WorldWideScience

Sample records for spray painting

  1. Recovery of spray paint traces from clothing by beating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olderiks, Maurice; Baiker, Martin; van Velzen, Jill; van der Weerd, Jaap

    2015-03-01

    Manual recovery of spray paints from textiles using a microscope, the routine method in many laboratories, is often laborious. Beating the clothing with a plastic rod, the routine method used for recovery of glass traces within the authors' laboratory, is proposed as an alternative. The efficiency of the method was evaluated by spray tests with fluorescent paint. In these tests, paint particles in the acquired debris samples, as well as those remaining on the textiles, were investigated. The results show that beating is an efficient way to recover and concentrate paint particles. A good efficiency for jeans fabric and rough knitwear is reported. The results appeared to be less satisfactory for smooth woven fabric. Application of the method in casework was effective for graffiti paints as well as for flaked car paint. PMID:25482095

  2. On the fluid mechanics of electrochemical coating and spray painting

    OpenAIRE

    Olivas, Pedro

    2001-01-01

    Finite-volume methods have been used for modeling of fluidflows involved in forced convection electrochemical coating androtating spray painting systems. Electrodeposition on a singlecircular cylinder under forced convection for Reynolds numbers10 and 200 was simulated. Comparisons with earlier numericaland theoretical results are presented and it is shown that theunsteady wake that appears for Reynolds numbers greater than 50affects the mass transfer from the surface of the cylinder onlyin a...

  3. TRANSFER EFFICIENCY OF IMPROPERLY MAINTAINED OR OPERATED SPRAY PAINTING EQUIPMENT SENSITIVITY STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an investigation of the impact of common industrial operating and maintenance practices on the efficency of spray painting systems. The investigation included independent research, as well as assistance from both representatives of the spray painting e...

  4. Exposure assessment of organic solvents for aircraft paint stripping and spraying workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uang, Shi-Nian; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Chang, Chun-Huei; Chang, Szu-Min; Tsai, Chuen-Jinn; Deshpande, C G

    2006-03-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the personal or area exposure of organic solvents during paint stripping and paint spraying. Three aircraft paint stripping/spraying workplaces in Taiwan were selected, and the Council of Labor Affairs and NIOSH recommended sampling/analytical methods used in this study. Activated charcoal tubes were used to investigate the personal and area exposure concentration of organic solvents in paint stripping and paint spraying operations. During aircraft paint stripping, experiment results show that methylene chloride personal exposure concentration at the ground area, 42.01+/-31.86 ppm, is higher than that at the working platform 4 M high above the ground, 20.41+/-11.43 ppm. Exposure concentration of methylene chloride in the initial paint stripping operation stage of every workplace is over the PEL (50 ppm) set by the Taiwan Council of Labor Affairs. Corrective actions are needed. During paint spraying, concentrations of all organic solvents were found to be below the PEL of OSHA. PMID:15885752

  5. A field evaluation of the impact of transfer efficiency on worker exposure during spray painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yu-Mei; Flynn, Michael R; Buller, Thomas S

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model to predict breathing-zone overspray concentrations produced during spray painting as a function of the overspray generation rate, ventilation and work practices. The overspray generation rate required an estimate of the spray gun transfer efficiency, which was provided by a previously developed mathematical model. These models were evaluated in the field under two different scenarios: first in a controlled environment that approximated the assumptions of models, and then under actual spray painting conditions. Results from the first test showed the model overestimated transfer efficiency, but the measured exposures and predicted exposures were not significantly different. During actual spray painting operations, all task exposures were within a factor of three of the model predictions, and there was no statistical difference between the measured and predicted values. The predicted average exposure of each worker was within the 95% confidence interval. The overall mean exposure was within one standard error of the model prediction. The current study expands on the original exposure model by including a transfer efficiency model to provide a better estimate of the overspray generation rate. The theoretical foundation between exposure and its primary determinants is established, and this knowledge can be applied to design and can evaluate optimal control interventions. Also, the general methodology presented here for developing an exposure model is applicable to operations other than spray painting. PMID:12005123

  6. Surface modeling of workpiece and tool trajectory planning for spray painting robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yang; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Automated tool trajectory planning for spray-painting robots is still a challenging problem, especially for a large free-form surface. A grid approximation of a free-form surface is adopted in CAD modeling in this paper. A free-form surface model is approximated by a set of flat patches. We describe here an efficient and flexible tool trajectory optimization scheme using T-Bézier curves calculated in a new way from trigonometrical bases. The distance between the spray gun and the free-form surface along the normal vector is varied. Automotive body parts, which are large free-form surfaces, are used to test the scheme. The experimental results show that the trajectory planning algorithm achieves satisfactory performance. This algorithm can also be extended to other applications. PMID:25993663

  7. Surface Modeling of Workpiece and Tool Trajectory Planning for Spray Painting Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yang; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Automated tool trajectory planning for spray-painting robots is still a challenging problem, especially for a large free-form surface. A grid approximation of a free-form surface is adopted in CAD modeling in this paper. A free-form surface model is approximated by a set of flat patches. We describe here an efficient and flexible tool trajectory optimization scheme using T-Bézier curves calculated in a new way from trigonometrical bases. The distance between the spray gun and the free-form surface along the normal vector is varied. Automotive body parts, which are large free-form surfaces, are used to test the scheme. The experimental results show that the trajectory planning algorithm achieves satisfactory performance. This algorithm can also be extended to other applications. PMID:25993663

  8. Dermal exposure to dry powder spray paints using PXRF and the method of Dirichlet tesselations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roff, Martin; Bagon, David A; Chambers, Helen; Dilworth, E Martin; Warren, Nicholas

    2004-04-01

    This paper describes workplace dermal exposure measurements that were carried out by the Health and Safety Laboratory as part of the EU RISKOFDERM project to measure dust contamination. Exposure to dry powder spray paints was measured at five sites on 12 subjects. Twenty-two samples were obtained, of which eight contained triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC) and 14 did not. All subjects wore Tyvek whole body oversuits and some wore sampling gloves. These were either analysed in their entirety to extract the TGIC or surface scanned over representative areas using a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (PXRF) to detect barium or titanium in the fillers of the paints. The method of Dirichlet tessellation was used to map the scans and the technique was developed further for these studies to extend measurements to gloves and to take limits of detection into consideration. The PXRF allowed dusts to be measured in situ that would otherwise be difficult to extract from the material and analyse by other means. The geometric mean surface loading rate of the 22 oversuits was 43 micro g/cm/(2)/h (GSD = 6.0) and of the 23 pairs of sampling gloves was 970 micro g/cm(2)/h (GSD = 8.6). Exposure patterns could be attributed to the arrangements of the subjects, spray booths and the workpieces. Similar exposures were found for TGIC and titanium fillers in factories with similar methods of ventilation. PMID:15059802

  9. A market study of green spray paints by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzini, P; Massonnet, G

    2004-01-01

    A market study of 40 different green spray paints was carried out using infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. The infrared technique distinguished between the 12 main groups based on their binder and extender composition. After visual comparison of the spectra 22 subgroups were observed. Raman spectroscopy was also carried out on the 40 reference paints in order to determine the pigment content. Analyses were undertaken using two different excitation sources: Argon ion (514.5 nm) and Helium-Neon (632.8 nm). The first generated strong fluorescence for most of the samples and created eight groups. Using the red laser, 15 classes were observed. Finally, using an analytical sequence starting with infrared spectroscopy followed by Raman Helium-Neon and then by Raman Argon laser, most of the paints were differentiated. In this study infrared and Raman spectroscopy complemented each other. FTIR supplied information about the binder and some extenders, and Raman provided information on the main organic pigments present. PMID:15270450

  10. Exposure to Airborne Particles and Volatile Organic Compounds from Polyurethane Molding, Spray Painting, Lacquering, and Gluing in a Workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarke Mølgaard

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the health risk related to occupational air pollution exposure, we assessed concentrations and identified sources of particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs in a handcraft workshop producing fishing lures. The work processes in the site included polyurethane molding, spray painting, lacquering, and gluing. We measured total VOC (TVOC concentrations and particle size distributions at three locations representing the various phases of the manufacturing and assembly process. The mean working-hour TVOC concentrations in three locations studied were 41, 37, and 24 ppm according to photo-ionization detector measurements. The mean working-hour particle number concentration varied between locations from 3000 to 36,000 cm?3. Analysis of temporal and spatial variations of TVOC concentrations revealed that there were at least four substantial VOC sources: spray gluing, mold-release agent spraying, continuous evaporation from various lacquer and paint containers, and either spray painting or lacquering (probably both. The mold-release agent spray was indirectly also a major source of ultrafine particles. The workers’ exposure can be reduced by improving the local exhaust ventilation at the known sources and by increasing the ventilation rate in the area with the continuous source.

  11. Exposure to airborne particles and volatile organic compounds from polyurethane molding, spray painting, lacquering, and gluing in a workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mølgaard, Bjarke; Viitanen, Anna-Kaisa; Kangas, Anneli; Huhtiniemi, Marika; Larsen, Søren Thor; Vanhala, Esa; Hussein, Tareq; Boor, Brandon E; Hämeri, Kaarle; Koivisto, Antti Joonas

    2015-04-01

    Due to the health risk related to occupational air pollution exposure, we assessed concentrations and identified sources of particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a handcraft workshop producing fishing lures. The work processes in the site included polyurethane molding, spray painting, lacquering, and gluing. We measured total VOC (TVOC) concentrations and particle size distributions at three locations representing the various phases of the manufacturing and assembly process. The mean working-hour TVOC concentrations in three locations studied were 41, 37, and 24 ppm according to photo-ionization detector measurements. The mean working-hour particle number concentration varied between locations from 3000 to 36,000 cm-3. Analysis of temporal and spatial variations of TVOC concentrations revealed that there were at least four substantial VOC sources: spray gluing, mold-release agent spraying, continuous evaporation from various lacquer and paint containers, and either spray painting or lacquering (probably both). The mold-release agent spray was indirectly also a major source of ultrafine particles. The workers' exposure can be reduced by improving the local exhaust ventilation at the known sources and by increasing the ventilation rate in the area with the continuous source. PMID:25849539

  12. An innovative sustainable process for VOCs recovery from spray paint booths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierucci, Sauro; Del Rosso, Renato; Bombardi, Danilo; Concu, Antonello; Lugli, Giuseppe

    2005-06-01

    Air emissions from surface coating operations result from the evaporation of the organic solvents in the coatings and consist primarily of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These VOC emissions can occur in a number of places along the production line: during atomization and application of the coating, during initial air drying of the part after it leaves the spray paint booth, and, eventually, in the bake oven. The aim of this paper is to present an innovative and sustainable process based on VOC absorption. An absorption tower is fed on the top by oil, which efficiently absorbs at low temperature the VOCs contained by the off-gas that enters the tower at its bottom. The mass ratio between oil and gas is approximately 1, so that a tray configuration results more efficiently than an alternative packed column. Saturated oil from the column is then stripped at high temperature in a vacuum system that condenses VOCs at a temperature slightly below the ambient temperature. Stripped oil is then recycled to the absorption tower. Special utilities are foreseen to reduce the water content in the gas and for energy recovery all over the plant. An industrial site located in Italy works at 14,000 Nm{sup 3}/h off-gas absorbed with slightly more than 10 m{sup 3}/h of oil. VOCs content in the off-gas ranges daily from 1200 to 2500 ppm; an average efficiency of approx. 90% recovery is presently obtained. A further reduction to an expected value of about 95-98% will be achieved in the next months.

  13. An innovative sustainable process for VOCs recovery from spray paint booths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air emissions from surface coating operations result from the evaporation of the organic solvents in the coatings and consist primarily of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These VOC emissions can occur in a number of places along the production line: during atomization and application of the coating, during initial air drying of the part after it leaves the spray paint booth, and, eventually, in the bake oven. The aim of this paper is to present an innovative and sustainable process based on VOC absorption. An absorption tower is fed on the top by oil, which efficiently absorbs at low temperature the VOCs contained by the off-gas that enters the tower at its bottom. The mass ratio between oil and gas is approximately 1, so that a tray configuration results more efficiently than an alternative packed column. Saturated oil from the column is then stripped at high temperature in a vacuum system that condenses VOCs at a temperature slightly below the ambient temperature. Stripped oil is then recycled to the absorption tower. Special utilities are foreseen to reduce the water content in the gas and for energy recovery all over the plant. An industrial site located in Italy works at 14,000 Nm3/h off-gas absorbed with slightly more than 10 m3/h of oil. VOCs content in the off-gas ranges daily from 1200 to 2500 ppm; an average efficiency of approx. 90% recovery is presently obtained. A further reduction to an expected value of about 95-98% will be achixpected value of about 95-98% will be achieved in the next months

  14. DEMONSTRATION OF A PAINT SPRAY BOOTH EMISSION CONTROL STRATEGY USING RECIRCULATION/PARTITIONING & UV/OZONE POLLUTION EMISSION CONTROL - VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes in detail the source testing, construction, and data reduction/analysis activities that comprise the three phases of a technology demonstration program. Phase I consisted of a detailed baseline evaluation of several paint spray booths operated at the Barstow,...

  15. DEMONSTRATION OF A PAINT SPRAY BOOTH EMISSION CONTROL STRATEGY USING RECIRCULATION/PARTITIONING AND UV/OZONE POLLUTANT EMISSION CONTROL. VOLUME 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes in detail the source testing, construction, and data reduction/analysis activities that comprise the three phases of a technology demonstration program. Phase I consisted of a detailed baseline evaluation of several paint spray booths operated at the Barstow ...

  16. DEMONSTRATION OF A PAINT SPRAY BOOTH EMISSION CONTROL STRATEGY USING RECIRCULATION/PARTITIONING AND UV/OZONE POLLUTANT EMISSION CONTROL. VOLUME 2. APPENDICES A-E

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes in detail the source testing, construction, and data reduction/analysis activities that comprise the three phases of a technology demonstration program. Phase I consisted of a detailed baseline evaluation of several paint spray booths operated at the Barstow ...

  17. Sunny Day Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl Children's Museum

    2012-01-01

    In this activity, learners explore properties of water and watch evaporation happen by "painting" with water in the sun. On a sunny day, learners use a variety of painting tools (brushes, rollers, spray bottles, etc.) to "paint" water on sidewalks, buildings, fences, etc. outside. Learners observe how the water moves and evaporates from the surfaces.

  18. 29 CFR 1917.153 - Spray painting (See also § 1917.2, definition of Hazardous cargo, materials, substance, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...electrical installations, wiring shall be in rigid conduit or in boxes containing no taps, splices or connections. (iv) Portable...If flammable or combustible liquids are supplied to spray nozzles by positive displacement pumps, the pump discharge line...

  19. Evaluation of high pressure water blast with rotating spray bar for removing paint and rubber deposits from airport runways, and review of runway slipperiness problems created by rubber contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, W. B.; Griswold, G. D.

    1975-01-01

    A high pressure water blast with rotating spray bar treatment for removing paint and rubber deposits from airport runways is studied. The results of the evaluation suggest that the treatment is very effective in removing above surface paint and rubber deposits to the point that pavement skid resistance is restored to trafficked but uncontaminated runway surface skid resistance levels. Aircraft operating problems created by runway slipperiness are reviewed along with an assessment of the contributions that pavement surface treatments, surface weathering, traffic polishing, and rubber deposits make in creating or alleviating runway slipperiness. The results suggest that conventional surface treatments for both portland cement and asphaltic concrete runways are extremely vulnerable to rubber deposit accretions which can produce runway slipperiness conditions for aircraft operations as or more slippery than many snow and ice-covered runway conditions. Pavement grooving surface treatments are shown to be the least vulnerable to rubber deposits accretion and traffic polishing of the surface treatments examined.

  20. COST EFFECTIVE VOC EMISSION CONTROL STARTEGIES FOR MILITARY, AEROSPACE,AND INDUSTRIAL PAINT SPRAY BOOTH OPERATIONS: COMBINING IMPROVED VENTILATION SYSTEMS WITH INNOVATIVE, LOW COST EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes a full-scale demonstration program in which several paint booths were modified for recirculation ventilation; the booth exhaust streams are vented to an innovative volatile organic compound (VOC) emission control system having extremely low operating costs. ...

  1. Replacement of corrosion protection chromate primers and paints used in cryogenic applications on the Space Shuttle with wire arc sprayed aluminum coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, R. L.; Sanders, H. L.; Zimmerman, F. R.

    1995-01-01

    With the advent of new environmental laws restricting volatile organic compounds and hexavalent chrome emissions, 'environmentally safe' thermal spray coatings are being developed to replace the traditional corrosion protection chromate primers. A wire arc sprayed aluminum coating is being developed for corrosion protection of low pressure liquid hydrogen carrying ducts on the Space Shuttle Main Engine. Currently, this hardware utilizes a chromate primer to provide protection against corrosion pitting and stress corrosion cracking induced by the cryogenic operating environment. The wire are sprayed aluminum coating has been found to have good potential to provide corrosion protection for flight hardware in cryogenic applications. The coating development, adhesion test, corrosion test and cryogenic flexibility test results will be presented.

  2. Salt Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    In this art meets chemistry activity, early learners discover the almost magical absorbent properties of salt while creating ethereal watercolor paintings. Learners first use watercolor to paint an image. Then, they sprinkle salt on the wet paint and observe. Use the provided discussion questions to encourage reflection.

  3. Marble Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    In this activity (located on pages 12-13 of PDF), learners visually investigate force and motion through art. Learners review the definitions of force and motion by reading from the book "Move It" by Adrienne Mason. Then learners make paintings by rolling marbles in boxes with dabs of paint inside. Learners can use the paintings as covers of science journals.

  4. Light Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exploratorium

    2012-06-26

    Light painting is a creative activity that involves creating striking images and illusions using a camera, a light source, and a little practice. Light paintings may be literal representations or impressionistic, color-filled images. When the camera shutter is open (and the room is dark) the film or digital sensor acts like a blank canvas onto which learners "paint" with a flashlight.

  5. Rhythm Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, early learners create paintings by making music and rhythm. Learners place paper in cans, add paint-soaked beans (or pebbles) and put the tops on. They dance to music and shake their cans. They remove the paper and repeat with different music and dancing (slow, fast, jerky, smooth). Learners describe their art and guess why it looks that way. Would dancing slow, fast, jumping or swaying make different art?

  6. Ultraviolet-radiation-curable paints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosset, A M; Su, W F.A.; Vanderglas, E

    1981-09-30

    In product finishing lines, ultraviolet radiation curing of paints on prefabricated structures could be more energy efficient than curing by natural gas fired ovens, and could eliminate solvent emission. Diffuse ultraviolet light can cure paints on three dimensional metal parts. In the uv curing process, the spectral output of radiation sources must complement the absorption spectra of pigments and photoactive agents. Photosensitive compounds, such as thioxanthones, can photoinitiate unsaturated resins, such as acrylated polyurethanes, by a free radical mechanism. Newly developed cationic photoinitiators, such as sulfonium or iodonium salts (the so-called onium salts) of complex metal halide anions, can be used in polymerization of epoxy paints by ultraviolet light radiation. One-coat enamels, topcoats, and primers have been developed which can be photoinitiated to produce hard, adherent films. This process has been tested in a laboratory scale unit by spray coating these materials on three-dimensional objects and passing them through a tunnel containing uv lamps.

  7. Perspective Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Joni

    2002-01-01

    One fourth grade class studied Van Gogh by investigating his art and life on the computer, painting still lifes, then learning to draw in perspective, creating colorful images of their own bedrooms using Van Gogh's bedroom as a model. Students extended their learning by examining relevant literature and completing timelines, biographical reports,…

  8. Playtime Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Chemical Society

    2006-01-01

    In this activity on page 9 of the PDF, learners make their own paint using chalk as a pigment and glue and water as binders. This activity introduces learners to special mixtures called suspensions. Safety notes: follow Milli's safety tips (on page 2) and do this activity with an adult.

  9. Paint and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or visit us online at: www.OTISpregnancy.org . Paint and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts ... and advice from your healthcare professional. What is paint? Paint is made up of pigment particles (color) ...

  10. ENVIORNMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: ANEST IWATA CORPORATION LPH400-LV HVLP SPRAY GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Enviornmental Technology Verification reports on the characteristics of a paint spray gun. The research showed that the spray gun provided absolute and relative increases in transfer efficiency over the base line and provided a reduction in the use of paint....

  11. Automatic Wall Painting Robot

    OpenAIRE

    P.KEERTHANAA, K.JEEVITHA, V.NAVINA, G.INDIRA, S.JAYAMANI

    2013-01-01

    The Primary Aim Of The Project Is To Design, Develop And Implement Automatic Wall Painting Robot Which Helps To Achieve Low Cost Painting Equipment. Despite The Advances In Robotics And Its Wide Spreading Applications, Interior Wall Painting Has Shared Little In Research Activities. The Painting Chemicals Can Cause Hazards To The Human Painters Such As Eye And Respiratory System Problems. Also The Nature Of Painting Procedure That Requires Repeated Work And Hand Rising Makes It Boring, Time A...

  12. CORROSION RESISTANCE OF WATER-THINNABLE PAINT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji?í Votava

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anticorrosion protection on the basis of water-thinnable paint systems belongs among one of ecological ways of protection of metal parts. The aim of the experiment was to test corrosion resistance of water-thinnable systems Eternal antikor speciál V9503 and Colorlak aquarex V2115 in the salt spray environment according to the norm ?SN ISO 9227. Ductility of used paint systems in complience with the norm ?SN EN ISO 1520 will be also tested, it is a test according to Erichsen. At the end of the experiment measurement, the corrosion speed depending on paint coating thickness was analyzed.

  13. The application and processing of paints hardened by electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam hardening is a process for changing liquid surface coatings of different thicknesses by irradiation with electrons of high energy into solid, hard, elastic films. In contrast to the UV process, one can harden pigmented paints with electron beams. An electron accelerator, which remits free electrons is used as the energy source for starting the chemical reaction in the coating material. In order to irradiate flat parts, which were coated with liquid paint by rolling, pouring or spraying, equally with electrons, one must produce an 'electron curtain', similar to that in a paint pouring machine. (orig./PW)

  14. The structure of paintings

    CERN Document Server

    Leyton, Michael

    2007-01-01

    First systematic approach to the analysis of the structure of paintingsApplication, to paintings, of a system of rules that have proven of value to computer-aided designApplication, to paintings, of a new history-based approach to geometry that shows the ability to explain and unify the artistic and scientific disciplines

  15. Electron beam curing paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam curing (EBC) type paint is paint that is specially prepared so that it can be cured and dried by electron beam irradiation. Electron beam irradiation achieves hardly any curing and drying of ordinary normal-temperature drying type paint or heat-drying type paint. The main type of paint in which an electron beam produces a curing reaction is one in which a radical polymerization reaction takes place under irradiation. The use of this EBC painting - drying system has been considered for a variety of fields since it has a number of special features such as the fact that the paint dries instantaneously, no heat is applied and no solvent is used. (Author)

  16. Automatic Wall Painting Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.KEERTHANAA, K.JEEVITHA, V.NAVINA, G.INDIRA, S.JAYAMANI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Primary Aim Of The Project Is To Design, Develop And Implement Automatic Wall Painting Robot Which Helps To Achieve Low Cost Painting Equipment. Despite The Advances In Robotics And Its Wide Spreading Applications, Interior Wall Painting Has Shared Little In Research Activities. The Painting Chemicals Can Cause Hazards To The Human Painters Such As Eye And Respiratory System Problems. Also The Nature Of Painting Procedure That Requires Repeated Work And Hand Rising Makes It Boring, Time And Effort Consuming. When Construction Workers And Robots Are Properly Integrated In Building Tasks, The Whole Construction Process Can Be Better Managed And Savings In Human Labour And Timing Are Obtained As A Consequence. In Addition, It Would Offer The Opportunity To Reduce Or Eliminate Human Exposure To Difficult And Hazardous Environments, Which Would Solve Most Of The Problems Connected With Safety When Many Activities Occur At The Same Time. These Factors Motivate The Development Of An Automated Robotic Painting System.

  17. This Old House: Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Old House has put together a well-organized set of articles regarding interior painting. On the site you will find guides to help you do something as straightforward as painting a room or something more difficult - choosing the right colors for rooms. Also available on the website is a multimedia section that contains videos ranging from repairing peeling paint to stripping stubborn wallpaper as well as photo galleries of interior projects. Finally, if you still can't find an answer to your question, there is a community painting forum where you can ask questions and get answers from seasoned pros and novice home painters alike.

  18. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  19. Occupational Exposure to Organic Solvents during Bridge Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hua; Fiedler, Nancy; Moore, Dirk F.; Weisel, Clifford P.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from bridge painting was measured in New York City and New Jersey during the summer and fall seasons from 2005 to 2007. The effect of painting activities (paint coating layer, confinement setup, and application method) and meteorological conditions (temperature, humidity, and wind speed) on solvent exposure to aromatic, ketone, ester, and alkane compounds were individually evaluated. Mixed-effect models were used to examine the combination effects of these factors on the air concentration of total VOCs as the individual compound groups were not present in all samples. Air concentration associated with spraying was not affected by meteorological conditions since spraying was done in a confined space, thus reducing their impact on solvent air concentration. The mixed models for brushing and rolling samples included two fixed factors, i.e. application method and temperature, and one random factor, i.e. sampling day. An independent dataset (daily air samples) was used to validate the mixed model constructed for brushing and rolling samples. The regression line of the predicted values and actual measurements had a slope of 1.32?±?0.15 for daily brushing and rolling samples, with almost all points being within the 95% confidence bands. The constructed model provides practical approaches for estimating the solvent exposure from brushing and rolling activities among construction painters. An adjusted mean air concentration derived from the activity-specific spray samples was the best estimate for that painting application. PMID:20354053

  20. Transport of a solvent mixture across two glove materials when applied in a paint matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Jackelin Q; Ceballos, Diana M; Dills, Russell L; Yost, Michael G; Morgan, Michael S

    2012-07-01

    The transport of mixed paint solvents through natural rubber latex (4 mil) and nitrile rubber (5 mil) gloves was evaluated after spray application of the paint formulation directly on the glove surface. Glove materials and thicknesses were those selected by the majority of spray painters in the local automobile repair industry. A flat panel containing glove specimens mounted in multiple permeation cells permitted evaporation of solvents from the applied paint and incorporated a solid sorbent receiving medium for measuring glove membrane transport. The panel was sprayed in a paint booth to simulate use conditions. Charcoal cloth under the glove adsorbed transported solvents, which were quantified by gas chromatography. For each solvent component, results were expressed as mass transported through the glove relative to the mass applied, per unit area, during 30 min after spray application. The paint formulation contained ketones, acetates, and aromatics. Natural rubber latex allowed 6-10 times the transport of solvents relative to nitrile rubber for all eight solvent components: methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, styrene, ethyl benzene, xylene isomers, and 2-heptanone. m-Xylene showed the largest difference in transport between the two glove materials. This solvent also had the highest transport for each material. The results indicate that nitrile rubber gloves offer somewhat greater chemical resistance to all eight solvents studied compared with natural rubber latex gloves, regardless of the chemical properties of the individual solvent components. However, it must be emphasized that neither of the glove materials, in the thicknesses used in this study, provide adequate protection when exposed by direct spray painting. Simulation of realistic spray conditions may offer a source of useful information on the performance of chemical protective gloves because it accounts for solvent evaporation and the effect of paint polymerization after application on glove transport. PMID:22434453

  1. Automotive action painting

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, George

    2006-01-01

    Observed from an overhead camera, a man stops by the roadside one morning and empties the contents of a number of large cans of paint over the tarmac. As the light rises, along with the level of traffic, the cars spread the paint along the surface of the road, creating an abstract smear of vibrant colour.

  2. Paint-Stirrer Submarine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jocelyn; Hardy, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a unique and challenging laboratory exercise called, the paint-stir-stick submarine, that keeps the students enthralled. The paint-stir-stick submarine fits beautifully with the National Science Education Standards Physical Science Content Standard B, and with the California state science standards for physical…

  3. Pollock without Paint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutley, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how the author exposes her students to the world of Jackson Pollock, the artist who brings to mind dripping, meandering, splashing puddles of paint. Pollock's action paintings of the late 1940s-'50s call out for unfettered movement, fluidity, and freedom of application. Is it even possible to capture the action, rhythm and…

  4. Multiscale effect of paint pulverization orientation on appearance after painting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezghani, S [Arts and Metiers ParisTech, LMPF, rue St Dominique - BP 508, 51006 Chalons-en-Champagne (France); Zahouani, H [Ecole Centrale de Lyon, LTDS UMR CNRS 5513, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, 69131 Ecully Cedex (France); Piezanowski, J, E-mail: sabeur.mezghani@ensam.eu [Arcelor Ledeep Florange, 17 Avenue des Tilleuls, 57191 Florange (France)

    2011-08-19

    The perceived quality of a vehicle is strongly affected by paint appearance that shares major part of the outer car body panels. The painting process modifies the surface topography in a wide range of roughness and waviness scales, and consequently modifies the functionality of the surface in terms of appearance. Since painting process is a multistage process leading to stratified surfaces, a multiscale surface topography characterization approach is suited. In this paper, 2D multiscale signature of the painting process was introduced and applied to track the effect of the painting process working variable on painted surface topography in a wide range of wavelength. To this aim, experimental painting tests were performed using three painting orientation modes (horizontal, oblique and vertical) on random and deterministic metal sheet surface textures. Results show that the painting orientation mode affect only the wavelength band greater than 500 {mu}m and optimal painting orientation depends strongly on the texture of the initial sheet surface.

  5. Multiscale effect of paint pulverization orientation on appearance after painting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The perceived quality of a vehicle is strongly affected by paint appearance that shares major part of the outer car body panels. The painting process modifies the surface topography in a wide range of roughness and waviness scales, and consequently modifies the functionality of the surface in terms of appearance. Since painting process is a multistage process leading to stratified surfaces, a multiscale surface topography characterization approach is suited. In this paper, 2D multiscale signature of the painting process was introduced and applied to track the effect of the painting process working variable on painted surface topography in a wide range of wavelength. To this aim, experimental painting tests were performed using three painting orientation modes (horizontal, oblique and vertical) on random and deterministic metal sheet surface textures. Results show that the painting orientation mode affect only the wavelength band greater than 500 ?m and optimal painting orientation depends strongly on the texture of the initial sheet surface.

  6. Revisiting Pollock's Drip Paintings

    CERN Document Server

    Jones-Smith, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the contentions that Jackson Pollock's drip paintings are fractals produced by the artist's Levy distributed motion and that fractal analysis may be used to authenticate works of uncertain provenance[1-5]. We find that the paintings exhibit fractal characteristics over too small a range to be usefully considered as fractal; their limited fractal characteristics are easily generated without Levy motion, both by freehand drawing and gaussian random motion. Several problems must therefore be addressed before fractal analysis can be used to authenticate paintings.

  7. Paintings and museum artefacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discusses the use of radiography to examine cultural artifacts, including everything from painting to mummies, for dating, authenticity, and history. Numerous historical photographs are included. 12 refs

  8. Fire retardant paints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Parihar

    1954-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism involved in the flame-proofing of cellulose is explained on modern electronic concepts. Some recent developments on intumescent paint and mastic compositions with the scope of their further improvement are discussed.  

  9. Chromosome painting in plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Schubert, I.; Fransz, P.F.; Fuchs, J; De Jong, J.H.

    2001-01-01

    The current 'state-of-art' as to chromosome painting in plants is reviewed. We define different situations described as painting so far: i) Genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) with total genomic DNA to distinguish alien chromosomes on the basis of divergent dispersed repeats, ii) 'Chromosomal in situ suppression' (CISS) hybridisation with chromosome-derived DNA probes and blocking of interchromosomally dispersed repeats by total genomic or C0 t-1 DNA in excess, iii) exceptional cases of sing...

  10. Painting Tableau Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Derby, Moyra; Elliot, Stuart; Finch, Mark; Harland, Beth

    2013-01-01

    The central visual core of Painting Tableau Stage comprised of paintings by four contemporary artists from the United Kingdom, Moyra Derby, Stuart Elliot, Mick Finch, Beth Harland, all of whom share an interest in concepts of the tableau, a term that has received recent critical attention in the U.K. and often translated as "picture form." In addition, a small selection of scenographic artifacts and models from OSU's Jerome Lawrence and Robert E. Lee Theater Research Institute act as a visual...

  11. A Place for Painting

    OpenAIRE

    Siqueland, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    For the past three years I have been a research fellow at The Academy of Fine Art through the Norwegian Artistic Research Programme. This text accompanies the exhibition "A Box and a Picture" and the book "A Picture and Box",which mark the end of my research project "A Place for Painting". In my work I have been interested in understanding how different geographical places influence the painting process and what this implies for the construction of place in pa...

  12. Artists Paint ... Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This article features the painting "View of Toledo," based on Toledo, a very old city located on a high plateau in Spain. By the time the artist El Greco painted the picture, he had lived there for 31 years. When one looks at the picture, one will see a storm approaching and will see the city as if it were lit by a flash of lightning. What main…

  13. Landscape Painting. Rewriting Painting in the Postmedium Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal, Nissim

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Is landscape painting still relevant today? To answer this question the article examines the work of the contemporary artist Yehudit Sasportas. Sasporas offers a unique kind of written-drawn landscape painting that moves between the manual and the mechanical. The theoretical perspectives from which it is approached are taken, among others, from Plato, Heidegger and Derrida on the issue of writing. Sasportas painting, which may be characterized as "painting under erasure" or "Landscape Painting", serves as a key to understanding the status of painting as a relevant medium, not because it defines medium according to the modernist Greenbergian formula, but because it enables an understanding of painting as a field that exists in a variety of media. Painting as a field, in Sasportas's art, works and lives within various techniques and materials, even when it includes within itself a melancholic mark indicating doubt about its own relevance.

  14. Landscape Painting. Rewriting Painting in the Postmedium Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Gal, Nissim

    2011-01-01

    Is landscape painting still relevant today? To answer this question the article examines the work of the contemporary artist Yehudit Sasportas. Sasporas offers a unique kind of written-drawn landscape painting that moves between the manual and the mechanical. The theoretical perspectives from which it is approached are taken, among others, from Plato, Heidegger and Derrida on the issue of writing. Sasportas painting, which may be characterized as "painting under erasure" or "Landscape Paintin...

  15. Occupational exposure to organic solvents during paint stripping and painting operations in the aeronautical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, R; Poirot, P; Subra, I; Rieger, B; Cicolella, A

    1994-01-01

    The exposure of workers to methylene chloride and phenol in an aeronautical workshop was measured during stripping of paint from a Boeing B 747. Methylene chloride exposure was measured during two work days by personal air sampling, while area sampling was used for phenol. During paint stripping operations, methylene chloride air concentrations ranged from 299.2 mg/m3 (83.1 ppm) to 1888.9 mg/m3 (524.7 ppm). The exposures to methylene chloride calculated for an 8-h work day ranged from 86 mg/m3 (23.9 ppm) to 1239.5 mg/m3 (344.3 ppm). In another aeronautical workshop, exposure to organic solvents, especially ethylene glycol monoethylether acetate (EGEEA), was controlled during the painting of an Airbus A 320. The external exposure to solvents and EGEEA was measured by means of individual air sampling. The estimation of internal exposure to EGEEA was made by measuring its urinary metabolite, ethoxyacetic acid (EAA). Both measurements were made during the course of 3 days. The biological samples were taken pre- and post-shift. During painting operations, methyl ethyl ketone, ethyl acetate, n-butyl alcohol, methyl isobutyl ketone, toluene, n-butyl acetate, ethylbenzene, xylenes and EGEEA were detected in working atmospheres. For these solvents, air concentrations ranged from 0.1 ppm to 69.1 ppm. EGEEA concentrations ranged from 29.2 mg/m3 (5.4 ppm) to 150.1 mg/m3 (27.8 ppm). For biological samples, the average concentrations of EAA were 108.4 mg/g creatinine in pre-shift and 139.4 mg/g creatinine in post-shift samples. Despite the fact that workers wore protective respiratory equipment during paint spraying operations, EEA urinary concentrations are high and suggest that percutaneous uptake is the main route of exposure for EGEEA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8034362

  16. Methods for estimating the transfer efficiency of a compressed air spray gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yu-Mei; Flynn, Michael R

    2002-01-01

    The transfer efficiency of a compressed air spray gun is an important performance index with regard to worker health, environmental, and economic considerations. It is defined as the fraction of paint sprayed that coats the surface. Worker exposure has been identified as a function of the transfer efficiency based on total mass of paint sprayed, which can be predicted by a mathematical model developed with nonvolatile oil. This study extends the existing model to include volatile effects by employing a mathematical approach based on a mass balance. This method allows the current model to predict transfer efficiency bounds at two extreme situations: all volatile compounds evaporate either before or after droplet impaction. Model predictions show that tight transfer efficiency bounds are obtained, especially for high values of transfer efficiency. Thus, the average of the upper and lower bounds should be a reasonable estimate of transfer efficiency. It is also found that the current model prediction, which is based on total mass of paint sprayed, for nonvolatile material can be converted to a transfer efficiency based on the mass of solids. The laboratory study shows that the predicted transfer efficiency based on the mass of solids is within the 95 percent C.I. of the measured value. This work relates the transfer efficiency used in industry, which is calculated on the basis of paint solids, with a model that predicts worker exposure during spray painting operations. PMID:11800405

  17. Painting for public perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, M.

    2011-12-15

    This paper presents the work of a wildlife artist, Lucas Seaward, in eliciting public opinion on the oilsands industry. He is in the process of creating 20 or more paintings using oil on canvas, not the Chagall or van Gogh sort of oil, but bitumen extracted near Fort McMurray. The paintings are designed for an exhibition to travel across Canada. His aim is to spread awareness that the oilsands industry is working hard towards sustainability and the protection of wildlife. Apart from being evil-smelling, bitumen is stiff, it does not dry quickly, and it wears out paint brushes really fast. Similarly to producers who add a diluent for proper flow, Seaward also found an additive that allowed smooth flow so that he could paint the bitumen in thin layers that dried properly and also was able to produce gradations of color. The idea is to educate the general public out of his personal experience of Fort McMurray and the oilsands industry.

  18. Rabbit Repellent Paint

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Five gallons of rabbit repellent paint were sent to George Wilson to be applied on the trees of the Tewaukon tree plot. Mr. Wilson requires a 3 or 4 in. brush for...

  19. Tie Dye Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    This is an activity exploring color and color mixing. Learners use an eyedropper to place dots of thinned tempera paint onto a super-absorbent paper towel, noting how the colors spread out from the center. Use this activity to introduce early learners to primary and secondary colors. Discussion questions are included.

  20. Paint by Numbers Revived!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Nic

    2012-01-01

    Remember paint by numbers? This revived trend was a perfect solution to teaching geometric shapes to the author's first-grade students. Geometric shapes are identified and used in early elementary art classrooms, but this lesson gives students a deeper understanding of shape, encourages problem-solving, and makes a strong correlation between math…

  1. Artists Paint ... Fantasy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    When he painted a portrait of Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph II (1552-1612), Giuseppe Arcimboldo used his imagination, and portrayed him as "Vertumnus," the Roman god of vegetation and the seasons. It's fun to find the different fruits, vegetables and flowers he used: pea-pod eyelids, a gourd for the forehead. Court painters of the time usually…

  2. Judgement of abstract paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakulovi? Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments the judgement of twenty one abstract paintings was investigated. In Experiment 1, subjects were asked to make similarity judgements of 210 pairs of paintings on a 7 step bipolar scale (similar-dissimilar. The Multi-dimensional scaling (MDS method was used for data analysis. The distribution of paintings within MDS 2-D space suggested two grouping criteria: colorfullness (e.g. from Klee to Kline and geometrization (e.g. from Vasarely to Kandinsky. In Experiment 2, subjects were asked to judge the same paintings on three factors of the instrument SDF 9 (Markovi? et al., 2002b: Evaluation, Arousal and Regularity. The purpose of this experiment was to specify the subjective criteria on which the (dissimilarity judgements were based. In the regression analysis the three factors of SDF 9 were defined as predictors, whereas the x and y coordinates of MDS 2-D space were defined as dependent variables. The results have shown that the dimension x was reducible to the Evaluation factor, and dimension y is reducible to the Regularity factor.

