WorldWideScience
1

Recovery of Spray Paint Traces from Clothing by Beating.  

Science.gov (United States)

Manual recovery of spray paints from textiles using a microscope, the routine method in many laboratories, is often laborious. Beating the clothing with a plastic rod, the routine method used for recovery of glass traces within the authors' laboratory, is proposed as an alternative. The efficiency of the method was evaluated by spray tests with fluorescent paint. In these tests, paint particles in the acquired debris samples, as well as those remaining on the textiles, were investigated. The results show that beating is an efficient way to recover and concentrate paint particles. A good efficiency for jeans fabric and rough knitwear is reported. The results appeared to be less satisfactory for smooth woven fabric. Application of the method in casework was effective for graffiti paints as well as for flaked car paint. PMID:25482095

Olderiks, Maurice; Baiker, Martin; van Velzen, Jill; van der Weerd, Jaap

2014-12-01

2

Color deviation controlling of phosphor conformal coating by advanced spray painting technology for white LEDs.  

Science.gov (United States)

An advanced phosphor conformal coating technology is proposed, good correlated color temperature (CCT) and chromaticity uniformity samples are fabricated through phosphor spray painting technology. Spray painting technology is also suitable for phosphor conformal coating of whole LED wafers. The samples of different CCTs are obtained through controlling the phosphor film thickness in the range of 6-80 ?m; CCT variation of samples can be controlled in the range of ±200 K. The experimental ?uv reveals that the spray painting method can obtain a much smaller CCT variation (?uv of 1.36e(-3)) than the conventional dispensing method (?uv of 11.86e(-3)) when the light is emitted at angles from -90° to +90°, and chromaticity area uniformity is also improved significantly. PMID:23545962

Yang, Liang; Wang, Simin; Lv, Zhicheng; Liu, Sheng

2013-04-01

3

29 CFR 1917.153 - Spray painting (See also § 1917.2, definition of Hazardous cargo, materials, substance, or...  

Science.gov (United States)

...See also § 1917.2, definition of Hazardous cargo, materials...painting (See also § 1917.2, definition of Hazardous cargo, materials...the same location. (b) Definitions. (1) Spraying area ...one-day supply. (9) Smoking shall be prohibited...

2010-07-01

4

An innovative sustainable process for VOCs recovery from spray paint booths  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air emissions from surface coating operations result from the evaporation of the organic solvents in the coatings and consist primarily of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These VOC emissions can occur in a number of places along the production line: during atomization and application of the coating, during initial air drying of the part after it leaves the spray paint booth, and, eventually, in the bake oven. The aim of this paper is to present an innovative and sustainable process based on VOC absorption. An absorption tower is fed on the top by oil, which efficiently absorbs at low temperature the VOCs contained by the off-gas that enters the tower at its bottom. The mass ratio between oil and gas is approximately 1, so that a tray configuration results more efficiently than an alternative packed column. Saturated oil from the column is then stripped at high temperature in a vacuum system that condenses VOCs at a temperature slightly below the ambient temperature. Stripped oil is then recycled to the absorption tower. Special utilities are foreseen to reduce the water content in the gas and for energy recovery all over the plant. An industrial site located in Italy works at 14,000 Nm3/h off-gas absorbed with slightly more than 10 m3/h of oil. VOCs content in the off-gas ranges daily from 1200 to 2500 ppm; an average efficiency of approx. 90% recovery is presently obtained. A further reduction to an expected value of about 95-98% will be achixpected value of about 95-98% will be achieved in the next months

5

Space Paint  

Science.gov (United States)

Developed at Goddard, this improved inorganic paint may help protect coastal bridges subject to extreme corrosion from seawater spray. Potassium silicate formulated into a thin waterbase binder that sprays easily, adheres readily, and can be heavily loaded with zinc particles to provide uniform coverage in a single coat. Stanford Research Institute has measured an annual market in excess of $2 billion in painting highway bridges, utility pipelines, nuclear reactors, and railcar hoppers. Other suitable markets include offshore drilling facilities, railroad bridges, and ships.

1976-01-01

6

Discrimination and classification of FTIR spectra of red, blue and green spray paints using a multivariate statistical approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of multivariate techniques was investigated in a forensic paint analysis context. The data set consisted of the infrared spectra of 74 spray paint cans, corresponding to three colors code, respectively red, green and blue. Two aspects of the forensic procedure are studied, respectively, the discrimination of paints coming from a market study through exploratory techniques, and the source prediction of unknown samples in database using classifiers. The exploratory discrimination capabilities of principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clusters analysis (HCA) were compared to a visual comparison of the spectra. Iterative PCA was found to be the most adapted solution for exploratory analysis of the samples. Very few differences were found compared to a visual comparison of the samples and the statistical foundations behind the method ensure that no errors are due to a misclassification of the samples. Market studies and joint PCA also represent a significant gain of time. Following that, classification and prediction of future samples were evaluated by means of supervised techniques of classification such as linear/quadratic discriminant analysis (LDA/QDA), support vector machines (SVM), soft independent modeling of classes analogies (SIMCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). SIMCA was the preferred method, as it provided the smallest false negative rates together with a correct classification rate of about 95%. From an investigative point-of-view the presence of false positives was considered acceptable, as it is preferable to have a longer list of possible sources but have confidence that the true source belongs to it. PMID:25255193

Muehlethaler, Cyril; Massonnet, Geneviève; Esseiva, Pierre

2014-11-01

7

Paints and Preservatives.  

Science.gov (United States)

The publication contains an outline for use by agriculture teachers in developing a teaching plan for a unit on paints and preservatives. The topics included are (1) recognizing, solving, and preventing paint problems and (2) operating and using power spray painting equipment. Items presented for each topic are: the situation, (intended to inform…

Powell, Larry E.; Miller, Larry E.

8

Paint-Overspray Catcher  

Science.gov (United States)

An apparatus to catch paint overspray has been proposed. Overspray is an unavoidable parasitic component of spray that occurs because the flow of air or other gas in the spray must turn at the sprayed surface. Very small droplets are carried away in this turning flow, and some land on adjacent surfaces not meant to be painted. The basic principle of the paint-spray catcher is to divert the overspray into a suction system at the boundary of the area to be painted. The paint-spray catcher (see figure) would include a toroidal plenum connected through narrow throat to a nozzle that would face toward the center of the torus, which would be positioned over the center of the area to be spray-painted. The plenum would be supported by four tubes that would also serve as suction exhaust ducts. The downstream ends of the tubes (not shown in the figure) would be connected to a filter on a suction pump. The pump would be rated to provide a suction mass flow somewhat greater than that of the directed spray gas stream, so that the nozzle would take in a small excess of surrounding gas and catch nearly all of the overspray. A small raised lip at the bottom edge of the nozzle would catch paint that landed inside the nozzle. Even if the paint is directly piston pumped, the droplets entrain an air flow by time they approach the wall, so there is always a gas stream to carry the excess droplets to the side. For long-duration spraying operations, it could be desirable to include a suction-drain apparatus to prevent overflowing and dripping of paint from inside the lip. A version without an external contraction and with the throat angled downward would be a more compact version of catcher, although it might be slightly less efficient.

Weinstein, Leonard M.

2003-01-01

9

Process Waste Assessment - Paint Shop  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate hazardous wastes generated in the Paint Shop, Building 913, Room 130. Special attention is given to waste streams generated by the spray painting process because it requires a number of steps for preparing, priming, and painting an object. Also, the spray paint booth covers the largest area in R-130. The largest and most costly waste stream to dispose of is open-quote Paint Shop wasteclose quotes -- a combination of paint cans, rags, sticks, filters, and paper containers. These items are compacted in 55-gallon drums and disposed of as solid hazardous waste. Recommendations are made for minimizing waste in the Paint Shop. Paint Shop personnel are very aware of the need to minimize hazardous wastes and are continuously looking for opportunities to do so

10

29 CFR 1917.153 - Spray painting (See also § 1917.2, definition of Hazardous cargo, materials, substance, or...  

Science.gov (United States)

...combustible vapor and mist. (6) Mechanical ventilation shall be in operation during spraying...shall not contaminate makeup air or other ventilation intakes. Exhausted air shall not be...with noncombustible material. As an aid to cleaning, paper may be used to...

2010-07-01

11

Evaluation of high pressure water blast with rotating spray bar for removing paint and rubber deposits from airport runways, and review of runway slipperiness problems created by rubber contamination  

Science.gov (United States)

A high pressure water blast with rotating spray bar treatment for removing paint and rubber deposits from airport runways is studied. The results of the evaluation suggest that the treatment is very effective in removing above surface paint and rubber deposits to the point that pavement skid resistance is restored to trafficked but uncontaminated runway surface skid resistance levels. Aircraft operating problems created by runway slipperiness are reviewed along with an assessment of the contributions that pavement surface treatments, surface weathering, traffic polishing, and rubber deposits make in creating or alleviating runway slipperiness. The results suggest that conventional surface treatments for both portland cement and asphaltic concrete runways are extremely vulnerable to rubber deposit accretions which can produce runway slipperiness conditions for aircraft operations as or more slippery than many snow and ice-covered runway conditions. Pavement grooving surface treatments are shown to be the least vulnerable to rubber deposits accretion and traffic polishing of the surface treatments examined.

Horne, W. B.; Griswold, G. D.

1975-01-01

12

Experiments on Paint Rheology  

Science.gov (United States)

We seek a better understanding of the atomization of paints for purposes of limiting the environmental impact of spray painting. However, to do so one must confront both the shear and extensional rheology of mobile non-Newtonian fluids whose very composition is often complex and even unknown. A conventional Couette rheometer yields data on paint shear behavior, but no commercial instrument is available to measure the extensional viscosity, which is believed to govern ligamentary breakup in spray painting. Here a converging-flow extensional rheometer has been built for this purpose. Flow rate and orifice pressure drop are measured and related to the rheological properties of the fluid. At first, experience was gained by visualizing in this device the flow of clear aqueous solutions of both Newtonian (glycerol) and non-Newtonian (polyacrylamide) thickeners. Commercial latex and marine paints were then tested, with the goal of characterizing their extensional behavior and the hope that they might be replaceable by simpler aqueous rheological "substitute" fluids insofar as their atomization behavior is concerned. (Research supported by the US Navy via the Penn State Applied Research Laboratory.)

Hartranft, Thomas J.; Settles, Gary S.

1998-11-01

13

Light Painting  

Science.gov (United States)

Light painting is a creative activity that involves creating striking images and illusions using a camera, a light source, and a little practice. Light paintings may be literal representations or impressionistic, color-filled images. When the camera shutter is open (and the room is dark) the film or digital sensor acts like a blank canvas onto which learners "paint" with a flashlight.

Exploratorium

2012-06-26

14

New black paint for cryogenic infrared applications  

Science.gov (United States)

A black paint has been developed and tested for cryogenic applications involving wavelengths beyond 10 microns. The paint has been used extensively for liquid helium cooled applications in a variety of instruments operating between 10 and 120 microns. The material is applied by brush over a spray or brush applied primer coat. A final covering is applied by either brush or spray. The composition and preparation of the paint are described, as are data about its outgassing properties. Infrared reflection and scattering data obtained by other groups which compare this material to other commercially available surface preparations are presented.

Houck, J. R.

1983-01-01

15

Chromate concentration bias in primer paint particles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chromate-containing primer paints are used to prevent corrosion on metal surfaces. Chromate contains hexavalent chromium (Cr6+), a human carcinogen. The objective of this research was to determine if there is a bias in the fraction of chromate found in various particle sizes generated during primer painting operations. A solvent-based, aviation primer paint was sprayed using a high-volume, low-pressure spray gun. Paint particles were collected and separated by size with seven-stage cascade impactors. It was determined that particles with a mass aerodynamic diameter 2.0 microm (P 2.0 microm is 70 microg of Cr/mg of dry paint. The mixed paint contains 18.75% strontium chromate, which equates to a ratio of 67 microg of Cr/mg of dry paint. Particles > 2.0 microm are more likely to impact in the upper tracheobronchial regions of the lung where mucociliary clearance is relatively rapid. Additionally, chromate emissions from spraying operations may be overestimated because larger particles, which are more easily trapped on an air filter, contain more chromate than the smaller particles, which are more likely to bypass an air filter. PMID:11407936

LaPuma, P T; Fox, J M; Kimmel, E C

2001-06-01

16

Ultraviolet-radiation-curable paints  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In product finishing lines, ultraviolet radiation curing of paints on prefabricated structures could be more energy efficient than curing by natural gas fired ovens, and could eliminate solvent emission. Diffuse ultraviolet light can cure paints on three dimensional metal parts. In the uv curing process, the spectral output of radiation sources must complement the absorption spectra of pigments and photoactive agents. Photosensitive compounds, such as thioxanthones, can photoinitiate unsaturated resins, such as acrylated polyurethanes, by a free radical mechanism. Newly developed cationic photoinitiators, such as sulfonium or iodonium salts (the so-called onium salts) of complex metal halide anions, can be used in polymerization of epoxy paints by ultraviolet light radiation. One-coat enamels, topcoats, and primers have been developed which can be photoinitiated to produce hard, adherent films. This process has been tested in a laboratory scale unit by spray coating these materials on three-dimensional objects and passing them through a tunnel containing uv lamps.

Grosset, A M; Su, W F.A.; Vanderglas, E

1981-09-30

17

Water-Based Pressure-Sensitive Paints  

Science.gov (United States)

Water-based pressure-sensitive paints (PSPs) have been invented as alternatives to conventional organic-solvent-based pressure-sensitive paints, which are used primarily for indicating distributions of air pressure on wind-tunnel models. Typically, PSPs are sprayed onto aerodynamic models after they have been mounted in wind tunnels. When conventional organic-solvent-based PSPs are used, this practice creates a problem of removing toxic fumes from inside the wind tunnels. The use of water-based PSPs eliminates this problem. The waterbased PSPs offer high performance as pressure indicators, plus all the advantages of common water-based paints (low toxicity, low concentrations of volatile organic compounds, and easy cleanup by use of water).

Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Watkins, A. Neal; Oglesby, Donald M.; Ingram, JoAnne L.

2006-01-01

18

CORROSION RESISTANCE OF WATER-THINNABLE PAINT SYSTEMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anticorrosion protection on the basis of water-thinnable paint systems belongs among one of ecological ways of protection of metal parts. The aim of the experiment was to test corrosion resistance of water-thinnable systems Eternal antikor speciál V9503 and Colorlak aquarex V2115 in the salt spray environment according to the norm ?SN ISO 9227. Ductility of used paint systems in complience with the norm ?SN EN ISO 1520 will be also tested, it is a test according to Erichsen. At the end of the experiment measurement, the corrosion speed depending on paint coating thickness was analyzed.

Ji?í Votava

2013-12-01

19

MEASUREMENTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND PARTICLES DURING APPLICATION OF LATEX PAINT WITH AN AIRLESS SPRAYER  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper discusses experiments, conducted at EPA's Indoor Air Quality Research House, to measure airborne concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particles during and following the spray-application of latex wall paint. (NOTE: Paint may be applied indoors by a v...

20

A trade-off study on outsource or in-house painting process  

OpenAIRE

A trade-off study was conducted to make the best decision regarding the make-or-buy of the sandblasting and spray painting of parts, using the AHP, a cost analysis and risk analysis. A consistency study was performed. A painting Quality Control Plan (QCP) was developed.

Du Plessis, L.

2011-01-01

21

Automatic Wall Painting Robot  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Primary Aim Of The Project Is To Design, Develop And Implement Automatic Wall Painting Robot Which Helps To Achieve Low Cost Painting Equipment. Despite The Advances In Robotics And Its Wide Spreading Applications, Interior Wall Painting Has Shared Little In Research Activities. The Painting Chemicals Can Cause Hazards To The Human Painters Such As Eye And Respiratory System Problems. Also The Nature Of Painting Procedure That Requires Repeated Work And Hand Rising Makes It Boring, Time And Effort Consuming. When Construction Workers And Robots Are Properly Integrated In Building Tasks, The Whole Construction Process Can Be Better Managed And Savings In Human Labour And Timing Are Obtained As A Consequence. In Addition, It Would Offer The Opportunity To Reduce Or Eliminate Human Exposure To Difficult And Hazardous Environments, Which Would Solve Most Of The Problems Connected With Safety When Many Activities Occur At The Same Time. These Factors Motivate The Development Of An Automated Robotic Painting System.

P.KEERTHANAA, K.JEEVITHA, V.NAVINA, G.INDIRA, S.JAYAMANI

2013-07-01

22

Oil-based paint poisoning  

Science.gov (United States)

Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

23

The influence of paint dispersion parameters on the spectral selectivity of black-pigmented coatings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The optical properties of variously prepared black-pigmented solar absorbing paints were calculated in terms of their effective absorption and scattering abilities. The phenomenological two-parameter Kubelka-Munk effective medium theory was applied. Paints with the same composition were prepared for different degrees of pigment dispersion and characterized by the average size of pigment agglomerates present in the pigment/vehicle system. Prepared paints were applied to aluminium foil in two ways, by coil coating and by spraying. The size of coarse pigment particles and the paint application technique influence the spectral selectivity and thus determine the final performance of spectrally selective surfaces. (author)

Gunde, M.K.; Orel, Z.C. [National Institute of Chemistry, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Hutchins, M.G. [Oxford Brookes University, Oxford (United Kingdom). School of Engineering

2003-10-31

24

Paint-Stirrer Submarine  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the authors discuss a unique and challenging laboratory exercise called, the paint-stir-stick submarine, that keeps the students enthralled. The paint-stir-stick submarine fits beautifully with the National Science Education Standards Physical Science Content Standard B, and with the California state science standards for physical…

Young, Jocelyn; Hardy, Kevin

2007-01-01

25

49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. 173.173 Section... Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When the...Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins must be packaged...

2010-10-01

26

A COMPARISON OF WAX CRAYON PAINTING WITH WATER COLOR PAINTING  

OpenAIRE

Children begin to express themselves with drawing and painting around the age of three. Monitoring their expressing is a very interesting and manifold experience. One of the first motifs of such expression is a human figure, which is characteristic also in later years of a child's development in painting skills. The present diploma paper, therefore, deals with the representation of a human figure with two painting methods, i.e. wax-crayon painting and watercolour painting. The products treat...

Dobovs?ek, Erika

2010-01-01

27

CORROSION RESISTANCE OF WATER-THINNABLE PAINT SYSTEMS  

OpenAIRE

Anticorrosion protection on the basis of water-thinnable paint systems belongs among one of ecological ways of protection of metal parts. The aim of the experiment was to test corrosion resistance of water-thinnable systems Eternal antikor speciál V9503 and Colorlak aquarex V2115 in the salt spray environment according to the norm ?SN ISO 9227. Ductility of used paint systems in complience with the norm ?SN EN ISO 1520 will be also tested, it is a test according to Erichsen. At the end of ...

Ji?í Votava

2013-01-01

28

Spray modeling in spray forming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a common point of view, metallurgical spray applications can be divided into the unit operations: atomization/particle injection -- particle transport/heat transfer -- impingement/compaction. In this contribution, the Eulerian/Lagrangian way of dispersed two-phase flow in sprays with momentum and heat transfer has been established. The basic features and equations for the description of the continuous and the dispersed phase as well as supplementing models and coupling terms will be summarized. The model will be applied to the spray cone modeling in spray forming technology for molten metals, which is an industrial process for the basic shaping and performing of metals with advanced material properties. Results will be compared to some experimental values.

Fritsching, U.; Bauckhage, K. [Institute for Material Science, Bremen (Germany)

1994-12-31

29

Fire retardant paints  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The mechanism involved in the flame-proofing of cellulose is explained on modern electronic concepts. Some recent developments on intumescent paint and mastic compositions with the scope of their further improvement are discussed.  

D.B. Parihar

2013-08-01

30

Paintings and museum artefacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter discusses the use of radiography to examine cultural artifacts, including everything from painting to mummies, for dating, authenticity, and history. Numerous historical photographs are included. 12 refs

31

Chromosome painting in plants.  

OpenAIRE

The current 'state-of-art' as to chromosome painting in plants is reviewed. We define different situations described as painting so far: i) Genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) with total genomic DNA to distinguish alien chromosomes on the basis of divergent dispersed repeats, ii) 'Chromosomal in situ suppression' (CISS) hybridisation with chromosome-derived DNA probes and blocking of interchromosomally dispersed repeats by total genomic or C0 t-1 DNA in excess, iii) exceptional cases of sing...

Schubert, I.; Fransz, P. F.; Fuchs, J.; Jong, J. H.

2001-01-01

32

Artists Paint ... Landscapes  

Science.gov (United States)

This article features the painting "View of Toledo," based on Toledo, a very old city located on a high plateau in Spain. By the time the artist El Greco painted the picture, he had lived there for 31 years. When one looks at the picture, one will see a storm approaching and will see the city as if it were lit by a flash of lightning. What main…

Herberholz, Barbara

2012-01-01

33

Numerical and experimental study of spray coating using air-assisted high pressure atomizers  

OpenAIRE

Spray coating proccsses are characterized by their relatively large paint wastage and high energy consumption, especially in car industry. The unavoidable overspray, caused by poor transfer efficiency, has to be removed quickly from the paint booth, in order to preserve the painting quality on the subject surface. The therefore needed conditioned air stream results in intensive energy requirement for the disposal of the overspray. Against the background of increasing demands on energy-efficie...

Ye, Qiaoyan; Shen, Bo; Tiedje, Oliver; Domnick, Joachim

2012-01-01

34

Recovery of a Charred Painting Using Atomic Oxygen Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

A noncontact method is described which uses atomic oxygen to remove soot and char from the surface of a painting. The atomic oxygen was generated by the dissociation of oxygen in low pressure air using radio frequency energy. The treatment, which is an oxidation process, allows control of the amount of material to be removed. The effectiveness of char removal from half of a fire-damaged oil painting was studied using reflected light measurements from selected areas of the painting and by visual and photographic observation. The atomic oxygen was able to effectively remove char and soot from the treated half of the painting. The remaining loosely bound pigment was lightly sprayed with a mist to replace the binder and then varnish was reapplied. Caution should he used when treating an untested paint medium using atomic oxygen. A representative edge or corner should he tested first in order to determine if the process would be safe for the pigments present. As more testing occurs, a greater knowledge base will be developed as to what types of paints and varnishes can or cannot be treated using this technique. With the proper precautions, atomic oxygen treatment does appear to be a technique with great potential for allowing very charred, previously unrestorable art to be salvaged.

Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Chichernea, Virgil A.

1999-01-01

35

Optimization of solar-selective paint coatings  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective was the development of low-cost, high-performance, solar-selective paint coatings for solar flat-plate collector (FPC) use and passive thermal wall application. Thickness-sensitive selective paint coating development was intended to demonstrate large scale producibility. Thickness-insensitive selective paint (TISP) coating development was intended to develop and optimize the coating for passive solar systems and FPC applications. Low-cost, high-performance TSSP coatings and processes were developed to demonstrate large-scale producibility and meet all program goals. Dip, spray, roll, laminating and gravure processes were investigated and used to produce final samples. High-speed gravure coating was selected as the most promising process for solar foil fabrication. Development and optimization of TISP coatings was not completely successful. A variation in reflective metal pigment was suspected of being the primary problem, although other variables may have contributed. Consistent repeating of optical properties of these coatings achieved on the previous program was not achieved.

McChesney, M. A.; Zimmer, P. B.; Lin, R. J. H.

1982-06-01

36

Ocular injury with high-pressure paint: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical injury to the eye is an ophthalmic emergency that can be caused by a work-related accident or common household products. Uradil SZ261 G3Z-65 is a resin containing butyl gycol (2-butoxyethanol) and ethyl ethanol amine (2-dimethyaminoethanol). It is used in stoving enamels for interior and exterior use. The authors report a case of ocular surface injury with a highpressure industrial spray paint-Waterborne Stoving Gentian Blue containing Uradil. PMID:19395345

Bandyopadhyay, Chitrabhanu; Mitra, Arjit; Harrison, Rosalind J

2009-01-01

37

Monet's Painting under the Microscope  

Science.gov (United States)

An oil painting by Claude Monet, Port-Goulphar, Belle-Ile 1887 (collection of the Art Gallery of New South Wales), was examined to determine both the identity of the pigments used by the artist in this painting and his technique of mixing colors and laying paint on the canvas. The extremely complex construction of the painting was revealed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS), and X-ray mapping (XRM) analysis of cross sections of paint flakes excised from damaged regions of Port-Goulphar, Belle-Ile. Nine different pigments were found on the painting. Many of the identified colors were modern pigments that became available only late in the 19th century as a result of scientific advances in pigment chemistry. Although similar colors were available in a natural mineral form, they lacked the vivid color of their manufactured counterparts. The use of these new synthetic metallic oxide colors by Monet accounts for the brilliance of his paintings. In addition, a separation between successive paint layers was observed in some areas of paint chip cross sections, indicating that oil-based paint was applied to paint that had dried, and consequently, Port-Goulphar, Belle-Ile was painted over a long period of time. This observation is contrary to the general perception of Monet's technique of painting freely and quickly.

Dredge, Paula; Wuhrer, Richard; Phillips, Matthew R.

2003-04-01

38

Landscape Painting. Rewriting Painting in the Postmedium Condition  

OpenAIRE

Is landscape painting still relevant today? To answer this question the article examines the work of the contemporary artist Yehudit Sasportas. Sasporas offers a unique kind of written-drawn landscape painting that moves between the manual and the mechanical. The theoretical perspectives from which it is approached are taken, among others, from Plato, Heidegger and Derrida on the issue of writing. Sasportas painting, which may be characterized as "painting under erasure" or "Landscape Paintin...

Gal, Nissim

2011-01-01

39

Oudry's Painted Menagerie  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2001, the Getty Museum and the Staatliches Museum, Schwerin, Germany, began a collaborative project to restore two enormous paintings by French artist Jean-Baptiste Oudry (1686-1755). Each canvas is around 10 feet tall; Lion was painted in 1752, and Rhinoceros in 1749. Oudry was known as one of the finest animal painters in 18th century Europe, and was commissioned to paint life-size portraits of animals owned by Louis XV, the King of France. The online exhibition presents digital versions of the animals from the King's zoo, as well as highlights of the 4-year conservation process, including a 30-minute video. In addition, there is also a blog and the "Menagerie Madness" game where players are given 45 seconds to spot altered details by comparing two similar images.

40

46 CFR 72.05-45 - Paint.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Paint. (a) An excessive number of coats of paint will be discouraged unless noncombustible paint is used. (b) Nitrocellulose or other highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paints or lacquers shall not be...

2010-10-01

41

Microsoft Word - Paint.doc  

SCPinfonet

...June 1992 Updated January 2006 Paint Historical Note All paints consist...protection and had to be durable. Oil took the place of...that the backing of timber, metal or plaster is sound. Failure...

42

Wet/dry film thickness measurement of paint by absorption spectroscopy with acousto-optic tunable filter spectrometer  

Science.gov (United States)

Controlling/monitoring the thickness of applied paint in real time is important to many situations including painting ship and submarine hulls in dry docks for maintaining health of ships and submarines against the harshness of the sea, in automobile and aerospace industries, and in a variety of other industries as a control sensor that plays significant role in product quality, process control, and cost control. Insufficient thickness results to inadequate protection while overspray leads to waste and pollution of the environment. A rugged instrumentation for the real time non-contact accurate measurement of wet and dry paint film thickness measurement will be immensely valuable. As paint is applied with several layers of the same or different type, thickness of each newly sprayed wet layer is of most interest, but measurement on dry paint is also useful. In this study, we use acousto-optic tunable filter-based near infrared spectrometer to obtain the absorption spectrum of layers of paint sprayed on sand blasted steel surface and thus measure the thickness of coating under both wet and dry situations. NIR spectra are obtained from 1100 to 2300 nm on four sample of different thickness of paint up to 127 micron. Partial least squares model built with the spectra shows good correlation with standard error of prediction within ~ 0.7 micron. Results indicate that the spectra also respond to the amount of organic solvent in the wet paint and can be used to monitor the degree of dryness of the paint in real time.

Sinha, Pranay G.; Xiong, Xiangchun; Jin, Feng; Trivedi, Sudhir; Prasad, Narashima S.

2005-08-01

43

Painting for public perception  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the work of a wildlife artist, Lucas Seaward, in eliciting public opinion on the oilsands industry. He is in the process of creating 20 or more paintings using oil on canvas, not the Chagall or van Gogh sort of oil, but bitumen extracted near Fort McMurray. The paintings are designed for an exhibition to travel across Canada. His aim is to spread awareness that the oilsands industry is working hard towards sustainability and the protection of wildlife. Apart from being evil-smelling, bitumen is stiff, it does not dry quickly, and it wears out paint brushes really fast. Similarly to producers who add a diluent for proper flow, Seaward also found an additive that allowed smooth flow so that he could paint the bitumen in thin layers that dried properly and also was able to produce gradations of color. The idea is to educate the general public out of his personal experience of Fort McMurray and the oilsands industry.

Collison, M.

2011-12-15

44

Improved thermal paint formulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Potassium silicate-treated zinc oxide paint stabilizes pigment against ultraviolet-induced, bleachable degradation in infrared region, and permits use of ZnO as pigment in ultraviolet-stable coatings based upon polymethyl siloxane elastomers and resins. Material has low absorptance/emittance ratio.

Gates, D. W.; Roger, F. O.; Zerlaut, G. A.

1971-01-01

45

Superconducting pastes and paints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High-temperature superconducting pastes and paints have been developed using YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-x/ (x ? 0.1) as the superconducting phase and mineral oil as the dispersing medium. The superconducting oxide concentrations in the pastes reached at least 94 wt.% or 70 vol.%. The critical temperature and critical current density was not affected by the paste proceeding. The paint was formed from superconducting powder particles reduced to about 1 ?m in size by air jet milling and it was used to form superconducting films (about 25 ?m thick) with a (001) preferred orientation of the YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-x/ phase. The paint was also used to fill the surface pores of a superconductor substrate. Superconducting composites of enhanced hardness were formed by adding reinforcing particles such as silica and mullite to the paste during paste fabrication. For example, the addition of 0.2 wt.% silica increased the Knoop hardness by 54%. Nickel-chromium containing 80 st.% Ni was found to be a compatible substrate for the pastes or paints

46

Paint by Numbers Revived!  

Science.gov (United States)

Remember paint by numbers? This revived trend was a perfect solution to teaching geometric shapes to the author's first-grade students. Geometric shapes are identified and used in early elementary art classrooms, but this lesson gives students a deeper understanding of shape, encourages problem-solving, and makes a strong correlation between math…

Hahn, Nic

2012-01-01

47

Nicotine Nasal Spray  

Science.gov (United States)

Nicotine nasal spray is used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine nasal spray should be used together with a ... support groups, counseling, or specific behavior change techniques. Nicotine nasal spray is in a class of medications ...

48

Paint removal principles  

Science.gov (United States)

An attempt is made to group the various processes of paint removal into families. The classifications are distinguished by chemical, mechanical, and thermal phenomena. For each of these phenomena, it is possible to identify the main mechanisms brought into play in material removal leading to paint stripping. The chemical strippers used are methylene chloride, phenolic compounds, and activated acids or activated bases free from phenols, chromates or methylene chloride. However, the methylene chloride and phenolic compounds are being replaced by a new generation of chemical strippers which are less active and their solvent power is lower. To improve the chemical kinetics, 'active' elements are introduced into the composition of these products. Mechanical stripping includes technologies using mechanical phenomena based on erosion, achieved by friction or blasting particles. Thermal stripping, the last classification, makes use of electronics and automation.

Malavallon, Olivier

1995-04-01

49

Spray Simulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Sprayforming combines the metallurgical processes of metal casting and powder metallurgy to fabricate metal products with enhanced properties. This introduction to the various modelling and simulation techniques employed demonstrates how they are applied in process analysis and development. Udo Fritsching derives and describes the main models and then presents their application in the simulation of the key features of spray forming. Fritsching documents theoretical results by referencing them to experimental data wherever possible. The book is aimed at researchers and engineers working in process technology, chemical engineering, and materials science.

Fritsching, Udo

2004-04-01

50

Painted supported lipid membranes  

OpenAIRE

We report herein measurements on a novel type of supported lipid films, which we call painted supported membranes (PSM). These membranes are formed in a self-assembly process on alkylated gold films from an organic solution. The formation process was investigated with surface plasmon resonance microscopy. The optical and electrical properties of the films were determined for various types of lipids and as a function of temperature by means of cyclic voltammetry and potential relaxation after ...

Florin, E. -l; Gaub, H. E.

1993-01-01

51

Painting rusted steel: The role of aluminum phosphosilicate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: •Aluminum phosphosilicate is an acid pigment which could act as mild phosphating agent. •Aluminum phosphosilicate can phosphatize iron oxides on rusted surfaces. •Aluminum phosphosilicate is compatible with acid binders. •Aluminum phosphosilicate could replace chromate in complete painting schemes. •Aluminum phosphosilicate primers improve paints adhesion on rusted surfaces. -- Abstract: Surface preparation is a key factor for the adequate performance of a paint system. The aim of this investigation is to employ a wash-primer to accomplish the chemical conversion of rusted surface when current cleaning operations are difficult to carry out. The active component of the wash-primer was aluminum phosphosilicate whose electrochemical behavior and the composition of the generated protective layer, both, were studied by electrochemical techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Primed rusted steel panels were coated with an alkyd system to perform accelerated tests in the salt spray chamber and electrochemical impedance measurements (EIS). These tests were conducted in parallel with a chromate wash primer and the same alkyd system. Results showed that the wash-primer containing aluminum phosphosilicate could be used satisfactorily to paint rusted steel exhibiting a similar performance to the chromate primer

52

Laser assisted graffiti paints removing  

Science.gov (United States)

It's hard to imagine a modern city view without some drawings and inscriptions, usually called "graffiti". Traditional cleaning methods do not suit modern requirements. Investigation of possibilities of laser assisted paints removing is described in this article. The conditions for removing different paints from different surfaces were defined.

Novikov, B. Y.; Chikalev, Y. V.; Shakhno, E. A.

2011-02-01

53

Water-based intumescent paint  

Science.gov (United States)

Article discusses fire-resistant water-based paints made by adding intumescing agents to fluorocarbon coatings. Since these paints are water-based, they do not pollute atmosphere as they dry and can be used in closed-loop air-recirculation system in spacecraft and submarines.

Sauers, D. G.; Nannelli, P.

1979-01-01

54

The efficiency of alkaline extraction for the recovery of hexavalent chromium (CrVI) from paint samples and the effect of sample storage on CrVI recovery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Workplace exposures to CrVI, a human carcinogen, are significant in spraying operations of chromate-containing paints. Accurate determination of CrVI in paint aerosol air samples is important in assessing a worker's exposure to CrVI. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health method 7604 is widely used for determining CrVI in air samples. It utilizes an alkaline extraction procedure. It was historically validated for paint aerosol samples containing 24.5 to 61.5 microg of CrVI. The literature documented potential airborne CrVI exposures greater than 61.5 microg in recent paint spraying operations. The efficiency of the alkaline method at extracting CrVI from paint samples containing 250 to 3000 microg of CrVI was determined. Paint was prepared, sampled, extracted twice and then digested. Extracts were analyzed for CrVI and digestates of the residual Cr were analyzed for total Cr. Alkaline extraction of paint samples using NIOSH method 7604 resulted in quantitative recoveries for paint samples with CrVI filter loadings from 250 to 3000 microg. A decrease in CrVI extraction efficiency was observed in samples containing > 1000 microg of CrVI. A second extraction improved the recovery of CrVI in these samples. Refrigerating paint aerosol samples for up to 2 weeks did not affect their CrVI content. PMID:12146924

Sabty-Daily, Rania A; Luk, Kate K; Froines, John R

2002-06-01

55

Thermal properties of thin acrylic paints using thermal wave interferometry  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the thermal wave interferometry technique is explored in the investigation of thermal properties of thin layers from commercial paint sprays. The films were produced by manual spray techniques and analyzed for a set of different colors and mixtures, black, blue, graphite, metallic platinum and green. Thermal diffusivity and substrate/film effusivity ratios were fitted in order to obtain the thermal conductivity and volume heat capacity. Experimental results give evidence of a very good agreement between literature values for polymers and experimental values, ? in the range from 1.0 to 3.0 × 10-3 (cm^2/s) for all films, confirming the capability of this technique to inspect thin layers.

Coelho, T. M.; Nogueira, E. S.; Pereira, J. R. D.; Baesso, M. L.; Bento, A. C.

2005-06-01

56

Piet Mondrian: The Transatlantic Paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

Harvard Art Museum uses the abilities of the Web to present this collection of seventeen rarely seen paintings by Piet Mondrian, known as the "transatlantic paintings," begun between 1935 and 1940 in Europe and completed or altered after Mondrian arrived in New York City in 1940. The nine pages of introduction explain the techniques that curators at Harvard used to study the revisions that Mondrian made to the paintings, including studying archival photographs and examining the transatlantic paintings with stereomicroscopy, X-rays, ultraviolet, and infrared light. The Studies and Details sections provide in-depth examinations of eight paintings, and all seventeen can be viewed in the Gallery section. Selecting a particular image from the interactive "gallery guide" requires a plug-in, but users can view all of the paintings without it. The lengthy background section entitled Career covers Mondrian's life and work, illustrated with more of his paintings and photographs. There is also a specialized glossary for the site, complete with definitions of technical art terms (impasto, raking light, inpainting) and biographical information on Mondrian's contemporaries who are mentioned in the background essay.

2001-01-01

57

Painting recognition from wearable cameras  

OpenAIRE

Are smart glasses the new high-tech device that will guide you through a museum? In this report, we describe a system that runs "on device" on Google Glass and retrieves the painting you're looking at among a set of paintings in a database. We perform an experimental comparison of the accuracy and speed of different feature detectors and descriptors on a realistic dataset of paintings from Musée du Louvre. Based on this analysis we design an algorithm for fast and accurate image matching usi...

Dalens, The?ophile; Sivic, Josef; Laptev, Ivan; Campedel, Marine

2014-01-01

58

Radiation safety in radioluminous paint workshop handling tritium activated paint  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the safety features related to a workshop when tritium activated luminous paint is handled by workmen. Salient features of the workshop and the methods employed for monitoring the radiation levels are briefly outlined and results are discussed. The importance of proper ventilation of the workplace and precautions to be taken in the storage of painted articles are highlighted. (author). 1 table, 3 figs

59

Moon's Long History: Impact Paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, pairs of learners model how scientists use craters to determine the ages of lunar surfaces. One partner keeps time while the other creates a painting for the other to interpret. Cotton balls coated in different colors of paint are thrown at paper to simulate asteroids striking the lunar surface over time. Learners take turns in the time-keeping/painting roles to decipher a mystery: In what order did the "impacts" occur? Which painting has more "impacts"? They learn that scientists can estimate the age of a lunar surface by counting its craters--much like counting candles on a birthday cake! This activity station is part of a sequence of stations that can be set up to help learners trace the Moon's 4.5-billion-year history from "infancy" to the imagined future. Learners tie together major events in the Moon's geologic history as a series of comic panels in their Marvel Moon comic books.

Institute, Lunar A.

2010-01-01

60

New biocides for antifouling paints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The antifouling paints are used for protecting the hulls of the boasts from the undesirable accumulation of micro-organisms, plants, and animals on artificial surfaces (marine biological fouling). These paints constitute a potential risk for the marine environment, because of the presence in their formulation, among the other potentially toxic components, of organic compounds acting as biocide. The environmental problems associated with the use of the organotin compounds as biocides in the antifouling paints, have lead to the international ban of these compounds. In the article the new antifouling paints coming up the national and international market are shortly introduced and discussed, with particular attention respect to the new organic compounds used as biocides. In Italy quite a few marine monitoring campaigns have been carried out for organotin compounds, on the contrary there is a lack of data regarding the presence of other biocides

61

Experimental evaluation of insecticidal paints against Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, under natural climatic conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Triatoma infestans is the main vector of Chagas disease in the Gran Chaco region of South America. The traditional spraying technique used for the application of pyrethroid insecticides has shown low efficiency in the elimination of the vector species populations occupying peridomestic structures of rural houses in the endemic area of Argentina. As part of studies looking for better alternatives, we evaluated the residual effect of insecticidal paints on the mortality of fourth instar nymphs of T. infestans. Results The study was based on an experimental design that included two groups treated with an organophosphate (Inesfly 5A IGR™ and a pyrethroid (Inesfly 5A IGR NG™ formulations of the paint, that were applied on wood, cement blocks and adobe bricks under natural climatic conditions. A third group was an untreated control. Both paint formulations showed very long residual activity, producing mortality of 84% and 98% (pyrethroid and organophosphate formulations, respectively after 12 months of the paint application. After eight months, nymphs exposed during 6 hours to the painted surfaces with the pyrethroid and organophosphate formulations showed 81.33% and 100% mortality, respectively. Conclusion The organophosphate- and pyrethroid-based insecticidal paints showed a very long residual activity on the mortality of fourth instar nymphs of T infestans, compared with the traditional spraying technique used for the application of pyrethroid insecticides in peridomestic structures of rural houses in the endemic region for Chagas disease in the Gran Chaco of Argentina. The application of the paints by trained personnel of the vector control programmes could be considered as an alternative control tool in areas where the traditional methods have failed or showed low efficacy.

Gorla David E

2009-07-01

62

Skin painting studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to estimate eventual risks to human health as a consequence of incidental and prolonged skin contact, it is necessary to obtain some information on the potential of coal-derived liquids to elicit skin cancer. In addition, it also must be established whether prolonged dermal exposure will produce signs of toxicity not only on the skin but to internal organs. During the past 2 years, they completed a life-long skin painting study with mice designed to answer some of these questions. The following materials were tested: Raw H-coal blend, containing 5700 ppm N; H-coal blend after low hydrotreatment (2650 ppm N); H-coal blend after high hydrotreatment (0.2 ppm N); H-coal home heating oil, a devolatilized version of the high-hydrotreatment H-coal blend; and an H-coal reformed naphtha. Two petroleum-derived references samples were used: Petroleum No. 2 fuel oil and high catalytically cracked naphtha. Benzo(a)pyrene was used as reference substance. Experimental animals were male and female C3H mice

63

Romanesque mural painting in Catalonia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Romanesque mural painting in Catalonia which was saved from despoilment and dispersion in 1919, when the Junta de Museus (Board of Museums of Barcelona embarked upon a major campaign of purchase and removal, is a unique heritage of universal value. Even though the mural paintings from the Romanesque cathedrals or the great abbeys like Ripoll no longer survive, what has been conserved is quite notable both stylistically and iconographically. The surviving frescoes were mainly inspired by the art of early Christian Rome and that of the Gregorian reform, yet also by Byzantine sources and by Lombard and Germanic styles and prototypes, all translated into highly original programmes of images. The most emblematic works are conserved at the Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya (MNAC, such as the apse from Sant Climent de Taüll, a capolavoro of European Romanesque painting, and the apses from Sant Pere de la Seu d’Urgell and Santa Maria d’Àneu, both boasting outstanding quality, along with the paintings from Sant Joan in Boí, Sant Quirze de Pedret, Sorpe and el Burgal. Together with the frescoes at the Museu Diocesà i Comarcal de Solsona, the Museu Episcopal de Vic, the Museu d’Art de Girona and the Museu Diocesà d’Urgell, along with the numerous murals and remains of paintings conserved in situ, many of them discovered in recent years, they enable us to envisage the scope of this Catalan Romanesque art. Of these discoveries, perhaps the most noteworthy are the paintings from Sant Vicenç d’Estamariu, as well as the new images on the triumphant arches of Sant Climent de Taüll. This article summarises the most important part of this mural painting heritage as well as the most recent literature on the subject.

Montserrat Pagès

2013-06-01

64

Painting : Discursive Battlefield and Intermedial Laboratory  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The ongoing struggle of painting – leading to recurrent announcements of its ‘demise’ and subsequently of its ‘return’ – serves as point of departure for an examination of ‘expanded painting’. The article suggests that contemporary painting is not only a field of incessant disciplinary and discursive battles over the essentially self-reflective question of “What is painting?” Over the last decades it has also become an intermedial laboratory in which artists experiment with developing a connective aesthetic in the interface between painting and other media. Accordingly, it is has become a commonly held opinion that painting has transformed itself into an expanded field and thus renewed itself – again. The article argues that in recent decades a remarkable number of painters have explored the possibility of developing painting by redefining what ‘space’ is in relation to painting. Much energy has been put into expanding painting physically by exploring painting’s relations to objects, space, place, and ‘the everyday’. The text focuses on works of art that are conceived as an installation based on the medium of painting, including works by Slovak artists Dorota Sadovská and Daniel Fischer. Its discussion of the ways in which the transformation of painting into installation affects the relationship between the work and its contexts eventually leads to a consideration of how Slovak art is positioned in relation to the Western artworld understood as a system of centres and peripheries. Text in English (pp. 66-83) and Slovak (pp. 44-65).

Petersen, Anne Ring

2012-01-01

65

Sprayed concrete linings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sprayed concrete, or shotcrete, can provide temporary or permanent support to a tunnel perimeter after excavation. Reinforcement structures such as rock bolts, wire mesh and lattice arches, are normally incorporated. This survey gives names of some expert consultancies providing services to the tunnelling industry and some suppliers of geotechnical instruments. It gives brief descriptions of suppliers of machines for spraying concrete, suppliers of sprayed concrete admixtures and additives, and suppliers of lattice arches. 1 ref., 6 tabs., 9 photos.

Pearse, G.

