neglect; gender based violence and vulnerability including domestic violence, widows and female headed-household, family conflict and separation; physical injuries and handicap; problems specific for children and elderly; abuse and/or neglect of elderly and disabled; anti-social and socially irresponsible behaviour; distrust, hopelessness, and powerlessness. Protective factors included families; female leadership and engagement; cultural and traditional beliefs, practices and rituals; and creative potential in narratives, drama and other arts. Risk factors that were impeding community rehabilitation and recovery included continuing military governance, depletion of social capital particularly lack of trust, hope and socio-economic opportunity structures for development that would engender a sense of collective efficacy. Conclusions In view of the widespread trauma at the individual, family and collective levels, community based programmes to increase local awareness, knowledge and skills to deal with common mental health and psychosocial issues; and training of community level workers and others in basic mental health and psychosocial problem solving are recommended to rebuild family and community agency and resilience. The use of cultural practices and school based programmes would rekindle community processes. PMID:23305538

2013-01-01

334

Social, cultural and economical determinants of diabetes mellitus in Kalutara district, Sri Lanka: a cross sectional descriptive study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Sri Lanka is a country that is expected to face a high burden of diabetes mellitus (DM. There is a paucity of data on social and demographic determinants of DM, especially in the plantation sector. Aims To describe social and economic correlates and inequalities of DM in Kalutara District. Methods A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among adults over the age of 35 years. A sample of 1300 individuals was selected using stratified random cluster sampling method from 65 Grama Niladari Divisions (GND, which were representative of urban, rural and plantation sectors. Twenty households were randomly selected from each division and one adult was randomly selected from each household. Data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Fasting plasma blood sugar of ?126mg/dl was used to define DM. Significance of prevalence of diseases and risk factors across different socio-economic strata were determined by chi square test for trend. Results Of 1234 adults who were screened (628 males, 202 (14.7% had DM. Higher DM proportions (16.1% were seen in the highest income quintile and in those educated up to Advanced Levels (AL and above (17.3%. Prevalence in the urban, rural and plantation sectors were 23.6%, 15.5% and 8.5% respectively. Prevalence among Sinhalese, Tamils and Muslims were 14.4%, 29.0% and 20.0% respectively. There was a gradient in prevalence according to the unsatisfactory basic needs index of the GND with the highest proportion (20.7% observed in the richest GND. The highest social status quintile demonstrated the highest proportion (17.4% with diabetes mellitus. Conclusion There is a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the more affluent and educated segments of society. There is also a higher prevalence among urban compared to rural and estates. Sri Lanka is in an early stage of the epidemic where the wealthy people are at a higher risk of DM.

Pubudu De Silva Ambepitiyawaduge

2012-12-01

335

An ethnoprimatological approach to assessing levels of tolerance between human and commensal non-human primates in Sri Lanka.  

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Human and non-human primates increasingly are forced to live commensally, and understanding the human-nonhuman interconnections are paramount in understanding tolerance and conflict. In our study area, the heavily deforested parts of southern Sri Lanka humans and primates live side by side and prevalent religious tenets encourage a peaceful co-existence. We quantify the attitudes of rural communities towards three resident primate species (red slender loris, purple-faced langur, toque macaque) and wildlife conservation through semi-structured interviews with 301 people. Presence of the three primates on people' s land or farms was not related to the distance to the nearest forest but for langurs the incidence of crop-raiding was negatively related to distance to the forest. Despite Buddhist' s beliefs about 10% of interviewees indicated having killed primates (in the past) but levels of killing was not related to awareness of protective status of the primates. Overall however positive attitudes towards primates prevailed, without noticeable influence of sex, education or employment type. There was overwhelming support for forest protection measures - not because of the primates but mainly for water preservation and for ensuring a steady timber supply. We found that despite high levels of deforestation, and an increase of encroachment of humans into primate habitats, attitudes has led only to a limited increased level of tension between humans and primates. PMID:23836757

Nekaris, Anne-Isola; Boulton, Alex; Nijman, Vincent

2013-01-01

336

Description of a new species of rabbitfish (perciformes: siganidae) from southern India, Sri Lanka and the maldives.  

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Siganus insomnis sp. nov. is described from the Maldives, Sri Lanka and southern India. It most closely resembles S. lineatus (Valenciennes) from the Western Pacific but differs in coloration, principally in that most if not all of the bronze bands on its mid and upper sides continue horizontally and unbroken through to the nape and opercular slit. By contrast, in S. lineatus, typically the anterior area below the spinous dorsal fin down to the mid-sides is irregularly marked with golden bronze spots, commas, or a maze of contorted lines. S. guttatus (Bloch) is the third member of this group of sibling species; its sides are covered with orange to bronze-gold spots. It is distributed throughout S.E. Asia, i.e., it occupies a geographic position between the areas inhabited by S. lineatus and S. insomnis. Thus the gene pools of S. lineatus and S. insomnis are quarantined from one another by distance and the intervening presence of S. guttatus in S.E. Asia. The geographical separation of the populations of S. lineatus and S. insomnis from one another is reinforced by the absence of suitable, coralline habitats for these species in the western half of the Bay of Bengal.  PMID:24943153

Woodland, David J; Anderson, R Charles

2014-01-01

337

A post-implementation evaluation of ceramic water filters distributed to tsunami-affected communities in Sri Lanka.  