  3. Protecting the infrastructure with thermal spray coatings—Technical note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, T.; Sulit, R. A.

    1993-12-01

    Thermal sprayed aluminum and zinc provide long-term (> 20 years to first maintenance) corrosion control coatings. However, this application is usually more expensive than painting or galvanizing if thermal spraying (metallizing) is not integrated into the design and fabrication phases of new construction and repair projects. Aluminum and zinc metallized coatings are tough enough to withstand fabrication, transportation, and assembly operations. The improved capabilities and productivity of metallizing equipment for aluminum and zinc spraying are a major factor in their current cost competitiveness. The net result is that the cost difference between metallizing, paint, and galvanizing is getting closer every day. Even though the initial application cost of metallizing may be higher, the life cycle cost (LCC) and average equivalent annual costs (AEAC) are lower than paint coating systems. Metallizing LCCs, when properly engineered into the construction schedule, are equal to or less than paint coating LCCs. This article summarizes some metallizing considerations for installing improved corrosion control coating systems in new construction and in maintenance and repair of infrastructure.

  4. Gas/surface heat transfer in spray deposition processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical investigation of heat transfer dynamics between gas and solid surfaces during droplet spray impingement is presented. Aim of the work is to derive knowledge for control of spray deposition processes like spray painting or spray forming, analysing how the heat exchanged from the surface to the flowing gas is affected by the presence of impinging droplets. The investigation is carried on a macro- and a micro-scale, analysing velocity and temperature profiles close to a surface cooled by a spray on a scale of the whole spray and on a scale comparable to the droplet diameter, respectively. In the former case an Euler-Lagrange approach is used to reproduce the multiphase jet/spray for different nozzle geometries, gas conditions and droplets properties, as drop diameter and concentration. In the latter case, the gas flow close to the surface is studied during the collision of single and multiple droplets for different impact velocities superposed by different perpendicular gas boundary layer configurations. The 'volume of fluid' (VOF) technique is utilized for the determination of the transient shape of the gas-liquid interface during droplet impact. From the data of the numerical case studies, a quantitative consideration about the global increase of surface/gas heat transfer in impinging dilute sprays as a function of the number flux of particles approaching the wall is derived

  5. Hokusai: Mad About Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Smithsonian's Freer Gallery presents this Web interactive on the life and work of the Japanese painter and printmaker, Katsushika Hokusai (1760â??1849), the creator of the woodblock print "The Great Wave", one of the most recognized images in the world. The Flash interactive consists of four main sections on Hokusai's art: Brush & Block, Color, Composition, and Subject, plus an introductory, biographical section. In the Subject section see a long handscroll with a wide range of subjects from a pampered house cat, fish, foxes, and a man and boy looking at a waterfall; a 27 page manga, orIllustrated book; and a painting of a fisherman made when Hokusai was in his late eighties. In the Brush & Block section, compare painted and printed images of Mount Fuji, plants, and shellfish, to see Hokusai's expert use of both techniques.

  6. Paint by Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Only in America, one might say, would artistic self-expression be so successfully mass produced, commodified, and regimented. Nevertheless, in a brave attempt at recuperation, the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History offers this new Website on the popular 1950s' hobby of painting by number from the perspective of "the artists and entrepreneurs who created the popular paint kits, the cultural critics who reviled them, and the hobbyists who happily completed them and hung them in their homes." Taking a decidedly cultural studies approach, the Website stresses the pleasures derived from the activity as well as the modifications to the kits made by many participants. It also places the phenomenon in the context of the culture of the 1950s, particularly its expansion of leisure time. There are plenty of images here of the creation of the numbers kits as well as representations of the finished product. A bibliography and a bulletin board for posting reminiscences about painting by number are also provided. The authors claim the hobby, which pretty much died out in the 1960s, had the "peculiarly American virtue" of inviting people "who never held a brush before to enter a world of art and creativity." The editors invite our readers to be the judge of that.

  7. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. 173...Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.173 Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and...

  8. Old painting digital color restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Pappas, M; Pitas, I

    2010-01-01

    Many old paintings suffer from the effects of certain physicochemical phenomena, that can seriously degrade their overall visual appearance.Digital image processing techniques can be utilized for the purpose of restoring the original appearance of a painting, with minimal physical interaction with the painting surface. In this paper, a number of methods are presented which can yield satisfactory results. Indeed, simulation results indicate that acceptable restoration performance may be attain...

  9. Painting rusted steel: The role of aluminum phosphosilicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Aluminum phosphosilicate is an acid pigment which could act as mild phosphating agent. •Aluminum phosphosilicate can phosphatize iron oxides on rusted surfaces. •Aluminum phosphosilicate is compatible with acid binders. •Aluminum phosphosilicate could replace chromate in complete painting schemes. •Aluminum phosphosilicate primers improve paints adhesion on rusted surfaces. -- Abstract: Surface preparation is a key factor for the adequate performance of a paint system. The aim of this investigation is to employ a wash-primer to accomplish the chemical conversion of rusted surface when current cleaning operations are difficult to carry out. The active component of the wash-primer was aluminum phosphosilicate whose electrochemical behavior and the composition of the generated protective layer, both, were studied by electrochemical techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Primed rusted steel panels were coated with an alkyd system to perform accelerated tests in the salt spray chamber and electrochemical impedance measurements (EIS). These tests were conducted in parallel with a chromate wash primer and the same alkyd system. Results showed that the wash-primer containing aluminum phosphosilicate could be used satisfactorily to paint rusted steel exhibiting a similar performance to the chromate primer

  10. Water-based intumescent paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauers, D. G.; Nannelli, P.

    1979-01-01

    Article discusses fire-resistant water-based paints made by adding intumescing agents to fluorocarbon coatings. Since these paints are water-based, they do not pollute atmosphere as they dry and can be used in closed-loop air-recirculation system in spacecraft and submarines.

  11. Additive Transforms Paint into Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Tech Traders Inc. sought assistance developing low-cost, highly effective coatings and paints that created useful thermal reflectance and were safe and non-toxic. In cooperation with a group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center., Tech Traders created Insuladd, a powder additive made up of microscopic, inert gas-filled, ceramic microspheres that can be mixed into ordinary interior or exterior paint, allowing the paint to act like a layer of insulation. When the paint dries, this forms a radiant heat barrier, turning the ordinary house paint into heat-reflecting thermal paint. According to Tech Traders, the product works with all types of paints and coatings and will not change the coverage rate, application, or adhesion of the paint. Other useful applications include feed storage silos to help prevent feed spoilage, poultry hatcheries to reduce the summer heat and winter cold effects, and on military vehicles and ships. Tech Traders has continued its connection to the aerospace community by recently providing Lockheed Martin Corporation with one of its thermal products for use on the F-22 Raptor.

  12. The Transdisciplinary Potential of Remediated Painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decades the notion of what painting is has been considerably widened due to intermediality, i.e. crossovers between artistic media such as painting and sculpture, painting and photography, painting and installation, painting and performance etc. This paper suggests that the transformation of the discipline of painting into an expanded field has not only liberated painting from its ties to its traditional repertoire of materials and modes of representation. It has also released a tremendous potential for image making that takes painting as a point of departure but moves beyond the limitations of dialogic intermedia into the field of transdisciplinary aesthetics. In support of my argument, I turn to the concept of remediation as it was first applied in new media theory by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin. The ambition is to develop an apprehension of painting not as an artistic artifact or 'medium-specific' practice, but as a critical remediating process - painting as remediated painting. establishes its own separate space of cultural meaning. Secondly, it defines painting as active, performative and migrant. It suggests that today painting is active as a cultural force, not just as fine art. In order to substantiate these claims, the paper analyses works by some contemporary Northern European artists. What could be gained from this reconceptualisation of the expanded field of painting? Firstly, it introduces an apprehension of painting that starts from the transdisciplinary potential of painting instead of its historical disciplinarity and the attendant assumption that, as a discipline, painting functions independently and

  13. Experimental evaluation of insecticidal paints against Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, under natural climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorla David E

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triatoma infestans is the main vector of Chagas disease in the Gran Chaco region of South America. The traditional spraying technique used for the application of pyrethroid insecticides has shown low efficiency in the elimination of the vector species populations occupying peridomestic structures of rural houses in the endemic area of Argentina. As part of studies looking for better alternatives, we evaluated the residual effect of insecticidal paints on the mortality of fourth instar nymphs of T. infestans. Results The study was based on an experimental design that included two groups treated with an organophosphate (Inesfly 5A IGR™ and a pyrethroid (Inesfly 5A IGR NG™ formulations of the paint, that were applied on wood, cement blocks and adobe bricks under natural climatic conditions. A third group was an untreated control. Both paint formulations showed very long residual activity, producing mortality of 84% and 98% (pyrethroid and organophosphate formulations, respectively after 12 months of the paint application. After eight months, nymphs exposed during 6 hours to the painted surfaces with the pyrethroid and organophosphate formulations showed 81.33% and 100% mortality, respectively. Conclusion The organophosphate- and pyrethroid-based insecticidal paints showed a very long residual activity on the mortality of fourth instar nymphs of T infestans, compared with the traditional spraying technique used for the application of pyrethroid insecticides in peridomestic structures of rural houses in the endemic region for Chagas disease in the Gran Chaco of Argentina. The application of the paints by trained personnel of the vector control programmes could be considered as an alternative control tool in areas where the traditional methods have failed or showed low efficacy.

  14. Painting recognition from wearable cameras

    OpenAIRE

    Dalens, The?ophile; Sivic, Josef; Laptev, Ivan; Campedel, Marine

    2014-01-01

    Are smart glasses the new high-tech device that will guide you through a museum? In this report, we describe a system that runs "on device" on Google Glass and retrieves the painting you're looking at among a set of paintings in a database. We perform an experimental comparison of the accuracy and speed of different feature detectors and descriptors on a realistic dataset of paintings from Musée du Louvre. Based on this analysis we design an algorithm for fast and accurate image matching usi...

  15. New biocides for antifouling paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antifouling paints are used for protecting the hulls of the boasts from the undesirable accumulation of micro-organisms, plants, and animals on artificial surfaces (marine biological fouling). These paints constitute a potential risk for the marine environment, because of the presence in their formulation, among the other potentially toxic components, of organic compounds acting as biocide. The environmental problems associated with the use of the organotin compounds as biocides in the antifouling paints, have lead to the international ban of these compounds. In the article the new antifouling paints coming up the national and international market are shortly introduced and discussed, with particular attention respect to the new organic compounds used as biocides. In Italy quite a few marine monitoring campaigns have been carried out for organotin compounds, on the contrary there is a lack of data regarding the presence of other biocides

  16. Neutron absorbing-shielding paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention concerns neutron absorbing shielding paints showing excellent adhesion at high temperature. As such paints, although silicon rubber in which boron carbide is dispersed has been known so far, it has a drawback that defoliation, crack, etc. are caused to the painted films at a temperature higher than 200degC, and it can not be used as a pressure vessel. The present invention overcomes such a drawback. That is, the paint according to the present invention comprises 15 to 80 parts by weight of a silicon resin, 15 to 80 parts by weight of boron carbide and 1 to 50 parts by weight of low melting glazes. The glaze ingredients described above react with SiO2 formed upon thermal decomposition of the silicone resin to provide a function as a binder. (K.M.)

  17. Reactive plasma spraying

    OpenAIRE

    Al-sabouni, Omar

    1999-01-01

    Reactive Plasma Spraying (RPS) with a hydrocarbon gas has been studied as a method to improve the mechanical properties of a commercially available 80: 20 nickel-chromium alloy, and subsequently as a method to reduce the oxygen content of sprayed MCrAlY coatings. A conventional d. c. plasma torch has been modified by attaching a conical graphite tube (reactor) onto the end of the gun. The powder is then sprayed through the reactor with injected reactive hydrocarbon gas. The ...

  18. Great Works: 50 Paintings Explored

    OpenAIRE

    Coutts, Marion; Lubbock, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Great Works: 50 Paintings Explored is a fully illustrated collection of essays on individual paintings drawn from his Great Works column in The Independent that ran from 2005 - 2010. As literary executor for the estate of Tom Lubbock I facilitated the production of Great Works together with Andrew Dunn from Frances Lincoln: proofing, editing, image calibration, working from the essay schedule set by the author.

  19. Romanesque mural painting in Catalonia

    OpenAIRE

    Montserrat Pagès

    2013-01-01

    The Romanesque mural painting in Catalonia which was saved from despoilment and dispersion in 1919, when the Junta de Museus (Board of Museums) of Barcelona embarked upon a major campaign of purchase and removal, is a unique heritage of universal value. Even though the mural paintings from the Romanesque cathedrals or the great abbeys like Ripoll no longer survive, what has been conserved is quite notable both stylistically and iconographically. The surviving frescoes were mainly inspired by ...

  20. Action painting and children drawing

    OpenAIRE

    Cvirn, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of my thesis is to understand the creative process of action painting in children’s drawings. Theoretical part investigates the development of abstract expressionism. It describes “Dripping art’’ of Jackson Pollock, one of the leading representatives of action painting. I explored the recent upgrades of Pollock’s performative by younger artists. At the same time I explored the developmental stages of children's artistic expressions. In the second part I’m presenting my works....

  1. Joan Miro: Painting and Anti-Painting, 1927-1937

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Metropolitan Museum of Art's online exhibition: Joan Miro: Painting and Anti-Painting 1927-1937 is a great-looking website. Miro's work can be viewed in several different ways. Click on "Chronology" at the bottom of the page, and you'll see a timeline with paintings, collages, assemblages from the exhibit, as well as ones not in the exhibit. Roll over a work and you'll get the title, click on the work and you'll get a description of it, and be able to zoom in on the image of the work. With the high quality close-up you can see the brush strokes on the canvas. By clicking on "Series," at the bottom of the page, you can see his works divided up by series, and by rolling over the works you can see the series titles, such as "Paintings Based on Collages", "Constructions and Objects", and "Small Paintings on Masonite and Copper". Visitors shouldn't miss looking at the collages, and the paintings based on them, side-by-side in "Paintings Based on Collages". Another approach to categorizing Miro's works is by "Relative Size." Laid out much like a timeline, but neither in date order or ascending (or descending) size, the visitor can click on each work to read its description. Finally, at the bottom left of the page, you'll find "Filter", where you can choose within Methods, Supports, Mediums, and Materials, the filters you want for the content of the site. For instance, you can choose to see only "collages", done on "masonite" using "tempera" and "printed paper". After you choose the filters, click again on "Series", "Chronology", "Relative Size", or "Index", and see only those works that fit the criteria of the filters you selected.

  2. Skin painting studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to estimate eventual risks to human health as a consequence of incidental and prolonged skin contact, it is necessary to obtain some information on the potential of coal-derived liquids to elicit skin cancer. In addition, it also must be established whether prolonged dermal exposure will produce signs of toxicity not only on the skin but to internal organs. During the past 2 years, they completed a life-long skin painting study with mice designed to answer some of these questions. The following materials were tested: Raw H-coal blend, containing 5700 ppm N; H-coal blend after low hydrotreatment (2650 ppm N); H-coal blend after high hydrotreatment (0.2 ppm N); H-coal home heating oil, a devolatilized version of the high-hydrotreatment H-coal blend; and an H-coal reformed naphtha. Two petroleum-derived references samples were used: Petroleum No. 2 fuel oil and high catalytically cracked naphtha. Benzo(a)pyrene was used as reference substance. Experimental animals were male and female C3H mice

  3. Theoretical and experimental aspects of paint film leveling: Presentation held at Coatings for the Next Decade, 1st European Technical Coatings Congress, ETCC 2012, 4-6 June 2012, Lausanne, Switzerland. FATIPEC-OCCA Congress

    OpenAIRE

    Hager, Christian; Schneider, Matthias; Strohbeck, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Next to color and gloss, the leveling of paint films is the most important criterion for the evaluation of coating quality of high-quality products. In case of incomplete leveling the surface of the paint film after drying and curing shows a more or less strong "orange-peel structure". For paint films that are applied by using spraying techniques the random statistical superposition of the paint droplets during film formation is main cause for the occurrence of orange-peel structure. The part...

  4. Romanesque mural painting in Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Pagès

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Romanesque mural painting in Catalonia which was saved from despoilment and dispersion in 1919, when the Junta de Museus (Board of Museums of Barcelona embarked upon a major campaign of purchase and removal, is a unique heritage of universal value. Even though the mural paintings from the Romanesque cathedrals or the great abbeys like Ripoll no longer survive, what has been conserved is quite notable both stylistically and iconographically. The surviving frescoes were mainly inspired by the art of early Christian Rome and that of the Gregorian reform, yet also by Byzantine sources and by Lombard and Germanic styles and prototypes, all translated into highly original programmes of images. The most emblematic works are conserved at the Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya (MNAC, such as the apse from Sant Climent de Taüll, a capolavoro of European Romanesque painting, and the apses from Sant Pere de la Seu d’Urgell and Santa Maria d’Àneu, both boasting outstanding quality, along with the paintings from Sant Joan in Boí, Sant Quirze de Pedret, Sorpe and el Burgal. Together with the frescoes at the Museu Diocesà i Comarcal de Solsona, the Museu Episcopal de Vic, the Museu d’Art de Girona and the Museu Diocesà d’Urgell, along with the numerous murals and remains of paintings conserved in situ, many of them discovered in recent years, they enable us to envisage the scope of this Catalan Romanesque art. Of these discoveries, perhaps the most noteworthy are the paintings from Sant Vicenç d’Estamariu, as well as the new images on the triumphant arches of Sant Climent de Taüll. This article summarises the most important part of this mural painting heritage as well as the most recent literature on the subject.

  5. The transdisciplinary potential of remediated painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2011-01-01

    "The Transdisciplinary Potential of Remediated Painting" Over the last decades the notion of what painting is has been considerably widened due to intermediality, i.e. crossovers between artistic media such as painting and sculpture, painting and photography, painting and installation, painting and performance etc. This paper suggests that the transformation of the discipline of painting into an expanded field has not only liberated painting from its ties to its traditional repertoire of materials and modes of representation. It has also released a tremendous potential for image making that takes painting as a point of departure but moves beyond the limitations of dialogic intermedia into the field of transdisciplinary aesthetics. In support of my argument, I turn to the concept of remediation as it was first applied in new media theory by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin. The ambition is to develop an apprehension of painting not as an artistic artifact or 'medium-specific' practice, but as a critical remediating process - painting as remediated painting. What could be gained from this reconceptualisation of the expanded field of painting? Firstly, it introduces an apprehension of painting that starts from the transdisciplinary potential of painting instead of its historical disciplinarity and the attendant assumption that, as a discipline, painting functions independently and establishes its own separate space of cultural meaning. Secondly, it defines painting as active, performative and migrant. It suggests that today painting is active as a cultural force, not just as fine art. In order to substantiate these claims, the paper analyses works by some contemporary Northern European artists.

  6. Painting digitally : with Photoshop's brush tool

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkinen, Saara

    2011-01-01

    The reason I wanted to study Photoshop brushes is that with the right settings you can not only paint faster but also create more unique painting effects and styles. Photoshop is my main tool when painting digitally, but I noticed that I tend to use only the same type of default brush for everything I paint, be it smooth surfaces, organic shapes or modern structures. To be a concept artist you have to be able to paint fast. This means you need good tools to speed up the painting process. Look...

  7. Painting : Discursive Battlefield and Intermedial Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing struggle of painting – leading to recurrent announcements of its ‘demise’ and subsequently of its ‘return’ – serves as point of departure for an examination of ‘expanded painting’. The article suggests that contemporary painting is not only a field of incessant disciplinary and discursive battles over the essentially self-reflective question of “What is painting?” Over the last decades it has also become an intermedial laboratory in which artists experiment with developing a connective aesthetic in the interface between painting and other media. Accordingly, it is has become a commonly held opinion that painting has transformed itself into an expanded field and thus renewed itself – again. The article argues that in recent decades a remarkable number of painters have explored the possibility of developing painting by redefining what ‘space’ is in relation to painting. Much energy has been put into expanding painting physically by exploring painting’s relations to objects, space, place, and ‘the everyday’. The text focuses on works of art that are conceived as an installation based on the medium of painting, including works by Slovak artists Dorota Sadovská and Daniel Fischer. Its discussion of the ways in which the transformation of painting into installation affects the relationship between the work and its contexts eventually leads to a consideration of how Slovak art is positioned in relation to the Western artworld understood as a system of centres and peripheries. Text in English (pp. 66-83) and Slovak (pp. 44-65).

  8. Drip Paintings and Fractal Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jones-Smith, Katherine; Krauss, Lawrence M

    2007-01-01

    It has been claimed [1-6] that fractal analysis can be applied to unambiguously characterize works of art such as the drip paintings of Jackson Pollock. This academic issue has become of more general interest following the recent discovery of a cache of disputed Pollock paintings. We definitively demonstrate here, by analyzing paintings by Pollock and others, that fractal criteria provide no information about artistic authenticity. This work has also led to two new results in fractal analysis of more general scientific significance. First, the composite of two fractals is not generally scale invariant and exhibits complex multifractal scaling in the small distance asymptotic limit. Second the statistics of box-counting and related staircases provide a new way to characterize geometry and distinguish fractals from Euclidean objects.

  9. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  10. Reactor container spray device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To enable decrease in the heat and the concentration of radioactive iodine released from the reactor vessel into the reactor container in the spray device of BWR type reactors. Constitution: A plurality of water receiving trays are disposed below the spray nozzle in the dry well and communicated to a pressure suppression chamber by way of drain pipeways passing through a diaphragm floor. When the recycling system is ruptured and coolants in the reactor vessel and radioactive iodine in the reactor core are released into the dry well, spray water is discharged from the spray nozzle to eliminate the heat and the radioactive iodine in the dry well. In this case, the receiving trays collect the portions of spray water whose absorption power for the heat and radioactive iodine is nearly saturated and falls them into the pool water of the pressure suppression chamber. Consequently, other portions of the spray water that still possess absorption power can be jetted with no hindrance, to increase the efficiency for the removal of the heat and iodine of the spray droplets. (Horiuchi, T.)

  11. Bubble art, learning about paint and colour

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Using paint and mixing colours students can develop an understanding of the theory of colour primary and secondary colours. The students will also develop techniques for creating texture using paint and bubbles – called bubble art.

  12. Restoring a Masterwork - Anatomy of Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upper Midwest Conservation Association (UMCA)

    You might think that a painting has only one surface to worry about, but typically it has six. This web site describes each painting layer and suggests why a conservator needs to pay attention to all of them.

  13. Paints hardened by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention deals with a paint which can be hardened by ionizing radiation from a film-forming solution of an ?-, ?-olefinic unsaturated organic resin in a compound with the resin copolimerizable under ionizing radiation (e.g. vinyl monomers), as well as the usual additions which is characterized by the addition of saturated thermoplastic vinyl polymers (mol. wt. 10.000 to 50.000). The addition should be 2 to 7 wt. % of the paint. The thus prepared coatings form weather-resistant films on wood, metal and formed polymer surfaces. (9 examples). (UWI)

  14. 5.NF Painting a room

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Kulani is painting his room. He needs $\\frac13$ of a gallon to paint the whole room. What fraction of a gallon will he need for each of his 4 walls if ...

  15. 5.NF Painting a Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Nicolas is helping to paint a wall at a park near his house as part of a community service project. He had painted half of the wall yellow when the par...

  16. El Greco, a mediator of modern painting

    OpenAIRE

    Mare, Estelle Alma

    2010-01-01

    Without clear articulation of their insights, except in painted copies of and citations from his works, various modern artists seem to have recognised that formally El Greco’s late paintings are mental constructs, representing only a schematic version of reality. El Greco changed the communicative function of painting from commenting on reality to constituting a reality. It is proposed that modern artists in a quest for a new approach to painting found El Greco’s unprecedented manner of figur...

  17. A Chaotic Dynamical System that Paints

    OpenAIRE

    Sahai, Tuhin; Mathew, George; Surana, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Can a dynamical system paint masterpieces such as Da Vinci's Mona Lisa or Monet's Water Lilies? Moreover, can this dynamical system be chaotic in the sense that although the trajectories are sensitive to initial conditions, the same painting is created every time? Setting aside the creative aspect of painting a picture, in this work, we develop a novel algorithm to reproduce paintings and photographs. Combining ideas from ergodic theory and control theory, we construct a cha...

  18. Toxic reaction to inhaled paint fumes.

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, L.; Ince, P.; Smith, N. M.; Taylor, R.

    1989-01-01

    An acute confusional state was observed to follow heavy exposure to polyurethane gloss paint fumes in a previously healthy 60 year old man. This state remitted over a 3-day period, but was followed by transient bone marrow suppression and evidence of liver cell damage. The corroborated absence of other toxins and the temporal association of exposure to paint fumes suggest that a volatile paint component was responsible. White spirit is the major volatile solvent in polyurethane gloss paint. I...

  19. Numerical simulation of thin paint film flow

    OpenAIRE

    Figliuzzi, Bruno; Jeulin, Dominique; Lemaitre, Anael; Fricout, Gabriel; Manneville, Paul; Jean-Jacques, Piezanowski

    2012-01-01

    Being able to predict the visual appearance of a painted steel sheet, given its topography before paint application, is of crucial importance for car makers. Accurate modeling of the industrial painting process is required. The equations describing the leveling of the paint are complex and their numerical simulation requires advanced mathematical tools, which are described in detail in this paper. Simulations are validated using a large experimental database obtained with a wavefront sensor d...

  20. Mural Painting as Inclusive Art Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kong

    2010-01-01

    Traditional art education, like other academic disciplines, emphasizes competitiveness and individualism. Through a mural painting curriculum, learners participate in mural art and history appreciation, are active in mural theme or content construction, and engage in hands-on mural design and painting processes. When mural paintings are produced…

  1. EMISSIONS OF ODOROUS ALDEHYDES FROM ALKYD PAINT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldehyde emissions are widely held responsible for the acrid after-odor of drying alkyd-based paint films. The aldehyde emissions from three different alkyd paints were measured in small environmental chambers. It was found that, for each alkyd paint applied, more than 2 mg of ...

  2. Household hazardous waste : composition of paint waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas HØjlund

    2007-01-01

    'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc.) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when incinerated. Allowing household paint waste to be collected with ordinary household waste is expected to reduce the cost of handling household hazardous waste, since paint waste in Denmark comprises the major fraction of household hazardous waste.

  3. 46 CFR 72.05-45 - Paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Paint. 72.05-45 Section 72.05-45 Shipping...Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-45 Paint. (a) An excessive number of coats of paint will be discouraged unless noncombustible...

  4. Supersonic-Spray Cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimi, Raoul E. B.; Lin, Feng-Nan; Thaxton, Eric A.

    1995-01-01

    Spraying system for cleaning mechanical components uses less liquid and operates at pressures significantly lower. Liquid currently used is water. Designed to replace chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvent-based cleaning and cleanliness verification methods. Consists of spray head containing supersonic converging/diverging nozzles, source of gas at regulated pressure, pressurized liquid tank, and various hoses, fittings, valves, and gauges. Parameters of nozzles set so any of large variety of liquids and gases combined in desired ratio and rate of flow. Size and number of nozzles varied so system built in configurations ranging from small hand-held spray heads to large multinozzle cleaners. Also used to verify part adequately cleaned. Runoff liquid from spray directed at part collected. Liquid analyzed for presence of contaminants, and part recleaned if necessary.

  5. Adhesive Analysis of Painted Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deividas Grinius

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents investigations into adhesion to painted coatings using showcard. The surfaces produced from aluminium, PVC and acrylic glass have been chosen. Different glues have been tested. The influence of surface preparation (roughness and undercoat for adhesion has been analysed.Article in Lithuanian

  6. Paint the World with Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, David

    2010-01-01

    Two classrooms on opposite sides of the world happened to be working on a very similar project at the same time. In both Shanghai, China, and Palm Springs, California, students were learning how to turn their flashlights and other light-emitting objects into paintbrushes. Light painting is a form of long-exposure photography in which the shutter…

  7. Conservation problems with paintings containing fluorescent layers of paint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie De Winter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available L’artiste moderne cherche continuellement de nouvelles techniques. Des nouveaux matériaux tels que l’éponge, le polyester, le sable, etc. sont devenus courants. Ces développements amènent de nouveaux problèmes dans le domaine de la conservation (préventive des matériaux en question. Chaque matériau doit être analysé individuellement afin de préserver  le mieux possible l’intention de l’artiste à long terme. La présente recherche concerne des matériaux très récents: les pigments et les couleurs fluorescentes. Ces derniers n’ont fait leur apparition qu’au vingtième siècle. Pour cette raison les données concernant leur dégradation et leur conservation sont peu nombreuses. La majorité des tableaux fluorescents sont conçus pour être montrés sous éclairage UV. En cas de dommage, si l’œuvre a besoin d’être retouchée, ceci pose un grand problème esthétique. La retouche devient visible sous les lampes UV. La première partie de la recherche concerne la composition des différentes sortes de pigments et de peintures. Par la suite, les différentes causes de dégradation- lumière UV, chaleur, etc.- sont analysées en détail. Pour conclure, un possible remède est proposé.In modern art we can see that artists are breaking with traditional techniques. New materials like sponge, polyester, sand, etc. are being used. This causes a lot of new problems in the (preventive conservation of works containing these materials. Every material needs to be researched individually so the exact intention of the artist can be preserved for a (relatively long period. My research is about very recent materials: fluorescent pigments and paints. These only started to be used by artists from the 60’s. That's why there is not much information about their aging and ways to (preventively conserve them. A lot of fluorescent paintings are meant to be shown under UV-light. If a fluorescent painting has damage and needs to be retouched there is a big esthetical problem. The retouched damage is visible under UV-light. The title of this thesis is born out of this last problem: Conservation problems with paintings containing fluorescent layers of paint. The first topic of research for this thesis concerns the composition of these different sorts of paint and pigments. Afterwards, the causes of damage resulting from UV-light –and other factors- were thoroughly analyzed. Finally, a possible remedy is being proposed.

  8. Understanding factors that influence protective glove use among automotive spray painters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Diana; Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Glazer, Patricia; Murphy-Robinson, Helen; Yost, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Dermal contact with isocyanate-based coatings may lead to systemic respiratory sensitization. The most common isocyanates found in sprayed automotive coatings are monomeric and oligomeric 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI). Most spray painters use thin (4-5 mil) latex gloves that are not effective at preventing dermal exposures when spraying isocyanate paints. Personal interviews with collision repair industry personnel and focus groups with spray painters were held to characterize risk awareness, to examine perceptions and challenges concerning protective glove use and selection, and to generate ideas for protective glove use interventions. The most popular gloves among spray painters were thin (4-5 mil) and thick (14 mil) latex. We found that medium to thick (6-8 mil) nitrile were not always perceived as comfortable and were expected to be more expensive than thin (4-5 mil) latex gloves. Of concern is the user's difficulty in distinguishing between nitrile and latex gloves; latex gloves are now sold in different colors including blue, which has traditionally been associated with nitrile gloves. Even though spray painters were familiar with the health hazards related to working with isocyanate paints, most were not always aware that dermal exposure to isocyanates could contribute to the development of occupational asthma. There is a need for more research to identify dermal materials that are protective against sprayed automotive coatings. Automotive spray painters and their employers need to be educated in the selection and use of protective gloves, specifically on attributes such as glove material, color, and thickness. PMID:24215135

  9. Texton-based analysis of paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Maaten, Laurens J. P.; Postma, Eric O.

    2010-08-01

    The visual examination of paintings is traditionally performed by skilled art historians using their eyes. Recent advances in intelligent systems may support art historians in determining the authenticity or date of creation of paintings. In this paper, we propose a technique for the examination of brushstroke structure that views the wildly overlapping brushstrokes as texture. The analysis of the painting texture is performed with the help of a texton codebook, i.e., a codebook of small prototypical textural patches. The texton codebook can be learned from a collection of paintings. Our textural analysis technique represents paintings in terms of histograms that measure the frequency by which the textons in the codebook occur in the painting (so-called texton histograms). We present experiments that show the validity and effectiveness of our technique for textural analysis on a collection of digitized high-resolution reproductions of paintings by Van Gogh and his contemporaries. As texton histograms cannot be easily be interpreted by art experts, the paper proposes to approaches to visualize the results on the textural analysis. The first approach visualizes the similarities between the histogram representations of paintings by employing a recently proposed dimensionality reduction technique, called t-SNE. We show that t-SNE reveals a clear separation of paintings created by Van Gogh and those created by other painters. In addition, the period of creation is faithfully reflected in the t-SNE visualizations. The second approach visualizes the similarities and differences between paintings by highlighting regions in a painting in which the textural structure of the painting is unusual. We illustrate the validity of this approach by means of an experiment in which we highlight regions in a painting by Monet that are not very "Van Gogh-like". Taken together, we believe the tools developed in this study are well capable of assisting for art historians in support of their study of paintings.

  10. Development of spray coated cathodes for RITS-6.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Sean; Leckbee, Joshua J.; Miller, Stephen Samuel

    2013-09-01

    This report documents work conducted in FY13 to conduct a feasibility study on thermal spray coated cathodes to be used in the RITS-6 accelerator in an attempt to improve surface uniformity and repeatability. Currently, the cathodes are coated with colloidal silver by means of painting by hand. It is believed that improving the cathode coating process could simplify experimental setup and improve flash x-ray radiographic performance. This report documents the experimental setup and summarizes the results of our feasibility study. Lastly, it describes the path forward and potential challenges that must be overcome in order to improve the process for creating uniform and repeatable silver coatings for cathodes.

  11. Thermal spray processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, H.; Berndt, C. C.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal spray processing has been used for a number of years to cost-effecticely apply TBC's for a wide range of heat engine applications. In particular, bond coats are applied by plasma spray and HVOF techniques and partially-stabilized zirconia top coats are applied by plasma spray methods. Thermal spray involves melting and rapid transport of the molten particles to the substrate, where high-rate solidification and coating build-up occur. It is the very nature of this melt processing that leads to the unique layered microstructure, as well as the apparent imperfections, so readily identified with thermal spray. Modeling the process, process-induced residual stresses, and thermal conductivity will be discussed in light of a new understanding of porosity and its anisotropy. Microcracking can be understood using new approaches, allowing a fuller view of the processing-performance connection. Detailed electron microscopic, novel neutron diffraction and fracture analysis of the deposits can lead to a better understanding of how overall microstructure can be controlled to influence critical properties of the deposited TBC system.

  12. CHITOSAN-COPPER PAINT TYPES AS ANTIFOULING

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MARCIA, HEUSER; GALO, CÁRDENAS.

    2415-24-01

    Full Text Available A prototype of antifouling paints was prepared with a Qs-Cu (I)-Fe (II) complex as a possible replacement for traditional antifouling net paints, which contain a large concentration of copper, finding them in an order of 10-30 % depending on the company, and either in water or solvent based. A Qs-Cu [...] complex was prepared, with a solution at 3% with acetic acid, and then Fe2O3 was added to the solution. FT IR analysis was carried out, as well as analysis of the TGA at the Qs and the complex with Qs-Cu, and with the solution, three different paints were prepared. Those that varied volume of diethylene glycol added to them. The analysis of the paints was carried out, once the paint was pervaded in a network of polyamide, through SEM with EDX and TEM, which was purchased with the commercial paints, water based and solvent based. One of the objectives is to be able to compare the coverage of the network with the commercial paint, and that of the complex Qs-Cu. The results showed that the best paint obtained was paint #2, found to be similar to that pervaded with water based paint.

  13. CHITOSAN-COPPER PAINT TYPES AS ANTIFOULING

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MARCIA, HEUSER; CLAUDIA, RIVERA; CHRISTIAN, NUÑEZ; GALO, CÁRDENAS.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A prototype of antifouling paints was prepared with a QS-Cu (I)-Fe (II) complex as a possible replacement for traditional antifouling paints, which contain a large concentration of copper, fnding them in an order of 10 - 30 % depending on the brand, and if it is water or solvent based. A Qs-Cu compl [...] ex was prepared, with a solution at 3% with acetic acid, and then Fe2O3 was added to the solution. FT IR analysis was carried out, as well as analysis of the TGA at the Qs and the complex with Qs-Cu, and with the solution, three different paints were prepared. Those that varied volumen of diethylene glycol added to them. The analysis of the paints was carried out, once the paint was pervaded in a network of polyamide, through SEM with EDX and TEM, which was purchased with the commercial paints, water based and solvent based. One of the objectives is to be able to compare the coverage of the network with the commercial paint, and that of the complex QS-Cu. The results showed that the best paint obtained was paint #2, found to be similar to that pervaded with water based paint.

  14. Cultural landscape and slovenian painting

    OpenAIRE

    Jakomin, Jernej

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the thesis work was to show the relationship between painting and slovenian cultural landscape and present a plan teaching art workshops on the topic. The work consists of two parts. The theoretical part shows the starting point for the presentation of the concept of cultural landscape. It presents the formation of terms of cultural landscape, its importance, the type of cultural landscape and its components. The work is focused on the development of landscape design in Sloveni...

  15. Merleau-Ponty and painting

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier, Bert

    2001-01-01

    This article takes as its point of departure the question whether, in an age when "artforms" such as multimedia "installations" - which combine visual motifs of all kinds with written texts - seem to be an adequate reflection of an overwhelmingly complex postmodern world, painting still has a right to exist as a distinct art. It is argued that this is indeed the case, and that the philosophy of Merleau-Ponty provides ample material to substantiate this claim. Briefly, this entails the latter'...

  16. Automation of painted slate inspection

    OpenAIRE

    Carew, Tim

    2002-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the problem of how to detect visual defects on painted slates using an automated visual inspection system. The vision system that has been developed consists of two major components. The first component addresses issues such as the mechanical implementation and interfacing the inspection system with the optical and sensing equipment whereas the second component involves the development of an image processing algorithm able to identify the visual defects present o...

  17. Nondestructive examination through painted surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to develop reliable nondestructive examination techniques for detecting cracks or other surface-open defects through a surface coating on ferromagnetic materials, and to provide a basis for recommending Section XI Code changes. The recommendations from this study led to the publication of ASME Code Cases for magnetic particle and eddy current methods that provide for qualification of alternative supplemental examination techniques that can be used without paint removal

  18. Droplets and sprays

    CERN Document Server

    Sazhin, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    Providing a clear and systematic description of droplets and spray dynamic models, this book maximises reader insight into the underlying physics of the processes involved, outlines the development of new physical and mathematical models, and broadens understanding of interactions between the complex physical processes which take place in sprays. Complementing approaches based on the direct application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), Droplets and Sprays treats both theoretical and practical aspects of internal combustion engine process such as the direct injection of liquid fuel, subcritical heating and evaporation. Includes case studies that illustrate the approaches relevance to automotive applications,  it is also anticipated that the described models can find use in other areas such as in medicine and environmental science.