1998-12-01

66

Spray on protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are three important modern spray techniques for the thermal insulation of buildings, two internal and one external. The first of these is the Rackspray System. This system uses mineral fiber of the rock wool type with are emulsion binder which can be sprayed onto virtually any surface. The next process is rigid closed cell fluorocarbon blown foam Interspray. This material is applied by an airless spray in liquid form. Multispray is the external process by which a rigid closed cell polyurethane foam spray is applied using the multipass technique. Methods for praying these materials on buildings are described.

Richards, M.

1985-11-01

67

Infrared thermography-based visualization of droplet transport in liquid sprays  

Science.gov (United States)

An infrared thermography-based technique for the characterization and visualization of liquid sprays was developed. The technique was tested on two atomizers: a high-speed rotary bell atomizer and a high volume low pressure air-assisted atomizer. The technique uses an infrared thermography-based measurement in which a uniformly heated background acts as a thermal radiation source, and an infrared camera as the receiver. The infrared energy emitted by the radiation source in traveling through the spray is attenuated by the presence of the droplets inside the spray. The infrared intensity is captured by the receiver showing the attenuation in the image as a result of the presence of the spray. The captured thermal image is used to study detailed macroscopic features of the spray flow field and the evolution of the paint droplets as they are transferred from the applicator to the target surface.

Akafuah, Nelson K.; Salazar, Abraham J.; Saito, Kozo

2010-05-01

68

EVALUATION OF LOW-VOC LATEX PAINTS  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper gives results of an evaluation of four commercially available low-VOC (volatile organic compound) latex paints as substitutes for conventional latex paints by assessing both their emission characteristics and their performance as coatings. Bulk analysis indicated that ...

69

Insecticidal Paints for Control of Cockroaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The efficacy of certain insecticidal paints/ varnishes recently developed by the Paints Group of the Laboratory for the control of cockroaches and allied crawling insects commonly met in the Services, has been described.

G. N. Shukla

2014-05-01

70

Numerical simulation of thin paint film flow  

OpenAIRE

Being able to predict the visual appearance of a painted steel sheet, given its topography before paint application, is of crucial importance for car makers. Accurate modeling of the industrial painting process is required. The equations describing the leveling of the paint are complex and their numerical simulation requires advanced mathematical tools, which are described in detail in this paper. Simulations are validated using a large experimental database obtained with a wavefront sensor d...

Figliuzzi, Bruno; Jeulin, Dominique; Lemaitre, Anae?l; Fricout, Gabriel; Manneville, Paul; Jean-jacques, Piezanowski

2012-01-01

71

Household hazardous waste : composition of paint waste  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc.) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when incinerated. Allowing household paint waste to be collected with ordinary household waste is expected to reduce the cost of handling household hazardous waste, since paint waste in Denmark comprises the major fraction of household hazardous waste.

Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas HØjlund

2007-01-01

72

Electrical charging characteristics of the hetero layer film for reducing water-borne paint contamination in electrostatic rotary atomizers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The electrostatic rotary atomizer is the most efficient of all liquid spray painting methods. Its use minimizes the waste of paint and reduces emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Water-borne painting processes which use water-soluble paint also reduce VOC emissions, but the atomizer body is easily contaminated by the paint mists. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) considered the causes of water-borne paint contamination and presented the experimental results of a contamination proof system in which the atomizer is surrounded by the repelling film that is charged and repels the incoming paint droplets. Among the key factors for repelling film were electrical properties, such as low capacitance and high insulation to keep high surface potential. Charging uniformity was found to be among the most important characteristic to avoid contamination. The pulse electro-acoustic (PEA) method was used to check these features using space charge measurements inside the repelling film. It was concluded that hetero layer films have more uniform charging characteristics than single layer films.

Yamada, Y.; Imanishi, T.; Yoshida, O.; Mizuno, A. [ABB Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

2010-07-01

73

Paint the World with Light  

Science.gov (United States)

Two classrooms on opposite sides of the world happened to be working on a very similar project at the same time. In both Shanghai, China, and Palm Springs, California, students were learning how to turn their flashlights and other light-emitting objects into paintbrushes. Light painting is a form of long-exposure photography in which the shutter…

Gran, David

2010-01-01

74

Chicanos Paint Their Way Back.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Tucson (Arizona) and El Paso (Texas), Chicano mural painters and art educators have begun community programs to engage alienated Chicano and Yaqui youth in painting murals that defuse gang conflicts, celebrate Mexican culture and history, and provide training in marketable skills. (SV)

Treguer, Annick

1999-01-01

75

A new method for thermal spraying of Zn-Al coatings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the development of the thermal spraying system built on the principles of the high velocity air flame (HVAF) process. HVAF sprayed coatings showed considerably higher bond strength than coatings obtained by the conventional methods, indicating the advantage of this method in areas where the adhesion strength is critically important. The highly dense structure of the coating obtained with HVAF eliminates a need for a top paint coat, which is typically applied on metal sprayed coatings to extend service life. The thermal sprayed coatings were characterized by the standard techniques, such as light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, salt spray and bond strength tests. The results show that thermal sprayed coatings have a dense structure, low presence of oxides and high resistance to corrosion. High spray rate and good coating quality make the HVAF thermal spray method a viable alternative to the conventional thermal spraying technologies, such as Wire Flame and Twin-Wire Arc.

76

Spray momentum measuring system  

Science.gov (United States)

Technique enables accurate prediction of erosion and cavitation produced by fluid spray. Method measures high velocity sprays produced by small orifices. Originally designed to determine oxidizer-injection patterns of liquid fueled rocket engines, technique is used with other liquids, or, with appropriate modification, with gases.

Sheffield, E. W.

1971-01-01

77

Core spray device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To provide a water spraying nozzle and a water injection nozzle in a core spray sparger thereby to accelerate recovery of the filtration water level by water spraying and to improve the safety of the reactor. Constitution: A water injection nozzle carrying out injection of a large quantity of water at a high speed is added to a water spray nozzle of an ordinary type installed in a core spray sparger. The water injection nozzle is selected to be one injecting water vigorously downwardly like a cock of a service water supply, and an injection hindering phenomenon due to evaporation of retained cooling water is removed thereby to cause water retained in the upper plenum to smoothly fall and to accelerate the recovery of water level after loss of coolant accident. As a result, the temperature rise of the core fuel part is suppressed low and the safety of the reactor is increased. (Sekiya, K.)

78

Spray measurement technology: a review  

Science.gov (United States)

Sprays are among the most intellectually challenging and practically important topics in fluid mechanics. This paper reviews needs, milestones, challenges, and a broad array of techniques for spray measurement. In addition, tabular summaries provide cross-referenced entry points to the vast literature by organizing over 300 citations according to key spray phenomena, physical parameters and measurement techniques for each of the principal spray regions (nozzle internal flow, near-field spray-formation region, far-field developed spray, and spray-wall interaction). The article closes with perspectives on some current issues in spray research, including the cost and complexity of apparatus for spray physics and spray engineering, the need for simultaneous diagnostic measurements under application-relevant conditions, and the effective comparison of spray measurements and numerical simulations.

Fansler, Todd D.; Parrish, Scott E.

2015-01-01

79

Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

2006-05-10

80

Thermal Arc Spray Overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

81

Reactor container spray device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To enable decrease in the heat and the concentration of radioactive iodine released from the reactor vessel into the reactor container in the spray device of BWR type reactors. Constitution: A plurality of water receiving trays are disposed below the spray nozzle in the dry well and communicated to a pressure suppression chamber by way of drain pipeways passing through a diaphragm floor. When the recycling system is ruptured and coolants in the reactor vessel and radioactive iodine in the reactor core are released into the dry well, spray water is discharged from the spray nozzle to eliminate the heat and the radioactive iodine in the dry well. In this case, the receiving trays collect the portions of spray water whose absorption power for the heat and radioactive iodine is nearly saturated and falls them into the pool water of the pressure suppression chamber. Consequently, other portions of the spray water that still possess absorption power can be jetted with no hindrance, to increase the efficiency for the removal of the heat and iodine of the spray droplets. (Horiuchi, T.)

82

Microclimate boxes for panel paintings  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century. The increased number of travelling exhibitions in recent years has heightened the need to protect paintings during circulation (Thomson 1961; Mecklenburg 1991). The use and design of microclimate boxes have been evolving since 1892. These boxes may be divided into three broad groups: those using an active buffer material to stabilize the internal RH, a more recent box containing no added buffer material, and, in recent times, boxes with an altered gas content. Another concern is the appearance (aesthetics) of the box.

Wadum, JØrgen

1998-01-01

83

Plasma Spray System  

Science.gov (United States)

Computer aided, fully-automatic TRW system sprays very hot plasma onto a turbine blade. Composed of gas into which metallic and ceramic powders have been injected, the plasma forms a two-layer coating which insulates the blade. Critical part of operation is controlling the thickness of the deposit which is measured in thousandths of an inch. This is accomplished by an optical detector which illuminates spots at various locations on the blade and determines thickness by measuring the light reflections. Optical sensor monitors spraying process until precise thickness is attained, then computer halts the spraying.

1980-01-01

84

Cultural landscape and slovenian painting  

OpenAIRE

The aim of the thesis work was to show the relationship between painting and slovenian cultural landscape and present a plan teaching art workshops on the topic. The work consists of two parts. The theoretical part shows the starting point for the presentation of the concept of cultural landscape. It presents the formation of terms of cultural landscape, its importance, the type of cultural landscape and its components. The work is focused on the development of landscape design in Sloveni...

Jakomin, Jernej

2011-01-01

85

CHITOSAN-COPPER PAINT TYPES AS ANTIFOULING  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english A prototype of antifouling paints was prepared with a QS-Cu (I)-Fe (II) complex as a possible replacement for traditional antifouling paints, which contain a large concentration of copper, fnding them in an order of 10 - 30 % depending on the brand, and if it is water or solvent based. A Qs-Cu compl [...] ex was prepared, with a solution at 3% with acetic acid, and then Fe2O3 was added to the solution. FT IR analysis was carried out, as well as analysis of the TGA at the Qs and the complex with Qs-Cu, and with the solution, three different paints were prepared. Those that varied volumen of diethylene glycol added to them. The analysis of the paints was carried out, once the paint was pervaded in a network of polyamide, through SEM with EDX and TEM, which was purchased with the commercial paints, water based and solvent based. One of the objectives is to be able to compare the coverage of the network with the commercial paint, and that of the complex QS-Cu. The results showed that the best paint obtained was paint #2, found to be similar to that pervaded with water based paint.

MARCIA, HEUSER; CLAUDIA, RIVERA; CHRISTIAN, NUÑEZ; GALO, CÁRDENAS.

2009-12-01

86

CHITOSAN-COPPER PAINT TYPES AS ANTIFOULING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A prototype of antifouling paints was prepared with a QS-Cu (I-Fe (II complex as a possible replacement for traditional antifouling paints, which contain a large concentration of copper, fnding them in an order of 10 - 30 % depending on the brand, and if it is water or solvent based. A Qs-Cu complex was prepared, with a solution at 3% with acetic acid, and then Fe2O3 was added to the solution. FT IR analysis was carried out, as well as analysis of the TGA at the Qs and the complex with Qs-Cu, and with the solution, three different paints were prepared. Those that varied volumen of diethylene glycol added to them. The analysis of the paints was carried out, once the paint was pervaded in a network of polyamide, through SEM with EDX and TEM, which was purchased with the commercial paints, water based and solvent based. One of the objectives is to be able to compare the coverage of the network with the commercial paint, and that of the complex QS-Cu. The results showed that the best paint obtained was paint #2, found to be similar to that pervaded with water based paint.

MARCIA HEUSER

2009-12-01

87

Metal atomization spray nozzle  

Science.gov (United States)

A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal.

Huxford, Theodore J. (Harriman, TN)

1993-01-01

88

Triboelectric spray ionization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Triboelectric spray ionization (TESI) is a variation of electrospray ionization (ESI) using common instrumental components, including gas flow, solvent flow rate and heat, the only difference being the use of a high-voltage power supply for ESI or a static charge for TESI. The ionization of solvent or analyte is due to the electrostatic potential difference formed between the spray electrode and counter electrode. The ion source contains a pneumatic spray operated over a range of flow rates (0.15-1.5 µl/min) and gas pressures (0-100). This new design contains a standalone spray assembly and an optional metal mesh in front of the spray. There are several parameters that affect the performance during ionization of molecules including the flow rate of solvent, gas pressure, temperature, solvent acidity, distance and potential difference between emitter and counter electrode. A variable electrostatic potential can be applied for higher ionization efficiency. The new ionization method was successfully applied to solutions of various proteins under different conditions. The same charge-state distributions compared to other ESI techniques are observed for all the protein samples. The unique feature of TESI is very efficient spraying by using a natural electrostatic potential even at the potential that a human body can produce. This provides very gentle ionization efficiency of peptides and proteins in different solvents. PMID:23378087

Özdemir, Abdil; Lin, Jung-Lee; Gillig, Kent J; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

2013-02-01

89

Estimating thermal performance of cool colored paints  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study is to investigate the thermal performance of cool colored acrylic paints containing infrared reflective pigments in comparison to conventional colored acrylic paints of similar colors (white, brown and yellow) applied on sheets of corrugated fiber cement roofing. Evaluated properties are: color according to ASTM D 2244-89, the UV/VIS/NIR reflectance according to ASTM E 903-96, and thermal performance by exposure to infrared radiation emitted from a lamp with the measurement of surface temperatures of the specimens with thermocouples connected to a data logging system. Results demonstrated that the cool colored paint formulations produced significantly higher NIR reflectance than conventional paints of similar colors, and that the surface temperatures were more than 10 C lower than those of conventional paints when exposed to infrared radiation. The study shows that cool paints enhance thermal comfort inside buildings, which can reduce air conditioning costs. (author)

Uemoto, Kai L.; John, Vanderley M. [University of Sao Paulo - Escola Politecnica, Department of Civil Construction Engineering, Av. Prof. Almeida Prado - Trav. 2, no 271, Zip code 05508-900, Sao Paulo - SP (Brazil); Sato, Neide M.N. [Nove de Julho University, Civil Engineering and Architecture Department, Sao Paulo, Brazil, Av. Dr. Adolpho Pinto, 109, Zip code 01156-050, Sao Paulo - SP (Brazil)

2010-01-15

90

Denotative and connotative meanings of paintings  

OpenAIRE

In this study the relationships between judgments of paintings denotative and connotative meanings was investigated. Denotative domain was defined as motif (represented object, e.g. portrait, landscape etc.) and message (information carried by paintings, e.g. celebration of patriotism). Connotative domain was defined as subjective experience, i.e. affective or metaphoric impression produced by painting (e.g. feeling of pleasure, impression of dynamics, and so on). In preliminary study the lis...

Vasi? Sandra; Markovi? Slobodan

2007-01-01

91

Digital Color Restoration of Old Paintings  

OpenAIRE

Many old paintings suffer from the effects of certain  physicochemical phenomena, that can seriously degrade  their overall visual appearance. Cleaning methods, that  utilize chemical treatment substances, can not always  be used, due to possible deterioration of the painting  surface or reduction of the painting artistic value.  Digital image processing techniques can be utilized for the  purpose of restoring the o...

Pappas, M.; Pitas, I.

2010-01-01

92

Paint Scaler. Innovative Technology Summary Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Paint Scaler can collect paint samples quickly and efficiently for lab analysis. The Rotary Hammer Drill is a 24-V battery operated, 3/4-in. rotary hammer drill. When used with an optional chipping adapter, the Bosch Rotary Hammer Drill can be used to perform chipping and chiseling tasks such as paint removal from either concrete or metal surfaces. It is ultra-compact, lightweight with an ergonomic balanced grip. The battery operation gives the operator more flexibility during sampling activities

93

Color alteration of the paint used for iris painting in ocular prostheses  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to assess color alteration of the paints used for iris painting in artificial eyes. Five disks of heat cured acrylic resin were confectioned by microwave energy for each paint analyzed, in a total of 40 specimens. Each specimen consisted of a colorless acrylic resin disk and another of equal size, of scleral white colored acrylic resin, with the painting interposed between the two disks. The specimens were submitted to an accelerated aging process in a chamber un...

Aline Úrsula Rocha Fernandes; Marcelo Coelho Goiato; Marcos Antônio Jacó Batista; Daniela Micheline dos Santos

2009-01-01

94

Multiple metal contamination from house paints: consequences of power sanding and paint scraping in New Orleans.  

OpenAIRE

Power sanding exterior paint is a common practice during repainting of old houses in New Orleans, Louisiana, that triggers lead poisoning and releases more than Pb. In this study we quantified the Pb, zinc, cadmium, manganese, nickel, copper, cobalt, chromium, and vanadium in exterior paint samples collected from New Orleans homes (n = 31). We used interior dust wipes to compare two exterior house-painting projects. House 1 was measured in response to the plight of a family after a paint cont...

Mielke, H. W.; Powell, E. T.; Shah, A.; Gonzales, C. R.; Mielke, P. W.

2001-01-01

95

Three-dimensional survey of paint layer  

Science.gov (United States)

The quantitative morphological analysis of a painting surface allows to evidence form defects and to study, thus, their influence on the stability of the paint and preparatory layers, as well as of the support. Therefore a three-dimensional survey can be very useful in planning the restoration intervention of a painting. In this work we present the results of the surface analysis carried out on the painting "Ultima Cena" by Giorgio Vasari. This panel painting is severely affected by paint film wrinkling produced as a consequence of the flood that occurred in Florence in 1966. Our analysis, accomplished to quantify the lengthening of the paint layer with respect to the one of the support in order to plan the restoration intervention, was performed on 25 profiles separated each by 10 cm in order to cover the whole painting surface. A data analysis, based on morphological filtering named "Rolling Ball" transformation, was used to evaluate the length difference between the paint layer and the panel support along each profile.

Pampaloni, Enrico; Bellucci, Roberto; Carcagni, Pierluigi; Casaccia, Antonella; Fontana, Raffaella; Gambino, Maria Chiara; Piccolo, Roberta; Pingi, Paolo; Pezzati, Luca

2007-07-01

96

Development of spray coated cathodes for RITS-6.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents work conducted in FY13 to conduct a feasibility study on thermal spray coated cathodes to be used in the RITS-6 accelerator in an attempt to improve surface uniformity and repeatability. Currently, the cathodes are coated with colloidal silver by means of painting by hand. It is believed that improving the cathode coating process could simplify experimental setup and improve flash x-ray radiographic performance. This report documents the experimental setup and summarizes the results of our feasibility study. Lastly, it describes the path forward and potential challenges that must be overcome in order to improve the process for creating uniform and repeatable silver coatings for cathodes.

Simpson, Sean; Leckbee, Joshua J.; Miller, Stephen Samuel

2013-09-01

97

Retrospective dosimetry using chromosome painting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chromosome aberration frequency measured in peripheral lymphocytes of persons exposed to ionizing radiation has been used since 1960s for dose assessment. Suspected overexposure is usually evaluated by the frequency of dicentrics and centric rings using an appropriate in vitro calibration curve. However, these chromosome aberrations are unstable with time after exposure and dose reconstruction may encounter uncertainties when the time between the exposure and the analysis is considerable or even unknown. It appears that translocations persist with time after exposure and may be used as an indication of acute past overexposures. Moreover, they appear to accumulate the cytogenetical information, which correlates with the dose received under fractionated, chronic or even occupational exposure conditions. Translocations may be detected using G-banding, which allows to score the total amount of radiation induced translocations but it is a time consuming method, or by Chromosome Painting, a method base on the Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) technique, painting only some chromosome pairs with specific whole chromosome probes and then extrapolating the observed translocation frequencies to the full genome. The latter method allows a faster aberration scoring than G-banding and appears to be the most promissory tool for biodosimetry, particularly when it is necessary to assess low doses and consequently to score a large number of metaphases, e.g. radiation workers exr of metaphases, e.g. radiation workers exposed within dose limits. As with the unstable chromosome aberration, it is necessary an in vitro calibration curve based on the frequency of stable chromosome aberrations to assess doses. Our laboratory performed calibration curves for Co60 ?-rays based on the frequencies of unstable (dicentrics and centric rings detected by conventional Giemsa staining) and stable chromosome aberrations (translocations and inversions, detected by G-banding). In order to minimize the interlaboratory variability, we have performed our own dose response relationship, based on the frequency of stable chromosome aberrations detected by Chromosome Painting for Co60 ?-rays, with doses ranging from 0 Gy to 3 Gy delivered at a 0.4 Gy/min dose rate and painting chromosomes 1, 2 and 4, which represent 22% of the genome. We have scored reciprocal and non-reciprocal translocations, excess of painted acentrics, insertions, dicentrics and centric rings. After extrapolating the obtained frequencies to the full genome, the corresponding data set agree well with our previous results of dicentrics and centric rings and reciprocal and non reciprocal translocations, obtained using the same in vitro irradiation protocol. In order to collect information about the stability and the cumulative behavior of stable chromosome aberrations, we have retrospectively evaluated, using the Chromosome Painting calibration curve, a nuclear power plant worker sample with doses ranging from 500 mSv to 800 mSv. As a whole, the observed frequencies do not differ significantly from the expected frequencies obtained applying the calibration curve ? coefficient. Some workers of this samples were previously evaluated using G-banding in 1995 and the present results agree well with the expected frequencies due to the accumulated during the last four years. (author)

98

Antifungal efficiency assessment of the TiO2 coating on façade paints.  

Science.gov (United States)

The work studies the photocatalytic activity and the antifungal efficiency of the TiO2/Zn-Al coatings placed on the target commercial façade paints. The photocatalytic active nanocomposite based on TiO2 and Zn-Al-layered double hydroxides (ZnAl-LDHs) was synthesized by a wet impregnation technique with 3 % w/w TiO2. The freshly prepared suspension was applied by spray technique on the surfaces of the white façade paints. The goal of the work was to develop a method that quickly quantifies the antifungal activity of the commercial façade paints with and without biocidal components covered with a photocatalytic coating. The essence of the proposed method is the monitoring of the fungal growth (artificial ageing conditions) and the quantification of its development (UV-A 0.13 mWcm(-2)) on the façade paint surfaces. A special fungus nutrient (potato dextrose agar (PDA)) was inoculated with the spores of the Aspergillus niger ATCC 6275, and the test samples (façade paints with and without photocatalytic coating) were placed on the inoculated nutrient in the petri dishes. The images of the fungal growth on the samples of the facade paints, during a period of 5 days, were imported into Matlab R2012a where they were converted to binary images (BW), based on the adequate threshold. The percentage of the surface coverage was calculated by applying the specifically written program code which determines the ratio of the black and white pixels. The black pixels correspond to the surface covered with hyphae and mycelia of the fungus. PMID:24875311

Vu?eti?, Snežana B; Rudi?, Ognjen Lj; Markov, Siniša L; Bera, Oskar J; Vidakovi?, Ana M; Skapin, Andrijana S Sever; Ranogajec, Jonjaua G

2014-10-01

99

A novel method for preparing proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrodes by the ultrasonic-spray technique  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel ultrasonic-spray method for preparing gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is described. Platinum (Pt) loaded on Nafion®-bonded GDEs were prepared by the ultrasonic-spray method on various commercial woven and non-woven gas diffusion layers (GDLs) at several Pt loadings in the range of 0.40-0.05 mg cm-2. The ultrasonic-sprayed GDEs were tested and compared to commercial and hand-painted GDEs. It was found that the GDEs prepared by the ultrasonic-spray method exhibited better performances compared to those prepared by the hand-painting technique, especially at low Pt loadings. GDEs fabricated by the ultrasonic-spray method with a platinum loading of 0.05 mg cm-2 exhibited a peak power rating of 10.9 W mg-1 compared to 9.8 W mg-1 for hand-painted GDEs. For all experiments using various GDLs, Sigracet SGL 10BC exhibited the best performance with a peak power of 0.695 W cm-2.

Millington, Ben; Whipple, Vincent; Pollet, Bruno G.

2011-10-01

100

29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33 Section 1915... § 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees shall...and application of chemical paint and preservative removers and shall be protected...

2010-07-01

101

Health Hazards of Solvents Exposure among Workers in Paint Industry  

OpenAIRE

Background: Paints and coatings include paints, varnishes, lacquers, stains, printing inks and more. A wide variety of volatile solvents are used in paint and coating manufacturing including aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones and consist of more than 30...

Aida Abd El Hamid Hassan; Safaa Abd El Moez Elnagar; Ihab Mohammadi El Tayeb; Sara Abd El Halim Bolbol

2013-01-01

102

Thermal spray processing  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermal spray processing has been used for a number of years to cost-effecticely apply TBC's for a wide range of heat engine applications. In particular, bond coats are applied by plasma spray and HVOF techniques and partially-stabilized zirconia top coats are applied by plasma spray methods. Thermal spray involves melting and rapid transport of the molten particles to the substrate, where high-rate solidification and coating build-up occur. It is the very nature of this melt processing that leads to the unique layered microstructure, as well as the apparent imperfections, so readily identified with thermal spray. Modeling the process, process-induced residual stresses, and thermal conductivity will be discussed in light of a new understanding of porosity and its anisotropy. Microcracking can be understood using new approaches, allowing a fuller view of the processing-performance connection. Detailed electron microscopic, novel neutron diffraction and fracture analysis of the deposits can lead to a better understanding of how overall microstructure can be controlled to influence critical properties of the deposited TBC system.

Herman, H.; Berndt, C. C.

1995-01-01

103

Detecting Corrosion Under Paint and Insulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Corrosion is a major concern at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida due to the proximity of the center to the Atlantic Ocean and to salt water lagoons. High humidity, salt fogs, and ocean breezes, provide an ideal environment in which painted steel structures become corroded. Maintenance of painted steel structures is a never-ending process.

Bastin, Gary L.

2011-01-01

104

EMISSION RATES OF MERCURY FROM LATEX PAINTS  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper gives results of tests of latex paints containing organic mercury additives in small environmental test chambers to determine the emission rates of mercury. Five paints were evaluated: two contained phenyl mercuric acetate (PMA); and the other three, different additives...

105

Lead content in household paints in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lead and its compounds are used in paints not only to impart colour but also to make it durable, corrosion resistant and to improve drying. Adverse health impacts of lead especially on children have led countries to restrict or ban its use in paints. While U.S. and other developed countries instituted measures to limit the use of lead in paints, some developing countries including India have failed to regulate their lead content. The present study was undertaken to determine the levels of lead in new latex (water-based) and enamel paints (oil-based) intended for residential use in India. A total of 69 paint samples (38 latex and 31 enamel samples) from six of the most popular brands were analysed for lead concentrations. While all latex paint samples contained low levels of lead, (i.e., well below 600 ppm as regulated by United States' Consumer Products Safety Commission) the enamel paint samples of all but one brand contained significant concentrations of lead, ranging up to 140,000 ppm. In fact 84% of the enamel paints tested exceeded 600 ppm whereas only 38 % of all samples (including latex and enamel types) exceeded this regulatory level

106

The Sign System in Chinese Landscape Paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

Paintings emerge from a culture field and must be interpreted in relation to the net of culture. A given culture will be implicated by the sign system used by the painter. Everyone agrees that in Chinese landscape paintings, the most important cultural bond is to ancient Chinese Taoism, and to a lesser degree, to Confucianism. Obviously, then, the…

McMahon, Cliff G.

2003-01-01

107

How to Paint Swirl a Guitar  

Science.gov (United States)

This PDF document provides a guide for a classroom demonstration on how to paint swirl a guitar. Materials required include a plastic storage container, borax, oil paint and a guitar body. This lesson plan includes photographs of the process and a step by step walk through of how to complete the demonstration.

2012-08-01

108

Droplets and sprays  

CERN Document Server

Providing a clear and systematic description of droplets and spray dynamic models, this book maximises reader insight into the underlying physics of the processes involved, outlines the development of new physical and mathematical models, and broadens understanding of interactions between the complex physical processes which take place in sprays. Complementing approaches based on the direct application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), Droplets and Sprays treats both theoretical and practical aspects of internal combustion engine process such as the direct injection of liquid fuel, subcritical heating and evaporation. Includes case studies that illustrate the approaches relevance to automotive applications,  it is also anticipated that the described models can find use in other areas such as in medicine and environmental science.

Sazhin, Sergei

2014-01-01

109

JIT Spraying and Mitigations  

CERN Document Server

With the discovery of new exploit techniques, novel protection mechanisms are needed as well. Mitigations like DEP (Data Execution Prevention) or ASLR (Address Space Layout Randomization) created a significantly more difficult environment for exploitation. Attackers, however, have recently researched new exploitation methods which are capable of bypassing the operating systemâ??s memory mitigations. One of the newest and most popular exploitation techniques to bypass both of the aforementioned security protections is JIT memory spraying, introduced by Dion Blazakis. In this article we will present a short overview of the JIT spraying technique and also novel mitigation methods against this innovative class of attacks. An anti-JIT spraying library was created as part of our shellcode execution prevention system.

Bania, Piotr

2010-01-01

110

Rheological effects in roll coating of paints  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english the aim of this work is the study of the problems that arise during roll coating application of paints on steel sheets. We put in evidence the particular effects due to the non-Newtonian properties of these fluids. At speeds above a certain critical value, the flow of paint through the applicator su [...] ffers a hydrodynamical instability called ribbing, which generates a patterned interface on the film applied. Threshold of instability as well as waveform of the pattern is function of rheological properties of paints as well as surface tension. Thixotropy of paints as well as shear-thinning behaviour has been determined for several industrial paints used in the steel industry, and correlated with levelling performance after application.

F., Varela López; M., Rosen.

2002-07-01

111

Effects of gamma radiation on paints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The systems and components involved in reactor operation are subject to degradation and aging effects. These effects must be evaluated for accelerated aging of plant components. Generally, the organic materials used in nuclear field such as wire insulation, paints, adhesives, sealants are affected by gamma radiation. The radiation effects on paints were studied at INR - Pitesti and APPVRI - Bucuresti. This paper presents the change of the characteristics of two types of powder paints deposited in electrostatic field on metallic surface, gamma irradiated at 110 kGy and 200 kGy. After irradiation the paints have very good support adherence, high elasticity and impact resistance. They also resist to the action of the acids and the bases used for decontamination. The tests on the paints demonstrated that they can be of successfully used in nuclear field. (authors)

112

Controlled overspray spray nozzle  

Science.gov (United States)

A spray system for a multi-ingredient ablative material wherein a nozzle A is utilized for suppressing overspray is described. The nozzle includes a cyclindrical inlet which converges to a restricted throat. A curved juncture between the cylindrical inlet and the convergent portion affords unrestricted and uninterrupted flow of the ablative material. A divergent bell-shaped chamber and adjustable nozzle exit B is utilized which provides a highly effective spray pattern in suppressing overspray to an acceptable level and producing a homogeneous jet of material that adheres well to the substrate.

Prasthofer, W. P. (inventor)

1981-01-01

113

SPRAY code user's report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The SPRAY computer code has been developed to model the effects of postulated sodium spray release from LMFBR piping within containment chambers. The calculation method utilizes gas convection, heat transfer and droplet combustion theory to calculate the pressure and temperature effects within the enclosure. The applicable range is 0-21 mol percent oxygen and .02-.30 inch droplets with or without humidity. Droplet motion and large sodium surface area combine to produce rapid heat release and pressure rise within the enclosed volume

114

Spray deposition - A summary  

Science.gov (United States)

Important findings are presented from six studies concerning the application of the Osprey metal spray-deposition process to (1) Cu-base alloys, (2) Cu-base case-hardening alloys, (3) preform formation, (4) 7075 and 8090 Al alloys, (5) superalloys, and (6) superalloy tubes. It is in the aggregate shown that while the details of the process are materials-specific, there are no technical barriers to scale-up and commercialization. Each of the alloy systems considered can be spray-formed into various near-net-shape products.

Lewis, Richard E.; Lawley, Alan

115

Sprayed concrete linings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sprayed concrete, or shotcrete, was invented in the 1920s for preserving dinosaur skeletons and was used underground initially in coalmines for the preservation and fine proofing of timber supports. Its use as a support lining in rock tunnelling was developed in the 1950s and 60s. The article surveys equipment available from major manufacturers and suppliers of concrete spraying equipment (Aliva, Cifa, GIA, Industri, Ingersoll Rand, etc.), specialist cement and additive manufacturers (Castle, Cement, Moria Carbotech). manufacturers of lattice girders and fibre reinforcement, and manufacturers of instrumentation for tunnel linings. 5 tabs., 9 photos.

Hindle, D.

1999-12-01

116

Programable Plasma-Spray System  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA-funded research led to development of automated plasma-spray system programable and reproducible. System utilizes standard plasma-spray equipment with noncoherent light-measuring system and microprocessor. System monitors and controls surface contours and coating thickness. Other advantages of system are consistant coating reproducibility, exact blending and feathering operations, ability to handle complex shapes and ease of changing spray parameters.

Fetheroff, C. W.; Derkacs, T.; Matay, I. M.; Toth, I.

1982-01-01

117

Thermal spraying II: Recent advances in thermal spray forming  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last 50 years, thermal spraying has evolved and is now capable of depositing free-standing materials onto mandrels at thicknesses exceeding 100 mm. Advances in processing (including high-velocity oxy-fuel, inert/chamber plasma spray, and improved powder compositions and morphologies) have combined to enable the successful implementation of thermal-spray forming for both monolithic and composite materials. This article, the second in a series on thermal-spray processes, describes some of the recent advances in the application of thermal-spray forming.

Smith, Ronald W.; Knight, Richard

1996-04-01

118

Toluene removal by oxidation reaction in spray wet scrubber: experimental, modeling and optimization  

OpenAIRE

Toluene, an important volatile organic compound (VOC), is used in many kinds of industries, such as painting, printing, coating, and petrochemical industries. The emission of toluene causes serious air pollution, odor problem, flammability problem and affects human health. This paper proposes the removal of toluene from waste air using a spray wet scrubber combining the absorption and oxidation reaction. Aqueous sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution was used as the scrubbing liquid in the syst...

Roumporn Nikom; Juntima Chungsiriporn1; Charun Bunyakan1

2006-01-01

119

Characterization and Optimization of Polymer-Ceramic Pressure-Sensitive Paint by Controlling Polymer Content  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A pressure-sensitive paint (PSP with fast response characteristics that can be sprayed on a test article is studied. This PSP consists of a polymer for spraying and a porous particle for providing the fast response. We controlled the polymer content (% from 10 to 90% to study its effects on PSP characteristics: the signal level, pressure sensitivity, temperature dependency, and time response. The signal level and temperature dependency shows a peak in the polymer content around 50 to 70%. The pressure sensitivity was fairly constant in the range between 0.8 and 0.9 %/kPa. The time response is improved by lowering the polymer content. The variation of the time response is shown to be on the order of milliseconds to ten seconds. A weight coefficient is introduced to optimize the resultant PSPs. By setting the weight coefficient, we can optimize the PSP for sensing purposes.

Hitoshi Ishikawa

2011-07-01

120

Stabilization/solidification of an alkyd paint waste by carbonation of waste-lime based formulations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of solvent-based paints by spraying in paint booths is extensively used in a wide range of industrial activities for the surface treatment of a vast array of products. The wastes generated as overspray represent an important environmental and managerial problem mainly due to the hazardous characteristics of the organic solvent, rendering it necessary to appropriately manage this waste. In this paper a solidification/stabilization (S/S) process based on accelerated carbonation was investigated as an immobilization pre-treatment prior to the disposal, via landfill, of an alkyd solvent-based paint waste coming from the automotive industry; the purpose of this S/S process was to immobilize the contaminants and reduce their release into the environment. Different formulations of paint waste with lime, lime-coal fly-ash and lime-Portland cement were carbonated to study the effect of the water/solid ratio and carbonation time on the characteristics of the final product. To assess the efficiency of the studied S/S process, metals, anions and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were analyzed in the leachates obtained from a battery of compliance and characterization leaching tests. Regarding the carbonation of paint waste-lime formulations, a mathematical expression has been proposed to predict the results of the leachability of DOC from carbonated mixtures working at water/solid ratios from 0.2 to 0.6. However, lower DOC concentrations in leachates (400mg/kg DOC in L/S=10 batch leaching test) were obtained when carbonation of paint waste-lime-fly-ash mixtures was used at 10h carbonation and water to solid ratio of 0.2. The flammability characteristics, the total contents of contaminants and the contaminant release rate in compliance leaching tests provide evidence for a final product suitable for deposition in non-hazardous landfills. The characterization of this carbonated sample using a dynamic column leaching test shows a high stabilization of metals, partial immobilization of Cl(-), SO(4)(2-), F(-) and limited retention of DOC. However, the obtained results improve the previous findings obtained after the paint waste S/S using uncarbonated formulations and would be a useful pre-treatment technique of the alkyd paint waste prior to its disposal in a landfill. PMID:20060213

Arce, R; Galán, B; Coz, A; Andrés, A; Viguri, J R

2010-05-15

121

Electron beam hardened paint binder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention concerns a paint binder hardened by the effect of electron beams (0.1-100 Mrad/sec). It consists of a dispersion of (A) an ethylenic unsaturated material in (B) at least one vinyl monomer. The component (A) in a reaction product of degraded rubber particles (0.1-4 ?m) and an ethylenic unsaturated component with a reactive epoxy, hydroxy or carboxy group which is bonded to the rubber particles by ester or urethane compounds. The rubber particles possess a nucleus and a cross-linked elastomeric acryl polymer, an outer shell with reactive groups and an intermediate layer formed by the monomers of the nucleus and the shell. The manner of production is described in great detail and supplemented by 157 examples. The coatings are suitable to coat articles which will be subject to deformation. (UWI)

122

National Gallery: 30 Highlight Paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

Where to start with a collection like that held by the National Gallery? It's a truly daunting challenge, but fortunately the curators there have done some of the hard work already. This remarkable offering brings together 30 of their finest works, including Vermeer's "A Young Woman standing at a Virginal," Titian's "Bacchus and Ariadne," and Van Gogh's "Sunflowers." Visitors can click on each image to get in close to each item and read the brief essay accompanies each work. Also, each item has an Essentials area which features key facts about the work and an artist biography. The In Depth area of each site includes a technical bulletin and information from the National Gallery's. Finally, visitors can buy prints of their favorite paintings or look into purchasing licensing rights.

123

Titanium Cold Spray Coatings  

Science.gov (United States)

Titanium Cold Spray Coatings Cold Spray is an emerging technology used for the deposition of coatings for many industries including aerospace. This technique allows the deposition of metallic materials at low temper-atures below their melting point. The aim of this research was to develop a test technique that can measure the degree to which a cold spray coating achieves mechanical properties similar to a traditional bulk material. Vickers hardness testing and nanoindentation were used as micro-and nano-scale measurement techniques to characterize the mechanical properties of titanium coatings, deposited at different deposition conditions, and bulk Ti. The mechanical properties of bulk titanium and titanium coatings were measured over a range of length scales, with the indentation size effect examined with Meyer's law. Hardness measurements are shown to be affected by material porosity, microstructure and coating particle bonding mechanism. Hard-ness measurements showed that Ti coatings deposited at higher gas pressures and temperatures demonstrate an indentation load response similar to bulk Ti. Key words: titanium, cold spray, Vickers hardness, nanoindentation, indentation size effect, microstructure, mechanical properties

Ajaja, Jihane; Goldbaum, Dina; Chromik, Richard; Yue, Stephen; Rezaeian, Ahmad; Wong, Wilson; Irissou, Eric; Legoux, Jean-Gabriel

124

Thermal spraying - introduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermal spraying as a modern surface technique offers many possible applications. Components made of different basic materials can be provided with coatings of high melting point metals, oxides and ceramics by it, to protect against wear and corrosion. There is also the possibility of applying electrically conducting or insulating and thermally insulating coatings. (orig.)

125

Picosecond imaging of sprays  

Science.gov (United States)

Preliminary results from applying a Kerr-Fourier imaging system to a water/air spray produced by a shear coaxial element are presented. The physics behind ultrafast time-gated optical techniques is discussed briefly. A typical setup of a Kerr-Fourier time gating system is presented.

Breisacher, Kevin; Liou, Larry; Wang, L.; Liang, X.; Galland, P.; Ho, P. P.; Alfano, R. R.

1994-01-01

126

Increased persistence of antifouling paint biocides when associated with paint particles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Release of biocides associated with paint particles into marinas may increase their persistence in the environment. - Current regulatory risk assessment procedures only assess the impact of antifouling paint biocides that are released through leaching from a painted surface. Hull cleaning activities can lead to particles of antifouling paint containing biocides to enter the environment. Comparative pseudo-first order anaerobic degradation rate constants and half-lives were determined for a selection of common antifouling paint booster biocides, their degradation products, and associated with paint particles. Anaerobic half-lives of <0.5 days were calculated for chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, and SeaNine 211, between 1 and 3 days for DCPMU and DCPU, between 14 and 35 days for diuron and CPDU, and over 226 days for GS26575 and Irgarol 1051. Increased persistence was observed when the compounds were introduced to sediments associated with antifouling paint particles. When present as antifouling paint particles, an increased half-life of 9.9 days for SeaNine 211 and 1.4 days was calculated for dichlofluanid, no significant degradation was observed for diuron. It is suspected that this is due to much of the biocide being initially bound within the matrix of the paint particle that is slowly released through dissolution processes into the sediment pore water prior to degradation. The release of booster biocides associated with paint particles into marinas has the potential to lead to their accumulation unless activities such as hull cleaning are strictly regulated.

Thomas, K.V.; McHugh, M.; Hilton, M.; Waldock, M

2003-05-01

127

Denotative and connotative meanings of paintings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study the relationships between judgments of paintings denotative and connotative meanings was investigated. Denotative domain was defined as motif (represented object, e.g. portrait, landscape etc. and message (information carried by paintings, e.g. celebration of patriotism. Connotative domain was defined as subjective experience, i.e. affective or metaphoric impression produced by painting (e.g. feeling of pleasure, impression of dynamics, and so on. In preliminary study the list of 39 motifs was specified empirically. The four dimensions of pictorial message were taken from the previous study (Markovi?, 2006: Subjectivism, Ideology, Decoration and Constructivism vs. Realism. The four dimensions of paintings subjective experience were taken from the previous study as well (Radonji? and Markovi?, 2005: Regularity, Attraction, Arousal and Relaxation. In Experiment 1 subjects were asked to associate 39 motifs with 18 paintings. In Experiment 2 subjects were asked to judge 24 paintings on four dimensions of pictorial message. Results form Experiment 1 have shown that dimensions of paintings subjective experience were significantly correlated with only five motifs (e.g. everyday life was negatively correlated with Arousal, battle was negatively correlated with Relaxation, and so on. Results from Experiment 2 have shown that Subjectivism and Constructivism are negatively correlated with Regularity, and positively correlated with Arousal. Decoration is negatively correlated with Arousal and positively with Attraction and Relaxation.

Vasi? Sandra

2007-01-01

128

Alkali Silicate Vehicle Forms Durable, Fireproof Paint  

Science.gov (United States)

The problem: To develop a paint for use on satellites or space vehicles that exhibits high resistance to cracking, peeling, or flaking when subjected to a wide range of temperatures. Organic coatings will partially meet the required specifications but have the inherent disadvantage of combustibility. Alkali-silicate binders, used in some industrial coatings and adhesives, show evidence of forming a fireproof paint, but the problem of high surface-tension, a characteristic of alkali silicates, has not been resolved. The solution: Use of a suitable non-ionic wetting agent combined with a paint incorporating alkali silicate as the binder.

Schutt, John B.; Seindenberg, Benjamin

1964-01-01

129

Measurement of tritium in dial painting industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tritium in the form of polystyrene is used coated on zinc sulphide as the active component for the manufacture of self-luminous paint. To study the radiological implication of airborne tritium in the luminous paint industry air monitoring study was conducted by cold strip method and Andersen method. Airborne particulate in different locations in luminous paint (LP) building and background areas were observed to be associated with activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 1.8 to 5.0 um. Dose to soft tissue and lungs and effective whole body dose were evaluated. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs., 2 ills

130

Color alteration of the paint used for iris painting in ocular prostheses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess color alteration of the paints used for iris painting in artificial eyes. Five disks of heat cured acrylic resin were confectioned by microwave energy for each paint analyzed, in a total of 40 specimens. Each specimen consisted of a colorless acrylic resin disk and another of equal size, of scleral white colored acrylic resin, with the painting interposed between the two disks. The specimens were submitted to an accelerated aging process in a chamber under ultraviolet radiation for 1,008 hours. To assess color variation, a reflective spectrophotometer was used. The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and the Tukey test (p < 0.05. All the paints underwent chromatic alteration. The oil paint presented the highest resistance to accelerated aging.

Aline Úrsula Rocha Fernandes

2009-12-01

131

Color alteration of the paint used for iris painting in ocular prostheses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to assess color alteration of the paints used for iris painting in artificial eyes. Five disks of heat cured acrylic resin were confectioned by microwave energy for each paint analyzed, in a total of 40 specimens. Each specimen consisted of a colorless acrylic resin disk and another of equal size, of scleral white colored acrylic resin, with the painting interposed between the two disks. The specimens were submitted to an accelerated aging process in a chamber under ultraviolet radiation for 1,008 hours. To assess color variation, a reflective spectrophotometer was used. The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and the Tukey test (p paints underwent chromatic alteration. The oil paint presented the highest resistance to accelerated aging. PMID:20027445

Fernandes, Aline Ursula Rocha; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Batista, Marcos Antônio Jacó; Santos, Daniela Micheline Dos

2009-01-01

132

Modal Analysis of Pressure Sensitive Paint Data  

OpenAIRE

In this work, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) was used to separate coherent structures from noise in pressure sensitive paint (PSP) data acquired by high-speed photography on the side of a square cylinder in a natural periodically fluctuating flow.