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Sri Lanka was devastated by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. During recovery, the Red Cross distributed approximately 12,000 free ceramic water filters. This cross-sectional study was an independent post-implementation assessment of 452 households that received filters, to determine the proportion still using filters, household characteristics associated with use, and quality of household drinking water. The proportion of continued users was high (76%). The most common household water sources were taps or shallow wells. The majority (82%) of users used filtered water for drinking only. Mean filter flow rate was 1.12 L/hr (0.80 L/hr for households with taps and 0.71 for those with wells). Water quality varied by source; households using tap water had source water of high microbial quality. Filters improved water quality, reducing Escherichia coli for households (largely well users) with high levels in their source water. Households were satisfied with filters and are potentially long-term users. To promote sustained use, recovery filter distribution efforts should try to identify households at greatest long-term risk, particularly those who have not moved to safer water sources during recovery. They should be joined with long-term commitment to building supply chains and local production capacity to ensure safe water access. PMID:22717746

Casanova, Lisa M; Walters, Adam; Naghawatte, Ajith; Sobsey, Mark D

2012-06-01

338

Analysis of Forensic Medicine questions in the undergraduate medical curriculum of the University of Peradeniya , Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Introduction Forensic Medicine is a subject in the undergraduate medical curriculum in Sri Lanka. Several evaluations comprising of essay and structured essay types of questions are used for the evaluation of students. Since recent trends in medical education stresses the importance of promoting higher order thinking, such as analyzing and evaluating, rather than just remembering facts it was decided to conduct a study with a view to determining the cognitive level of the essay and structured essay type of questions in Forensic Medicine Method Essay and structured essay types of questions of the first four years of the MBBS program from the year 2006 to 2012 were categorized according to the Bloom’s taxonomy. Results A majority of questions were knowledge based while a considerable number were of the comprehension and application types. The proportion of questions of the synthesis and analysis were less while there was a moderate number of the evaluation type of questions. Observations made between the years revealed that there was a tendency for a decrease in the proportion of knowledge-based questions from the 1st year to the 4th years with an increase in the proportion of synthesis type of questions. Conclusion A majority of questions in Forensic medicine require lower cognitive abilities. However, there is a tendency towards questions, which require higher cognitive abilities with progression in to the senior years of the medical course.

DH Edussuriya

2014-10-01

339

Students' perception of school environment and life satisfaction at Sinhala-medium secondary schools in the Colombo District, Sri Lanka.  

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The objective of this study was to examine the associations between students' perception of physical and psychosocial school environment and satisfaction with life among secondary school students in Colombo District, Sri Lanka. Data were collected from 20 Sinhala-medium secondary schools between January and February in 2010. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted with students in grade seven (n = 342) and grade ten (n = 446). Multivariate logistic regression analysis, adjusted for confounding variables, was used to assess the associations between students'satisfaction with life measured by Cantril ladders, and scores of perceived physical and psychosocial school environment that focused on school cleanliness and attractiveness, relations with teachers and peers, satisfaction with school and bullying. Students in the highest quartile of school environment score were significantly more likely to have high life satisfaction, compared to those in the lowest quartile (adjusted odds ratio 2.32; 95% confidence interval 1.35-3.99). Odds ratio of high life satisfaction increased with increasing school environment scores (p for trend<0.001). In conclusion, students who perceived positive school environment were significantly more likely to have high life satisfaction. Positive changes in the focused areas of school environment have the potential to lead to improved life satisfaction of students. PMID:23413721

Nonaka, Daisuke; Gunawardena, Nalika S; Indrawansa, Susantha; Nanri, Akiko; Rajapakse, Lalini; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Samarasinghe, Diyanath

2012-11-01

340

Aligning graduate competence with occupational standards An analysis of medico legal training and practice in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available This paper highlights the necessity to aligning graduate competence with occupational standards in workforce development and discusses the existing gap between the service recipient (ministry of justice, service provider (ministry of health, higher education regulatory bodies (University Grants Commission/Sri Lanka Medical Council, the pre service training institutions (ministry of higher education and students with special reference to medico legal practice.It considers the options available as continue training medical officers inadequately in the hope that the number of medico-legal consultants would one day be adequate for the needs of the country, since this as a transient period in the development of the speciality increase the production of specialists resulting in diminishing of expectations from the generalist establish protocols for specialist referrals provide a short internship/training program in medico-legal work to all medical officers immediately after graduation restructure the Forensic medicine teaching program. It proposes a way forward with particular reference to instructional reform while identifying constraints and recommendations for its implementation.