  19. Spray-on tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cindy J

    2005-01-01

    The modern formulation of dihydroxyacetone (DHA), the only sunless tanning solution approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), is combined with bronzers and moisturizers to deliver a cosmetically acceptable skin color and a natural-looking tan without ultraviolet (UV) exposure. Spray-on tanning products, which deliver this formulation evenly to achieve a full body tan, may be applied in a tanning booth, airbrushed on by a technician, or sprayed on at home, and they appear to offer a generally safe alternative for patients who seek a suntanned appearance. PMID:19338841

  20. SPRAY code user's report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SPRAY computer code has been developed to model the effects of postulated sodium spray release from LMFBR piping within containment chambers. The calculation method utilizes gas convection, heat transfer and droplet combustion theory to calculate the pressure and temperature effects within the enclosure. The applicable range is 0-21 mol percent oxygen and .02-.30 inch droplets with or without humidity. Droplet motion and large sodium surface area combine to produce rapid heat release and pressure rise within the enclosed volume

  1. Antifungal efficiency assessment of the TiO2 coating on façade paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu?eti?, Snežana B; Rudi?, Ognjen Lj; Markov, Siniša L; Bera, Oskar J; Vidakovi?, Ana M; Skapin, Andrijana S Sever; Ranogajec, Jonjaua G

    2014-10-01

    The work studies the photocatalytic activity and the antifungal efficiency of the TiO2/Zn-Al coatings placed on the target commercial façade paints. The photocatalytic active nanocomposite based on TiO2 and Zn-Al-layered double hydroxides (ZnAl-LDHs) was synthesized by a wet impregnation technique with 3 % w/w TiO2. The freshly prepared suspension was applied by spray technique on the surfaces of the white façade paints. The goal of the work was to develop a method that quickly quantifies the antifungal activity of the commercial façade paints with and without biocidal components covered with a photocatalytic coating. The essence of the proposed method is the monitoring of the fungal growth (artificial ageing conditions) and the quantification of its development (UV-A 0.13 mWcm(-2)) on the façade paint surfaces. A special fungus nutrient (potato dextrose agar (PDA)) was inoculated with the spores of the Aspergillus niger ATCC 6275, and the test samples (façade paints with and without photocatalytic coating) were placed on the inoculated nutrient in the petri dishes. The images of the fungal growth on the samples of the facade paints, during a period of 5 days, were imported into Matlab R2012a where they were converted to binary images (BW), based on the adequate threshold. The percentage of the surface coverage was calculated by applying the specifically written program code which determines the ratio of the black and white pixels. The black pixels correspond to the surface covered with hyphae and mycelia of the fungus. PMID:24875311

  2. Bank layout of spray nozzles in a spray pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of the spray pond performance is dependent on the type of spray nozzles. The investigations conducted at the B.E.Vedeneev VNIIG indicated that tangential spray nozzles hold much promise as they are reliable in operation and do not require careful centering during assembly. This is confirmed by special studies which showed that the cooling capacity of the sprayer plume does not change if the nozzle deflects by up to 30 degree from the vertical, whereas it decreases by less than 10% if the nozzle is inclined at an angle of 45 degree. Taking the aforesaid into consideration, a spray pond with a bank layout of spray nozzles has been constructed at the Takhiatashskaya thermal power plant. The construction of the spray pond was carried out in a non-constricted channel without shutting down the operating power plant. On-site studies of the first stage of the spray pond proved its reliability and maneuverability at the startup

  3. Texton-based analysis of paintings:

    OpenAIRE

    Maaten, L.J.P. van der; Postma, E.O.

    2010-01-01

    The visual examination of paintings is traditionally performed by skilled art historians using their eyes. Recent advances in intelligent systems may support art historians in determining the authenticity or date of creation of paintings. In this paper, we propose a technique for the examination of brushstroke structure that views the wildly overlapping brushstrokes as texture. The analysis of the painting texture is performed with the help of a texton codebook, i.e., a codebook of small prot...

  4. Turbulent luminance in impassioned van Gogh paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Aragon, JL; Naumis, GG; Bai, M (Manyin); Torres, M.; Maini, PK

    2006-01-01

    Everything in the last period of Vincent van Gogh paintings seems to be moving; this dynamical style served to transmit his own feelings about a figure or a landscape. Since the early impressionism, artists emprically discovered that an adequate use of luminance could generate the sensation of motion. This sentation was more complex in the case of van Gogh paintings of the last period: turbulence is the main adjective used to describe these paintings. It has been specificall...

  5. Laser ablation of paint in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear dismantling faces the challenge of paint removal on large surfaces of painted walls. The conventional methods for paint stripping on concrete walls are mainly based on mechanical grinder and lead to an important volume of aerosols and wastes. Laser ablation has been evaluated as a promising method for paint removal with a number of advantages. The method reduces considerably the waste volume as the removal of paint is selective. The ablated matter can be collected by aerosol aspiration/filtration. The automation of the process can provide a higher capacity of paint removal. Laser ablation of paint was under our extensive studies. Laser ablation with different nanosecond repetition rate lasers was comparatively studied to understand the ablation mechanisms, and to obtain the highest efficiency of paint removal. The investigations were made with three Q-Switched Nd:YAG lasers (? = 532 nm and ? = 1.064 ?m). The different pulse durations (5 ns and 100 ns) demonstrated the different ablation regimes. Ablation with long pulses (100 ns) provided the best removal efficiency while the short ones (5 ns) decreased the ablation threshold fluence. It was demonstrated that the pulse repetition rate increasing in the 20 Hz - 10 kHz range induced heat accumulation in the paint. It resulted in ablation efficiency increase with a large decrease in the ablation threshold fluence. Laser ablation in the 0 - 10 J / cm2 fluence range was investigated. Various paints wenge was investigated. Various paints were under investigation to obtain the maximum efficiency of paint removal for each specific experimental case. The ejected matter recording with a high speed imaging system allows to analyse the laser-matter interaction. (authors)

  6. A mathematical model for drying paint layers

    OpenAIRE

    Howison, SD; Moriarty, JA; Ockendon, JR; Terrill, EL; Wilson, SK

    1997-01-01

    Many industrial processes involve the coating of substrates with thin layers of paint. This paper is concerned with modelling the variations in layer thickness which may occur as a paint layer dries. Firstly, a systematic derivation is provided of a model based on classical lubrication theory for a drying paint layer consisting of a non-volatile resin and a volatile solvent. The effects of variable surface tension, viscosity, solvent diffusivity and solvent evaporation rate are all included i...

  7. The Simulation of Paint Cracking and Peeling

    OpenAIRE

    Paquette, Eric; Poulin, Pierre; Drettakis, George

    2002-01-01

    Weathering over long periods of time results in cracking and peeling of layers such as paint. To include these effects in computer graphics images it is necessary to simulate crack propagation, loss of adhesion, and the curling effect of paint peeling. We present a new approach which computes such a simulation on surfaces. Our simulation is inspired by the underlying physical properties. We use paint strength and tensile stress to determine where cracks appear on the surface. Cracks are then ...

  8. Multiple metal contamination from house paints: consequences of power sanding and paint scraping in New Orleans.

    OpenAIRE

    Mielke, H W; Powell, E T; Shah, A.; Gonzales, C R; Mielke, P W

    2001-01-01

    Power sanding exterior paint is a common practice during repainting of old houses in New Orleans, Louisiana, that triggers lead poisoning and releases more than Pb. In this study we quantified the Pb, zinc, cadmium, manganese, nickel, copper, cobalt, chromium, and vanadium in exterior paint samples collected from New Orleans homes (n = 31). We used interior dust wipes to compare two exterior house-painting projects. House 1 was measured in response to the plight of a family after a paint cont...

  9. Nuclear analytical study of rock paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An exfoliated fragment of a rock painting from Lesotho was analyzed by differentiated backscatter spectrometry to obtain the paint thickness, which ranged from about 2 to 6.5 ?m, and its empirical formula for stopping power calculations. Elemental composition was determined by PIXE. Fe-rich paint spots were red in color and Ca-rich ones, pinkish. Because of the chemical mobility of calcium, this paint component should become the focus to which conservation techniques should be directed. (author) 12 refs.; 4 figs

  10. Treatability of water-based paint wastewater with Fenton process in different reactor types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Ugur; Avsar, Yasar; Talha Gonullu, M

    2006-08-01

    Water-based paint wastewater which is formed during the coating step of metal surfaces performed with various spray processes include binders, pigments and additives. Binders and other additives may also affect the toxicity of the paint depending on the specific characteristics of the paint. This study deals with Water-based paint wastewater, which is hard to treat. Fenton oxidation process was principally used to treat the wastewater. Treatability runs were carried out by using rust (oxidized iron) particles obtained as a waste of the metal rolling process, as the Fenton's catalyst. In order to change the variables such as dimensions of the column, packing material size, reactive dosage, pH value and reaction time, the experiments on the basis of packed columns and mixed reactors were carried out to increase the COD removal. COD eliminations with pH adjustment were about 20%. With the contribution of Fenton process in both column and mixed-reactor studies, the COD removal was improved by about 80%. PMID:16403416

  11. 29 CFR 1915.34 - Mechanical paint removers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mechanical paint removers. 1915.34 Section 1915...Preservation § 1915.34 Mechanical paint removers. (a) Power tools. (1) Employees engaged in the removal of paints, preservatives, rusts, or...

  12. What You Should Know about Using Paint Strippers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Commission What You Should Know About Using Paint Strippers IF NOT PROPERLY USED, PAINT STRIPPERS ARE HAZARDOUS TO YOUR HEALTH AND SAFETY. ... decrease dermal exposure risk. 3. Avoid getting the paint stripper on your skin or in your eyes. ...

  13. 40 CFR 745.65 - Lead-based paint hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Lead-based paint hazards. 745.65 Section 745...SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Hazards § 745.65 Lead-based...

  14. 6.G Painting a Barn

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Alexis needs to paint the four exterior walls of a large rectangular barn. The length of the barn is 80 feet, the width is 50 feet, and the height is 3...

  15. Color sensation in figurative painting

    OpenAIRE

    Carroggio de Molina, Alberto, 1946-

    2013-01-01

    The figurative painter accesses very complex levels of knowledge. To produce a painting requires, first, a deep analysis of the image of the reality and, afterwards, the study of the reconstruction of this reality. This is not about a process of copying, but a process of the comprehension of the concepts that appear in the representation. The drawing guides us in the process of the production of the surface and in the distribution of the colours that, after all, are the data with which the vi...

  16. 24 CFR 35.1320 - Lead-based paint inspections, paint testing, risk assessments, lead-hazard screens, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint inspections, paint testing, risk assessments, lead-hazard screens...Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL...

  17. Characterization and Optimization of Polymer-Ceramic Pressure-Sensitive Paint by Controlling Polymer Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Ishikawa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A pressure-sensitive paint (PSP with fast response characteristics that can be sprayed on a test article is studied. This PSP consists of a polymer for spraying and a porous particle for providing the fast response. We controlled the polymer content (% from 10 to 90% to study its effects on PSP characteristics: the signal level, pressure sensitivity, temperature dependency, and time response. The signal level and temperature dependency shows a peak in the polymer content around 50 to 70%. The pressure sensitivity was fairly constant in the range between 0.8 and 0.9 %/kPa. The time response is improved by lowering the polymer content. The variation of the time response is shown to be on the order of milliseconds to ten seconds. A weight coefficient is introduced to optimize the resultant PSPs. By setting the weight coefficient, we can optimize the PSP for sensing purposes.

  18. Digital Color Restoration of Old Painting

    OpenAIRE

    Pappas, M; Pitas, I

    2010-01-01

    Physical and chemical changes can degrade the visual color appearance of old paintings. Five digital color restoration techniques, which can be used to simulate the original appearance of paintings, are presented. Although a small number of color samples is employed in the restoration procedure, simulation results indicate that good restoration quality can be attained

  19. Detecting Corrosion Under Paint and Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion is a major concern at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida due to the proximity of the center to the Atlantic Ocean and to salt water lagoons. High humidity, salt fogs, and ocean breezes, provide an ideal environment in which painted steel structures become corroded. Maintenance of painted steel structures is a never-ending process.

  20. Painting with Clay Van Gogh Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Discusses Vincent Van Gogh's painting "Starry Night" and describes a lesson where fifth- and sixth-grade students created their own version of the artwork. Explains that the students utilized four colors of Permoplast clay, using their hands and fingers as brushes and blending tools and the clay as paint. (CMK)

  1. THz reflectometric imaging of medieval wall paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz time-domain reflectometry has been applied to the investigation of a medieval Danish wall painting. The technique has been able to detect the presence of carbonblack layer on the surface of the wall painting and a buried insertion characterized by high reflectivity values has been found in depth of the lime-based historical plaster.

  2. Mnemonic Learning of Artists and Their Paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Russell N.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted in which the "face-name" mnemonic was adapted for use in learning 30 painting/artist associations by a total of 183 university undergraduates. Subjects exposed to verbal and pictorial mnemonic aids were better able than were others to match artists and their paintings. (TJH)

  3. Lead content in household paints in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead and its compounds are used in paints not only to impart colour but also to make it durable, corrosion resistant and to improve drying. Adverse health impacts of lead especially on children have led countries to restrict or ban its use in paints. While U.S. and other developed countries instituted measures to limit the use of lead in paints, some developing countries including India have failed to regulate their lead content. The present study was undertaken to determine the levels of lead in new latex (water-based) and enamel paints (oil-based) intended for residential use in India. A total of 69 paint samples (38 latex and 31 enamel samples) from six of the most popular brands were analysed for lead concentrations. While all latex paint samples contained low levels of lead, (i.e., well below 600 ppm as regulated by United States' Consumer Products Safety Commission) the enamel paint samples of all but one brand contained significant concentrations of lead, ranging up to 140,000 ppm. In fact 84% of the enamel paints tested exceeded 600 ppm whereas only 38 % of all samples (including latex and enamel types) exceeded this regulatory level

  4. How to Paint Swirl a Guitar

    Science.gov (United States)

    This PDF document provides a guide for a classroom demonstration on how to paint swirl a guitar. Materials required include a plastic storage container, borax, oil paint and a guitar body. This lesson plan includes photographs of the process and a step by step walk through of how to complete the demonstration.

  5. Roosters Rule: A Painted Paper Collage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Susan

    2011-01-01

    On perusing American collage artist Eric Carle's book, "Rooster's Off to See the World," at an annual school book fair, the author, mesmerized by the carnival of colors and collage on each page, thought "What a wonderful visual aid for a combination painting and collage unit." Her first-graders were involved in a painting unit, and knowing their…

  6. The Sign System in Chinese Landscape Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Cliff G.

    2003-01-01

    Paintings emerge from a culture field and must be interpreted in relation to the net of culture. A given culture will be implicated by the sign system used by the painter. Everyone agrees that in Chinese landscape paintings, the most important cultural bond is to ancient Chinese Taoism, and to a lesser degree, to Confucianism. Obviously, then, the…

  7. Numerical modelling of fuel sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, C.

    1999-06-01

    The way the fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber is one of the most important parameters for the power output and the generation of emissions in the combustion of liquid fuels. The interaction between the turbulent gas flow field and the liquid fuel droplets, the vaporisation of them and the mixing of the gaseous fuel with the ambient air that are vital parameters in the combustion process. The use of numerical calculations is an important tool to better understand these complex interacting phenomena. This thesis reports on the numerical modelling of fuel sprays in non-reacting cases using an own developed spray module. The spray module uses the stochastic parcel method to represent the spray. The module was made in such manner that it could by coupled with different gas flow solver. Results obtained from four different gas flow solvers are presented in the thesis, including the use of two different kinds of turbulence models. In the first part the spray module is coupled with a k-{eta} based 2-D cylindrical gas flow solver. A thorough sensitivity analysis was performed on the spray and gas flow solver parameters, such as grid size dependence and sensitivity to initial values of k-{eta}. The results of the spray module were also compared to results from other spray codes, e.g. the well known KIVA code. In the second part of this thesis the spray was injected into a turbulent and fully developed crossflow studied. The spray module was attached to a LES (Large Eddy Simulation) based flow solvers enabling the study of the complex structures and time dependent phenomena involved in spray in crossflows. It was found that the spray performs an oscillatory motion and that the Strouhal number in the wake was about 0.1. Different spray breakup models were evaluated by comparing with experimental results 66 refs, 56 figs

  8. Heterogeneous Reactivity of NO2 with Photocatalytic Paints: A Possible Source of Nitrous Acid (HONO) in the Indoor Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligorovski, S.; Bartolomei, V.; Gandolfo, A.; Gomez Alvarez, E.; Kleffmann, J.; Wortham, H.

    2014-12-01

    There is an increasing concern about the indoor air environment, where we spend most of our time. Common methods of improving indoor air quality include controlling pollution sources, increasing ventilation rates or using air purifiers. Photocatalytic remediation technology was suggested as a new possibility to eliminate indoor air pollutants instead of just diluting or disposing them. In the present study, heterogeneous reactions of NO2 were studied on photocatalytic paints containing different size and quantity of TiO2. The heterogeneous reactions were conducted in a photo reactor under simulated atmospheric conditions. The flat pyrex rectangular plates covered with the paint were inserted into the reactor. These plates have been sprayed with the photocatalytic paints at our industrial partner's (ALLIOS) facilities using a high precision procedure that allowed the application of a thin layer of a given thickness of the paint. This allows a homogeneous coverage of the surface with the paint and an accurate determination of the exact amount of paint exposed to gaseous NO2. We demonstrate that the indoor photocatalytic paints which contain TiO2 can substantially reduce the concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2). We show that the efficiency of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) removal increase with the quantity of TiO2 in the range 0 - 7 %. The geometric uptake coefficients increase from 5 · 10-6 to 1.6 · 10-5 under light irradiation of the paints. On the other hand, during the reactions of NO2 with this paint (7 % of TiO2) nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous acid (HONO) are formed. Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important harmful indoor pollutant and its photolysis leads to the formation of highly reactive OH radicals (Gomez Alvarez et al., 2013). Maximum conversion efficiencies of NO2to HONO and NO of 15 % and 33 % were observed at 30 % RH, respectively. Thus, the quantity of TiO2 embedded in the paint is an important parameter regarding the nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) remediation, but may also influence formation of harmful by-products such as HONO, which should be considered for future optimization of photocatalytic paints aimed for indoor applications. Reference: Gómez Alvarez E., Amedro D., Afif C., Gligorovski S., Schoemacker C., Fittschen C., Doussin J.F., Wortham H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A, 110(33), 13294-13299, 2013.

  9. Rheological effects in roll coating of paints

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F., Varela López; M., Rosen.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available the aim of this work is the study of the problems that arise during roll coating application of paints on steel sheets. We put in evidence the particular effects due to the non-Newtonian properties of these fluids. At speeds above a certain critical value, the flow of paint through the applicator su [...] ffers a hydrodynamical instability called ribbing, which generates a patterned interface on the film applied. Threshold of instability as well as waveform of the pattern is function of rheological properties of paints as well as surface tension. Thixotropy of paints as well as shear-thinning behaviour has been determined for several industrial paints used in the steel industry, and correlated with levelling performance after application.

  10. Structural Color Painting by Rubbing Particle Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Choojin; Koh, Kunsuk; Jeong, Unyong

    2015-02-01

    Structural colors originate from purely physical structures. Scientists have been inspired to mimic the structures found in nature, the realization of these structures still presents a great challenge. We have recently introduced unidirectional rubbing of a dry particle powder on a rubbery surface as a quick, highly reproducible means to fabricate a single crystal monolayer assembly of particles over an unlimited area. This study extends the particle-rubbing process to a novel fine-art painting, structural color painting (SCP). SCP is based on structural coloring with varying iridescence according to the crystal orientation, as controlled by the rubbing direction. This painting technique can be applied on curved surfaces, which enriches the objects to be painted and helps the painter mimic the structures found in nature. It also allows for quick fabrication of complicated particle-assembly patterns, which enables replication of paintings.

  11. Establishment of Meaning of Ink Wash Painting in Modern Times: Evolution of Chinese Ink Wash Painting as a Formal Language of Oriental Figure Painting

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoguang LI

    2014-01-01

    As an ancient oriental type of figure painting, Chinese ink wash painting’s development and evolution is the most prominent part that most reflects the characteristics of contemporary era in Chinese artistic exploration in the 20th century. Present Chinese ink wash figure painting has already become one of the forms of creation among Chinese painting mainstream and the reform spirit it reflects has special aesthetic meaning to Chinese contemporary art in the multicultural background. This pap...

  12. Flame spraying of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical design-of-experiment studies of the thermal spraying of polymer powders are presented. Studies of the subsonic combustion (i.e., Flame) process were conducted in order to determine the quality and economics of polyester and urethane coatings. Thermally sprayed polymer coatings are of interest to several industries for anticorrosion applications, including the chemical, automotive, and aircraft industries. In this study, the coating design has been optimized for a site-specific application using Taguchi-type fractional-factorial experiments. Optimized coating designs are presented for the two powder systems. A substantial range of thermal processing conditions and their effect on the resultant polymer coatings is presented. The coatings were characterized by optical metallography, hardness testing, tensile testing, and compositional analysis. Characterization of the coatings yielded the thickness, bond strength, Knoop microhardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and porosity. Confirmation testing was accomplished to verify the coating designs

  13. Spray combustor modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathematical modelling and experimental measurements are presented for a gas turbine combustor can. The mathematical model is of the finite difference type. It includes an algebraic stress model for turbulence, combustion models of the Magnussen type and a detailed fuel spray model. The latter employs a Lagrangian, droplet tracking, technique. The effect of slip, between the gas and liquid phase, is included as well as the effect of turbulence on droplets. The experimental data includes temperature, gas composition and velocity profiles. Satisfactory agreement has been obtained between measurement and prediction. It is concluded that the shear stress modelling coefficients used for isothermal flow can be used without adjustment for combustion and turbulence has a significant effect on the fuel spray distribution in this combustor

  14. Flame spraying of polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Zeek, D.P. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Couch, K.W.; Benson, D.M. [Protech Laboratory Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Kirk, S.M. [3M Co., St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Statistical design-of-experiment studies of the thermal spraying of polymer powders are presented. Studies of the subsonic combustion (i.e., Flame) process were conducted in order to determine the quality and economics of polyester and urethane coatings. Thermally sprayed polymer coatings are of interest to several industries for anticorrosion applications, including the chemical, automotive, and aircraft industries. In this study, the coating design has been optimized for a site-specific application using Taguchi-type fractional-factorial experiments. Optimized coating designs are presented for the two powder systems. A substantial range of thermal processing conditions and their effect on the resultant polymer coatings is presented. The coatings were characterized by optical metallography, hardness testing, tensile testing, and compositional analysis. Characterization of the coatings yielded the thickness, bond strength, Knoop microhardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and porosity. Confirmation testing was accomplished to verify the coating designs.

  15. Stabilization/solidification of an alkyd paint waste by carbonation of waste-lime based formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, R; Galán, B; Coz, A; Andrés, A; Viguri, J R

    2010-05-15

    The application of solvent-based paints by spraying in paint booths is extensively used in a wide range of industrial activities for the surface treatment of a vast array of products. The wastes generated as overspray represent an important environmental and managerial problem mainly due to the hazardous characteristics of the organic solvent, rendering it necessary to appropriately manage this waste. In this paper a solidification/stabilization (S/S) process based on accelerated carbonation was investigated as an immobilization pre-treatment prior to the disposal, via landfill, of an alkyd solvent-based paint waste coming from the automotive industry; the purpose of this S/S process was to immobilize the contaminants and reduce their release into the environment. Different formulations of paint waste with lime, lime-coal fly-ash and lime-Portland cement were carbonated to study the effect of the water/solid ratio and carbonation time on the characteristics of the final product. To assess the efficiency of the studied S/S process, metals, anions and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were analyzed in the leachates obtained from a battery of compliance and characterization leaching tests. Regarding the carbonation of paint waste-lime formulations, a mathematical expression has been proposed to predict the results of the leachability of DOC from carbonated mixtures working at water/solid ratios from 0.2 to 0.6. However, lower DOC concentrations in leachates (400mg/kg DOC in L/S=10 batch leaching test) were obtained when carbonation of paint waste-lime-fly-ash mixtures was used at 10h carbonation and water to solid ratio of 0.2. The flammability characteristics, the total contents of contaminants and the contaminant release rate in compliance leaching tests provide evidence for a final product suitable for deposition in non-hazardous landfills. The characterization of this carbonated sample using a dynamic column leaching test shows a high stabilization of metals, partial immobilization of Cl(-), SO(4)(2-), F(-) and limited retention of DOC. However, the obtained results improve the previous findings obtained after the paint waste S/S using uncarbonated formulations and would be a useful pre-treatment technique of the alkyd paint waste prior to its disposal in a landfill. PMID:20060213

  16. Tissue Paper Spray Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl Children's Museum

    2012-01-01

    In this activity, learners observe color mixing and absorbency using colored tissue paper and spray bottles. Learners create collages out of colored tissue paper shapes and then lightly mist the tissue paper with water. When the learners remove the colored tissue, a colorful print appears. Use this activity to illustrate how materials absorb water as well as how colors can mix to form new colors.

  17. Spray boom for selectively spraying a herbicidal composition onto dicots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stigaard Laursen, Morten SDU,

    There is provided a method and spray boom for discriminating cereal crop (monocot) and weeds (dicots). The spray boom includes means for digitally recording an image of a selected area to be treated by a nozzle on the spray boom, whereby a plant material is identified based on a segmentation procedure; and means for detecting the edges and estimating the angles of the edges of the leaves so as to discriminate between dicots and monocots; and means for activating one or more of the spray nozzles in response to detected dicots so as to selectively apply the herbicidal composition onto the sensed area containing the dicots.

  18. Fundamental studies of spray combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S.C.; Libby, P.A.; Williams, F.A. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Our research on spray combustion involves both experiment and theory and addresses the characteristics of individual droplets and of sprays in a variety of flows: laminar and turbulent, opposed and impinging. Currently our focus concerns water and fuel sprays in two stage laminar flames, i.e., flames arising, for example from a stream of fuel and oxidizer flowing opposite to an air stream carrying a water spray. Our interest in these flames is motivated by the goals of reducing pollutant emissions and extending the range of stable spray combustion. There remains considerable research to be carried out in order to achieve these goals. Thus far our research on the characteristics of sprays in turbulent flows has been limited to nonreacting jets impinging on a plate but this work will be extended to opposed flows with and without a flame. In the following we discuss details of these studies and our plans for future work.

  19. Structure of evaporating diesel sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance of compression ignition engine is known to be spray characteristics related. Precise experimental information on fuel sprays is of utmost importance to model the fuel spray formation and its development in the engine combustion chamber. The previous experimental work of the present author on non-evaporating sprays produced by using a FIAT single-hole orifice type nozzle and a distribution type commercial fuel injection pump forms the basis to derive correlations for penetration rates, break up times and lengths of diesel sprays. The results are compared with the existing published work and the agreement is found ideal. The correlations derived can be useful to do CFD modeling of sprays under variable conditions of injector nozzle hole diameter, fuel injection pressure, combustion chamber pressure and temperature or air density. (author)

  20. Degradation of insecticides used for indoor spraying in malaria control and possible solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massinga Pedro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The insecticide dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT is widely used in indoor residual spraying (IRS for malaria control owing to its longer residual efficacy in the field compared to other World Health Organization (WHO alternatives. Suitable stabilization to render these alternative insecticides longer lasting could provide a less controversial and more acceptable and effective alternative insecticide formulations than DDT. Methods This study sought to investigate the reasons behind the often reported longer lasting behaviour of DDT by exposing all the WHO approved insecticides to high temperature, high humidity and ultra-violet light. Interactions between the insecticides and some mineral powders in the presence of an aqueous medium were also tested. Simple insecticidal paints were made using slurries of these mineral powders whilst some insecticides were dispersed into a conventional acrylic paint binder. These formulations were then spray painted on neat and manure coated mud plaques, representative of the material typically used in rural mud houses, at twice the upper limit of the WHO recommended dosage range. DDT was applied directly onto mud plaques at four times the WHO recommended concentration and on manure plaques at twice WHO recommended concentration. All plaques were subjected to accelerated ageing conditions of 40°C and a relative humidity of 90%. Results The pyrethroids insecticides outperformed the carbamates and DDT in the accelerated ageing tests. Thus UV exposure, high temperature oxidation and high humidity per se were ruled out as the main causes of failure of the alternative insecticides. Gas chromatography (GC spectrograms showed that phosphogypsum stabilised the insecticides the most against alkaline degradation (i.e., hydrolysis. Bioassay testing showed that the period of efficacy of some of these formulations was comparable to that of DDT when sprayed on mud surfaces or cattle manure coated surfaces. Conclusions Bioassay experiments indicated that incorporating insecticides into a conventional paint binder or adsorbing them onto phosphogypsum can provide for extended effective life spans that compare favourably with DDT's performance under accelerated ageing conditions. Best results were obtained with propoxur in standard acrylic emulsion paint. Similarly, insecticides adsorbed on phosphogypsum and sprayed on cattle manure coated surfaces provided superior lifespans compared with DDT sprayed directly on a similar surface.

  1. Multiple scales in spray modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary of the results of modelling of several processes in diesel engine sprays is presented. These include spray penetration, droplet heating and droplet evaporation. Typical scales of these processes differ by more than 7 orders of magnitude from about 3 x 10-2 m (spray penetration) to about 10-9 m (diameters of individual molecules). It has been confirmed that the dynamic decomposition techniques for solving stiff systems of ordinary Differential equations, reported earlier, can be an effective tool in spray modelling applications for CFD codes

  2. National Gallery: 30 Highlight Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Where to start with a collection like that held by the National Gallery? It's a truly daunting challenge, but fortunately the curators there have done some of the hard work already. This remarkable offering brings together 30 of their finest works, including Vermeer's "A Young Woman standing at a Virginal," Titian's "Bacchus and Ariadne," and Van Gogh's "Sunflowers." Visitors can click on each image to get in close to each item and read the brief essay accompanies each work. Also, each item has an Essentials area which features key facts about the work and an artist biography. The In Depth area of each site includes a technical bulletin and information from the National Gallery's. Finally, visitors can buy prints of their favorite paintings or look into purchasing licensing rights.

  3. Electron beam hardened paint binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention concerns a paint binder hardened by the effect of electron beams (0.1-100 Mrad/sec). It consists of a dispersion of (A) an ethylenic unsaturated material in (B) at least one vinyl monomer. The component (A) in a reaction product of degraded rubber particles (0.1-4 ?m) and an ethylenic unsaturated component with a reactive epoxy, hydroxy or carboxy group which is bonded to the rubber particles by ester or urethane compounds. The rubber particles possess a nucleus and a cross-linked elastomeric acryl polymer, an outer shell with reactive groups and an intermediate layer formed by the monomers of the nucleus and the shell. The manner of production is described in great detail and supplemented by 157 examples. The coatings are suitable to coat articles which will be subject to deformation. (UWI)

  4. Preparation of water paint by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of coatings which do not require any organic solvent have been the social needs. The emulsion made by radiation method is considered to meet possibly this requirement, but it has not been utilized well in the application to water paint. In this review, the investigation concerning the synthesis of water paint raw material by radiation is summarized. In the introduction, radiation curing, water paint and radiation emulsion polymerization are outlined, in the section of ?-ray emulsion polymerization, clean emulsion, cross-linked polymer particles and low temperature polymerization are described, and in the section of paint characteristics of radiation-induced emulsion-polymerized emulsion, the synthesis of thermosetting emulsion, the relation between the method of polymerization and the properties of emulsion, the performance of coating film, and self-hardening emulsion are explained. In the following section of skin-core double layer structured particle emulsion, skin-core double layer structured particles, optimal monomer composition, optimal polymerization process, the manufacturing test with a pilot plant, the performance of the paint, the durability of skin-core double layer structured particle coating film and low temperature curing water paint are described, and in the section of synthesis of emulsion by utilization of electron beam, electron beam emulsion polymerization and the synthesis of water paint by electron beam graft polymerization are d electron beam graft polymerization are described. (Yoshitake, I.)

  5. Kolmogorov scaling in impassioned van Gogh paintings

    CERN Document Server

    Aragon, J L; Bai, M; Torres, M; Maini, P K; Naumis, Gerardo G.

    2006-01-01

    We show that some impassioned van Gogh paintings display scaling properties similar to the observed in turbulent fluids, suggesting that these paintings reflect the fingerprint of turbulence with such a realism that is even consistent with the way that a mathematical model characterizes this phenomenon. Specifically, we show that the probability distribution function (PDF) of luminance fluctuations of points (pixels) separated by a distance R is consistent with the Kolmogorov scaling theory in turbulent fluids. We also show that the most turbulent paintings of van Gogh coincide with periods of prolonged psychotic agitation of this artist.

  6. Measurement of tritium in dial painting industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium in the form of polystyrene is used coated on zinc sulphide as the active component for the manufacture of self-luminous paint. To study the radiological implication of airborne tritium in the luminous paint industry air monitoring study was conducted by cold strip method and Andersen method. Airborne particulate in different locations in luminous paint (LP) building and background areas were observed to be associated with activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 1.8 to 5.0 um. Dose to soft tissue and lungs and effective whole body dose were evaluated. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs., 2 ills

  7. 24 CFR 200.800 - Lead-based paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 200.800 Section 200.800 Housing...INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 200.800 Lead-based paint. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning...

  8. Control of spray spot shape in cold spray technology. Part 2. Spraying process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaikovskii, V. N.; Klinkov, S. V.; Kosarev, V. F.; Melamed, B. M.; Trubacheev, G. V.

    2014-04-01

    The present paper studies high-velocity heterogeneous flows produced with nozzle designs unconventional for cold spray; the process of coating deposition was studied under these conditions. The possibility of using unconventional gas dynamic tools (swirling of main flow, nozzles with permeable profiles and with slots in the supersonic part of nozzle) for control of particle distribution in the supersonic jet is investigated: this might be useful for obtaining a proper shape of the spray spot. These experiments offered a method of gas-dynamic design for the spray spot shape, which extends the possibilities of cold spray technique.

  9. Paint for detection of radiological or chemical agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA); Brunk, James L. (Martinez, CA); Day, Sumner Daniel (Danville, CA)

    2010-08-24

    A paint that warns of radiological or chemical substances comprising a paint operatively connected to the surface, an indicator material carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances, and a thermo-activation material carried by the paint. In one embodiment, a method of warning of radiological or chemical substances comprising the steps of painting a surface with an indicator material, and monitoring the surface for indications of the radiological or chemical substances. In another embodiment, a paint is operatively connected to a vehicle and an indicator material is carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances.

  10. Set Up of an Automated Multi-Colour System for Interior Wall Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berardo Naticchia

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available It is shared that construction projects are getting bigger and more complex, hence also the productivity of the construction industry must be improved, while preserving its labour from hazardous job sites. Such requirements can be accomplished by the adoption of robotized products, which, however, need to be quickly developed and marketed. In this paper, first the issue of a new miniature laboratory for developing lightweight and well-coordinated robotized systems is pursued, then a novel robot device for high quality multi-colour interior wall painting carried by a robot arm is developed and successfully tested. Thanks to the new 1:6 scaled down laboratory and its six degree of freedom robot arm on an hexapod for horizontal moves, we tested the opportunity to introduce also in the building sector miniature robots that can change the ergonomics standardly adopted by construction workers. It is analyzed how and why switching from full size to miniature robots is convenient in construction. In addition, a new system adding further features to robotized painting has been conceived. Our new multi-colour spraying end-tool was developed and fixed on the robot arm, in order to be able to reproduce coloured artworks. Finally, a methodology to reproduce colours from digital format of artworks is presented, showing how accurate and efficient is this new robotized spraying device.

  11. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-7 - Lead-containing paint and items bearing lead-containing paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Lead-containing paint and items bearing lead-containing paint. 101-42.1102-7 Section 101-42...Property § 101-42.1102-7 Lead-containing paint and items bearing lead-containing paint....

  12. 75 FR 51808 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ...FRL-10-032; FRL-9191-9] Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities...statute was the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992. That Act...EPA-authorized programs for lead-based paint activities training and certification...

  13. 76 FR 56136 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and Pre-Renovation Education Activities in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ...EPA-R04-OPPT-2010-0789; FRL-9457-7] Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and...2682(c)(3), and a lead-based paint pre-renovation education program in accordance...2682(c)(3), and a lead-based paint pre-renovation education program in...

  14. 76 FR 12106 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ...EPA-R07-OW-2011-0112; FRL-9275-5] Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities...statute was the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992. That Act...administered regulations concerning lead- based paint in housing since 2000. The U.S....

  15. 75 FR 39524 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and Pre-Renovation Education Activities in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ...EPA-R10-OPPT-2010-0549; FRL-9173-8] Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and...2682(c)(3), and a lead-based paint pre-renovation education program in accordance...c)(3) of TSCA, and a lead-based paint pre-renovation education program in...

  16. 76 FR 27044 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and Pre-Renovation Education Activities in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ...EPA-R10-OPPT-2011-0378; FRL-9303-6 ] Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and...2682(c)(3), and a lead-based paint pre-renovation education program in accordance...State Department of Commerce, Lead-Based Paint Program, 1011 Plum Street, SE.,...

  17. 75 FR 13127 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ...EPA-R07-OPPT-2010-0155; FRL-9128-4] Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities...statute was the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992. That Act...EPA-authorized programs for lead-based paint activities training and certification...

  18. 75 FR 6383 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and Pre-Renovation Education Activities in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ...EPA-R05-RCRA-2009-1018; FRL-9110-3] Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and...2682(c)(3), and a lead-based paint pre-renovation education program in accordance...c)(3) of TSCA, and a lead-based paint pre-renovation education program in...

  19. A Qualitative Study of Student Responses to Body Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielle Finn (Durham University)

    2009-11-16

    This article describes a study conducted studying focus groups to determine whether or not medical students found body painting anatomical structures to be an educationally beneficial learning activity. Outcomes discussed surround the following themes that emerged from the data. (1) body painting as a fun learning activity, (2) body painting promoting retention of knowledge, (3) factors contributing to the memorability of body painting, (4) removal from comfort zone, and (5) the impact of body painting on students' future clinical practice.

  20. Preference for and Discrimination of Paintings by Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    I measured preference for paintings (Renoir vs. Picasso or Kandinsky vs. Mondrian) in mice. In general mice did not display a painting preference except for two mice: one preferred Renoir to Picasso, and the other preferred Kandinsky to Mondrian. Thereafter, I examined discrimination of paintings with new mice. When exposure to paintings of one artist was associated with an injection of morphine (3.0 mg/kg), mice displayed conditioned preference for those paintings, showing discrimination of ...

  1. Nanoindentation and the micromechanics of Van Gogh oil paints

    OpenAIRE

    Salvant, Johanna; Barthel, Etienne; Menu, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the mechanical properties of ancient paintings is a major issue for conservation and restoration. One strategy is to measure the mechanical properties of reconstructed paints: however the aging process is poorly known, so it is also desirable to measure mechanical properties directly on ancient paint samples. Using nanoindentation, we have characterized submillimetric samples recovered from restoration of two Van Gogh paintings and compared the results with reconstructed paint s...

  2. Practice of using the multiple painting method

    CERN Document Server

    Drapchinsky, L V; Soloviev, S M

    1999-01-01

    A technique for the preparation of homogeneous minor-actinide layers by the multiple-painting method is described in detail. The advantages of the method used, as well as characteristics of the layers, are discussed.

  3. The evaluation of GOES black paint materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Philip T.; Kauder, Lonny R.; Triolo, Jack J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the contamination effect of black paint materials on the GOES instrument performance. The GOES spacecraft materials were originally selected for their low outgassing properties. Samples of the materials were tested according to the ASTM E-595 test method to fulfill the total mass loss and collected volatile condensable materials criteria for traditional spacecraft material selection. Due to the instrument design, the cavity will experience high temperatures during operation greater than the specified temperature in the ASTM test. As a result of this high cavity temperature, normally stable paint materials on the painted surface may severely outgas even though they have passed the ASTM test. Further enhancement of the contaminant remaining on the mirror by UV irradiation is also a great consideration. This concern prompted an investigation into the outgassing characteristics of the black paints at the predicted operating temperatures.

  4. Paint Test for Centifugal Pump Cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cavitation phenomenon in centrifugal pumps is occurred when the static pressure within the pumps decreases below the boiling pressure of the fluid. This can cause severe damages or failures of the pumps such as the impeller wear or the pump degradation. Many researches to resolve the problem have been performed. Gluich carried out wear prediction based on the Cooper's empirical relation on a cavity length. Grist suggested paint test as a useful tool to measure the cavity length. In the present study, a fluid test system is made, which can create cavitation artificially. A series of visualization tests for cavitation erosion using various paints are made. By comparing the paint test results and the Cooper's correlation, the effectiveness of the paint test for the cavity length estimation is noted

  5. Paint Test for Centifugal Pump Cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Tae Seok; Lee, Do Hwan [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Min Ho; Jung, Rae Hyuk [M and D Corp., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The cavitation phenomenon in centrifugal pumps is occurred when the static pressure within the pumps decreases below the boiling pressure of the fluid. This can cause severe damages or failures of the pumps such as the impeller wear or the pump degradation. Many researches to resolve the problem have been performed. Gluich carried out wear prediction based on the Cooper's empirical relation on a cavity length. Grist suggested paint test as a useful tool to measure the cavity length. In the present study, a fluid test system is made, which can create cavitation artificially. A series of visualization tests for cavitation erosion using various paints are made. By comparing the paint test results and the Cooper's correlation, the effectiveness of the paint test for the cavity length estimation is noted.