Pastuhoff, Markus; Yorita, Daisuke; Tillmark, Nils; Alfredsson, P. Henrik; Asai, Keisuke

2012-01-01

133

Practice of using the multiple painting method  

CERN Document Server

A technique for the preparation of homogeneous minor-actinide layers by the multiple-painting method is described in detail. The advantages of the method used, as well as characteristics of the layers, are discussed.

Drapchinsky, L V; Soloviev, S M

1999-01-01

134

41 CFR 101-42.1102-7 - Lead-containing paint and items bearing lead-containing paint.  

Science.gov (United States)

...true Lead-containing paint and items bearing lead-containing paint. 101-42...1102-7 Lead-containing paint and items bearing lead-containing paint. (a) General...but not metal children's furniture) bearing factory-applied (lead)...

2010-07-01

135

Numerical modelling of fuel sprays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The way the fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber is one of the most important parameters for the power output and the generation of emissions in the combustion of liquid fuels. The interaction between the turbulent gas flow field and the liquid fuel droplets, the vaporisation of them and the mixing of the gaseous fuel with the ambient air that are vital parameters in the combustion process. The use of numerical calculations is an important tool to better understand these complex interacting phenomena. This thesis reports on the numerical modelling of fuel sprays in non-reacting cases using an own developed spray module. The spray module uses the stochastic parcel method to represent the spray. The module was made in such manner that it could by coupled with different gas flow solver. Results obtained from four different gas flow solvers are presented in the thesis, including the use of two different kinds of turbulence models. In the first part the spray module is coupled with a k-{eta} based 2-D cylindrical gas flow solver. A thorough sensitivity analysis was performed on the spray and gas flow solver parameters, such as grid size dependence and sensitivity to initial values of k-{eta}. The results of the spray module were also compared to results from other spray codes, e.g. the well known KIVA code. In the second part of this thesis the spray was injected into a turbulent and fully developed crossflow studied. The spray module was attached to a LES (Large Eddy Simulation) based flow solvers enabling the study of the complex structures and time dependent phenomena involved in spray in crossflows. It was found that the spray performs an oscillatory motion and that the Strouhal number in the wake was about 0.1. Different spray breakup models were evaluated by comparing with experimental results 66 refs, 56 figs

Bergstroem, C.

1999-06-01

136

A STUDY ON HIGH STRENGTH BOLTED JOINT WITH METAL-SPRAYED CONTACT SURFACES  

Science.gov (United States)

Slip coefficient of high-strength bolt friction joints is well known to depend on the condition of contact surfaces. The coefficient is determined as 0.4 in the Specifications for Highway Bridges and the Design Standards for Railway Structures and Commentary (Steel Structures) in Japan, in the condition of roughened contact surfaces with mill scale removed or painted contact surfaces with inorganic zinc rich paint. However, the slip coefficient with metal-sprayed surfaces is not clear. For the joints with metalsprayed surfaces, hot-dip galvanized bolts are applied and such bolts are tightened by turn-of-nut method. However, it is unclear how much axial force is induced into the bolts in the joints with metal-sprayed surfaces. In order to examine slip coefficient of the bolted joints with metal-sprayed contact surfaces slip tests of high strength bolted joints were carried out. On the basis of above examinations, the slip coefficient with metal-sprayed surfaces is proposed in this paper. To clarify the induced axial force of the bolts, bolt-tightening tests were carried out. Considering bolt diameter, bolt length, induced axial forces and their relaxation, nut rotation angles are proposed in relation to different bolt size.

Minami, Kuniaki; Saito, Masamichi; Yokoyama, Hideki; Sugimoto, Ichiro; Nojima, Takao; Masunaga, Toshihiko; Nagasaki, Eiji

137

IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA IN LATEX PAINTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The bacteria are prokaryote organisms with a high capacity to colonize many types of habits. This research was developed with the object to identify extremophiles bacteria presents in latex paint. The bacteria were cultivated in culture mediums TSA, Blood Agar, Mc Conkey and finally the biochemical proof API-NF® for bacteria's isolation and identification, respectively. Characterization showed bacterial profile of Pasteurella sp. Hypothesis that could be found extremophiles bacteria in latex paint were demonstrated.

Rojas, J.

2008-01-01

138

Pressure-Sensitive Paint: Effect of Substrate  

OpenAIRE

There are numerous ways in which pressure-sensitive paint can be applied to a surface. The choice of substrate and application method can greatly affect the results obtained. The current study examines the different methods of applying pressure-sensitive paint to a surface. One polymer-based and two porous substrates (anodized aluminum and thin-layer chromatography plates) are investigated and compared for luminescent output, pressure sensitivity, temperature sensitivity and photodegradation....

Konstantinos Kontis; Mark Kenneth Quinn; Leichao Yang

2011-01-01

139

Flame spraying of polymers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Statistical design-of-experiment studies of the thermal spraying of polymer powders are presented. Studies of the subsonic combustion (i.e., Flame) process were conducted in order to determine the quality and economics of polyester and urethane coatings. Thermally sprayed polymer coatings are of interest to several industries for anticorrosion applications, including the chemical, automotive, and aircraft industries. In this study, the coating design has been optimized for a site-specific application using Taguchi-type fractional-factorial experiments. Optimized coating designs are presented for the two powder systems. A substantial range of thermal processing conditions and their effect on the resultant polymer coatings is presented. The coatings were characterized by optical metallography, hardness testing, tensile testing, and compositional analysis. Characterization of the coatings yielded the thickness, bond strength, Knoop microhardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and porosity. Confirmation testing was accomplished to verify the coating designs

140

Tissue Paper Spray Art  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners observe color mixing and absorbency using colored tissue paper and spray bottles. Learners create collages out of colored tissue paper shapes and then lightly mist the tissue paper with water. When the learners remove the colored tissue, a colorful print appears. Use this activity to illustrate how materials absorb water as well as how colors can mix to form new colors.

Kohl Children's Museum

2012-01-01

141

Low-loss spraying  

OpenAIRE

“Low-loss spraying“ is a new application technique which has been developed by the Association of Styrian Commercial Fruit Growers (Austria), the Marktgemeinschaft Bodenseeobst (Germany) and the South Tyrolean Extension Service for Fruit- and Winegrowing (Italy) and is being put into practice at present.These three fruit-growing regions, which use for the most part the same sprayer types, are faced with new challenges: larger areas per sprayer with higher trees, also in intensive orchards...

Triloff, P.; Lind, K.; Knoll, M.

2013-01-01

142

Degradation of insecticides used for indoor spraying in malaria control and possible solutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The insecticide dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT is widely used in indoor residual spraying (IRS for malaria control owing to its longer residual efficacy in the field compared to other World Health Organization (WHO alternatives. Suitable stabilization to render these alternative insecticides longer lasting could provide a less controversial and more acceptable and effective alternative insecticide formulations than DDT. Methods This study sought to investigate the reasons behind the often reported longer lasting behaviour of DDT by exposing all the WHO approved insecticides to high temperature, high humidity and ultra-violet light. Interactions between the insecticides and some mineral powders in the presence of an aqueous medium were also tested. Simple insecticidal paints were made using slurries of these mineral powders whilst some insecticides were dispersed into a conventional acrylic paint binder. These formulations were then spray painted on neat and manure coated mud plaques, representative of the material typically used in rural mud houses, at twice the upper limit of the WHO recommended dosage range. DDT was applied directly onto mud plaques at four times the WHO recommended concentration and on manure plaques at twice WHO recommended concentration. All plaques were subjected to accelerated ageing conditions of 40°C and a relative humidity of 90%. Results The pyrethroids insecticides outperformed the carbamates and DDT in the accelerated ageing tests. Thus UV exposure, high temperature oxidation and high humidity per se were ruled out as the main causes of failure of the alternative insecticides. Gas chromatography (GC spectrograms showed that phosphogypsum stabilised the insecticides the most against alkaline degradation (i.e., hydrolysis. Bioassay testing showed that the period of efficacy of some of these formulations was comparable to that of DDT when sprayed on mud surfaces or cattle manure coated surfaces. Conclusions Bioassay experiments indicated that incorporating insecticides into a conventional paint binder or adsorbing them onto phosphogypsum can provide for extended effective life spans that compare favourably with DDT's performance under accelerated ageing conditions. Best results were obtained with propoxur in standard acrylic emulsion paint. Similarly, insecticides adsorbed on phosphogypsum and sprayed on cattle manure coated surfaces provided superior lifespans compared with DDT sprayed directly on a similar surface.

Massinga Pedro

2011-10-01

143

A quantitative approach to painting styles  

Science.gov (United States)

This research extends a method previously applied to music and philosophy (Vilson Vieira et al., 2012), representing the evolution of art as a time-series where relations like dialectics are measured quantitatively. For that, a corpus of paintings of 12 well-known artists from baroque and modern art is analyzed. A set of 99 features is extracted and the features which most contributed to the classification of painters are selected. The projection space obtained provides the basis to the analysis of measurements. These quantitative measures underlie revealing observations about the evolution of painting styles, specially when compared with other humanity fields already analyzed: while music evolved along a master-apprentice tradition (high dialectics) and philosophy by opposition, painting presents another pattern: constant increasing skewness, low opposition between members of the same movement and opposition peaks in the transition between movements. Differences between baroque and modern movements are also observed in the projected "painting space": while baroque paintings are presented as an overlapped cluster, the modern paintings present minor overlapping and are disposed more widely in the projection than the baroque counterparts. This finding suggests that baroque painters shared aesthetics while modern painters tend to "break rules" and develop their own style.

Vieira, Vilson; Fabbri, Renato; Sbrissa, David; da Fontoura Costa, Luciano; Travieso, Gonzalo

2015-01-01

144

Vacuum plasma spray coating  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently, protective plasma spray coatings are applied to space shuttle main engine turbine blades of high-performance nickel alloys by an air plasma spray process. Originally, a ceramic coating of yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2.12Y2O3) was applied for thermal protection, but was removed because of severe spalling. In vacuum plasma spray coating, plasma coatings of nickel-chromium-aluminum-yttrium (NiCrAlY) are applied in a reduced atmosphere of argon/helium. These enhanced coatings showed no spalling after 40 MSFC burner rig thermal shock cycles between 927 C (1700 F) and -253 C (-423 F), while current coatings spalled during 5 to 25 test cycles. Subsequently, a process was developed for applying a durable thermal barrier coating of ZrO2.8Y2O3 to the turbine blades of first-stage high-pressure fuel turbopumps utilizing the enhanced NiCrAlY bond-coating process. NiCrAlY bond coating is applied first, with ZrO2.8Y2O3 added sequentially in increasing amounts until a thermal barrier coating is obtained. The enchanced thermal barrier coating has successfully passed 40 burner rig thermal shock cycles.

Holmes, Richard R.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

1989-01-01

145

Effect of Plasma Spraying Parameters on the Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coating  

Science.gov (United States)

As the most favorable technology, plasma spray has been used to produce the hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings with the desired phase, high crystallinity, adequate porosity, and good biocompatibility. The characteristics of the HA coating are affected by many variables of the fabricating process, such as the starting particle size, spraying distance, gas flow rate, and electric arc power, etc. This paper reviews the effect of the plasma spraying parameters on the morphology and microstructure of the HA coating, and introduces several typical HA coatings fabricated with different plasma spraying parameters.

Wang, Ai-Juan; Lu, Yu-Peng; Chen, Chuan-Zhong; Sun, Rui-Xue

146

Set Up of an Automated Multi-Colour System for Interior Wall Painting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is shared that construction projects are getting bigger and more complex, hence also the productivity of the construction industry must be improved, while preserving its labour from hazardous job sites. Such requirements can be accomplished by the adoption of robotized products, which, however, need to be quickly developed and marketed. In this paper, first the issue of a new miniature laboratory for developing lightweight and well-coordinated robotized systems is pursued, then a novel robot device for high quality multi-colour interior wall painting carried by a robot arm is developed and successfully tested. Thanks to the new 1:6 scaled down laboratory and its six degree of freedom robot arm on an hexapod for horizontal moves, we tested the opportunity to introduce also in the building sector miniature robots that can change the ergonomics standardly adopted by construction workers. It is analyzed how and why switching from full size to miniature robots is convenient in construction. In addition, a new system adding further features to robotized painting has been conceived. Our new multi-colour spraying end-tool was developed and fixed on the robot arm, in order to be able to reproduce coloured artworks. Finally, a methodology to reproduce colours from digital format of artworks is presented, showing how accurate and efficient is this new robotized spraying device.

Berardo Naticchia

2008-11-01

147

Vacuum Plasma Spraying Replaces Electrodeposition  

Science.gov (United States)

Vacuum plasma spraying used to fabricate large parts with complicated contours and inner structures, without uninspectable welds. Reduces time, and expense of fabrication. Wall of combustion chamber built up inside of outer nickel-alloy jacket by plasma spraying. Particles of metal sprayed partially melted in plasma gun and thrown at supersonic speed toward deposition surface. Vacuum plasma-spray produces stronger bond between the grooves and covering layer completing channels and wall of combustion chamber. In tests, bond withstood pressure of 20 kpsi, three times allowable limit by old method.

Holmes, Richard R.; Power, Chris; Burns, David H.; Daniel, Ron; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

1992-01-01

148

Development of painting technology using plasma surface technology for automobile parts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the major areas in organic coatings for corrosion protection of automobile parts is the surface treatment of polyolefin (Polypropylene (RX-2000)) bumper substrates. In order to develop the painting technology, in this work, we directly tried to paint on the plastic bumper substrates without both wet washing process with VOC solvents and phosphate primer spray process. Microwave (MW) plasma treatment represents an efficient, clean and economic alternative to activate polymeric surfaces. O{sub 2} plasma treatment at room temperature within 300 s in the power range of 300-1000 W were used to elevate hydrophilic property of the polyolefin surfaces, resulting in distinctive change of wettability and adhesion between painting layer and polymeric bumper substrates. The treated surfaces have been analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Wettability and adhesion properties were elevated by the measurement of the contact angle, adhesion test, impact test, cold resistant impact test and water resistant impact test. We confirmed that the O{sub 2} plasma treatment was a very reliable method for the synthesis of polyolefin substrates with high wettability and adhesion performance.

Jung, C.-K. [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: ckjung7818@skku.edu; Bae, I.-S. [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.-B. [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, J.-H. [Woosin Cryovac Co., Ltd. Uiwang 437-820 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, E.-S. [Woosin Cryovac Co., Ltd. Uiwang 437-820 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.-C. [Plakor Co., Ltd, Seoul 152-050 (Korea, Republic of); Boo, J.-H. [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jhboo@chem.skku.ac.kr

2006-05-26

149

Recent developments in the spray forming of metals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concept and principles involved in the spray forming process are presented with particular reference to operating conditions, resulting structures and properties. Some specific modes of spray forming are discussed, namely spray rolling, spray rolling of composites, spray forging, centrifugal spray deposition, spray coating and simultaneous spray peening. Technical and economic advantages of this new technology are discussed. 13 references

150

Increased persistence of antifouling paint biocides when associated with paint particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Release of biocides associated with paint particles into marinas may increase their persistence in the environment. - Current regulatory risk assessment procedures only assess the impact of antifouling paint biocides that are released through leaching from a painted surface. Hull cleaning activities can lead to particles of antifouling paint containing biocides to enter the environment. Comparative pseudo-first order anaerobic degradation rate constants and half-lives were determined for a selection of common antifouling paint booster biocides, their degradation products, and associated with paint particles. Anaerobic half-lives of <0.5 days were calculated for chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, and SeaNine 211, between 1 and 3 days for DCPMU and DCPU, between 14 and 35 days for diuron and CPDU, and over 226 days for GS26575 and Irgarol 1051. Increased persistence was observed when the compounds were introduced to sediments associated with antifouling paint particles. When present as antifouling paint particles, an increased half-life of 9.9 days for SeaNine 211 and 1.4 days was calculated for dichlofluanid, no significant degradation was observed for diuron. It is suspected that this is due to much of the biocide being initially bound within the matrix of the paint particle that is slowly released through dissolution processes into the sediment pore water prior to degradation. The release of booster biocides associated with paint particles into marinas has the potential particles into marinas has the potential to lead to their accumulation unless activities such as hull cleaning are strictly regulated

151

Laser cleaning treatment of burnt paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

Three samples taken from two paintings partly burned by fire are investigated for cleaning with lasers. The paintings belong to the collection of the National Gallery of Athens and were made by the great Greek artist Konstantinos Parthenis. To remove the damaged surface and achieve an acceptable restoration result, the optimum combination of fluence and wavelength are sought. Seven different wavelengths with a set of fluences where used, i.e., the five harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser (1064, 532, 355, 266, and 213 nm), a TEA 10.6 ?m CO2 and a free running laser Er:YAG 2.94 ?m. Characterization was performed prior and after the cleaning process by optical and electron microscopy and analysis (SEM/BSE EDS), as well as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The results of this work indicate that the wavelength in the visible spectrum (532 nm) with fluences between 0.1-0.4J/cm2 show the optimum cleaning. The optical microscopy observation shows that with these laser parameters the burnt layer was preferentially removed, exposing the original colors that Parthenis had used in these paintings. Electron microscopy imaging and chemical analysis revealed that the original texture and materials of these samples are preserved after irradiation. Since the damage varies along the surface of the painting, more experiments should be performed in order to find and optimize the full cleaning and characterization process for the homogeneous cleaning of the whole surface of the painting.

Antonopoulou-Athera, N.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Doulgerides, M.; Evangelatos, Ch.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Terlixi, A.

2015-01-01

152

Laser paint removal on the outside walls of the Church Abbey Saint Adoeno in Bisceglie (BAT), Italy: a case study  

Science.gov (United States)

It is the oldest church in the city after the cathedral. It is among the purest examples of Romanesque. It was founded in 1074 and expenses for its construction helped the inhabitants of the agricultural hamlets of the Cirignano, Pacciano and Zappino. The church was dedicated to St. Adoeno Dado, bishop of Rouen, protector of Norman, because , according to tradition, the building also participated Norman soldiers. San Adoeno church has a façade at cusp with a truncated tympanum , crowned by an eagle. In the centre of the façade there is a rose ornament surrounded by four lions and a statue of St. Adoeno ( Figs. A to I ). On the outside walls of this Abbey many graffiti, produced by different coloured spray paints were found. After the usual photographical tests some Laser Paint Removal trials were executed to verify the damage threshold of the calcareous stony substrate as well as the possibility to ablate these paints by a Nd - YAG laser in Q-Switch mode. Even if all the classical four laser paint ablation techniques were employed some paints showed a great difficulty to be removed from the substrate. For these ones it was necessary to increase at maximum both the energy per pulse and the fluence value for obtaining some acceptable result but the substrate looked turned pale. It was decided to remove a small amount of these paints and subject to chemical analysis for determining whether they were acrylic based. At the same time it was investigated on the type of limestone substrate that appeared more porous and less hard on the surface than the common local limestone marble basin, that is, Trani or Bisceglie. So, on the light of these investigations, the possible solution for this hard laser ablation problem was carried out with an acceptable final result.

Daurelio, G.; Catalano, I. M.; Bassi, P.

2010-09-01

153

Spray tube for reactor container  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A container of an advanced BWR reactor has a double walled steel plate comprising inner and outer shells. A spray header as a tubular pipeline constituting a spray tube is incorporated in the inside of a ceiling of the double walled steel plate (gap between the inner shell and the outer shell). A plurality of spray nozzles extend from the spray header to the inner shell of the double walled steel plate and protruded to the inside of the container. The spray header is connected to a cooling water flowing pipe secured passing through the outer shell of the double walled steel plate. The cooling water flowing pipe is connected to a pump chamber disposed to the upper portion of the container. The spray nozzles extended from the spray header are secured to the inner shell of the double walled steel plate by way of a reinforcing plate. With such a constitution, the spray header can be protected from jetting force caused upon rupture of pipelines. (I.N.)

154

Characterization of Sodium Spray Aerosols  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The consequences of pool and spray fires require evaluation in the safety analysis of liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors. Sodium spray fires are characterized by high temperature and pressure, produced during the rapid combustion of sodium in air. Following the initial energy release, some fraction of the reaction products are available as aerosols which follow the normal laws of agglomeration, growth, settling, and plating. An experimental study is underway at Atomics International to study the characteristics of high concentration sprays of liquid sodium in reduced oxygen atmospheres and in air. The experiments are conducted in a 31.5 ft3 (2 ft diam. by 10 ft high) vessel, certified for a pressure of 100 lb/in2 (gauge). The spray injection apparatus consists of a heated sodium supply pot and a spray nozzle through which liquid sodium is driven by nitrogen pressure. Spray rate and droplet size can be varied by the injection velocity (nozzle size, nitrogen pressure, and sodium temperature). Aerosols produced in 0, 4, and 10 vol. % oxygen environments have been studied. The concentration and particle size distribution of the material remaining in the air after the spray injection and reaction period are measured. Fallout rates are found to be proportional to the concentration of aerosol which remains airborne following the spray period. (author)

155

Spray rolling aluminum alloy strip  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spray rolling combines spray forming with twin-roll casting to process metal flat products. It consists of atomizing molten metal with a high velocity inert gas, cooling the resultant droplets in flight and directing the spray between mill rolls. In-flight convection heat transfer from atomized droplets teams with conductive cooling at the rolls to rapidly remove the alloy's latent heat. Hot deformation of the semi-solid material in the rolls results in fully consolidated, rapidly solidified product. While similar in some ways to twin-roll casting, spray rolling has the advantage of being able to process alloys with broad freezing ranges at high production rates. This paper describes the process and summarizes microstructure and tensile properties of spray-rolled 2124 and 7050 aluminum alloy strips. A Lagrangian/Eulerian poly-dispersed spray flight and deposition model is described that provides some insight into the development of the spray rolling process. This spray model follows droplets during flight toward the rolls, through impact and spreading, and includes oxide film formation and breakup when relevant.

McHugh, Kevin M.; Delplanque, J.-P.; Johnson, S.B.; Lavernia, E.J.; Zhou, Y.; Lin, Y

2004-10-10

156

Spray rolling aluminum alloy strip  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spray rolling combines spray forming with twin-roll casting to process metal flat products. It consists of atomizing molten metal with a high velocity inert gas, cooling the resultant droplets in flight and directing the spray between mill rolls. In-flight convection heat transfer from atomized droplets teams with conductive cooling at the rolls to rapidly remove the alloy's latent heat. Hot deformation of the semi-solid material in the rolls results in fully consolidated, rapidly solidified product. While similar in some ways to twin-roll casting, spray rolling has the advantage of being able to process alloys with broad freezing ranges at high production rates. This paper describes the process and summarizes microstructure and tensile properties of spray-rolled 2124 and 7050 aluminum alloy strips. A Lagrangian/Eulerian poly-dispersed spray flight and deposition model is described that provides some insight into the development of the spray rolling process. This spray model follows droplets during flight toward the rolls, through impact and spreading, and includes oxide film formation and breakup when relevant

157

Dual sensing of pO(2) and temperature using a water-based and sprayable fluorescent paint.  

Science.gov (United States)

Core-shell particles (CSPs) composed of a polystyrene core and a poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) shell were dyed with a luminescent platinum(ii) porphyrin probe for oxygen. In parallel, microparticles were dyed with a luminescent iridium(ii) complex acting as a probe for temperature. The particles were deposited (by spraying) on a surface to enable continuous imaging of the distribution of oxygen (and thus of barometric pressure) and temperature. Unlike most previous paints of this kind, a binder polymer is not needed and water can be used as a dispersant. This makes the paint environmentally friendly and reduces costs in terms of occupational health, clean-up, and disposal. Both indicator probes in the sensor paint can be excited at 405 nm using LEDs or diode lasers, whilst their emission maxima are spectrally separated by about 130 nm. Thus, two independent optical signals are obtained that allow for fluorescent imaging of barometric pressure (in fact oxygen partial pressure) and of temperature, and also to correct the oxygen signal for effects of temperature. The paint was calibrated at air pressures ranging from 50 mbar to 2000 mbar and at temperatures between 1 degrees C and 50 degrees C. PMID:20498875

Fischer, Lorenz H; Borisov, Sergey M; Schaeferling, Michael; Klimant, Ingo; Wolfbeis, Otto S

2010-06-01

158

A simplified hydrodynamic study of painting  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of a paintbrush by mankind is known to have started 2000 BC in the Chinese ancient empire, Jin. Despite the long history of painting, attempts to physically and mathematically understand the process of painting seem sparse so far. Here we consider how paint is applied on a solid surface by studying the behavior of a viscous drop sheared between moving plates simulating a canvas and a paintbrush. Dimensional analysis reveals that the behavior is determined by the Capillary number (a ratio of the viscous force to the surface tension force), the receding contact angle and the drop aspect ratio. We experimentally find three distinct drop behaviors, intact dragging, dripping and spreading, and construct a regime map using the foregoing dimensionless parameters. We also give scaling laws to determine the boundaries on the regime map, which agree well with experiment.

Kim, Jungchul; Kim, Ho-Young

2009-11-01

159

Non-destructive XRF analysis of paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

The preservation and conservation of our cultural heritage has become one of the main concerns today all over the world. In particular there is an increasing need for non-destructive investigations, as sampling from the unique and precious objects of art and archaeology. In addition to the conventional analytical procedures, techniques utilising nuclear instruments and methods play increasing role in this field. The small, portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometers using radioisotope excitation allow in situ analysis in museums, galleries, or even on field. This paper presents illustrative applications of our XRF devices with radioisotope excitation. The detection of the presence of titanium in white spots of a painting provided scientific basis to decide that the painting in question was a fake. The difficulties caused by the simultaneous presence of Ti and Ba (a very frequent component white paints) are also discussed.

Szökefalvi-Nagy, Z.; Demeter, I.; Kocsonya, A.; Kovács, I.

2004-11-01

160

Non-destructive XRF analysis of paintings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The preservation and conservation of our cultural heritage has become one of the main concerns today all over the world. In particular there is an increasing need for non-destructive investigations, as sampling from the unique and precious objects of art and archaeology. In addition to the conventional analytical procedures, techniques utilising nuclear instruments and methods play increasing role in this field. The small, portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometers using radioisotope excitation allow in situ analysis in museums, galleries, or even on field. This paper presents illustrative applications of our XRF devices with radioisotope excitation. The detection of the presence of titanium in white spots of a painting provided scientific basis to decide that the painting in question was a fake. The difficulties caused by the simultaneous presence of Ti and Ba (a very frequent component white paints) are also discussed

161

Noncircular Cross Sections Could Enhance Mixing in Sprays  

Science.gov (United States)

A computational study has shown that by injecting drops in jets of gas having square, elliptical, triangular, or other noncircular injection cross sections, it should be possible to increase (relative to comparable situations having circular cross section) the entrainment and dispersion of liquid drops. This finding has practical significance for a variety of applications in which it is desirable to increase dispersion of drops. For example, in chemical-process sprays, increased dispersion leads to increases in chemical- reaction rates; in diesel engines, increasing the dispersion of drops of sprayed fuel reduces the production of soot; and in household and paint sprays, increasing the dispersion of drops makes it possible to cover larger surfaces. It has been known for some years that single-phase fluid jets that enter flow fields through noncircular inlets entrain more fluid than do comparable jets entering through circular inlets. The computational study reported here was directed in part toward determining whether and how this superior mixing characteristic of noncircular single phase jets translates to a similar benefit in cases of two-phase jets (that is, sprays). The study involved direct numerical simulations of single- and two-phase free jets with circular, elliptical, rectangular, square, and triangular inlet cross sections. The two-phase jets consisted of gas laden with liquid drops randomly injected at the inlets. To address the more interesting case of evaporating drops, the carrier gas in the jets was specified to be initially unvitiated by the vapor of the liquid chemical species and the initial temperature of the drops was chosen to be smaller than that of the gas. The mathematical model used in the study was constructed from the conservation equations for the two-phase flow and included complete couplings of mass, momentum, and energy based on thermodynamically self-consistent specification of the enthalpy, internal energy, and latent heat of vaporization of the vapor.

Bellan, Josette; Abdel-Hameed, Hesham

2003-01-01

162

The sorption of iodine onto containment paints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Containment structures of nuclear power plants have many inner surfaces coated with nuclear grade paints. These may provide a valuable sink for radioiodine and hence may aid to minimize its release to the environment following a possible accident. The objective of this on-going work is to identify and evaluate significant parameters involved in the sorption of iodine on painted surfaces and thereby develop a kinetic model. To date two paints have been studied, an inorganic zinc primer and a vinyl paint. Experiments were performed by passing 131I2 gas in air through 0.25 inch glass tubing coated on the inner surfaces with paint. Tubing was used to produce well characterized and rapid gas phase mass transfer. The accumulation of iodine on the surface was monitored continuously using two parallel scintillation detectors coupled to a PC based multi-channel analyzer. Test parameters such as temperature, humidity, flow-rate, and iodine concentration could be adjusted independently. The zinc primer demonstrated a high affinity for iodine. The rate of adsorption was found to increase at lower temperatures and higher humidifies. The adsorption rate was directly proportional to the gas phase iodine concentration indicating a first order process. Desorption occurred at a relatively constant rate at surface coverages below 10-6 mol I2/cm2. Iodine that desorbed from these surfaces was mostly in the chemical form of elemental iodine (I2). The vinyl paint showed a much lower affinity for iodine. Steady state adsorption was found to increase with increased gas phase iodine concentrations. Humidity had no observable effect on the rate of adsorption. Desorption rates were found to increase with increased temperature and it is suggested that the desorption process is first order with respect to surface iodine loading. (author). 7 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

163

Occupational Asthma and Contact Dermatitis in a Spray Painter after Introduction of an Aziridine Cross-Linker.  

OpenAIRE

A 23-year-old spray painter developed contact dermatitis and respiratory difficulty characterized by small airways obstruction shortly after the polyfunctional aziridine cross-linker CX-100 began to be used in his workplace as a paint activator. The symptoms resolved after he was removed from the workplace and was treated with inhaled and topical steroids. Painters may have an increased risk of asthma due to exposure to a variety of agents, such as isocyanates, alkyd resins, and chromates. Th...

Leffler, C. T.; Milton, Donald Kirby

1999-01-01

164

Ultrasonic backward radiation on painted rough interface  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The angular dependence(profile) of backscattered ultrasound was measured for steel and brass specimens with periodical surface roughness (1-71?m). Backward radiations showed more linear dependency than normal profile. Direct amplitude increased and averaging amplitude decreased with surface roughness. Painting treatment improved the linearity in direct backward radiation below roughness of 0.03. Scholte and Rayleigh-like waves were observed in the spectrum of averaging backward radiation on periodically rough surface. Painting on periodically rough surface could be used in removing the interface mode effect by periodic roughness.

165

Maya Blue Paint: An Ancient Nanostructured Material  

Science.gov (United States)

Maya blue paint was often used in Mesoamerica. The origin of its color and its resistance to acids and biocorrosion have not been fully understood. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and x-ray microanalysis studies of authentic samples show that palygorskite crystals in the paint form a superlattice that probably occurs as a result of mixing with indigo molecules. An amorphous silicate substrate contains inclusions of metal nanoparticles encapsulated in the substrate and oxide nanoparticles on the surface. The beautiful tone of the color is obtained only when both the particles and the superlattice are present. PMID:8662502

Jose-Yacaman; Rendon; Arenas; Serra Puche MC

1996-07-12

166

CHITOSAN-COPPER PAINT TYPES AS ANTIFOULING  

OpenAIRE

A prototype of antifouling paints was prepared with a QS-Cu (I)-Fe (II) complex as a possible replacement for traditional antifouling paints, which contain a large concentration of copper, fnding them in an order of 10 - 30 % depending on the brand, and if it is water or solvent based. A Qs-Cu complex was prepared, with a solution at 3% with acetic acid, and then Fe2O3 was added to the solution. FT IR analysis was carried out, as well as analysis of the TGA at the Qs and the complex with Qs-C...

MARCIA HEUSER; CLAUDIA RIVERA; CHRISTIAN NUÑEZ; GALO CÁRDENAS

2009-01-01

167

24 CFR 35.140 - Prohibited methods of paint removal.  

Science.gov (United States)

...used to remove paint that is, or may be, lead-based paint: (a) Open flame burning or torching. (b) Machine sanding or grinding without a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) local exhaust control. (c) Abrasive blasting or...

2010-04-01

168

46 CFR 108.147 - Certain paints prohibited.  

Science.gov (United States)

...AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.147 Certain paints prohibited. No nitrocellulose or other highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paint or lacquer may be used on a unit. Means of...

2010-10-01

169

Terahertz NDE for Under Paint Corrosion Detection and Evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

Corrosion under paint is not visible until it has caused paint to blister, crack, or chip. If corrosion is allowed to continue then structural problems may develop. Identifying corrosion before it becomes visible would minimize repairs and costs and potential structural problems. Terahertz NDE imaging under paint for corrosion is being examined as a method to inspect for corrosion by examining the terahertz response to paint thickness and to surface roughness.

Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.

2005-01-01

170

Preparation of Perfluorinated Surfactant Activates for Antifouling Paints  

OpenAIRE

Antifouling paints are the most reliable way to prevent biofouling of submerged surfaces. The high toxicity of organotin paints, prompted us to look for ideas to develop paints that do not present environmental risks. In this work, we prepare a painting by a modification of acrylic acid monomer containing a free carboxyl group. The biocide that is selected is the perfluorinated chain with eight carbons. Chemical modifications of the resins are made through a radical reaction. The magnitudes o...

Bacha, A.; Me?ghabar, R.

2012-01-01

171

24 CFR 35.1320 - Lead-based paint inspections, paint testing, risk assessments, lead-hazard screens, and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...assessments, lead-hazard screens, and reevaluations. 35.1320 Section 35.1320 Housing and Urban Development Office of the...Hazard Evaluation and Hazard Reduction Activities § 35.1320 Lead-based paint inspections, paint...

2010-04-01

172

Color alteration of the paint used for iris painting in ocular prostheses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to assess color alteration of the paints used for iris painting in artificial eyes. Five disks of heat cured acrylic resin were confectioned by microwave energy for each paint analyzed, in a total of 40 specimens. Each specimen consisted of a colorless acrylic resin dis [...] k and another of equal size, of scleral white colored acrylic resin, with the painting interposed between the two disks. The specimens were submitted to an accelerated aging process in a chamber under ultraviolet radiation for 1,008 hours. To assess color variation, a reflective spectrophotometer was used. The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and the Tukey test (p

Aline Úrsula Rocha, Fernandes; Marcelo Coelho, Goiato; Marcos Antônio Jacó, Batista; Daniela Micheline dos, Santos.

2009-12-01

173

Landscape Painting: Artists Who Love the Land.  

Science.gov (United States)

Through the study of several works of art by Albert Bierstadt, George Catlin, Winslow Homer, and Thomas Moran, this resource explores the way that people felt about their growing nation during the period of westward expansion until the end of the 19th century. It introduces students to basic principles of landscape painting and has students…

Andre, Linda; Casey, Douglas, Ed.

1996-01-01

174

29 CFR 1915.35 - Painting.  

Science.gov (United States)

...painting until the space or compartment is gas free. The final determination as to whether the space or compartment is gas free shall be made after the ventilating...Exhaust ducts shall discharge clear of working areas and away from sources of...

2010-07-01

175

"The Ancient Master Painted like Me"  

Science.gov (United States)

By following their wonderful ideas or critical exploration, three eighth graders learned how to do traditional Chinese painting, which is taught by copying old masters' work from the Ming Dynasty in the 17th century. The standard manual, which most learners have been using for these three hundred years, is the "Mustard Seed Garden Manual of…

Chiu, Son-Mey

2009-01-01

176

Wood and paint layers aging and risk analysis of ancient panel painting  

OpenAIRE

Ancient wood panel paintings represent an important part of the European cultural heritage. Since long time it is known that the storing condition can degrade and damage them. Understanding of the actual state of old panel paintings and the prediction of their behaviour under various climatic conditions is essential to better conserve and restore them. Such analysis could be done by numerical modelling. However, numerical modelling can achieved good predictions only if the materials parameter...

Froidevaux, Julien

2012-01-01

177

Evaluation of Water Resistance and Diffusion Properties of Paint Materials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A simple method is presented for evaluating the water-proofness quality of paints on lining materials. The method is based on measuring the integral capillarity in dependence on time, and then comparing this value to the value determined for the basic lining material. Measurements of the effective water vapor permeability then provide information on the risk of condensation which may increase after applying the paint. A practical application of the method is performed with four Karlocolor paints on glass concrete substrates. All the Karlocolor paints are found to be very effective materials for driven rain protection. The diffusion properties of all the paints are found to be excellent.

J. Drchalová

2001-01-01

178

Measurement, modeling and perception of painted surfaces: A Multi-scale Analysis of the Touch-up Problem  

Science.gov (United States)

Real-world surfaces typically have geometric features at a range of spatial scales. At the microscale, opaque surfaces are often characterized by bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF), which describes how a surface scatters incident light. At the mesoscale, surfaces often exhibit visible texture -- stochastic or patterned arrangements of geometric features that provide visual information about surface properties such as roughness, smoothness, softness, etc. These textures also affect how light is scattered by the surface, but the effects are at a different spatial scale than those captured by the BRDF. Through this research, we investigate how microscale and mesoscale surface properties interact to contribute to overall surface appearance. This behavior is also the cause of the well-known "touch-up problem" in the paint industry, where two regions coated with exactly the same paint, look different in color, gloss and/or texture because of differences in application methods. At first, samples were created by applying latex paint to standard wallboard surfaces. Two application methods- spraying and rolling were used. The BRDF and texture properties of the samples were measured, which revealed differences at both the microscale and mesoscale. This data was then used as input for a physically-based image synthesis algorithm, to generate realistic images of the surfaces under different viewing conditions. In order to understand the factors that govern touch-up visibility, psychophysical tests were conducted using calibrated, digital photographs of the samples as stimuli. Images were presented in pairs and a two alternative forced choice design was used for the experiments. These judgments were then used as data for a Thurstonian scaling analysis to produce psychophysical scales of visibility, which helped determine the effect of paint formulation, application methods, and viewing and illumination conditions on the touch-up problem. The results can be used as base data towards development of a psychophysical model that relates physical differences in paint formulation and application methods to visual differences in surface appearance.

Kalghatgi, Suparna Kishore

179

Marine pollution from antifouling paint particles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antifouling paint particles (APP) are generated during the maintenance of boats and are shed from abandoned structures and grounded ships. Although they afford a highly visible, colourful reflection of contamination in the vicinity of the source, little systematic study has been undertaken regarding the distribution, composition and effects of APP in the wider marine environment. This paper reviews the state of knowledge in respect of APP, with particular emphasis on those generated by recreational boatyards. The likely biogeochemical pathways of the biocidal and non-biocidal metals in current use (mainly Cu and Zn) are addressed in light of recent research and an understanding of the more general behaviour of contaminants in marine systems. Analyses of paint fragment composites from recreational facilities in the UK reveal chemical compositions that are similar to those representing the net signal of the original formulations; significantly, dry weight concentrations of Cu and Zn of up to about 35% and 15%, respectively, are observed and, relative to ambient dusts and sediment, elevated concentrations of other trace metals, like Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Sn, occur. These metals leach more rapidly from APP than a painted surface due to the greater surface area of pigments and additives exposed to the aqueous medium. In suspension, APP are subject to greater and more rapid environmental variation (e.g. salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen) than painted hulls, while settled APP represent an important source of persistent and degradable biocides to poorly circulating environments. Through diffusion and abrasion, high concentrations of contaminants are predicted in interstitial waters that may be accumulated directly by benthic invertebrates. Animals that feed non-selectively and that are exposed to or ingest paint-contaminated sediment are able to accelerate the leaching, deposition and burial of biocides and other substances, and represent an alternative vehicle for contaminant entry into the marine foodchain. Clearly, an extensive understanding of biocide behaviour on painted surfaces is not sufficient for predictive or management purposes regarding APP. Greater caution is required by boaters and boatyards during the removal and disposal of solid wastes, and more awareness or stricter enforcement of relevant codes of practice or legislation is recommended. PMID:20060546

Turner, Andrew

2010-02-01

180

Spray Lakes reclamation project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When the level of the Spray Lakes (Alberta) reservoir was lowered by four metres, 208 ha of shoreline was exposed offering little to no wildlife benefit and only limited recreation potential. A reclamation plan for 128 ha of shoreline was therefore developed. A wild life-palatable, self-sustaining vegetation cover was established. Approximately 90 ha was scarified, and/or had tree stumps removed prior to seeding, while approximately 40 ha was seeded and fertilized only. The remaining 80 ha of shoreline was not revegetated due to limited access; these areas will be allowed to re-establish naturally from the forested edge. The species were selected based on their adaptation to alkaline soils, drought tolerance, persistence in a stand and rooting characteristics, as well as palatability to wildlife. Alfalfa, white clover and fall rye were seeded. In general, all areas of the reclamation plan are successfully revegetated. Areas which were recontoured are stable and non-eroding. Success was most significant in areas which had been scarified, then seeded and trackpacked. Areas that were seeded and fertilized only were less well established at the end of the first year, but showed improvement in the second and third years. The area will be monitored to ensure the reclaimed vegetation is self-sustaining

181

Sprays in containment: Final results of the SARNET spray benchmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Modelling of nuclear reactor containment sprays is assessed through codes benchmarking. ? This benchmark is proposed in the frame of the European network of excellence, SARNET. ? Spray thermodynamics as well as gas entrainment and atmosphere mixing is studied here. ? Four types of experiments are proposed on the TOSQAN and MISTRA facilities. ? The code level of validation of is encouraging for the use of spray modelling for risk analysis. - Abstract: The influence of containment sprays on atmosphere behaviour, a sub-task of the Work Package WP12-2 CAM (Containment Atmosphere Mixing), has been investigated through benchmark exercises based on TOSQAN (IRSN) and MISTRA (CEA) experiments. These tests are being simulated with lumped-parameter (LP) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. Both atmosphere depressurization and mixing are being studied in two phases: a 'thermalhydraulic part', which deals with depressurization by sprays (TOSQAN 101 and MISTRA MASPn), and a 'dynamic part', dealing with light gas stratification break-up by spray (TOSQAN 113 and MISTRA MARC2b). In the thermalhydraulic part of the benchmark, participants have found the appropriate modelling to obtain good global results in terms of experimental pressure and mean gas temperature, for both TOSQAN and MISTRA tests. It can thus be considered that code users have a good knowledge of their spray modelling parameters. On a local level, for the TOSQAN test, single droplet behaTOSQAN test, single droplet behaviour is found to be well estimated by some calculations, but the global modelling of multiple droplets, i.e. of the spray, specifically for the spray dilution, is questionable in some CFD calculations. It can lead to some discrepancies localized in the spray region and can thus have a high impact on the global results, since most of the heat and mass transfers occur inside this region. In the MISTRA tests, wall condensation mass flow rates and local temperatures were used for code-experiment comparison and show that improvement of the local modelling, including initial conditions determination, is needed. In this dynamic part, a general result, in both tests, is that calculations do not recover the same kinetics of the mixing. Furthermore, concerning global mixing, LP contributions seem not suitable here. For the TOSQAN benchmark, the one-phase CFD calculations recover partially the phenomena involved during the mixing, whereas the two-phase flow CFD contributions generally recover the phenomena. Moreover, one important result is also that none of the contributions finds the exact amount of helium remaining in the dome above the spray nozzle in the TOSQAN 113. Discrepancies are rather high (above 5%vol of helium). Results are thus encouraging, but the level of validation should be improved. The same kind of conclusions can be drawn for the MISTRA MARC2B tests. As a conclusion of this SARNET spray benchmark, the level of validation obtained here is encouraging for the use of spray modelling for risk analysis. However, some more detailed investigations are needed to improve model parameters and decrease the uncertainty for containment applications as well as to increase the predictability of the phenomena within the containment analyses. Further activities are well encouraged on this topic, such as numerical benchmarks on analytical separate-effect experiments.

182

Chemically sprayed PbS coatings for photothermal solar energy conversion  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports on an investigation into the optical and physical properties of PbS coatings prepared by spray pyrolysis onto chemically brightened aluminum substrates. The advantages are low cost, reasonably good selectivity and the coatings' ability to be scaled onto collectors of any desired size. The coatings exhibit a high absorptivity in the solar range and a low emissivity in the thermal range. Finally, the photothermal conversion efficiencies of black paint-coated and PbS-coated solar collectors are compared.

Agarwal, R. C.; Pillai, P. K. C.

1982-05-01

183

Slurry spray distribution within a simulated laboratory scale spray dryer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It was found that the distribution of liquid striking the sides of a simulated room temperature spray dryer was not significantly altered by the choice of nozles, nor by a variation in nozzle operating conditions. Instead, it was found to be a function of the spray dryer's configuration. A cocurrent flow of air down the drying cylinder, not possible with PNL's closed top, favorably altered the spray distribution by both decreasing the amount of liquid striking the interior of the cylinder from 72 to 26% of the feed supplied, and by shifting the zone of maximum impact from 1.0 to 1.7 feet from the nozzle. These findings led to the redesign of the laboratory scale spray dryer to be tested at the Savannah River Plant. The diameter of the drying chamber was increased from 5 to 8 inches, and a cocurrent flow of air was established with a closed recycle. Finally, this investigation suggested a drying scheme which offers all the advantages of spray drying without many of its limitations

184

Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings: Influence of Spraying Power on Microstructure  

Science.gov (United States)

The plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings are used on metallic implants to enhance the bonding between the implant and bone in human body. The coating process was implemented at different spraying power for each spraying condition. The coatings formed from a rapid solidification of molten and partly molten particles that impact on the surface of substrate at high velocity and high temperature. The study was concentrated on different spraying power that is between 23 to 31 kW. The effect of different power on the coatings microstructure was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and phase composition was evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The coatings surface morphology showed distribution of molten, partially melted particles and some micro-cracks. The produced coatings were found to be porous as observed from the cross-sectional morphology. The coatings XRD results indicated the presence of crystalline phase of HA and each of the patterns was similar to the initial powder. Regardless of different spraying power, all the coatings were having similar XRD patterns.