DH Edussuriva

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
341

Locking-in and locking-out business and economic reconciliation in the conflict-affected region of Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Using economic geography concepts, this paper compares four groups of investors to the conflictaffected region of Sri Lanka and critically analyses the key factors that are “locking-in” and “locking-out” investment, business development and employment creation. It argues that foreign/Diaspora investors were mostly being influenced by political and social factors, and thus far had not invested significantly in the region. Traders from the non-conflict-affected region of the country had benefitted the most due to opportunistic behaviour, their acceptance of the political realities and the short-term economic opportunities that had opened up. Large investors from outside the region, on the other hand, had either been disappointed with the economic situation or had invested due to a sense of social responsibility and long-term business prospects. Local SMEs within the conflict region were hit hard by the opening of the war-affected economy and have been unable to cope with the change. Political, economic, and social factors had all contributed to their unwillingness and inability to expand their businesses. The paper concludes that the climate for investment must be improved significantly by creating a strong “path-creating” environment and “de-locking” investment inhibiting factors. There must be better collaboration amongst different types of businesses, and coordination amongst different stakeholders. If done well, enhanced investment and employment creation could make a significant impact on reconciliation and long-term peace in the country.

Danura Miriyagalla

2014-07-01

342

Integrated school-based surveillance for soil-transmitted helminth infections and lymphatic filariasis in Gampaha district, Sri Lanka.  

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We explored the practicality of integrating surveillance for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH, assessed by Kato-Katz) with transmission assessment surveys for lymphatic filariasis (LF) in two evaluation units (EUs) in Gampaha district, Sri Lanka (population 2.3 million). The surveys were performed 6 years after five annual rounds of mass drug administration with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole. Each transmission assessment survey tested children (N = 1,462 inland EU; 1,642 coastal EU) sampled from 30 primary schools. Low filarial antigenemia rates (0% and 0.1% for the inland and coastal EUs) suggest that LF transmission is very low in this district. The STH rates and stool sample participation rates were 0.8% and 61% (inland) and 2.8% and 58% (coastal). Most STH detected were low or moderate intensity Trichuris trichiura infections. The added cost of including STH testing was ?$5,000 per EU. These results suggest that it is feasible to integrate school-based surveillance for STH and LF. PMID:24493672

Gunawardena, Sharmini; Gunawardena, Nipul K; Kahathuduwa, Ganga; Karunaweera, Nadira D; de Silva, Nilanthi R; Ranasinghe, Udaya B; Samarasekara, Sandhya D; Nagodavithana, Kumara C; Rao, Ramakrishna U; Rebollo, Maria P; Weil, Gary J

2014-04-01

343

Outbreak of leptospirosis after white-water rafting: sign of a shift from rural to recreational leptospirosis in Sri Lanka?  

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This paper reports the first recreation-related leptospirosis outbreak in Sri Lanka in 20 office workers who were involved in white-water rafting during a staff outing. Two weeks after the rafting event on 7 September 2012, six participants developed fever, of which four had classical clinical features of leptospirosis. Four weeks after the exposure, an outbreak investigation was conducted for 19 of the 20 participants. Of the six fever patients, four were confirmed as having acute leptospirosis using either single sample MAT titre ? 1/400 (n = 2) or positive IgM ELISA (n = 2). An afebrile patient with headache and myalgia also had a MAT titre ? 1/400. Seventeen of the 19 participants investigated showed anti-leptospiral antibodies. None of the participants had a history of leptospirosis or recent outdoor exposures other than the rafting event. This outbreak provides evidence of the changing epidemiology of leptospirosis and suggests a wider range of risk exposures including those related to recreational activities of more affluent urban populations in addition to the well recognized occupational hazards of rural farming. PMID:23800619

Agampodi, S B; Karunarathna, D; Jayathilala, N; Rathnayaka, H; Agampodi, T C; Karunanayaka, L

2014-04-01

344

An association between market orientation and business performance: A case study of small medium enterprises in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available In the globalized and highly competitive era of the present day business environment, firms are under constant pressure to build upon their skills and resources for developing distinctive competencies to withstand market challenges. Such competencies can be around either the lower delivered-cost-position or product differentiation. But building competencies around lower product costs and or product differentiation alone is not sufficient. “Market orientation” builds distinctive and sustainable competencies. An attempt to fill this research gap, the present study is instigated on market orientation and business performance as the case of small medium enterprises in Sri Lanka with the samples of ninety. A non-probabilistic sampling method, namely convenience sampling, was used in drawing samples for this study. Secondary data and primary data collections methods were used to conduct the study. In the present study, we analysed our data by employing correlation and regression analysis. For the study, entire analysis was done by personal computer. A well known statistical package ‘statistical package for social sciences’ (SPSS 13.0 version was used in order to analyze the data. The results revealed that there is a significant association between market orientation and business performance; further, market orientation has statistically positive impact on business performance.

Ph. D. Balasundaram Nimalathasan

2009-12-01

345

Effects of the tsunami on fisheries and coastal livelihood: a case study of tsunami-ravaged southern Sri Lanka.  