  6. Identification of bacterial cells by chromosomal painting.

    OpenAIRE

    Lanoil, B D; Giovannoni, S. J.

    1997-01-01

    Chromosomal painting is a technique for the microscopic localization of genetic material. It has been applied at the subcellular level to identify regions of eukaryotic chromosomes. Here we describe the development of bacterial chromosomal painting (BCP), a related technology for the identification of bacterial cells. Purified genomic DNAs from six bacterial strains were labeled by nick translation with the fluorochrome Fluor-X, Cy3, or Cy5. The average size of the labeled fragments was ca. 5...

  7. Digital Embodiment in Contemporary Abstract Painting

    OpenAIRE

    Stubbs, Michael

    2003-01-01

    This thesis re-investigates Clement Greenberg’s discredited abstract expressionist claim that painting should seek its own purity through the acknowledgment of its material. I argue that Greenberg’s physical, bodily determination of painting (but not its purity) is re-located as a criticality in contemporary practice because of the changes brought about by the simulacrum and the digital. By utilizing the particularities of ‘painterly’ issues such as materiality, depth and opticality into th...

  8. IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA IN LATEX PAINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas, J.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacteria are prokaryote organisms with a high capacity to colonize many types of habits. This research was developed with the object to identify extremophiles bacteria presents in latex paint. The bacteria were cultivated in culture mediums TSA, Blood Agar, Mc Conkey and finally the biochemical proof API-NF® for bacteria's isolation and identification, respectively. Characterization showed bacterial profile of Pasteurella sp. Hypothesis that could be found extremophiles bacteria in latex paint were demonstrated.

  9. Pressure-Sensitive Paint: Effect of Substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinos Kontis; Mark Kenneth Quinn; Leichao Yang

    2011-01-01

    There are numerous ways in which pressure-sensitive paint can be applied to a surface. The choice of substrate and application method can greatly affect the results obtained. The current study examines the different methods of applying pressure-sensitive paint to a surface. One polymer-based and two porous substrates (anodized aluminum and thin-layer chromatography plates) are investigated and compared for luminescent output, pressure sensitivity, temperature sensitivity and photodegradation....

  10. A quantitative approach to painting styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Vilson; Fabbri, Renato; Sbrissa, David; da Fontoura Costa, Luciano; Travieso, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    This research extends a method previously applied to music and philosophy (Vilson Vieira et al., 2012), representing the evolution of art as a time-series where relations like dialectics are measured quantitatively. For that, a corpus of paintings of 12 well-known artists from baroque and modern art is analyzed. A set of 99 features is extracted and the features which most contributed to the classification of painters are selected. The projection space obtained provides the basis to the analysis of measurements. These quantitative measures underlie revealing observations about the evolution of painting styles, specially when compared with other humanity fields already analyzed: while music evolved along a master-apprentice tradition (high dialectics) and philosophy by opposition, painting presents another pattern: constant increasing skewness, low opposition between members of the same movement and opposition peaks in the transition between movements. Differences between baroque and modern movements are also observed in the projected "painting space": while baroque paintings are presented as an overlapped cluster, the modern paintings present minor overlapping and are disposed more widely in the projection than the baroque counterparts. This finding suggests that baroque painters shared aesthetics while modern painters tend to "break rules" and develop their own style.

  11. Automated Laser Paint Stripping (ALPS) update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovoi, Paul

    1993-03-01

    To date, the DoD has played a major role in funding a number of paint stripping programs. Some technologies have proven less effective than contemplated. Others are still in the validation phase. Paint stripping is one of the hottest issues being addressed by the finishing industry since the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has mandated that chemical stripping using methylene chloride/phenolic type strippers be stopped. The DoD and commercial aircraft companies are hard-pressed to find an alternative. Automated laser paint stripping has been identified as a technique for removing coatings from aircraft surfaces. International Technical Associates (InTA) was awarded a Navy contract for an automated laser paint stripping system (ALPS) that will remove paint from metallic and composite substrates. For the program, which will validate laser paint stripping, InTA will design, build, test, and install a system for fighter-sized aircraft at both the Norfolk and North Island (San Diego) Aviation Depots.

  12. Radiation curing of commercial paint samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation curable coatings which include inks, varnishes, adhesives and paints, are reactive mixtures. They contain oligomers, monomers, pigments, initiators and additives. On being irradiated, these substances polymerize to form a three dimensional thermoset polymer film. The film properties are dependent on the paint formulation and the radiation used for curing. The aim of these experiments was to explore the radiation curability of commercially available paints and to apply the results to E-Beam curing of such paints using the 750 keV D.C. accelerator. The energy requirement will be ?0.4 MeV. For our preliminary experiments an oil paint generally used for indoor and outdoor applications and a nitrocellulose based automotive paint were chosen. The E Beam has been substituted by gamma radiation from a 60Co source in these studies. Though the primary interaction with matter is different, the major interaction with matter for both is Compton scattering. Another major distinction to take into account in applying these results to E beam curing is the dose rate. The gamma radiator used delivers dose rates up to a maximum of ?5 kGy/h. The electron accelerator planned to use can deliver doses orders of magnitude higher. This will reduce the irradiation time for a dose of 100 kGy from ?20 hours to ?0.5 seconds for E beam

  13. Cleaning of Easel Paintings: An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of laser cleaning to paintings is relatively recent despite its use on stone-based materials for over 30 years. The cleaning of paintings is of high importance, because it is the least reversible invasive intervention, as well as the most usual of all conservation treatments. Paintings are multilayer system of heterogeneous nature, often very sensitive and inherent difficult to clean. Being a noncontact method, laser cleaning has advantages compared to alternative techniques. Over the last decade, there have been important research studies and advances. However, they are far from sufficient to study the effects on painting materials and to establish the best parameters for each material under investigation. This paper presents a historical overview of the application of laser technology to the cleaning of paintings giving special emphasis on the research of the last decade. An overview of the current research into the interaction between the radiation and the different painting materials (varnish, pigments, and medium) is also given. The pigment's mechanisms of discoloration and the presence of media as a variable factor in the discoloration of pigments are discussed.

  14. Development of painting technology using plasma surface technology for automobile parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major areas in organic coatings for corrosion protection of automobile parts is the surface treatment of polyolefin (Polypropylene (RX-2000)) bumper substrates. In order to develop the painting technology, in this work, we directly tried to paint on the plastic bumper substrates without both wet washing process with VOC solvents and phosphate primer spray process. Microwave (MW) plasma treatment represents an efficient, clean and economic alternative to activate polymeric surfaces. O2 plasma treatment at room temperature within 300 s in the power range of 300-1000 W were used to elevate hydrophilic property of the polyolefin surfaces, resulting in distinctive change of wettability and adhesion between painting layer and polymeric bumper substrates. The treated surfaces have been analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Wettability and adhesion properties were elevated by the measurement of the contact angle, adhesion test, impact test, cold resistant impact test and water resistant impact test. We confirmed that the O2 plasma treatment was a very reliable method for the synthesis of polyolefin substrates with high wettability and adhesion performance

  15. Development of painting technology using plasma surface technology for automobile parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, C.-K. [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: ckjung7818@skku.edu; Bae, I.-S. [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.-B. [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, J.-H. [Woosin Cryovac Co., Ltd. Uiwang 437-820 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, E.-S. [Woosin Cryovac Co., Ltd. Uiwang 437-820 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.-C. [Plakor Co., Ltd, Seoul 152-050 (Korea, Republic of); Boo, J.-H. [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jhboo@chem.skku.ac.kr

    2006-05-26

    One of the major areas in organic coatings for corrosion protection of automobile parts is the surface treatment of polyolefin (Polypropylene (RX-2000)) bumper substrates. In order to develop the painting technology, in this work, we directly tried to paint on the plastic bumper substrates without both wet washing process with VOC solvents and phosphate primer spray process. Microwave (MW) plasma treatment represents an efficient, clean and economic alternative to activate polymeric surfaces. O{sub 2} plasma treatment at room temperature within 300 s in the power range of 300-1000 W were used to elevate hydrophilic property of the polyolefin surfaces, resulting in distinctive change of wettability and adhesion between painting layer and polymeric bumper substrates. The treated surfaces have been analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Wettability and adhesion properties were elevated by the measurement of the contact angle, adhesion test, impact test, cold resistant impact test and water resistant impact test. We confirmed that the O{sub 2} plasma treatment was a very reliable method for the synthesis of polyolefin substrates with high wettability and adhesion performance.

  16. Increased persistence of antifouling paint biocides when associated with paint particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Release of biocides associated with paint particles into marinas may increase their persistence in the environment. - Current regulatory risk assessment procedures only assess the impact of antifouling paint biocides that are released through leaching from a painted surface. Hull cleaning activities can lead to particles of antifouling paint containing biocides to enter the environment. Comparative pseudo-first order anaerobic degradation rate constants and half-lives were determined for a selection of common antifouling paint booster biocides, their degradation products, and associated with paint particles. Anaerobic half-lives of <0.5 days were calculated for chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, and SeaNine 211, between 1 and 3 days for DCPMU and DCPU, between 14 and 35 days for diuron and CPDU, and over 226 days for GS26575 and Irgarol 1051. Increased persistence was observed when the compounds were introduced to sediments associated with antifouling paint particles. When present as antifouling paint particles, an increased half-life of 9.9 days for SeaNine 211 and 1.4 days was calculated for dichlofluanid, no significant degradation was observed for diuron. It is suspected that this is due to much of the biocide being initially bound within the matrix of the paint particle that is slowly released through dissolution processes into the sediment pore water prior to degradation. The release of booster biocides associated with paint particles into marinas has the potential particles into marinas has the potential to lead to their accumulation unless activities such as hull cleaning are strictly regulated

  17. Paint selection for coating radioactive-waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is concluded that although the white epoxy Paint Sample E is suitable for coating waste drums, the additional pretreated costs of grit blasting prior to paint application would preclude adoption of that paint system. The specified 10.0-mil coating thickness of that coating would also incur higher costs. The Vorac epoxy-phenolic base paint (buff or yellow) was the only other paint that exhibited suitable corrosion and impact resistance required for coating the waste drums. In addition, that paint does not require a grit-blasted substrate or other costly pretreatment prior to coating

  18. Training facilitates object recognition in cubist paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To the naïve observer, cubist paintings contain geometrical forms in which familiar objects are hardly recognizable, even in the presence of a meaningful title. We used fMRI to test whether a short training session about Cubism would facilitate object recognition in paintings by Picasso, Braque and Gris. Subjects, who had no formal art education, were presented with titled or untitled cubist paintings and scrambled images, and performed object recognition tasks. Relative to the control group, trained subjects recognized more objects in the paintings, their response latencies were significantly shorter, and they showed enhanced activation in the parahippocampal cortex, with a parametric increase in the amplitude of the fMRI signal as a function of the number of recognized objects. Moreover, trained subjects were slower to report not recognizing any familiar objects in the paintings and these longer response latencies were correlated with activation in a fronto-parietal network. These findings suggest that trained subjects adopted a visual search strategy and used contextual associations to perform the tasks. Our study supports the proactive brain framework, according to which the brain uses associations to generate predictions.

  19. Suspension and solution plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suspension and solution plasma spraying makes it possible to achieve coatings with fine microstructural features and is becoming a common route in laboratories to elaborate coatings a few tenths to a few hundreds of micrometres thick. This paper presents the recent developments in direct current plasma spraying of suspensions or solutions. It begins with a short description of the main plasma torches used for liquid feedstock spraying as well as the techniques used to experimentally observe droplets and particles in the plasma jet and characterize the void network of nanostructured plasma-sprayed coatings. The paper then turns to the momentum and heat transfers between fine particles and the plasma jet and the interactions between the plasma jet and a liquid in the form of a jet or drops. It concludes by linking some characteristic features of coating microstructures with the liquid processing in the plasma jet. (paper)

  20. Plasma spraying theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Suryanarayanan, R

    1993-01-01

    The recent advances in plasma spraying are discussed in this book which divides into two sections - theory and application. The book presents sophisticated experimental techniques, diagnostics, theoretical models and computer simulations which not only improve the understanding and uses of the spraying process but also help to increase the reliability factor of the manufacturing components. Applications that are metallurgical, aeronautical, automobile, chemical, etc. are also shown. More importantly, applications that include silicon for solar cells, magnets and superconductors are also discus

  1. Plasma sprayed Ce:YAG.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Pala, Zden?k; Nevrlá, Barbara; Kubát, J.

    Düsseldorf : DVS Media GmbH, 2014, s. 593-598. ISBN 978-3-87155-574-9. - (DVS-Berichte. 302). [ITSC 2014 :Interational Thermal Spray Conference and Exposition. Barcelona (ES), 21.05.2014-23.05.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Plasma spraying * YAG * scintallator * thermal post-treatment Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass http://www.dvs-media.eu/media/pdf/inhalt_300302.pdf

  2. Experimental evaluation of a mathematical model for predicting transfer efficiency of a high volume-low pressure air spray gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Y M; Flynn, M R

    2000-10-01

    The transfer efficiency of a spray-painting gun is defined as the amount of coating applied to the workpiece divided by the amount sprayed. Characterizing this transfer process allows for accurate estimation of the overspray generation rate, which is important for determining a spray painter's exposure to airborne contaminants. This study presents an experimental evaluation of a mathematical model for predicting the transfer efficiency of a high volume-low pressure spray gun. The effects of gun-to-surface distance and nozzle pressure on the agreement between the transfer efficiency measurement and prediction were examined. Wind tunnel studies and non-volatile vacuum pump oil in place of commercial paint were used to determine transfer efficiency at nine gun-to-surface distances and four nozzle pressure levels. The mathematical model successfully predicts transfer efficiency within the uncertainty limits. The least squares regression between measured and predicted transfer efficiency has a slope of 0.83 and an intercept of 0.12 (R2 = 0.98). Two correction factors were determined to improve the mathematical model. At higher nozzle pressure settings, 6.5 psig and 5.5 psig, the correction factor is a function of both gun-to-surface distance and nozzle pressure level. At lower nozzle pressures, 4 psig and 2.75 psig, gun-to-surface distance slightly influences the correction factor, while nozzle pressure has no discernible effect. PMID:11036729

  3. [Physician's role in Norwegian art of painting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, I F

    1995-12-10

    The author reviews paintings of doctors by Norwegian artists. Many interesting pictures have been painted, especially during the era of naturalism at the end of the last century. The artist and journalist Christian Krohg contributed to an early discussion of the role of the doctors in connection with social problems in Norway. In the 1930s, Finn Faaborg illustrated the relation between doctor and patient in the case of tuberculosis, and Carl von Hanno revived the problem of prostitution. Bendik Riis, himself a psychiatric patient, with his huge painting Castraktion, shows his fear of castration and lobotomy, and also his opinion of the health authorities' lack of respect for the patient. Norwegian painters have obviously contributed to a fruitful discussion of the role of the doctor in society. PMID:8539754

  4. Visual comparison testing of automotive paint simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gary; Fan, Hua-Tzu; Seubert, Christopher; Evey, Curtis; Meseth, Jan; Schnackenberg, Ryan

    2015-03-01

    An experiment was performed to determine whether typical industrial automotive color paint comparisons made using real physical samples could also be carried out using a digital simulation displayed on a calibrated color television monitor. A special light booth, designed to facilitate evaluation of the car paint color with reflectance angle, was employed in both the real and virtual color comparisons. Paint samples were measured using a multi-angle spectrophotometer and were simulated using a commercially available software package. Subjects performed the test quicker using the computer graphic simulation, and results indicate that there is only a small difference between the decisions made using the light booth and the computer monitor. This outcome demonstrates the potential of employing simulations to replace some of the time consuming work with real physical samples that still characterizes material appearance work in industry.

  5. Non-destructive XRF analysis of paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preservation and conservation of our cultural heritage has become one of the main concerns today all over the world. In particular there is an increasing need for non-destructive investigations, as sampling from the unique and precious objects of art and archaeology. In addition to the conventional analytical procedures, techniques utilising nuclear instruments and methods play increasing role in this field. The small, portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometers using radioisotope excitation allow in situ analysis in museums, galleries, or even on field. This paper presents illustrative applications of our XRF devices with radioisotope excitation. The detection of the presence of titanium in white spots of a painting provided scientific basis to decide that the painting in question was a fake. The difficulties caused by the simultaneous presence of Ti and Ba (a very frequent component white paints) are also discussed

  6. One year of Puma Painting: site experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Matthew R.

    1999-11-01

    The PumaPaint project is a web robot that allows users to create original artwork on the World Wide Web. The site allows control of a PUMA 760 robot equipped with four paintbrushes; jars of red, green, blue and yellow paint and white paper attached to an easel. Users must download a JavaTM interface allowing interactive control of the robot. This interface contains two windows showing live camera views of the work site and various controls for connecting and disconnecting to the robot, viewing the task status and controlling the painting task. During the first year of operation of the site, June 3rd, 1998 to June 2nd 1999, approximately 5,000 users produced 390 canvases. This paper presents summary data from one year of operation, discusses the author's experiences in operating the site and examines some of the artwork produced.

  7. Perceptual dimensions of style in paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovi? Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to specify the basic perceptual dimensions underlying the judgments of the physical features which define the style in paintings (e.g. salient form, colorful surface, oval contours etc.. The other aim of the study is to correlate these dimensions with the subjective (affective dimensions of the experience of paintings. In the preliminary study a set of 25 pairs of elementary perceptual descriptors were empirically specified, and a set of 25 bipolar scales were made (e.g. uncolored-multicolored. In the experiment 30 subjects judged 24 paintings (paintings were taken from the study of Radonji? and Markovi?, 2004 on 25 scales. Factor analysis revealed the four factors: form (scales: precise, neat, salient form etc., color (color contrast, lightness contrast, vivid colors, space (voluminosity, depth and oval contours and complexity (multicolored, ornate, detailed. Obtained factors reflected the nature of the phenomenological and neural segregation of form, color, depth processing, and partially of complexity processing (e.g. spatial frequency processing within both the form and color subsystem. The aim of the next step of analysis was to specify the correlations between two groups of judgments: (a mean judgments of 24 paintings on perceptual factors and (b mean judgments of the same set of 24 paintings on subjective (affective experience factors, i.e. regularity, attraction, arousal and relaxation (judgments taken from Radonji? and Markovi?, 2005. The following significant correlations were obtained: regularity-form, regularity-space, attraction-form and arousal-complexity (negative correlation. The reasons for the unexpected negative correlation between arousal and complexity should be specified in further studies.

  8. BICARBONATE OF SODA BLASTING TECHNOLOGY FOR AIRCRAFT WHEEL PAINTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation addressed product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention and economics in replacing chemical solvent strippers with a bicarbonate of soda blasting technology for removal of paint from aircraft wheels. The evaluation was conducted in the Paint Stripping Sho...

  9. Can I Use Paint and Household Chemicals While Pregnant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Concussions: What to Know Can I Use Paint and Household Chemicals While Pregnant? KidsHealth > Parents > Q&A > Pregnancy and Infants > Can I Use Paint and Household Chemicals While Pregnant? Print A A ...

  10. Causes for the formation of surface structures on paint films

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Matthias; Hager, Christian; Strohbeck, Ulrich; Tiedje, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    A new simulation model is presented that incorporates all the relevant processes for structure formation on paint films. The model can help to meet the growing demands with respect to design and reproducibility of paint film appearance.

  11. Assessment of the painting support based on irradiation Am-241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is concerned with the noninvasive investigation of wooden backing of painting support. The article describes a method making use of weakened gamma irradiation (Am-241) to estimate the degree of damage of painting support. (author)

  12. Testing Your Home for Lead in Paint, Dust, and Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hazards, note that you are not under any obligation to hire the same firm to do the ... a measurement indicates that: ! Lead-based paint is present, ! Lead-based paint is not present, or ! The ...

  13. Hardware accelerated 3D nesh painting

    OpenAIRE

    Schärfig, Randolf; Hormann, Kai

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a new algorithm for interactively painting onto 3D meshes that exploits recent advances of GPU technology. As the user moves a brush over the 3D mesh, its paint pattern is projected onto the 3D geometry at the current viewing angle and copied to the corresponding region in the object’s texture atlas. Both operations are realized on the GPU, with the advantage that all data resides in the fast GPU memory, which in turn leads to high frame rates. A main feature of our...

  14. Paint-on-Glass Animation: The Fellowship of Digital Paint and Artisanal Control

    OpenAIRE

    Van Laerhoven, Tom; Di Fiore, Fabian; Van Haevre, William; VAN REETH, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this paper we deal with paint-on-glass animation, which is a technique for making animated films by pushing slow-drying paints from frame to frame directly under the camera. As artwork is continuously destroyed upon creating new frames, the animator is not able to rehearse or refine the animation afterwards. Furthermore, due to impracticable issues like how to stack up layers containing wet paint or how to overlay masks on the wet medium, one has to take both creative a...

  15. Energy conservation in the painting process; Energieeinsparung im Lackierprozess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-07-01

    A new technology developed by Duerr enables energy savings of up to 30% in automobile painting, which is by far the most energy-intensive manufacturing process in the production of vehicles. The EcoDryScrubber system works with recirculation of the booth process air and dry separation of the surplus paint particles during paint application. This leads to considerable improvements in energy consumption and in CO{sub 2} and paint particle emissions.

  16. "Paint" with powdered cork with optimized acoustical behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio P.O. Carvalho; Daniela J. D. Maio; Francisco J. C. X. Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of a new product ("paint") with the incorporation of powdered cork to optimize its acoustic performance. Tests were performed in a reverberation room to measure the variation on the sound absorption coefficient values of an existing standard aqueous paint by the introduction of different amounts of powdered cork and also to compare these results with a named "acoustic paint" already available in the market. The "paint" tests were performed on two different bas...

  17. Spray Lakes reclamation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacaruk, M.R. [TransAlta Utilities Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    When the level of the Spray Lakes (Alberta) reservoir was lowered by four metres, 208 ha of shoreline was exposed offering little to no wildlife benefit and only limited recreation potential. A reclamation plan for 128 ha of shoreline was therefore developed. A wild life-palatable, self-sustaining vegetation cover was established. Approximately 90 ha was scarified, and/or had tree stumps removed prior to seeding, while approximately 40 ha was seeded and fertilized only. The remaining 80 ha of shoreline was not revegetated due to limited access; these areas will be allowed to re-establish naturally from the forested edge. The species were selected based on their adaptation to alkaline soils, drought tolerance, persistence in a stand and rooting characteristics, as well as palatability to wildlife. Alfalfa, white clover and fall rye were seeded. In general, all areas of the reclamation plan are successfully revegetated. Areas which were recontoured are stable and non-eroding. Success was most significant in areas which had been scarified, then seeded and trackpacked. Areas that were seeded and fertilized only were less well established at the end of the first year, but showed improvement in the second and third years. The area will be monitored to ensure the reclaimed vegetation is self-sustaining.

  18. Influence of the Spray Angle on the Characteristics of Atmospheric Plasma Sprayed Hard Material Based Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Wolfgang; Vogli, Evelina; Krebs, Benjamin

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the influence of the spray angle on thermally sprayed coatings. Spray beads were manufactured with different spray angles between 90 and 20° by means of atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) on heat-treated mild steel (1.0503). WC-12Co and Cr3C2-10(Ni20Cr) powders were employed as feedstock materials. Every spray bead was characterized by a Gaussian fit. This opens the opportunity to analyze the influence of the spray angle on coating properties. Furthermore, metallographic studies of the surface roughness, porosity, hardness, and morphology were carried out and the deposition efficiency as well as the tensile strength was measured. The thermally sprayed coatings show a clear dependence on the spray angle. A decrease in spray angle changes the thickness, width, and form of the spray beads. The coatings become rougher and their quality decreases.

  19. Slurry spray distribution within a simulated laboratory scale spray dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was found that the distribution of liquid striking the sides of a simulated room temperature spray dryer was not significantly altered by the choice of nozles, nor by a variation in nozzle operating conditions. Instead, it was found to be a function of the spray dryer's configuration. A cocurrent flow of air down the drying cylinder, not possible with PNL's closed top, favorably altered the spray distribution by both decreasing the amount of liquid striking the interior of the cylinder from 72 to 26% of the feed supplied, and by shifting the zone of maximum impact from 1.0 to 1.7 feet from the nozzle. These findings led to the redesign of the laboratory scale spray dryer to be tested at the Savannah River Plant. The diameter of the drying chamber was increased from 5 to 8 inches, and a cocurrent flow of air was established with a closed recycle. Finally, this investigation suggested a drying scheme which offers all the advantages of spray drying without many of its limitations

  20. A Short History of the Chemistry of Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedstein, Harriet G.

    1981-01-01

    Includes information on: (1) relationship of art and science; (2) paintings' early history; (3) Egyptian, Greek, Chinese, Byzantine, and Medieval painting; (4) chemical analysis of pigments; (5) chemistry of early pigments; and (6) paint media. Tabular data are provided on chemical names for artists' pigments with their earliest known dates. (CS)

  1. 47 CFR 17.53 - Lighting equipment and paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Lighting equipment and paint. 17.53 Section 17.53 Telecommunication...Structures § 17.53 Lighting equipment and paint. The lighting equipment, color or filters, and shade of paint referred to in the specifications...

  2. 13 CFR 120.173 - Lead-based paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Lead-based paint. 120.173 Section 120.173 Business...and Orders § 120.173 Lead-based paint. If loan proceeds are for the construction...of a residential structure, lead-based paint may not be used on any interior...

  3. 24 CFR 570.608 - Lead-based paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 570.608 Section 570.608 Housing and Urban...Program Requirements § 570.608 Lead-based paint. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C....

  4. 24 CFR 1003.607 - Lead-based paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 1003.607 Section 1003.607 Housing...Program Requirements § 1003.607 Lead-based paint. The requirements of the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C....

  5. 24 CFR 92.355 - Lead-based paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 92.355 Section 92.355 Housing...Requirements § 92.355 Lead-based paint. Housing assisted with HOME funds is subject to the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42...

  6. 24 CFR 35.140 - Prohibited methods of paint removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Prohibited methods of paint removal. 35.140 Section 35.140...Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All...

  7. 24 CFR 574.635 - Lead-based paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 574.635 Section 574.635 Housing and Urban...Federal Requirements § 574.635 Lead-based paint. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C....

  8. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, A.; Baker, R.; Prahl, D.

    2014-03-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using 'L' clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and 'picture framing' the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  9. Color alteration of the paint used for iris painting in ocular prostheses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline Úrsula Rocha, Fernandes; Marcelo Coelho, Goiato; Marcos Antônio Jacó, Batista; Daniela Micheline dos, Santos.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess color alteration of the paints used for iris painting in artificial eyes. Five disks of heat cured acrylic resin were confectioned by microwave energy for each paint analyzed, in a total of 40 specimens. Each specimen consisted of a colorless acrylic resin dis [...] k and another of equal size, of scleral white colored acrylic resin, with the painting interposed between the two disks. The specimens were submitted to an accelerated aging process in a chamber under ultraviolet radiation for 1,008 hours. To assess color variation, a reflective spectrophotometer was used. The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and the Tukey test (p

  10. Properties of Spray Dried Food and Spray Drying Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Fumio

    The following conclusions are obtained, studying properties of spray dried food and drying characteristics. (a) Dried particles are similar to spray droplets in size distribution (y=2.5), and particle count distribution is arranged as (dn/dx = ae-bx). (b) The ratio of the particle diameters before and after drying is calculated with moisture before and after drying, and porosity is given as (?p = ww4). (c) The standard drying method is presented to evaluate accurately drying problems at a certain standard. (d) Equilibrium moisture at 20 up to 100°C are summarized in terms of adsorption potential. (e) It makes clear that calulation based on the theory of residence time and drying time represents well complex spray drying characteristics.

  11. Cartesian Control of a Spray-Painting Robot with Redundant Degrees of Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olav Egeland

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available A controller for redundant manipulators with a small, fast manipulator mounted on a positioning part has been developed. The controller distributes the fast motion to the small, fast manipulator and the slow, gross motion to the positioning part. A position reference is generated on-line to the positioning part to avoid singularities and the loss of degrees of freedom. This reference is selected according to an ad hoc procedure which makes the small, fast manipulator work around the centre of its working range. In the control system, the task space position vector is augmented with the generalized coordinates of the positioning part. The resulting augmented task space vector contains a set of generalized coordinates for the manipulator. Feedback linearization and decoupling are applied in the augmented task space to obtain a model consisting of decoupled double integrators. The low and high frequency motion is distributed by controlling the double integrators associated with the end effector with a high bandwidth, while the double integrators associated with the positioning part are controlled with a low bandwidth.

  12. Air monitoring of aromatic hydrocarbons during automobile spray painting for developing change schedule of respirator cartridges

    OpenAIRE

    Jahangiri, Mehdi; Adl, Javad; Shahtaheri, Seyed Jamaleddin; Kakooe, Hossein; Rahimi Forushani, Abbas; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of End of Service Life Indicator (ESLI), a cartridge change schedule should be established for ensuring that cartridges are changed before their end of service life. Factors effecting service life of cartridges were evaluated, including the amount of atmospheric contamination with aromatic hydrocarbon vapors in the workplace, temperature, and relative humidity of the air. A new change schedule was established based on comparing the results of air monitoring and workplace condit...

  13. THERMAL SPRAY REMOVAL OF LEAD-CONTAINING PAINT ON STEEL STRUCTURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past, red lead primer has been used on many steel structures to control corrosion. Commonly used structures in the Department of Defense (DoD) include bridges, aircraft hangars, water storage tanks, metal buildings, fire hydrants, and structural steel. When the lead-based ...

  14. Failure-probability driven dose painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelius, Ivan R; Due, Anne K

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate a data-driven dose-painting strategy based on the spatial distribution of recurrences in previously treated patients. The result is a quantitative way to define a dose prescription function, optimizing the predicted local control at constant treatment intensity. A dose planning study using the optimized dose prescription in 20 patients is performed.

  15. The Ancient Art of Silk Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonker, Kim

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a silk-painting project with a sea-creature theme for eighth-grade students. Other themes can be used such as geometric quilt designs, tropical rain forest, large flowers, Art Nouveau motifs, portraits and more. (Contains 2 resources.)

  16. Failure-probability driven dose painting

    OpenAIRE

    Vogelius, Ivan R.; Håkansson, Katrin; Due, Anne K; Aznar, Marianne C.; Berthelsen, Anne K.; Kristensen, Claus A; Rasmussen, Jacob; Specht, Lena; Bentzen, Søren M

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate a data-driven dose-painting strategy based on the spatial distribution of recurrences in previously treated patients. The result is a quantitative way to define a dose prescription function, optimizing the predicted local control at constant treatment intensity. A dose planning study using the optimized dose prescription in 20 patients is performed.

  17. Painting and Painter in Aesthetic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolnitz, Jerome

    1984-01-01

    Whether or not knowledge about the painter Picasso is helpful or indispensable in teaching appreciation of his art is discussed. Three studies by Denis Thomas, Mary M. Gedo, and Frank Elgar that argue that knowledge of Picasso the man helps students understand his paintings are examined. (RM)

  18. Matte painting in stereoscopic synthetic imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Jonathan; Parent, Rick

    2010-02-01

    While there have been numerous studies concerning human perception in stereoscopic environments, rules of thumb for cinematography in stereoscopy have not yet been well-established. To that aim, we present experiments and results of subject testing in a stereoscopic environment, similar to that of a theater (i.e. large flat screen without head-tracking). In particular we wish to empirically identify thresholds at which different types of backgrounds, referred to in the computer animation industry as matte paintings, can be used while still maintaining the illusion of seamless perspective and depth for a particular scene and camera shot. In monoscopic synthetic imagery, any type of matte painting that maintains proper perspective lines, depth cues, and coherent lighting and textures saves in production costs while still maintaining the illusion of an alternate cinematic reality. However, in stereoscopic synthetic imagery, a 2D matte painting that worked in monoscopy may fail to provide the intended illusion of depth because the viewer has added depth information provided by stereopsis. We intend to observe two stereoscopic perceptual thresholds in this study which will provide practical guidelines indicating when to use each of three types of matte paintings. We ran subject tests in two virtual testing environments, each with varying conditions. Data were collected showing how the choices of the users matched the correct response, and the resulting perceptual threshold patterns are discussed below.

  19. Rendering Visible: Painting and Sexuate Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I examine Luce Irigaray's aesthetic of sexual difference, which she develops by extrapolating from Paul Klee's idea that the role of painting is to render the non-visible rather than represent the visible. This idea is the premise of her analyses of phenomenology and psychoanalysis and their respective contributions to understanding…

  20. Mutagenicity of paint removers containing dichloromethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nestmann, E.R.; Otson, R.; Williams, D.T.; Kowbel, D.J.

    1981-02-01

    A volatile component of commercially available paint and varnish removers was mutagenic in strains of Salmonella typhimurium TA1535, TA100 and TA98. Levels of dichloromethane in exposure chambers were determined by gas chromatography and were related directly to mutational dose-effect curves observed for the products.

  1. Mutagenicity of paint removers containing dichloromethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestmann, E R; Otson, R; Williams, D T; Kowbel, D J

    1981-02-01

    A volatile component of commercially available paint and varnish removers was mutagenic in strains of Salmonella typhimurium TA1535, TA100 and TA98. Levels of dichloromethane in exposure chambers were determined by gas chromatography and were related directly to mutational dose-effect curves observed for the products. PMID:7296522

  2. Acquiring a Concept of Painting Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Jean C.

    1979-01-01

    This experiment compared six methods of teaching concepts of painting style. A practice-plus-verbal feedback teaching strategy (active condition) was compared to a strategy using modeled verbal response (passive condition). Each strategy was combined with three amounts of information: none, artist's name, and name plus style rule. (Author/SJL)

  3. Piezoelectric paint: characterization for further applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piezoelectric paint is a very attractive piezoelectric composite in many fields, such as non-destructive testing, or structural health monitoring. However, there are still many obstacles which restrict the real application of it. One of the main problems is that piezoelectric paint lacks a standard fabrication procedure, thus characterization is needed before use. The work presented here explores the characterization of piezoelectric paint. It starts with fabrication of samples with certain piezoelectric powder weight percentages. The microstructures of the samples are investigated by a scanning electron microscope; the results indicate that the fabrication method can produce high quality samples. This is followed by measurements of Young’s modulus and sensitivity. The piezoelectric charge constant d31 is then deduced from the experimental data; the results agree well with a published result, which validates the effectiveness of the fabrication and characterization method. The characterized piezoelectric paint can expand its applications into different fields and therefore becomes a more promising and competitive smart material. (paper)

  4. Preparation of accelerator targets by painting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1969 to 1978 approximately 400 fission foils, for use in fission ionization chambers, were produced at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) by painting metal substrates with multiple coats of fissionable isotopes. Areal densities as great as 2.0 mg/cm2 were obtained with excellent adhesion. With care, the variation in uniformity of the coating can be kept to less than +-10%. This painting technique has been successful in depositing high-purity isotopes of thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium on metal substrates made of beryllium, aluminum, copper, and nickel. Most of the foils were produced for use in high-accuracy fission cross-section measurements conducted at the LLNL 100 MeV electron linear accelerator from 1973 to 1978. The cost of this painting technique is estimated to be approximately one tenth the cost of producing foils by evaporation, electrodeposition, or sputtering techniques. In addition, the painting technique is highly efficient (> 90%), thereby minimizing waste of the available fissionable material. This fact of great importance where only small amounts of high-purity isotopes are available. (orig.)

  5. Artists Paint ... Fall: Grades K-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Artists often paint the different seasonal activities people engage in and the way the world looks as changes take place. The weather for each of the four seasons is different. Farmers plant crops and gardens in the spring and harvest their crops in the fall, just like "The Harvesters" by Pieter Bruegel the Elder. To begin, children will observe…

  6. The Fountain Paint Pot Online Tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellowstone National Park

    This Yellowstone National Park website offers an online tour of the Fountain Paint Pots. Prominent geysers, fumaroles, and hot springs are highlighted with photos and information concerning their eruption patterns and relation to other geothermal features. Similar tours of the Old Faithful area, the Norris Geyser Basin, the Mammoth Hot Springs, and the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone are also available online.

  7. Wood and paint layers aging and risk analysis of ancient panel painting

    OpenAIRE

    Froidevaux, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Ancient wood panel paintings represent an important part of the European cultural heritage. Since long time it is known that the storing condition can degrade and damage them. Understanding of the actual state of old panel paintings and the prediction of their behaviour under various climatic conditions is essential to better conserve and restore them. Such analysis could be done by numerical modelling. However, numerical modelling can achieved good predictions only if the materials parameter...

  8. Cold gas dynamic spraying of titanium coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Timothy Simon

    2008-01-01

    Cold gas dynamic spraying, CGDS, is a relatively new technique used to deposit materials onto the surface of a substrate. It differs to the majority of other thermal spray techniques as the substrate and particles are not exposed to high temperatures during the spraying process. This makes CGDS particularly advantageous for spraying materials such as titanium which react at high temperature. The aim of this project was to investigate the potential use of titanium coatings by CGDS as a surface...

  9. Diesel spray characterization; Dieselmoottorin polttoainesuihkujen ominaisuudet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkaenen, J.; Turunen, R.; Paloposki, T.; Rantanen, P.; Virolainen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Internal Combustion Engine Lab.

    1997-10-01

    Fuel injection of diesel engines will be studied using large-scale models of fuel injectors. The advantage of large-scale models is that the measurement of large-scale diesel sprays will be easier than the measurement of actual sprays. The objective is to study the break-up mechanism of diesel sprays and to measure drop size distributions in the inner part of the spray. The results will be used in the development of diesel engines and diesel fuels. (orig.)

  10. Spray casting project final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step

  11. Impulse stress grading properties of SiC paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corona shield with SiC paint was investigated, and it was found that the shield is effective to the impulse stress grading. The measurement of flashover voltage along a coil surface was made. The relation between flashover voltage and the corona shielding length of carbon paint was measured and compared with the same relation of SiC paint. The effect of corona shielding was large in case of SiC paint. The surface impedance of the SiC paint was investigated to make clear the reason of above mentioned fact. The relation between surface impedance and electrical stress, and the surface impedance-frequency characteristics were measured. The current wave form was observed. The SiC paint shows capacitive impedance. An equivalent circuit of SiC paint was considered. Discussions with the equivalent circuit are described. (Kato, T.)

  12. Feedback enhanced plasma spray tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevelber, Michael Alan; Wroblewski, Donald Edward; Fincke, James Russell; Swank, William David; Haggard, Delon C.; Bewley, Randy Lee

    2005-11-22

    An improved automatic feedback control scheme enhances plasma spraying of powdered material through reduction of process variability and providing better ability to engineer coating structure. The present inventors discovered that controlling centroid position of the spatial distribution along with other output parameters, such as particle temperature, particle velocity, and molten mass flux rate, vastly increases control over the sprayed coating structure, including vertical and horizontal cracks, voids, and porosity. It also allows improved control over graded layers or compositionally varying layers of material, reduces variations, including variation in coating thickness, and allows increasing deposition rate. Various measurement and system control schemes are provided.

  13. Determining Effective Spraying Periods to Control Malaria via Indoor Residual Spraying in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Robert J.; Hove-Musekwa, Senelani D

    2008-01-01

    Indoor residual spraying—spraying insecticide inside houses to kill mosquitoes—is an important method for controlling malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa. We propose a mathematical model for both regular and non-fixed spraying, using impulsive differential equations. First, we determine the stability properties of the nonimpulsive system. Next, we derive minimal effective spraying intervals and the degree of spraying effectiveness required to control mosquitoes wh...