Mohd, S. M.; Abd, M. Z.; Abd, A. N.

2010-03-01

185

'Dose-painting': Myth or reality?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Dose-painting' radiotherapy allows for a heterogeneous delivery of radiation within the tumour volume by targeting radioresistant areas defined by functional imaging. Within gross tumour volume, it is possible to define one or more target volumes based on biology (biological target volume [BTV]) and to apply a strategy of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) that will deliver a higher dose to these regions. In this review of the literature, we will highlight the biological elements responsible for radioresistance, and how to image them, then we will detail the radiotherapy techniques necessary for this approach, before presenting clinical results in various situations (head and neck tumours, prostate, brain tumours, etc.). Despite many difficulties that make dose-painting IMRT unusable in routine nowadays, biology-guided radiation therapy represents one of the major pathways of development of radiotherapy in the coming years. (authors)

186

Microanalysis of paint layers in polychrome sculptures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cross sections paint layers of polychromes sculpture of the 16 century, located at the City Museum of Havana and currently in the restoration process, have been analyzed by capillary based ?XRF , ?PIXE , SEM -EDX and light microscopy. Experimental parameters (geometry measurement time) of the capillary based ?XRF set up (nominal end diameter equal to 10 ?m) were optimized to achieve the resolution required for meaningful scintigraphic studies of the art and archaeological objects, Cumulative x-rays spectra for each layer were obtained in order to perform semi-quantitative analysis. The employed pigments were identified by the characteristics elements and the elemental maps precisely reproduced photographs obtained by means of light microscopy. In the case of nuclear microprobe, RBS for Stoichiometry analysis of paint layers was also performed. additional information on the organic materials was also obtained by chemical analysis. Complementary results obtained by using the analytical techniques are presented and discussed from the point of view of the restoration processes

187

Pressure-Sensitive Paint: Effect of Substrate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are numerous ways in which pressure-sensitive paint can be applied to a surface. The choice of substrate and application method can greatly affect the results obtained. The current study examines the different methods of applying pressure-sensitive paint to a surface. One polymer-based and two porous substrates (anodized aluminum and thin-layer chromatography plates are investigated and compared for luminescent output, pressure sensitivity, temperature sensitivity and photodegradation. Two luminophores [tris-Bathophenanthroline Ruthenium(II Perchlorate and Platinum-tetrakis (pentafluorophenyl Porphyrin] will also be compared in all three of the substrates. The results show the applicability of the different substrates and luminophores to different testing environments.

Konstantinos Kontis

2011-12-01

188

Water-Based Pressure Sensitive Paint  

Science.gov (United States)

Preparation and performance of a water-based pressure sensitive paint (PSP) is described. A water emulsion of an oxygen permeable polymer and a platinum porphyrin type luminescent compound were dispersed in a water matrix to produce a PSP that performs well without the use of volatile, toxic solvents. The primary advantages of this PSP are reduced contamination of wind tunnels in which it is used, lower health risk to its users, and easier cleanup and disposal. This also represents a cost reduction by eliminating the need for elaborate ventilation and user protection during application. The water-based PSP described has all the characteristics associated with water-based paints (low toxicity, very low volatile organic chemicals, and easy water cleanup) but also has high performance as a global pressure sensor for PSP measurements in wind tunnels. The use of a water-based PSP virtually eliminates the toxic fumes associated with the application of PSPs to a model in wind tunnels.

Oglesby, Donald M.; Ingram, JoAnne L.; Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Watkins, A. Neal; Leighty, Bradley D.

2004-01-01

189

Pressure-sensitive paint: effect of substrate.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are numerous ways in which pressure-sensitive paint can be applied to a surface. The choice of substrate and application method can greatly affect the results obtained. The current study examines the different methods of applying pressure-sensitive paint to a surface. One polymer-based and two porous substrates (anodized aluminum and thin-layer chromatography plates) are investigated and compared for luminescent output, pressure sensitivity, temperature sensitivity and photodegradation. Two luminophores [tris-Bathophenanthroline Ruthenium(II) Perchlorate and Platinum-tetrakis (pentafluorophenyl) Porphyrin] will also be compared in all three of the substrates. The results show the applicability of the different substrates and luminophores to different testing environments. PMID:22247685

Quinn, Mark Kenneth; Yang, Leichao; Kontis, Konstantinos

2011-01-01

190

Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using 'L' clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and 'picture framing' the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

Herk, A.; Baker, R.; Prahl, D.

2014-03-01

191

Corrosion protection by paint: cathodic disbonding  

OpenAIRE

This work investigated cathodic disbonding of an unpigmented phenalkamine-cured epoxy coating on mild steel, EC, exposed to 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (SAM), Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and optical microscopy have been combined to conduct this study. Several factors affecting the cathodic disbonding process: Film thickness, Cation mobility, Electrolyte concentration, Temperature, Paint composition, Polarisation and Ope...

Bi, Huichao; Sykes, John

2011-01-01

192

Solar Paint: From Synthesis to Printing  

OpenAIRE

Water-based polymer nanoparticle dispersions (solar paint) offer the prospect of addressing two of the main challenges associated with printing large area organic photovoltaic devices; namely, how to control the nanoscale architecture of the active layer and eliminate the need for hazardous organic solvents during device fabrication. In this paper, we review progress in the field of nanoparticulate organic photovoltaic (NPOPV) devices and future prospects for large-scale manufacturing of sola...

Xiaojing Zhou; Warwick Belcher; Paul Dastoor

2014-01-01

193

Solar Paint: From Synthesis to Printing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water-based polymer nanoparticle dispersions (solar paint offer the prospect of addressing two of the main challenges associated with printing large area organic photovoltaic devices; namely, how to control the nanoscale architecture of the active layer and eliminate the need for hazardous organic solvents during device fabrication. In this paper, we review progress in the field of nanoparticulate organic photovoltaic (NPOPV devices and future prospects for large-scale manufacturing of solar cells based on this technology.

Xiaojing Zhou

2014-11-01

194

Simulations of color development in tinted paints  

OpenAIRE

Monte Carlo simulations have been used to investigate how several thermodynamic and kinetic factors affect the distribution of pigments, when a water-based pigment dispersion is added to a solvent-borne paint. Our model contains three types of lattice particles: water, pigment and organic solvent, with short-ranged interactions. These particles move through biased diffusion, with a species-dependent mobility. Moreover, to mimic the crosslinking of the resin, the mobility of the solvent partic...

Stuiver, A.; Barkema, G. T.

2010-01-01

195

Difference in brain activations during appreciating paintings and photographic analogues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several studies have investigated neural correlates of aesthetic appreciation for paintings but to date the findings have been heterogeneous. This heterogeneity may be attributed to previous studies’ measurement of aesthetic appreciation of not only the beauty of paintings but also the beauty of motifs of the paintings. In order to better elucidate the beauty of paintings, it seems necessary to compare aesthetic appreciation of paintings and photographic analogues which included corresponding real images. We prepared for famous painters’ pictures and their photographic analogues which were set up to resemble each painting in order to investigate the hypothesis that there exist specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings. Forty-four subjects participated in functional magnetic resonance study which required comparisons of aesthetic appreciation of paintings of still life and landscape versus photographic analogues including corresponding real images of still life and landscape. Bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus were activated in the comparison of aesthetic appreciation of paintings versus photographic analogues. In conclusion, the present findings suggest a possibility of the existence of specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings and that bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus may be involved.

Takeshi Terao

2014-07-01

196

Difference in brain activations during appreciating paintings and photographic analogs  

Science.gov (United States)

Several studies have investigated neural correlates of aesthetic appreciation for paintings but to date the findings have been heterogeneous. This heterogeneity may be attributed to previous studies’ measurement of aesthetic appreciation of not only the beauty of paintings but also the beauty of motifs of the paintings. In order to better elucidate the beauty of paintings, it seems necessary to compare aesthetic appreciation of paintings and photographic analogs which included corresponding real images. We prepared for famous painters’ pictures and their photographic analogs which were set up to resemble each painting in order to investigate the hypothesis that there exist specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings. Forty-four subjects participated in functional magnetic resonance study which required comparisons of aesthetic appreciation of paintings of still life and landscape versus photographic analogs including corresponding real images of still life and landscape. Bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus were activated in the comparison of aesthetic appreciation of paintings versus photographic analogs. In conclusion, the present findings suggest a possibility of the existence of specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings and that bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus may be involved. PMID:25071508

Mizokami, Yoshinori; Terao, Takeshi; Hatano, Koji; Hoaki, Nobuhiko; Kohno, Kentaro; Araki, Yasuo; Kodama, Kensuke; Makino, Mayu; Izumi, Toshihiko; Shimomura, Tsuyoshi; Fujiki, Minoru; Kochiyama, Takanori

2014-01-01

197

Spray casting project final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step

198

TeraHertz imaging of hidden paint layers on canvas:  

OpenAIRE

We show terahertz reflection images of hidden paint layers in a painting on canvas and compare the results with X-ray Radiography and Infrared Reflectography. Our terahertz measurements show strong reflections from both the canvas/paint interface and from the raw umber/lead white interface, indicating sufficient refractive-index contrast. Our results show that X-rays cannot be used to image through the lead white pigment which effectively blocks the X-rays. Although Infrared Reflectography is...

Adam, A. J. L.; Planken, P. C. M.; Meloni, S.; Dik, J.

2009-01-01

199

Study of decontamination and radiation resistance properties of Indian paints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief introduction to the study of contamination and radiation resistance properties of Indian paints used as coating for structural materials in the nuclear industry is given. The general composition of paints such as epoxy, vinyl, alkyd, phenolic, chlesimated rubber, etc. is given. Method of sample preparation, processing and actual evaluation of decontaminability are described. The results have been discussed in terms of decontamination factors. Some recommendations based on the performance of the paints studied are also included. (K.B.)

200

Research on Development of the Song Genre Paintings & Artists  

OpenAIRE

Due to that many historical documents of China recording the life of emperors and people from upper class in ancient times with limited ones recording that of people from middle and lower classes, genre paintings have played as the important materials for the research on the ancient societies. This paper begins with the analysis on the concept and development progress of the genre paintings; and analyzes on the three types of painting producers by the combination of the surviving genre pai...

Rong Tan

2014-01-01

201

Performance study of the paints for use in nuclear installations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The performance of some Brazilian commercial paints under physical, chemical and radiation conditions typical of nuclear installations is studied. Resistance to gama rays in the range of 104 - 109 rad as well as the susceptibility to contamination, ease of decontamination and chemical resistance in 9 different types of paints are studied. Finally, suggestions are provided for the best choice of commercial paints according to their specific uses

202

Diesel spray characterization; Dieselmoottorin polttoainesuihkujen ominaisuudet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fuel injection of diesel engines will be studied using large-scale models of fuel injectors. The advantage of large-scale models is that the measurement of large-scale diesel sprays will be easier than the measurement of actual sprays. The objective is to study the break-up mechanism of diesel sprays and to measure drop size distributions in the inner part of the spray. The results will be used in the development of diesel engines and diesel fuels. (orig.)

Pitkaenen, J.; Turunen, R.; Paloposki, T.; Rantanen, P.; Virolainen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Internal Combustion Engine Lab.

1997-10-01

203

Evaluation of decontamination and radiation resistance properties of Indian paints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decontamination and radiation resistance properties of paints based on epoxies, vinyls, alkyds, acrylic emulsion, chlorinated rubber and cellulose have been investigated with a view to their use for surface treatment in nuclear facilities. All the paint samples on mild steel and concrete substrate were given a total gamma dose of 1600 Mrads from 60Co. For decontamination of radioactive spills, water, teepol (10%), 3M HNO3 and EDTA 5% in 10% teepol were used. Epoxies and cellulose based paints show good decontaminability and radiation resistance, as compared to others. Vinyl based paints show both poor decontaminability and radiation resistance. (M.G.B.)

204

Tailoring the Spray Conditions for Suspension Plasma Spraying  

Science.gov (United States)

The plasma spray process using suspensions as liquid feedstock allows the deposition of finely structured coatings with improved properties compared to that of coatings deposited by the conventional plasma spray techniques. The evaporation of the solvent, acceleration, heating, and melting of the fine solid particles within the plasma jet take place in a shorter time, as the substrate is located closer to the plasma torch when a mono-cathode mono-anode plasma torch is used, while the liquid material processing globally consumes more energy than a powder material. Therefore, achieving a coating with the expected properties requires a broad understanding of the process. In this study, a large range of plasma spray conditions have been used to achieve yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings by suspension plasma spraying. The properties of the plasma jet (velocity, enthalpy, and stability) as well as those of droplets (trajectories, number, and size) and particles (velocity) were measured and correlated to the coating microstructure. The operating conditions necessary for obtaining disk-shape splats and achieving homogeneous coatings are described including the plasma jet properties and substrate parameters.

Joulia, A.; Duarte, W.; Goutier, S.; Vardelle, M.; Vardelle, A.; Rossignol, S.

2014-11-01

205

Tailoring the Spray Conditions for Suspension Plasma Spraying  

Science.gov (United States)

The plasma spray process using suspensions as liquid feedstock allows the deposition of finely structured coatings with improved properties compared to that of coatings deposited by the conventional plasma spray techniques. The evaporation of the solvent, acceleration, heating, and melting of the fine solid particles within the plasma jet take place in a shorter time, as the substrate is located closer to the plasma torch when a mono-cathode mono-anode plasma torch is used, while the liquid material processing globally consumes more energy than a powder material. Therefore, achieving a coating with the expected properties requires a broad understanding of the process. In this study, a large range of plasma spray conditions have been used to achieve yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings by suspension plasma spraying. The properties of the plasma jet (velocity, enthalpy, and stability) as well as those of droplets (trajectories, number, and size) and particles (velocity) were measured and correlated to the coating microstructure. The operating conditions necessary for obtaining disk-shape splats and achieving homogeneous coatings are described including the plasma jet properties and substrate parameters.

Joulia, A.; Duarte, W.; Goutier, S.; Vardelle, M.; Vardelle, A.; Rossignol, S.

2015-01-01

206

Chromosome painting in biological dosimetry: assessment of the ability to score stable chromosome aberrations using different pairs of paint probes.  

OpenAIRE

We exposed human peripheral lymphocytes in vitro to 0.3 and 1 Gy of 60Co gamma rays to evaluate whether the ability and sensitivity to detect chromosomal aberrations by chromosome painting is independent or not to the specific paint probes. To detect structural aberrations (translocations), we painted chromosome spreads simultaneously with two whole-chromosome libraries for chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 11, 13, 16, and 18. To compare the rate of chromosome translocations detected by the di...

Garci?a Sagredo, J. M.; Vallcorba, I.; López-Yarto; Sanchez-hombre, M. D.; Resino, M.; Ferro, M. T.

1996-01-01

207

Fabrication and performance of organic thin film solar cells using a painting method  

Science.gov (United States)

As organic thin film solar cells fabricated by the active layer of organic materials are economical, lightweight, and flexible, as well as generating no CO2, and being easy to fabricate, they have attracted significant attention as green energy sources from a past decade to date. Therefore, their power conversion efficiency (PCE) has been investigated and studied worldwide. In organic thinfilm solar cells, the effect of the performance depends not only on the adopted active material but also relates to the molecular orientation on the electrode. Using a mixed solution of Poly(3-hexylthiophene) and PCBM, both of which were dissolved in a solvent, the organic thin films were fabricated using the paint and spray methods, while the morphology of the thin film was evaluated by an AFM image, UV/vis spectra, and so forth. Based on these data, an organic thin-film solar cell using both solution methods for the active layer was fabricated, and the performance evaluated and examined. For organic thin film solar cells fabricated using a spin-coating method, the open-circuit voltage (Voc) is 0.41V, the short circuit current density (Jsc) is 2.07mA/cm2, and the fill factor is 0.34, while the efficiency ? of PCE become 0.29%. In the spray method, the short circuit current (Isc) is 2.5 mA/cm2, the open circuit voltage (Voc) is 0.45 V, the fill factor (FF) is 0.28, and the power conversion factor (PCE) 0.35%. The area of organic solar cells fabricated by spin coating and spray methods is 1 cm2 respectively. The organic solar cells are not thermally treated, and hence have high respective power conversion efficiencies.

Ochiai, S.; Ishihara, H.; Mizutani, T.; Kojima, K.

2010-05-01

208

Thermal characterization of intumescent fire retardant paints  

Science.gov (United States)

Intumescent coatings are now the dominant passive fire protection materials used in industrial and commercial buildings. The coatings, which usually are composed of inorganic components contained in a polymer matrix, are inert at low temperatures and at higher temperatures, they expand and degrade to provide a charred layer of low conductivity materials. The charred layer, which acts as thermal barrier, will prevent heat transfer to underlying substrate. The thermal properties of intumescent paints are often unknown and difficult to be estimated since they vary significantly during the expansion process; for this reason the fire resistance validation of a commercial coatings is based on expensive, large-scale methods where each commercial coating-beam configuration has to be tested one by one. Adopting, instead, approaches based on a thermal modelling of the intumescent paint coating could provide an helpful tool to make easier the test procedure and to support the design of fire resistant structures as well. The present investigation is focused on the assessment of a methodology intended to the restoration of the equivalent thermal conductivity of the intumescent layer produced under the action of a cone calorimetric apparatus. The estimation procedure is based on the inverse heat conduction problem approach, where the temperature values measured at some locations inside the layer during the expansion process are used as input known data. The results point out that the equivalent thermal conductivity reached by the intumescent material at the end of the expansion process significantly depends on the temperature while the initial thickness of the paint does not seem to have much effect.

Calabrese, L.; Bozzoli, F.; Bochicchio, G.; Tessadri, B.; Rainieri, S.; Pagliarini, G.

2014-11-01

209

Golden Section and the Art of Painting  

OpenAIRE

A statistical study on 565 works of art of different great painters was done and it was calculated the ratio of the 2 sides of a paintings. Assuming that all the painters under discussion enter in a statistics with equal weights it is shown that the average value obtained for the ratio of the sides is 1.34. This value, determined experimentally is significantly different from the value of the Golden Section F=1.618, which is a theoretical ratio, obtained from an abstract, ma...

Olariu, Agata

1999-01-01

210

New painting on Mochovce cooling towers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New protective painting on the south cooling towers is included in the maintenance and modernization project. Slovenske elektrarne have modernized not only concrete surface of the civil structure, but also internal technology of the cooling tower and its cooing efficiency is increased without increasing consumption of the cooling water. The project will continue this and following year on towers of the units No. 1 and 2 at the Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant. Similar works have been already performed on the cooling towers on units 3 and 4 at the Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant and Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant units 3 and 4. (author)

211

Cytoplasmic droplets of painted turtle spermatozoa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epididymal sperm from the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) possess a cytoplasmic droplet which is located eccentrically on the sperm midpiece. The droplet contains a large quantity of lipid droplets in addition to hollow vesicles and degenerate mitochondrial fragments. Lipid droplets are closely associated with mitochondrial membranes and may function in the formation or degradation of mitochondria. Cytoplasmic droplets become detached from the sperm midpiece in a coordinated manner shortly before the commencement of fall mating and are not observed on sperm recovered from the oviduct of females. PMID:23865099

Gist, D H; Hess, R A; Thurston, R J

1992-11-01

212

19 CFR 10.52 - Painted, colored or stained glass windows for religious institutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Painted, colored or stained glass windows for religious institutions. 10...Painted, colored or stained glass windows for religious institutions. When painted, colored, or stained glass windows or parts thereof, are...

2010-04-01

213

24 CFR 35.1015 - Visual assessment, paint stabilization, and maintenance.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Visual assessment, paint stabilization, and...Services, or Operation § 35.1015 Visual assessment, paint stabilization, and...the dwelling unit is located: (a) A visual assessment of all painted surfaces...

2010-04-01

214

75 FR 25037 - Lead; Clearance and Clearance Testing Requirements for the Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Program Chemicals Division...lead-based paint inspections...demolition or removal of plaster...widely diverse mechanisms of action...guns, using chemical paint removers...activities: Paint removal by...

2010-05-06

215

75 FR 24848 - Lead; Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program for Public and Commercial Buildings  

Science.gov (United States)

...bluish metallic chemical element mined...products, including paint, batteries...widely diverse mechanisms of action...heat guns, using chemical paint removers, and...activities: Paint removal by abrasive...

2010-05-06

216

Experimental study of canvas characterization for paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

The work described here fits in the context of a larger project on the objective and relevant characterization of paintings and painting canvas through the analysis of multimodal digital images. We captured, amongst others, X-ray images of different canvas types, characterized by a variety of textures and weave patterns (fine and rougher texture; single thread and multiple threads per weave), including raw canvas as well as canvas processed with different primers. In this paper, we study how to characterize the canvas by extracting global features such as average thread width, average distance between successive threads (i.e. thread density) and the spatial distribution of primers. These features are then used to construct a generic model of the canvas structure. Secondly, we investigate whether we can identify different pieces of canvas coming from the same bolt. This is an important element for dating, authentication and identification of restorations. Both the global characteristics mentioned earlier and some local properties (such as deviations from the average pattern model) are used to compare the "fingerprint" of different pieces of cloth coming from the same or different bolts.

Cornelis, Bruno; Dooms, Ann; Munteanu, Adrian; Cornelis, Jan; Schelkens, Peter

2010-02-01

217

Biological dosimetry by interphase chromosome painting  

Science.gov (United States)

Both fluorescence in situ hybridization of metaphase spreads with whole-chromosome probes and premature chromosome condensation in interphase nuclei have been used in the past to estimate the radiation dose to lymphocytes. We combined these techniques to evaluate the feasibility of using painted interphase chromosomes for biodosimetry. Human peripheral lymphocytes were exposed to gamma rays and fused to mitotic Chinese hamster cells either immediately after irradiation or after 8 h incubation at 37 degrees C. Interphase or metaphase human chromosomes were hybridized with a composite probe specific for human chromosomes 3 and 4. The dose-response curve for fragment induction immediately after irradiation was linear; these results reflected breakage frequency in the total genome in terms of DNA content per chromosome. At 8 h after irradiation, the dose-response curve for chromosome interchanges, the prevalent aberration in interphase chromosomes, was linear-quadratic and similar to that observed for metaphase chromosomes. These results suggest that painting prematurely condensed chromosomes can be useful for biological dosimetry when blood samples are available shortly after the exposure, or when interphase cells are to be scored instead of mitotic cells.

Durante, M.; George, K.; Yang, T. C.

1996-01-01

218

The Influence of Lateral Organization on the Evaluation of Paintings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three evaluations (general preference, balance, and dynamics) were made for paintings presented simultaneously in artist-created and mirror-image views. For short (5 second) exposures, results showed consistent selection over diverse contents of paintings with a left-to-right figure sequence. Implications for perception and aesthetics are…

Freimuth, Marilyn; Wapner, Seymour

1979-01-01

219

SUBSTRATE EFFECTS ON VOC EMISSIONS FROM A LATEX PAINT  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of two substrates -- a stainless steel plate and a gypsum board -- on the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from a latex paint were evaluated by environmental chamber tests. It was found that the amount of VOCs emitted from the painted stainless steel was 2 to...

220

LEAD-BASED PAINT HAZARD-MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES: FINAL REPORT  

Science.gov (United States)

Lead-based paints (LEP) and primers have been used in the past by the Department of Defense (DoD) to protect steel structures from corrosion. DoD owns about 200 million sq ft of steel structures with lead-based paint (such as bridges, aircraft hangars, water tanks, etc.). The DoD...

221

Preparation of Perfluorinated Surfactant Activates for Antifouling Paints  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antifouling paints are the most reliable way to prevent biofouling of submerged surfaces. The high toxicity of organotin paints, prompted us to look for ideas to develop paints that do not present environmental risks. In this work, we prepare a painting by a modification of acrylic acid monomer containing a free carboxyl group. The biocide that is selected is the perfluorinated chain with eight carbons. Chemical modifications of the resins are made through a radical reaction. The magnitudes of changes are monitored by proton nuclear magnetic resonance NMR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC and the light scattering (LS at a fixed angle 90?. The glass transition temperature of the surfactant is obtained by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The antifouling properties of the paint are followed by exposure of panels to the marine environment by visual observation.

A. Bacha

2012-10-01

222

Large-Scale Quantitative Analysis of Painting Arts  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientists have made efforts to understand the beauty of painting art in their own languages. As digital image acquisition of painting arts has made rapid progress, researchers have come to a point where it is possible to perform statistical analysis of a large-scale database of artistic paints to make a bridge between art and science. Using digital image processing techniques, we investigate three quantitative measures of images - the usage of individual colors, the variety of colors, and the roughness of the brightness. We found a difference in color usage between classical paintings and photographs, and a significantly low color variety of the medieval period. Interestingly, moreover, the increment of roughness exponent as painting techniques such as chiaroscuro and sfumato have advanced is consistent with historical circumstances.

Kim, Daniel; Son, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hawoong

2014-12-01

223

CAPSTONE REPORT ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF A STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR VOC EMISSIONS FROM INTERIOR LATEX PAINT AND ALKYD PAINTS  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives details of a small-chamber test method developed by the EPA for characterizing volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from interior latex and alkyd paints. Current knowledge about VOC, including hazardous air pollutant, emissions from interior paints generated...

224

CHARACTERIZATION OF LOW-VOC LATEX PAINTS: VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND CONTENT, VOC AND ALDEHYDE EMISSIONS, AND PAINT PERFORMANCE  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of laboratory tests to evaluate commercially available latex paints advertised as "low-odor," "low-VOC (volatile organic compound)," or "no-VOC." Measurements were performed to quantify the total content of VOCs in the paints...

225

Using paint to investigate fires: an ATR-IR study of the degradation of paint samples upon heating.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fire investigation is a challenging area for the forensic investigator. The aim of this work was to use spectral changes to paint samples to estimate the temperatures to which a paint has been heated. Five paint samples (one clay paint, two car paints, one metallic paint, and one matt emulsion) have been fully characterized by a combination of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-IR), Raman, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. The thermal decomposition of these paints has been investigated by means of ATR-IR and thermal gravimetric analysis. Clear temperature markers are observed in the ATR-IR spectra namely: loss of ?(C = O) band, >300°C; appearance of water bands on cooling, >500°C; alterations to ?(Si-O) bands due to dehydration of silicate clays, >700°C; diminution of ?(CO3 ) and ?(CO3 ) modes of CaCO3 , >950°C. We suggest the possible use of portable ATR-IR for nondestructive, in situ analysis of paints. PMID:23278849

Roberts, Kelly; Almond, Matthew J; Bond, John W

2013-03-01

226

Coating Prepared by Air Plasma Spraying  

Science.gov (United States)

Molybdenum disilicide (MoSi2) coatings were deposited on carbon steel by air plasma spraying technology with different feedstock powder sizes (i.e., powder A: -15 + 2.5 ?m, powder B: -30 + 15 ?m, powder C: -54 + 30 ?m, powder D: -74 + 54 ?m and powder E: -106 + 74 ?m). Phase composition and microstructure of coatings were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope. The bonding strength and microhardness of coatings were also evaluated. The XRD results show that there exists mutual transformation between T-MoSi2 and H-MoSi2 phase and part of Mo-rich phases are formed because of oxidization during the spraying process. With the increase of spraying powders size, the content of Mo-rich phases (Mo or Mo5Si3) and molybdenum oxide (MoO3) in coatings decreases, and that of disilicide-rich phase (MoSi2) in coatings increases. The oxidation degree of MoSi2 particle gradually decreases during the spraying process with the increase of spraying powders size. The MoSi2 is the main phase of the as-sprayed coatings when the spraying powders size is beyond 30 ?m. With the increase of spraying powders size, the porosity of the as-sprayed coating increases, and the bonding strength of the coating gradually decreases. The hardness of coatings first increases and then decreases with the increase of spraying powders size.

Yan, Jianhui; Liu, Longfei; Mao, Zhengyu; Xu, Hongmei; Wang, Yueming

2014-08-01

227

'Dose-painting': Myth or reality?; 'Dose-painting': mythe ou realite?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

'Dose-painting' radiotherapy allows for a heterogeneous delivery of radiation within the tumour volume by targeting radioresistant areas defined by functional imaging. Within gross tumour volume, it is possible to define one or more target volumes based on biology (biological target volume [BTV]) and to apply a strategy of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) that will deliver a higher dose to these regions. In this review of the literature, we will highlight the biological elements responsible for radioresistance, and how to image them, then we will detail the radiotherapy techniques necessary for this approach, before presenting clinical results in various situations (head and neck tumours, prostate, brain tumours, etc.). Despite many difficulties that make dose-painting IMRT unusable in routine nowadays, biology-guided radiation therapy represents one of the major pathways of development of radiotherapy in the coming years. (authors)

Supiot, S.; Paris, F. [Service de radiotherapie, centre Rene-Gauducheau, 44 - Nantes-St-Herblain (France); Centre de recherche sur le cancer Nantes-Angers (CRCNA), institut de recherche therapeutique, universite de Nantes, 44 - Nantes (France); Inserm UMR 892, 44 - Nantes (France); Lisbona, A. [Centre de recherche sur le cancer Nantes-Angers (CRCNA), institut de recherche therapeutique, universite de Nantes, 44 - Nantes (France); Inserm UMR 892, 44 - Nantes (France); Service de radiophysique, centre Rene-Gauducheau, 44 - Nantes-St-Herblain (France); Azria, D. [Service de radiotherapie, centre Val d' Aurelle Paul-Lamarque, 34 - Montpellier (France); Fenoglietto, P. [Service de radiophysique, centre Val d' Aurelle Paul-Lamarque, 34 - Montpellier (France)

2010-10-15

228

Uniform-droplet spray forming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The uniform-droplet process is a new method of liquid-metal atomization that results in single droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on to substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructure. The mono-sized powder-production capability of the uniform-droplet process also has the potential of permitting engineered powder blends to produce components of controlled porosity. Metal and alloy powders are commercially produced by at least three different methods: gas atomization, water atomization, and rotating disk. All three methods produce powders of a broad range in size with a very small yield of fine powders with single-sized droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructures. The economical analysis has shown the process to have the potential of reducing capital cost by 50% and operating cost by 37.5% when applied to powder making. For the spray-forming process, a 25% savings is expected in both the capital and operating costs. The project is jointly carried out at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Tuffs University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Preliminary interactions with both finished parts and powder producers have shown a strong interest in the uniform-droplet process. Systematic studies are being conducted to optimize the process parameters, understand the solidification of droplets and spray deposits, and develop a uniform-droplet-system (UDS) apparatus appropriate for processing engineering alloys.

Blue, C.A.; Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Chun, Jung-Hoon [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ando, T. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

1997-04-01

229

Paint compositions for indicating irradiation dose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paint compositions for indicating irradiation dose are prepared from chlorine-combined polyester, 5 to 30 percent by weight of a reductive discoloring substance or a mixture of said substances, and/or 0.005 to 2.0 percent by weight of a reducing dyestuff or a mixture of said dyestuffs, in which said chlorine-combined polyester is obtained by a chlorinated dibasic acid or its anhydride as an acid component or a part of an acid component selected from a group consisting of 3-chlorophthalic acid, 4-chlorophthalic acid, dichlorinated phthalic acid, tetrachlorophthalic acid, 1,4,5,6,7,7-hexachlorobicyclo-(2,2,1)-5-heptene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, 4-chloro-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboxylic acid and the anhydrides corresponding to said acids. (auth)

230

Radiation-polymerisable paint and its applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A paint polymerisable under the effect of a radiation is presented. The main components, excluding non-polymerisable solvent, pigment, initiator and particle charge, are as follows: about 90 to 10 parts of a saturated thermoplastic vinyl polymer of average molecular mass around 2000 to 250,000, prepared from monofunctional vinyl monomers to the extent of at least 85% by weight; about 10 to 90 parts of vinyl monomer solvent for the polymer, up to 90% by weight of the solvent consisting of monovinyl monomers and the remainder being chosen amongst divinyl, trivinyl, tetravinyl monomers and their mixtures. The average molecular weight of the thermoplastic vinyl polymer has between 5000 and 50,000

231

Simulations of color development in tinted paints.  

Science.gov (United States)

Monte Carlo simulations have been used to investigate how several thermodynamic and kinetic factors affect the distribution of pigments, when a water-based pigment dispersion is added to a solvent-borne paint. Our model contains three types of lattice particles: water, pigment and organic solvent, with short-ranged interactions. These particles move through biased diffusion, with a species-dependent mobility. Moreover, to mimic the crosslinking of the resin, the mobility of the solvent particles decreases in time. Also, the water of the pigment dispersion evaporates slowly. First, we study which conditions yield the desired equilibrium phase behavior, with homogeneously distributed pigment. Next, we study how kinetics can prevent the system to reach equilibrium. We present examples in which these kinetic processes prevent dispersion in spite of favorable equilibrium conditions, as well as examples in which a homogeneous distribution is reached against unfavorable equilibrium conditions. PMID:20129618

Stuiver, A; Barkema, G T

2010-04-15

232

Laser cleaning of steel for paint removal  

Science.gov (United States)

Paint removal is an important part of steel processing for marine and offshore engineering. For centuries, a blasting techniques have been widely used for this surface preparation purpose. But conventional blasting always has intrinsic problems, such as noise, explosion risk, contaminant particles, vibration, and dust. In addition, processing wastes often cause environmental problems. In recent years, laser cleaning has attracted much research effort for its significant advantages, such as precise treatment, and high selectivity and flexibility in comparison with conventional cleaning techniques. In the present study, we use this environmentally friendly technique to overcome the problems of conventional blasting. Processed samples are examined with optical microscopes and other surface characterization tools. Experimental results show that laser cleaning can be a good alternative candidate to conventional blasting.

Chen, G. X.; Kwee, T. J.; Tan, K. P.; Choo, Y. S.; Hong, M. H.

2010-11-01

233

High quality ceramic coatings sprayed by high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper introduced the structure of the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun and the effects of hypersonic plasma jet on the sprayed particles. The optimised spraying process parameters for several ceramic powders such as Al2O3, Cr2O3, ZrO2, Cr3C2 and Co-WC were listed. The properties and microstructure of the sprayed ceramic coatings were investigated. Nano Al2O3-TiO2 ceramic coating sprayed by using the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying was also studied. Compared with the conventional air plasma spraying, high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying improves greatly the ceramic coatings quality but at low cost. (orig.)

234

1994 Thermal spray industrial applications: Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 7th National Thermal Spray Conference met on June 20--24, 1994, in Boston, Massachusetts. The conference was sponsored by the Thermal Spray Division of ASM International and co-sponsored by the American Welding Society, Deutscher Verband fur Schweisstechnik e.V., High Temperature Society of Japan, International Thermal Spray Association, and Japanese Thermal Spraying Society. The conference covered applications for automobiles, aerospace, petrochemicals, power generation, and biomedical needs. Materials included metals, ceramics, and composites with a broad range of process developments and diagnostics. Other sections included modeling and systems control; spray forming and reactive spraying; post treatment; process, structure and property relationships; mechanical properties; and testing, characterization and wear. One hundred and seventeen papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

235

Unintended cutaneous reactions to CS spray.  

Science.gov (United States)

CS spray (2-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile 5% w/v in methyl isobutyl ketone) has been used by the police force in the UK as an incapacitant for nearly a decade. It causes a number of well-recognized cutaneous reactions, which are generally regarded as short-lived. These include skin burning, erythema and blistering. However, a range of unpredictable cutaneous reactions to CS spray may also occur. We have found contact allergy, leukoderma, initiation or exacerbation of seborrhoeic dermatitis, and aggravation of rosacea following CS spray exposure in 6 police officers and 1 doorman. These skin reactions have required long-term changes in working practice for the affected individuals. Police officers may have repeated exposure to CS spray during their training and in their work, and designated police officers carry CS spray canisters daily in the line of duty. They may therefore be at greater risk of exposure to CS spray and its unintended effects than many assailants. PMID:15982225

Watson, Karen; Rycroft, Richard

2005-07-01

236

Vacuum characteristics of sprayed metal films  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The need to reduce particles in semiconductor equipment and data storage equipment is in high demand. In recent years, barrier and glue layers on shields have been used to reduce particles generated in physical vapor deposition equipment. For this purpose, spray coatings are applied to shields. Although the sprayed metal films are exposed to vacuum in a vacuum chamber, their vacuum characteristics have seldom been investigated. The conventional spray coatings are usually done under atmospheric conditions. In order to obtain a layer that has a better vacuum characteristic, spray coating in a chamber filled with an inert gas was developed. Outgassing characteristics of sprayed aluminum films and titanium films were investigated by using the conductance modulation method. A sprayed metal film produced in an inert gas system showed a lower outgassing rate than that produced in an atmospheric condition

237

Modeling the near field of diesel sprays  

OpenAIRE

A multidimensional model that is widely used for spray computations is employed to study Diesel sprays. The computed results are compared with measured results of the liquid penetration reported in the literature. The computed results imply that the maximum penetration is controlled by the rate of vaporization of the drops, which in turn is controlled to a large extent by the rate of entrainment of the ambient air by the spray. It is shown that inadequate modeling of the physics of outcomes o...

Post, Scott Leon

2001-01-01

238

Properties of plasma sprayed boron carbide coatings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Starting from the determination of spray efficiency for B4C powder, the porosities, hardness, thermal expansion and Young's moduli were established for coating materials. Major attention was given to a spraying pressure range of up to 2 bar, and the APS range was also included. The influence on scale adherence of varying and adjusting the temperature of the substrate during spraying was investigated. Finally, initial measurements of the coating stresses were performed in comparison to the corresponding model calculations

239

SPRAY FORMING OF ALUMINUM-COPPER ALLOYS  

OpenAIRE

The thermal conditions on the top surface of an Al-4wt.%Cu alloy billet during spray forming have been monitored using an infrared thermal imaging camera. The thermal history of the billet top surface on the axis of the spray plume has been correlated with through-thickness measurements of equiaxed grain size, porosity and segregation. Transmission electron microscopy shows that a high dislocation density in the as-sprayed billet may be relieved by subsequent heat treatment, which also causes...

Grant, P.; Kim, W.; Cantor, B

1991-01-01

240

A critical investigation into the spray-drying of hydroxyapatite powder for thermal spray applications  

OpenAIRE

This work examines the investigation of the spray drying process of Hydroxyapatite powder (HA) used as a thermal spray deposit in the application of orthopaedic femoral implants. In this research, the Niro- Minor™ mixed spray dryer was used for both modelling and experimental studies. The process parameters investigated included HA slurry viscosity, temperature, and air flowrate. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modelling and validation of the spray drying of HA powder was performed. An an...

Murtaza, Qasim

2006-01-01

241

Studies on some Indian paints for radiochemical plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The choice of paints in areas subjected to contamination and radiation in nuclear installation need special attention. The types of generic coatings are examined with reference to these requirements. Among those examined, certain types of epoxy paints are found to be attractive for these applications. Samples of epoxy paints obtained from some Indian manufacturers are tested for their suitability. Decontaminability and radiation resistance properties are also evaluated with special reference to radiochemical plants. Important specifications for such applications are listed. This report summarizes the results of these studies. (author)

242

Recognition and inference of crevice processing on digitized paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is designed to detect and removal of cracks on digitized paintings. The cracks are detected by threshold. Afterwards, the thin dark brush strokes which have been misidentified as cracks are removed using Median radial basis function neural network on hue and saturation data, Semi-automatic procedure based on region growing. Finally, crack is filled using wiener filter. The paper is well designed in such a way that most of the cracks on digitized paintings have identified and removed. The paper % of betterment is 90%. This paper helps us to perform not only on digitized paintings but also the medical images and bmp images. This paper is implemented by Mat Lab.

Karuppiah, S. P.; Srivatsa, S. K.

2013-03-01

243

1/f-Noise structures in Pollocks's drip paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

The fractality and scaling properties of luminance patterns in Pollock's drip paintings, are studied in this paper. The painting is represented as a matrix array where each entry represents the luminance at the corresponding canva position. Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is used to characterize fractality, and the results show that the whole luminance pattern is indeed fractal. Interestingly, the fractality is associated to 1/f-noise structures, which can be inducing the aesthetic properties of the artistic object. In fact, for spatial scales below 30 cm, Pollock's drip painting are organized as 1/f-noise structures, which presumably are attuned for pleasant (i.e., aesthetic) perception.

Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Ibarra-Valdez, Carlos; Rodriguez, Eduardo; Dagdug, Leonardo

2008-01-01

244

PMT signal increase using a wavelength shifting paint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report a 1.65 times increase of the PMT signal and a simple procedure of application of a new wavelength shifting (WLS) paint for PMTs with non-UV transparent windows. Samples of four different WLS paints, made from hydro- carbon polymers and organic fluors, were tested on a 5-inch PMT (ET 9390KB) using Cherenkov radiation produced in fused silica disks by 106Ru electrons on a table-top setup. The best performing paint was employed on two different types of 5-inch PMTs (ET 9390KB and XP4572B), installed in atmospheric pressure CO2 gas Cherenkov detectors, and tested using GeV electrons.

Allada, K; Hurlbut, Ch; Ou, L; Schmookler, B; Shahinyan, A; Wojtsekhowski, B

2015-02-01

245

Photonic Paint Developed with Metallic Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work details the design and simulation of an inconspicuous photonic paint that can be applied onto an object for anticounterfeit and tag, track, and locate (TTL applications. The paint consists of three-dimensional metallic tilted woodpile photonic crystals embedded into a visible and infrared transparent polymer film, which can be applied to almost any surface. The tilted woodpile photonic crystals are designed with a specific pass band detectable at nearly all incident angles of light. When painted onto a surface, these crystals provide a unique reflective infra-red optical signature that can be easily observed and recorded to verify the location or contents of a package.

John D. Williams

2012-07-01

246

PMT signal increase using a wavelength shifting paint  

CERN Document Server

We report a 1.65 times increase of the PMT signal and a simple procedure of application of a new wavelength shifting (WLS) paint for PMTs with non-UV-transparent windows. Samples of four different WLS paints, made from hydrocarbon polymers and organic fluors, were tested on a 5-inch PMT (ET 9390KB) using Cherenkov radiation produced in fused silica disks by $^{106}$Ru electrons on a `table-top' setup. The best performing paint was employed on two different types of 5-inch PMTs (ET 9390KB and XP4572B), installed in atmospheric pressure CO$_2$ gas Cherenkov detectors, and tested using GeV electrons.

Allada, K; Ou, L; Schmookler, B; Shahinyan, A; Wojtsekhowski, B

2015-01-01

247

Head spray nozzle in reactor pressure vessel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a reactor pressure vessel of a BWR type reactor, a head spray nozzle is used for cooling the head of the pressure vessel and, in view of the thermal stresses, it is desirable that cooling is applied as uniformly as possible. A conventional head spray is constituted by combining full cone type nozzles. Since the sprayed water is flown down upon water spraying and the sprayed water in the vertical direction is overlapped, the flow rate distribution has a high sharpness to form a shape as having a maximum value near the center and it is difficult to obtain a uniform flow rate distribution in the circumferential direction. Then, in the present invention, flat nozzles each having a spray water cross section of laterally long shape, having less sharpness in the circumferential distribution upon spraying water to the inner wall of the pressure vessel and having a wide angle of water spray are combined, to make the flow rate distribution of spray water uniform in the inner wall of the pressure vessel. Accordingly, the pressure vessel can be cooled uniformly and thermal stresses upon cooling can be decreased. (N.H.)

248

Thermally sprayed coatings: Aluminum on lead  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental program to determine the feasibility of thermally spraying aluminum on a lead substrate was initiated in support of the accelerator production of tritium (APT) Project for the US Department of Energy. The program consisted of two distinct parts: (1) the characterization of the thermally sprayed coatings, including microhardness testing, effects of heating, and microstructure and porosity determinations, and (2) effects of mercury doping and heat treatments on the thermally sprayed composite. The project determined that aluminum could successfully be thermally sprayed onto the lead. The coatings had a dense microstructure, with a Vicker's Pyramid Hardness (VPH) of about 60, and a maximum porosity (found in strips on the samples) of 12%

249

Evolution and Prospect of Thermal Spraying Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, current state development and process evolution ofthermal spray technology during last century (1910―2010) were reviewed. An "three―step evolution trend" (heat energy dominance, kineticenergy dominance, innovative idea and composite performance dominance) wasadvanced in order to get comprehensive understanding on this technology and dobetter in promoting its future development. Low pressure plasma spraying―thinfilm (LPPS―TF), cold spray (CS) and suspension orsolution srecursor plasma spray (SPS/SPPS) were selected among emerging novelspray processes to be briefly introduced from two aspects (process characteristics and potential applications). Comparison of spray output valueand detail contribution ratio distribution of various industry or process through world and Asia spray industry market were made to probe into what canbe improved as for China thermal spray industry in future. It was suggested that increasing plasma spray and HVOF contribution to applications, take activesteps to explore R&D of some novel spray technology like above mentioned and their possible applications especially in high―tech industrial such aselectrics, semiconductor and new energy.