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Beyond the death toll, the tsunami of 26 December 2004 crippled many of the livelihood assets (human, social, physical, financial and natural) available to assist those directly affected. Drawing on surveys of three villages in three districts in the south of Sri Lanka, this paper describes the livelihood asset building capacity of the fishing communities. Assessments are also made of the impact of the tsunami on coastal communities and the impact of government policy on rebuilding. A livelihood asset score was calculated for each village by comparing their strengths in capacity building. In all aspects of capital building, including human, social, financial, physical and natural capital, the fishing community in Tangalle was significantly ahead of the fishing communities in Hikkaduwa and Weligama. Experienced fishermen with better educational backgrounds had a significant influence on the capacity building of livelihood assets. Relocation and resettlement plans brought persistent uncertainty to fishermen in Hikkaduwa and Weligama and threatened to disrupt their community bonds and social networks. PMID:18028160

De Silva, D A M; Yamao, Masahiro

2007-12-01

346

Transitions in ancient inland freshwater resource management in Sri Lanka affect biota and human populations in and around coastal lagoons.  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing anthropogenic pressure on natural environments results in impacts that affect tropical forest areas and their biodiversity. Adverse impacts on terrestrial and oceanic environments often compound in the intertidal area, where mangrove forest ecosystems thrive. In tropical coastal areas of many developing countries where people depend on wood and other mangrove forest products and services, forest degradation leads to socioeconomic problems. At the same time, increasing freshwater needs in these areas are expected to cause additional problems. On the basis of remote sensing and ground truthing complemented by colonial archival material from the Dutch East India Company (1602-1800), we report that changes to the historic system of inland freshwater management have increased dramatically in recent times. Hydrological changes, such as interbasin transfers, have resulted in a qualitative ecological and socioeconomic degradation in three coastal lagoons in southern Sri Lanka. Variations in river hydrology have caused changes in the areas suitable as mangrove habitat and, thus, have resulted in an altered distribution. However, increases in mangrove area can mask the degradation of the site in terms of floristic composition, significance of the species, and biodiversity (this effect is termed "cryptic ecological degradation"). It is important that such changes be carefully monitored to ensure biological and socioeconomic sustainability. PMID:15797030

Dahdouh-Guebas, F; Hettiarachchi, S; Lo Seen, D; Batelaan, O; Sooriyarachchi, S; Jayatissa, L P; Koedam, N

2005-03-29

347

An attempt to reduce impacts of limestone quarries through biodiversity assessment and translocation: A case study at the Holcim Limestone Quarry Site in Puttalam, Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available A conservation project was implemented at a commercial limestone quarry site in Sri Lanka managed by Holcim Lanka (Pvt. Ltd. The project intended to assess the biodiversity of a proposed excavation site and to translocate fauna that will be affected by quarry operations such as forest clearance and blasting. The biodiversity of the area was surveyed using a rapid assessment technique, prior to the initiation of forest clearance and blasting. A total of 41 floral species and 220 faunal species were recorded from the project site. Around 90 % of the fauna were amphibians, reptiles and butterflies. Among these species, one endemic tree, a theraposid spider and 20 endemic vertebrates. Among the vertebrates documented, 9 species are categorized as nationally threatened. A total of 141 vertebrates and 85 arthropods and mollusks including endemics threatened species were captured and translocated to Sethtavilluwa area. This project is the first ever initiative in Sri Lanka aimed at reducing impacts of quarry operation on biota through rehabilitation and rescue operations. Such projects are invaluable as they will, at least in part assist in safeguarding biota that will be vulnerable to local extinction as a result of developmental projects.

A. Kumarasinghe

2013-07-01

348

Rostral horn evolution among agamid lizards of the genus ceratophora endemic to Sri Lanka  

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The first phylogenetic hypothesis for the Sri Lankan agamid lizard genus Ceratophora is presented based on 1670 aligned base positions (472 parsimony informative) of mitochondrial DNA sequences, representing coding regions for eight tRNAs, ND2, and portions of ND1 and COI. Phylogenetic analysis reveals multiple origins and possibly losses of rostral horns in the evolutionary history of Ceratophora. Our data suggest a middle Miocene origin of Ceratophora with the most recent branching of recognized species occurring at the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary. Haplotype divergence suggests that an outgroup species, Lyriocephalus scutatus, dates at least to the Pliocene. These phylogenetic results provide a framework for comparative studies of the behavioral ecological importance of horn evolution in this group.