  14. Influence of Cold-Sprayed, Warm-Sprayed, and Plasma-Sprayed Layers Deposition on Fatigue Properties of Steel Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizek, J.; Matejkova, M.; Dlouhy, I.; Siska, F.; Kay, C. M.; Karthikeyan, J.; Kuroda, S.; Kovarik, O.; Siegl, J.; Loke, K.; Khor, Khiam Aik

    2015-06-01

    Titanium powder was deposited onto steel specimens using four thermal spray technologies: plasma spray, low-pressure cold spray, portable cold spray, and warm spray. The specimens were then subjected to strain-controlled cyclic bending test in a dedicated in-house built device. The crack propagation was monitored by observing the changes in the resonance frequency of the samples. For each series, the number of cycles corresponding to a pre-defined specimen cross-section damage was used as a performance indicator. It was found that the grit-blasting procedure did not alter the fatigue properties of the steel specimens (1% increase as compared to as-received set), while the deposition of coatings via all four thermal spray technologies significantly increased the measured fatigue lives. The three high-velocity technologies led to an increase of relative lives to 234% (low-pressure cold spray), 210% (portable cold spray), and 355% (warm spray) and the deposition using plasma spray led to an increase of relative lives to 303%. The observed increase of high-velocity technologies (cold and warm spray) could be attributed to a combination of homogeneous fatigue-resistant coatings and induction of peening stresses into the substrates via the impingement of the high-kinetic energy particles. Given the intrinsic character of the plasma jet (low-velocity impact of semi/molten particles) and the mostly ceramic character of the coating (oxides, nitrides), a hypothesis based on non-linear coatings behavior is provided in the paper.

  15. Influence of Cold-Sprayed, Warm-Sprayed, and Plasma-Sprayed Layers Deposition on Fatigue Properties of Steel Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizek, J.; Matejkova, M.; Dlouhy, I.; Siska, F.; Kay, C. M.; Karthikeyan, J.; Kuroda, S.; Kovarik, O.; Siegl, J.; Loke, K.; Khor, Khiam Aik

    2015-04-01

    Titanium powder was deposited onto steel specimens using four thermal spray technologies: plasma spray, low-pressure cold spray, portable cold spray, and warm spray. The specimens were then subjected to strain-controlled cyclic bending test in a dedicated in-house built device. The crack propagation was monitored by observing the changes in the resonance frequency of the samples. For each series, the number of cycles corresponding to a pre-defined specimen cross-section damage was used as a performance indicator. It was found that the grit-blasting procedure did not alter the fatigue properties of the steel specimens (1% increase as compared to as-received set), while the deposition of coatings via all four thermal spray technologies significantly increased the measured fatigue lives. The three high-velocity technologies led to an increase of relative lives to 234% (low-pressure cold spray), 210% (portable cold spray), and 355% (warm spray) and the deposition using plasma spray led to an increase of relative lives to 303%. The observed increase of high-velocity technologies (cold and warm spray) could be attributed to a combination of homogeneous fatigue-resistant coatings and induction of peening stresses into the substrates via the impingement of the high-kinetic energy particles. Given the intrinsic character of the plasma jet (low-velocity impact of semi/molten particles) and the mostly ceramic character of the coating (oxides, nitrides), a hypothesis based on non-linear coatings behavior is provided in the paper.

  16. Effects of post-LOCA conditions on a protective coating (paint) for the Nuclear Power Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When corrosion protection of steel cannot be achieved by galvanizing due to size, use, or other restrictions, the steel is frequently protected by the application of a suitable corrosion-inhibiting paint. A widely accepted corrosion inhibiting coating is one in which finely powdered zinc metal is dispersed in an organic polymer matrix and applied to steel as a paint. This system is often used with a non-zinc bearing topcoat for enhanced protection. We have studied the oxidation of zinc in a zinc-rich coating used in the nuclear power industry and have measured the rates of hydrogen generation from these coatings due to zinc oxidation at temperatures of up to 1750C. The results suggest that the real-time rates of hydrogen generation are considerably higher than previously believed. A second concern involves the generation of debris or solid reaction products which could cause plugging or fouling of the recirculation pumps, spray nozzles, and/or heat exchangers. Coatings are observed to fail at post-LOCA conditions which are well within the limits predicted by Design Basis Accident analysis. The failures involve cracking and/or delamination of the topcoat and production of solid corrosion products involving the zinc-rich primer. 22 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Spray pyrolysis of CZTS nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exarhos, S; Bozhilov, K N; Mangolini, L

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate that copper-zinc-tin-sulphide nanoplatelets can be directly grown onto a molybdenum-coated substrate using spray pyrolysis starting from a mixture of metal thiocarbamates precursors. The structure and phase purity of the nanoplatelets is discussed in detail. PMID:25119262

  18. Sprayer technology: reduce spray drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enhancing environmental quality and sustaining the economic viability of food production are keys to sustainable agriculture. Modern vegetable production uses a variety of materials to manage pest problems. Selecting the proper spray nozzle for the application of liquid products is critical to red...

  19. Microanalysis of paint layers in polychrome sculptures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross sections paint layers of polychromes sculpture of the 16 century, located at the City Museum of Havana and currently in the restoration process, have been analyzed by capillary based ?XRF , ?PIXE , SEM -EDX and light microscopy. Experimental parameters (geometry measurement time) of the capillary based ?XRF set up (nominal end diameter equal to 10 ?m) were optimized to achieve the resolution required for meaningful scintigraphic studies of the art and archaeological objects, Cumulative x-rays spectra for each layer were obtained in order to perform semi-quantitative analysis. The employed pigments were identified by the characteristics elements and the elemental maps precisely reproduced photographs obtained by means of light microscopy. In the case of nuclear microprobe, RBS for Stoichiometry analysis of paint layers was also performed. additional information on the organic materials was also obtained by chemical analysis. Complementary results obtained by using the analytical techniques are presented and discussed from the point of view of the restoration processes

  20. Noise resistance applied to the study paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical noise is one of the methods of analysis used to interpret the phenomenon of corrosion. It has a number of advantages over other methodology types including its simplicity, its low cost and the fact that it does not disturb the system. This methodology appears to be effective together with other techniques in metal-electrolyte systems. In this case the technique is applied on its own on commercial anti-corrosion paints for which no information is available from other techniques. The main result of this study reveals the effectiveness of the noise resistance parameter, which had already been tested in the lab, when it is used to explain how the paint system behaves in industry. (Author)

  1. 'Dose-painting': Myth or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Dose-painting' radiotherapy allows for a heterogeneous delivery of radiation within the tumour volume by targeting radioresistant areas defined by functional imaging. Within gross tumour volume, it is possible to define one or more target volumes based on biology (biological target volume [BTV]) and to apply a strategy of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) that will deliver a higher dose to these regions. In this review of the literature, we will highlight the biological elements responsible for radioresistance, and how to image them, then we will detail the radiotherapy techniques necessary for this approach, before presenting clinical results in various situations (head and neck tumours, prostate, brain tumours, etc.). Despite many difficulties that make dose-painting IMRT unusable in routine nowadays, biology-guided radiation therapy represents one of the major pathways of development of radiotherapy in the coming years. (authors)

  2. Pressure-Sensitive Paint: Effect of Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Kontis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous ways in which pressure-sensitive paint can be applied to a surface. The choice of substrate and application method can greatly affect the results obtained. The current study examines the different methods of applying pressure-sensitive paint to a surface. One polymer-based and two porous substrates (anodized aluminum and thin-layer chromatography plates are investigated and compared for luminescent output, pressure sensitivity, temperature sensitivity and photodegradation. Two luminophores [tris-Bathophenanthroline Ruthenium(II Perchlorate and Platinum-tetrakis (pentafluorophenyl Porphyrin] will also be compared in all three of the substrates. The results show the applicability of the different substrates and luminophores to different testing environments.

  3. Water-Based Pressure Sensitive Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglesby, Donald M.; Ingram, JoAnne L.; Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Watkins, A. Neal; Leighty, Bradley D.

    2004-01-01

    Preparation and performance of a water-based pressure sensitive paint (PSP) is described. A water emulsion of an oxygen permeable polymer and a platinum porphyrin type luminescent compound were dispersed in a water matrix to produce a PSP that performs well without the use of volatile, toxic solvents. The primary advantages of this PSP are reduced contamination of wind tunnels in which it is used, lower health risk to its users, and easier cleanup and disposal. This also represents a cost reduction by eliminating the need for elaborate ventilation and user protection during application. The water-based PSP described has all the characteristics associated with water-based paints (low toxicity, very low volatile organic chemicals, and easy water cleanup) but also has high performance as a global pressure sensor for PSP measurements in wind tunnels. The use of a water-based PSP virtually eliminates the toxic fumes associated with the application of PSPs to a model in wind tunnels.

  4. Brain activity accompanying perception of implied motion in abstract paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chai-Youn; Blake, Randolph

    2007-01-01

    Early 20th century artists including Duchamp and Balla tried to portray moving objects on a static canvas by superimposing objects in successive portrayals of an action. We investigated whether implied motion in those paintings is associated with activation of motion-sensitive area MT+. In Experiment 1, we found that observers rated these kinds of paintings higher in portraying motion than they did other abstract paintings in which motion is not intended. We also found that observers who had previously experienced abstract paintings with implied motion tended to give higher motion ratings to that class of paintings. In Experiment 2, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain activity of observers while viewing abstract paintings receiving the highest and the lowest motion rating scores in Experiment 1. We found MT+, but not primary visual cortex (V1), showed greater BOLD responses to abstract paintings with implied motion than to abstract paintings with little motion impression, but only in observers with prior experience viewing those kinds of paintings. These results imply that the neural machinery ordinarily engaged during perception of real visual motion is activated when people view paintings explicitly designed to convey a sense of visual motion. Experience, however, is necessary to achieve this sense of motion. PMID:18338460

  5. Nanoindentation and the micromechanics of Van Gogh oil paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvant, Johanna; Barthel, Etienne; Menu, Michel

    2011-08-01

    Understanding the mechanical properties of ancient paintings is a major issue for conservation and restoration. One strategy is to measure the mechanical properties of reconstructed paints: however, the aging process is poorly known, so it is also desirable to measure mechanical properties directly on ancient paint samples. Using nanoindentation, we have characterized submillimetric samples recovered from restoration of two Van Gogh paintings and compared the results with reconstructed paint samples. We demonstrate that the reduced modulus and hardness of historical paints can be measured at a very local scale, even differentiating between each paint layer. Our reconstructed paint samples exhibit elastic moduli comparable to values of the literature, but the values measured on the two 19th century paint samples are found to be significantly larger. Similarly, the compositional dependence of the elastic modulus is consistent with literature results for our reconstructed samples while our preliminary results for ancient samples do not readily fall into the same pattern. These results all point out to a significant impact of long term aging, in a manner which is difficult to predict in our present state of understanding. They demonstrate that nanoindentation is a very adequate tool to improve our knowledge of art paint mechanics and aging.

  6. Solar Paint: From Synthesis to Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaojing Zhou; Warwick Belcher; Paul Dastoor

    2014-01-01

    Water-based polymer nanoparticle dispersions (solar paint) offer the prospect of addressing two of the main challenges associated with printing large area organic photovoltaic devices; namely, how to control the nanoscale architecture of the active layer and eliminate the need for hazardous organic solvents during device fabrication. In this paper, we review progress in the field of nanoparticulate organic photovoltaic (NPOPV) devices and future prospects for large-scale manufacturing of sola...

  7. Microbial communities inhabiting caves with Palaeolithic paintings

    OpenAIRE

    González Grau, Juan Miguel; Laiz Trobajo, L.; Portillo Guisado, María del Carmen; Sáiz-Jiménez, Cesáreo

    2005-01-01

    [EN]: This study attempts to understand the microbiology of Spanish caves with Palaeolithic paintings by analysing the microbial diversity existing in the caves. A variety of methods was used to study the microbial communities. Traditional methods based on culturing microbial cells and molecular techniques based on the detection of specific RNA and DNA sequences were used. Culture-dependent methods only allow the detection of a small fraction of microorganisms able to grow on spec...

  8. Fluorescence Molecular Painting of Enveloped Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Metzner, Christoph; Kochan, Feliks; Dangerfield, John A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we describe a versatile, flexible, and quick method to label different families of enveloped viruses with glycosylphosphatidylinositol-modified green fluorescent protein, termed fluorescence molecular painting (FMP). As an example for a potential application, we investigated virus attachment by means of flow cytometry to determine if viral binding behavior may be analyzed after FMP of enveloped viruses. Virus attachment was inhibited by using either dextran sulfate or by blocki...

  9. Lithuanian Abstract painting in Soviet period

    OpenAIRE

    Budryt?, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    The Aim of the research is to define and analyse works of Lithuanian abstract painting during the Soviet period by establishing and comparing the diversity of criticism and practices of abstract art in Lithuania over several decades (from the end of the 1950s to the 1980s). In this thesis abstract paining is treated as a radical artistic reaction in Lithuania in terms of its theoretical and historical characteristics, and the general artistic context during the Soviet period is analysed in...

  10. Seeing the unseen in visionary painting

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Berg, Dirk Johannes

    2010-01-01

    In accordance with Seerveld's cartographic methodology 'visionary optics' is defined in terms of a recurrent set of connections between a certain type of pictorial representation and visual perceptions of mythical meaning. A perennial typiconic format stems from the tradition of painting historically associated with 'mythologising' thought patterns and worldviews. The cases examined to trace the development of the visionary format include examples of Bushman rock art, mural decoration from Ro...

  11. Exploring a Parameterized Portrait Painting Space

    OpenAIRE

    DiPaola, Steve

    2009-01-01

    We overview our interdisciplinary work building parameterized knowledge domains and their authoring tools that allow for expression systems which move through a space of painterly portraiture. With new computational systems it is possible to conceptually dance, compose and paint in higher level conceptual spaces. We are interested in building art systems that support exploring these spaces and in particular report on our software-based artistic toolkit and resulting experiments using paramete...

  12. A Quantitative Approach to Painting Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Vilson; Fabbri, Renato; Sbrissa, David; Costa, Luciano Da Fontoura; Travieso, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    This research extends a method previously applied to music and philosophy,representing the evolution of art as a time-series where relations like dialectics are measured quantitatively. For that, a corpus of paintings of 12 well-known artists from baroque and modern art is analyzed. A set of 93 features is extracted and the features which most contributed to the classification of painters are selected. The projection space obtained provides the basis to the analysis of measu...

  13. Corrosion protection by paint: cathodic disbonding

    OpenAIRE

    Bi, Huichao; Sykes, John

    2011-01-01

    This work investigated cathodic disbonding of an unpigmented phenalkamine-cured epoxy coating on mild steel, EC, exposed to 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (SAM), Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and optical microscopy have been combined to conduct this study. Several factors affecting the cathodic disbonding process: Film thickness, Cation mobility, Electrolyte concentration, Temperature, Paint composition, Polarisation and Open c...

  14. Mechanism of paint removing by organic solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Nero, V.; Siat, C.; Marti, M. J.; Aubry, J. M.; Lallier, J. P.; Dupuy, N.; Huvenne, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism of paint removing has been studied by comparing the stripping efficiency of a given solvent with its ability to swell the film. The most effective solvents have a Hildebrand's parameter, ?H, ranging from 10.5 to 12 and a Dimroth parameter, ET(30), ranging from 0.25 to 0.4. The synergy observed with the mixtures DMSO/non polar solvent is explained by a dissociation of the DMSO clusters into individual molecules which diffuse more easily.

  15. Round robin of painted targets BRDF measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Yannick; Deumie, Carole; Amra, Claude; Pinard, Laurent; Mackowski, Jean-Marie; Mainguy, Stephane; Hespel, Laurent; Perelgritz, Jean-Francois

    2000-07-01

    Several French research laboratories set up goniometers allowing BRDF measurements at different laser wavelengths in the infrared. On the effor of the Delegation Generale de l'Armement (DGA/STTC), a round robin set of painted targets BRDF measurements was undertaken, under the ONERA expertise. The laboratories participating in this round robin were the Aerospatiale Matra CCR Suresnes, The IPN SMA-Virgo Lyon, the Institut Fresnel Marseille, and the CEA DAM CESTA Le Barp. The goniometers of the four laboratories are firstly described. The targets studied are seven 5cm diameter painted disks of aluminum or steel, a spectralon reference sample, and a sandpaper sample. We have first demonstrated that the pollution of painted targets with dust has a very weak influence on the BRDF. Before and after each measurement series, the directional-hemispherical reflectance of the samples was measured at ONERA. The measurements have been achieved according to a protocol specifying the sample position and laser probe size. Chosen wavelengths for the inter-comparison are 1.064 micrometers . For both wavelengths, the characteristics of the different goniometers are compared in term of noise and repeatability. The difference between the painted targets BRDF measured with the various devices are relatively limited at 1.06 micrometers , and mainly induced by speckle. More important differences are obtained at 10.6 micrometers , particularly for a BRDF measurement device using an absolute calibration method. In order to explain these differences, few hypotheses are advanced. Information on the absolute accuracy is obtained by the comparison of the measured directional-hemispherical reflectance and the one computed from BRDF measurements.

  16. Paint.NET 3.22

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-12

    If you have left over holiday photos that need editing and a bit of retouching, you may want to consider looking over the latest version of Paint.NET. This open source photo editing program comes with support for layers, special effects and essential tools that include a cropping feature and a resizing option. This version is compatible with computers running Windows XP and newer.

  17. Facultatively oligotrophic bacteria in Roman mural paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Laiz Trobajo, L.; Hermosín, Bernardo; Caballero, Belén; Sáiz-Jiménez, Cesáreo

    2002-01-01

    [EN]: Due to the limitation of nutrients during long periods, deteriorated monuments, and particularIy their walls, represent an interesting ecosystem where oligotrophic bacteria can be isolated. Therefore, facultatively oligotrophic bacteria, present in the deteriorated mural paintings decoratíng the Tomb of Servilia, Roman Necropolis of Carmona, 1st and 2nd century AD, were studied. The most abundant genera were Bacillus and Paenibacillus, which were also the most abundant copi...

  18. Functional MRI for radiotherapy dose painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, Uulke A; Houweling, Antonetta C; Groenendaal, Greetje; Beets-Tan, Regina G H; Lambin, Philippe

    2012-11-01

    Modern radiation therapy techniques are exceptionally flexible in the deposition of radiation dose in a target volume. Complex distributions of dose can be delivered reliably, so that the tumor is exposed to a high dose, whereas nearby healthy structures can be avoided. As a result, an increase in curative dose is no longer invariably associated with an increased level of toxicity. This modern technology can be exploited further by modulating the required dose in space so as to match the variation in radiation sensitivity in the tumor. This approach is called dose painting. For dose painting to be effective, functional imaging techniques are essential to identify regions in a tumor that require a higher dose. Several techniques are available in nuclear medicine and radiology. In recent years, there has been a considerable research effort concerning the integration of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) into the external radiotherapy workflow motivated by the superior soft tissue contrast as compared to computed tomography. In MRI, diffusion-weighted MRI reflects the cell density of tissue and thus may indicate regions with a higher tumor load. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI reflects permeability of the microvasculature and blood flow, correlated to the oxygenation of the tumor. These properties have impact on its radiation sensitivity. New questions must be addressed when these techniques are applied in radiation therapy: scanning in treatment position requires alternative solutions to the standard patient setup in the choice of receive coils compared to a diagnostic department. This standard positioning also facilitates repeated imaging. The geometrical accuracy of MR images is critical for high-precision radiotherapy. In particular, when multiparametric functional data are used for dose painting, quantification of functional parameters at a high spatial resolution becomes important. In this review, we will address these issues and describe clinical developments in MRI-guided dose painting. PMID:22770686

  19. External beam PIXE analysis of painting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascholati, Paulo R.; Rizzutto, Marcia A.; Barbosa, Marcel D.L.; Albuquerque, Cindy [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: pascholati@if.usp.br; rizzutto@if.usp.br; mbarbosa@if.usp.br; cindy@if.usp.br; Neves, Graziela [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: graziela@if.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    The preservation and conservation of mankind cultural heritage has become an important issue worldwide. Non-destructive analytical techniques are suitable, for example, to analyze precious and unique objects of art and archaeology. Among those techniques Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) has good advantage to identify elemental composition present in these kinds of objects. The Laboratorio de Analise de Materiais por Feixes Ionicos-LAMFI of the Institute of Physics of the University of Sao Paulo has been installed an external beam facility for PIXE analysis. This new setup is being used for the analysis of archaeological pottery artifacts, paintings and biological tissues (teeth and bones), which are not compatible with the high vacuum of the regular PIXE target chamber. In addition most art and archaeological objects are too large for the evacuated analysis chamber. Applications of this facility will be presented in the analysis of one painting of the beginning of the last century. The chemical elements identified in the painting were Ca, Ti, Cr, Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb and Ba. The PIXE measurements were done non-destructively and no visible damage was observed on the irradiated object. (author)

  20. Optical coherence diagnostics for painting conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Raffaella; Bellini, Marco; Corsi, Chiara; Mastroianni, Maria; Materazzi, Marzia; Pezzati, Luca; Tortora, Alessandra

    2007-07-01

    One of the most important and sometimes controversial stages of the conservation process is surface cleaning: decisions have to be made regarding partial or complete removal of varnish. Technical considerations include selection of a method that allows a great deal of control in the cleaning process, so that undesired layers can be removed without damage to the underlying ones. Traditional cleaning methods include mechanical or chemical removal, and restorers and conservators work would be considerably helped by the knowledge of the varnish thickness. Up to now thickness measurement has been performed in an invasive way by means of stratigraphy, a well known painting structure investigation technique since half a century. In this work we present an application of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), a well-established technique for biomedical applications, for non-destructive measuring of the varnish film thickness during the cleaning process of an ancient painting, the Ritratto Trivulzio by Antonello da Messina. OCT images of three differently cleaned areas on the painting surface were acquired and the results were compared with a spectral characterization of the same areas.

  1. Smart paint sensor for monitoring structural vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A class of smart paint sensors is proposed for monitoring the structural vibration of beams. The sensor is manufactured from an epoxy resin which is mixed with carbon black nano-particles to make it electrically conducting and sensitive to mechanical vibrations. A comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation is presented to understand the underlying phenomena governing the operation of this class of paint sensors and evaluate its performance characteristics. A theoretical model is presented to model the electromechanical behavior of the sensor system using molecular theory. The model is integrated with an amplifier circuit in order to predict the current and voltage developed by the paint sensor when subjected to loading. Furthermore, the sensor/amplifier circuit models are coupled with a finite element model of a base beam to which the sensor is bonded. The resulting multi-field model is utilized to predict the behavior of both the sensor and the beam when subjected to a wide variety of vibration excitations. The predictions of the multi-field finite element model are validated experimentally and the behavior of the sensor is evaluated both in the time and the frequency domains. The performance of the sensor is compared with the performance of conventional strain gages to emphasize its potential and merits. The presented techniques are currently being extended to sensors that can monitor the vibration and structural power flow of two-dimensional structures. (paper)

  2. External beam PIXE analysis of painting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preservation and conservation of mankind cultural heritage has become an important issue worldwide. Non-destructive analytical techniques are suitable, for example, to analyze precious and unique objects of art and archaeology. Among those techniques Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) has good advantage to identify elemental composition present in these kinds of objects. The Laboratorio de Analise de Materiais por Feixes Ionicos-LAMFI of the Institute of Physics of the University of Sao Paulo has been installed an external beam facility for PIXE analysis. This new setup is being used for the analysis of archaeological pottery artifacts, paintings and biological tissues (teeth and bones), which are not compatible with the high vacuum of the regular PIXE target chamber. In addition most art and archaeological objects are too large for the evacuated analysis chamber. Applications of this facility will be presented in the analysis of one painting of the beginning of the last century. The chemical elements identified in the painting were Ca, Ti, Cr, Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb and Ba. The PIXE measurements were done non-destructively and no visible damage was observed on the irradiated object. (author)

  3. External beam applications to painting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characterisation of painting materials has to overcome specific problems due to the special and precious characteristics of paintings. Sampling is hardly possible and is seldom so where it is most desirable. One has to be content with opportunities such as the presence of cracks or to limit the sampling near the edge of the frame. Nondestructive techniques must then be developed and external PIXE is one of the powerful available analytical tools; it may also be associated with complementary techniques such as X-ray fluorescence and external PIGME. Another major problem is related to the great heterogeneity of painting materials which are always a mixture of several components at the micrometric scale. The analysis has then to be complemented with other techniques (scanning electron microprobe, nuclear microbeam etc.) for a more accurate interpretation of the results given by the PIXE direct examination. Yet, the major difficulty lies in finding the way to build a real and constructive dialogue between the art historian and the physicist. (orig.)

  4. Smart paint sensor for monitoring structural vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saffar, Y.; Aldraihem, O.; Baz, A.

    2012-04-01

    A class of smart paint sensors is proposed for monitoring the structural vibration of beams. The sensor is manufactured from an epoxy resin which is mixed with carbon black nano-particles to make it electrically conducting and sensitive to mechanical vibrations. A comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation is presented to understand the underlying phenomena governing the operation of this class of paint sensors and evaluate its performance characteristics. A theoretical model is presented to model the electromechanical behavior of the sensor system using molecular theory. The model is integrated with an amplifier circuit in order to predict the current and voltage developed by the paint sensor when subjected to loading. Furthermore, the sensor/amplifier circuit models are coupled with a finite element model of a base beam to which the sensor is bonded. The resulting multi-field model is utilized to predict the behavior of both the sensor and the beam when subjected to a wide variety of vibration excitations. The predictions of the multi-field finite element model are validated experimentally and the behavior of the sensor is evaluated both in the time and the frequency domains. The performance of the sensor is compared with the performance of conventional strain gages to emphasize its potential and merits. The presented techniques are currently being extended to sensors that can monitor the vibration and structural power flow of two-dimensional structures.

  5. Secular wall painting in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Baird, Kathryn; Professor Malcolm Airs

    2003-01-01

    Wall paintings survive in many houses dating from the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries yet, apart from recording the phenomenon, there has been very little written about them. This research explores how common wall paintings were, what sort of houses had them, when they were painted and most importantly, what was their significance in terms of what they can reveal about the lives of the people who chose to decorate their homes in this manner. Research has concentr...

  6. Test Production of Anti-Corrosive Paint in Laboratory Scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this project is to produce the anti-corrosive paint in laboratory scale. In these experiments, local raw materials, natural resin (shellac), pine oil, turpentine and ethyl alcohol wer applied basically. Laboratory trials were undrtaken to determine the suitablity of raw materials ane their composition for anti-corrosive paint manufacture.The results obtained show that the anti-corrosive paint from experiment No.(30) is suitable for steel plate and this is also considered commercially economics

  7. Large-Scale Quantitative Analysis of Painting Arts

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Daniel; Son, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hawoong

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have made efforts to understand the beauty of painting art in their own languages. As digital image acquisition of painting arts has made rapid progress, researchers have come to a point where it is possible to perform statistical analysis of a large-scale database of artistic paints to make a bridge between art and science. Using digital image processing techniques, we investigate three quantitative measures of images – the usage of individual colors, the variety of colors, and th...

  8. Computerized Comparison and Analysis of Vincent van Gogh's Painting Brushstrokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, James Z.

    2009-03-01

    With advanced digitization techniques, museums have routinely begun to assemble vast digital libraries of images of their collections. These images can be analyzed by computers to assist art historians for a number of tasks. In our work, we focus on three challenges: artist identification, dating of an art work, and finding distinguishing features among artists. Two complementary approaches were taken: (1) the analysis of the geometric statistics based on the extracted individual brushstroke, and (2) the modeling of overall brushstroke texture. These approaches aim at assisting art historians in comparing a painting or parts of a painting to a group of paintings based on multiple criteria. Statistical methods have been used to compare groups of paintings. Each painting image is divided into subimages. Individual brushstrokes are segmented automatically. Geometric features, including the curvature, the overall orientation, and the size, are computed for each brushstroke. We also compute the features representing the interactivity of the brushstrokes extracted. The statistics, including average and standard deviation, of those features are used to model certain aspects of the artist's brushstrokes. For capturing the local brushstroke texture, we first apply a wavelet transform to the image. A spatial model, the 2-D hidden Markov model, is used to model the texture features of each subimage. The methods have shown to be able to distinguish van Gogh paintings and non van Gogh paintings to a great extent. The techniques can provide clues for the dating of van Gogh paintings. A comparison of the van Gogh paintings, Monticelli's paintings, and paintings by contemporary artists provides insights on their similarities and differences. The analysis has provided numerical statistics for further studying these and other paintings.

  9. The physicochemical characterization of cave paintings of Baja California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Palaeolithic paintings of Baja California constitute an important contribution to the national, historic and cultural patrimony of Mexico. The aim of this investigation was to determine the physicochemical characteristics, the microstructure and texture of these polychrome paintings, painted on rocks encountered in the mountainous, desert/arid zones of Baja California and Baja California South. The first stage of this work was devoted to the examination and recording of the cave paintings of 'El Vallecito', a narrow fluvial valley displaying large granitic rocks emerging from the sandy soil. Tiny painting samples were collected and analyzed by SEM, EDS and FTIR techniques. The painters used four main colours: red, black, yellow and white. The paint raw materials are mineral pigments: white (kaolin, calcite, and gypsum), red (hematite), yellow (ochre, limonite), black (charcoal from burnt wood or calcined bones) and water as a diluent and/or a binder, all encountered in the painters habitat. The minerals were collected, ground and sometimes heated to change their tone. By mixing with water, a spreadable paste or a thick slurry was produced, which was applied with the fingers for lines or a piece of animal skin for figures, respectively. The 100% solids, dry paint converts into a dense, hard layer, incrusted into the grainy, rough, hollow granite rock surface. This paint might be called stone on stone, explaining its permanence for centuries enexplaining its permanence for centuries enduring heat, wind and weather. A simulation of the painting technique was done at the Materials and Corrosion Laboratory, UABC by collecting mineral pigments, preparing the paint as a paste or slurry and applying it on a granitic rock. Knowing the paint composition, production and application techniques will be useful in e conservation and restoration of cave paintings and stone-built, ancient structures such as pyramids, cathedrals and monuments. (Author)

  10. Research on Development of the Song Genre Paintings & Artists

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Tan

    2014-01-01

    Due to that many historical documents of China recording the life of emperors and people from upper class in ancient times with limited ones recording that of people from middle and lower classes, genre paintings have played as the important materials for the research on the ancient societies. This paper begins with the analysis on the concept and development progress of the genre paintings; and analyzes on the three types of painting producers by the combination of the surviving genre painti...

  11. Smart Surfaces: New Coatings & Paints with Radiation Detection Functionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J; Choi, J

    2007-03-12

    Paints are being developed and tested that might ultimately be able to detect radiological agents in the environment by incorporating special pigments into an organic polymeric binder that can be applied as a paint or coatings. These paints detect radioactive sources and contaminants with inorganic or organic scintillation or thermo-luminescent pigments, which are selected based upon the radiation ({alpha}, {beta}, {gamma} or n) to be detected, and are shown in Figure 1.

  12. Study of decontamination and radiation resistance properties of Indian paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief introduction to the study of contamination and radiation resistance properties of Indian paints used as coating for structural materials in the nuclear industry is given. The general composition of paints such as epoxy, vinyl, alkyd, phenolic, chlesimated rubber, etc. is given. Method of sample preparation, processing and actual evaluation of decontaminability are described. The results have been discussed in terms of decontamination factors. Some recommendations based on the performance of the paints studied are also included. (K.B.)

  13. Military themes in British painting 1815-1914

    OpenAIRE

    Hichberger, J. W. M.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis examines the treatment of the British Army and military themes, in painting, during the period 1815- 1914. All the works discussed were exhibited at the Royal Academy, which, although it underwent modifications in status, remained the nearest equivalent to a State Institution for Art in Britain. All the paintings shown there were painted with the knowledge that they were to be seen by the controllers of the Academy and the dominant classes of society. It wi...

  14. The Monetary Appreciation of Paintings: From Realism to Magritte

    OpenAIRE

    Renneboog, L. D. R.; Houte, T.

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates how investments in painted arts compare to those in stocks in terms of risk return trade off using Sharpe and Treynor ratios and Markowitz efficient frontiers. A large database was analysed consisting of more than 10500 auction prices of Belgian painted art over the period 1970-1997. Hedonic art returns are influenced by auction location and auction house, current of art, painters’ reputation, medium, signature and painting size. Surrealism and luminism were the most...

  15. Cold Spray Forming of Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, W.; Irissou, E.; Vo, P.; Sone, M.; Bernier, F.; Legoux, J.-G.; Fukanuma, H.; Yue, S.

    2013-03-01

    Inconel 718 was cold spray formed to a 6-mm thickness on an 8-cm diameter aluminum alloy tube using Sulzer Amdry 1718 powder and the Plasma Giken PCS-1000 cold spray system. The effects of spray particle velocity and post-spray heat treatment were studied. Post-spray annealing was performed from 950 to 1250 °C for 1-2 h. The resulting microstructures as well as the corresponding mechanical properties were characterized. As-sprayed coatings exhibited very low ductility. The tensile strength and ductility of the heat-treated coatings were improved to varying levels depending on the heat-treatment and spray conditions. For coatings sprayed at higher particle velocity and heat treated at 1250 °C for 1 h, an elongation of 24% was obtained. SEM micrographs showed a higher fraction of interparticle metallurgical bonds due to some sintering effect. Corresponding fracture surfaces also revealed a higher fraction of dimple features, typically associated with ductile fracture, in the annealed coatings. The results demonstrate that cold spray forming of Inconel 718 is feasible, and with appropriate heat treatment, metallurgical bonding can be increased. The ductility of the spray-formed samples was comparable to that of the bulk material.

  16. Evaluation of decontamination and radiation resistance properties of Indian paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decontamination and radiation resistance properties of paints based on epoxies, vinyls, alkyds, acrylic emulsion, chlorinated rubber and cellulose have been investigated with a view to their use for surface treatment in nuclear facilities. All the paint samples on mild steel and concrete substrate were given a total gamma dose of 1600 Mrads from 60Co. For decontamination of radioactive spills, water, teepol (10%), 3M HNO3 and EDTA 5% in 10% teepol were used. Epoxies and cellulose based paints show good decontaminability and radiation resistance, as compared to others. Vinyl based paints show both poor decontaminability and radiation resistance. (M.G.B.)

  17. DIP-IT: Digital Infrared Painting on an Interactive Table

    OpenAIRE

    VANDOREN, Peter; Van Laerhoven, Tom; CLAESEN, Luc; TAELMAN, Johannes; Di Fiore, Fabian; VAN REETH, Frank; FLERACKERS, Eddy

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we report on our work to develop a novel input technique for a digital paint system. Using a brush with infrared (IR) light emitting fibers, we were able to create a natural paint interface on an interactive table. This IR-brush adds two important properties to our paint environment: haptic feedback and an accurate brush footprint. The modified brush approaches the haptic feedback of the traditional paint brush. The use of IR-light in the brush enables tracking of the contact ar...

  18. Piezoelectric Paint Sensor for Impact and Vibration Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Lae-Hyong; Lee, Jyung-Ryul

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a fabrication method for a piezoelectric paint sensor, and its application to impact and vibration monitoring of a beam structure. The piezoelectric paint in the paper is composed of Pb(Nb,Ni)O3-Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PNN-PZT) powder and epoxy resin. The piezoelectric paint has been coated on an aluminum beam structure, and the electrode has been made on the upper surface of the piezoelectric paint using silver paste. By using the aluminum structure as the opposite electrode, the po...

  19. Holographic Testing Of Vacuum-Stressed Paint Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgmeijer, J. W.; Hopman, P. C.

    1983-12-01

    Small size blisters and vacuoles in industrial paint films, which are induced by corrosion or insufficient curing, can not be observed by simple means. A holographic method is presented which visualises small deformations of the paint surface, on the places of these defects, after lowering the pressure over the paint film. In experiments with Alkyd-Satin paint films, with a thickness between 0.03 - 0.18 mm, appplied on a Washprimer, blisters with diameters between 0.1 - 1 mm were detected after a maximum of 24 hours of vacuum-stressing.

  20. through spray pyrolisis-nitriding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Cubillos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of zirconium oxynitride were deposited on stainless steel 316L and characterized through ultrasonic spray pyrolysis-nitriding (UPS-N. Initially, thin films of ZrO2 are deposited using ultrasonic spray pyrolysis, and later ZrO2 films were nitrided in a NH3 atmosphere. We analyzed the effect of some variables, such as substrate temperature, flow ratio, and time of the production of coatings and their influence on the structure of the films. The characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron (XPS, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Films that were grown using the UPS method exhibited a tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline structure with preferential orientation in plane (101. These films, after being nitrided in an atmosphere of anhydrous ammonia at 1023 K, go through two processes: a phase transition from tetragonal to monoclinic, and later the formation of zirconium oxynitride rhombohedral ZrOx Ny .

  1. Vacuum Plasma Sprayed Metallic Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, S.; Koenig, D. E.; Dardi, L. E.

    1981-10-01

    Recognizing the fundamental cost advantage, technical capabilities, and compositional flexibility of reduced pressure (vacuum) plasma spraying compared to other overlay coating methods, an advanced, second generation, closed chamber deposition process called VPX (a Howmet trademark) was developed. An automated experimental facility for coating gas turbine engine components was also constructed. This paper describes several important features of the process and equipment. It shows that the use of optimized spray parameters combined with an appropriate schedule of relative orientations between the gun and work-piece can be used to produce dense and highly reproducible coatings of either uniform or controlled thickness distributions. The chemical composition, microstructure, and interfacial characteristics of typical MCrAlY coatings are reported. Some effects of operating procedures and MCrAlY chemical composition on coating density are noted. The results of mechanical property and burner rig tests of coated material are also described.

  2. Uniform-droplet spray forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, C.A.; Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Chun, Jung-Hoon [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ando, T. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The uniform-droplet process is a new method of liquid-metal atomization that results in single droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on to substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructure. The mono-sized powder-production capability of the uniform-droplet process also has the potential of permitting engineered powder blends to produce components of controlled porosity. Metal and alloy powders are commercially produced by at least three different methods: gas atomization, water atomization, and rotating disk. All three methods produce powders of a broad range in size with a very small yield of fine powders with single-sized droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructures. The economical analysis has shown the process to have the potential of reducing capital cost by 50% and operating cost by 37.5% when applied to powder making. For the spray-forming process, a 25% savings is expected in both the capital and operating costs. The project is jointly carried out at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Tuffs University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Preliminary interactions with both finished parts and powder producers have shown a strong interest in the uniform-droplet process. Systematic studies are being conducted to optimize the process parameters, understand the solidification of droplets and spray deposits, and develop a uniform-droplet-system (UDS) apparatus appropriate for processing engineering alloys.

  3. Chromosome painting in biological dosimetry: assessment of the ability to score stable chromosome aberrations using different pairs of paint probes.

    OpenAIRE

    García Sagredo, J M; Vallcorba, I; López-Yarto; Sanchez-Hombre, M D; Resino, M; Ferro, M T

    1996-01-01

    We exposed human peripheral lymphocytes in vitro to 0.3 and 1 Gy of 60Co gamma rays to evaluate whether the ability and sensitivity to detect chromosomal aberrations by chromosome painting is independent or not to the specific paint probes. To detect structural aberrations (translocations), we painted chromosome spreads simultaneously with two whole-chromosome libraries for chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 11, 13, 16, and 18. To compare the rate of chromosome translocations detected by the di...

  4. Painting Death with the Colors of Life: Funerary Wall Painting in South Italy (IV-II BCE)

    OpenAIRE

    D'Angelo, Tiziana

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the cultural, political, and artistic role of polychrome wall painting from funerary contexts in South Italy during the critical period that spans the crisis of Greek hegemony and the consolidation of Roman power. Numerous painted tombs were built between the late fifth and the early second centuries BCE for local as well as Greek elite groups across Southern Italy. I investigate the ways in which the wall paintings, with their colors, iconographies, and technical f...