YIN Zhi-Jian, , WANG Shu-Bao, FU-Wei,TAN Xin-Hai, TAO Shun-Yan, DING Chuan-Xian

2011-03-01

250

Spray drift as affected by meteorological conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spray drift can be defined as the quantity of plant protection product that is carried out of the sprayed (treated) area by the action of air currents during the application process. This continues to be a major problem in applying agricultural pesticides. The purpose of this research is to measure and compare the amount of drift for different climatological conditions under field conditions. Spray drift was determined by sampling in a defined downwind area at different positions in a flat meadow using horizontal drift collectors (sedimenting spray drift) and pipe cleaners (airborne spray drift) for a reference spraying. Meteorological conditions were monitored during each experiment. A drift prediction equation for the reference spraying was set up to predict the expected magnitude of sedimenting drift at various drift distances and atmospheric conditions (wind speed and temperature). This equation can be used to compare measurements using other spraying techniques under different weather conditions to the reference spraying. In 2005, more measurements will be performed to validate the statements and the model reflected in this paper. PMID:16628942

Nuyttens, D; Sonck, B; de Schampheleire, M; Steurbaut, W; Baetens, K; Verboven, P; Nicolaï, B; Ramon, H

2005-01-01

251

Performance model for ultimate heat spray ponds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mathematical model for the performance of spray ponds is developed using a detailed computational approach. The model considers heat transfer and evaporation from individual droplets of sprayed water and the pond surface, and drift loss from the sprays. Modification of the temperature and humidity of the surrounding air is taken into account in calculating heat and mass transport from the sprays. Flow of air through the spray field is considered to be either driven by the ambient wind, or by natural convection. Relationships for heat and mass transfer from the drops are derived from the empirical studies of Ranz and Marshall. Numerical experiments demonstrate that simplified models can still be useful for spray pond performance assessments. The models are validated with data on several industrial and nuclear power plant spray ponds, and with data from an extensively instrumented, experimental spray pond. Results of the validation studies demonstrate generally good agreement. These models are used in a complex methodology for predicting the performance of spray ponds used for nuclear power plant service, although it is not limited to this application. A companion paper describes the overall assessment methodology

252

Synthesis of thermal spray grade yttrium oxide powder and its application for plasma spray deposition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A process to transform the commercially available yttrium oxide powder (M/s. IRE) into thermal spray grade powder and development of plasma spray coating of it on graphite/metallic substrate are described. Experimental results show that the synthesized powder had very good flow characteristics and could be used for plasma spray deposition efficiently

253

Flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) for synthesis of nanoparticles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bismuth oxide is used as additive in paints and in cataphoresis, and as substitute for lead oxide in glass or porcelain. The presence of a small amount of Bi2O3 in calcined ZnO ceramics promotes non-linear current voltage characteristics that are used in varistor production. Also tin oxide based gas sensors for carbon monoxide, exhibit improved sensitivity and selectivity when doped with Bi2O3. Furthermore, the total oxidation of isobutene is enhanced on bismuth containing tin oxide catalysts. Bismuth oxide itself serves also as catalyst for conversion of propylene to 1,5 hexadiene and can be regenerated when supported on ?-Al2O3. In electrolyte, varistor, sensor and catalyst applications high purity and small Bi2O3 particles with controlled morphology are required. Especially in catalysts the available surface area (below 17 m2/g) of Bi2O3 limits applications at the moment. Typically, Bi2O3 is prepared by oxidation of bismuth metal at 750-800 deg C or by thermal decomposition of carbonates or by addition of alkali-metal hydroxides to a bismuth salt solution. High temperature synthesis of Bi2O3 from precursor gases was proposed by Liu and Kleinschmit using the established Aerosil route of reacting chloride precursors in a hydrogen / air (or oxygen) flame, but the volatility of the starting materials posesolatility of the starting materials poses the most severe limitation. Suzuki et al. prepared spherical bismuth oxide particles of about 26 nm in diameter by the ICP-method. Spraying an aqueous bismuth nitrate solution into a hot wall reactor resulted in Bi2O3 particles of about 100 nm in diameter. Here, synthesis of bismuth oxide nanoparticles is investigated by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) as flame technology is used for manufacture of oxide commodities and as such FSP has high potential for manufacture of oxide nanoparticles. The FSP process, in particular, has the ability to synthesize metal oxides and mixed metal oxides of high purity at high production rates and under controlled conditions. Here bismuth nitrate is used as raw material since it is widely used in wet chemical processing of bismuth oxide and it is one of the cheapest precursors available. However, in conventional spray pyrolysis this precursor has resulted in hollow particles. Therefore special emphasis is placed on the control of morphology and primary particle size of the product bismuth oxide nanoparticles

254

Evaluation of iodine-benzoflavone and ruthenium tetroxide spray reagents for the detection of latent fingermarks at the crime scene.  

Science.gov (United States)

The performance of two spray reagents, iodine-benzoflavone and ruthenium tetroxide (RTX), was evaluated and compared with the conventional technique currently used at the crime scene, that is, powdering. Neither the spray techniques nor powdering were shown to be suitable for all surfaces and ages of marks tested. On some surfaces such as glass and treated wood, powdering was still the superior technique, whereas the spray techniques produced better development on wallpaper, vinyl, and brick. Sequencing work showed that RTX was incompatible with powdering and cyanoacrylate (with a rhodamine 6G stain). Iodine-benzoflavone can be used successfully either before or after powdering in a sequence; however, it was incompatible with cyanoacrylate. Two non-CFC formulations of iodine-benzoflavone using HFC4310mee and HFE7100 solvents were tested and shown not to be as effective as the original Arklone (CFC-113) formulation; however, the HFC4310mee solvent is recommended as the most suitable replacement solvent. Due to the expense of the commercial RTX spray, attempts at formulating a more cost-effective version were also carried out. A formulation was developed that gave comparable development to the commercial version but at a much cheaper cost, and with a shelf life of up to two months. Recommendations are presented for which techniques are suitable for different surfaces and ages of marks. Powdering was shown to be the best technique on all ages of marks tested on treated wood, glass, and also on marks aged three days and older on paint. Iodine-benzoflavone was the best technique on wallpaper, vinyl, brick, and raw wood. RTX was the best detection technique for fresh marks and marks aged up to one day on wallpaper and paint. PMID:15317184

Flynn, Katherine; Maynard, Philip; du Pasquier, Eric; Lennard, Chris; Stoilovic, Milutin; Roux, Claude

2004-07-01

255

Spray forming lead strip. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A cooperative research project was conducted between the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Johnson Controls, Inc. (JCI) to adapt the INEL spray forming process to produce near-net-shape lead alloy strip. The emphasis of the work was to spray form lead strip samples at INEL, using a variety of spray conditions, for characterization at JCI. An existing glove box apparatus was modified at INEL to spray form lead. The main spray forming components were housed inside the glove box. They included a spray nozzle, tundish (crucible), substrate assembly, gas heater and furnaces to heat the nozzle and tundish. To spray form metal strip, liquid metal was pressure-fed at a controlled rate through a series of circular orifices that span the width of the nozzle. There the metal contacted high velocity, high temperature inert gas (nitrogen) which atomized the molten material into fine droplets, entrained the droplets in a directed flow, and deposited them onto glass plates that were swept through the spray plume to form strip samples. In-flight convection cooling of the droplets followed by conduction and convection cooling at the substrate resulted in rapid solidification of the deposit. During operation, the inside of the glove box was purged with an inert gas to limit the effects of in-flight oxidation of the particles and spray-formed strips, as well as to protect personnel from exposure to airborne lead particulate. Remote controls were used to start/stop the spray and control the speed and position of the substrate. In addition, substrate samples were loaded into the substrate translator manually using the gloved side ports of the box. In this way, the glove box remained closed during a series of spray trials, and was opened only when loading the crucible with a lead charge or when removing lead strip samples for shipment to JCI.

McHugh, K.

1996-04-10

256

76 FR 17379 - National Tree-Marking Paint Committee Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...Chairman, National Tree-marking Paint Committee, Forest Service, USDA, San Dimas Technology and Development Center, 444 East Bonita Avenue, San Dimas, California 91773, or electronically to dhaston@fs.fed.us. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

2011-03-29

257

75 FR 17897 - National Tree-Marking Paint Committee Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...Chairman, National Tree-marking Paint Committee, Forest Service, USDA, San Dimas Technology and Development Center, 444 East Bonita Avenue, San Dimas, California 91773, or electronically to dhaston@fs.fed.us. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

2010-04-08

258

77 FR 20612 - National Tree-Marking Paint Committee Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...Chairman, National Tree-marking Paint Committee, Forest Service, USDA, San Dimas Technology and Development Center, 444 East Bonita Avenue, San Dimas, California 91773, or electronically to dhaston@fs.fed.us. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

2012-04-05

259

Temporary health effects from exposure to water-borne paints.  

Science.gov (United States)

Temporary health effects of exposure to experimental paints were studied. Ten painters feeling nuisance from water-borne paints and eight painters not feeling such nuisance applied eight experimental water-borne paints according to normal work routines. The effects were a decrease in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s and peak expiratory flow, an increase in urine excretion, and a decrease in urine density. A small, but statistically highly significant, increase in the mean volume of erythrocytes was observed. The effects were similar in the two groups, but the "nuisance group" reacted with a larger urine excretion and a larger increase in the mean volume of erythrocytes. The effects did not influence physical work capacity. The effects on the lungs and urinary excretion were probably not associated with the organic solvents or ammonia in the paints. Instead, they were probably due to derivatives of isothiazolinone. This assumption needs verification. PMID:1485163

Ulfvarson, U; Alexandersson, R; Dahlqvist, M; Ekholm, U; Bergström, B; Scullman, J

1992-12-01

260

Emissivity measurement of high-emissivity black paint at CENAM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To measure the temperature of the surface of an opaque object by radiation thermometry, it is necessary to know its surface emissivity. High-emissivity black paint can be applied to the inner walls of a cavity to be used as a blackbody radiator. It can also be applied to some highly reflecting metals so that their temperature can be estimated by radiation thermometry. In this work, it is described the emissivity measurement of high-emissivity black paint that has been used for the two applications described above. The average emissivity of the measured paint in the 8 to 14 micrometers wavelength range was estimated as 0.972 ± 0.012. The results obtained may be of use for those using the paint at temperatures from 50 to 150? C.

D. C\\u00E1rdenas-Garc\\u00EDa

2014-01-01

261

Spiritual Space Making in Persian Painting (Geometry, Proportion and Composition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Concept of space and its use is the basic and main topic in imagery arts works which takes shape proportion with artist view, because Persian painting space is imagination and subjective space thus passes place and time limits of material world and goes around spiritual space imagination called as archetype space, and in it depth feeling is due to surfaces adjustment with each other, although they have differences but their common point is proportion and move due to special geometrical system on shapes, by placing painting motifs in a shape under title geometry of shapes and then its spread a set of regularity and proportion with geometrical forms is created like circle and its divisions in a painting which constitutes composition base of Persian painting works.

Mehrdad Ahmad Amiraghaei

2012-06-01

262

Emissivity measurement of high-emissivity black paint at CENAM  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in english To measure the temperature of the surface of an opaque object by radiation thermometry, it is necessary to know its surface emissivity. High-emissivity black paint can be applied to the inner walls of a cavity to be used as a blackbody radiator. It can also be applied to some highly reflecting metal [...] s so that their temperature can be estimated by radiation thermometry. In this work, it is described the emissivity measurement of high-emissivity black paint that has been used for the two applications described above. The average emissivity of the measured paint in the 8 to 14 micrometers wavelength range was estimated as 0.972 ± 0.012. The results obtained may be of use for those using the paint at temperatures from 50 to 150°C.

D., Cárdenas-García.

2014-08-01

263

Behaviour of painted aluminium in Ibero-American atmosphere  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aluminium generally presents good corrosion resistance to the atmosphere. However, unprotected aluminium and aluminium alloys weather outdoors to an ugly grey colour, which deepens to black in industrial atmospheres, and undergo superficial pitting in marine atmospheres, etc. Finishing technologies are applied for their protection and decoration in a wide range of applications. These technologies basically consist of two protection processes: anodizing and painting: the latter going from conventional solvent base paints to modern water-born, high solids and powder coatings. This paper considers the weathering performance of three paint systems: alkyl, polyurethane and polyester, after more than three years of exposure in a wide spectra of Ibero-American atmospheric conditions. The information reported includes resistance to undercutting corrosion at the scribe, filiform corrosion, fungal attack and change in the physico-chemical properties of the paint surface (loss of gloss, colour changes, chalking, etc.). (Author) 9 refs

264

N-halamine copolymers for use in antimicrobial paints.  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of copolymers containing units of a novel hydantoinylacrylamide and the sodium salt of 2-(acrylamido)-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid have been synthesized. The homopolymer of the hydantoinylacrylamide compound was insoluble in water, while the copolymers with the sulfonic acid sodium salt were water-dispersible/soluble, with the solution becoming completely transparent when the feed ratio for the copolymer contained 7 parts of the hydantoin moiety to 3 parts of the sodium sulfonate moiety. The polymers were added into a commercial water-based latex paint, and upon drying, the painted surfaces treated with the water-miscible copolymers were rendered antimicrobial following chlorination with dilute household bleach. The chlorinated homopolymer failed to provide an antimicrobial property for the paint because of its tendency to isolate into aggregates in the paint, while the completely miscible copolymers were capable of 6-log inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli O157:H7 within 5 min of contact time. PMID:21786779

Kocer, Hasan B; Cerkez, Idris; Worley, S D; Broughton, R M; Huang, T S

2011-08-01

265

47 CFR 17.21 - Painting and lighting, when required.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Painting and lighting, when required. 17.21 Section...GENERAL CONSTRUCTION, MARKING, AND LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Specifications for Obstruction Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures §...

2010-10-01

266

47 CFR 17.53 - Lighting equipment and paint.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lighting equipment and paint. 17.53 ...GENERAL CONSTRUCTION, MARKING, AND LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Specifications for Obstruction Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures §...

2010-10-01

267

Opportunities application of cleaner production practices in paint industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are releases of volatile organic compounds VOC from paint manufacturing process steps and from cleaning operations in El Mohandas Paint Factory. These emission can cause health, safety and productivity problems in the work area. Hence cleaner production application is necessary in this case. Some of the manufacturing processes and equipment used to accomplish these manufacturing are analyzed and generate cleaner production opportunities, implement some of cleaner production solutions of VOC emission control by some of the methods used by paint facilities in reducing emissions. It was found that there is no control available for emissions factors in paints manufacturing process, so that VOC emission based on raw material consumption rather than calculation emission from processes or equipment by alternative method. (Author)

268

Penetrability of chloride ions in concrete protected by an acrylic painting  

OpenAIRE

In order do decrease the penetrability of chloride ions in concrete the use of paintings based on polymers can be a good solution. The use of acrylic paintings is recommended because they have good resistance to ultraviolet radiation. It is important to quantify the decrease of chloride ions penetrability obtained by the use of this kind of paintings. The durability of the polymeric paintings is another aspect that needs to be analysed. In this study an acrylic painting was used to protect...

Aguiar, J. L. Barroso; Dias, J. A.

2004-01-01

269

Degradation of wall paints due to sodium sulphate and sodium chloride crystallization  

OpenAIRE

A test method for evaluating wall paints behaviour to soluble salts crystallization was developed at LNEC. in the present paper, a recent set of tests is described and discussed. The major objectives were: analysing and comparing the behaviour of a common emulsion {"plastic") paint and a silicate-based paint; observing and comparing the effect of sodium sulphate, sodium chloride and distilled water on the paints and on a non-painted stone; evaluating this test method adequacy and effectivenes...

Di?az Gonc?alves, T.

2003-01-01

270

Beauty in abstract paintings: Perceptual contrast and statistical properties  

OpenAIRE

In this study, we combined the behavioral and objective approach in the field of empirical aesthetics. First, we studied the perception of beauty by investigating shifts in evaluation on perceived beauty of abstract artworks (Experiment 1). Because the participants showed heterogeneous individual preferences for the paintings, we divided them into seven clusters for the test. The experiment revealed a clear pattern of perceptual contrast. The perceived beauty of abstract paintings increased a...

Christoph Redies

2014-01-01

271

Wall painting in the Roman empire: colour, design and technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Roman wall paintings are frequently admired by visitors to such famous sites as Pompeii and Herculaneum, and traces of them also survive in the remains of many towns and villas throughout the lands of the former empire, but the technological skill of the Roman painters is less widely appreciated. Here the sources of the pigments used and the methods the painters employed to plaster and paint the walls are described.

Elizabeth Pye

2000-11-01

272

Wall painting in the Roman empire: colour, design and technology  

OpenAIRE

Roman wall paintings are frequently admired by visitors to such famous sites as Pompeii and Herculaneum, and traces of them also survive in the remains of many towns and villas throughout the lands of the former empire, but the technological skill of the Roman painters is less widely appreciated. Here the sources of the pigments used and the methods the painters employed to plaster and paint the walls are described.

Elizabeth Pye

2000-01-01

273

A simple model to describe the thixotropic behavior of paints.  

OpenAIRE

We propose a simple rheological model to describe the thixotropic behavior of paints, since the classical hysteresis area, which is usually used, is not enough to evaluate thixotropy. The model is based on the assumption that viscosity is a direct measure of the structural level of the paint. The model depends on two equations: the Cross-Carreau equation to describe the equilibrium viscosity and a second order kinetic equation to express the time dependence of viscosity. Two characteristic th...

Armelin, Elaine; Marti?, Mireia; Rude? I Payro?, Elisabet; Labanda, Jordi; Llorens Llacuna, Joan; Alema?n, Carlos

2006-01-01

274

The Conservation of Panel paintings : Research Agenda 2014-2010  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Until the early 17th century almost all portable paintings were created on wood supports, including masterpieces by famous painters, ranging from Giotto to Dürer to Rembrandt. The structural conservation of these paintings requires specific knowledge and skills as the supports are susceptible to damage caused by unstable environmental conditions. Unfortunately, past structural interventions often caused significant damage due to insufficient knowledge of the behaviour of the wood panels, glue and paint layers. Over the last fifty years, the field has developed treatment strategies based on interdisciplinary collaboration and on the knowledge of specialist conservators. Most current conservation protocols rely on empirical knowledge of conservators and are not necessarily based on a scientific understanding of the nature and behaviour of wood and paint layers. In order to move the field forward, it is imperative to strengthen scientific research into the production methods, ageing and future behaviour of panel paintings, being an intricate interplay between different materials. A deeper understanding of the processes that adversely affect panel paintings over time will contribute to the improved care and conservation of these artworks. The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) and the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam brought together a group of experts from different disciplines to recommend specific areas in the field that would benefit from systematic research. The experts concluded that targeted interdisciplinary research projects are key to understanding the behaviour of panel paintings and help conservators make better informed decisions. Research into chemical and physical properties of wood, glue and paint layers should be combined with an evaluation of past and current conservation treatments. Research should also consider the history of the object, studio practice, conservation history and thoughts on long-term impact of treatments.

2014-01-01

275

Predicting and Measuring the Perceived Texture of Car Paints  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we describe new methods to predict and measure the perceived texture of car paints. Previously, we have shown that the perceived texture of car paints can best be described by two parameters, Glint impression and Diffuse coarseness. The actually perceived texture is a combination of these, depending mainly on the relative contributions of diffuse versus directional lighting. Commercially available instruments have been developed to accurately measure these texture par...

Kirchner, Eric; Ravi, Jyotsna

2012-01-01

276

Painting of fourth, a chromosome-specific protein in Drosophila  

OpenAIRE

Chromosome-specific gene regulation is known thus far only as a mechanism to equalize the transcriptional activity of the single male X chromosome with that of the two female X chromosomes. In Drosophila melanogaster, a complex including the five Male-Specific Lethal (MSL) proteins, “paints” the male X chromosome, mediating its hypertranscription. Here, with the molecular cloning of Painting of fourth (Pof), we describe a previously uncharacterized gene enc...

Larsson, Jan; Chen, J. Don; Rasheva, Vanya; Rasmuson-lestander, A?sa; Pirrotta, Vincenzo

2001-01-01

277

Evaluation of Water Resistance and Diffusion Properties of Paint Materials  

OpenAIRE

A simple method is presented for evaluating the water-proofness quality of paints on lining materials. The method is based on measuring the integral capillarity in dependence on time, and then comparing this value to the value determined for the basic lining material. Measurements of the effective water vapor permeability then provide information on the risk of condensation which may increase after applying the paint. A practical application of the method is performed with four Karlocolor pai...

Drchalova?, J.; Pode?bradska?, J.; Made?ra, J.; C?erny?, R.

2001-01-01

278

New materials for temperature and pressure sensitive fluorescent paints  

OpenAIRE

This thesis describes the preparation and evaluation of new materials for imaging of barometric pressure and temperature using so-called luminescent paints. The historical background and the motivation for the research conducted are given in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 summarizes the basic principles of photoluminescence involved in imaging of partial oxygen pressure and temperature, the fundamentals of the design of pressure and temperature sensitive paints. It also summarizes the effects of lumine...

Fischer, Lorenz

2012-01-01

279

Experimental Analysis of Spray Dryer Used in Hydroxyapatite Thermal Spray Powder  

Science.gov (United States)

The spray drying process of hydroxyapatite (HA) powder used as a plasma spray powder on human hip implants was examined. The Niro-Minor mixed spray dryer was studied because it incorporates both co-current and counter-current air mixing systems. The process parameters of the spray drying were investigated: temperature, flow rate of the inlet hot air in the spray dryer, viscosity of feed/HA slurry, and responses (chamber and cyclone powder size, deposition of powder on the wall of spray dryer, and overall thermal efficiency). The statistical analysis (ANOVA test) showed that for the chamber particle size, viscosity was the most significant parameter, while for the cyclone particle size, the main effects were temperature, viscosity, and flow rate, but also their interaction effects were significant. The spray dried HA powder showed the two main shapes were a doughnut and solid sphere shape as a result of the different input.

Murtaza, Q.; Stokes, J.; Ardhaoui, M.

2012-09-01

280

Modification of optoelectronic properties of sprayed CZTS thin films through spray rate variation  

Science.gov (United States)

Effect of spray rate on structural, optical and electrical properties of spray pyrolysed Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films was investigated. We deposited films by varying spray rate from 2 ml/min to 10 ml/min in steps of 2 ml/min. For very low and high spray rates presence of secondary phases could be observed while for the films prepared at a spray rate of 6 ml/min were devoid of secondary phases. As spray rate increases band gap decreased. Samples prepared at 6 ml/min had optimum band gap of 1.5 eV. All the samples were observed to be p-type. Resistivity values increased steadily up to 6 ml/min and then slightly decreased. From the present work, CZTS films prepared at a spray rate of 6 ml/min is found to be ideal for absorber layer in solar cell.

Rajeshmon, V. G.; Kartha, C. Sudha; Vijayakumar, K. P.

2014-04-01

281

Experiencing art: the influence of expertise and painting abstraction level  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How does expertise influence the perception of representational and abstract paintings? We asked 20 experts on art history and 20 laypersons to explore and evaluate a series of paintings ranging in style from representational to abstract in five categories. We compared subjective aesthetic judgments and emotional evaluations, gaze patterns, and electrodermal reactivity between the two groups of participants. The level of abstraction affected aesthetic judgments and emotional valence ratings of the laypersons but had no effect on the opinions of the experts: the laypersons’ aesthetic and emotional ratings were highest for representational paintings and lowest for abstract paintings, whereas the opinions of the experts were independent of the abstraction level. The gaze patterns of both groups changed as the level of abstraction increased: the number of fixations and the length of the scanpaths increased while the duration of the fixations decreased. The viewing strategies—reflected in the target, location and path of the fixations—however indicated that experts and laypersons paid attention to different aspects of the paintings. The electrodermal reactivity did not vary according to the level of abstraction in either group but expertise was reflected in weaker responses, compared with laypersons, to information received about the paintings.

ElinaPihko

2011-09-01

282

Radiocarbon determinations for Chillagoe rock paintings: small sample AMS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indirect dating methods have been applied to the rock paintings of Chillagoe, north Queensland, revealing patterns of superimposition, depictions of items of known antiquity, the use of fragile paints such as mud, and in-situ pigment stratigraphies (David 1994). These patterns suggest that the Chillagoe rock paintings are relatively young, likely less than 3000 years old. A change in the geographical distribution of rock painting styles suggests a regionalization of the styles starting around 3000 years BP. Such regionalization implies that major cultural changes accompanied the changes in rock painting styles. This model of temporal change is now being investigated through a collaboration between the University of Queensland, ANSTO and the Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University to directly analyze radiocarbon in the charcoal pigments in several of the Chillagoe rock paintings. Samples collected from fourteen separate charcoal rock drawings at five rock shelters in the Chillagoe region were submitted to plasma chemical treatment. Though unreactive, the excited and energetic argon atoms in the plasma remove surface-absorbed CO2 through inelastic collisions. Samples yielding less than 100 micrograms carbon required special handling for AMS analysis. An isotope dilution technique utilizing 14C-free carbon was chosen. Radiocarbon analysis were also performed and the results will be presented

283

Radiocarbon determinations for Chillagoe rock paintings: small sample AMS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Indirect dating methods have been applied to the rock paintings of Chillagoe, north Queensland, revealing patterns of superimposition, depictions of items of known antiquity, the use of fragile paints such as mud, and in-situ pigment stratigraphies (David 1994). These patterns suggest that the Chillagoe rock paintings are relatively young, likely less than 3000 years old. A change in the geographical distribution of rock painting styles suggests a regionalization of the styles starting around 3000 years BP. Such regionalization implies that major cultural changes accompanied the changes in rock painting styles. This model of temporal change is now being investigated through a collaboration between the University of Queensland, ANSTO and the Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University to directly analyze radiocarbon in the charcoal pigments in several of the Chillagoe rock paintings. Samples collected from fourteen separate charcoal rock drawings at five rock shelters in the Chillagoe region were submitted to plasma chemical treatment. Though unreactive, the excited and energetic argon atoms in the plasma remove surface-absorbed CO{sub 2} through inelastic collisions. Samples yielding less than 100 micrograms carbon required special handling for AMS analysis. An isotope dilution technique utilizing {sup 14}C-free carbon was chosen. Radiocarbon analysis were also performed and the results will be presented. Paper No. 25; 2 refs., 1 tab.

Armitage, R.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M. W. [Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas (United States). Department of Chemistry; David, B. [Queensland Univ St. Lucia, QLD (Australia); Tuniz, C.; Lawson, E.; Jacobsen, G.; Hua, G. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

1997-12-31

284

Stable isotope analysis of white paints and likelihood ratios.  

Science.gov (United States)

Architectural paints are commonly found as trace evidence at scenes of crime. Currently the most widely used technique for the analysis of architectural paints is Fourier Transformed Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR). There are, however, limitations to the forensic analysis of white paints, and the ability to discriminate between samples. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) has been investigated as a potential tool for the analysis of architectural white paints, where no preparation of samples prior to analysis is required. When stable isotope profiles (SIPs) are compared, there appears to be no relationship between paints from the same manufacturer, or between paints of the same type. Unlike existing techniques, IRMS does not differentiate resin samples solely on the basis of modifier or oil-type, but exploits additional factors linked to samples such as geo-location where oils added to alkyd formulations were grown. In combination with the use of likelihood ratios, IRMS shows potential, with a false positive rate of 2.6% from a total of 1275 comparisons. PMID:19606590

Farmer, N; Meier-Augenstein, W; Lucy, D

2009-06-01

285

Emission of isothiazolinones from water-based paints.  

Science.gov (United States)

The isothiazolinone preservatives methylisothiazolinone (MI), methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI), and benzisothiazolinone (BIT) are used in a wide variety of products including paint and cosmetics, and they are known to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Among painters they are one of the most common causes of contact dermatitis. Furthermore, they are all volatile, and severe reactions caused by emissions of especially MI from paint have been reported recently. In this study the concentrations of MI, BIT, and MCI in water-based paint were analyzed by LC-MS-MS, and the emissions from the paints were measured in climate chambers and in an apartment. Nineteen paints were analyzed for the content of MI, MCI, and BIT. All 19 paints contained MI, 16 contained BIT, and 4 contained MCI. In the chamber experiment emission of MI peaked within hours of application but then continued at a slow rate for more than 42 days. MCI was emitted more slowly and peaked after several days. BIT emissions were all around the limit of detection. In the apartment we were able to detect emission of MI several days after application. Long lasting evaporation and thus chronic exposure give credibility to the clinical observations that MI can be an important cause of airborne contact dermatitis among painters and consumers. PMID:24869638

Lundov, Michael D; Kolarik, Barbara; Bossi, Rossana; Gunnarsen, Lars; Johansen, Jeanne D

2014-06-17

286

Emission of Isothiazolinones from Water-Based Paints  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The isothiazolinone preservatives methylisothiazolinone (MI), methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI), and benzisothiazolinone (BIT) are used in a wide variety of products including paint and cosmetics, and they are known to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Among painters they are one of the most common causes of contact dermatitis. Furthermore, they are all volatile, and severe reactions caused by emissions of especially MI from paint have been reported recently. In this study the concentrations of MI, BIT, and MCI in water-based paint were analyzed by LC-MS-MS, and the emissions from the paints were measured in climate chambers and in an apartment. Nineteen paints were analyzed for the content of MI, MCI, and BIT. All 19 paints contained MI, 16 contained BIT, and 4 contained MCI. In the chamber experiment emission of MI peaked within hours of application but then continued at a slow rate for more than 42 days. MCI was emitted more slowly and peaked after several days. BIT emissions were all around the limit of detection. In the apartment we were able to detect emission of MI several days after application. Long lasting evaporation and thus chronic exposure give credibility to the clinical observations that MI can be an important cause of airborne contact dermatitis among painters and consumers.

Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Kolarik, Barbara

2014-01-01

287

Site environmental assessment to an old paint factory in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

High ethyl-benzene and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) were found in the soil samples and groundwater samples during a site environmental assessment for an old paint factory in the city Changchun, Jilin province of China. The target old paint plant had been in operation for near 30 years by manufacturing resin and house paint. Driving force for this study was to identify potential environmental contamination existing in this paint factory which is located next to a new resident area under construction. The assessment result would be used as baseline environmental data input for remediation plan when the factory site will be changed into potential resident area in near future. The analytical data from the soil samples from different area of the factory which had high exposure to operation showed that solid waster storage area was contaminated with high heavy metals (Cd, Pb, and Zn) and waster paint storage areas were contaminated with ethyl-benzene, xylene and C9-C30 aromatic hydrocarbon solvent. The analytical data from the groundwater samples from different area of the factory showed that resin plant area and waster paint storage areas were contaminated with high concentration of naphthalene, ethyl-benzene and xylene which exceed the reference standard. Remediation action is recommended. PMID:17564796

Yan, Fucheng; Yan, Jichang; Wang, Yuehong; Chen, Dawei

2008-04-01

288

Spraying of chromium oxide and zircon suspensions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studied were the dispersion parameters, dispersion phase content and addition compositions for production of stable chromium oxide and zircon suspensions intended for spraying. Developed is the technique of chromium oxide and zircon suspension spraying for production of dense spherical granules, which allow one to make high-quality large-sized articles by hydrostatic pressing

289

PROPELLER WASH EFFECTS ON SPRAY DRIFT  

Science.gov (United States)

For aerial spray application, there is some question if off-target drift (both near and far) is influenced by which boom is spraying and the direction of propeller wash rotation. This information may be useful when switching off one boom close to a field boundary. The effect of alternate boom switch...

290

Spray dryer or wet limestone FGD  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the comparison of spray dryer and wet limestone FGD system costs and provides information regarding a decision of which to use. The differences between a retrofit and application are discussed with the conclusion being that the wet limestone system has advantages for some retrofit applications while the spray dryer has the advantage for many new plant applications

291

Arc spraying solderable tabs to glass  

Science.gov (United States)

Tabs suitable for electrical or mechanical connections in solar cells and integrated circuits are made by spraying technique. Solder wets copper, copper bonds to aluminum, and aluminum adheres to glass. Arc spraying is automated and integrated with encapsulation, eliminating hand tabbing, improving reliability, and reducing cost.

Lindmayer, J.

1981-01-01

292

Effect of hydrophobic paints coating for tritium reduction in concrete materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Effects of hydrophobic paint coating in tritium transport are investigated. ? Two kinds of paints, acrylic-silicon resin and epoxy resin are used. ? The hydrophobic paints are effective to reduce tritium permeation. ? The effect of tritium reduction of epoxy paint is higher than that of silicon. - Abstract: The effects of hydrophobic paint coating on a concrete material of cement paste on the tritium transport are investigated. The cement paste is coated with two kinds of paints, acrylic-silicon resin paint and epoxy resin paint. We investigated the amount of tritium trapped in the samples exposed to tritiated water vapor by means of sorption and release. It was found that both the hydrophobic paints could reduce effectively tritium permeation during 50 days exposure of tritiated water vapor. The effect of tritium reduction of the epoxy paint was higher than that of silicon while the amount of tritium trapped in the epoxy paint was larger than that of silicon due to difference of the structure. Based on an analysis of a diffusion model, the rate-determining step of tritium migration through cement paste coated with the paints is diffusion through the paints respectively. It was found that tritium was easy to penetrate through silicon because there were many pores or voids in the silicon comparatively. In the case of tritium released from the epoxy paint, it is considered that tritium diffusion in epoxy is slow due to retardation by isotope exchane to retardation by isotope exchange reaction to water included in epoxy paint.

293

Degradation of lime wood painting supports  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Degradation of wood, being a natural process, leads to destruction of wooden objects of historic and cultural value, resulting in loss of cultural heritage. Wood can survive centuries or even thousands of years, if kept in an environment, which limits microbial activity. In an unfavourable environment physical, chemical and morphological modifications of wood also take place as a result of biodegradation. It is important to know the type of degradation and how the processes influence material properties if wooden items are to be properly preserved. The objective of this study is to present new knowledge on non-invasive techniques useful to assess the preservation status of lime wood in art objects. The methods of investigation were optical and electronic microscopy, wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS, and FT-IR spectroscopy. Following a deconvolution process of the diffraction patterns, crystalline index, apparent lateral crystallite size, proportion of crystallite interior chains, orientation index, mesomorphism, cellulose fraction have been determined and shown to change with increasing age of painting supports. Structural modifications were assessed by FT-IR spectrometry and 2D correlation FT-IR spectroscopy, while morphological modification were characterised using SEM. The principal hetero-elements of the lime wood samples were detected by EDX. It can be concluded that only a multi-analytical approach can provide the information needed on wood degradation processes.

Cristina Maria Popescu

2005-09-01

294

Vibrational and electronic properties of painting lakes  

Science.gov (United States)

Naturally occurring dyes have been used to produce painting pigments, called lakes, by precipitation or adsorption of an organic dyestuff onto an insoluble inorganic substrate. Most natural dyes link to metal cations, by means of coordination bonds. The stable complexes formed precipitate together with solid amorphous hydrous aluminum oxide in alkaline solutions, yielding a hybrid material called a lake. Conventional chromatographic methods for lake analysis require dye extraction from the substrate; as a consequence, they do not provide any information about the organo-metallic complexes. In this work a comprehensive investigation based on X-ray fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared and UV-visible absorption and emission spectroscopies was carried out on 13 organic pigments derived from eight different natural sources. Three different kinds of substrate containing aluminum hydroxide were distinguished dependent on different preparation procedures. Information concerning the recipe and the dye composition was obtained by UV-visible spectroscopies. Dyes from different sources (animal or vegetal) could be distinguished. This study shows that the combined use of different spectroscopic techniques provides complementary information to high-performance liquid chromatography and therefore can be proposed for a molecular non-invasive investigation of these materials on works of art.

Clementi, C.; Doherty, B.; Gentili, P. L.; Miliani, C.; Romani, A.; Brunetti, B. G.; Sgamellotti, A.

2008-07-01

295

24 CFR 35.1320 - Lead-based paint inspections, paint testing, risk assessments, lead-hazard screens, and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...samples collected for the lead-hazard screen may be...risk assessment. If the lead hazard screen does not...but not required, that lead-based paint inspectors, risk assessors, and sampling technicians provide a...

2010-04-01

296

Transfer of tritium in concrete coated with hydrophobic paints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Rates of tritium migration in porous concrete materials coated with or without hydrophobic paints for the safety of fusion reactor rooms are correlated in terms of diffusivity or linear sorption. - Abstract: An experimental study on tritium (T) transfer in porous concrete for the tertiary T safety containment is performed to investigate (i) how fast HTO penetrates through concrete walls, (ii) how well concrete walls contaminated with water-soluble T are decontaminated by a solution-in-water technique, and (iii) how well hydrophobic paint coating works as a protecting film against HTO migrating through concrete walls. The experiment is comparatively carried out using disks of cement paste which W(water)/C(cement) weight ratio is 0.6:1 with or without hydrophobic paints, and mortar disks which W/C/sand ratio is 0.6:1:2 with or without the paints. The hydrophobic paints tested in the present study are an epoxy polymer resin paint and an acrylic-silicon polymer resin one. After T exposure during specified time under a constant HTO vapor pressure in an acrylic box, the amount of water-soluble HTO on/in the disks is determined using a technique of H2O dissolution during specified time. The results obtained here are summarized as follows: (1) HTO penetration in porous concrete can be correlated in terms of the effective diffusivity. (2) Its value in porous cement without coating is 1.2 × 10?11 m2/s at 25 °C. (3) HTO penetrp>2/s at 25 °C. (3) HTO penetrates only through pores in cement, and there is no path for HTO transfer in non-porous sand. (4) Rates of sorption and dissolution of HTO in disks of cement and mortar coated with the epoxy resin paint are correlated in terms of the effective diffusivity through the paint film which value is DT = 1.0 × 10?16 m2/s. The rate-determining step is diffusion through the paint. (5) The epoxy resin paint works more effectively as an anti-HTO diffusion coating. (6) Another acrylic-silicon resin paint does not work well as anti-HTO diffusion coating. This may be because the hydrophobic property of the silicon resin paint is deteriorated with elongating the contact time with H2O vapor or liquid. (7) The HTO uptake inside the epoxy paint is greater than that of the silicon one. (8) The permeation reduction factor (PRF) of HTO for the epoxy paint at steady-state is expected large, if HTO vapor only contributes to diffusion. However, when concrete surfaces coated with the epoxy paint are under wet conditions, the PRF value becomes smaller. All those results can be used to estimate the effect of HTO soaking in concrete walls in case of accidental T release in a fusion reactor room and to decontaminate wastes of tritiated concrete.

297

Transfer of tritium in concrete coated with hydrophobic paints  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rates of tritium migration in porous concrete materials coated with or without hydrophobic paints for the safety of fusion reactor rooms are correlated in terms of diffusivity or linear sorption. - Abstract: An experimental study on tritium (T) transfer in porous concrete for the tertiary T safety containment is performed to investigate (i) how fast HTO penetrates through concrete walls, (ii) how well concrete walls contaminated with water-soluble T are decontaminated by a solution-in-water technique, and (iii) how well hydrophobic paint coating works as a protecting film against HTO migrating through concrete walls. The experiment is comparatively carried out using disks of cement paste which W(water)/C(cement) weight ratio is 0.6:1 with or without hydrophobic paints, and mortar disks which W/C/sand ratio is 0.6:1:2 with or without the paints. The hydrophobic paints tested in the present study are an epoxy polymer resin paint and an acrylic-silicon polymer resin one. After T exposure during specified time under a constant HTO vapor pressure in an acrylic box, the amount of water-soluble HTO on/in the disks is determined using a technique of H{sub 2}O dissolution during specified time. The results obtained here are summarized as follows: (1) HTO penetration in porous concrete can be correlated in terms of the effective diffusivity. (2) Its value in porous cement without coating is 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} m{sup 2}/s at 25 Degree-Sign C. (3) HTO penetrates only through pores in cement, and there is no path for HTO transfer in non-porous sand. (4) Rates of sorption and dissolution of HTO in disks of cement and mortar coated with the epoxy resin paint are correlated in terms of the effective diffusivity through the paint film which value is D{sub T} = 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -16} m{sup 2}/s. The rate-determining step is diffusion through the paint. (5) The epoxy resin paint works more effectively as an anti-HTO diffusion coating. (6) Another acrylic-silicon resin paint does not work well as anti-HTO diffusion coating. This may be because the hydrophobic property of the silicon resin paint is deteriorated with elongating the contact time with H{sub 2}O vapor or liquid. (7) The HTO uptake inside the epoxy paint is greater than that of the silicon one. (8) The permeation reduction factor (PRF) of HTO for the epoxy paint at steady-state is expected large, if HTO vapor only contributes to diffusion. However, when concrete surfaces coated with the epoxy paint are under wet conditions, the PRF value becomes smaller. All those results can be used to estimate the effect of HTO soaking in concrete walls in case of accidental T release in a fusion reactor room and to decontaminate wastes of tritiated concrete.

Fukada, S., E-mail: sfukada@nucl.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Edao, Y.; Sato, K.; Takeishi, T.; Katayama, K. [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Kobayashi, K.; Hayashi, T.; Yamanishi, T. [Tritium Process Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hatano, Y.; Taguchi, A.; Akamaru, S. [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)

2012-01-15

298

Containment spray experiments for pressure suppression  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A containment spray-system is one of the nuclear safety devices installed in pressurized water reactors to suppress the inner pressure and to remove iodine vapor in the containment vessel in a postulated large accident. A subject of the Containment Spray Test is to confirm the effectiveness of pressure suppression. Cold water was injected as spray droplets into a large vessel of 700 m3 prepared in a given steam-air condition. Practically applied spray nozzles of hollow cone type were used at several heights by changing the number of nozzles. The experimental results showed that the pressure decreased mostly with flow rate of spray injected and independently of the position of nozzle height. (author)

299

Toluene removal by oxidation reaction in spray wet scrubber: experimental, modeling and optimization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Toluene, an important volatile organic compound (VOC, is used in many kinds of industries, such as painting, printing, coating, and petrochemical industries. The emission of toluene causes serious air pollution, odor problem, flammability problem and affects human health. This paper proposes the removal of toluene from waste air using a spray wet scrubber combining the absorption and oxidation reaction. Aqueous sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl solution was used as the scrubbing liquid in the system. NaOCl, the strongest oxidative agent, presents an effective toluene removal. As the scrubbed toluene is reacted, recirculation of the scrubbing liquid could be operated with a constant removal efficiency throughout the operting time. The investigated variables affecting the removal efficiency were air flow rate, inlet toluene concentration, NaOCl concentration, scrubbing liquid flow rate and size of spray nozzle. Influence of the scrubbing parameters was experimentally studied to develop a mathematical model of the toluene removal efficiency. The removal model reveals that the increase of scrubbing liquid flow rate, toluene concentration, and NaOCl concentration together with the decrease of air flow rate and size of spray nozzle can increase the toluene removal efficiency. Optimization problem with an objective function and constraints was set to provide the maximum toluene removal efficiency and solved by Matlab optimization toolbox. The optimization constraints were formed from the mathematical model and process limitation. The solution of the optimization was an air flow rate of 100 m3/h, toluene concentration of 1500 ppm, NaOCl concentration of 0.02 mol/l, NaOCl solution feed rate of 0.8 m3/h, and spray nozzle size of 0.5 mm. Solution of the optimization gave the highest toluene removal efficiency of 91.7%.

Roumporn Nikom

2006-11-01

300

Transient analysis of intermittent multijet sprays  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper analyzes the transient characteristics of intermittent sprays produced by the single-point impact of multiple cylindrical jets. The aim is to perform a transient analysis of the intermittent atomization process to study the effect of varying the number of impinging jets in the hydrodynamic mechanisms of droplet formation. The results evidence that hydrodynamic mechanisms underlying the physics of ligament fragmentation in 2-impinging jets sprays also apply to sprays produced with more than 2 jets during the main period of injection. Ligaments detaching from the liquid sheet, as well as from its bounding rim, have been identified and associated with distinct droplet clusters, which become more evident as the number of impinging jets increases. Droplets produced by detached ligaments constitute the main spray, and their axial velocity becomes more uniformly distributed with 4-impinging jets because of a delayed ligament fragmentation. Multijet spray dispersion patterns are geometric depending on the number of impinging jets. Finally, an analysis on the Weber number of droplets suggests that multijet sprays are more likely to deposit on interposed surfaces, thus becoming a promising and competitive atomization solution for improving spray cooling.

Panão, Miguel R. Oliveira; Moreira, António Luis N.; Durão, Diamantino G.

2012-07-01

301

LWR containment spray iodine removal calculation code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the reactor containment vessel of LWR, there are containment sprays and air-cleaning filters to prevent the release of radioiodine from the reactor building to the atmosphere in LOCA. The computer code MIRA-PB for predicting iodine removal by containment spray is made on the basis of MIRAP/MIRAB code developed in Battelle's Columbus Laboratories. MIRA-PB considers behavior of elemental iodine, organic iodide, and iodic aerosol in natural deposition, liquid-film absorption, spray washout, filteration, and leakage to atmosphere. Information is obtained on the contributions of sprays to iodine removal under LOCA conditions which depends on partition coefficient of elemental iodine and organic iodide, pH, temperature, concentrations in gaseous and liquid phases, physical properties of spray, motion of spray droplets in the containment vessel, and mass-transfer rate from gaseous to liquid phase. Iodine removal by sprays in PWR, BWR, Battelle's CSE and JAERI-model containment is calculated by MIRA-PB under LOCA simulated condition. (auth.)

302

Plasma sprayed samarium--cobalt permanent magnets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Samarium--cobalt permanent magnets were fabricated by arc plasma spraying. This process involves the injection of relatively coarse powder particles into a high-temperature gas for melting and spraying onto a substrate. The technique is being investigated as an economical method for fabricating cobalt--rare earth magnets for advanced traveling wave tubes and cross-field amplifiers. Plasma spraying permits deposition of material at high rates over large areas with optional direct bonding to the substrate, and offers the ability to fabricate magnets in a variety of shapes and sizes. Isotropic magnets were produced with high coercivity and good reproducibility in magnetic properties. Post-spray thermal treatments were used to enhance the magnetic properties of sprayed deposits. Samarium--cobalt magnets, sprayed from samarium-rich powder and subjected to post-spray heat treatment, displayed energy products in excess of 9 million gauss-oersteds and coercive forces of approximately 6000 oersteds. Bar magnet arrays were constructed by depositing magnets on ceramic substrates. (auth)

303

Corrosion- and wear-resistant plasma-spray coatings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The properties of plasma-sprayed coatings were investigated with the aim of obtaining corrosion- and wear-resistant coatings for structural parts of the PWR. The spraying parameters were modified to increase the adherence, to make the working temperature broader and the porosity smaller. For the so-called 'High-Velocity Plasma Spraying' modified industrially produced plasma spray guns were used. (orig.)