Schulte II, James A.; Macey, J. Robert; Pethiyagoda, Rohan; Larson, Allan

2001-07-10

349

Numerical Simulation of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami: Case Study of Effect of Sand Dunes on the Spatial Distribution of Inundation in Hambantota, Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available The megathrust earthquake of moment magnitude 9.1 – 9.3 on December 26, 2004 unleashed a massive tsunami which devastated the coastal belts of Sri Lanka as well as several other countries bordering the Indian Ocean. Extensive field observations carried out in Sri Lanka in the aftermath of the tsunami clearly showed that the spatial variation of the degree of destruction along the coastal belt was highly non-uniform. The coastal geomorphology, for instance, the presence of sand dunes in some parts of the coast, is one primary factor that had contributed to this nonuniformity. Accordingly, the present paper investigates, as a case study, the effect of a nearly 2 km long sand dune, lying along a part of the seafront of a city on the south coast of Sri Lanka, on the characteristics of the spatial distribution of inundation. Numerical simulations based on non-linear shallow water equations were carried out first with the sand dune and then without the dune to obtain the respective spatial distributions of the maximum values of the depth of inundation and the flow velocity as well as their temporal variations. The results appear to indicate that the peak flood flow rates and flow depths are higher in most areas of the city in the case without the dune compared to that with the dune. However, it appears that the tsunami surge backing up against the sand dune and other elevated beachfronts causes a rise in water level of up to 0.5 m in the case with the sand dune compared to that without the dune. Flow velocities in the absence of the dune too appear to be higher in most areas although there are patches of lower velocities at certain low elevation localities with elevated ground on either side.

J.J Wijetunge

2010-01-01

350

Toad radiation reveals into-India dispersal as a source of endemism in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background High taxonomic level endemism in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot has been typically attributed to the subcontinent's geological history of long-term isolation. Subsequent out of – and into India dispersal of species after accretion to the Eurasian mainland is therefore often seen as a biogeographic factor that 'diluted' the composition of previously isolated Indian biota. However, few molecular studies have focussed on into-India dispersal as a possible source of endemism on the subcontinent. Using c. 6000 base pairs of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, we investigated the evolutionary history and biogeography of true toads (Bufonidae, a group that colonized the Indian Subcontinent after the Indo-Asia collision. Results Contrary to previous studies, Old World toads were recovered as a nested clade within New World Bufonidae, indicating a single colonization event. Species currently classified as Ansonia and Pedostibes were both recovered as being non-monophyletic, providing evidence for the independent origin of torrential and arboreal ecomorphs on the Indian subcontinent and in South-East Asia. Our analyses also revealed a previously unrecognized adaptive radiation of toads containing a variety of larval and adult ecomorphs. Molecular dating estimates and biogeographic analyses indicate that the early diversification of this clade happened in the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka during the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene. Conclusion Paleoclimate reconstructions have shown that the Early Neogene of India was marked by major environmental changes, with the transition from a zonal- to the current monsoon-dominated climate. After arrival in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka hotspot, toads diversified in situ, with only one lineage able to successfully disperse out of these mountains. Consequently, higher taxonomic level endemism on the Indian Subcontinent is not only the result of Cretaceous isolation, but also of invasion, isolation and radiation of new elements after accretion to the Eurasian mainland.

Bossuyt Franky

2009-06-01

351

Signatures of Paleo-coastal Hazards in Back-barrier Environments of Eastern and Southeastern Sri Lanka  

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Following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami event, worldwide tsunami scientists recognized the need for identifying stratigraphic signatures of paleo-tsunami events in the area and to develop a regional tsunami chronology. Sediment layers representing tsunamis and strom surges well as extreme climatic events, and sea level changes during the Holocene should be preserved in the sedimentary profile of the dynamic lagoons of Sri Lanka, but have not as yet been studied. This project carried out detailed, fine resolution sediment profile studies to recognize the signatures of paleo-coastal environmental change, so that they can be differentiated from the regional record of tsunami deposits. A variety of methods were employed to ensure the most suitable proxies for paleo-environmental reconstruction. Eastern and southeastern Sri Lanka provide ideal locations to study paleo-coastal changes and regional paleo-coastal hazards due to its high rate of progradation. Sediment cores (~100 m total sediment) were extracted along landward transects from nine lagoons, two swales, and one back barrier marsh along the prograding coastline. The holes were drilled to a maximum penetration of up to 5 m at each site. Grain size analysis, XRF analysis diffuse Spectral Reflectance (DSR) and magnetic susceptibility were measured at 1 cm resolution. Bulk organic matter, wood, mollusk shells, and inorganic carbonate from above and below layers were used for AMS 14C dating. Grain size variation and other proxies, stratigraphy, and geographical distribution could distinguish three potential tsunami events which exhibit stratigraphic and age correlation among the study sites. These events also correlate with historical and regional records of potential tsunami. The most recent pre-2004 tsunami event likely occurred around 1000 yrs BP with the older events around 4200 yrs BP and 4900 yrs BP. Around 1000 yrs BP event is found in two cores from Vakarai beach ridge plain and correlates with ~1000 yrs BP event recorded in nothern Sumatra (Moneke et al., 2008 and in southern India (Rajendran et al., 2006). The ~ 4200 and ~4900 yrs BP events were recorded in multiple cores from Kirind and Vakarai as well as in cores from Hambantota by Jackson (2008). The ~4200 yrs BP event correlates with a possible tsunami event recorded in the famous Indian epic "Ramayanaya". The sedimentary record from these estuaries, lagoons, and beach-ridge plains shows clear localized evidence for several additional flood and storm events, and possibly two other tsunami events around 4500 yrs BP 7000 yrs BP. These flood events show clear evidence for terrestrial origin while storm and the two possible tsunami events show marine origin. However, 4500 and 7000 yrs BP events were recorded in more than one widely separated locations, excluding the possibility for a storm origin, but as no other correlating regional records are available, further records are required to confirm these events as tsunamis

Ranasinghage, P. N.; Ortiz, J. D.; Moore, A. L.; Siriwardana, C.; McAdoo, B. G.