  5. The history and future of thermal sprayed galvanically active metallic anticorrosion coatings used on pipelines and steel structures in the oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodijnen, Fred van [Sulzer Metco, Duisburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Since its invention by M. U. Schoop in the beginning of the 20th century, thermal spray has been used for corrosion protection applications in naval, on-shore, submerged and atmospheric environments. Thermally sprayed coatings of zinc, zinc alloys, aluminum and aluminum alloys are currently the most popular materials used for active corrosion protection of steel and concrete, which can be applied using either of the widely known thermal spray processes of combustion wire or electric arc wire. In the oil and gas exploration and production industry, corrosion protection applications using these technologies have evolved since the early sixties. Thermal spray technology has successfully been used to protect steel-based materials from corrosion in many different fields of application like platforms and pipelines. The most used material in the oil and gas industry is TSA (Thermally Sprayed Aluminum) coating. TSA coatings, with a lifetime of 25 to 30 years, require no maintenance except for cosmetic reasons when painted. The surface temperature of a TSA can go as high as 480 deg C. Although TS (Thermal Spray) is an older process, the number of applications and the number of m{sup 2} it is applied to is still increasing resulting from its maintenance-free and reliable active corrosion-protection features. (author)

  6. Coanda-assisted Spray Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabey, Katie; Smith, Barton; Archibald, Reid; West, Brian

    2009-11-01

    An overview of research on a flow control technique called Coanda-assisted Spray Manipulation (CSM) is presented. CSM uses a high-momentum control jet under the influence of the Coanda effect to vector a high volume-flow jet or spray. Actuators provide the capability of moving the location of applied control flow making rotary or arbitrary motion of the vectored flow possible. The presented work includes a fundamental isothermal study on the effects of rotation speed and Reynolds number on a vectored jet using a belt-driven CSM actuator. Three-component velocity data were acquired for three Reynolds numbers and three rotation speeds using timed resolved high-speed stereo Particle Image Velocimetry. A second CSM system with 16 pneumatically-driven control ports has been retrofitted to a flame spray gun. This combination provides the capability to rapidly alter the direction of applied metal powders. High speed video of this process will also be presented. Finally, a fundamental study on the pneumatic system's response to minor losses and connection lines of varying lengths is presented.

  7. Evaluation of the Effect of Spray Distance on Fracture Toughness of Thermally Sprayed Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Salmanzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of thermally sprayed coatings on metallic parts has been widely accepted as a solution to improve their mechanical and tribological properties. Thermally sprayed coatings are considered due to mechanical, metallurgical, tribological and magnetic properties. These properties are modified by selecting proper spray conditions. In this study the effect of spray distance on the fracture toughness of HVOF thermally sprayed have been investigated. Attention is focused on the measurement of fracture toughness for a WC-12Co HVOF sprayed coating on an AISI 1045 steel substrate in different spray distances. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction was used to evaluation the morphology, microstructure and the phases of particle and coating. The results show that, the fracture toughness increases continuously by increasing the spray distance to 380 mm.

  8. Vacuum characteristics of sprayed metal films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to reduce particles in semiconductor equipment and data storage equipment is in high demand. In recent years, barrier and glue layers on shields have been used to reduce particles generated in physical vapor deposition equipment. For this purpose, spray coatings are applied to shields. Although the sprayed metal films are exposed to vacuum in a vacuum chamber, their vacuum characteristics have seldom been investigated. The conventional spray coatings are usually done under atmospheric conditions. In order to obtain a layer that has a better vacuum characteristic, spray coating in a chamber filled with an inert gas was developed. Outgassing characteristics of sprayed aluminum films and titanium films were investigated by using the conductance modulation method. A sprayed metal film produced in an inert gas system showed a lower outgassing rate than that produced in an atmospheric condition

  9. Investigating shoulder muscle loading and exerted forces during wall painting tasks: influence of gender, work height and paint tool design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Patricia M; Chopp, Jaclyn N; Dickerson, Clark R

    2014-07-01

    The task of wall painting produces considerable risk to the workers, both male and female, primarily in the development of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders. Insufficient information is currently available regarding the potential benefits of using different paint roller designs or the possible adverse effects of painting at different work heights. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender, work height, and paint tool design on shoulder muscle activity and exerted forces during wall painting. Ten young adults, five male and five female, were recruited to perform simulated wall painting at three different work heights with three different paint roller designs while upper extremity muscle activity and horizontal push force were recorded. Results demonstrated that for female participants, significantly greater total average (p = 0.007) and integrated (p = 0.047) muscle activity was present while using the conventional and curly flex paint roller designs compared to the proposed design in which the load was distributed between both hands. Additionally, for both genders, the high working height imposed greater muscular demands compared to middle and low heights. These findings suggest that, if possible, avoid painting at extreme heights (low or high) and that for female painters, consider a roller that requires the use of two hands; this will reduce fatigue onset and subsequently mitigate potential musculoskeletal shoulder injury risks. PMID:24636728

  10. Thermal characterization of intumescent fire retardant paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, L.; Bozzoli, F.; Bochicchio, G.; Tessadri, B.; Rainieri, S.; Pagliarini, G.

    2014-11-01

    Intumescent coatings are now the dominant passive fire protection materials used in industrial and commercial buildings. The coatings, which usually are composed of inorganic components contained in a polymer matrix, are inert at low temperatures and at higher temperatures, they expand and degrade to provide a charred layer of low conductivity materials. The charred layer, which acts as thermal barrier, will prevent heat transfer to underlying substrate. The thermal properties of intumescent paints are often unknown and difficult to be estimated since they vary significantly during the expansion process; for this reason the fire resistance validation of a commercial coatings is based on expensive, large-scale methods where each commercial coating-beam configuration has to be tested one by one. Adopting, instead, approaches based on a thermal modelling of the intumescent paint coating could provide an helpful tool to make easier the test procedure and to support the design of fire resistant structures as well. The present investigation is focused on the assessment of a methodology intended to the restoration of the equivalent thermal conductivity of the intumescent layer produced under the action of a cone calorimetric apparatus. The estimation procedure is based on the inverse heat conduction problem approach, where the temperature values measured at some locations inside the layer during the expansion process are used as input known data. The results point out that the equivalent thermal conductivity reached by the intumescent material at the end of the expansion process significantly depends on the temperature while the initial thickness of the paint does not seem to have much effect.

  11. 40 CFR 745.238 - Fees for accreditation and certification of lead-based paint activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...accreditation and certification of lead-based paint activities. 745.238 Section 745...SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.238 Fees...

  12. 40 CFR 446.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory. 446.10 Section 446... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PAINT FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.10...

  13. Self Cleaning Paint: Introduction of Photocatalytic Particles into a Paint System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Sverrir Grimur

    2012-01-01

    The current industrial PhD work was aimed at synthesising a photocatalytic composite material which could be used to give organic wood paint films self-cleaning and anti-microbial properties. The current PhD work was done in collaboration between Dyrup A/S and Technical University of Denmark. The paint industry constantly faces updated restriction on toxic chemicals as for instance biocides which has prompted the search for alternative strategies for increasing the durability of their products. Photocatalysts are generally known to have adverse effects on organic coatings due to the highly reactive chemical species created by the photocatalytic reaction, which can damage the coating itself. The novel strategy for integrating the photocatalyst into the coating proposed in this work however offers most of the benefits of such self-cleaning coatings without the disadvantages. The thesis consists of an introduction to relevant concepts and literature followed byresults, presented as research papers, and a patent application. Four research papers are introduced as individual chapters. Chapter 4 discusses the synthesis and optimisation of anatase TiO2 coated microspheres, chapter 5 discusses the self-cleaning properties and degradation mechanisms of photocatalytic organic coatings containing TiO2 coated microspheres, chapter 6 discusses the rheological and mechanical properties of such coatings and chapter 7 discusses the durability and weather stability of photocatalytic self-cleaning coatings containing TiO2 coated microspheres. The results show that introducing a photocatalyst into an organic paint system as a coating on inert carrier particles results in durable and weather stable paint films. The paint films exhibit selfcleaning properties and are able to resist the attack of micro-organisms. The effect of the photocatalytic reaction on the organic binder is found to be minimal and the films are found to be more durable during outdoor exposure than conventional paint systems. The microspheres only influence the paint viscosity to a small degree and although the mech anical properties are generally degraded by the rigid filler the actual performance is improved by an altered mechanism for crack propagation in the films. The project was funded by Dyrup A/S and the Danish Agency for Science and Innovation.

  14. A critical investigation into the spray-drying of hydroxyapatite powder for thermal spray applications

    OpenAIRE

    Murtaza, Qasim

    2006-01-01

    This work examines the investigation of the spray drying process of Hydroxyapatite powder (HA) used as a thermal spray deposit in the application of orthopaedic femoral implants. In this research, the Niro- Minor™ mixed spray dryer was used for both modelling and experimental studies. The process parameters investigated included HA slurry viscosity, temperature, and air flowrate. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modelling and validation of the spray drying of HA powder was performed. An an...

  15. Image registration for luminescent paint applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James H.; Mclachlan, Blair G.

    1993-01-01

    The use of pressure sensitive luminescent paints is a viable technique for the measurement of surface pressure on wind tunnel models. This technique requires data reduction of images obtained under known as well as test conditions and spatial transformation of the images. A general transform which registers images to subpixel accuracy is presented and the general characteristics of transforms for image registration and their derivation are discussed. Image resection and its applications are described. The mapping of pressure data to the three dimensional model surface for small wind tunnel models to a spatial accuracy of 0.5 percent of the model length is demonstrated.

  16. Golden Section and the Art of Painting

    OpenAIRE

    Olariu, Agata

    1999-01-01

    A statistical study on 565 works of art of different great painters was done and it was calculated the ratio of the 2 sides of a paintings. Assuming that all the painters under discussion enter in a statistics with equal weights it is shown that the average value obtained for the ratio of the sides is 1.34. This value, determined experimentally is significantly different from the value of the Golden Section F=1.618, which is a theoretical ratio, obtained from an abstract, ma...

  17. Painting a graph with competing random walks

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Let $X_1,X_2$ be independent random walks on $\\mathbf{Z}_n^d$, $d\\geq3$, each starting from the uniform distribution. Initially, each site of $\\mathbf{Z}_n^d$ is unmarked, and, whenever $X_i$ visits such a site, it is set irreversibly to $i$. The mean of $|\\mathcal{A}_i|$, the cardinality of the set $\\mathcal{A}_i$ of sites painted by $i$, once all of $\\mathbf{Z}_n^d$ has been visited, is $\\frac{1}{2}n^d$ by symmetry. We prove the following conjecture due to Pemantle and Per...

  18. The Figure in the Painting [catalogue essay

    OpenAIRE

    Archer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Essay for the catalogue accompanying the major exhibition of paintings by Dexter Dalwood at Centre PasquArt Art Center, Biel/Bienne, Switzerland, April 21 - June 16, 2013. The essay examines the nature of Dalwood's practice as a history painter, his use of collage, and in particular the significance of the ways in which he refers to and borrows from the work of other painters. The character of this borrowing not only structures his compositions, but also provides the interlocutors in the poli...

  19. Idea Bank: The Paint Chip Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Wallingford

    2006-07-01

    Early on in the study of physical science, students must grasp concepts associated with the periodic table. A perfect way to introduce periodicity and periodic groups is by using paint chip color samples. The color progression (red-orange-yellow-green-blue-purple) resembles the periodic properties on the table, and the color shade (light to dark) resembles the trends within the groups. This inquiry-based, hands-on lesson is sure to help students learn about one of the key concepts of basic chemistry.

  20. Plasma sprayed ceria-containing interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Douglas S.; Folser, George R.

    2006-01-10

    A plasma sprayed ceria-containing interlayer is provided. The interlayer has particular application in connection with a solid oxide fuel cell used within a power generation system. The fuel cell advantageously comprises an air electrode, a plasma sprayed interlayer disposed on at least a portion of the air electrode, a plasma sprayed electrolyte disposed on at least a portion of the interlayer, and a fuel electrode applied on at least a portion of the electrolyte.

  1. Wind tunnel and field evaluation of drift from aerial spray applications with multiple spray formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of different spray tank modifiers into an active ingredient spray mixture on spray atomization and in-field behavior under aerial application conditions were examined. Wind tunnel tests demonstrated that active ingredient solutions potentially results in significantly different atomizati...

  2. Evolution and Prospect of Thermal Spraying Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YIN Zhi-Jian, , WANG Shu-Bao, FU-Wei,TAN Xin-Hai, TAO Shun-Yan, DING Chuan-Xian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, current state development and process evolution ofthermal spray technology during last century (1910―2010) were reviewed. An "three―step evolution trend" (heat energy dominance, kineticenergy dominance, innovative idea and composite performance dominance) wasadvanced in order to get comprehensive understanding on this technology and dobetter in promoting its future development. Low pressure plasma spraying―thinfilm (LPPS―TF), cold spray (CS) and suspension orsolution srecursor plasma spray (SPS/SPPS) were selected among emerging novelspray processes to be briefly introduced from two aspects (process characteristics and potential applications). Comparison of spray output valueand detail contribution ratio distribution of various industry or process through world and Asia spray industry market were made to probe into what canbe improved as for China thermal spray industry in future. It was suggested that increasing plasma spray and HVOF contribution to applications, take activesteps to explore R&D of some novel spray technology like above mentioned and their possible applications especially in high―tech industrial such aselectrics, semiconductor and new energy.

  3. Dynamic characteristics of pulsed supersonic fuel sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianthong, K.; Matthujak, A.; Takayama, K.; Milton, B. E.; Behnia, M.

    2008-06-01

    This paper describes the dynamic characteristics of pulsed, supersonic liquid fuel sprays or jets injected into ambient air. Simple, single hole nozzles were employed with the nozzle sac geometries being varied. Different fuel types, diesel fuel, bio-diesel, kerosene, and gasoline were used to determine the effects of fuel properties on the spray characteristics. A vertical two-stage light gas gun was employed as a projectile launcher to provide a high velocity impact to produce the liquid jet. The injection pressure was around 0.88-1.24 GPa in all cases. The pulsed, supersonic fuel sprays were visualized by using a high-speed video camera and shadowgraph method. The spray tip penetration and velocity attenuation and other characteristics were examined and are described here. An instantaneous spray tip velocity of 1,542 m/s (Mach number 4.52) was obtained. However, this spray tip velocity can be sustained for only a very short period (a few microseconds). It then attenuates very quickly. The phenomenon of multiple high frequency spray pulses generated by a single shot impact and the changed in the angle of the shock structure during the spray flight, which had already been observed in previous studies, is again noted. Multiple shock waves from the conical nozzle spray were also clearly captured.

  4. 9 CFR 590.542 - Spray process drying operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Spray process drying operations. 590...Requirements § 590.542 Spray process drying operations. (a...interrupted. (1) Spray nozzles, orifices...immediately after cessation of drying operations....

  5. Dissolution of organic solvents from painted surfaces into water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wren, J.C. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Jobe, D.J. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Sanipelli, G.G.; Ball, J.M

    2000-07-01

    The presence of volatile iodine in containment buildings is one of the major safety concerns in the potential event of nuclear reactor accidents. Organic impurities in containment water, originating from various painted structural surfaces and organic materials, could have a significant impact on iodine volatility following an accident. To determine the source and magnitude of organic impurities and their effects on time-dependent iodine volatility, the dissolution for organic constituents from paints used in reactor buildings has been studied under postulated accident conditions. The studies of the organic dissolution from carbon steel coupons coated with zinc-primed vinyl, epoxy-primed polyurethane or epoxy paints over the temperature range 25-90 deg C are reported. Relatively large activation energies were measured for the release of the principal organic compounds from painted surfaces, suggesting it is the release of the solvents from the paint matrix rather than their diffusion through the solution that is the rate determining step for the dissolution mechanism. The similarities in the values of activation energies for the dissolution of different organic compounds from the paints suggest the release rate is independent of the nature of the painted surface or the type of organic being released from the surface. These two observations indicate that it may be possible to write a generalized rate expression for the release of organic compounds from painted surfaces in containment following an accident. The possible implications of these results for predicting iodine volatility in containment are also discussed. (author)

  6. Analysis of paint degradation by fungal and bacterial species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paint is a liquor blend, used as a decorative or protective coating. Paints are the main source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), very harmful for the environment and human beings. In the present study, fungal and bacterial growth on paint flakes sandwiched between the mineral salt medium agar layers were subjected to various analysis. Dry cell mass quantification was carried out by shake flask experiment with fungal inoculum. The maximum growth of 0.7g observed on 28th day. Further evidence of paint film biodegradation was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies. The loss in intensity of the bands at a wavelength of 1115.7 cm-1 and 1065.67 cm-1 for ester linkages indicated degradation of the paints through the breaking of the ester group. A loss in intensity of bands at a wavelength of 3286.87 cm-1 (corresponding alcoholic peak) due to breakage of alcoholic linkages. Scanning electron micrographs clearly showed the adherence and fungal growth on paint flakes and the distorted / ruptured surface was also observed in three months treated paint samples. The current research study represents the significant trends of paint biodegradation by isolated microorganism. (author)

  7. Pressure-sensitive paint as a distributed optical microphone array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, James W; Sullivan, John P; Wanis, Sameh S; Komerath, Narayanan M

    2006-01-01

    Pressure-sensitive paint is presented and evaluated in this article as a quantitative technique for measurement of acoustic pressure fluctuations. This work is the culmination of advances in paint technology which enable unsteady measurements of fluctuations over 10 kHz at pressure levels as low as 125 dB. Pressure-sensitive paint may be thought of as a nano-scale array of optical microphones with a spatial resolution limited primarily by the resolution of the imaging device. Thus, pressure-sensitive paint is a powerful tool for making high-amplitude sound pressure measurements. In this work, the paint was used to record ensemble-averaged, time-resolved, quantitative measurements of two-dimensional mode shapes in an acoustic resonance cavity. A wall-mounted speaker generated nonlinear, standing acoustic waves in a rigid enclosure measuring 216 mm wide, 169 mm high, and 102 mm deep. The paint recorded the acoustic surface pressures of the (1,1,0) mode shape at approximately 1.3 kHz and a sound pressure level of 145.4 dB. Results from the paint are compared with data from a Kulite pressure transducer, and with linear acoustic theory. The paint may be used as a diagnostic technique for ultrasonic tests where high spatial resolution is essential, or in nonlinear acoustic applications such as shock tubes. PMID:16454281

  8. Sanding dust from nanoparticle-containing paints: Physical characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing use of nanoparticles in different industrial applications has raised a new potential health risk to the workers as well as to the consumers. This study investigates the particle size distributions of sanding dust released from paints produced with and without engineered nanoparticles. Dust emissions from sanding painted plates were found to consist of five size modes; three modes under 1 ?m and two modes around 1 and 2 ?m. We observed that the sander was the only source of particles smaller than 50 nm and they dominated the number concentration spectra. Mass and surface area spectra were dominated by the 1 and 2 ?m modes. Addition of nanoparticles caused only minor changes in the geometric mean diameters of the particle modes generated during sanding of two paints doped with 17 nm TiO2 and 95 nm Carbon Black nanoparticles as compared to the size modes generated during sanding a conventional reference paint. However, the number concentrations in the different size modes varied considerably in between the two NP-doped paints and the reference paint. Therefore, from a physical point of view, there may be a difference in the exposure risk during sanding surfaces covered with nanoparticle-based paints as compared to sanding conventional paints.

  9. Dissolution of organic solvents from painted surfaces into water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of volatile iodine in containment buildings is one of the major safety concerns in the potential event of nuclear reactor accidents. Organic impurities in containment water, originating from various painted structural surfaces and organic materials, could have a significant impact on iodine volatility following an accident. To determine the source and magnitude of organic impurities and their effects on time-dependent iodine volatility, the dissolution for organic constituents from paints used in reactor buildings has been studied under postulated accident conditions. The studies of the organic dissolution from carbon steel coupons coated with zinc-primed vinyl, epoxy-primed polyurethane or epoxy paints over the temperature range 25-90 deg C are reported. Relatively large activation energies were measured for the release of the principal organic compounds from painted surfaces, suggesting it is the release of the solvents from the paint matrix rather than their diffusion through the solution that is the rate determining step for the dissolution mechanism. The similarities in the values of activation energies for the dissolution of different organic compounds from the paints suggest the release rate is independent of the nature of the painted surface or the type of organic being released from the surface. These two observations indicate that it may be possible to write a generalized rate expression for the release of organic compounds from painted surfaces in containment following an accident. The possible implications of these results for predicting iodine volatility in containment are also discussed. (author)

  10. Automating and controlling dry paint stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunliffe, F. R., III

    1989-03-01

    The key parameters which affect the efficiency and success of the dry paint-stripping process are discussed, including pressure at the nozzle, the size of the nozzle, the angle of blasting, the distance from the work-piece, the hardness and the size of the media, and the media flow. It is pointed out that, by automating the dry paint stripping process, many of these parameters can be controlled, making it possible to reproduce the same result, time and again. Attention is given to a recently developed automated aircraft wheel stripping machine, whose units are operated by joy stick controls from outside the cabinet. The wheel can be rotated and moved forward and backward in order to gain access to all of the surfaces; the operator also controls the nozzle manipulator which is a five-axis unit. At present, robotic systems are being developed for small aircraft and for the jumbo jets in use throughout the commercial airline fleets of the world.

  11. Flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) for synthesis of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bismuth oxide is used as additive in paints and in cataphoresis, and as substitute for lead oxide in glass or porcelain. The presence of a small amount of Bi2O3 in calcined ZnO ceramics promotes non-linear current voltage characteristics that are used in varistor production. Also tin oxide based gas sensors for carbon monoxide, exhibit improved sensitivity and selectivity when doped with Bi2O3. Furthermore, the total oxidation of isobutene is enhanced on bismuth containing tin oxide catalysts. Bismuth oxide itself serves also as catalyst for conversion of propylene to 1,5 hexadiene and can be regenerated when supported on ?-Al2O3. In electrolyte, varistor, sensor and catalyst applications high purity and small Bi2O3 particles with controlled morphology are required. Especially in catalysts the available surface area (below 17 m2/g) of Bi2O3 limits applications at the moment. Typically, Bi2O3 is prepared by oxidation of bismuth metal at 750-800 deg C or by thermal decomposition of carbonates or by addition of alkali-metal hydroxides to a bismuth salt solution. High temperature synthesis of Bi2O3 from precursor gases was proposed by Liu and Kleinschmit using the established Aerosil route of reacting chloride precursors in a hydrogen / air (or oxygen) flame, but the volatility of the starting materials posesolatility of the starting materials poses the most severe limitation. Suzuki et al. prepared spherical bismuth oxide particles of about 26 nm in diameter by the ICP-method. Spraying an aqueous bismuth nitrate solution into a hot wall reactor resulted in Bi2O3 particles of about 100 nm in diameter. Here, synthesis of bismuth oxide nanoparticles is investigated by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) as flame technology is used for manufacture of oxide commodities and as such FSP has high potential for manufacture of oxide nanoparticles. The FSP process, in particular, has the ability to synthesize metal oxides and mixed metal oxides of high purity at high production rates and under controlled conditions. Here bismuth nitrate is used as raw material since it is widely used in wet chemical processing of bismuth oxide and it is one of the cheapest precursors available. However, in conventional spray pyrolysis this precursor has resulted in hollow particles. Therefore special emphasis is placed on the control of morphology and primary particle size of the product bismuth oxide nanoparticles

  12. Computer Analysis of Paintings Raises Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    UO study questions paintingsâ?? authenticityhttp://www.oregonlive.com/news/oregonian/index.ssf?/base/news/1139455529308930.xml&coll=7Fractals and art: In the hands of a masterhttp://www.nature.com/news/2006/060206/full/439648a.htmlJackson Pollockhttp://www.nga.gov/feature/pollock/pollockhome.htmlRichard Taylor: Further Information [pdf]http://materialscience.uoregon.edu/taylor/art/info.htmlUnpopular Front: American Art and the Cold Warhttp://www.newyorker.com/critics/content/articles/051017crat_atlargeRobert Hughes, the venerable art critic for Time magazine, stated in 1982 â??It is impossible to make a forgery of Jackson Pollockâ??s workâ?. It is certainly true that the physicality of his paintings, along with Pollockâ??s famed â??pourâ? technique was forward-looking for its time. Given this information, it is not surprising that previously unknown works by Pollock that materialize draw close scrutiny from art historians, and increasingly, scientists. This week, the New York Times reported that Professor Richard Taylor of the University of Oregon had utilized fractal geometry to examine 14 of Pollockâ??s painting to help determine, and perhaps put into question, the authenticity of a cache of paintings found in 2003 in Wainscott, New York. This cache of paintings was discovered by Alex Matter, whose parents were friends with Pollock. Currently, Matter is planning a large exhibition of these newly discovered works, and this growing controversy has been closely followed among those in the art world. Dr. Taylor has remarked that his examination of the works has revealed â??significant differencesâ? between the patterns of these newer works and those of known Pollock works. He also mentioned that â??Thatâ??s either due to one person who is extremely varied, or itâ??s due to a number of different artists.â?The first link will take visitors to a piece from this Thursdayâ??s New York Times, which discusses the recent computer analysis of the paintings. The second link will whisk visitors away to a fine article by The Oregonianâ??s Richard L. Hill that discusses Dr. Taylorâ??s findings and the rising tide of controversy surrounding these works. The third link will lead users to an intriguing piece from the magazine, Nature, which explores the science behind Dr. Taylorâ??s investigations and Pollockâ??s idiosyncratic style and manner. The fourth link leads to a National Gallery of Art web exhibition on Pollock and his work that begins with a rather intense photograph of Pollock holding a cigarette to his forehead. The fifth link leads to Dr. Taylorâ??s homepage at the University of Oregon, where users may read some of his compelling articles and other writings on his analyses of Pollockâ??s work through the use of fractal geometry. The sixth and final link leads to a piece by Louis Menand, writing in The New Yorker on the subject of American art and its function and ideology during the Cold War.

  13. Large-Scale Quantitative Analysis of Painting Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Son, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hawoong

    2014-12-01

    Scientists have made efforts to understand the beauty of painting art in their own languages. As digital image acquisition of painting arts has made rapid progress, researchers have come to a point where it is possible to perform statistical analysis of a large-scale database of artistic paints to make a bridge between art and science. Using digital image processing techniques, we investigate three quantitative measures of images - the usage of individual colors, the variety of colors, and the roughness of the brightness. We found a difference in color usage between classical paintings and photographs, and a significantly low color variety of the medieval period. Interestingly, moreover, the increment of roughness exponent as painting techniques such as chiaroscuro and sfumato have advanced is consistent with historical circumstances.

  14. Target Practice: Painting Under Attack, 1949-78

    Science.gov (United States)

    This exhibition from the Seattle Art Museum explores artists' urge to "shoot, rip, tear, burn, erase, nail, unzip and deconstruct painting in order to usher in a new way of thinking." An animated feature at the site showcases works, curator's commentary, and quotes from five artists: Jasper Johns, Niki De Saint-Phalle, Ushio Shinohara, Lucio Fontana, and Yoko Ono. Ono's piece, Painting to Hammer a Nail, 1961/2009 consists of a wooden panel with a hammer chained to it near a container of small nails. Visitors are invited to hammer a nail into the piece, often attaching small objects, illustrating Yoko's quote, "Everybody's an artist. Everybody's God. It's just that they're inhibited." There is also a 5-minute video of Richard Jackson working on a wall painting for the exhibition, pouring paint onto canvases, smearing them against the wall, and nailing several of the canvases to the wall, backwards, to become part of the painting.

  15. Automotive Painting Technology A Monozukuri-Hitozukuri Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Salazar, Abraham; Saito, Kozo

    2013-01-01

    This book offers unique and valuable contributions to the field. It offers breadth and inclusiveness. Most existing works on automotive painting cover only a single aspect of this complex topic, such as the chemistry of paint or paint booth technology. Monozukuri and Hitozukuri are Japanese terms that can be translated as “making things” and “developing people” but their implications in Japanese are richer and more complex than this minimal translation would indicate. The Monozukuri-Hitozukuri perspective is drawn from essential principles on which the Toyota approach to problem-solving and continuous improvement is based. From this perspective, neither painting technology R&D nor painting technology use in manufacturing can be done successfully without integrating technological and human concerns involved with making and learning in the broadest sense, as the hyphen is meant to indicate. The editors provide case studies and examples -- drawn from Mr. Toda’s 33 years of experience with automotiv...

  16. Preparation of Perfluorinated Surfactant Activates for Antifouling Paints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bacha

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Antifouling paints are the most reliable way to prevent biofouling of submerged surfaces. The high toxicity of organotin paints, prompted us to look for ideas to develop paints that do not present environmental risks. In this work, we prepare a painting by a modification of acrylic acid monomer containing a free carboxyl group. The biocide that is selected is the perfluorinated chain with eight carbons. Chemical modifications of the resins are made through a radical reaction. The magnitudes of changes are monitored by proton nuclear magnetic resonance NMR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC and the light scattering (LS at a fixed angle 90?. The glass transition temperature of the surfactant is obtained by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The antifouling properties of the paint are followed by exposure of panels to the marine environment by visual observation.

  17. CAPSTONE REPORT ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF A STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR VOC EMISSIONS FROM INTERIOR LATEX PAINT AND ALKYD PAINTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives details of a small-chamber test method developed by the EPA for characterizing volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from interior latex and alkyd paints. Current knowledge about VOC, including hazardous air pollutant, emissions from interior paints generated...

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF LOW-VOC LATEX PAINTS: VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND CONTENT, VOC AND ALDEHYDE EMISSIONS, AND PAINT PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of laboratory tests to evaluate commercially available latex paints advertised as "low-odor," "low-VOC (volatile organic compound)," or "no-VOC." Measurements were performed to quantify the total content of VOCs in the paints...

  19. Methylisothiazolinone and benzisothiazolinone are widely used in paint : a multicentre study of paints from five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Lundov, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In view of the current epidemic of contact allergy to methylisothiazolinone (MI), it is important to clarify the extent of use of MI and related isothiazolinones in paints currently available for the consumer and worker in Europe. OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the use and concentrations of MI, methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) and benzisothiazolinone (BIT) in paints on the European retail market. METHODS: Wall paints (n?=?71) were randomly purchased in retail outlets in five European countries. The paints were quantitatively analysed for their contents of MI, MCI and BIT by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: MI was found in 93.0% (n?=?66) of the paints, with concentrations ranging from 0.7 to 180.9?ppm, MCI in 23.9% (n?=?17), ranging from 0.26 to 11.4?ppm, and BIT in 95.8% (n?=?68), ranging from 0.1 to 462.5?ppm. High concentrations of MI were found in paints from all five countries. Paints purchased in Denmark and Sweden contained especially high concentrations of BIT. CONCLUSION: The use of MI across European countries is extensive. In view of the ongoing epidemic of MI contact allergy, an evaluation of the safety of MI in paints is needed.

  20. The Influence of Spraying Angle on Properties of HVOF Sprayed Hardmetal Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdková, Šárka; Kašparová, Michaela; Zahálka, František

    2010-09-01

    The spraying angle is one of the deposition parameters that influence the quality of thermally sprayed coatings. In theory, decreasing the spraying angle results in lower process deposition efficiency, whereas the porosity of coatings increases, becoming a cause of poorer microstructure and mechanical properties. In this study, the dependence of microstructure together with the basic mechanical properties and wear of WC-Co and Cr3C2-NiCr high-velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) sprayed coatings on the spraying angle was investigated. For each coating, the maximum spraying angle was determined that can be used without significantly decreasing coating quality. Based on the changes in properties of coatings and requirements for the process deposition efficiency, a maximum 30° diversion from the normal spray direction is recommended for WC-Co and 15° diversion for Cr3C2-NiCr coatings.

  1. Experimental Analysis of Spray Dryer Used in Hydroxyapatite Thermal Spray Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, Q.; Stokes, J.; Ardhaoui, M.

    2012-09-01

    The spray drying process of hydroxyapatite (HA) powder used as a plasma spray powder on human hip implants was examined. The Niro-Minor mixed spray dryer was studied because it incorporates both co-current and counter-current air mixing systems. The process parameters of the spray drying were investigated: temperature, flow rate of the inlet hot air in the spray dryer, viscosity of feed/HA slurry, and responses (chamber and cyclone powder size, deposition of powder on the wall of spray dryer, and overall thermal efficiency). The statistical analysis (ANOVA test) showed that for the chamber particle size, viscosity was the most significant parameter, while for the cyclone particle size, the main effects were temperature, viscosity, and flow rate, but also their interaction effects were significant. The spray dried HA powder showed the two main shapes were a doughnut and solid sphere shape as a result of the different input.

  2. Arc spraying solderable tabs to glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindmayer, J.

    1981-01-01

    Tabs suitable for electrical or mechanical connections in solar cells and integrated circuits are made by spraying technique. Solder wets copper, copper bonds to aluminum, and aluminum adheres to glass. Arc spraying is automated and integrated with encapsulation, eliminating hand tabbing, improving reliability, and reducing cost.

  3. Centrifugal spray O2(1?) generator.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špalek, Otomar; Jirásek, Vít; ?enský, Miroslav; Kodymová, Jarmila; Hrubý, J.

    Stuttgart : Bohnlaser Consult, 2009, s. 1-33. ISBN N. [COIL R&D Workshop. Stuttgart (DE), 13.10.2009-14.10.2009] Grant ostatní: US Air Force EOARD(US) FA8655-09-1-3091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : singlet oxygen * COIL * spray generator * centrifugal spray generator Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  4. Spray drying of liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full scale performance tests of a Koch spray dryer were conducted on simulated liquid radioactive waste streams. The liquid feeds simulated the solutions that result from radwaste incineration of DAW an ion exchange resins, as well as evaporator bottoms. The integration of the spray dryer into a complete system is discussed

  5. Spray characteristics and spray cooling heat transfer in the non-boiling regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spray cooling is an effective method for dissipating high heat fluxes in the field of electronics thermal control. In this study, experiments were performed with distilled water as a test liquid to study the spray cooling heat transfer in non-boiling regime. A Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) was used to study the spray characteristics. The effects of spray flow rate, spray height, and inlet temperature on spray cooling heat transfer were investigated. It was found that the parameters affect heat transfer of spray cooling in non-boiling regime by the spray characteristics and working fluid thermophysical properties. Then the corresponding droplet axial velocity and Sauter mean diameter (SMD) were successfully correlated with mean absolute error of 15%, which were based upon the orifice diameter, the Weber and Reynolds numbers of the orifice flow prior to liquid breakup, dimensionless spray height and spray cross-section radius. The heat transfer in non-boiling regime was correlated with a mean absolute error of 7%, which was mainly associated with the working fluid thermophysical properties, the Weber and Reynolds numbers hitting the heating surface, dimensionless heating surface temperature and diameter. -- Highlights: ? The spray flow rate, spray height, and inlet temperature affect heat transfer of spray cooling in non-boiling regime by the spray characteristics and the working fluid thermophysical properties. ? Then the corresponding droplet axial velocity and Sauer mean diameter (SMD) were successfully correlated with mean absolute error of 15%. ? The heat transfer in non-boiling regime was correlated with a mean absolute error of 7%.

  6. Simulation of preburner sprays, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Under the present contract a study was made on the characteristics of the sprays of coaxial injectors with particular emphasis on those aspects relevant to the performance of rocket engines. The technical effort was performed primarily by Imperial College of Science and Technology and the details of this effort are contained in the accompanying technical report by Hardalupas and Whitelaw, which forms Vol. 2 of the report. The role of Scientific Research Associates was review of material, initial direction of the technical effort and review of all reports. The study considered characteristics of sprays under a variety of conditions. Control of these sprays is important as the spray details can control both rocket combustion stability and efficiency. Imperial College considered the following: first, measurement of the size and rate of spread of the sprays produced by single coaxial airblast nozzles with axial gaseous stream. The local size, velocity and flux characteristics for a wide range of gas and liquid flowrates were measured and the results were correlated with the conditions of the spray at the nozzle exit. Second, examination of the effect of the geometry of single coaxial airblast atomizers on spray characteristics. The gas and liquid tube diameters were varied over a range of values, the liquid tube recess was varied and the shape of the exit of the gaseous jet was varied from straight to converging. Third, quantification of the effect of swirl in the gaseous stream on the spray characteristics produced by single coaxial airblast nozzles. Fourth, quantification of the effect of reatomization by impingement of the spray on a flat disc positioned around 200 mm from the nozzle exit. This models spray impingement on the turbopump dome during the startup process of the preburner of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). Fifth, study of the interaction between multiple sprays without and with swirl in their gaseous stream. The spray characteristics of single nozzles were compared with that of three identical nozzles with their axis at a small distance from each other. This study simulates the sprays in the preburner of the SSME, where there are around 260 elements on the faceplate of the combustion chamber. And lastly, design an experimental facility to study the characteristics of sprays at high pressure conditions and at supercritical pressure and temperature for the gas but supercritical pressure and subcritical temperature for the liquid.

  7. Large Eddy Simulation of the spray formation in confinements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Process stability of confined spray processes is affected by the geometric design of the spray confinement. • LES simulations of confined spray flow have been performed successfully. • Clustering processes of droplets is predicted in simulations and validated with experiments. • Criteria for specific coherent gas flow patterns and droplet clustering behaviour are found. -- Abstract: The particle and powder properties produced within spray drying processes are influenced by various unsteady transport phenomena in the dispersed multiphase spray flow in a confined spray chamber. In this context differently scaled spray structures in a confined spray environment have been analyzed in experiments and numerical simulations. The experimental investigations have been carried out with Particle-Image-Velocimetry to determine the velocity of the gas and the discrete phase. Large-Eddy-Simulations have been set up to predict the transient behaviour of the spray process and have given more insight into the sensitivity of the spray flow structures in dependency from the spray chamber design

  8. 'Dose-painting': Myth or reality?; 'Dose-painting': mythe ou realite?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supiot, S.; Paris, F. [Service de radiotherapie, centre Rene-Gauducheau, 44 - Nantes-St-Herblain (France); Centre de recherche sur le cancer Nantes-Angers (CRCNA), institut de recherche therapeutique, universite de Nantes, 44 - Nantes (France); Inserm UMR 892, 44 - Nantes (France); Lisbona, A. [Centre de recherche sur le cancer Nantes-Angers (CRCNA), institut de recherche therapeutique, universite de Nantes, 44 - Nantes (France); Inserm UMR 892, 44 - Nantes (France); Service de radiophysique, centre Rene-Gauducheau, 44 - Nantes-St-Herblain (France); Azria, D. [Service de radiotherapie, centre Val d' Aurelle Paul-Lamarque, 34 - Montpellier (France); Fenoglietto, P. [Service de radiophysique, centre Val d' Aurelle Paul-Lamarque, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2010-10-15

    'Dose-painting' radiotherapy allows for a heterogeneous delivery of radiation within the tumour volume by targeting radioresistant areas defined by functional imaging. Within gross tumour volume, it is possible to define one or more target volumes based on biology (biological target volume [BTV]) and to apply a strategy of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) that will deliver a higher dose to these regions. In this review of the literature, we will highlight the biological elements responsible for radioresistance, and how to image them, then we will detail the radiotherapy techniques necessary for this approach, before presenting clinical results in various situations (head and neck tumours, prostate, brain tumours, etc.). Despite many difficulties that make dose-painting IMRT unusable in routine nowadays, biology-guided radiation therapy represents one of the major pathways of development of radiotherapy in the coming years. (authors)

  9. Multiplexed 3D Cellular Super-Resolution Imaging with DNA-PAINT and Exchange-PAINT

    OpenAIRE

    Jungmann, R.; Avendano, M.S.; Woehrstein, J.B.; Dai, M.; Shih, W. M.; Yin, P.