304

Reactor Containment Spray Technology Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design basis accident in water moderated power reactors is a loss-of-coolant accident in which water sprays are generally employed to control the containment pressure transient by condensing the released steam-air mixture. Additives to the spray have been proposed as a way to increase their usefulness by enhancing the removal of various forms of radioiodine from the containment atmosphere. A program to investigate the gas-liquid systems involved is co-ordinated by ORNL for the US Atomic Energy Commission. A basic part of the program is the search for various chemical additives that will increase the spray affinity for molecular iodine and methyl iodide. A method for evaluating additives was developed that measures equilibrium distribution coefficients for iodine between air and aqueous solutions. Additives selected are used in single drop-wind tunnel experiments where the circulating gas contains iodine or CH3I. Mass transfer coefficients and transient distribution coefficients have been determined as a function of relative humidity, temperature, drop size, and solution pH and concentration. Tests have shown that surfactants and organic amines increase the solution ability to getter CH3l. Results from single drop tests help in planning spray experiments in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant, a large (?38 m3) facility, where accident conditions are closely simulated. Iodine and CH3I removal rates have been determined for a emoval rates have been determined for a number of solutions, including 1 wt% Na2S2O3 + 3000 ppm B + 0.153 M NaOH and 3000 ppm B + 0.153 M NaOH. The additive has very little effect in removal of I2 with half-lives of less than 1 mm typical for any aqueous solution. These same solutions remove CH3I with a half-life of one hour. Analytical models for the removal processes have been developed. Consideration is also being given to corrosion, thermal and radiation stability of the solutions. Radiation studies have indicated the loss of I2 equivalence, change in pH, solids formation, and H2 generation for accident doses. The 1 wt% Na2S2O3 + 3000 ppm B + 0.153 M NaOH produces 2.6 x 10-1cm3/ml of H2 at a dose of 4 x 107R with a gas-to-liquid ratio of 25. Dose rate has no effect on the H2 production under the same conditions, while the addition of 1 wt% [NO3] reduced the H2 production by a factor of 2. The study of H2 generation has been expanded due to the relatively large amounts produced. (author)

305

Organophosphate residues in grasshoppers from sprayed rangelands  

Science.gov (United States)

Grasshoppers (Orthoptera) were collected in pastures that had been sprayed with malathion and acephate to estimate the secondary exposure of insectivorous birds to these pesticides. Residues of malathion were below 3 ppm at 30 'and 54 hours after spraying and no malaoxon was detected. In contrast, acephate was found at 8 and 9 ppm 4 hours after spray; 3-5 ppm of the toxic metabolite methamidophos were also detected at that time. By 53 hours postspray, acephate levels declined to 2 ppm and methamidophos to less than 1 ppm. These results suggest that although malathion may not be a hazard to insectivorous species. acephate may be hazardous through metabolic transformation to methamidophos.

Stromborg, K.L.; McEwen, L.C.; Lamont, T.

1984-01-01

306

Spray deposition using impulse atomization technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel technique, impulse atomization, has been used for spray deposition. This single fluid atomization technique leads to different spray characteristics and impact conditions of the droplets compared to gas atomization technique which is the common technique used for spray deposition. Deposition experiments with a Cu-6Sn alloy were conducted to evaluate the appropriateness of impulse atomization to produce dense material. Based on these experiments, a model has been developed to simulate the thermal history and the local solidification rates of the deposited material. A numerical study shows how different cooling conditions affect the solidification rate of the material

307

Thermal conductivity of plasma-sprayed molybdenum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thermal conductivity of plasma-sprayed molybdenum was measured in the temperature range between 1,300 and 2,300 K. There is a distinct dependence of the values of thermal conductivity on the preceding annealing temperature. If the annealing temperature is increased, the values rise by evaporation of the oxide impurities (caused by the manufacturing process). The sample structure is changed, too. The laminated constitution characteristic of untreated samples turns to a grained structure. No dependence on the spray parameters used in manufacturing (grain size, spraying distance) was found. (orig.)

308

Numerical parametric studies of spray combustion instability  

Science.gov (United States)

A coupled numerical algorithm has been developed for studies of combustion instabilities in spray-driven liquid rocket engines. The model couples gas and liquid phase physics using the method of fractional steps. Also introduced is a novel, efficient methodology for accounting for spray formation through direct solution of liquid phase equations. Preliminary parametric studies show marked sensitivity of spray penetration and geometry to droplet diameter, considerations of liquid core, and acoustic interactions. Less sensitivity was shown to the combustion model type although more rigorous (multi-step) formulations may be needed for the differences to become apparent.

Pindera, M. Z.

1993-01-01

309

Comparative evaluation of containment spray additives: detrimental impacts of an inadvertent spray actuation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents the results of an engineering analysis of detrimental health and economic impacts of inadvertent operation of a containment spray system. Injection spray solutions of plain water, boric acid, boric acid with hydrazine, boric acid with sodium hydroxide, and sodium borate with sodium thiosulfate were considered. It was concluded that none of the solutions would represent an acute toxicity problem to people in the containment vessel at the time of an unwanted spray system trip. Also, corrosion to safety-related equipment was found to be negligible. The major effect of spray additive type in an inadvertent spray operation appears to be the level of effort required to recover from the incident. None of the detrimental effects brought to light in this study appear to play a determining role in the selection of spray additive type

310

Study on the spraying parameters of a plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coating  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydroxyapatite(HA) was spray-coated to alloy substrate(Ti-6Al-4V)using plasma-spray process for bioceramic application. The coating morphology, composition and crystallinity were influenced by following process parameters ; stand-off distance, spray power level and auxiliary gas pressure. These parameters have been systematically varied in the present study to evaluate their relative influence on the coating quality and to seek an optimum spraying condition. Amorphicity and decomposition of HA increased with stand-off distance, and the imperfect coating layer was obtained at the short stand-off distance(55 mm). the crystallinity of HA coating decreased with spray power level and auxiliary gas pressure, but the bond strength between the HA coated layer and Ti alloy substrate increased with the spray power level. 11 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Lyo, I.W.; Ahn, H.S. [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1999-04-01

311

Paint coating characterization for thermoelastic stress analysis of metallic materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) it is normal practice to coat metallic specimens with black paint to enhance and standardize the surface emissivity. It is assumed that the paint coating has no effect on the thermal emission from the specimen, but it is well known that the response is sensitive to paint coating thickness, particularly at higher frequencies. In this paper the effects of loading frequency and paint coating thickness on the thermoelastic response are investigated. The thermoelastic response is compared to theory, and optimum test conditions and coating characteristics are suggested. The motivation for the work is to develop a TSA-based means of residual stress assessment, where the measurement of much smaller temperature changes than those that are resolved in standard TSA is required; therefore the analysis is much more sensitive to the effects of the paint coating. However, the work presented in this paper is relevant to a wide range of TSA investigations and presents data that will be of interest to all practitioners of TSA

312

New approaches for investigating paintings by ion beam techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Up to now, among the IBA techniques, only PIXE has been used for analyzing paintings. However, quantitative PIXE analysis is sometimes difficult to interpret due to the layered structure, the presence of varnish and organic binder and, in some cases, discoloration of the pigments has been observed due to the interaction of the ion beam with the compounds. In order to improve the characterization of paintings, we propose some alternative experimental procedures. First of all, backscattering spectrometry (BS) and PIXE are simultaneously combined in order to collect complementary information such as layer thickness and organic compound quantification. The simultaneous PIXE and BS experiments also have the advantage of being able to analyze the same area in one experiment. This combination, implemented with an external beam, was directly applied on paintings and on painting cross-sections for the study of Italian Renaissance masterpieces. We have obtained valuable results not only on the pigment itself but also, for the first time, on the binder to pigment proportion which is not well documented in the ancient recipes. Moreover, in order to restrain beam damages due to the ion stopping power, we propose to analyze very thin painting cross-sections by a combination of PIXE-RBS and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM).

Beck, L., E-mail: Lucile.beck@cea.f [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France (C2RMF), CNRS-UMR 171, Palais du Louvre - Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Viguerie, L. de; Walter, Ph.; Pichon, L. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France (C2RMF), CNRS-UMR 171, Palais du Louvre - Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Gutierrez, P.C. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Salomon, J.; Menu, M. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France (C2RMF), CNRS-UMR 171, Palais du Louvre - Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Sorieul, S. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, IN2P3, UMR 5797, Universite de Bordeaux 1, Chemin du Solarium BP120, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France)

2010-06-15

313

In situ investigations of vault paintings in the Antwerp cathedral  

Science.gov (United States)

X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and Raman spectroscopy have been used to examine 15th century mediaeval and 16th century renaissance vault paintings in the Our Lady's Cathedral (Antwerp, Belgium) in view of their restoration. The use of mobile instruments made it possible to work totally non-destructively. This complementary approach yields information on the elemental (XRF) and on the molecular composition (Raman) of the pigments. For the 15th century vault painting the pigments lead-tin yellow (Pb 2SnO 4), lead white (2PbCO 3·Pb(OH) 2), vermilion (HgS), massicot (PbO) and azurite (2CuCO 3·Cu(OH) 2) could be identified. The pigments used for the 16th century vault painting could be identified as red lead (Pb 3O 4), hematite (Fe 2O 3), lead white (2PbCO 3·Pb(OH) 2) and azurite (2CuCO 3·Cu(OH) 2). For both paintings the presence of the strong Raman scatterer calcite (CaCO 3) resulted in a difficult identification of the pigments by Raman spectroscopy. The presence of gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O) on the mediaeval vault painting probably indicates that degradation took place.

Deneckere, Annelien; Schudel, Walter; Van Bos, Marina; Wouters, Helena; Bergmans, Anna; Vandenabeele, Peter; Moens, Luc

2010-02-01

314

Leaching of copper and zinc from spent antifouling paint particles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Leaching of Cu and Zn from a composite of spent antifouling paint particles, containing about 300 mg g{sup -1} and 110 mg g{sup -1} of the respective metals, was studied in batch experiments. For a given set of simulated environmental conditions, release of Cu was independent of paint particle concentration due to attainment of pseudo-saturation, but Zn was less constrained by solubility effects and release increased with increasing particle concentration. Leaching of Cu increased but Zn decreased with increasing salinity, consistent with mechanisms governing the dissolution of Cu{sub 2}O in the presence of chloride and Zn acrylates in the presence of seawater cations. Because of complex reaction kinetics and the presence of calcium carbonate in the paint matrix, metal leaching appeared to be greater at 4 deg. C than 19 deg. C under many conditions. These findings have important environmental and biological implications regarding the deliberate or inadvertent disposal of antifouling paint residues. - Copper and zinc are readily leached from particles of spent antifouling paint under a range of environmental conditions.

Singh, Nimisha [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk

2009-02-15

315

Example of using strippable paint for nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the prevention of salt damage to stainless steel surface or the temporary rust prevention for carbon steel welded parts, the strippable paint of synthetic rubber shows excellent performance. Based on this fact, the strippable paint was applied to actual plants, and the expected results were obtained. The strippable paint forms the coating on surfaces to protect against corrosion or mechanical damage, and at the time of using things, the coating is peeled easily. As for the kinds of strippable paint, there are organic solution type, water dispersion type, organo-sol type, aqueous solution type and so on. The strippable paint supplied by Daito Kogyo K.K. is especially excellent in the limitation of harmful substance to stainless steel, the resistance to ultraviolet deterioration, the application of thick coating and the strength of dried films. Moreover, the low temperature hardening is slight, and below 80 deg C, it withstands the use for a fairly long period. The examples of use for atomic energy equipment and other field are reported, and the matters to which attention must be paid in its use are shown. (Kako, I.)

316

Cyclic voltammetry and RBS study of paint components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heavy metals and metalloid ions are found in environmental matrices. The most toxic are lead, cadmium and mercury. These three heavy metals have no biological function and are toxic at all concentrations. Lead is one of the most insidious heavy metals and is introduced into the environment by many different means. It persists in both urban and rural settings, being found in paint chips, pottery, crystal and pharmaceutical and nutritional products. The analysis of heavy elements such as lead in soil is of particular importance [W.T. Sturges, R.M. Harrison, Sci. Total Environ. 44 (3) (1985) 225; M.L. Lepow, L. Bruckman, M. Gillette, S. Markowitz, R. Robino, J. Kapish, Environ. Res. 10 (3) (1975) 415; A.E. Daniels, J.R. Kominsky, P.J. Clark, J. Hazard. Mater. B 87 (2001) 117; G. Hutter, D. Moshman, J. Hazard. Mater. 40 (1995) 1]. In preparing the methods for lead detection in paint, we have used Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) in order to study the type and amount of heavy metal content in paint samples collected at various sites in the historic campus at A and M University (AAMU). We will show the results of our study with emphasis on comparison of what we learned about presence of lead in paints using our ion beam methods compared with the analysis of lead in paints using cyclic voltammetry

317

Evaluation of Convergent Spray Technology(TM) Spray Process for Roof Coating Application  

Science.gov (United States)

The overall goal of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility of(CST) Convergent Spray Technology (Trademark) for the roofing industry. This was accomplished by producing an environmentally compliant coating utilization recycled materials, a CST(Trademark) spray process portable application cart, and hand-held applicator with a CST(Trademark) spray process nozzle. The project culminated with application of this coating to a nine hundred sixty square foot metal for NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama.

Scarpa, J.; Creighton, B.; Hall, T.; Hamlin, K.; Howard, T.

1998-01-01

318

Development of improved cold spray and HVOF deposited coatings  

OpenAIRE

The overall aim of this research project was to expand the understanding of the deposition of titanium and the nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718 by spray deposition methods. The spray processes employed were cold spraying and high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying. The first part of the work was undertaken to expand the understanding of the deposition of titanium by cold spraying; the HVOF process is unsuitable for Ti because of the metal's high reactivity. The deposits were pro...

Marrocco, Tiziana

2008-01-01

319

Influence of spray parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of gas-tunnel plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For biomedical applications, hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings were deposited on 304 stainless steel substrate by using a gas tunnel type plasma spraying process. The influences of spraying distances and plasma arc currents on the microstructure, hardness and adhesion properties of HA coatings were investigated. Microstructure observation by SEM showed that HA coatings sprayed at low plasma power have a porous structure and poor hardness. HA coatings sprayed at high plasma power and short spraying distance are characterized by good adhesion and low porosity with dense structure. Hardness increased for HA coatings sprayed at shorter spraying distance and higher plasma power, mainly due to the formation of dense coatings.

Morks, M.F. [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)]. E-mail: magdimorks@hotmail.com; Kobayashi, Akira [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

2007-05-15

320

Influence of spray parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of gas-tunnel plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For biomedical applications, hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings were deposited on 304 stainless steel substrate by using a gas tunnel type plasma spraying process. The influences of spraying distances and plasma arc currents on the microstructure, hardness and adhesion properties of HA coatings were investigated. Microstructure observation by SEM showed that HA coatings sprayed at low plasma power have a porous structure and poor hardness. HA coatings sprayed at high plasma power and short spraying distance are characterized by good adhesion and low porosity with dense structure. Hardness increased for HA coatings sprayed at shorter spraying distance and higher plasma power, mainly due to the formation of dense coatings

321

Numerical Simulation of Bi-component Droplet Evaporation and Dispersion in Spray and Spray Drying  

OpenAIRE

Spray drying is one of the most widely used drying techniques to convert liquid feed into a dry powder. The modeling of spray flows and spray drying has been studied for many years now, to determine the characteristics of the end products, e.g. particle size, shape, density or porosity. So far, the simulation of polymer or sugar solution spray drying has not been studied because drying behavior as well as properties are unknown. Previous studies concentrated on the systems of milk, salt solut...

Gopireddy, Srikanth Reddy

2013-01-01

322

16 CFR 1145.2 - Paint (and other similar surface-coating materials) containing lead; toys, children's articles...  

Science.gov (United States)

... Paint (and other similar surface-coating materials) containing lead...bearing such paint (or similar surface-coating materials); risk of lead poisoning... Paint (and other similar surface-coating materials) containing...

2010-01-01

323

Mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) in interior and exterior New Orleans house paint films.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pre-1992, latex paint was formulated with mercury (Hg) as phenylmercuric acetate (PMA). Hg vaporizes reducing its content, and lead (Pb) is stable and remains unchanged. The objective of this study is to describe the content of Hg and Pb in existing paint coatings. Forty paint chip samples were collected from both interior and exterior surfaces of homes in metropolitan New Orleans and analyzed for Hg and Pb. The median Hg in exterior paints is 26.9 mg kg(-1) (0.8-214.0) compared with 7.1 mg kg(-1) (0.03-39.2) for interior paints. The median Pb content is 76603 mg kg(-1) (464-317151) and 416 mg kg(-1) (24-63313) respectively, for exterior and interior paints. The Spearman correlation coefficients for Hg and Pb are -0.312 (P=0.13) and -0.471 (P=0.07) respectively, in exterior and interior samples. Hg and Pb vary independently with each other in paint films. Median Hg in exterior paints is four times larger than for interior paints. Median Pb in exterior paints is 184 times larger than interior paints. The Pb and Hg content in exterior and interior paint chips are significantly different (Mann-Whitney Rank Sum Test, P0.001 and P=0.006, respectively). Only 1 of the 25 exterior paints contained less than the current 5000 mg kg(-1) US standard for Pb, the criteria for exemption from the power-sanding restrictions of the New Orleans Lead Ordinance. Prior to banning PMA in paint, Hg poisonings presented as acrodynia were reported for children living in homes freshly painted with latex paint. Because of the affinity of Hg and Pb for sulfur-containing amino acid proteins, their presence in paint coatings poses an increased hazard when released as dust. PMID:18485443

Mielke, Howard W; Gonzales, Chris

2008-06-01

324

Fiber Bragg grating sensor to monitor stress kinetics in drying process of commercial latex paints.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we report a study about the application of packaged fiber Bragg gratings used as strain sensors to monitor the stress kinetics during the drying process of commercial latex paints. Three stages of drying with distinct mechanical deformation and temporal behaviors were identified for the samples, with mechanical deformation from 15 ?m to 21 ?m in the longitudinal film dimension on time intervals from 370 to 600 minutes. Drying time tests based on human sense technique described by the Brazilian Technical Standards NBR 9558 were also done. The results obtained shows that human sense technique has a limited perception of the drying process and that the optical measurement system proposed can be used to characterize correctly the dry-through stage of paint. The influence of solvent (water) addition in the drying process was also investigated. The paint was diluted with four parts paint and one part water (80% paint), and one part paint and one part water (50% paint). It was observed that the increase of the water ratio mixed into the paint decreases both the mechanical deformation magnitude and the paint dry-through time. Contraction of 5.2 ?m and 10.4 ?m were measured for concentrations of 50% and 80% of paint in the mixture, respectively. For both diluted paints the dry-through time was approximately 170 minutes less than undiluted paint. The optical technique proposed in this work can contribute to the development of new standards to specify the drying time of paint coatings. PMID:22399906

de Lourenço, Ivo; Possetti, Gustavo R C; Muller, Marcia; Fabris, José L

2010-01-01

325

Effect Of Zen Regulation On The Sohrab Sepahri's Paintings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, at first we tried to introduce the sects separated from Buddhism and also introduce “Maha- Yana” who were among the well known sects of the Buddhism and the introduction of “Confucius” regulation and moral principles and the “Lao-tse” and “Shinto” faiths and their place among Chinese and Japanese and their relation with ZEN sect and Zen philosophy, method of its formation and Zen conduct and initial introduction of Zenga and the effect of Zen philosophy on paintings and Calligraphy of far east. In next sections the effect of Zen philosophy on Sohrab Sepehri's paintings will be mentioned with a short introduction of Sepehri and a fast veiw into his advancement in painting and finally his recognition in east and the effect of Zen philosophy on spirit of Sohrab Seperi.

Mohammad Maamari

2012-09-01

326

The Planetary and Eclipse Oil Paintings of Howard Russell Butler  

Science.gov (United States)

The physics-trained artist Howard Russell Butler (1856-1934) has inspired many astronomy students through his planetary and eclipse paintings that were long displayed at the Hayden Planetarium in New York, the Fels Planetarium at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, and the Buffalo Museum of Science. We discuss not only the eclipse triptychs (1918, 1923, and 1925) at each of those institutions but also his paintings of Mars as seen from Phobos and from Deimos (with landscapes of those moons in the foreground depicted in additional oils hung at Princeton University) and the Earth from our Moon. We also describe his involvement with astronomy and his unique methodology that allowed him to surpass the effects then obtainable with photography, as well as his inclusion in a U.S. Naval Observatory eclipse expedition in 1918, as well as his auroral, solar-prominence, and 1932-eclipse paintings.

Pasachoff, Jay M.; Olson, R. M.

2013-10-01

327

Implementation of an Optical Coherence Tomography system for painting characterization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a new but well established imaging technique for medical diagnosis, which can produce two- or three-dimensional images of bio-tissues with a few ?m spatial resolution. Its potential as a non-invasive tool for art conservation of paintings and other objects has been realized recently. In this work, we report the implementation of two OCT systems applied to painting characterization. One system operates in the so-called spectral domain, with a central wavelength of 840 nm and axial resolution of 10 ?m. The second system has its central wavelength at 1280 nm, with spatial resolution of 20 ?m, and operates in the time domain. Both systems are independently controlled and have imaging software developed in-house using Lab View. Using both systems, a 15 years old acrylic portrait has been analyzed, where the paint layers, light and dark colors, and the cotton treads of the canvas could be identified. (Author)

328

Sorption and desorption of tritiated water on paints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper the sorption and desorption of tritiated water on paints, such as acryl, silicone, epoxy and fluorine types, has been studied. In dynamic adsorption and desorption experiments, tritium concentration in the chamber, in which painted metal was installed, was measured during HTO vapor charging or purging by N2 + H2O. Slow desorption rate for acryl type was observed. Residual tritium not released by sweeping with N2 + H2O was recovered by heating up to 800 C. Residual tritium fraction for epoxy type was found to be highest among tested. Paint membrane was used in permeation experiments of HTO vapor and liquid. Diffusivity, solubility and permeability were evaluated. Diffusivity for fluorine was largest and that for epoxy smallest

329

Irradiation effects on canvas oil painting: Spectroscopic observations  

Science.gov (United States)

"Winter" oil painting, by Romanian contemporary artist George Alexandrescu was used as experimental model for the substantiation of gamma radiation treatment, as the best choice to stop the biological attack of paintings. In this purpose, spectroscopic and colorimetric methods were used to analyse in situ, non-destructively and non-contact, the experimental model before and after 60Co gamma irradiation. Chemical structure and colour changes were monitored by FTIR, FT-Raman and Vis reflectance spectroscopy. Negligible Infrared spectral transformations have been observed after irradiation. Furthermore, it was found that gamma irradiation did not induce any significant colour alterations. Insignificant structural and colour changes observed, recommend the use of gamma irradiation in the disinfection of oil paintings.

Manea, Mihaela Maria; Negut, C. D.; Stanculescu, Ioana Rodica; Ponta, C. C.

2012-10-01

330

Paint binders hardened by electron beams and their use  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention concerns a paint binder hardened by electron beams (0.1 - 100 Mrad/sec.) consisting of a dispersion of an ethylenic unsaturated material in at least one vinyl monomer and the use of the former in manufacturing pigmented or coloured points. In order to improve the properties of the hardened paints (elasticity, wear resistance) a reaction product is used consisting of rubber particles (0.04-1 ?m) and an ethylenic unsaturated component with a reactive epoxy, hydroxy or carboxy group which is bonded to the rubber particles by ester or urethane compounds. The detailed description of the manufacture is explained by 68 examples. The paints hold particularly well on sheet steel. (UWI)

331

Paint chip poisoning of Laysan albatross at Midway Atoll.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epizootic mortality occurred in Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) fledgings at Midway Atoll in 1983. Heavy metal toxicity from ingestion of weathered paint chips was one of the causes. Sick albatrosses were unable to retract their wings, causing a "droop-wing" appearance. Five normal and 12 droop-winged fledglings were captured, killed, and examined. Paint chips found in the proventriculus of the affected fledglings contained up to 144,000 ppm lead. Blood, liver, and kidney concentrations of lead in affected birds were higher than in normal fledglings, and acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies were present in the kidneys. Degenerative lesions were present in the myelin of some brachial nerves. Weathered paint samples collected from 12 buildings contained up to 247,250 ppm lead and 101 ppm mercury. Lead poisoning was diagnosed in 10 of the droop-winged albatrosses and was one of the causes of morbidity. Mercury toxicosis and plastic impaction were other possible causes. PMID:3625902

Sileo, L; Fefer, S I

1987-07-01

332

Raman spectroscopic study of “The Malatesta”: A Renaissance painting?  

Science.gov (United States)

Raman spectroscopic analysis of the pigments on an Italian painting described as a 'Full Length Portrait of a Gentleman', known also as the 'Malatesta', and attributed to the Renaissance period has established that these are consistent with the historical research provenance undertaken earlier. Evidence is found for the early 19th Century addition of chrome yellow to highlighted yellow ochre areas in comparison with a similar painting executed in 1801 by Sir Thomas Lawrence of John Kemble in the role of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. The Raman data are novel in that no analytical studies have previously been made on this painting and reinforces the procedure whereby scientific analyses are accompanied by parallel historical research.

Edwards, Howell G. M.; Vandenabeele, Peter; Benoy, Timothy J.

2015-02-01

333

uv radiation curable paints. Topical report on material identification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The program for the development of ultraviolet radiation curing of paints for application on preformed structures is discussed. The starting point of this program was the matching of resins, photoinitiators, and pigments which will result in coatings that can be cured by ultraviolet radiation. The initial work was the identification of reactive diluents and base resins that are sensitive to the uv curing process. The reactive monomeric diluents tested included multifunctional acrylates, monofunctional acrylates, and non-acrylic unsaturated esters. The end point will be the application of these coatings to prefabricated metal structures to demonstrate the viability of this technique in producing commercially acceptable painted products. These uv curable paints should produce films that are hard, adherent, and opaque at a nominal thickness of one mil (0.001 inch).

1981-01-13

334

Evaluation of paint industry effluents for irrigation purposes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effluent samples collected from a paints factory for a period of seven months were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), soluble cations and anions, nitrogen, phosphorus, and trace elements (Cd, B, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb). Compared with the natural groundwater used for washing paint wastes, the paint industry effluents were found to contain elevated concentrations of cations with the exception of Ca and moderately high concentrations of trace elements. Evaluation of the effluents was made, based on the integration of EC and both the sodium absorption ratio (SAR) and soluble sodium percent (SSP), BOD and COD values, and maximum permissible limits of heavy metals in the irrigation water. From the overall assessment, the effluents were considered suitable for use as supplement irrigation water. However, it is essential that the heavy metals in the effluents, as well as their accumulation in plants and soils, are monitored regularly. (author)

335

Passive Detection of Paint-Doctored JPEG Images  

Science.gov (United States)

Image painting is an image doctoring method to remove particular objects. In this paper, a novel passive detection method for paint-doctored JPEG images is proposed when the doctored image is saved in an uncompressed format or in the JPEG compressed format. We detect the doctored region by computing the average of sum of absolute difference images between the doctored image and a resaved JPEG compressed image at different quality factors. There are several advantages of the proposed method: first, it can detect the doctored region accurately even if the doctored region is small in size; second, it can detect multiple doctored regions in the same image; third, it can detect the doctored region automatically and does not need any manual operation; finally, the computation is simple. Experimental results show that the proposed method can detect the paint-doctored regions efficiently and accurately.

Zhao, Yu Qian; Shih, Frank Y.; Shi, Yun Q.

336

Cold spray deposition of nanocrystalline aluminum alloys  

Science.gov (United States)

Aluminum 5083 powder was mechanically milled under liquid nitrogen to achieve a nanocrystalline grain size in the range of 20 to 30 nm. The powder was subsequently sprayed using a nozzle designed with a validated numerical model for cold spray technology. The resulting coatings were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), micro- and nanoindentation. The TEM analysis shows that the nanocrystalline grain structure of the cryomilled feedstock powder was retained after the cold spray process. A significant increase in hardness from 104 to 261±8 (HV300g) was observed when comparing the nanocrystalline coating with cast, cold-worked, Al 5083. The ability to use cold spray to produce nanocrystalline large deposits was also demonstrated in this work.

Ajdelsztajn, Leonardo; Schoenung, Julie M.; Jodoin, Bertrand; Kim, George E.

2005-03-01

337

Properties of Plasma and HVOF Sprayed Coatings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The work compares the properties of plasma and HVOF thermally sprayed coatings obtained by blending the NiCrBSi and Fe2O3 powders. The deposition was performed by means of the Plancer PN-120 and the Diamond Jet guns for plasma spraying and HVOF spraying respectively. The SEM (EDS method was employed to study the microstructure of the produced coatings. Although the blended powders differ in particle size, shape, and distribution, it is possible to obtain composite coatings with an NiCrBSi matrix containing iron oxides. Except for a different microstructure, plasma and HVOF coatings have a different phase composition, which was examined using the Bruker D-8 Advance diffractometer. Studies of the coatings wear and scuffing resistance showed that an optimal content of Fe2O3 is about 26 % for plasma sprayed coatings and 22.5 % for HVOF deposited coatings.

Wojciech ?órawski

2012-11-01

338

PROPERTIES OF PLASMA AND HVOF SPRAYED COATINGS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article compares the properties of plasma and HVOF thermally sprayed coatings obtained by blending the NiCrBSi and Fe2O3 powders. The deposition was performed by means of the Plancer PN-120 and the Diamond Jet guns for plasma spraying and HVOF spraying respectively. The SEM (EDS method was employed to study the microstructure of the produced coatings. Although the blended powders differ in particle size, shape, and distribution, it is possible to obtain composite coatings with an NiCrBSi matrix containing iron oxides. Except for a different microstructure, plasma and HVOF coatings have a different phase composition, which was examined using the Bruker D-8 Advance diffractometer. Studies of the coatings wear and scuffing resistance showed that an optimal content of Fe2O3 is about 26 % for plasma sprayed coatings and 22.5 % for HVOF deposited coatings.

Otakar Bok?vka

2012-11-01

339

Plasma spray technology process parameters and applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current trend in the structural design philosophy is based on the use of substrate with the necessary mechanical properties and a thin coating to exhibit surface properties. Plasma spray process is a versatile surface coating technique which finds extensive application in meeting advance technologies. This report describes the plasma spray technique and its use in developing coatings for various applications. The spray system is desribed in detail including the different variables such as power input to the torch, gas flow rate, powder properties, powder injection, etc. and their interrelation in deciding the quality of the coating. A brief write-up on the various plasma spray coatings developed for different applications is also included. (author). 15 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

340

Vacuum plasma spraying of tantalum and niobium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vacuum plasma spraying is a suitable process for producing high quality coatings of reactive metals such as tantalum and niobium. Ta and Nb coatings used for corrosion protection must be extremely dense, homogeneous, and of high purity and adhesion. Hence, the process parameters have to be carefully optimized even with regard to the spraying powder, its grain size and morphology. Spraying equipment with vacuum systems which allow for a final pressure of 10-3 mbar, which have heated and evacuated powder feeder units, and heated substrates, as well as the use of powders with high purity and low gas content, are required for producing high quality Ta and Nb coatings. Corrosion tests in sulfuric acid and aqua regia at different concentrations show that Ta and Nb coatings sprayed under optimized conditions have high resistance to both general and localized corrosion

341

Spray bottle apparatus with pressure multiplying pistons  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is acted upon the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

Moss, Owen R. (Kennewick, WA); Gordon, Norman R. (Kennewick, WA); DeFord, Henry S. (Kennewick, WA)

1990-01-01

342

Esquemas de pintura para estruturas marítimas / Paint systems for marine structures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Nas últimas décadas tem-se verificado um grande aumento das aplicações das ligas de alumínio nas estruturas marítimas. Os danos estruturais que se têm verificado em embarcações devem-se, em grande parte, a problemas de corrosão. Assim, as ligas de alumínio têm que ter uma protecção anticorrosiva ade [...] quada. As estruturas marítimas, nomeadamente os cascos dos navios devem ser mantidos preferencialmente livres de organismos por forma a minimizar a resistência ao atrito e consequentemente o consumo de combustível. Para tal são aplicados revestimentos anti-incrustantes para evitar a fixação destes organismos. Nos últimos anos têm-se verificado grandes desenvolvimentos de investigação, desenvolvimento e inovação (IDI) para obtenção de tintas anti-incrustantes (AI) com uma melhor eficiência anti-incrustante em total concordância com a legislação ambiental. O principal objetivo deste estudo reside na avaliação da proteção anticorrosiva e da eficiência anti-incrustant e de 3 diferentes esquemas de pintur a envolvendo tintas AI c om diferentes biocidas. Estas avaliações envolveram ensaios de envelhecimento artificial (resistência ao nevoeiro salino, à imersão em água do mar sintética e à delaminação catódica) e de exposição natural durante dois anos. Estes esquemas de pintur a foram caracterizados visualmente, em termos de espessura e em termos morfológicos e químicos por microscopia electrónica de varrimento com espectrometria de dispersão de ener gias (SEM/ EDS), por espec troscopia de infravermelho com transformada de Fourier (FTIR) e por difr acção de raios-X (XRD). Finalmente referem-se algumas das linhas de in vestigação actualmente em curso no domínio da luta c ontra a fixação dos or ganismos marinhos em estruturas marítimas. Abstract in english The increase of aluminum alloys applications registered some decades ago for marine constructions has led to a considerable number of cases of structure damages mainly due to corrosion problems. So, the use of aluminum alloys for these constructions implies a suitable anticorrosive protection. The i [...] mmersed structures like ship hulls need to be kept free from marine organisms in order to minimize drag resistance and reduce fuel consumption. Antifouling paints (AFP) are applied and developed to avoid the micro and macrofouling. A great development of AFP has been registered aiming for a better efficiency in compliance with emerging environmental legislation. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the anticorrosive behaviour and antifouling efficiency of three different paint systems that include antifouling paints with different biocides. With this purpose tests were carried out including artificial ageing (salt spray resistance, immersion resistance and cathodic disbonding) and natural exposure during two years. All this paint systems were evaluated in terms of visual assessment, thickness, and morphological and chemical characterization by Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), Fourier Transform Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Finally the actual research lines on antifouling technologies are pointed.

T. C., Diamantino; I. N., Alves; R. P., Gonçalves; M. J. F., Marques; M. R., Costa.

2014-09-01

343

Mid-infrared hyperspectral imaging of painting materials  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel hyperspectral imaging system (HI90, Bruker Optics), working in the mid-infrared range and recently developed for the remote identification and mapping of hazardous compounds, has here been optimized for investigating painting surfaces. The painting Sestante 10 (1982) by Alberto Burri has been spectrally and spatially investigated with the HI90 system revealing the distribution of inorganic materials constituting the artworks. In order to validate the results obtainable by the imager for the pigment identification previous tests on laboratory models were performed. Yellow, white and blue pigments painted with different binders (namely egg, alkyd, acrylic and vinyl) were investigated by the HI90. Afterwards, the polychrome painting Sestante 10 was investigated focusing the attention on the inorganic material distribution revealing the presence of different extenders (kaolin, BaSO4, CaSO4) mixed with the various silica-based pigments present in the painting. The brightness temperature spectra collected by HI90 have also been compared to single point reflection spectra acquired by a conventional portable FTIR spectrometer (Alpha-R by Bruker Optics) highlighting the good spectral quality of the imaging system. This comparison permitted also to evaluate the spectral response and the diagnostic strengths of the spectral range available by the HI90 imaging (1300-860 cm-1), validating the reliability of the obtained chemical images. This study clearly highlights the high potential of the new hyperspectral imaging system and opens up new perspectives in the current scientific interest devoted to the application of mapping and imaging methods for the study of painting surfaces.

Rosi, Francesca; Harig, Roland; Miliani, Costanza; Braun, René; Sali, Diego; Daveri, Alessia; Brunetti, Brunetto G.; Sgamellotti, Antonio

2013-05-01

344

Development of PET imaging-based dose-painting prescriptions  

Science.gov (United States)

Historically, prescriptions in radiation therapy are based on physician experience drawn from the results of extensive clinical trials in order to establish standard-of-care guidelines. The doses of radiation are generally uniform across target volumes to reflect a fixed level of local neoplastic disease control of the population mean. However, inter-patient and intra-tumor variation in response to uniform doses can result in diminished tumor control and poor clinical outcome for certain patients. Recent research endeavors are emphasizing the need to individualize prescriptions by incorporating patient-specific biological markers with prognostic and predictive value. Quantitative imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) of tumor glucose metabolism, cell proliferation, and hypoxia has been suggested as a sensitive and specific technique to tailor patient prescriptions in a manner that may significantly improve clinical outcome. The concept of prescribing and delivering non-uniform dose based on molecular imaging, termed dose painting, hinges on the establishment of a dose-response relationship at the image voxel scale that optimizes a particular clinical endpoint. This doctoral thesis presented two methods of defining dose-painting prescriptions based on PET imaging: the first was a heuristic model derivation of hypoxia dose-painting prescriptions in head-and-neck cancer patients; the second was an empirical imaging surrogate endpoint derivation of prescriptions in veterinary sinonasal cancer patients. The clinical implementation of these dose painting prescriptions was investigated, which emphasized treatment planning and delivery solutions. Lastly, a summary and discussion of the future of dose painting to forge links between tumor biology and clinical outcome was presented. The compelling dose painting concept is fast becoming a clinical reality that may positively impact cancer patient lives.

Bowen, Stephen R.

345

LET-painting increases tumour control probability in hypoxic tumours  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract LET-painting was suggested as a method to overcome tumour hypoxia. In vitro experiments have demonstrated a well-established relationship between the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) and linear energy transfer (LET), where OER approaches unity for high-LET values. However, high-LET radiation also increases the risk for side effects in normal tissue. LET-painting attempts to restrict high-LET radiation to compartments that are found to be hypoxic, while applying lower LET radiation to normoxic tissues. Methods. Carbon-12 and oxygen-16 ion treatment plans with four fields and with homogeneous dose in the target volume, are applied on an oropharyngeal cancer case with an identified hypoxic entity within the tumour. The target dose is optimised to achieve a tumour control probability (TCP) of 95% when assuming a fully normoxic tissue. Using the same primary particle energy fluence needed for this plan, TCP is recalculated for three cases assuming hypoxia: first, redistributing LET to match the hypoxic structure (LET-painting). Second, plans are recalculated for varying hypoxic tumour volume in order to investigate the threshold volume where TCP can be established. Finally, a slight dose boost (5-20%) is additionally allowed in the hypoxic subvolume to assess its impact on TCP. Results. LET-painting with carbon-12 ions can only achieve tumour control for hypoxic subvolumes smaller than 0.5 cm(3). Using oxygen-16 ions, tumour control can be achieved for tumours with hypoxic subvolumes of up to 1 or 2 cm(3). Tumour control can be achieved for tumours with even larger hypoxic subvolumes, if a slight dose boost is allowed in combination with LET-painting. Conclusion. Our findings clearly indicate that a substantial increase in tumour control can be achieved when applying the LET-painting concept using oxygen-16 ions on hypoxic tumours, ideally with a slight dose boost.

Bassler, Niels; Toftegaard, Jakob

2014-01-01

346

Plasma-Sprayed Coatings on Porous Surfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

Need for combining benefits of duplex thermal-barrier coatings with film cooling on gas-turbine vanes and blades stimulated development of improved method for plasma spraying these coatings. Method reduces blocking of holes by plasma-sprayed material and at same time reduces base-metal oxidation during coating operation. Features provide potential for increased engine efficiency and power, reduced fuel consumption, use of less costly materials or construction procedures, and extended life and durability.

Leibert, C. H.

1986-01-01

347

Thermal Sprayed Surface Coatings and Optical Characterisation  

OpenAIRE

This research work aims to establish the potential of defect detection of thermal sprayed surface coatings by using a newly developed optical non-destructive interferometric technique – Electronic Speckle Pattern Shearing Interferometry (ESPSI), rather than using mechanical destructive testing methods and other non-destructive methods. This technique has been used in many industries for non-destructive testing (NDT). However, it is innovative to use this technique for NDT of thermal sprayed...

Xue, Yueqiang

2006-01-01

348

Laser Surface Annealing of Plasma Sprayed Coatings  

OpenAIRE

Laser surface annealing provides a rapid and efficient means for surface alloying and modification of ceramic materials. In this study, Alumina-13% Titania coatings were sprayed with a water-stabilized plasma spray gun. The coated surface was treated by Excimer laser having a wavelength of 248 nm and pulse duration of 24 ns. The surface structure of the treated coating was examined by field emission scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A detailed analysis of the effects o...

Yue Hung; Ahmed Ibrahim

2012-01-01

349

Anomalous properties of spray dried solid dispersions  

OpenAIRE

The use of solid dispersions for oral dosage forms can increase the dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs. Spray drying is one process that can be used to prepare solid dispersions. Spray dried solid dispersions of griseofulvin, poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylate] (PHPMA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were prepared from acetone and water. When methanol was substituted for water, the morphology, stability and dissolution properties of the solid dispersion changed dramatically. The glass ...

Al-obaidi, H.; Brocchini, S.; Buckton, G.

2009-01-01

350

New tools to optimise spray dryers  

OpenAIRE

Spray drying is an essential unit operation for the manufacture of many products with specific powder properties. It is characterised by atomisation of a solution or suspension into droplets, followed by subsequent drying of these droplets by evaporation of water or other solvents. Spray drying is used for the manufacture of many consumer and industrial products such as instant food products, laundry detergents, pharmaceuticals, ceramics and agrochemicals. The best known example of an instant...

Verschueren, M.; Straatsma, J.; Schutyser, M. A. I.; Akkerman, C.; Jong, P.

2007-01-01

351

Cholinesterase Activity Among Spray Workers in Iran  

OpenAIRE

In this study whole blood cholinesterase activities of the agriculture and hygiene spray workers exposed to organophosphorus and carbamate compounds from different parts of Tehran Province in Iran were determined. Lovi Bond method was used in three stages including prepare the questionnaires about spray worker body health conditions, taking their blood samples before and after working and their insight to insecticides and prepare the required solutions. Results showed that no any changes were...

Shayeghi, M.; Nasirian, H.; Nourjah, N.; Baniardelan, M.; Shayeghi, F.; Aboulhassani, M.

2009-01-01

352

Prophylactic budesonide nasal spray after polypectomy  

OpenAIRE

This double blind study compared the effect of budesonide nasal spray with placebo, in the prophylaxis of nasal polyp recurrence after avulsion. 38 cases were given budesonide nasal spray and 25 placebo for 3 months after polypectomy. Follow up of 9 months revealed budesonide treated patients to have significantly lower recurrence rate as compared to the placebo. Interestingly patients with recurrent nasal polyposis benefitted much more from topical budesonide treatment as compared to ones wi...

Gulati, S. K.; Sharma, Karan; Kaur Shergill, Gurinder; Kumar, Rajeev

2001-01-01

353

Optimisation of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings  

OpenAIRE

Hydroxyapatite, (HA), is a calcium phosphate bioceramic material which has an almost identical chemical composition to that of the mineral component of bone. Its biocompatibility and osteoconductivity have led to its use in a wide range of applications in both dentistry and orthopaedics. One such application is for the uncemented fixation of implants. The plasma spraying technique, a thermal spray process, is the most commonly used method for the production of HA coatings. This process is a c...

Levingstone, Tanya J.

2008-01-01

354

21 CFR 524.1662a - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride and hydrocortisone spray.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Oxytetracycline hydrochloride and hydrocortisone spray. 524.1662a Section 524... Oxytetracycline hydrochloride and hydrocortisone spray. (a) Specifications...of oxytetracycline hydrochloride and hydrocortisone spray contains 300 milligrams...

2010-04-01

355

Study of colour multilayers in a painting by PIXE technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new procedure for the investigation of acrylic paint layers superposed on an aluminium foil has been recently suggested. The experimental technique consisted in a series of PIXE analyses at various incident proton energies. The sequence of colours and the thicknesses of the layers were established very satisfactorily. Here, we apply this technique to a painting made with six acrylic colours from Liquitex Inc. Analyses at various points yield a good agreement with the information given by the painter. In this article we report on the results obtained for one of the points and we present and discuss the ingredients required by the computation. (author)

356

Emissivity measurement of high-emissivity black paint at CENAM  

OpenAIRE

To measure the temperature of the surface of an opaque object by radiation thermometry, it is necessary to know its surface emissivity. High-emissivity black paint can be applied to the inner walls of a cavity to be used as a blackbody radiator. It can also be applied to some highly reflecting metals so that their temperature can be estimated by radiation thermometry. In this work, it is described the emissivity measurement of high-emissivity black paint that has been used for the two applica...

Eda, D. C. U. E. Rdenas-garc U.