2010-12-01

352

Salinity-tolerant larvae of mosquito vectors in the tropical coast of Jaffna, Sri Lanka and the effect of salinity on the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis to Aedes aegypti larvae  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue, chikungunya, malaria, filariasis and Japanese encephalitis are common mosquito-borne diseases endemic to Sri Lanka. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, the major vectors of dengue, were recently shown to undergo pre-imaginal development in brackish water bodies in the island. A limited survey of selected coastal localities of the Jaffna district in northern Sri Lanka was carried out to identify mosquito species undergoing pre-imaginal development in brackish and saline waters. The effect of salinity on the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis larvicide to Ae. aegypti larvae at salinity levels naturally tolerated by Ae. aegypti was examined. Methods Larvae collected at the selected sites along the Jaffna coast were identified and salinity of habitat water determined in the laboratory. The LC50 and LC90 of B. thuringiensis toxin, the active ingredient of a commercial formulation of the larvicide BACTIVEC®, were determined with Ae. aegypti larvae. Bioassays were also carried out at salinities varying from 0 to18 ppt to determine the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis to fresh and brackish water-derived larvae of Ae. aegypti. Results Larvae of four Anopheles, two Aedes, one Culex and one Lutzia species were collected from brackish and saline sites with salinity in the range 2 to 68 ppt. The LC50 and LC90 of B. thuringiensis toxin for the second instar larvae of Ae. aegypti in fresh water were 0.006 ppm and 0.013 ppm respectively, with corresponding values for brackish water populations of 0.008 and 0.012 ppm respectively. One hundred percent survival of second instar fresh water and brackish water-derived Ae. aegypti larvae was recorded at salinity up to 10 and 12 ppt and 100% mortality at 16 and 18 ppt, yielding an LC 50 for salinity of 13.9 ppt and 15.4 ppt at 24 h post-treatment respectively for the two populations. Statistical analysis showed significantly reduced toxicity of B. thuringiensis to fresh and brackish water-derived Ae. aegypti larvae at high salinities. Conclusion A variety of mosquito vectors of human diseases undergo pre-imaginal development in brackish or saline waters in coastal areas of the Jaffna district in northern Sri Lanka. Salinity has a small but significant negative impact on the toxicity of B. thuringiensis toxin to Ae. aegypti larvae at salinity levels where Ae. aegypti larvae are found in the environment. This has implications for the use of B. thuringiensis toxin as a larvicide in brackish waters.

Jude Pavilupillai J

2012-11-01

353

A survey of the attitudes and beliefs about the use of TENS for pain management by physiotherapists working in two cities in Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Thusharika D Dissanayaka,1 Gourav Banerjee,2,3 Mark I Johnson2,3 1Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka; 2Centre for Pain Research, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK; 3Leeds Pallium Research Group, Leeds, UK Introduction: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS is a noninvasive, inexpensive, self-administered technique used throughout the world to relieve pain. In Sri Lanka, physiotherapists may use TENS for their patients as they receive a small amount of education about the principles and practice of TENS in their undergraduate training. To date, there have been no data gathered about the use of TENS by physiotherapists in Sri Lanka. The aim of this study was to assess attitudes and beliefs of physiotherapists working in Sri Lanka about their use of TENS for pain management. Methods: A postal survey was undertaken using a 12-item questionnaire developed by the investigators to gather information about attitudes, beliefs and use of TENS in clinical practice. The questionnaire was distributed to 100 physiotherapists working in three government hospitals and six private hospitals in the cities of Kandy and Colombo. A descriptive analysis of data was performed. Results: Sixty-seven completed questionnaires were returned (67% response rate. Over half of the respondents (58.2% reported that they used TENS to treat pain “often” or “very often”, with use for musculoskeletal/orthopedic (61.3% and neuropathic/neuralgic (79.1% pain being most common. TENS was used less for postsurgical pain and rarely for cancer pain. Most (95.5% respondents reported that their patients benefitted “considerably” from TENS. 76.1% of the respondents reported that they did not recommend and/or prescribe TENS for patients to use at home. Conclusion: Physiotherapists value TENS as a treatment option to manage musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain. However, there is a need for systems and resources to enable to patients to self-administer TENS rather than having to visit clinics. Keywords: transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation, electrotherapy, non pharmacological analgesia

Dissanayaka TD

2014-05-01

354

Comparison of Technical Efficiency and Socio-economic Status in Animal-crop Mixed Farming Systems in Dry Lowland Sri Lanka  

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Pre-tested, structured questionnaires covered management aspects, inputs, outputs, socio-economic situations and constraints in dairy farming among Semi-intensive (SIFS) and Extensive farming systems (EFS) in dry-lowland Sri Lanka. Parametric data were analyzed using two-tailed‘t’ and ‘Z’ tests, and non-parametric values were analyzed using Chi-square and Fisher’s extract tests. Cobb-Douglas model was used to calculate meta-frontier and system-specific frontiers. Returns in SIFS are...