    2014-01-01

    While super-resolution fluorescence microscopy is a powerful tool for biological research, obtaining multiplexed images for a large number of distinct target species remains challenging. Here we use the transient binding of short fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides (DNA-PAINT, point accumulation for imaging in nanoscale topography) for simple and easy-to-implement multiplexed 3D super-resolution imaging inside fixed cells and achieve sub-10 nm spatial resolution in vitro using synthetic DN...

  10. Reactor core spray cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To enable to avoid the collapsion of jetted streams even upon use in steams and charge the cooling water into the reactor core with no delay upon occurrence of accidents in an ECCS. Constitution: Water contained in a high pressure water storage tank is heated by steams branched from the main steam pipe and scattered while lowering the subcooling degree to below 30 deg C thereby improving the spray distribution. Further, in a high pressure reactor core spray system, it is enabled to inject emergency cooling water within a period till a diesel generator can supply electrical power. Since a great amount of cooling water is thus injected upon accidents, lowering in the reactor water level is moderated and the dry-burning time for the reactor core is shortened thereby enabling to suppress the maximum temperature of the fuel rod to a lower level. Further, since the recovery of the water reactor level is sooner, a low pressure injection system as a system of the emergency core cooling system is no more required and the rationalization is possible. (Kamimura, M.)

  11. Palaeolithic paintings. Evolution of prehistoric cave art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladas, H; Clottes, J; Geneste, J M; Garcia, M A; Arnold, M; Cachier, H; Tisnérat-Laborde, N

    2001-10-01

    Sophisticated examples of European palaeolithic parietal art can be seen in the caves of Altamira, Lascaux and Niaux near the Pyrenees, which date to the Magdalenian period (12,000-17,000 years ago), but paintings of comparable skill and complexity were created much earlier, some possibly more than 30,000 years ago. We have derived new radiocarbon dates for the drawings that decorate the Chauvet cave in Vallon-Pont-d'Arc, Ardèche, France, which confirm that even 30,000 years ago Aurignacian artists, already known as accomplished carvers, could create masterpieces comparable to the best Magdalenian art. Prehistorians, who have traditionally interpreted the evolution of prehistoric art as a steady progression from simple to more complex representations, may have to reconsider existing theories of the origins of art. PMID:11586348

  12. ``Amarna blue'' painted on ancient Egyptian pottery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uda, M.; Nakamura, M.; Yoshimura, S.; Kondo, J.; Saito, M.; Shirai, Y.; Hasegawa, S.; Baba, Y.; Ikeda, K.; Ban, Y.; Matsuo, A.; Tamada, M.; Sunaga, H.; Oshio, H.; Yamashita, D.; Nakajima, Y.; Utaka, T.

    2002-04-01

    "Amarna blue" pigments (18 Dynasty, c. 1400 BC) painted on pottery fragments were investigated using the PIXE, XRF and XRD methods in laboratories and also using a portable type of X-ray spectrometer at the sites of excavation. On the blue-colored part enrichment of Na, Al, S, Cl, Ca, Mn, Co, Ni and Zn was found using X-ray spectroscopy, and CaSO 4, NaCl and Co(M)Al 2O 4, M denoting Mn, Fe, Ni and Zn, were found by the help of X-ray diffraction. This means that Amarna blue is a mixture of CaSO 4 and Co(M)Al 2O 4, at least in part.

  13. 'Amarna blue' painted on ancient Egyptian pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Amarna blue' pigments (18 Dynasty, c. 1400 BC) painted on pottery fragments were investigated using the PIXE, XRF and XRD methods in laboratories and also using a portable type of X-ray spectrometer at the sites of excavation. On the blue-colored part enrichment of Na, Al, S, Cl, Ca, Mn, Co, Ni and Zn was found using X-ray spectroscopy, and CaSO4, NaCl and Co(M)Al2O4, M denoting Mn, Fe, Ni and Zn, were found by the help of X-ray diffraction. This means that Amarna blue is a mixture of CaSO4 and Co(M)Al2O4, at least in part

  14. Decommissioning of a luminous dial painting facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A luminous dial painting plant operated in Georgia from 1954 until 1978 with a clean bill of health until 1976, when a routine inspection cited the company for questionable measurement techniques for tritium surface contamination, possible environment tritium releases and detectable tritium body burdens in the employees. The company chose to discontinue operations in June 1978, due to the above problems. Radium had been used from 1954 until 1966-67, with tritium use begun in 1966-67. A three phase plan for decommissioning the facility, was submitted to the Georgia Department of Human Resources. Phase 1 - Pre-decontamination Survey - entailed cursory environmental analyses for 226Ra and tritium, building and equipment surveys with portable instruments and wipe samples, bioassays, air samples/and soil/vegetation/water samples. Phase 2 - Decontamination, and Disposal. Phase 3 - Post-decontamination Survey. This paper deals with Phase 1 - methodology, instrumentation, problems, pitfalls and the results obtained. (author)

  15. A radiation polymerizable paint and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention relates to a radiation polymerizable paint which to the exclusion of any non-polymerizable solvent, pigment initiator or particulate filler essentially comprises a binder solution: from about 90 to 10 parts of a saturated vinylic thermoplastic polymer (prepared from at least 85% by weight monofunctional vinylic monomers), from about 10 to 90 parts of monofunctional vinylic solvents for the vinylic polymer (at least 10% and, preferably, at least 30% by weight of the solvent monomers being selected from the group comprising divinylic monomers, trivinylic monomers, tetravinylic monomers and mixtures) and from about 0.05 to 1.0 part, for a total amount of 100 parts of thermoplastic vinylic polymer and of solvent vinylic monomers, of a phosphoric acid mono- or di-ester with one or several vinyl unsaturated sites. That high quality coating composition adheres remarkably to a variety of supports, in particular metals, including metals deposited in the vapor phase

  16. Judgement of paintings belonging to different tendencies in the 20th century painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radonji? Ana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study Trifunovi?’ hypothesis that there are three objective lines in the development of modern art was psychologically evaluated. According to Trifunovi?, in the first line (Cézanne - cubism - neoplasticism - suprematism the geometrization of form prevails, in the second (Van Gogh - expressionism - abstract expressionism the use of color is dominant, whereas the main features of the third line (Gauguin - fauvism are symbolic use of color and reduction of perspective. Fifteen reproductions of paintings that represent the three developmental lines were used as stimuli. The subjects were asked to judge the stimuli on nine bipolar 7-step scales. These scales constitute the three factors of instrument SDF 9: Evaluation, Arousal and Regularity (3 scales x 3 factors = 9 scales. Four clusters of paintings were obtained: Abstract-expressionistic (moderate Evaluation, high Arousal and low Regularity, Figural-expressionistic (very low Evaluation, low Arousal and high Regularity, Constructivistic (moderate Evaluation, low Arousal and high Regularity and Realistic (high Evaluation, high Arousal and high Regularity. The results partially confirm Trifunovi?’ hypothesis indicating that, besides the formal features, the content (abstract vs. figural is also significant factor of subjective clustering of paintings.

  17. Modelling Organic Iodide release from Painted Containment Surfaces under Severe Accident Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential radiological impact of iodine in case of a postulated severe accident makes iodine volatility become one of the most important concerns in these scenarios. Both inorganic (I2) and organic OrgI volatile iodine species can be formed within the containment. Some of the PHEBUS-FP experiments indicated that in the long run in containment gaseous iodine concentration might be dominated by OrgI (Girault et al., 2006). Relevance of OrgI lies in the extraordinary volatility of some of these compounds (greater even than that of I2) and the fact that containment safeguards systems, such as sprays, have been shown not to be effective as effective removing OrgI as they are with I2. Therefore, in case of a postulated severe accident if a steady OrgI concentration was achieved at any time within containment, it would behave like an iodine reservoir from which iodine might leak to the environment. There are a few potential sources of these compounds (Clement et al., 2007): in-bulk sump and in-atmosphere reactions, and iodine interactions with painted surfaces contacting either the containment sump or the gas atmosphere. In the recent years two international experimental projects have investigated the origin of OrgI: the International Source Term Project (ISTP) through the EPICUR experimental campaign (Guilbert et al., 2008) and the Behavior of Iodine Project, framed under the OECD auspices (NEA, 2010). In particular, the OECD-BIP project2010). In particular, the OECD-BIP project has been exploring the potential OrgI source of painted surfaces contacting the containment atmosphere and more than 20 bench scale experiments have been conducted. A second phase of the project is foreseen to be launched in the near future (OECD-BIP2).

  18. Logic Analysis of Painting Modeling Rules and Avoiding Narrative Viewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Painting modeling rules are constructed based on objective representing with material substances as the main body and the construction methods and orders are mostly limited to narrative viewing and expression, which, obviously, is not the best method. Logistic thinking in virtue of modeling art could gender a more “painting-like” cognitive order. The modeling elements extracted from dots, lines and planes lead us to the door for painting context and by way of personalized organization with explicit aims, we could be able to obtain “selective”, “comparative”, “holistic” and “sole” (creative modeling and viewing principles.

  19. Reverse painting on glass as seen by the proton beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neelmeijer, C. E-mail: c.neelmeijer@fz-rossendorf.de; Maeder, M

    2004-11-01

    The combination of PIXE, RBS and PIGE proves ideal for non-destructive overall analysis of reverse paintings on glass. Simultaneous PIXE-RBS studies assist to clarify the thin-layered pigment arrangements of details painted on the reverse of the glass pane. In a second measurement, the spectra of both PIGE-PIXE taken from the pure glass front side inform on the individual glass type. This complete perception of corresponding unique objects is important and valuable regarding the knowledge of special painting techniques and the necessity of preventive conservation.

  20. An environmentally safe and effective paint removal process for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozol, Joseph

    2001-03-01

    To reduce hazardous waste from fleet and depot aircraft paint stripping and to conform to regulations banning toxic chemical paint strippers, the U.S. Naval Air Systems Team (materials division, depots, and head-quarters) teamed with the U.S. Air Force at Warner Robins Air Logistics Center for concept development, characterization, and demonstration of a mature, advanced paint-removal system, the Boeing xenon/flashlamp CO2 (Flashjet®) process. Extensive metallic and composite-materials testing was conducted. This paper describes the development and characterization program leading to authorization of the process for use on fixed-wing navy aircraft.

  1. Pigeons can discriminate "good" and "bad" paintings by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    Humans have the unique ability to create art, but non-human animals may be able to discriminate "good" art from "bad" art. In this study, I investigated whether pigeons could be trained to discriminate between paintings that had been judged by humans as either "bad" or "good". To do this, adult human observers first classified several children's paintings as either "good" (beautiful) or "bad" (ugly). Using operant conditioning procedures, pigeons were then reinforced for pecking at "good" paintings. After the pigeons learned the discrimination task, they were presented with novel pictures of both "good" and "bad" children's paintings to test whether they had successfully learned to discriminate between these two stimulus categories. The results showed that pigeons could discriminate novel "good" and "bad" paintings. Then, to determine which cues the subjects used for the discrimination, I conducted tests of the stimuli when the paintings were of reduced size or grayscale. In addition, I tested their ability to discriminate when the painting stimuli were mosaic and partial occluded. The pigeons maintained discrimination performance when the paintings were reduced in size. However, discrimination performance decreased when stimuli were presented as grayscale images or when a mosaic effect was applied to the original stimuli in order to disrupt spatial frequency. Thus, the pigeons used both color and pattern cues for their discrimination. The partial occlusion did not disrupt the discriminative behavior suggesting that the pigeons did not attend to particular parts, namely upper, lower, left or right half, of the paintings. These results suggest that the pigeons are capable of learning the concept of a stimulus class that humans name "good" pictures. The second experiment showed that pigeons learned to discriminate watercolor paintings from pastel paintings. The subjects showed generalization to novel paintings. Then, as the first experiment, size reduction test, grayscale test, mosaic processing test and partial occlusion test were carried out. The results suggest that the pigeons used both color and pattern cues for the discrimination and show that non-human animals, such as pigeons, can be trained to discriminate abstract visual stimuli, such as pictures and may also have the ability to learn the concept of "beauty" as defined by humans. PMID:19533184

  2. Intelligent control of robotic paint stripping using color vision feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, D. N.; Rogers, T. W.

    1993-08-01

    The paper describes a color-based machine vision system which is capable of functioning as a real-time process control system for a robotic work cell currently being developed for stripping paint from both large and small aircraft. The system is based on hue, saturation, and intensity representation of the image data and on rapid analysis techniques and is capable of differentiating between painted, primed, stripped, and roughened aircraft surfaces. These techniques were tested on a large number of aircraft paint schemes under actual stripping conditions, and were found to be fast and robust enough for real-time process control.

  3. Photonic Paint Developed with Metallic Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Williams

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This work details the design and simulation of an inconspicuous photonic paint that can be applied onto an object for anticounterfeit and tag, track, and locate (TTL applications. The paint consists of three-dimensional metallic tilted woodpile photonic crystals embedded into a visible and infrared transparent polymer film, which can be applied to almost any surface. The tilted woodpile photonic crystals are designed with a specific pass band detectable at nearly all incident angles of light. When painted onto a surface, these crystals provide a unique reflective infra-red optical signature that can be easily observed and recorded to verify the location or contents of a package.

  4. PMT signal increase using a wavelength shifting paint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allada, K; Hurlbut, Ch; Ou, L; Schmookler, B; Shahinyan, A; Wojtsekhowski, B

    2015-05-01

    We report a 1.65 times increase of the PMT signal and a simple procedure of application of a new wavelength shifting (WLS) paint for PMTs with non-UV transparent windows. Samples of four different WLS paints, made from hydro- carbon polymers and organic fluors, were tested on a 5-inch PMT (ET 9390KB) using Cherenkov radiation produced in fused silica disks by 106Ru electrons on a table-top setup. The best performing paint was employed on two different types of 5-inch PMTs (ET 9390KB and XP4572B), installed in atmospheric pressure CO2 gas Cherenkov detectors, and tested using GeV electrons.

  5. PMT signal increase using a wavelength shifting paint

    CERN Document Server

    Allada, K; Ou, L; Schmookler, B; Shahinyan, A; Wojtsekhowski, B

    2015-01-01

    We report a 1.65 times increase of the PMT signal and a simple procedure of application of a new wavelength shifting (WLS) paint for PMTs with non-UV-transparent windows. Samples of four different WLS paints, made from hydrocarbon polymers and organic fluors, were tested on a 5-inch PMT (ET 9390KB) using Cherenkov radiation produced in fused silica disks by $^{106}$Ru electrons on a `table-top' setup. The best performing paint was employed on two different types of 5-inch PMTs (ET 9390KB and XP4572B), installed in atmospheric pressure CO$_2$ gas Cherenkov detectors, and tested using GeV electrons.

  6. Studies on some Indian paints for radiochemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The choice of paints in areas subjected to contamination and radiation in nuclear installation need special attention. The types of generic coatings are examined with reference to these requirements. Among those examined, certain types of epoxy paints are found to be attractive for these applications. Samples of epoxy paints obtained from some Indian manufacturers are tested for their suitability. Decontaminability and radiation resistance properties are also evaluated with special reference to radiochemical plants. Important specifications for such applications are listed. This report summarizes the results of these studies. (author)

  7. Aerial vehicle with paint for detection of radiological and chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Brunk, James L.; Day, S. Daniel

    2013-04-02

    A paint that warns of radiological or chemical substances comprising a paint operatively connected to the surface, an indicator material carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances, and a thermo-activation material carried by the paint. In one embodiment, a method of warning of radiological or chemical substances comprising the steps of painting a surface with an indicator material, and monitoring the surface for indications of the radiological or chemical substances. In another embodiment, a paint is operatively connected to a vehicle and an indicator material is carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances.

  8. LWR containment spray iodine removal calculation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the reactor containment vessel of LWR, there are containment sprays and air-cleaning filters to prevent the release of radioiodine from the reactor building to the atmosphere in LOCA. The computer code MIRA-PB for predicting iodine removal by containment spray is made on the basis of MIRAP/MIRAB code developed in Battelle's Columbus Laboratories. MIRA-PB considers behavior of elemental iodine, organic iodide, and iodic aerosol in natural deposition, liquid-film absorption, spray washout, filteration, and leakage to atmosphere. Information is obtained on the contributions of sprays to iodine removal under LOCA conditions which depends on partition coefficient of elemental iodine and organic iodide, pH, temperature, concentrations in gaseous and liquid phases, physical properties of spray, motion of spray droplets in the containment vessel, and mass-transfer rate from gaseous to liquid phase. Iodine removal by sprays in PWR, BWR, Battelle's CSE and JAERI-model containment is calculated by MIRA-PB under LOCA simulated condition. (auth.)

  9. Vaporization of sprays in superheated atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the accident that occurred at TMI, concern has been raised as to the potential consequences of hydrogen generation under degraded core conditions. Previous studies have addressed the effects that such an event might have on the containment environment of large dry containments. The generation and ignition of hydrogen from such an event could lead to containment atmospheric temperatures on the order of 30000F for complete combustion of hydrogen resulting from 100% metal-water reaction. At those temperatures, most of the heat is removed by radiation to the containment walls, water sprays, and convection to the walls. The relative effect that each of the heat removal mechanisms has on the containment temperature was previously addressed. The accurate modeling of each heat transfer mode is necessary to predict the temperature and pressure profiles after the burn. This paper addresses the models used to predict the rate of heat removal by water sprays. The rate at which the sprays remove heat from the containment depends upon a number of interrelated factors: the initial spray temperature, the mass flow rate of the sprays, and the fraction of the spray which vaporizes while falling through the containment atmosphere. In the discussion, the modeling of spray drop vaporization is presented

  10. On the modeling of fuel sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Christer

    1997-12-01

    This report concerns on the modelling of fuel sprays in a non-combustible case using an own developed fuel spray code module. The spray code is made as an independent module to simplify the use of different gas flow solvers together with the spray module. This enables the possibility to use different turbulence models. In the report two turbulence models has been used, the standard k-{epsilon} and the LES (Large Eddy Simulation) model. The report presents results obtained from a sensitivity study of both numerical and physical parameters on an evaporating spray under diesel like conditions (light duty diesel engine) with the spray code module attached to a cylindrical gas phase flow solver. The results from the sensitivity analysis showed that these effects were not so pronounced as has been reported. It was suggested that this was due to the `easy` nature of the investigated case, where the flow field could be sufficiently resolved without violating the droplet void fraction criteria and break-up, collision and combustion that may increase the grid spacing sensitivity were not modelled. An investigation was performed to valuate the feasibility of using LES as turbulence model. Calculations of the initial phase of a developing jet were made and it was found that in the initial phase of the spray and the flow structure were similar to that of a spatially developing jet flow, which is in agreement with experimental observations. Results from LES calculations on a developing spray jet was also compared with k-{epsilon} based ones. This result showed that the spray-LES approach captured the transition from a laminar to a turbulent flow field with an increase in turbulent kinetic energy k along the injection direction 45 refs, 37 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Properties of Plasma and HVOF Sprayed Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciech ?órawski; Otakar Bok?vka

    2012-01-01

    The work compares the properties of plasma and HVOF thermally sprayed coatings obtained by blending the NiCrBSi and Fe2O3 powders. The deposition was performed by means of the Plancer PN-120 and the Diamond Jet guns for plasma spraying and HVOF spraying respectively. The SEM (EDS) method was employed to study the microstructure of the produced coatings. Although the blended powders differ in particle size, shape, and distribution, it is possible to obtain composite coatings with an NiCrBSi m...

  12. Spray drying for processing of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consolidation of nano-particles into micron-sized granules reduces the potential risks associated with handling nano-powders in dry form. Spray drying is a one step granulation technique which can be designed for safe production of free flowing low dusty granules from suspensions of nano-particles. Spray dried granules are well suited for subsequent processing into final products where the superior properties given by the nano-particles are retained. A spray drier with bag filters inside the drying chamber and recycling of drying gas combined with containment valves are proposed as a safe process for granulation of potential hazardous nano-particles.

  13. Flower Men: The Australian Canon and Flower Painting 1910-1935

    OpenAIRE

    Ann Elias

    2008-01-01

    Historical studies of Hans Heysen, George Lambert, Tom Roberts and Arthur Streeton concentrate on paintings of landscape and people. Less well known are their paintings of flowers, which take the form of still-life painting or adjuncts to figure painting, such as portraits. While these artists are famous for the masculine way they approached masculine themes, and flower painting represents a stereotypically feminine subject, I argue that by making flowers their object of study, they intended ...

  14. A Review on Design & Development of Semi-Automated Colour Painting Machine.

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaval Thakar; Vora, Chetan P.

    2014-01-01

    Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, colour or other medium to a surface (support base). The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush but other objects can be used. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action. However, painting is also used outside of art as a common trade among craftsmen and builders. Paintings may have for their support such surface as walls, paper, canvas, wood, glass, lacquer, clay, leaf, copper ...

  15. A Scheduling Method for Painting Line under Pull Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae Kyu; Shinbo, Kojiro; Shimizu, Yoshiaki

    This paper concerns with a scheduling method for painting (preceding) line with much longer production lead-time than assembly (subsequent) line. In general, production schedule of the painting line is made independently based on the forecasted job requirement at the assembly line. When the job requirement changes at the assembly line by virtue of the change of customer order, therefore, production balance is destroyed between the both lines. To avoid the tardiness caused by such unbalance, we need to have many inventories for the painting line. Such countermeasure is taken place in many companies actually. Thus, to avoid the tardiness while keeping small inventory, we propose a scheduling method that makes a Pseudo-Pull production possible for the painting line. We have evaluated the proposed method through computer simulations.

  16. Chromatic changes on the wall paintings in Sanderum Church (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brajer, Isabelle Eve; Christensen, Mads Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes observations and results of analyses undertaken to find explanations for several phenomena affecting the colours on the Gothic wall paintings in Sanderum Church (Denmark). Paintings have been exposed on four webs of the chancel vault and one web in the nave since 1882. Three additional webs have recently been uncovered, enabling a comparison of the new un-restored scenes with the previously restored scenes. A general weakening affecting all colours was observed on the newly exposed paintings due to the limewashing and uncovering process. In addition, specific deterioration phenomena affecting the black contour lines, copper pigments and red lead were examined. The study also focuses on the lack of confirmed binding medium in the colours. Scientific analyses were augmented with tests performed on dummy paintings and limewashed tiles.

  17. The art of the early Baroque: the painting.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobalová, Sylva

    Prague : National Gallery, 2005 - (Vlnas, V.), s. 27-39 ISBN 80-7035-286-8 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : catalogue * Baroque painting in Bohemia * Karel Škréta Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  18. Mouse chromosome-specific painting probes generated from microdissected chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechty, M C; Hall, B K; Scalzi, J M; Davis, L M; Caspary, W J; Hozier, J C

    1995-09-01

    Using degenerate primer amplification of chromosomes microdissected from banded cytogenetic preparations, we constructed both whole chromosome painting probes for mouse Chromosomes (Chrs) 1, 2, 3, and 11 and a centromere probe that strongly paints most mouse centromeres. We also amplified a Robertsonian translocation chromosome microdissected from unstained preparations to construct a painting probe for Chrs 9 and 19. The chromosome probes uniformly painted the respective chromosomes of origin. We demonstrated the utility of the Chr 11 probe in aberration analysis by staining mutants that we had previously identified as containing a Chr 11 translocation, and in some mutant cell lines we observed chromosome rearrangements not previously detected in stained cytogenetic preparations. The technology of microdissection and amplification applies to all mouse chromosomes or to specific subchromosomal regions and will be useful in mouse genetics, in aberration analysis, and for chromosome identification. PMID:8535064

  19. Opportunities application of cleaner production practices in paint industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are releases of volatile organic compounds VOC from paint manufacturing process steps and from cleaning operations in El Mohandas Paint Factory. These emission can cause health, safety and productivity problems in the work area. Hence cleaner production application is necessary in this case. Some of the manufacturing processes and equipment used to accomplish these manufacturing are analyzed and generate cleaner production opportunities, implement some of cleaner production solutions of VOC emission control by some of the methods used by paint facilities in reducing emissions. It was found that there is no control available for emissions factors in paints manufacturing process, so that VOC emission based on raw material consumption rather than calculation emission from processes or equipment by alternative method. (Author)

  20. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES IN THE MANUFACTURE OF PAINT AND COATINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paints and coatings industry is rapidly changing to meet environmental and economic pressures. ome of the changes include new coating formulations, higher performance finishes with improved properties, continued development of new technologies, and new application methods wit...

  1. A new tool for painting diagnostics: Optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arecchi, T.; Bellini, M.; Corsi, C.; Fontana, R.; Materazzi, M.; Pezzati, L.; Tortora, A.

    2006-07-01

    Nondestructive techniques have seen successful growth in the last few years, and, among them, optical ones are widespread and extremely well received in the field of painting diagnostics because of their effectiveness and safety. At present, many techniques for nondestructive investigations of paintings are available; nevertheless, none of them is suitable for a quantitative characterization of varnish. However, varnish removal, either partial or complete, is a fundamental part of the cleaning process, which is an essential step in painting conservation. This critical process has been carried out, up to now, without the possibility of any non-destructive measurement for assessing the actual varnish thickness, but with microscopic observation of a detached microfragment. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive technique that is well established for biomedical applications. In this work, we present a novel application of OCT to measure the varnish film thickness for painting diagnostics.

  2. Temporary health effects from exposure to water-borne paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfvarson, U; Alexandersson, R; Dahlqvist, M; Ekholm, U; Bergström, B; Scullman, J

    1992-12-01

    Temporary health effects of exposure to experimental paints were studied. Ten painters feeling nuisance from water-borne paints and eight painters not feeling such nuisance applied eight experimental water-borne paints according to normal work routines. The effects were a decrease in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s and peak expiratory flow, an increase in urine excretion, and a decrease in urine density. A small, but statistically highly significant, increase in the mean volume of erythrocytes was observed. The effects were similar in the two groups, but the "nuisance group" reacted with a larger urine excretion and a larger increase in the mean volume of erythrocytes. The effects did not influence physical work capacity. The effects on the lungs and urinary excretion were probably not associated with the organic solvents or ammonia in the paints. Instead, they were probably due to derivatives of isothiazolinone. This assumption needs verification. PMID:1485163

  3. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy stratigraphic characterization of multilayered painted surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser spectroscopy techniques are modern and competitive methods for elemental analysis. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), due to its advantages as minimally invasive method that provides real time monitoring and selectivity, is a suitable tool to analyze sample composition. Based on the known emission spectra of heavy metals such as Pb, Zn, Au, Ca, a stratigraphic study regarding the identification of the painting layers content of different mock-up samples was performed. LIBS was used to monitor the laser induced stepwise selective removal of the painting layers and to analyze their composition. The obtained LIBS spectra were correlated with profilometric measurements. - Highlights: ? LIBS was used to analyze heavy metals in mock-up painting samples. ? LIBS data are correlated with profilometric and optical microscopy measurements. ? Appropriate analysis parameters are provided for some materials used in painting.

  4. A dry ice jet system for decontamination of painted metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, decontamination of painting on metal surface by dry ice jet was carried out. The influence of jet parameters on decontamination efficiency was examined. The results showed that the painting weight loss decreased with increasing speed of jet movement. The optimized parameters were target distance of 25 mm, jet angle of 63 degree, and the pressure of 0.6 -0.7 MPa, with a filtration efficiency of over 99% and 5.8-9.0 ?m particle sizes of the aerosol. For the painted samples polluted by 137Cs and 235U, the decontamination effect is excellent. For the polluted plumbum kettles,this method is effective. Therefore, the dry ice jet is an excellent technology for painting on metal surface. (authors)

  5. Emissivity measurement of high-emissivity black paint at CENAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C\\u00E1rdenas-Garc\\u00EDa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To measure the temperature of the surface of an opaque object by radiation thermometry, it is necessary to know its surface emissivity. High-emissivity black paint can be applied to the inner walls of a cavity to be used as a blackbody radiator. It can also be applied to some highly reflecting metals so that their temperature can be estimated by radiation thermometry. In this work, it is described the emissivity measurement of high-emissivity black paint that has been used for the two applications described above. The average emissivity of the measured paint in the 8 to 14 micrometers wavelength range was estimated as 0.972 ± 0.012. The results obtained may be of use for those using the paint at temperatures from 50 to 150? C.

  6. Emissivity measurement of high-emissivity black paint at CENAM

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D., Cárdenas-García.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To measure the temperature of the surface of an opaque object by radiation thermometry, it is necessary to know its surface emissivity. High-emissivity black paint can be applied to the inner walls of a cavity to be used as a blackbody radiator. It can also be applied to some highly reflecting metal [...] s so that their temperature can be estimated by radiation thermometry. In this work, it is described the emissivity measurement of high-emissivity black paint that has been used for the two applications described above. The average emissivity of the measured paint in the 8 to 14 micrometers wavelength range was estimated as 0.972 ± 0.012. The results obtained may be of use for those using the paint at temperatures from 50 to 150°C.

  7. Spiritual Space Making in Persian Painting (Geometry, Proportion and Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Ahmad Amiraghaei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Concept of space and its use is the basic and main topic in imagery arts works which takes shape proportion with artist view, because Persian painting space is imagination and subjective space thus passes place and time limits of material world and goes around spiritual space imagination called as archetype space, and in it depth feeling is due to surfaces adjustment with each other, although they have differences but their common point is proportion and move due to special geometrical system on shapes, by placing painting motifs in a shape under title geometry of shapes and then its spread a set of regularity and proportion with geometrical forms is created like circle and its divisions in a painting which constitutes composition base of Persian painting works.

  8. Plasma Spraying of Refractory Cermets by the Water-Stabilized Spray (WSP) System.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Brožek, Vlastimil; Chráska, Pavel; Cheong, D.-I.; Yang, S.-H.

    Las Vegas : ITSC Partner Societies, 2009 - (Marple, B.; Hyland, M.; Lau, Y.; Li, C.; Lima, R.; Montavon, G.), s. 824-829 ISBN 978-1-61503-004-0. - (ITSC). [Thermal Spray 2009: International Thermal Spray Conference. Las Vegas (US), 04.05.2009-07.05.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Plasma spraying * refractory cermets * tungsten cermets * zirconium carbide Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass www.asminternational.org

  9. Development of improved cold spray and HVOF deposited coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Marrocco, Tiziana

    2008-01-01

    The overall aim of this research project was to expand the understanding of the deposition of titanium and the nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718 by spray deposition methods. The spray processes employed were cold spraying and high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying. The first part of the work was undertaken to expand the understanding of the deposition of titanium by cold spraying; the HVOF process is unsuitable for Ti because of the metal's high reactivity. The deposits were pro...

  10. An advanced analytical study on linseed oil paint binder

    OpenAIRE

    Selleri, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Drying oils, and in particular linseed oil, were the most common binding media employed in painting between XVI and XIX centuries. Artists usually operated some pre-treatments on the oils to obtain binders with modified properties, such as different handling qualities or colour. Oil processing has a key role on the subsequent ageing of and degradation of linseed oil paints. In this thesis a multi-analytical approach was adopted to investigate the drying, polymerization and oxidative degra...

  11. Painting of fourth, a chromosome-specific protein in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Jan; Chen, J. Don; Rasheva, Vanya; Rasmuson-Lestander, Åsa; Pirrotta, Vincenzo

    2001-01-01

    Chromosome-specific gene regulation is known thus far only as a mechanism to equalize the transcriptional activity of the single male X chromosome with that of the two female X chromosomes. In Drosophila melanogaster, a complex including the five Male-Specific Lethal (MSL) proteins, “paints” the male X chromosome, mediating its hypertranscription. Here, with the molecular cloning of Painting of fourth (Pof), we describe a previously uncharacterized gene encodin...

  12. Experiencing art: the influence of expertise and painting abstraction level

    OpenAIRE

    ElinaPihko; AnneVirtanen; TimoTossavainen

    2011-01-01

    How does expertise influence the perception of representational and abstract paintings? We asked 20 experts on art history and 20 laypersons to explore and evaluate a series of paintings ranging in style from representational to abstract in five categories. We compared subjective aesthetic judgments and emotional evaluations, gaze patterns, and electrodermal reactivity between the two groups of participants. The level of abstraction affected aesthetic judgments and emotional valence ratings o...

  13. Painting and firing of late Etruscan votive terracottas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederlind, M. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Classical Studies; Trabska, J. [Archaeological Museum, Krakow (Poland)

    2002-07-01

    Ancient Italic terracottas were painted before or after firing depending on their function, as suggested by previous analyses. However, concerning the votive terracottas, there seems to have been no analyses carried out, suggesting either a fired or non fired paint. Methods and problems associated with an ongoing research on some votive terracottas from Tessennano in Southern Etruria are considered. A few preliminary results are considered as well. (orig.)

  14. Feedback-guided stroke placement for a painting machine

    OpenAIRE

    Deussen, Oliver; Lindemeier, Thomas; Pirk, Sören; Tautzenberger, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present and evaluate painterly rendering techniques that work within a visual feedback loop of eDavid, our painting robot. The machine aims at simulating the human painting process. Two such methods are compared for different objects. One uses a predefined set of stroke candidates, the other creates strokes directly using line integral convolution. The aesthetics of both methods are discussed, results are shown.

  15. Durability of concrete protected by an acrylic painting

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, J. L. Barroso de, ed. lit.; Ramos, Amparo C.; Soares, Helena I.

    2005-01-01

    The fast degradation of concrete is a problem that occurs in some structures. In order to have less degradation, the use of protection systems could be recommended. Acrylic paintings have properties that make possible its use as a protection material of concrete. In our study, one concrete that could be classified as a C33/43, was protected with two coats of an acrylic painting. The durability of the protected concrete was studied. Tests made were: capillarity absorption, oxygen perm...

  16. The painting career of Piero di Cosimo (1462-1522)

    OpenAIRE

    Geronimus, Dennis.; Martin Kemp, David Franklin

    2000-01-01

    ?In The Painting Career ofPiero di Cosimo (1462-1522), I have sought to assemble a critical, monographic study of Piero's painting oeuvre that presently includes close to fifty works that are either extant or exist only in references and sources. The Florentine painter has historically proven to be among the most elusive artists of the Italian Renaissance and yet acted as a seminal figure in the artistic transitions occurring from the close of the fifteenth century to the beginnin...

  17. Video Texture Synthesis Based on Flow-Like Stylization Painting

    OpenAIRE

    Qian Wenhua; Xu Dan; Yue Kun; Guan Zheng

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an NP-video rendering system based on natural phenomena. It provides a simple nonphotorealistic video synthesis system in which user can obtain a flow-like stylization painting and infinite video scene. Firstly, based on anisotropic Kuwahara filtering in conjunction with line integral convolution, the phenomena video scene can be rendered to flow-like stylization painting. Secondly, the methods of frame division, patches synthesis, will be used to synthesize infinite playin...

  18. Beauty in abstract paintings: perceptual contrast and statistical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph Redies

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we combined the behavioral and objective approach in the field of empirical aesthetics. First, we studied the perception of beauty by investigating shifts in evaluation on perceived beauty of abstract artworks (Experiment 1). Because the participants showed heterogeneous individual preferences for the paintings, we divided them into seven clusters for the test. The experiment revealed a clear pattern of perceptual contrast. The perceived beauty of abstract paintings increased a...

  19. The Conservation of Panel paintings : Research Agenda 2014-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Until the early 17th century almost all portable paintings were created on wood supports, including masterpieces by famous painters, ranging from Giotto to Dürer to Rembrandt. The structural conservation of these paintings requires specific knowledge and skills as the supports are susceptible to damage caused by unstable environmental conditions. Unfortunately, past structural interventions often caused significant damage due to insufficient knowledge of the behaviour of the wood panels, glue and paint layers. Over the last fifty years, the field has developed treatment strategies based on interdisciplinary collaboration and on the knowledge of specialist conservators. Most current conservation protocols rely on empirical knowledge of conservators and are not necessarily based on a scientific understanding of the nature and behaviour of wood and paint layers. In order to move the field forward, it is imperative to strengthen scientific research into the production methods, ageing and future behaviour of panel paintings, being an intricate interplay between different materials. A deeper understanding of the processes that adversely affect panel paintings over time will contribute to the improved care and conservation of these artworks. The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) and the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam brought together a group of experts from different disciplines to recommend specific areas in the field that would benefit from systematic research. The experts concluded that targeted interdisciplinary research projects are key to understanding the behaviour of panel paintings and help conservators make better informed decisions. Research into chemical and physical properties of wood, glue and paint layers should be combined with an evaluation of past and current conservation treatments. Research should also consider the history of the object, studio practice, conservation history and thoughts on long-term impact of treatments.

  20. PAINT : Pareto front interpolation for nonlinear multiobjective optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Miettinen, Kaisa; Hartikainen, Markus; Wiecek, Margaret M.

    2012-01-01

    A method called PAINT is introduced for computationally expensive multiobjective optimization problems. The method interpolates between a given set of Pareto optimal outcomes. The interpolation provided by the PAINT method implies a mixed integer linear surrogate problem for the original problem which can be optimized with any interactive method to make decisions concerning the original problem. When the scalarizations of the interactive method used do not introduce nonlinearity to the proble...

  1. Discrimination of paint emission using an electronic nose

    OpenAIRE

    Ramalho, Olivier; Regoui, Chaouki; Kirchner, Séverine

    1997-01-01

    Several paints of two types were chosen to assess an air quality monitoring tool based on an electronic nose. We are trying to improve the discrimination capability of the system by means of pattern recognition techniques. The electronic nose we use is based on conducting polymer sensors. The paint samples were acquired using an acquisition protocol that was previously defined and a data base was constituted.

  2. Clay ground in paintings: from Northern to Southern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buti, David; Vila, Anna

    The use of clay grounds containing quartz was first observed in the Netherlands in artworks from Rembrandt’s workshop after 1640 [1, 2]. In addition, contemporary written sources outside the Netherlands mention this practice in Italy and Spain [2]. However, the reason for using clay as a constituent in paintings has still not been much investigated, neither with regard to the processing nor the trade of the material. Did it give a particular colour/structure in order to achieve a specific final effect of the painted surface? Was clay cheaper than chalk, calcium sulphate or earth pigments? Did it give more flexibility to the painting support? Was it connected to the tile industry? Was it a waste/reuse from the ceramic production? To better understand the role of clay ground as a material and its influence on painting techniques, a number of Danish and Italian 17th century paintings from the Statens Museum for Kunst (SMK) collection were surveyed by means of SEM-EDX analyses, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy in order to characterize the materials employed in the red ground layers. The results indicate that these Danish and Italian grounds consist mainly of clay and quartz mixed with iron-based compounds. The investigation is demonstrating how widespread the use was of clays as constituent in paintings when comparing the analytical results performed on artworks from Northern and Southern Europe. This preliminary study will lead to further research focused on the link between artistic schools of the period, the transmission of technology and knowledge of employing this type of clay grounds and, possibly, tracing the origin of the raw materials employed in the grounds. [1] K. M. Groen, ArtMatters - Netherlands Technical Studies in Art, 3, 2005, 138-154. Waanders, Zwolle. [2] K. M. Groen, "Grounds in Rembrandt´s workshop and in paintings by his contemporaries", in E. van de Wetering et al. A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings, 2011, 318-334 + 660-677. Springer, Dordrecht

  3. Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia due to titanium nanoparticles in paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tong-Hong; Ko, Fu-Chang; Chang, Junn-Liang; Wu, Kuo-An

    2012-02-01

    We present a case of a 58-year-old man who experienced Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia after a 3-month exposure to polyester powder paint. Mineralogical analysis by transmission electron microscopy of a pulmonary sample and the polyester powder paint he was exposed to showed the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in both. We suggest that exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles should be added to the etiology of Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. PMID:22269741

  4. Characterization of paint layers and stained glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the higher magnification with respect to traditional optical microscopes, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been extensively applied in recent years to the investigation of elemental composition of many different types of artistic objects. The back-scattered and secondary electrons produced when the SEM electron beam hits the sample can be detected and converted in electronic signals which give rise to images of the scanned area. These images can be recorded in digital format and stored on a computer for subsequent processing. Moreover, in addition to the back-scattered and secondary electrons, the impact of the electron beam on the sample produces a X-ray spectrum, which can be further processed and analysed using an X-ray spectrometer coupled to the SEM. Therefore, it is possible to yield the chemical composition of the sample, analogously to the X-ray fluorescence analysis. Moreover, the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can be applied to the characterization of paint layers, making ultra-thin sections in which the paint and ground layers are preserved intact. In comparison with usual SEM measurements, the TEM technique is more precise, because of the higher spatial resolution in both the microanalysis and diffraction modes, of the order of 10-20 nm. This precision allows unique identification of each component in the layer and determination of the crystallographic structure, thus characterizing even the smallest particles of each pigment and pe smallest particles of each pigment and pointing out minor components. It is then possible to establish whether a pigment is natural, manufactured, its origin as well as approximate datations. In this work, we describe the research activities performed in the laboratory recently established at the ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technology, Energy and Environment) Applied Physics Division, where dedicated SEM and TEM are connected by a suitable imaging system to a powerful computing system for image acquisition and processing. Use has been made of the so available instruments, of both the hardware and developed software, to investigate some frescoes and stained glasses of XIV-XV centuries in the Basilica of St.Petronio in Bologna, in order to study the manufacturing techniques as well as to determine whether repairs have been carried out or substitutions made of damaged parts in the past times. (author)

  5. Effect of hydrophobic paints coating for tritium reduction in concrete materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Effects of hydrophobic paint coating in tritium transport are investigated. ? Two kinds of paints, acrylic-silicon resin and epoxy resin are used. ? The hydrophobic paints are effective to reduce tritium permeation. ? The effect of tritium reduction of epoxy paint is higher than that of silicon. - Abstract: The effects of hydrophobic paint coating on a concrete material of cement paste on the tritium transport are investigated. The cement paste is coated with two kinds of paints, acrylic-silicon resin paint and epoxy resin paint. We investigated the amount of tritium trapped in the samples exposed to tritiated water vapor by means of sorption and release. It was found that both the hydrophobic paints could reduce effectively tritium permeation during 50 days exposure of tritiated water vapor. The effect of tritium reduction of the epoxy paint was higher than that of silicon while the amount of tritium trapped in the epoxy paint was larger than that of silicon due to difference of the structure. Based on an analysis of a diffusion model, the rate-determining step of tritium migration through cement paste coated with the paints is diffusion through the paints respectively. It was found that tritium was easy to penetrate through silicon because there were many pores or voids in the silicon comparatively. In the case of tritium released from the epoxy paint, it is considered that tritium diffusion in epoxy is slow due to retardation by isotope exchane to retardation by isotope exchange reaction to water included in epoxy paint.