2014-01-01

357

Differential PIXE for investigating the layer structure of paintings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports an example of how the differential PIXE technique can be successfully applied to the investigation of wood or canvas paintings. The work analysed is a famous wood painting by Leonardo da Vinci, the 'Madonna dei fusi' (ex-Reford version, 1501), chosen for a pilot study in a wide international project aimed at analysing Leonardo's works of art by means of non-destructive techniques. While illustrating the results obtained concerning the identification of pigments and the discrimination of the stratigraphy of layers, the merits and limits of differential PIXE in general are pointed out

358

Differential PIXE for investigating the layer structure of paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports an example of how the differential PIXE technique can be successfully applied to the investigation of wood or canvas paintings. The work analysed is a famous wood painting by Leonardo da Vinci, the "Madonna dei fusi" (ex-Reford version, 1501), chosen for a pilot study in a wide international project aimed at analysing Leonardo's works of art by means of non-destructive techniques. While illustrating the results obtained concerning the identification of pigments and the discrimination of the stratigraphy of layers, the merits and limits of differential PIXE in general are pointed out.

Mandò, P. A.; Fedi, M. E.; Grassi, N.; Migliori, A.

2005-09-01

359

PaintShop Pro X4 for photographers  

CERN Document Server

Great for those new to PaintShop Pro or digital imaging in general, this book is packed with inspirational, full-color images and easy to follow, step-by-step projects that will have you producing great images in PaintShop Pro in no time! Everything you need to turn your photos into stunning works of art is right here in this Corel-reviewed guide. In this new edition, Ken covers new features including how to make the most of the newly organized workspaces, use the redesigned HDR tool, and instantly publish photos on Flickr and Facebook. Squeeze every ounce of detail out of RAW files using the

McMahon, Ken

2012-01-01

360

Recent INEL spray-forming developments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spray forming is a near-net-shape fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is deposited onto a suitably shaped substrate or mold to produce a coherent solid. The technology offers unique opportunities for simplifying materials processing, oftentimes while substantially improving product quality. Spray forming can be performed with a wide range of metals and nonmetals, and offersproperty improvements resulting from rapid solidification (eg. refined microstructures, extended solid solubilities and reduced segregation). Economic benefits result from process simplification and the elimination of unit operations. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials using de Laval nozzles. Results from several spray-forming programs are presented to illustrate the range of capabilities of the approach as well as the technical and economic benefits. These programs involved the production of low-carbon steel strip and SiC particulate reinforced aluminum strip; recent advances in spray forming tooling using low-melting-point metals are also described.

McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

1992-01-01

361

24 CFR 35.825 - Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance and reevaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance and reevaluation. 35.825 Section 35.825 Housing and Urban Development Office of the...and Mortgagee-in-Possession Multifamily Property § 35.825 Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance and...

2010-04-01

362

24 CFR 35.1220 - Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities. 35.1220 Section 35.1220 Housing and Urban Development Office of...RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Tenant-Based Rental Assistance § 35.1220 Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance...

2010-04-01

363

24 CFR 35.1355 - Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance and reevaluation activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

...lead-based paint maintenance and reevaluation activities. 35.1355 Section 35.1355 Housing and Urban Development Office of...Hazard Evaluation and Hazard Reduction Activities § 35.1355 Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance and...

2010-04-01

364

Warburg and Poliakoff, Movement and Style (a contribution to the contemporary study of images and paintings)  

OpenAIRE

The foundation of painting on its sources or “influences” serves to achieve its integration in a group of reference from which painting, any true painting that aims at the present, can and should take part. This work aims at an updating of the analysis these influences from the means that serve as references to the pictorial analysis and creation, the images (reproductions) and the paintings themselves, by crossing two major references of Art History and Modern Painti...

João Ferreira Vale

2012-01-01

365

Ancient Roman Paintings and Forgers. Origins and technology of the fake.  

OpenAIRE

Since their discovery in the 17th century, antique paintings resulted in creation of forgeries. First publication of books on antique painting took place when colored drawings were made and spread. Bellori and Bartoli's book on paintings from Nasonii's tomb had a great success in whole Europe. In the 18th century a lot of paintings were discovered during the excavations made for the king of Naples at Herculaneum. European travellers were very curious about these discoveries, but could not vis...

Burlot, Delphine

2007-01-01

366

The prevalence of lead-based paint hazards in U.S. housing.  

OpenAIRE

In this study we estimated the number of housing units in the United States with lead-based paint and lead-based paint hazards. We included measurements of lead in intact and deteriorated paint, interior dust, and bare soil. A nationally representative, random sample of 831 housing units was evaluated in a survey between 1998 and 2000; the units and their occupants did not differ significantly from nationwide characteristics. Results indicate that 38 million housing units had lead-based paint...

Jacobs, David E.; Clickner, Robert P.; Zhou, Joey Y.; Viet, Susan M.; Marker, David A.; Rogers, John W.; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Broene, Pamela; Friedman, Warren

2002-01-01

367

Formulation effects on the release of silica dioxide nanoparticles from paint debris to water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Waterborne paints with integrated nanoparticles have been recently introduced into the market as nanoparticles offer improved or novel functionalities to paints. However, the release of nanoparticles during the life cycle of nano-enhanced paint has only been studied to a very limited extent. The paint composition could determine in what quantities and forms the nanoparticles are released. In this work, paint formulations containing the same amount of silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles but differing in the pigment volume concentration (PVC) and in amount and type of binder and pigment, were studied through leaching test to investigate the influence of these parameters on release of Si from paint. The results indicate greater release of Si, about 1.7 wt.% of the SiO2 nanoparticles in the paint, for paint formulated with higher PVC value (63%), suggesting that the PVC is a crucial factor for release of SiO2 nanoparticles from paints. This hypothesis was also based on the fact that agglomerates of SiO2 nanoparticles were only found in leachates from paint with higher PVC. A paint sample with the higher amount of binder and less calcite filler exhibited a lower release of Si among the paints with a low PVC value (35%), and no SiO2 particles were detected in leachates collected from this paint. This could be due to the fact that a high portion of binder forms a suitable matrix to hold the SiO2 ENPs in paint. The paint sample in which the amount of calcite was partially substituted with TiO2 pigment did not show an important reduction on Si release. Our work suggests that paint debris containing SiO2 nanoparticles may release a limited amount of Si into the environment, and that by adjusting the properties of the binder in combination with common pigments it is possible to reduce the release of SiO2 nanoparticles. PMID:24468504

Zuin, Stefano; Massari, Andrea; Ferrari, Arlen; Golanski, Luana

2014-04-01

368

Occupational exposure to water based paint and symptoms from the skin and eyes.  

OpenAIRE

Water based paints contain organic solvents and many additives, such as biocides, surfactants, pigments, binders, amines, and monomers. The chemical complexity may introduce new potential health hazards to house painters, in particular irritative and allergic disorders. This study was performed to compare how house painters experience work with water based paints or solvent based paints, and to evaluate whether exposure to water based paints increases mucous membrane and dermal symptoms among...

Wieslander, G.; Norba?ck, D.; Edling, C.

1994-01-01

369

Creep of plasma sprayed zirconia  

Science.gov (United States)

Specimens of plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coatings with three different porosities and different initial particle sizes were deformed in compression at initial loads of 1000, 2000, and 3500 psi and temperatures of 1100 C, 1250 C, and 1400 C. The coatings were stabilized with lime, magnesia, and two different concentrations of yttria. Creep began as soon as the load was applied and continued at a constantly decreasing rate until the load was removed. Temperature and stabilization had a pronounced effect on creep rate. The creep rate for 20% Y2O3-80% ZrO2 was 1/3 to 1/2 that of 8% Y2O3-92% ZrO2. Both magnesia and calcia stabilized ZrO2 crept at a rate 5 to 10 times that of the 20% Y2O3 material. A near proportionality between creep rate and applied stress was observed. The rate controlling process appeared to be thermally activated, with an activation energy of approximately 100 cal/gm mole K. Creep deformation was due to cracking and particle sliding.

Firestone, R. F.; Logan, W. R.; Adams, J. W.

1982-01-01

370

Development of spraying methods for high density bentonite barriers. Part 3. Field investigation of spraying methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors have developed a new method of constructing high density bentonite barriers by means of a wet spraying method. Using this method, backfill material can be placed in narrow upper and side parts in a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Using a new supplying machine for bentonite, spraying tests were conducted to investigate the conditions during construction. On the basis of the test results, the various parameters for the spraying method were investigated. The test results are summarized as follows: 1. The new machine supplied about twice the weight of material supplied by a screw conveyor. A dry density of spraying bentonite 0.05 Mg/m3 higher than that of a screw conveyor with the same water content could be achieved. 2. The dry density of sprayed bentonite at a boundary with concrete was the same as that at the center of the cross section. 3. The variation in densities of bentonite sprayed in the vertical downward and horizontal directions was small. Also, density reduction due to rebound during spraying was not seen. 4. Bentonite controlled by water content could be sprayed smoothly in the horizontal direction by a small machine. Also rebound could be collected by a machine conveying air. (author)

371

VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM LATEX PAINT - PART 1. CHAMBER EXPERIMENTS AND SOURCE MODEL DEVELOPMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

Latex paints are widely used in residential and commercial indoor environments. The surface areas covered by the paints in these environments are relatively large. Thus, latex paints have the potential for having a major impact on indoor air quality (IAQ). A study was undertaken ...

372

Measurements of tritium for radiological protection purposes in dial painting industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tritium is used as the active component in self-luminous paint. During dial painting process luminous paints releases tritium in air, causing air contamination. In the present paper results of a preliminary study on air monitoring and estimation of air samples in a local watch industry are given. (author). 5 refs., 2 t abs

373

Radiation exposure to dial painters from 3H luminous paint industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tritium is used as the active component in self-luminous paint. The paper describes in-vitro solubilisation study of luminous paint in blood serum. Besides urine samples of luminous paint workers and air samples of two watch factories were analysed for 3H. The results of these analysis are also presented. (author). 8 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

374

Allergic contact dermatitis from 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, a paint mildewcide  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Severe allergic contact dermatitis from a paint mildewcide, 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, developed in a worker formulating latex paints within a paint manufacturing company, Guinea pig maximization testing demonstrated this to be a moderate sensitizer. Further cases of allergic contact dermatitis may be encountered as the use of this biocide increases in the market place.

Mathias, C G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

1983-01-01

375

Study on Spray Characteristics and Spray Droplets Dynamic Behavior of Diesel Engine Fueled by Rapeseed Oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fuel-air mixing is important process in diesel combustion. It directly affects the combustion and emission of diesel engine. Biomass fuel needs great help to atomize because the fuel has high viscosity and high distillation temperature. This study investigates the atomization characteristics and droplet dynamic behaviors of diesel engine spray fueled by rapeseed oil (RO. Optical observation of RO spray was carried out using shadowgraph photography technique. Single nano-spark photography technique was used to study the characteristics of the rapeseed oil spray while dual nano-spark shadowgraph technique was used to study the spray droplet behavior. The results show that RO has very poor atomization due to the high viscosity nature of the fuel. This is in agreement with the results from spray droplet dynamic behavior studies that shows due to the high viscosity, the droplets are large in size and travel downward, with very little influence of entrainment effect due to its large kinematic energy.

Sapit Azwan

2014-07-01

376

Troubled traces: painting and displaying intercultural traumas of Aboriginality  

OpenAIRE

Behind the pointillism of dot paintings or ‘nai?ve’ techniques, Aboriginal artists stridently critique histories of injustice, incarceration, racism, colonialism and dispossession. This personal testimony from Heather Kamarra Shearer, one of the ‘stolen generation’ of Aboriginal Australians, reflects on her life story and her present vocation in the field of legal rights and as an artist.

Heather Kamarra Shearer

2014-01-01

377

Troubled traces: painting and displaying intercultural traumas of Aboriginality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Behind the pointillism of dot paintings or ‘nai?ve’ techniques, Aboriginal artists stridently critique histories of injustice, incarceration, racism, colonialism and dispossession. This personal testimony from Heather Kamarra Shearer, one of the ‘stolen generation’ of Aboriginal Australians, reflects on her life story and her present vocation in the field of legal rights and as an artist.

Heather Kamarra Shearer

2014-10-01

378

Guidance on Implementing the Paint Products Regulations in the UK  

SCPinfonet

Jun 11, 2009 ... and Vehicle Refinishing Products Regulations 2005. 1 ... also cause damage to \\many plant species leading to loss of yield and quality of ... Pollution Prevention \\and Control (Scotland) Regulations 2000 (>2 tonnes), which ... industrial \\processes that are allowed to use higher VOC paint because their VOC.

379

Aesthetic experience and the emotional content of paintings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study we investigated the relationship between aesthetic experience and other emotional qualities judged in paintings. Aesthetic experience was defined as an exceptional state of mind in which a person is focused on a particular object, transcending its everyday uses and meanings and losing the awareness of surroundings and even of himself/herself. In this state a person has an exceptional emotional experience, that is a feeling of unity with the object. Our basic idea is that aesthetic experience is not reducible to pleasure or a positive hedonic tone, but a person can equally be fascinated with both pleasant and unpleasant objects. In preliminary studies we specified the stimulus set of figural and semi-figural paintings, and a set of descriptors of emotions, feelings and aesthetic experience. Participants judged the paintings on descriptors (seven-point scales. Factor analysis revealed two large factors: the bipolar factor Affective Tone (descriptors on the positive pole: lovely, charming, cheerful, etc; descriptors on the negative pole: scary, disgusting, hateful etc. and Aesthetic Experience (descriptors: exceptional, profound, unique, etc.. Additional analyses have shown no significant correlation between the two factors. These findings confirmed our idea that aesthetic experience is independent of pleasure or affective attraction, and that it can be induced by both pleasant and unpleasant paintings.

Slobodan Markovi?

2010-03-01

380

Ancient Roman wall paintings mapped nondestructively by portable NMR.  

Science.gov (United States)

The stratigraphies of decorated walls in ancient Herculaneum, Italy, were analyzed by single-sided (1)H NMR. A large version of the NMR-MOUSE® with a maximum penetration depth of 25 mm was used to map proton density profiles at different positions of the Mosaic of Neptune and Amphitrite showing considerable differences between different tesserae and the mortar bed at different times of the year. In the House of the Black Room, different mortar layers were observed on painted walls as well as different proton content in different areas due to different moisture levels and different conservation treatments. The proton density profiles of the differently treated areas indicated that one method leads to higher moisture content than the other. Untreated wall paintings from different times were profiled in a recently excavated room at the Villa of the Papyri showing two different types of mortar layer structures which identify two different techniques of preparing the walls for painting. Reflectance Fourier mid-infrared spectroscopy and in situ X-ray fluorescence measurements complemented the NMR measurements and provided additional insight into the identification of organic coatings as well as the nature of the pigments used, respectively. The information acquired nondestructively by NMR is valued for elaborating conservation strategies and for identifying different schools of craftsmen who prepared the mortar supports of the wall paintings. PMID:21713419

Haber, Agnes; Blümich, Bernhard; Souvorova, Daria; Del Federico, Eleonora

2011-09-01

381

An adhesive paint-on restorative for tooth surface defects.  

Science.gov (United States)

The physical properties of an adhesive paint-on restorative material have been examined and it is shown that the adhesion to enamel is good, its compressive strength about equal to silicate, hardness is less than for composite resins, and stain resistance is good. PMID:1062971

Orlowski, J A; Enabe, E M

1975-12-01

382

High Resolution Digital Imaging of Paintings: The Vasari Project.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes VASARI (the Visual Art System for Archiving and Retrieval of Images), a project funded by the European Community to show the feasibility of high resolution colormetric imaging directly from paintings. The hardware and software used in the system are explained, storage on optical disks is described, and initial results are reported. (five…

Martinez, Kirk

1991-01-01

383

A Curious Reality: Exploring the Paintings of Philip C. Curtis  

Science.gov (United States)

Many of the paintings of 20th-century American artist Philip C. Curtis defy clear classification. Curtis's artworks often show dreamlike and fantastical qualities and are therefore frequently pigeonholed as Surrealistic. While this classification is not completely erroneous, it fails to acknowledge some subtle differences between Curtis's artwork…

Stephens, Pamela; Walkup, Nancy

2011-01-01

384

Beauty in abstract paintings: Perceptual contrast and statistical properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we combined the behavioral and objective approach in the field of empirical aesthetics. First, we studied the perception of beauty by investigating shifts in evaluation on perceived beauty of abstract artworks (Experiment 1. Because the participants showed heterogeneous individual preferences for the paintings, we divided them into seven clusters for the test. The experiment revealed a clear pattern of perceptual contrast. The perceived beauty of abstract paintings increased after exposure to paintings that were rated as less beautiful, and it decreased after exposure to paintings that were rated as more beautiful. Next, we searched for correlations of beauty ratings and perceptual contrast with statistical properties of abstract artworks (Experiment 2. The participants showed significant preferences for certain image properties. These preferences differed between the clusters of participants. Strikingly, next to color measures like hue, saturation, value and lightness, the recently described PHOG self-similarity value seems to be a predictor for aesthetic appreciation of abstract artworks. We speculate that the shift in evaluation in Experiment 1 was, at least in part, based on low-level adaptation to some of the statistical image properties analyzed in Experiment 2. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the perception of beauty in abstract artworks is altered after exposure to beautiful or non-beautiful images and correlates with particular image properties, especially color measures and self-similarity.

Christoph Redies

2014-03-01

385

Painting Cloud Nine: A Study of Magritte's Bottle Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

Provides background information on Rene Magritte and his work. Offers an activity in which elementary and middle school students can learn about Magritte's sky and silhouette series of painted wine bottles. Explains that the lesson should be used when students are learning about poetry in language arts classes. (CMK)

Turner, Dianne

2000-01-01

386

Proteomic strategies for the identification of proteinaceous binders in paintings.  

Science.gov (United States)

The identification of proteinaceous components in paintings remains a challenging task for several reasons. In addition to the minute amount of sample available, complex and variable chemical composition of the paints themselves, possible simultaneous presence of several binders and contaminants, and degradation of the original materials due to aging and pollution are complicating factors. We proposed proteomic strategies for the identification of proteins in binders of paintings that can be adapted to overcome the requirements and difficulties presented by specific samples. In particular, we worked on (1) the development of a minimally invasive method based on the direct tryptic cleavage of the sample without protein extraction; (2) the use of microwave to enhance the enzymatic digestion yield, followed by the analysis of the peptide mixtures by nanoLC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization (ESI). Moreover, as an additional tool to tackle the problem of contaminating proteins, we exploited the possibility of generating an exclusion list of the mass signals that in a first run had been fragmented and that the mass spectrometer had to ignore for fragmentation in a subsequent run. The methods, tested on model samples, allowed the identification of milk proteins in a sample from paintings attributed to Cimabue and Giotto, thirteenth-century Italian masters, decorating the vaults of the upper church in the Basilica of St. Francis in Assisi, Italy. PMID:19806345

Leo, Gabriella; Cartechini, Laura; Pucci, Piero; Sgamellotti, Antonio; Marino, Gennaro; Birolo, Leila

2009-12-01

387

Desalination of painted brick vaults : Ph.D.thesis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The subject of the thesis is salt and moisture movement that causes damage to wall paintings on church vaults. The deterioration was studied in the churches of Fanefjord, Kirkerup and Brarup. A desalination method was tested om location. The salt and moisture transfer was examined in detail in laboratory set-ups, and a model for the salt and moisture movement was proposed.

Larsen, Poul Klenz

1999-01-01

388

SVEA spray cooling test. Summary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The test programme has been based on a realistic experimental simulation of a large recirculation line break in an external recirculation pump BWR. Variations have been made from this base in order to test more conservative choices of the test parameters. About 50 tests were successfully performed within the project. The experiments have provided data which verify the improved heat transfer characteristics of the SVEA fuel bundle design compared to the standard 8x8 fuel. Tests have been performed at power levels corresponding to average planar heat generation rates up to 45 kW/m with both slightly conservative (ANS-79 + 2?) and a very conservative (ANS-71 + 20%)power decay curve. With realistic values of other paramaters the peak rod temperature was measured to 994 degrees C and 1093 degrees C for these two decay powers. The influence of total spray flow rate and of spray flow distribution has been investigated in a series of tests. These tests show that with uniform sub-bundle spray flow rates the peak rod temperature is only moderately influenced by a reduction of the total spray flow rate to 45% of the minimum available spray flow rate in a Swedish external pump reactor. Maldistribution tests show no influence of minimum sub-bundle spray flow rate down to 25 g/s and only moderate influence in the extreme case of zero sub-bundle spray flow rate. Variations in other parameters including pressure, initial rod temperatures and steam venting direction have also been made within this project. The resulting changes in peak clad temperature were small, indicating only slight influence of these parameters. The programme has also included radiation tests mainly to provide data for evaluation of surface emissivities. (authors)

389

Effect of hydrophobic paints coating for tritium reduction in concrete materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of hydrophobic paint coating in tritium transport are investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two kinds of paints, acrylic-silicon resin and epoxy resin are used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hydrophobic paints are effective to reduce tritium permeation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of tritium reduction of epoxy paint is higher than that of silicon. - Abstract: The effects of hydrophobic paint coating on a concrete material of cement paste on the tritium transport are investigated. The cement paste is coated with two kinds of paints, acrylic-silicon resin paint and epoxy resin paint. We investigated the amount of tritium trapped in the samples exposed to tritiated water vapor by means of sorption and release. It was found that both the hydrophobic paints could reduce effectively tritium permeation during 50 days exposure of tritiated water vapor. The effect of tritium reduction of the epoxy paint was higher than that of silicon while the amount of tritium trapped in the epoxy paint was larger than that of silicon due to difference of the structure. Based on an analysis of a diffusion model, the rate-determining step of tritium migration through cement paste coated with the paints is diffusion through the paints respectively. It was found that tritium was easy to penetrate through silicon because there were many pores or voids in the silicon comparatively. In the case of tritium released from the epoxy paint, it is considered that tritium diffusion in epoxy is slow due to retardation by isotope exchange reaction to water included in epoxy paint.

Edao, Y., E-mail: edao@aees.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Fukada, S.; Nishimura, Y.; Katayama, K.; Takeishi, T. [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Hatano, Y.; Taguchi, A. [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)

2012-08-15

390

Managing the Use of Copper-Based Antifouling Paints  

Science.gov (United States)

Copper is the biocide of choice for present-day antifouling (AF) paints. It is also a major source of copper loading in to the marine environment and, as such, might cause local copper levels to exceed water quality criteria. The present study is multifaceted and looks into the overall impact of copper-based AF paints on copper concentrations along a 64-km stretch of the Indian River Lagoon and at Port Canaveral, Florida. This preliminary study is one of the first to outline issues and present background evidence on the current status of copper and copper-based AF usage in Florida and to address the need for management. Previous measurements of copper levels in these waters show a history of copper contamination close to marinas, boatyards, and at Port Canaveral that often exceed state and federal water quality standards. Further, we estimate that the total annual copper input into the Indian River Lagoon is between 1.7 tons/year (sailboats) and 2.1 tons/year (powerboats) from boats in 14 marinas. We estimate the copper input into Port Canaveral to be about 1.4 tons/year from seven cruise ships. A brief survey of marina operators and boat owners revealed attitudes and practices associated with AF paint usage that ranged from excellent to inferior. Management recommendations are made for a proactive approach to improving AF paint selection and application, assessing the environmental status of copper, and redefining existing management practices for sustainable AF paint usage and environmental health.

Srinivasan, Mridula; Swain, Geoffrey W.

2007-03-01

391

Mass Spectrometric and Synchrotron Radiation based techniques for the identification and distribution of painting materials in samples from paints of Josep Maria Sert  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Establishing the distribution of materials in paintings and that of their degradation products by imaging techniques is fundamental to understand the painting technique and can improve our knowledge on the conservation status of the painting. The combined use of chromatographic-mass spectrometric techniques, such as GC/MS or Py/GC/MS, and the chemical mapping of functional groups by imaging SR FTIR in transmission mode on thin sections and SR XRD line scan...

Lluveras-Tenorio Anna; Andreotti Alessia; Bonaduce Ilaria; Boularand Sarah; Cotte Marine; Roqué Josep; Colombini Maria; Vendrell-Saz Marius

2012-01-01

392

Microalgal Cell Disruption via Ultrasonic Nozzle Spraying.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to understand the effect of operating parameters, including ultrasound amplitude, spraying pressure, nozzle orifice diameter, and initial cell concentration on microalgal cell disruption and lipid extraction in an ultrasonic nozzle spraying system (UNSS). Two algal species including Scenedesmus dimorphus and Nannochloropsis oculata were evaluated. Experimental results demonstrated that the UNSS was effective in the disruption of microalgal cells indicated by significant changes in cell concentration and Nile red-stained lipid fluorescence density between all treatments and the control. It was found that increasing ultrasound amplitude generally enhanced cell disruption and lipid recovery although excessive input energy was not necessary for best results. The effect of spraying pressure and nozzle orifice diameter on cell disruption and lipid recovery was believed to be dependent on the competition between ultrasound-induced cavitation and spraying-generated shear forces. Optimal cell disruption was not always achieved at the highest spraying pressure or biggest nozzle orifice diameter; instead, they appeared at moderate levels depending on the algal strain and specific settings. Increasing initial algal cell concentration significantly reduced cell disruption efficiency. In all UNSS treatments, the effectiveness of cell disruption and lipid recovery was found to be dependent on the algal species treated. PMID:25369896

Wang, M; Yuan, W

2014-11-01

393

Computer modelling of the meteorological and spraying parameters that influence the aerial dispersion of agrochemical sprays  

Science.gov (United States)

An insight into the nature of prevailing meteorological conditions and the manner in which they interact with spraying parameters is an important prerequisite in the analysis of the dynamics of agrochemical sprays. Usually, when these sprays are projected from hydraulic nozzles, their initial velocity is greater than that of the ambient wind speed. The flowfield therefore experiences changes in speed and direction which are felt upstream as well as downstream of the spray droplets. The pattern of the droplet flow, i.e. the shape of the streamlines marking typical trajectories, will be determined by a balance of viscous forces related to wind speed, inertial forces resulting from the acceleration of the airstream and pressure forces which can be viewed in terms of the drag forces exerted on the spray droplets themselves. At a certain distance in the ensuing motion, when the initial velocity of the spray droplets has decreased sufficiently for there to be no acceleration, their trajectories will be controlled entirely by the random effects of turbulence. These two transport processes in the atmosphere can be modelled mathematically using computers. This paper presents a model that considers the velocity of spray droplets to consist of a ballistic velocity component superimposed by a random-walk velocity component. The model is used to study the influence of meteorological and spraying parameters on the three-dimensional dynamics of spray droplets projected in specified directions in neutral and unstable weather conditions. The ballistic and random-walk velocity components are scaled by factors of (1-?) and ? respectively, where ? is the ratio of the sedimentation velocity and the relative velocity between the spray droplets and the surrounding airstream. This ratio increases progressively as the initial velocity of the spray droplet decreases with air resistance and attains a maximum when the sedimentation velocity has been reached. As soon as this occurs, the random-walk process predominates. The computed effects of the release height of spray droplets, atmospheric turbulence intensity, evaporation, drop size spectrum, wind velocity and wind direction on the transport process have been studied and an analysis of spray drift is provided.

Mokeba, M. L.; Salt, D. W.; Lee, B. E.; Ford, M. G.

394

Thermal control paints on LDEF: Results of sub-experiment 802-18  

Science.gov (United States)

Several thermal control paints were flown on the LDEF, including the white paints Chemglaze A276, S13GLo, and YB-71, and the black paint D-111. The effects of low earth orbit, which includes UV radiation and atomic oxygen, varied significantly with each paint and its location on LDEF. This paper will examine the performance of these paints as determined by changes in their optical and physical properties, including solar absorptance, surface chemical changes, and changes in surface morphology. It will also provide a correlation of these optical and physical property changes to the physical phenomena that occurred in these materials during the LDEF mission.

Jaggers, Christopher H.; Meshishnek, M. J.; Coggi, J. M.

1992-01-01

395

A Review on Design & Development of Semi-Automated Colour Painting Machine.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, colour or other medium to a surface (support base. The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush but other objects can be used. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action. However, painting is also used outside of art as a common trade among craftsmen and builders. Paintings may have for their support such surface as walls, paper, canvas, wood, glass, lacquer, clay, leaf, copper or concrete, and may incorporate multiple other materials including sand, clay, paper, gold leaf as well as objects.

Dhaval Thakar

2014-04-01

396

Lined canvas paintings : Mechanical properties and structural response to fluctuating relative humidity, exemplified by the collection of Danish Golden Age paintings at Statens Museum for Kunst (SMK)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This work evaluates the lining history of the Danish Golden Age collection of canvas paintings from the nineteenths century at SMK, The National Gallery of Denmark, and seeks to understand the moisture sensitivity of the paintings before and after lining. This is done by chemical analysis and tensile testing samples from the tacking edges as well as lined mock-up samples. The ability of the different lining techniques to support canvas paintings is evaluated in terms of their initial stretching and during fluctuations of relative humidity. Six different combinations of lining adhesives and textiles were examined. These included the adhesives Beva 371, Plextol D360, wax-resin, and glue-paste. The lining textiles were linen and polyester sailcloth. A naturally aged canvas painting and a modern painting were lined using these materials and methods. Testing of the lined paintings included uni-axial load-strain tests to assess the stiffness of the lined paintings. This was done to investigate what happens in the painting structure when a lined painting is re-tensioned or keyed out after stretching. Restrained tests demonstrate how the lined and re-stretched painting responds to changes in relative humidity. Contrary to the usual assumptions it was found that wax-resin linings on linen canvas responded to high relative humidity (RH) with higher contraction forces than was the case before lining. The contraction was evident at RH levels as low as 65%. Because the adhesive fills the voids in the linen canvas (both the original and the lining canvas), the contraction due to fiber swelling was immediate. There is some evidence that the same observation applies for liquid Beva in linen canvas. The results showed further, that glue-paste lining on a linen canvas offered significant support to a painting at 50% RH but increased the stress level severely in dry conditions and offered no support to the painting at 70-80 % RH. This means that the traditional glue-paste lining techniques and the wax-resin technique in high RH seem to limit the advisable RH fluctuation in a cultural institution. Conversely paintings lined with the polyester sailcloth showed a somewhat increased resistance to RH fluctuations. Lining on canvas does not provide an efficient alternative to RH control because a tensioned canvas cannot go into compression and therefore cannot protect the paint and ground layers against contraction forces. Stiffness in a lining at relevant moisture levels is decisive for how much the structure can contract. In many cases linings will actually necessitate tighter climate control than that needed for unlined paintings and this has been found to be true for the collection of Danish Golden Age paintings as well.

Krarup Andersen, Cecil

2013-01-01

397

Investigation of spray characteristics in a spray-guided DISI engine using PLIF and LDV  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The spray characteristics of a prototype piezo pintle-type injector are investigated in a single-cylinder optical direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine based on the spray-guided concept where mixture preparation is dominated by the spray dynamics. The high-pressure piezo electric injector has an annular nozzle providing a hollow cone spray. Planar Laser-induced Fluorescence (PLIF) and 2-dimensional Mie scattering were used to study the spray structure and characteristics under different in-cylinder back pressures and to obtain cycle resolved measurements of the planar fuel distribution inside the cylinder. The obtained results give information about the extent of charge stratification, spray stability and fuel/air mixture formation process under operating conditions. PLIF results revealed that there is a rich mixture at the spark plug position for all these conditions, ensuring stable combustion over the entire engine operating range. In addition, LDV measurements were carried out in order to provide information on the in-cylinder flow field near the spark plug, and to assess its influence on the mixture formation process. LDV results showed that the influence of the flow field strength during the late compression injection on the liquid fuel spray structure is low. The tumble generated in the cylinder is transformed into turbulence at the end of the compression stroke, which aids fuel evaporation and vapour dispersion just before ignition.

Yan, Y; Gashi, S; Nouri, J M; Lockett, R D; Arcoumanis, C [Centre for Energy and the Environment, School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, Northampton Square, London, EC1V OHB (United Kingdom)

2007-10-15

398

Investigation of spray characteristics in a spray-guided DISI engine using PLIF and LDV  

Science.gov (United States)

The spray characteristics of a prototype piezo pintle-type injector are investigated in a single-cylinder optical direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine based on the spray-guided concept where mixture preparation is dominated by the spray dynamics. The high-pressure piezo electric injector has an annular nozzle providing a hollow cone spray. Planar Laser-induced Fluorescence (PLIF) and 2-dimensional Mie scattering were used to study the spray structure and characteristics under different in-cylinder back pressures and to obtain cycle resolved measurements of the planar fuel distribution inside the cylinder. The obtained results give information about the extent of charge stratification, spray stability and fuel/air mixture formation process under operating conditions. PLIF results revealed that there is a rich mixture at the spark plug position for all these conditions, ensuring stable combustion over the entire engine operating range. In addition, LDV measurements were carried out in order to provide information on the in-cylinder flow field near the spark plug, and to assess its influence on the mixture formation process. LDV results showed that the influence of the flow field strength during the late compression injection on the liquid fuel spray structure is low. The tumble generated in the cylinder is transformed into turbulence at the end of the compression stroke, which aids fuel evaporation and vapour dispersion just before ignition.

Yan, Y.; Gashi, S.; Nouri, J. M.; Lockett, R. D.; Arcoumanis, C.

2007-10-01

399

Numerical simulation of a water spray - Radiation attenuation related to spray dynamics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiation attenuation by a water spray is predicted on the basis of a detailed simulation. First of all, a two-way coupling treatment of the spray dynamics is achieved through an Eulerian-Lagrangian modeling. Droplet distribution combined with water vapor and carbon dioxide volume fractions are then used to compute the radiative properties of the medium. A simulation of radiation propagation is performed, aimed at the computation of the spectral transmittance through the spray. A Monte Carlo technique is used to describe radiation absorption and scattering phenomena for a real droplet polydispersion and an equivalent monodispersion. Numerical results of spray attenuation are compared to experimental data obtained on a laboratory spray with low flow rate. Satisfying accuracy can be obtained for the numerical prediction if a realistic size distribution is used for the pulverization. The mean Sauter diameter and the volumetric fraction of droplets are found to vary with the position in the spray. Tentative predictions with a monodispersion therefore fail in predicting the attenuation ability of the spray at various vertical positions below the injection point. (author)

Collin, A.; Boulet, P.; Parent, G.; Lacroix, D. [Laboratoire d' Energetique et de Mecanique Theorique and Appliquee (LEMTA), CNRS UMR 7563, Universite Henri Poincare, Nancy 1, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre cedex (France)

2007-09-15

400

Visualization of pigment distributions in paintings using synchrotron K-edge imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

X-ray radiography plays an important role in the study of artworks and archaeological artifacts. The internal structure of objects provides information on genesis, authenticity, painting technique, material condition and conservation history. Transmission radiography, however, does not provide information on the exact elemental composition of objects and heavy metal layers can shadow or obscure the ones including lighter elements. This paper presents the first application of synchrotron-based K-edge absorption imaging applied to paintings. Using highly monochromatic radiation, K-edge imaging is used to obtain elemental distribution images over large areas. Such elemental maps visualize the distribution of an individual pigment throughout the paint stratigraphy. This provides color information on hidden paint layers, which is of great relevance to art historians and painting conservators. The main advantage is the quick data acquisition time and the sensitivity to elements throughout the entire paint stratigraphy. The examination of a test painting is shown and further instrumental developments are discussed. (orig.)

401

Inflammatory and genotoxic effects of sanding dust generated from nanoparticle-containing paints and lacquers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nanoparticles are increasingly used in paints and lacquers. Little is known of the toxicity of nanoparticles incorporated in complex matrices and released during different phases of the life cycle. DNA damaging activity and inflammogenicity of sanding dust sampled during standardised sanding of boards painted with paints with and without nanoparticles were determined 24 h after intratracheal instillation of a single dose of 54 ?g in mice. Dusts from nanoparticle-containing paints and lacquers did not generate pulmonary inflammation or oxidative stress. Sanding dust from both the nanoparticle-containing and the conventional lacquer and the outdoor acrylic-based reference paint increased the level of DNA strand breaks in bronchoalveolar fluid cells. In conclusion, addition of nanoparticles to paint or lacquers did not increase the potential of sanding dust for causing inflammation, oxidative stress or DNA damage, suggesting that the paint/lacquer matrix is more important as determinant of DNA damage than the nanomaterial. PMID:21995293

Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Koponen, Ismo Kalevi; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Mikkelsen, Lone; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Håkan

2012-11-01

402

Inflammatory and genotoxic effects of sanding dust generated from nanoparticle-containing paints and lacquers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Nanoparticles are increasingly used in paints and lacquers. Little is known of the toxicity of nanoparticles incorporated in complex matrices and released during different phases of the life cycle. DNA damaging activity and inflammogenicity of sanding dust sampled during standardised sanding of boards painted with paints with and without nanoparticles were determined 24 h after intratracheal instillation of a single dose of 54 mu g in mice. Dusts from nanoparticle-containing paints and lacquers did not generate pulmonary inflammation or oxidative stress. Sanding dust from both the nanoparticle-containing and the conventional lacquer and the outdoor acrylic-based reference paint increased the level of DNA strand breaks in bronchoalveolar fluid cells. In conclusion, addition of nanoparticles to paint or lacquers did not increase the potential of sanding dust for causing inflammation, oxidative stress or DNA damage, suggesting that the paint/lacquer matrix is more important as determinant of DNA damage than the nanomaterial.

Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Koponen, Ismo Kalevi

2012-01-01

403

Experimental investigation of drag reduction effect of Si-Polyurea paint  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel Silicone-Polyurea paint has been newly developed and introduced for the antifouling marine paint. This paint is featured with such advantages as the shock-proofness and the scratch-proofness. In addition, the roughness of the resulting paint film is found to be much less than the conventional SPC AF paints. Ultra fast drying ability enables the formation of very thick paint film, e. g., 500?m. The Silicone-Polyurea resin exhibits similar material behavior as that of silicone rubber in terms of hardness and elongation. This material is regarded as a potent candidate to substantiate the compliant coating for the skin friction reduction. This study aims at the assessment of the drag reducing efficiency of the silicone-polyurea paint

404

Spray Behavior and Atomization Characteristics of Biodiesel  

Science.gov (United States)

Biodiesel has large amount of oxygen in itself, which make it very efficient in reducing exhaust emission by improving combustion inside an engine. But biodiesel has a low temperature flow problem because it has a high viscosity. In this study, the spray behavior and atomization characteristics were investigated to confirm of some effect for the combination of non-esterification biodiesel and fuel additive WDP and IPA. The process of spray was visualized through the visualization system composed of a halogen lamp and high speed camera, and atomization characteristics were investigated through LDPA. When blending WDP and IPA with biodiesel, atomization and spray characteristics were improved. Through this experimental result, SMD of blended fuel, WDP 25% and biodiesel 75%, was 33.9% reduced at distance 6cm from a nozzle tip under injection pressure 30MPa.

Choi, Seung-Hun; Oh, Young-Taig

405

Density of Spray-Formed Materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spray Forming is an advanced materials processing technology that transforms molten metal into a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a substrate. Depending on the application, the spray-formed material may be used in the as-deposited condition or it may undergo post-deposition processing. Regardless, the density of the as-deposited material is an important issue. Porosity is detrimental because it can significantly reduce strength, toughness, hardness and other properties. While it is not feasible to achieve fully-dense material in the as-deposited state, density greater than 99% of theoretical density is possible if the atomization and impact conditions are optimized. Thermal conditions at the deposit surface and droplet impact angle are key processing parameters that influence the density of the material. This paper examines the factors that contribute to porosity formation during spray forming and illustrates that very high as-deposited density is achieved by optimizing processing parameters.

Kevin M. McHugh; Volker Uhlenwinkel; Nils Ellendr

2008-06-01

406

Electrostatic-spray ionization mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

An electrostatic-spray ionization (ESTASI) method has been used for mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of samples deposited in or on an insulating substrate. The ionization is induced by a capacitive coupling between an electrode and the sample. In practice, a metallic electrode is placed close to but not in direct contact with the sample. Upon application of a high voltage pulse to the electrode, an electrostatic charging of the sample occurs leading to a bipolar spray pulse. When the voltage is positive, the bipolar spray pulse consists first of cations and then of anions. This method has been applied to a wide range of geometries to emit ions from samples in a silica capillary, in a disposable pipet tip, in a polymer microchannel, or from samples deposited as droplets on a polymer plate. Fractions from capillary electrophoresis were collected on a polymer plate for ESTASI MS analysis. PMID:22876737

Qiao, Liang; Sartor, Romain; Gasilova, Natalia; Lu, Yu; Tobolkina, Elena; Liu, Baohong; Girault, Hubert H

2012-09-01

407

Thermophysical properties of plasma sprayed coatings  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermophysical properties of plasma sprayed materials were determined for the following plasma sprayed materials: CaO - stabilized ZrO2, Y2O3 - stabilized ZerO2, Al2O3, HfO2 Mo, nichrome, NiAl, Mo-ZrO2, and MoAl2O3 mixtures. In all cases the thermal conductivity of the as-sprayed materials was found to be considerably lower than that of the bulk material. The flash-laser thermal diffusivity technique was used both for diffusivity determination of single-layer materials and to determine the thermal contact resistance at the interface of two-layer specimens.

Wilkes, K. E.; Lagedrost, J. F.

1973-01-01

408

Current problems in plasma spray processing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This detailed report summarizes 8 contributions from a thermal spray conference that was held in late 1991 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, Long Island, NY, USA). The subject of Plasma Spray Processing'' is presented under subject headings of Plasma-particle interactions, Deposit formation dynamics, Thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings, Mechanical properties of coatings, Feed stock materials, Porosity: An integrated approach, Manufacture of intermetallic coatings, and Synchrotron x-ray microtomographic methods for thermal spray materials. Each section is intended to present a concise statement of a specific practical and/or scientific problem, then describe current work that is being performed to investigate this area, and finally to suggest areas of research that may be fertile for future activity.

Berndt, C.C.; Brindley, W.; Goland, A.N.; Herman, H.; Houck, D.L.; Jones, K.; Miller, R.A.; Neiser, R.; Riggs, W.; Sampath, S.; Smith, M.; Spanne, P. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Thermal Spray Lab.)

1991-01-01

409

Current problems in plasma spray processing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This detailed report summarizes 8 contributions from a thermal spray conference that was held in late 1991 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, Long Island, NY, USA). The subject of ``Plasma Spray Processing`` is presented under subject headings of Plasma-particle interactions, Deposit formation dynamics, Thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings, Mechanical properties of coatings, Feed stock materials, Porosity: An integrated approach, Manufacture of intermetallic coatings, and Synchrotron x-ray microtomographic methods for thermal spray materials. Each section is intended to present a concise statement of a specific practical and/or scientific problem, then describe current work that is being performed to investigate this area, and finally to suggest areas of research that may be fertile for future activity.

Berndt, C.C.; Brindley, W.; Goland, A.N.; Herman, H.; Houck, D.L.; Jones, K.; Miller, R.A.; Neiser, R.; Riggs, W.; Sampath, S.; Smith, M.; Spanne, P. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Thermal Spray Lab.

1991-12-31

410

Arc Sprayed Steel: Microstructure in Severe Substrate Features  

OpenAIRE

The effect of severe substrate topography on the microstructure of thermally sprayed coatings has been relatively neglected, but is critical in controlling the performance of thick electric arc sprayed steel shells for rapid tooling applications. This paper shows how the spray angle and the atomizing gas pressure control the distribution of porosity and oxide in steel sprayed in and around cylindrical holes of different diameter and depth. Droplet splashing and the secondary deposition of spl...

Newbery, Ap; Grant, Ps

2009-01-01

411

Solid/liquid coarsening behaviour of spray formed IN718  

OpenAIRE

The grain size in spray formed Ni superalloys is important in controlling subsequent workability. Currently, there is little understanding of the factors controlling the as spray formed grain size. In an effort to simulate preform solidification conditions immediately after deposition during spray forming, this paper presents an experimental study of the microstructure and coarsening kinetics of equiaxed grains in spray formed IN718 at high solid fractions of 0.6 to 0.9. Measurements of coars...

Manson-whitton, Ed; Stone, Ic; Grant, Ps; Cantor, B; Blackham, S.

1998-01-01

412

Low-Loss-Spray-Application - The Scientific Basis  

OpenAIRE

Limited time frames caused by infection threat and weather demand for efficient pesticide application techniques in modern integrated and organic fruit farming. This demand is best complied by low volume spraying, since it minimizes traveling time and number of fillings per spray treatment, but also minimizes the probability of a contamination of the operator with concentrated pesticides. To obtain good spray deposition, low volume spray application demands small droplets which offer numerous...

Herbst, E.; Lind, K.; Knoll, M.; Triloff, P.; Kliesinger, S.

2013-01-01

413

WWER-type NPP spray ponds screen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is to develop a protection screen of WWER-type NPP spray ponds. The screen design is to ensure reduction of the water droplets blown by the wind and, if possible, their return back to the spray ponds. The cooling capacity of the ponds is not to be changed below the design level for safety reasons. Computational fluid dynamics analysis is used to assess the influence of each design variant on the behavior of the water droplets distribution. Two variants are presented here. The one with plants is found not feasible. The second variant, with steel screen and terrain profile modification is selected for implementation. (author)

414

Elastic Young modulus of plasma sprayed materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A special device was constructed for measuring of the elastic constants of the plasma sprayed ceramic materials using segments of free standing pipes. Samples in the form of a ring were loaded by a radial force and changes of their diameter in the direction of the applied force were recorded. From measurements on narrow rings the elastic Young modulus can be determined while from wide rings the Poisson number can be calculated also. Comparison of results for as-sprayed samples and annealed ones show a significant increase of the Young modulus as a consequence of the annealing

415

Laser Surface Annealing of Plasma Sprayed Coatings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Laser surface annealing provides a rapid and efficient means for surface alloying and modification of ceramic materials. In this study, Alumina-13% Titania coatings were sprayed with a water-stabilized plasma spray gun. The coated surface was treated by Excimer laser having a wavelength of 248 nm and pulse duration of 24 ns. The surface structure of the treated coating was examined by field emission scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction (XRD. A detailed analysis of the effects of various laser parameters including laser energy density (fluence, pulse repetition rate (PRR, and number of pulses on the morphology and the microstructure of the coatings are presented.