Upul Yasantha Nanayakkara Vithanage; Gunaratne, Lokugam H. P.; Kumara Mahipala M. B. P.; Hewa Waduge Cyril

2014-01-01

355

Field Measurements and Numerical Simulations of the 2004 Tsunami Impact on the East Coast of Sri Lanka  

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This paper employs a numerical model of tsunami propagation together with documented observations and field measurements of the evidence left behind by the tsunami in December 2004, to identify and interpret the factors that have contributed to the significant spatial variability of the level of tsunami impact along the coastal belt of the eastern province of Sri Lanka. The model results considered in the present analysis include the distribution of the amplitude of the tsunami and the pattern of wave propagation over the continental shelf off the east coast, while the field data examined comprise the maximum water levels measured at or near the shoreline, the horizontal inundation distances and the number of housing and other buildings damaged. The computed maximum amplitude of the tsunami at water points nearest the shoreline along the east coast shows considerable variation ranging from 2.2 m to 11.4 m with a mean value of 5.7 m; moreover, the computed amplitudes agree well with the available field measurements. We also show that the shelf bathymetry off the east coast, particularly the submarine canyons at several locations, significantly influences the near-shore transformation of tsunami waves, and consequently, the spatial variation of the maximum water levels along the coastline. The measured values of inundation also show significant variation along the east coast and range from 70 m to 4560 m with a median value of 700 m. Our analyses of field data also show the dominant influence of the coastal topography and geomorphology on the extent of tsunami inundation. Furthermore, the measured inundation distances indicate no apparent correlation with the computed tsunami heights at the respective locations. We also show that both the computed tsunami heights and the measured inundation distances for the east coast closely follow the log-normal statistical distribution.

Wijetunge, J. J.

2009-04-01

356

Puppets on a string: women's wage work and empowerment among female tea plantation workers of Sri Lanka.  

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Access to resources and control of ones' income are key features of women's empowerment. The current development strategy is to create opportunities for poor women in developing countries. Because access to income alone does not ensure empowerment, this study examines sociopolitical factors among the Indian Tamil female tea plantation workers in Sri Lanka that impact women's ability to control their own income. 95% of the female Indian Tamil Plantation work force is devoted to the tea industry. Female labor force participation among the Indian Tamil was 54.3% in 1981 compared to total female labor force participation of 26%. The survey encompassed a sample of 420 female and 40 male unskilled workers of 22 large plantations in Nuwara Eliya district, which were managed by government corporations. Variables pertained to income levels, control of income within households, work schedules, household demographics, food habits and within household food allocation patterns, health status and health delivery system, and management structures. Results focused on control incomes, maternity benefits, the double burden for women, women's health and nutrition, female education, and trade unions and male dominance. Although women have increased their wage rate and work hours, there has not been a corresponding increase in women's ability to control their incomes. there remains a male dominated social and political system, which continues to entrap women as a productive resource. One way in which women's empowerment has been stalled has been through the control of women's income and labor, and male dominance both at work and home. Successful schemes for women's empowerment are demonstrated in the Self Employed Women's Association, Working Women's Forum of India, and the Grameen Bank of Bangladesh. PMID:12286574

Samarasinghe, V

1993-04-01

357

Control of malaria vectors with the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen in a gem-mining area in Sri Lanka.  

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The study was conducted in eight adjacent villages in central Sri Lanka where there are many shallow pits dug by gem miners that fill with water. These become breeding places of the main malarial vector Anopheles culicifacies, and of the second most important vector Anopheles subpictus, but not of Anopheles varuna, the third most important vector. With the help of local volunteers, data on the adult populations of these three species was collected by various standard methods, and data on the incidence of malaria cases was collected by two clinics set up for the project and through the existing hospitals. Prevalence of malaria infection in symptom-less people was investigated by mass blood surveys. On the basis of a year's pre-intervention data the villages were stratified into four with high levels of malaria transmission and four with lower transmission. Within each stratum two villages were randomly assigned for mosquito control by treating all the gem pits, as well as river bed pools, with a granular formulation of the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen at a target dose of 0.01 mg a.i./litre. The intervention caused significant reductions in the adult populations of An. culicifacies and An. subpictus. Similarly, incidence of malaria was reduced in the intervention villages to about 24% (95% c.l. 20-29%) of that in the controls. Prevalence of parasitaemia also declined significantly. It is concluded that in this situation where, with active community participation, the breeding sites of the main vectors could be located; vector control by a highly active and persistent insect growth regulator can be a very effective means of malaria control. PMID:11700185

Yapabandara, A M; Curtis, C F; Wickramasinghe, M B; Fernando, W P

2001-12-21

358

Laboratory and field comparisons of pyriproxyfen, polystyrene beads and other larvicidal methods against malaria vectors in Sri Lanka.  

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Hand-dug gem pits are important breeding sites for larvae of malaria vectors in Sri Lanka. Therefore, studies were carried out to help to select an effective, economic and convenient method that could be used to control malaria vector mosquito breeding in gem pits in a mining area. The effectiveness of four types of floating layers of polystyrene was compared in the laboratory and it was found that 2 mm expanded beads were the most effective for suffocating Anopheles larvae and pupae. The insect growth regulator, pyriproxyfen at dosages of 0.01 and 0.1 mg/l were tested in the laboratory and complete inhibition of emergence was found at both concentrations. A small-scale field trial was carried out for over a year to assess the efficacy of two concentrations of pyriproxyfen, 2 mm diameter expanded polystyrene beads, temephos, used engine oil and filling pits with soil. Pyriproxyfen only required re-application twice a year, whereas temephos or oil require 12 applications per year. Due to re-excavation by gem miners, polystyrene beads and filling of pits were not as permanent solutions as was expected. Calculations based on all available data showed that two annual treatments with pyriproxyfen at 0.01 mg/l would be the most cost-effective method with oil only slightly more expensive. However, the reduced required frequency for visiting every pit made the pyriproxyfen method the one of choice. The same low concentration of pyriproxyfen also effectively inhibited emergence of adults from river-bed pools. PMID:11835898

Yapabandara, A M G M; Curtis, C F

2002-03-01

359

Analysis of patients admitted with history of road traffic accidents to surgical unit B Teaching Hospital Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka  

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Full Text Available Background Road Traffic Accidents (RTA is a leading cause of morbidity, mortalityand disability in Sri Lanka. Identification of factors associated with RTA in local settings is essential in redusing the burden of this conditionMethods We analyzed consecutive patients admitted with RTA toSurgical Unit-B,Teaching Hospital Anuradhapura from 01/10/ 2012 to 31/03/2013. Epidemiology, injury pattern, vehicle type, cause for accident and contributory factors were noted.Results Altogether, 214 consecutive patients with an age range of 01- 75 years were studied. Males accounted for 77.6%(n=166 of the study sample.. Vehicle type involved with the injury included, motorcycle 138(65%, bicycles 23(11%, three wheelers 23(11%, tractors 11(5%, buses 5(2%, lorries 6(3%, cars 2(1% and other3(1%. There were 135(64% drivers /riders, 59(28% passengers and 17(08%pedestrians.Causes for accidents included wrong driving/riding 54(25%, other vehicle collided 46(22%, animal crossing road 39(18%, mechanical failure 14(7%, poor road 18(9%, glare 4(2%, man crossing road 8(4%, garment trapping the wheel 5(2%, rain 6(3%. Contributory factors included alcohol use in 32%, no helmet 39% of riders, no driving license for 47% in recorded cases. There were 33 fractures, 2 intracranial hemorrhages.Conclusion Majority of RTA involved motor bicycles. Lack of driving license for 47% of rider/drivers itself explain wrong driving/ridding to be the main cause for accidents. Alcohol is a major contributory factor for RTA in this population.

WAK Weerawardena

2013-10-01

360

Mental Health Status of Sri Lanka Navy Personnel Three Years after End of Combat Operations: A Follow Up Study  

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The main aim of this study was to assess the mental health status of the Navy Special Forces and regular forces three and a half years after the end of combat operations in mid 2009, and compare it with the findings in 2009. This cross sectional study was carried out in the Sri Lanka Navy (SLN), three and a half years after the end of combat operations. Representative samples of SLN Special Forces and regular forces deployed in combat areas were selected using simple random sampling. Only personnel who had served continuously in combat areas during the one year period prior to the end of combat operations were included in the study. The sample consisted of 220 Special Forces and 275 regular forces personnel. Compared to regular forces a significantly higher number of Special Forces personnel had experienced potentially traumatic events. Compared to the period immediately after end of combat operations, in the Special Forces, prevalence of psychological distress and fatigue showed a marginal increase while hazardous drinking and multiple physical symptoms showed a marginal decrease. In the regular forces, the prevalence of psychological distress, fatigue and multiple somatic symptoms declined and prevalence of hazardous drinking increased from 16.5% to 25.7%. During the same period prevalence of smoking doubled in both Special Forces and regular forces. Prevalence of PTSD reduced from 1.9% in Special Forces to 0.9% and in the regular forces from 2.07% to 1.1%. Three and a half years after the end of combat operations mental health problems have declined among SLN regular forces while there was no significant change among Special Forces. Hazardous drinking among regular forces and smoking among both Special Forces and regular forces have increased. PMID:25254557

Hanwella, Raveen; Jayasekera, Nicholas E. L. W.; de Silva, Varuni A.

2014-01-01