Yue Hung

2012-07-01

416

Morphological Analysis of Cryogenic Spray Images  

CERN Document Server

This study gives the development of a new technique for analyzing images of Cryogenic sprays, to estimate the drop-size distribution. It has a sound mathematical basis, in the form of Mathematical Morphology, and we have tried to build up a formulation for a granulometry, starting from the elementary operations of Dilation and Erosion. An axiomatic foundation for granulometry has also been discussed. We have taken an actual LN2 spray photograph for analysis, to illustrate the use of Morphological operations, culminating in a granulometry.

Ganu, Hrishikesh V

2008-01-01

417

Study of Flying Particles in Plasma Spraying  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the trajectories of ceramic and metal particles in plasma spray are calculated by solving related momentum and energy equations. Meanwhile, the spatial distributions, temperatures, velocities, as well as diameters of the particles are measured by employing an online, in-flight particle sensor (DPV2000). The experimental and computational results are in good agreement. It has been found that the particle flying trajectories are dependent on material types and particle diameters, and in a plane vertical to the spraying axis, there is a certain corresponding relationship between the particle diameter and the particle velocity, as well as particle temperature.

Qunbo, Fan; Fuchi, Wang; Lu, Wang

2008-10-01

418

Plasma-Spray Metal Coating On Foam  

Science.gov (United States)

Molds, forms, and other substrates made of foams coated with metals by plasma spraying. Foam might be ceramic, carbon, metallic, organic, or inorganic. After coat applied by plasma spraying, foam left intact or removed by acid leaching, conventional machining, water-jet cutting, or another suitable technique. Cores or vessels made of various foam materials plasma-coated with metals according to method useful as thermally insulating containers for foods, liquids, or gases, or as mandrels for making composite-material (matrix/fiber) parts, or making thermally insulating firewalls in automobiles.

Cranston, J.

1994-01-01

419

Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip for Transportation Applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spray rolling is a novel strip casting technology in which molten aluminum alloy is atomized and deposited into the roll gap of mill rolls to produce aluminum strip. A combined experimental/modeling approach has been followed in developing this technology with active participation from industry. The feasibility of this technology has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale and it is currently being scaled-up. This paper provides an overview of the process and compares the microstructure and properties of spray-rolled 2124 aluminum alloy with commercial ingot-processed material

Kevin M. McHugh; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia; J.-P. Delplanque; S. B. Johnson

2005-02-01

420

Development of design solutions for spray ponds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principles of process design of spray cooling systems for responsible consumers of up-to-date reactor building are discussed in this paper. Development in design principles with respect to problem solving of operational reliability increase and ecological efficiency of nuclear power equipment is shown. The structural solutions of basin antifiltration shield are spoken in detail. The results of experimental physical-mathematical and climatic studies as well as comparative tests of bituminous asphalt emulsive mastic and mushy asphalt are reported. The directions of up-to-date researches on improvement of concept of spray coolers are indicated

421

Energy recycling by co-combustion of coal and recovered paint solids from automobile paint operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the results of an experimental study of particulate emission and the fate of 13 trace elements (arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn)) during combustion tests of recovered paint solids (RPS) and coal. The emissions from combustions of coal or RPS alone were compared with those of co-combustion of RPS with subbituminous coal. The distribution/partitioning of these toxic elements between a coarse-mode ash (particle diameter (d{sub p}) > 0.5 {mu}m), a submicrometer-mode ash (d{sub p} < 0.5 {mu}m), and flue gases was also evaluated. Submicrometer particles generated by combustion of RPS alone were lower in concentration and smaller in size than that from combustion of coal. However, co-combustion of RPS and coal increased the formation of submicrometer-sized particles because of the higher reducing environment in the vicinity of burning particles and the higher volatile chlorine species. Hg was completely volatilized in all cases; however, the fraction in the oxidized state increased with co-combustion. Most trace elements, except Zn, were retained in ash during combustion of RPS alone. Mo was mostly retained in all samples. The behavior of elements, except Mn and Mo, varied depending on the fuel samples. As, Ba, Cr, Co, Cu, and Pb were vaporized to a greater extent from cocombustion of RPS and coal than from combustion of either fuel. Evidence of the enrichment of certain toxic elements in submicrometer particles has also been observed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni during co-combustion. 27 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Achariya Suriyawong; Rogan Magee; Ken Peebles; Pratim Biswas [Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO (United States). Aerosol and Air Quality Research Laboratory

2009-05-15

422

Fundamento e desenho do teste randomizado PAINT Fundamento y diseño del test randomizado PAINT Rationale and design for the PAINT randomized trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Descrevemos as bases teóricas e o formato do "Estudo PAINT - Intervenção percutânea com stents com eluição de paclitaxel ou sirolimus em polímero biodegradável comparados com stents sem recobrimento no tratamento de lesões coronárias de novo". OBJETIVO: Avaliar duas novas formulações de stents com eluição de paclitaxel ou sirolimus em comparação com um stent de estrutura metálica idêntica, porém sem recobrimento polimérico ou eluição de droga. MÉTODOS: O PAINT é um estudo randomizado, multicêntrico, de 3 braços, conduzido em centros terciários brasileiros, que incluiu 275 pacientes alocados para tratamento com os stents InfinniumR (paclitaxel, the SupralimusR (sirolimus ou Milennium MatrixR (sem recobrimento na proporção 2:2:1 ratio. Os pacientes apresentavam lesões coronarianas de novo em vasos nativos com um diâmetro entre 2,5 e 3,5 mm, passíveis de tratamento com um único stent com comprimento de 29 mm ou menos. O objetivo primário era comparar a perda tardia aos nove meses de ambos stents com paclitaxel- ou sirolimus versus a perda luminal dos stents convencionais de controle. Objetivos secundários importantes incluíam a comparação angiográfica entre os dois tipos de stents farmacológicos, bem como a análise da ocorrência de eventos clínicos adversos. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: O estudo PAINT apresenta um formato peculiar e único que permitiu a avaliação da segurança e eficácia de duas novas formulações de stents farmacológicos, com carreador polimérico biodegradável, e liberação de paclitaxel ou sirolimus, os quais foram comparados contra um stent metálico convencional (objetivo primário. Uma vez que os stents farmacológicos diferiram entre sí somente pela droga, mas eram idênticos nas suas outras características, os estudo também permitiu a comparação do efeito anti-restenótico entre sirolimus e paclitaxel (objetivo secundário.FUNDAMENTO: Describimos las bases teóricas y el formato del "Estudio PAINT - Intervención percutánea con stents recubiertos de paclitaxel o sirolimus en polímero biodegradable comparados con stents no recubiertos en el tratamiento de lesiones coronarias de novo". OBJETIVO: Evaluar dos nuevas formulaciones de stents con liberación de paclitaxel o sirolimus en comparación con un stent de estructura metálica idéntica, pero sin recubierto polimérico o liberación de droga. MÉTODOS: El PAINT es un estudio randomizado, multicéntrico, de 3 brazos, llevado a cabo en centros terciaros brasileños, que incluyó a 275 pacientes destinados a tratamiento con los stents InfinniumR (paclitaxel, the SupralimusR (sirolimus o Milennium MatrixR (no recubierto en la proporción 2:2:1. Los pacientes presentaban lesiones coronarias de novo en vasos nativos con un diámetro entre 2,5 y 3,5 mm, pasibles de tratamiento con un único stent de hasta 29 mm de longitud. El objetivo primario era comparar la pérdida luminal tardía a los nueve meses de ambos stents con paclitaxel- o sirolimus versus la pérdida luminal de los stents convencionales de control. Los objetivos secundarios importantes incluían la comparación angiográfica entre los dos tipos de stents farmacológicos, así como el análisis de la ocurrencia de eventos clínicos adversos. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: El estudio PAINT presenta un formato peculiar y único que permitió la evaluación de la seguridad y eficacia de dos nuevas formulaciones de stents farmacológicos, con transportador polimérico biodegradable, y liberación de paclitaxel o sirolimus, los que fueron comparados con un stent metálico convencional (objetivo primario. Dado que los stents farmacológicos diferían entre sí solamente por la droga, pero eran idénticos en sus otras características, el estudio también permitió la comparación del efecto antireestenótico entre sirolimus y paclitaxel (objetivo secundario.BACKGROUND: We describe the rationale and design for the "PercutAneous INTervention with biodegradable-polymer based paclitaxel-eluting or sirolimus-eluting vers

Pedro A. Lemos

2009-12-01

423

Fundamento e desenho do teste randomizado PAINT / Rationale and design for the PAINT randomized trial / Fundamento y diseño del test randomizado PAINT  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTO: Descrevemos as bases teóricas e o formato do "Estudo PAINT - Intervenção percutânea com stents com eluição de paclitaxel ou sirolimus em polímero biodegradável comparados com stents sem recobrimento no tratamento de lesões coronárias de novo". OBJETIVO: Avaliar duas novas formulações de [...] stents com eluição de paclitaxel ou sirolimus em comparação com um stent de estrutura metálica idêntica, porém sem recobrimento polimérico ou eluição de droga. MÉTODOS: O PAINT é um estudo randomizado, multicêntrico, de 3 braços, conduzido em centros terciários brasileiros, que incluiu 275 pacientes alocados para tratamento com os stents InfinniumR (paclitaxel), the SupralimusR (sirolimus) ou Milennium MatrixR (sem recobrimento) na proporção 2:2:1 ratio. Os pacientes apresentavam lesões coronarianas de novo em vasos nativos com um diâmetro entre 2,5 e 3,5 mm, passíveis de tratamento com um único stent com comprimento de 29 mm ou menos. O objetivo primário era comparar a perda tardia aos nove meses de ambos stents com paclitaxel- ou sirolimus versus a perda luminal dos stents convencionais de controle. Objetivos secundários importantes incluíam a comparação angiográfica entre os dois tipos de stents farmacológicos, bem como a análise da ocorrência de eventos clínicos adversos. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: O estudo PAINT apresenta um formato peculiar e único que permitiu a avaliação da segurança e eficácia de duas novas formulações de stents farmacológicos, com carreador polimérico biodegradável, e liberação de paclitaxel ou sirolimus, os quais foram comparados contra um stent metálico convencional (objetivo primário). Uma vez que os stents farmacológicos diferiram entre sí somente pela droga, mas eram idênticos nas suas outras características, os estudo também permitiu a comparação do efeito anti-restenótico entre sirolimus e paclitaxel (objetivo secundário). Abstract in spanish FUNDAMENTO: Describimos las bases teóricas y el formato del "Estudio PAINT - Intervención percutánea con stents recubiertos de paclitaxel o sirolimus en polímero biodegradable comparados con stents no recubiertos en el tratamiento de lesiones coronarias de novo". OBJETIVO: Evaluar dos nuevas formula [...] ciones de stents con liberación de paclitaxel o sirolimus en comparación con un stent de estructura metálica idéntica, pero sin recubierto polimérico o liberación de droga. MÉTODOS: El PAINT es un estudio randomizado, multicéntrico, de 3 brazos, llevado a cabo en centros terciaros brasileños, que incluyó a 275 pacientes destinados a tratamiento con los stents InfinniumR (paclitaxel), the SupralimusR (sirolimus) o Milennium MatrixR (no recubierto) en la proporción 2:2:1. Los pacientes presentaban lesiones coronarias de novo en vasos nativos con un diámetro entre 2,5 y 3,5 mm, pasibles de tratamiento con un único stent de hasta 29 mm de longitud. El objetivo primario era comparar la pérdida luminal tardía a los nueve meses de ambos stents con paclitaxel- o sirolimus versus la pérdida luminal de los stents convencionales de control. Los objetivos secundarios importantes incluían la comparación angiográfica entre los dos tipos de stents farmacológicos, así como el análisis de la ocurrencia de eventos clínicos adversos. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: El estudio PAINT presenta un formato peculiar y único que permitió la evaluación de la seguridad y eficacia de dos nuevas formulaciones de stents farmacológicos, con transportador polimérico biodegradable, y liberación de paclitaxel o sirolimus, los que fueron comparados con un stent metálico convencional (objetivo primario). Dado que los stents farmacológicos diferían entre sí solamente por la droga, pero eran idénticos en sus otras características, el estudio también permitió la comparación del efecto antireestenótico entre sirolimus y paclitaxel (objetivo secundario). Abstract in english BACKGROUND: We describe the rational

Pedro A., Lemos; Bruno, Moulin; Marco A., Perin; Ludmilla A.R.R., Oliveira; J. Airton, Arruda; Valter C., Lima; Antonio A.G., Lima; Paulo R.A., Caramori; Cesar R., Medeiros; Mauricio R., Barbosa; Fabio S., Brito Jr; Expedito E., Ribeiro; Eulógio E., Martinez.

2009-12-01

424

AMORPHOUS COATING FORMING IN THE CONDITIONS OF GAS THERMAL SPRAYING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article the issues of forming amorphous coatings in the conditions of gas thermal spraying of coating are considered. On the basis of theoretical analysis the technological factors, determining possibility of obtaining the amorphous coatings at detonation spraying, are formulated. Two groups of factors, influencing on formation of amorphous structure in detonation sprayed coatings from metallic alloys, are marked.

V. V. Artemchuk

2010-06-01

425

21 CFR 524.1044f - Gentamicin and betamethasone spray.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin and betamethasone spray. 524.1044f...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1044f Gentamicin and betamethasone spray. (a) Specifications... . Each milliliter of spray contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 0.57...

2010-04-01

426

Experimental research on flash boiling spray of dimethyl ether  

Science.gov (United States)

The high-speed digital imaging technique is applied to observe the developing process of flash boiling spray of dimethyl ether at low ambient pressure, and the effects of nozzle opening pressure and nozzle hole diameter on the spray shape, spray tip penetration and spray angle during the injection are investigated. The experimental results show that the time when the vortex ring structure of flash boiling spray forms and its developing process are determined by the combined action of the bubble growth and breakup in the spray and the air drag on the leading end of spray; with the enhancement of nozzle opening pressure, the spray tip penetration increases and the spray angle decreases. The influence of nozzle hole diameter on the spray tip penetration is relatively complicated, the spray tip penetration is longer with a smaller nozzle hole diameter at the early stage of injection, while the situation is just opposite at the later stage of injection. This paper establishes that the variation of spray angle is consistent with that of nozzle hole diameter.

Zhang, Peng

2014-12-01

427

Alignment Fixtures For Vacuum-Plasma-Spray Gun  

Science.gov (United States)

Fixtures for alignment of vacuum-plasma-spray guns built. Each fixture designed to fit specific gun and holds small, battery-powered laser on centerline of gun. Laser beam projects small red dot where centerline intersects surface of workpiece to be sprayed. After laser beam positioned on surface of workpiece, fixture removed from gun and spraying proceeds.

Woodford, William H.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.; Power, Christopher A.; Daniel, Ronald L., Jr.

1993-01-01

428

Heavy-Workpiece Handler For Vacuum Plasma Spraying  

Science.gov (United States)

Handling device manipulates heavy, hollow workpiece for plasma spraying in vacuum chamber. Rotates and tilts workpiece, keeping it approximately perpendicular to plasma-spray nozzle, so nozzle deposits uniform layer on interior surface of workpiece. Accommodates workpieces as heavy as 1,000 pounds and compatible with heat and vacuum of spraying process.

Myers, William N.

1991-01-01

429

EFFECTS OF ADJUVANTS AND SPRAY DROPLET SIZE ON VELVETLEAF CONTROL  

Science.gov (United States)

Preliminary studies were conducted at Stoneville, MS to determine the effect of drift retardant polymers on spray droplet size, spray patterns and efficacy when used with Roundup Ultra®. Spraying Systems Turbo TeeJet®, 110015vp nozzles were used and calibrated to apply 94 L/ha at 7.4 km/hr. Array®...

430

Direct 14C dating of megalithic paints from NW Iberia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we present 5 AMS dates obtained from the paintings found on the uprights of 4 Galician megalithic graves. The results have shown that this art belongs roughly to the first half of the 4th millennium BC and pose the question of the contemporaneity of the building of the chambers and the execution of the paintings and also the occurrence of more than one episode of decoration in them.

En este trabajo damos a conocer cinco dataciones radiocarbónicas AMS obtenidas a partir de muestras de pintura de cuatro monumentos megalíticos gallegos. Los resultados obtenidos confirman la utilidad de este tipo de análisis a la hora de trazar la cronología de estas manifestaciones artísticas (en torno a la primera mitad del IV milenio AC y plantean además nuevas cuestiones acerca de la simultaneidad entre la pintura y la construcción de las cámaras, así como la existencia de dos o más episodios pictóricos.

Carrera Ramírez, Fernando

2002-06-01

431

Concentration profiles in paint layers studied by differential PIXE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Differential PIXE measurements varying the proton energy were used to probe the concentration profiles of metal-based pigments in paint layers. The algorithms developed earlier for metal targets were improved and enhanced to include light elements; the necessary information on chemical compounds has to be provided by complimentary methods. The de-convolution method employs slicing the target into layers characterized by mean production depths; the matrix inversion is replaced by a min {chi}{sup 2} problem. Two different methods of normalization are used: setting the sum of weight fractions of particular compounds to unity, and direct measurements of the projectile number, in our case through the argon line excited in the air. The efficiency of the two methods was compared for paint layers in frescoes, showing that smother concentration profiles are obtained using the measured proton numbers. Conversion of the layer areal densities into geometrical thicknesses is discussed.

Smit, Z. [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Jadranska 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O.B. 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: ziga.smit@fmf.uni-lj.si; Ursic, M.; Pelicon, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O.B. 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Trcek-Pecak, T.; Seme, B. [University of Ljubljana, Academy of Fine Arts and Design, Erjavceva 23, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Smrekar, A. [National Gallery of Slovenia, Puharjeva 9, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Langus, I. [National Museum of Slovenia, Presernova 20, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Nemec, I.; Kavkler, K. [ZVKDS Restoration Centre RS, Poljanska 40, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2008-05-15

432

INJECTION PAINTING OPTIMIZATION WITH FUZZY LOGIC EXPERT SYSTEM  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Optimizing transverse particle distributions in the accumulator ring is one of most important factors to the future performance of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) [l]. This can only be achieved by optimizing the injection bumps that paint the beam in phase space. The process is complex due to the vague distribution inputs and the multiple optimization goals. Furthermore, the priority of the optimization criteria could change at different operational stages. We propose optimizing transverse phase space painting with fuzzy logic and present our initial studies toward that end. The focus of this paper is on how the problem can be solved with a Fuzzy Logic (FL) expert system through the creation of a set of rules that can be applied by the system. Various particle distributions, from computer simulations, are analyzed with FL and the results are compared and discussed. Finally, a run-time optimization control system is proposed

433

A Brush With History: Paintings from the National Portrait Gallery  

Science.gov (United States)

The Smithsonian National Portrait Gallery is closed until 2004 for renovation, but you can still view 76 portraits of prominent Americans and accompanying biographies at this Website. The paintings are arranged in date order, from the 1720s to the 1990s. Subjects are widely varied, from William Wirt, a prosecution attorney at Aaron Burr's trial for treason, painted wearing a Roman toga by Cephas Thompson in 1810, to Andy Warhol's 1984 silkscreened portrait of Michael Jackson. In between are examples such as painter Alice Neel's self portrait, alongside her portrait of composer Virgil Thompson; Benjamin Franklin portrayed by Joseph Siffred Duplessis; and works by prominent eighteenth-century American artists, such as Charles Willson Peale and his son Rembrandt, John Singleton Coply, and Gilbert Stuart.

2001-01-01

434

Structural examination of easel paintings with optical coherence tomography.  

Science.gov (United States)

Identification of the order, thickness, composition, and possibly the origin of the paint layers forming the structure of a painting, that is, its stratigraphy, is important in confirming its attribution and history as well as planning conservation treatments. The most common method of examination is analysis of a sample collected from the art object, both visually with a microscope and instrumentally through a variety of sophisticated, modern analytical tools. Because of its invasiveness, however, sampling is less than ideally compatible with conservation ethics; it is severely restricted with respect to the amount of material extirpated from the artwork. Sampling is also rather limited in that it provides only very local information. There is, therefore, a great need for a noninvasive method with sufficient in-depth resolution for resolving the stratigraphy of works of art. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive, noncontact method of optical sectioning of partially transparent objects, with micrometer-level axial resolution. The method utilizes near-infrared light of low intensity (a few milliwatts) to obtain cross-sectional images of various objects; it has been mostly used in medical diagnostics. Through the serial collection of many such images, volume information may be extracted. The application of OCT to the examination of art objects has been in development since 2003. In this Account, we present a short introduction to the technique, briefly discuss the apparatus we use, and provide a paradigm for reading OCT tomograms. Unlike the majority of papers published previously, this Account focuses on one, very specific, use of OCT. We then consider two examples of successful, practical application of the technique. At the request of a conservation studio, the characteristics of inscriptions on two oil paintings, originating from the 18th and 19th centuries, were analyzed. In the first case, it was possible to resolve some questions concerning the history of the work. From an analysis of the positions of the paint layers involved in three inscriptions in relation to other strata of the painting, the order of events in its history was resolved. It was evident that the original text had been overpainted and that the other inscriptions were added later, thus providing convincing evidence as to the painting's true date of creation. In the second example, a painting was analyzed with the aim of confirming the possibility of forgery of the artist's signature, and evidence strongly supporting this supposition is presented. These two specific examples of successful use of the technique on paintings further demonstrate how OCT may be readily adaptable to other similar tasks, such as in the fields of forensic or materials science. In a synergistic approach, in which information is obtained with a variety of noninvasive techniques, OCT is demonstrably effective and offers great potential for further development. PMID:20043663

Targowski, Piotr; Iwanicka, Magdalena; Tymi?ska-Widmer, Ludmi?a; Sylwestrzak, Marcin; Kwiatkowska, Ewa A

2010-06-15

435

Spectroscopic characterization of a contemporary Indian miniature painting.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case study on a contemporary Indian miniature was carried out through the application of different spectroscopic techniques. Painting support, pigments, and dyes were largely characterized by means of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence and Raman microspectroscopy directly on the artwork. Regarding golden motifs and silvered areas, for which these techniques have not provided enough information, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy was used as a complementary technique. The painting support was identified as the Bombyx mori silk. Among the colorant matters, several pigments were identified such as chrome yellow, lithopone, hematite, lamp black, mica-titania pearlescent pigment, and tin-based metallic silver, and dyes such as phthalocyanine blue and the recent synthetic pigment red PR9 naphthol AS. All this materials will provide evidence in the support of the contemporary production of the artwork for future studies. PMID:24359650

Cardeira, Ana Mafalda; Longelin, Stéphane; Le Gac, Agnès; Nogueira, Isabel; Carvalho, Maria Luísa; Manso, Marta

2013-12-01

436

Concentration profiles in paint layers studied by differential PIXE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Differential PIXE measurements varying the proton energy were used to probe the concentration profiles of metal-based pigments in paint layers. The algorithms developed earlier for metal targets were improved and enhanced to include light elements; the necessary information on chemical compounds has to be provided by complimentary methods. The de-convolution method employs slicing the target into layers characterized by mean production depths; the matrix inversion is replaced by a min ?2 problem. Two different methods of normalization are used: setting the sum of weight fractions of particular compounds to unity, and direct measurements of the projectile number, in our case through the argon line excited in the air. The efficiency of the two methods was compared for paint layers in frescoes, showing that smother concentration profiles are obtained using the measured proton numbers. Conversion of the layer areal densities into geometrical thicknesses is discussed

437

Behaviour of painted aluminium in Ibero-American atmospheres  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aluminium generally presents good corrosion resistance to the atmosphere. However, unprotected aluminium and aluminium alloys weather outdoors to an ugly grey colour, which deepens to black in industrial atmospheres, and undergo superficial pitting in marine atmospheres, etc. Finishing technologies are applied for their protection and decoration in a wide range of applications. These technologies basically consist of two protection processes: anodizing and painting; the latter going from conventional solvent base paints to modem water-borne, high solids and powder coatings. This paper considers the weathering performance of three paint systems: alkyd, polyurethane and polyester, after more than three years of exposure in a wide spectra of Ibero-American atmospheric conditions. The information reported includes resistance to undercutting corrosion at the scribe, filiform corrosion, fungal attack and change in the physical-chemical properties of the paint surface (loss of gloss, colour changes, chalking, etc..

El aluminio, en general, presenta una buena resistencia a la corrosión en la atmósfera. Sin embargo, el aluminio sin ninguna protección y las aleaciones de aluminio expuestas a la intemperie envejecen mostrando un color gris, negro en el caso de atmósferas industriales, sufren la formación de picaduras en atmósferas marinas, etc. Para su protección, o a efectos decorativos, se le aplican diferentes procesos de acabado en un amplio rango de aplicaciones. Estos procesos de acabado, básicamente consisten en dos métodos de protección: anodizado y pintado; este último abarca desde pinturas convencionales de base disolvente hasta modernos sistemas base agua, de alto contenido en sólidos o pinturas en polvo. Este trabajo considera el comportamiento de tres sistemas de pinturas: alquídico, poliuretano y poliéster, tras más de tres años de exposición en un amplio espectro de condiciones atmosféricas de Iberoamérica. La información presentada incluye la resistencia a la deslaminación en la incisión, corrosión filiforme, ataque por hongos y cambios en las propiedades físico-químicas de la superficie de la pintura (pérdida de brillo, color, entizado, etc.

Morcillo, M.

2003-12-01

438

Oil painting on tinplate by Francisco José Resende  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cet article se concentre sur l'étude des techniques d'exécution, des matériaux et de l'état de conservation de trois peintures à l'huile sur fer-blanc (acier couvert d'étain du peintre portugais Francisco José Resende (1825 – 1893. Bien que le choix de peindre sur un support métallique n'était pas commun au XIXème siècle, cet auteur a exécuté au long de sa vie différentes œuvres sur ce substrat. Dans ces recherches, apparaissent les résultats comparatifs de la technique d'exécution de Francisco Resende et des matériaux présents dans les couches picturales et dans le support des trois œuvres faisant l'objet de l'étude. Bien qu'elles aient été exécutées à des dates similaires, on remarque des problèmes de conservation distincts - notamment les détachements, les cloques et la corrosion -, qui sont décrits et liés aux matériaux constituants des peintures.This article focuses on the study of execution techniques, material composition and condition of three oil paintings on tinplate – a thin sheet of steel coated with tin - by the Portuguese painter Francisco José Resende (1825-1893. Although the choice to paint on a metallic support was not very common in the nineteenth century, the painter executed several works on this support. The comparative results focus on Francisco Resende’s technique of execution, the materials used in the paint layers and on the support of the three works which are being studied. Although executed in the same period, they show different conservation problems - namely delamination and blistering of the paint layers, and also corrosion of the support.

Ana Rita Veiga

2010-11-01

439

Microstructural and topographic characterization of concrete protected by acrylic paint  

OpenAIRE

Concrete structures must be designed and constructed so as to resist the conditions established in the project design and suffer no deterioration for many years. In highly aggressive environments, in addition to the minimum layer covering the framework, the concrete must receive a protective coating. In this work, the efficiency of acrylic paint as a protective coating, while the concrete was placed in an aggressive environment, was assessed utilizing a profilometric and microstructural chara...

Carmen Couto Ribeiro; Joana Darc da Silva Pinto; Cristina Godoy, G.; Vicente Tadeu Lopes Buono; Tadeu Starling

2013-01-01

440

Colloids in Paints Colloids and Interface Science, Volume 6  

CERN Document Server

The first modern approach to relate fundamental research to the applied science of colloids, this series bridges academic research and practical applications, thus providing the information vital to both. Written by the very best scientists in their respective disciplines, this volume describes the role of colloids in paints, highlighting the importance of fundamental research in industrial applications.For surface, polymer and physicochemists, materials scientists, and chemical engineers.

Tadros, Tharwat F

2011-01-01

441

Multispectral Analysis and spectral Reflectance Reconstruction of Art Paintings  

OpenAIRE

This thesis is devoted to the analysis of high definition multispectral images of art painting masterpieces and to the reconstruction of the spectral reflectance in each pixel of these images. To this end, we were mainly interested in: 1. the methods for spectral reflectance reconstruction of the surface of coloured materials in each pixel of an N-channel multispectral image (N >3), 2. the radiometrically controlled acquisition of multispectral images and the automatic calibration of the acqu...

Ribes Cortes, Alejandro

2003-01-01

442

Anti-Corrosive Paint Systems Based on Conducting Polymers  

OpenAIRE

The corrosion protection of anti-corrosive paint systems based on conducting polymers is examined in the following four application areas: shopprimers, ballast tank protection, protection in off-shore environment and protection of aluminium. The conducting polymers used as an additive are polyaniline and polythiophene. Five possible hypotheses for the protection mechanism of conducting polymers are stated, and the aim is to examine the credibility of these hypotheses. For sh...

Petersen, Marie Louise

2007-01-01

443

Behaviour of painted aluminium in Ibero-American atmospheres  

OpenAIRE

Aluminium generally presents good corrosion resistance to the atmosphere. However, unprotected aluminium and aluminium alloys weather outdoors to an ugly grey colour, which deepens to black in industrial atmospheres, and undergo superficial pitting in marine atmospheres, etc. Finishing technologies are applied for their protection and decoration in a wide range of applications. These technologies basically consist of two protection processes: anodizing and painting; the latter going from conv...

Morcillo, M.; Simancas, J.; Corvo, F.; Rosales, B.; Fragata, F.; Pen?a, J.; Sa?nchez, M.; Flores, S.; Almeida, E.; Rivero, S.; Rinco?n, O. T.

2003-01-01

444

The impact of recirculating industrial air on aircraft painting operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments resulted in new environmental regulations for hazardous air pollutants. Industries such as painting facilities may have to treat large volumes of air, which increases the cost of an air control system. Recirculating a portion of the air back into the facility is an option to reduce the amount of air to be treated. The authors of this study developed a computer model written in Microsoft Excel 97 to analyze the impact of recirculation on worker safety and compliance costs. The model has a chemical database with over 1300 chemicals. The model will predict indoor air concentrations using mass balance calculations and results are compared to occupational exposure limits. A case study is performed on a C-130 aircraft painting facility at Hill Air Force Base, Utah. The model predicts strontium chromate concentrations found in primer paints will reach 1000 times the exposure limit. Strontium chromate and other solid particulates are nearly unaffected by recirculation because the air is filtered during recirculation. The next highest chemical, hexamethylene diisocyanate, increases from 2.6 to 10.5 times the exposure limit at 0 percent and 75 percent recirculation, respectively. Due to the level of respiratory protection required for the strontium chromate, workers are well protected from the modest increases in concentrations caused by recirculating 75 percent of the air. The initial cost of an air control system is $4.5 million with no recirculation and $1.8 million at 75 percent recirculation. The model is an excellent tool to evaluate air control options with a focus on worker safety. In the case study, the model highlights strontium chromate primers as good candidates for substitution. The model shows that recirculating 75 percent of the air at the Hill painting facility has a negligible impact on safety and could save $2.7 million on the initial expenses of a thermal treatment system. PMID:10561879

LaPuma, P T; Bolch, W E

1999-10-01

445

Breve História das Tintas Antivegetativas / Brief History of Antifouling Paints  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, os autores apresentam uma panorâmica geral sobre as tintas antivegetativas. Após a conveniente localização destas tintas no esquema de protecção anticorrosiva das obras vivas dos navios e / ou outras estruturas móveis, fazem uma síntese dos principais tipos de produtos antivegetativo [...] s usados ao longo dos tempos, até aos nossos dias. Complementarmente, sistematizam as principais tipologias dos organismos vivos que se fixam nas obras vivas das embarcações e referem alguns tipos de fauna e flora predominantes em duas regiões da Ibero-América. Abordam também, ainda que sumariamente, os principais mecanismos básicos de funcionamento dos diferentes tipos de tintas antivegetativas. Finalmente, referem algumas das principais linhas de investigação actualmente em curso, no domínio da luta contra a fixação dos organismos marinhos nos cascos dos navios. Abstract in english In this work the authors present a general overview of maritime paints, paying particular attention to the case of antifouling paints. After locating these paints in the anticorrosive protection systems used on the underwater parts of ships and/or other moving structures, a summary is made of the ma [...] in types of antifouling products used through history up to the present time. This is complemented by an assessment of the main types of living organisms that fix themselves to the underwater parts of ships, mentioning a number of families of fouling predominant in two regions of Ibero-America. Consideration is also briefly made of the main basic mechanisms by which the different types of antifouling paints work. Finally, a number of actual research lines on antifouling technologies are mentioned.

Elisabete, Almeida; Teresa, Diamantino; Orlando de, Sousa.

446

2D and 3D Chromosome Painting in Malaria Mosquitoes  

OpenAIRE

Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) of whole arm chromosome probes is a robust technique for mapping genomic regions of interest, detecting chromosomal rearrangements, and studying three-dimensional (3D) organization of chromosomes in the cell nucleus. The advent of laser capture microdissection (LCM) and whole genome amplification (WGA) allows obtaining large quantities of DNA from single cells. The increased sensitivity of WGA kits prompted us to develop chromosome paints and to use th...

George, Phillip; Sharma, Atashi; Sharakhov, Igor V.

2014-01-01

447

Chromosome painting in the manatee supports Afrotheria and Paenungulata  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Sirenia (manatees, dugongs and Stellar's sea cow) have no evolutionary relationship with other marine mammals, despite similarities in adaptations and body shape. Recent phylogenomic results place Sirenia in Afrotheria and with elephants and rock hyraxes in Paenungulata. Sirenia and Hyracoidea are the two afrotherian orders as yet unstudied by comparative molecular cytogenetics. Here we report on the chromosome painting of the Florida manatee. Resul...

Zori Roberto T; McGuire Peter M; Gray Brian A; Stone Gary; Dennis Thomas R; Burkett Sandra; Kellogg Margaret E; Stanyon Roscoe

2007-01-01

448

One startpoint for digital painting : lähtökohtia kuvalliseen digitaiteeseen -DVD  

OpenAIRE

The comissioned objective of the accomplished thesis was to produce a tutorial DVD-ROM that teaches its user the basics of the digital painting. The commissioner of the project was the Art Academy of the Turku university of Applied Sciences, and it is intended to be used as the personal learning material of the visual arts students. The comissioner’s assigned objectives for the project are as follows: an informative and educative content, an eye-pleasing visuals and flawless technic...

Paavola, Tuomo

2010-01-01

449

Anodized aluminum pressure sensitive paint for unsteady aerodynamic applications  

OpenAIRE

A comprehensive study of anodized aluminum pressure sensitive paint (AA-PSP) is documented. The study consisted of the development of AA-PSP and its application to unsteady aerodynamic fields at atmospheric conditions. Luminophore application mechanism and two-component application on anodized aluminum was studied for the development. Two-component application includes hydrophobic-coated AA-PSP and bi-luminophore system. It was found that the polarity of solvents and the surface charge of ano...

Sakaue, Hirotaka

2003-01-01

450

Is painting by elephants in zoos as enriching as we are led to believe?  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between the activity of painting and performance of stereotyped and other stress-related behaviour was investigated in four captive Asian elephants at Melbourne Zoo, Australia. The activity involved the elephant being instructed to paint on a canvas by its keeper in front of an audience. Painting by elephants in zoos is commonly believed to be a form of enrichment, but this assumption had not been based on any systematic research. If an activity is enriching we would expect stress-related behaviour to be reduced but we found no evidence of the elephants anticipating the painting activity and no effect on the performance of stereotyped or other stress-related behaviour either before or after the painting session. This indicates that the activity does not fulfil one of the main aims of enrichment. However, if an elephant was not selected to paint on a given day this was associated with higher levels of non-interactive behaviour, a possible indicator of stress. Behavioural observations associated with ear, eye and trunk positions during the painting session showed that the elephant's attentiveness to the painting activity or to the keeper giving instruction varied between individuals. Apart from positive reinforcement from the keeper, the results indicated that elephants gain little enrichment from the activity of painting. Hence, the benefits of this activity appear to be limited to the aesthetic appeal of these paintings to the people viewing them. PMID:25071994

English, Megan; Kaplan, Gisela; Rogers, Lesley J

2014-01-01

451

Art Expertise Reduces Influence of Visual Salience on Fixation in Viewing Abstract-Paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

When viewing a painting, artists perceive more information from the painting on the basis of their experience and knowledge than art novices do. This difference can be reflected in eye scan paths during viewing of paintings. Distributions of scan paths of artists are different from those of novices even when the paintings contain no figurative object (i.e. abstract paintings). There are two possible explanations for this difference of scan paths. One is that artists have high sensitivity to high-level features such as textures and composition of colors and therefore their fixations are more driven by such features compared with novices. The other is that fixations of artists are more attracted by salient features than those of novices and the fixations are driven by low-level features. To test these, we measured eye fixations of artists and novices during the free viewing of various abstract paintings and compared the distribution of their fixations for each painting with a topological attentional map that quantifies the conspicuity of low-level features in the painting (i.e. saliency map). We found that the fixation distribution of artists was more distinguishable from the saliency map than that of novices. This difference indicates that fixations of artists are less driven by low-level features than those of novices. Our result suggests that artists may extract visual information from paintings based on high-level features. This ability of artists may be associated with artists’ deep aesthetic appreciation of paintings. PMID:25658327

Koide, Naoko; Kubo, Takatomi; Nishida, Satoshi; Shibata, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Kazushi

2015-01-01

452

A heat exchanger analogy of automotive paint ovens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computational prediction of vehicle temperatures in an automotive paint oven is essential to predict paint quality and manufacturability. The complex geometry of vehicles, varying scales in the flow, transient nature of the process, and the tightly coupled conjugate heat transfer render the numerical models computationally very expensive. Here, a novel, simplified model of the oven is developed using an analogy to a three-stream cross flow heat exchanger that transfers heat from air to a series of moving bodies and supporting carriers. The analogous heat exchanger equations are developed and solved numerically. Steady state Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are carried out to model the flow field and to extract the heat transfer coefficients around the body and carriers. The air temperature distribution from the CFD models is used as a boundary condition in the analogous model. Correction coefficients are used in the analogy to take care of various assumptions. These are determined from existing test data. The same corrections are used to predict air temperatures for a modified configuration of the oven and a different vehicle. The method can be used to conduct control volume analysis of ovens to determine energy efficiency, and to study new vehicle or oven designs. -- Highlights: • Analogy of an automotive paint oven as a three stream cross flow heat exchanger. • The three streams are vehicle bodies, carriers and hot air. • Convection coefficients and inlet air stream temperatures from steady CFD simulations. • Analogy useful for overall energy efficiency analysis of conveyor ovens in general

453

Separation techniques for the analysis of artists' acrylic emulsion paints.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emulsion paints are complex chemical systems. The main problems in their characterization are related to the similarities in polymer composition and to the presence of many different types of additives. Thus high resolution separations, sensitivity, and response specificity are required to identify simultaneously the polymer matrix and the minor components. Especially surfactants and pigments are thought to affect significantly the properties of the paint layers during ageing and their identification is the first step in evaluating the behaviour of these products in working conditions. Representative samples of acrylic emulsion paints for artists have been investigated by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) and size exclusion chromatography-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (SEC-FTIR), and the results have been compared. All the analysed samples were bound in ethyl acrylate-methyl methacrylate, poly(EA-co-MMA), or n-butyl acrylate-methyl methacrylate, poly(nBA-co-MMA), copolymers. Two types of nonionic surfactants, ethoxylated fatty alcohols and alkylaryl polyethoxylates, commonly used as emulsifiers and dispersive agents have been identified, together with a number of organic pigments. PMID:15334913

Scalarone, Dominique; Chiantore, Oscar

2004-03-01

454

Alkyd paints in art: characterization using integrated mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alkyd resins have been commonly used as binders in artist paints since the 1940s. The characterization of alkyds in samples from artworks can help to solve attribution and dating issues, investigate decay processes, and contribute to the planning of conservation strategies. Being able to assess the components of industrially formulated paint materials and to differentiate between different trademarks and producers is extremely interesting and requires multi-analytical approaches. In this paper we describe the characterization of commercial alkyd paint materials using a multi-analytical approach based on the integration of three different mass spectrometric techniques: gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with a tandem quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI-Q-ToF), and flow injection analysis (FIA) in the ESI-Q-ToF mass spectrometer. GC/MS was successful in determining the fatty acid and aromatic fractions of the resins after hydrolysis; HPLC-ESI-Q-ToF analysis enabled us to identify the triglycerides (TAGs) and diglycerides (DAGs) profile of each resin, and FIA analysis was used as a rapid method to evaluate the presence of possible additives such as synthetic polymers. PMID:24050671

La Nasa, Jacopo; Degano, Ilaria; Modugno, Francesca; Colombini, Maria Perla

2013-10-01

455

Processing of antifouling paint particles by Mytilus edulis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Particles of spent antifouling paint collected from a marine boatyard were ground and subsequently administered to the filter-feeding bivalve, Mytilus edulis, maintained in static aquaria. Concentrations of Cu and Zn were measured in seawater throughout a 16 h feeding phase and a 24 h depuration phase, in rejected and egested particles collected during the respective phases, and in the organisms themselves at the end of the experiments. Concentrations and distributions of Cu and Zn in processed particles indicated that M. edulis was able to ingest paint particles, regardless of whether nutritionally viable silt was present, and no mechanism of particle discrimination was evident. Enrichment of Cu and Zn in the visceral mass of individuals and in the aqueous phase during depuration supported these assertions, although elevated concentrations in other compartments of the organism (e.g. shell, gill) suggested that biotic and abiotic uptake of aqueous metal was also important. - Particles of antifouling paint enriched in Cu and Zn are ingested and digested by the marine bivalve M. edulis

456

Processing of antifouling paint particles by Mytilus edulis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Particles of spent antifouling paint collected from a marine boatyard were ground and subsequently administered to the filter-feeding bivalve, Mytilus edulis, maintained in static aquaria. Concentrations of Cu and Zn were measured in seawater throughout a 16 h feeding phase and a 24 h depuration phase, in rejected and egested particles collected during the respective phases, and in the organisms themselves at the end of the experiments. Concentrations and distributions of Cu and Zn in processed particles indicated that M. edulis was able to ingest paint particles, regardless of whether nutritionally viable silt was present, and no mechanism of particle discrimination was evident. Enrichment of Cu and Zn in the visceral mass of individuals and in the aqueous phase during depuration supported these assertions, although elevated concentrations in other compartments of the organism (e.g. shell, gill) suggested that biotic and abiotic uptake of aqueous metal was also important. - Particles of antifouling paint enriched in Cu and Zn are ingested and digested by the marine bivalve M. edulis.

Turner, Andrew [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk; Barrett, Mark [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Brown, Murray T. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

2009-01-15

457

2D and 3D chromosome painting in malaria mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) of whole arm chromosome probes is a robust technique for mapping genomic regions of interest, detecting chromosomal rearrangements, and studying three-dimensional (3D) organization of chromosomes in the cell nucleus. The advent of laser capture microdissection (LCM) and whole genome amplification (WGA) allows obtaining large quantities of DNA from single cells. The increased sensitivity of WGA kits prompted us to develop chromosome paints and to use them for exploring chromosome organization and evolution in non-model organisms. Here, we present a simple method for isolating and amplifying the euchromatic segments of single polytene chromosome arms from ovarian nurse cells of the African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. This procedure provides an efficient platform for obtaining chromosome paints, while reducing the overall risk of introducing foreign DNA to the sample. The use of WGA allows for several rounds of re-amplification, resulting in high quantities of DNA that can be utilized for multiple experiments, including 2D and 3D FISH. We demonstrated that the developed chromosome paints can be successfully used to establish the correspondence between euchromatic portions of polytene and mitotic chromosome arms in An. gambiae. Overall, the union of LCM and single-chromosome WGA provides an efficient tool for creating significant amounts of target DNA for future cytogenetic and genomic studies. PMID:24429496

George, Phillip; Sharma, Atashi; Sharakhov, Igor V

2014-01-01

458

Preparation and characterization of microparticles of piroxicam by spray drying and spray chilling methods  

OpenAIRE

Piroxicam, an anti-inflammatory drug, exhibits poor water solubility and flow properties, poor dissolution and poor wetting. Consequently, the aim of this study was to improve the dissolution of piroxicam. Microparticles containing piroxicam were produced by spray drying, using isopropyl alcohol and water in the ratio of 40:60 v/v as solvent system, and spray chilling technology by melting the drug and chilling it with a pneumatic nozzle to enhance dissolution rate. The prepared formulations ...

Dixit, M.; Kini, A. G.; Kulkarni, P. K.

2010-01-01

459

Uso do spray de lidocaína em histeroscopia diagnóstica Use of lidocaine spray in diagnostic hysteroscopy  

OpenAIRE

OBJETIVO: determinar a eficácia do spray de lidocaína a 10% aplicado no colo uterino antes da execução da histeroscopia diagnóstica para reduzir a dor e o desconforto causados pelo exame. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 261 pacientes atendidas consecutivamente, entre março de 2004 e março de 2005. As pacientes foram randomizadas para dois grupos: um grupo recebendo aplicação tópica do spray de lidocaína (grupo lidocaína) e outro não recebendo nenhuma medicação antes do procedi...

Silva, Ju?lio Ce?sar Rosa E.; Areana Diogo Nascimento; Silva, Ana Carolina Japur Sa? Rosa E.; Omero Benedicto Poli Neto; Hermes de Freitas Barbosa; Francisco José Candido dos Reis; Antônio Alberto Nogueira

2007-01-01