  6. Effect of Spray Parameters on the Corrosion Behavior of HVOF Sprayed WC-Co-Cr Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sheng; Wu, Yuping; Zheng, Yugui; Wang, Bo; Gao, Wenwen; Li, Gaiye; Ying, Guobing; Lin, Jinran

    2014-04-01

    WC-10Co-4Cr cermet coatings were deposited on the substrate of AISI 1045 steel by using high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying process. The Taguchi method including the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to optimize the porosity and, in turn, the corrosion resistance of the coatings. The spray parameters evaluated in this study were spray distance, oxygen flow, and kerosene flow. The results indicated that the important sequence of spray parameters on the porosity of the coatings was spray distance > oxygen flow > kerosene flow, and the spray distance was the only significant factor. The optimum spraying condition was 300 mm for the spray distance, 1900 scfh for the oxygen flow, and 6.0 gph for the kerosene flow. The results showed the significant influence of the microstructure on the corrosion resistance of the coatings. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impendence spectroscopy (EIS) results showed that the WC-10Co-4Cr cermet coating obtained by the optimum spraying condition with the lowest porosity exhibits the best corrosion resistance and seems to be an alternative to hard chromium coating.

  7. Numerical Simulation of Bi-component Droplet Evaporation and Dispersion in Spray and Spray Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Gopireddy, Srikanth Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Spray drying is one of the most widely used drying techniques to convert liquid feed into a dry powder. The modeling of spray flows and spray drying has been studied for many years now, to determine the characteristics of the end products, e.g. particle size, shape, density or porosity. So far, the simulation of polymer or sugar solution spray drying has not been studied because drying behavior as well as properties are unknown. Previous studies concentrated on the systems of milk, salt solut...

  8. Dose-painting IMRT optimization using biological parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yusung (Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States)); Tome, Wolfgang A. (Dept. of Human Oncology Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States)), E-mail: tome@humonc.wisc.edu

    2010-11-15

    Purpose. Our work on dose-painting based on the possible risk characteristics for local recurrence in tumor subvolumes and the optimization of treatment plans using biological objective functions that are region-specific are reviewed. Materials and methods. A series of intensity modulated dose-painting techniques are compared to their corresponding intensity modulated plans in which the entire PTV is treated to a single dose level, delivering the same equivalent uniform dose (EUD) to the entire PTV. Iso-TCP and iso-NTCP maps are introduced as a tool to aid the planner in the evaluation of the resulting non-uniform dose distributions. Iso-TCP and iso-NTCP maps are akin to iso-dose maps in 3D conformal radiotherapy. The impact of the currently limited diagnostic accuracy of functional imaging on a series of dose-painting techniques is also discussed. Results. Utilizing biological parameters (risk-adaptive optimization) in the generation of dose-painting plans results in an increase in the therapeutic ratio as compared to conventional dose-painting plans in which optimization techniques based on physical dose are employed. Conclusion. Dose-painting employing biological parameters appears to be a promising approach for individualized patient- and disease-specific radiotherapy

  9. Experiencing art: the influence of expertise and painting abstraction level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ElinaPihko

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available How does expertise influence the perception of representational and abstract paintings? We asked 20 experts on art history and 20 laypersons to explore and evaluate a series of paintings ranging in style from representational to abstract in five categories. We compared subjective aesthetic judgments and emotional evaluations, gaze patterns, and electrodermal reactivity between the two groups of participants. The level of abstraction affected aesthetic judgments and emotional valence ratings of the laypersons but had no effect on the opinions of the experts: the laypersons’ aesthetic and emotional ratings were highest for representational paintings and lowest for abstract paintings, whereas the opinions of the experts were independent of the abstraction level. The gaze patterns of both groups changed as the level of abstraction increased: the number of fixations and the length of the scanpaths increased while the duration of the fixations decreased. The viewing strategies—reflected in the target, location and path of the fixations—however indicated that experts and laypersons paid attention to different aspects of the paintings. The electrodermal reactivity did not vary according to the level of abstraction in either group but expertise was reflected in weaker responses, compared with laypersons, to information received about the paintings.

  10. Radiocarbon determinations for Chillagoe rock paintings: small sample AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indirect dating methods have been applied to the rock paintings of Chillagoe, north Queensland, revealing patterns of superimposition, depictions of items of known antiquity, the use of fragile paints such as mud, and in-situ pigment stratigraphies (David 1994). These patterns suggest that the Chillagoe rock paintings are relatively young, likely less than 3000 years old. A change in the geographical distribution of rock painting styles suggests a regionalization of the styles starting around 3000 years BP. Such regionalization implies that major cultural changes accompanied the changes in rock painting styles. This model of temporal change is now being investigated through a collaboration between the University of Queensland, ANSTO and the Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University to directly analyze radiocarbon in the charcoal pigments in several of the Chillagoe rock paintings. Samples collected from fourteen separate charcoal rock drawings at five rock shelters in the Chillagoe region were submitted to plasma chemical treatment. Though unreactive, the excited and energetic argon atoms in the plasma remove surface-absorbed CO2 through inelastic collisions. Samples yielding less than 100 micrograms carbon required special handling for AMS analysis. An isotope dilution technique utilizing 14C-free carbon was chosen. Radiocarbon analysis were also performed and the results will be presented

  11. Multifractal comparison of the painting techniques of adults and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureika, J. R.; Fairbanks, M. S.; Taylor, R. P.

    2010-02-01

    Statistical analysis of art, particularly of the abstract genre, is becoming an increasingly important tool for understanding the image creation process. We present a multifractal clustering analysis of non-representational images painted by adults and children using a 'pouring' technique. The effective dimensions (D0) are measured for each, as is the associated multifractal depth ?D = D0 - DOO. It is shown that children create paintings whose dimensions D0 are less than those created by adults. The effective dimensions for adult painters tend to cluster around 1.8, while those for children assume typical values of 1.6. In a similar fashion, the multifractal depths for images painted by adults and children show statistically-significant differences in their values. Adult paintings show a relatively shallow depth (?D ~ 0.02), while children's paintings show a much greater depth (?D ~ 0.1). Given that the 'pouring' technique reflects the body motions of the artist, the results suggest that the differences in the paintings' fractal characteristics are potential indicators of artist physiology.

  12. Dose-painting IMRT optimization using biological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. Our work on dose-painting based on the possible risk characteristics for local recurrence in tumor subvolumes and the optimization of treatment plans using biological objective functions that are region-specific are reviewed. Materials and methods. A series of intensity modulated dose-painting techniques are compared to their corresponding intensity modulated plans in which the entire PTV is treated to a single dose level, delivering the same equivalent uniform dose (EUD) to the entire PTV. Iso-TCP and iso-NTCP maps are introduced as a tool to aid the planner in the evaluation of the resulting non-uniform dose distributions. Iso-TCP and iso-NTCP maps are akin to iso-dose maps in 3D conformal radiotherapy. The impact of the currently limited diagnostic accuracy of functional imaging on a series of dose-painting techniques is also discussed. Results. Utilizing biological parameters (risk-adaptive optimization) in the generation of dose-painting plans results in an increase in the therapeutic ratio as compared to conventional dose-painting plans in which optimization techniques based on physical dose are employed. Conclusion. Dose-painting employing biological parameters appears to be a promising approach for individualized patient- and disease-specific radiotherapy

  13. The influence of painting composition on human perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woon Ju; Chong, Sang Chul

    2012-01-01

    Artists have long explored the way in which we see the world, and they have developed their own tools to portray their vision. The present study investigated whether the compositional information in paintings, an artistic device invented by artists, is utilized when people view paintings. In Experiment 1, we categorized paintings depending on their compositions through experts' ratings. Using the stimuli from Experiment 1, Experiment 2 tested if the compositional information interferes with a target detection task. We found that the false alarms increased when the targets and distracters had the same composition compared to when they were different. Finally, Experiments 3A and 3B examined whether composition information influences the perceptual similarity of paintings. Through a multi-dimensional scaling analysis, we first showed that paintings with the same composition were proximately located in the mental space (Experiment 3A). Using this distance from the MDS analysis, we found that performance on the target detection task decreased as this distance became close (Experiment 3B). These results suggest that people make use of compositions in paintings, thus providing a possible link between artworks and the human visual system. PMID:23550363

  14. Maya Painting, in a Major and Minor Key

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mary Ellen, Miller.

    Full Text Available En este ensayo, las tradiciones pictóricas mayas tanto a pequeña escala como a escala monumental son consideradas tomando en cuenta dos tradiciones pictóricas, la griega y la moche. Se presta especial atención a la posible relación entre la pintura de vasijas engobadas y la pintura mural, así como a [...] la naturaleza e implicaciones de dicha relación, señalando algunas consideraciones tanto de estilo como de iconografía. En cuanto a la pintura maya, se analiza particularmente la pintura mural de San Bartolo y Uaxactún, Guatemala, y Calakmul y Bonampak, México. Abstract in english In this essay, Maya painting traditions of both small scale and monumental are considered in light of two other world traditions of painting, Greek and Moche. Attention is given to the possible relationship between slip-based vase painting and wall painting, as well as the nature and implications of [...] such a relationship, with some consideration of both style and iconography. For Maya painting, particular attention is directed to the wall paintings of San Bartolo and Uaxactun, Guatemala, and Calakmul and Bonampak, Mexico.

  15. Emission of isothiazolinones from water-based paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundov, Michael D; Kolarik, Barbara; Bossi, Rossana; Gunnarsen, Lars; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2014-06-17

    The isothiazolinone preservatives methylisothiazolinone (MI), methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI), and benzisothiazolinone (BIT) are used in a wide variety of products including paint and cosmetics, and they are known to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Among painters they are one of the most common causes of contact dermatitis. Furthermore, they are all volatile, and severe reactions caused by emissions of especially MI from paint have been reported recently. In this study the concentrations of MI, BIT, and MCI in water-based paint were analyzed by LC-MS-MS, and the emissions from the paints were measured in climate chambers and in an apartment. Nineteen paints were analyzed for the content of MI, MCI, and BIT. All 19 paints contained MI, 16 contained BIT, and 4 contained MCI. In the chamber experiment emission of MI peaked within hours of application but then continued at a slow rate for more than 42 days. MCI was emitted more slowly and peaked after several days. BIT emissions were all around the limit of detection. In the apartment we were able to detect emission of MI several days after application. Long lasting evaporation and thus chronic exposure give credibility to the clinical observations that MI can be an important cause of airborne contact dermatitis among painters and consumers. PMID:24869638

  16. Emission of Isothiazolinones from Water-Based Paints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Kolarik, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The isothiazolinone preservatives methylisothiazolinone (MI), methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI), and benzisothiazolinone (BIT) are used in a wide variety of products including paint and cosmetics, and they are known to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Among painters they are one of the most common causes of contact dermatitis. Furthermore, they are all volatile, and severe reactions caused by emissions of especially MI from paint have been reported recently. In this study the concentrations of MI, BIT, and MCI in water-based paint were analyzed by LC-MS-MS, and the emissions from the paints were measured in climate chambers and in an apartment. Nineteen paints were analyzed for the content of MI, MCI, and BIT. All 19 paints contained MI, 16 contained BIT, and 4 contained MCI. In the chamber experiment emission of MI peaked within hours of application but then continued at a slow rate for more than 42 days. MCI was emitted more slowly and peaked after several days. BIT emissions were all around the limit of detection. In the apartment we were able to detect emission of MI several days after application. Long lasting evaporation and thus chronic exposure give credibility to the clinical observations that MI can be an important cause of airborne contact dermatitis among painters and consumers.

  17. Emission of isothiazolinones from water-based paints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael D; Kolarik, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The isothiazolinone preservatives methylisothiazolinone (MI), methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI), and benzisothiazolinone (BIT) are used in a wide variety of products including paint and cosmetics, and they are known to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Among painters they are one of the most common causes of contact dermatitis. Furthermore, they are all volatile, and severe reactions caused by emissions of especially MI from paint have been reported recently. In this study the concentrations of MI, BIT, and MCI in water-based paint were analyzed by LC-MS-MS, and the emissions from the paints were measured in climate chambers and in an apartment. Nineteen paints were analyzed for the content of MI, MCI, and BIT. All 19 paints contained MI, 16 contained BIT, and 4 contained MCI. In the chamber experiment emission of MI peaked within hours of application but then continued at a slow rate for more than 42 days. MCI was emitted more slowly and peaked after several days. BIT emissions were all around the limit of detection. In the apartment we were able to detect emission of MI several days after application. Long lasting evaporation and thus chronic exposure give credibility to the clinical observations that MI can be an important cause of airborne contact dermatitis among painters and consumers.

  18. Plasma spray technology process parameters and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current trend in the structural design philosophy is based on the use of substrate with the necessary mechanical properties and a thin coating to exhibit surface properties. Plasma spray process is a versatile surface coating technique which finds extensive application in meeting advance technologies. This report describes the plasma spray technique and its use in developing coatings for various applications. The spray system is desribed in detail including the different variables such as power input to the torch, gas flow rate, powder properties, powder injection, etc. and their interrelation in deciding the quality of the coating. A brief write-up on the various plasma spray coatings developed for different applications is also included. (author). 15 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

  19. 21 CFR 524.2482 - Triamcinolone spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in dogs —(1) Amount . Apply sufficient pump sprays to...use . For the control of pruritus associated with allergic dermatitis. (3) Limitations . Federal law restricts this...

  20. Structure of Non-evaporating diesel sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Need is always felt of some rational experimental information on fuel spray jet formation, its development and dispersion in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. The latest study uses computational fluid dynamics for the modeling of engine flows. The original experimental work of the present author on non-evaporating sprays produced by a single-hole orifice type nozzle using a distribution type commercial fuel injection pump forms the basis to derive correlations for penetration rates, break up times and lengths of non-evaporating diesel sprays. The correlations derived can be used to do CFD modeling of sprays under variable conditions of injector nozzle hole diameter, fuel injection pressure and combustion chamber pressure. (author)

  1. Properties of Plasma and HVOF Sprayed Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech ?órawski

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The work compares the properties of plasma and HVOF thermally sprayed coatings obtained by blending the NiCrBSi and Fe2O3 powders. The deposition was performed by means of the Plancer PN-120 and the Diamond Jet guns for plasma spraying and HVOF spraying respectively. The SEM (EDS method was employed to study the microstructure of the produced coatings. Although the blended powders differ in particle size, shape, and distribution, it is possible to obtain composite coatings with an NiCrBSi matrix containing iron oxides. Except for a different microstructure, plasma and HVOF coatings have a different phase composition, which was examined using the Bruker D-8 Advance diffractometer. Studies of the coatings wear and scuffing resistance showed that an optimal content of Fe2O3 is about 26 % for plasma sprayed coatings and 22.5 % for HVOF deposited coatings.

  2. PROPERTIES OF PLASMA AND HVOF SPRAYED COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otakar Bok?vka

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article compares the properties of plasma and HVOF thermally sprayed coatings obtained by blending the NiCrBSi and Fe2O3 powders. The deposition was performed by means of the Plancer PN-120 and the Diamond Jet guns for plasma spraying and HVOF spraying respectively. The SEM (EDS method was employed to study the microstructure of the produced coatings. Although the blended powders differ in particle size, shape, and distribution, it is possible to obtain composite coatings with an NiCrBSi matrix containing iron oxides. Except for a different microstructure, plasma and HVOF coatings have a different phase composition, which was examined using the Bruker D-8 Advance diffractometer. Studies of the coatings wear and scuffing resistance showed that an optimal content of Fe2O3 is about 26 % for plasma sprayed coatings and 22.5 % for HVOF deposited coatings.

  3. Study on spray model during severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In case of severe accident of PWR, large amount of hydrogen may accumulate in the containment. Unsuitable action of containment spray system will change the inert environment of containment, and cause hydrogen challenge or detonation which may challenge the integrity of containment. the condition of the containment pressure for avoiding hydrogen combustion, at different amount of hydrogen, is concluded based on reasonable assumptions and experimental correlations of hydrogen detonation. According this, a conservative spraying mode, upon which spraying pump is manually turned on or off with containment pressure, is proposed. The analysis results aiming at Daya Day Nuclear Power Plant by using MELCOR show that the operation mode is feasible. The impact of pit flooding, spontaneous hydrogen combustion and containment basement compositions on spraying mode is also analyzed

  4. Spray drying of beryllium oxide powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forming of beryllia ceramics through dry pressing requires the agglomeration of the powder through spray drying. To produce high quality fired ceramics it is necessary to disperse/grind the primary powder prior to binder addition. Size reduction of the powder is accomplished using an aqueous system in Vibro-Energy mills (VEM) charged with beryllia media to minimize contamination. Two VEM mills of different size were used to characterize the grinding operation. Details of the grinding kinetics are described within the context of the Macroscopic Population Balance Model approach. Spray drying of the ceramic slurry was accomplished with both a centrifugal atomizer and a two fluid nozzle atomizer. Two different spray dryers were used. Important operating parameters affecting the size distribution of the spray dried powder are discussed

  5. Water Reclamation using Spray Drying Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This purpose of this project is to develop a spray drying prototype to for the recovery and recycle of water from concentrated waste water recovery system brine....

  6. Water Reclamation using Spray Drying Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a new spray drying technology for the recovery and recycle of water while stabilizing the solid wastes or residues as found in advanced life support...

  7. Transfer of tritium in concrete coated with hydrophobic paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Rates of tritium migration in porous concrete materials coated with or without hydrophobic paints for the safety of fusion reactor rooms are correlated in terms of diffusivity or linear sorption. - Abstract: An experimental study on tritium (T) transfer in porous concrete for the tertiary T safety containment is performed to investigate (i) how fast HTO penetrates through concrete walls, (ii) how well concrete walls contaminated with water-soluble T are decontaminated by a solution-in-water technique, and (iii) how well hydrophobic paint coating works as a protecting film against HTO migrating through concrete walls. The experiment is comparatively carried out using disks of cement paste which W(water)/C(cement) weight ratio is 0.6:1 with or without hydrophobic paints, and mortar disks which W/C/sand ratio is 0.6:1:2 with or without the paints. The hydrophobic paints tested in the present study are an epoxy polymer resin paint and an acrylic-silicon polymer resin one. After T exposure during specified time under a constant HTO vapor pressure in an acrylic box, the amount of water-soluble HTO on/in the disks is determined using a technique of H2O dissolution during specified time. The results obtained here are summarized as follows: (1) HTO penetration in porous concrete can be correlated in terms of the effective diffusivity. (2) Its value in porous cement without coating is 1.2 × 10?11 m2/s at 25 °C. (3) HTO penetrp>2/s at 25 °C. (3) HTO penetrates only through pores in cement, and there is no path for HTO transfer in non-porous sand. (4) Rates of sorption and dissolution of HTO in disks of cement and mortar coated with the epoxy resin paint are correlated in terms of the effective diffusivity through the paint film which value is DT = 1.0 × 10?16 m2/s. The rate-determining step is diffusion through the paint. (5) The epoxy resin paint works more effectively as an anti-HTO diffusion coating. (6) Another acrylic-silicon resin paint does not work well as anti-HTO diffusion coating. This may be because the hydrophobic property of the silicon resin paint is deteriorated with elongating the contact time with H2O vapor or liquid. (7) The HTO uptake inside the epoxy paint is greater than that of the silicon one. (8) The permeation reduction factor (PRF) of HTO for the epoxy paint at steady-state is expected large, if HTO vapor only contributes to diffusion. However, when concrete surfaces coated with the epoxy paint are under wet conditions, the PRF value becomes smaller. All those results can be used to estimate the effect of HTO soaking in concrete walls in case of accidental T release in a fusion reactor room and to decontaminate wastes of tritiated concrete.

  8. Vibrational and electronic properties of painting lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, C.; Doherty, B.; Gentili, P. L.; Miliani, C.; Romani, A.; Brunetti, B. G.; Sgamellotti, A.

    2008-07-01

    Naturally occurring dyes have been used to produce painting pigments, called lakes, by precipitation or adsorption of an organic dyestuff onto an insoluble inorganic substrate. Most natural dyes link to metal cations, by means of coordination bonds. The stable complexes formed precipitate together with solid amorphous hydrous aluminum oxide in alkaline solutions, yielding a hybrid material called a lake. Conventional chromatographic methods for lake analysis require dye extraction from the substrate; as a consequence, they do not provide any information about the organo-metallic complexes. In this work a comprehensive investigation based on X-ray fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared and UV-visible absorption and emission spectroscopies was carried out on 13 organic pigments derived from eight different natural sources. Three different kinds of substrate containing aluminum hydroxide were distinguished dependent on different preparation procedures. Information concerning the recipe and the dye composition was obtained by UV-visible spectroscopies. Dyes from different sources (animal or vegetal) could be distinguished. This study shows that the combined use of different spectroscopic techniques provides complementary information to high-performance liquid chromatography and therefore can be proposed for a molecular non-invasive investigation of these materials on works of art.

  9. Painting a Graph with Competing Random Walks

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Let $X_1, X_2$ be independent random walks on $\\Z_n^d$, $d \\geq 3$, each starting from the uniform distribution. Initially, each site of $\\Z_n^d$ is unmarked and, whenever $X_i$ visits such a site, it is set irreversibly to $i$. The mean of $|\\CA_i|$, the cardinality of the set $\\CA_i$ of sites painted by $i$ once all of $\\Z_n^d$ has been visited, is $n^d/2$ by symmetry. We prove the following conjecture due to Pemantle and Peres: for each $d \\geq 3$ there exists a constant $\\alpha_d$ such that $\\lim_{n \\to \\infty} \\var(|\\CA_i|) / h_d(n) = \\tfrac{1}{4}\\alpha_d$ where $h_3(n) = n^4$, $h_4(n) = n^4 (\\log n)$, and $h_d(n) = n^d$ for $d \\geq 5$. We will also identify $\\alpha_d$ explicitly. This is a special case of a more general theorem which gives the asymptotics of $\\var(|\\CA_i|)$ for a large class of transient, vertex transitive graphs; other examples include the hypercube and the Caley graph of the symmetric group generated by transpositions.

  10. Degradation of lime wood painting supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Popescu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of wood, being a natural process, leads to destruction of wooden objects of historic and cultural value, resulting in loss of cultural heritage. Wood can survive centuries or even thousands of years, if kept in an environment, which limits microbial activity. In an unfavourable environment physical, chemical and morphological modifications of wood also take place as a result of biodegradation. It is important to know the type of degradation and how the processes influence material properties if wooden items are to be properly preserved. The objective of this study is to present new knowledge on non-invasive techniques useful to assess the preservation status of lime wood in art objects. The methods of investigation were optical and electronic microscopy, wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS, and FT-IR spectroscopy. Following a deconvolution process of the diffraction patterns, crystalline index, apparent lateral crystallite size, proportion of crystallite interior chains, orientation index, mesomorphism, cellulose fraction have been determined and shown to change with increasing age of painting supports. Structural modifications were assessed by FT-IR spectrometry and 2D correlation FT-IR spectroscopy, while morphological modification were characterised using SEM. The principal hetero-elements of the lime wood samples were detected by EDX. It can be concluded that only a multi-analytical approach can provide the information needed on wood degradation processes.

  11. IN THE CONTEMPORARY TURKISH PAINTING TRADITIONAL INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol KILIÇ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the establishment of the Republic, we are witnesses to effording to form identity by Turkish painters in Turkish painting as in other areas of the arts. Turgut Zaim and Nurullah Berk are the first examples we can give. The early 1950s, intense discussions were made on the identity in the fields of art and in this context, artists have tried their first products in traditional interaction. While Turgut Zaim and Nurullah Berk's miniature interactive experiments were going on, in parallel with the influencing progress of the artists of abstract expressionist art, Calligraphy in Turkey, ornaments and decorative surface and creating an image of the carpet-rug patterns are seen in the effects. Initially, traditional interaction which was appeared as a formal has continued to be internalized in the following process and affected on creations of young artists generation after 1970 period. Traditional interaction is still going on in the individual creations of young Turkish artists at the present.

  12. Thermal spray fundamentals from powder to part

    CERN Document Server

    Fauchais, Pierre L; Boulos, Maher

    2014-01-01

    This book provides readers with the fundamentals necessary for the process understanding thermal spray technology. Each chapter is preceded by a summary which allows each reader to judge the importance of the information in it for any specific purpose. This book will serve as an invaluable resource as a textbook for graduate courses in this field and as an exhaustive reference for professionals involved in thermal spray technology.

  13. Automatic targeting of plasma spray gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A means for monitoring the material portion in the flame of a plasma spray gun during spraying operations is described. A collimated detector, sensitive to certain wavelengths of light emission, is used to locate the centroid of the material with each pass of the gun. The response from the detector is then relayed to the gun controller to be used to automatically realign the gun

  14. Mechanical properties of plasma sprayed titania coatings.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Neufuss, Karel; Chráska, Pavel

    Ohio, USA : ASM International Materials Park OH 44073-0002, 2006, s9-5-11948. [International Thermal Spray Conference 2006. Seattle, WA, USA (US), 15.05.2006-18.05.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R(CZ) 1QS200430560 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : plasma spraying * titania coating * nanopowder * structure * porosity * microhardness * slurry abrasion Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass

  15. 3D Visualization of Thermally Sprayed Microstructure.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Hofmann, Pavel; Chráska, Pavel; Lechnerová, R.; Beneš, V.

    Materials Park, Ohio : ASM International, 2007, s. 878-883. ISBN 978-0-87170-855-7. [International Thermal Spray Conference 2007. Peking (CN), 14.05.2007-16.05.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R 1QS200430560 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : plasma spraying * volumetric reconstruction * visualization * structure * pores * oxides Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass

  16. Pharmaceutical Particle Engineering via Spray Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Vehring, Reinhard

    2007-01-01

    This review covers recent developments in the area of particle engineering via spray drying. The last decade has seen a shift from empirical formulation efforts to an engineering approach based on a better understanding of particle formation in the spray drying process. Microparticles with nanoscale substructures can now be designed and their functionality has contributed significantly to stability and efficacy of the particulate dosage form. The review provides concepts and a theoretical fra...

  17. New tools to optimise spray dryers

    OpenAIRE

    Verschueren, M.; Straatsma, J.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Akkerman, C.; De Jong, P.

    2007-01-01

    Spray drying is an essential unit operation for the manufacture of many products with specific powder properties. It is characterised by atomisation of a solution or suspension into droplets, followed by subsequent drying of these droplets by evaporation of water or other solvents. Spray drying is used for the manufacture of many consumer and industrial products such as instant food products, laundry detergents, pharmaceuticals, ceramics and agrochemicals. The best known example of an instant...

  18. Spray drying of bead resins: feasibility tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwell International has developed a volume reduction system for low-level reactor wastes based on drying the wastes in a heated-air spray dryer. The drying of slurries of sodium sulfate, boric acid, and powdered ion exchange resins was demonstrated in previous tests. The drying of bead ion exchange resins can be especially difficult due to the relatively large size of bead resins (about 500 to 800 microns) and their natural affinity for water. This water becomes part of the pore structure of the resins and normally comprises 50 t 60 wt % of the resin weight. A 76-cm-diameter spray dryer was used for feasibility tests of spray drying of cation and anion bead resins. These resins were fed to the dryer in the as-received form (similar to dewatered resins) and as slurries. A dry, free-flowing product was produced in all the tests. The volume of the spray-dried product was one-half to one-third the volume of the as-received material. An economic analysis was made of the potential cost savings that can be achieved using the Rockwel spray dryer system. In-plant costs, transportation costs, and burial costs of spray-dried resins were compared to similar costs for disposal of dewatered resins. A typical utility producing 170 m3 (6,000 ft3) per year of dewatered resins can save $600,000 to $700,000 per year using this volume reduction system

  19. Identification of the chemical inventory of different paint types applied in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The floors, concrete walls and many of the metal surfaces in nuclear power plant containments are coated with zinc primers or paint films to preserve the metal surfaces and simplify decontamination in the containment after the occurrence of a severe nuclear incident or accident. A chemical examination of paint films from different nuclear installations out of operation, as well as current operating ones, reveals that different types of paints are used whose composition can vary significantly. Results obtained for one type of paint at a certain nuclear site are in most cases unlikely to be comparable with sites painted with another type of paint. During normal operation and particularly during nuclear accidents, the paints will degrade under the high temperature, steam and irradiation influence. As paint and its degradation products can act as sources and depots for volatile iodine compounds, the type and aging conditions of the paint films will have a significant impact on the source term of the volatile fission product iodine. Thus, great care should be taken when extrapolating any results obtained for the interaction of radioactive iodine with one paint product to a different paint product. The main focus of the study is a comparison of the chemical profile of paint films applied in Swedish nuclear power plants. Teknopox Aqua V A, an epoxy paint recently used at Ringhals 2, and an emulsion paint used in the scrubber buildings of Ringhals 1-4 are compared with a pains of Ringhals 1-4 are compared with a paint film from Barsebaeck nuclear power plant unit 1 that had been aged under real reactor conditions for 20 years. In addition, two paint films, an emulsion and a gloss paint, used in an international nuclear fuel reprocessing facility, are compared with the paints from the Swedish nuclear power plants. (author)

  20. Heavy duty plasma spray gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A heavy duty plasma spray gun for extended industrial service is disclosed. The gun includes a gas distribution member made of a material having a coefficient of expansion different from that of the parts surrounding it. The gas distribution member is forcibly urged by a resilient member such as a coiled spring against a seal so as to assure the plasma gas is introduced into the gun arc in a manner only defined by the gas distribution member. The gun has liquid cooling for the nozzle (anode) and the cathode. Double seals are provided between the coolant and the arc region and a vent is provided between the seals which provides an indication when a seal has failed. Some parts of the gun are electrically isolated from others by an intermediate member which is formed as a sandwich of two rigid metal face pieces and an insulator disposed between them. The metal face pieces provide a rigid body to attach the remaining parts in proper alignment therewith

  1. Failure-probability driven dose painting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogelius, Ivan R.; Håkansson, Katrin; Due, Anne K.; Aznar, Marianne C.; Kristensen, Claus A.; Rasmussen, Jacob; Specht, Lena [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100 (Denmark); Berthelsen, Anne K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark and Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100 (Denmark); Bentzen, Søren M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark and Departments of Human Oncology and Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate a data-driven dose-painting strategy based on the spatial distribution of recurrences in previously treated patients. The result is a quantitative way to define a dose prescription function, optimizing the predicted local control at constant treatment intensity. A dose planning study using the optimized dose prescription in 20 patients is performed.Methods: Patients treated at our center have five tumor subvolumes from the center of the tumor (PET positive volume) and out delineated. The spatial distribution of 48 failures in patients with complete clinical response after (chemo)radiation is used to derive a model for tumor control probability (TCP). The total TCP is fixed to the clinically observed 70% actuarial TCP at five years. Additionally, the authors match the distribution of failures between the five subvolumes to the observed distribution. The steepness of the dose–response is extracted from the literature and the authors assume 30% and 20% risk of subclinical involvement in the elective volumes. The result is a five-compartment dose response model matching the observed distribution of failures. The model is used to optimize the distribution of dose in individual patients, while keeping the treatment intensity constant and the maximum prescribed dose below 85 Gy.Results: The vast majority of failures occur centrally despite the small volumes of the central regions. Thus, optimizing the dose prescription yields higher doses to the central target volumes and lower doses to the elective volumes. The dose planning study shows that the modified prescription is clinically feasible. The optimized TCP is 89% (range: 82%–91%) as compared to the observed TCP of 70%.Conclusions: The observed distribution of locoregional failures was used to derive an objective, data-driven dose prescription function. The optimized dose is predicted to result in a substantial increase in local control without increasing the predicted risk of toxicity.

  2. Failure-probability driven dose painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelius, Ivan R.; Håkansson, Katrin; Due, Anne K.; Aznar, Marianne C.; Berthelsen, Anne K.; Kristensen, Claus A.; Rasmussen, Jacob; Specht, Lena; Bentzen, Søren M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate a data-driven dose-painting strategy based on the spatial distribution of recurrences in previously treated patients. The result is a quantitative way to define a dose prescription function, optimizing the predicted local control at constant treatment intensity. A dose planning study using the optimized dose prescription in 20 patients is performed. Methods: Patients treated at our center have five tumor subvolumes from the center of the tumor (PET positive volume) and out delineated. The spatial distribution of 48 failures in patients with complete clinical response after (chemo)radiation is used to derive a model for tumor control probability (TCP). The total TCP is fixed to the clinically observed 70% actuarial TCP at five years. Additionally, the authors match the distribution of failures between the five subvolumes to the observed distribution. The steepness of the dose–response is extracted from the literature and the authors assume 30% and 20% risk of subclinical involvement in the elective volumes. The result is a five-compartment dose response model matching the observed distribution of failures. The model is used to optimize the distribution of dose in individual patients, while keeping the treatment intensity constant and the maximum prescribed dose below 85 Gy. Results: The vast majority of failures occur centrally despite the small volumes of the central regions. Thus, optimizing the dose prescription yields higher doses to the central target volumes and lower doses to the elective volumes. The dose planning study shows that the modified prescription is clinically feasible. The optimized TCP is 89% (range: 82%–91%) as compared to the observed TCP of 70%. Conclusions: The observed distribution of locoregional failures was used to derive an objective, data-driven dose prescription function. The optimized dose is predicted to result in a substantial increase in local control without increasing the predicted risk of toxicity. PMID:23927314

  3. / The 'Philosophical paintings' of the Republic

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Zacharoula A., Petraki.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo examino la apropiación platónica del lenguaje poético en República y sostengo que, a pesar de sus críticas a la poesía en los libros 3 y 10, el lenguaje poético está correctamente entrelazado dentro del tejido filosófico para pintar lo corrupto, lo feo y lo inmoral. En términ [...] os específicos, la adaptación platónica de diversos motivos poéticos e imágenes en República se vuelve más significativa si prestamos atención a Sócrates como un quasi-pintor en el diálogo e interpretamos sus imágenes filosóficas como una respuesta de la filosofía a las engañosas representaciones dramáticas de la poesía. De este modo, el arte de la pintura que, incluso es criticado en el libro 10 de República, en manos de Platón resulta una herramienta filosófica que le permite investigar la relación de nuestro mundo senso-perceptivo ordinario con el campo metafísico de las Ideas y el lugar de lo humano en él. Abstract in english In this article I examine Plato's appropriation of poetic language in the Republic and argue that, despite his criticism of poetry in Books 3 and 10, poetic language is justifiably weaved into the philosophical fabric to depict the corrupt, the ugly and the base. In specific terms, Plato's adaptatio [...] n of several poetic motifs and images in the Republic becomes more meaningful if we choose to pay attention to Socrates as a quasi painter in the dialogue and interpret his philosophical images as philosophy's response to the deceptive dramatic representations of poetry. Thus the art of painting, which is also criticised in Republic Book 10, in Plato's hands becomes a philosophical tool which helps him investigate the relation of our mundane sense-perceptive world to the metaphysical realm of the Ideas and humans' place in it.

  4. The Effect of Spray Distance and Scanning Step on the Coating Thickness Uniformity in Cold Spray Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhenhua; Deng, Sihao; Liao, Hanlin; Zeng, Chunnian; Montavon, Ghislain

    2014-02-01

    In the process of cold spray applications, robot kinematic parameters represent significant influences on the coating quality. Those parameters include: spray distance, spray angle, gun relative velocity to substrate, scanning step, and cycle numbers. The combined effects which are caused by their interactions determine the coating thickness. The increasing requirements of coating productivity lead to the objectivity of analyzing the effect of robot kinematic parameters. So it becomes necessary to optimize the robot trajectory for spraying process in order to obtain a desired coating thickness. This study aims at investigating the relationship between the coating profile and the spray distance, scanning step, and introducing the basic principle of a software toolkit named thermal spray toolkit (TST) developed in our laboratory to generate the optimized robot trajectories in spray processes including thermal spray and cold spray. Experiments have been carried out to check the reliability of the simulated coating profile and the calculated coating thickness by TST.

  5. Multiple-Nozzle Spray Head Applies Foam Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Joe T.

    1993-01-01

    Spray head equipped with four-nozzle turret mixes two reactive components of polyurethane and polyisocyanurate foam insulating material and sprays reacting mixture onto surface to be insulated. If nozzle in use becomes clogged, fresh one automatically rotated into position, with minimal interruption of spraying process. Incorporates features recirculating and controlling pressures of reactive components to maintain quality of foam by ensuring proper blend at outset. Also used to spray protective coats on or in ships, aircraft, and pipelines. Sprays such reactive adhesives as epoxy/polyurethane mixtures. Components of spray contain solid-particle fillers for strength, fire retardance, toughness, resistance to abrasion, or radar absorption.

  6. From Powders to Thermally Sprayed Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchais, Pierre; Montavon, Ghislain; Bertrand, Ghislaine

    2010-01-01

    Since the early stages of thermal spray, it has been recognized that the powder composition, size distribution, shape, mass density, mechanical resistance, components distribution for composite particles play a key role in coating microstructure and thermo mechanical properties. The principal characteristics of particles are strongly linked to the manufacturing process. Coatings also depend on the process used to spray particles and spray parameters. Many papers have been devoted to the relationships existing between coating properties and structures at different scales and manufacturing processes. In many conventional spray conditions resulting in micrometric structures, among the different parameters, good powder flow ability, and dense particles are important features. Thermal plasma treatment, especially by RF plasma, of particles, prepared by different manufacturing processes, allows achieving such properties and it is now developed at an industrial scale. Advantages and drawbacks of this process will be discussed. Another point, which will be approached, is the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis, depending very strongly upon the starting composite particle manufacturing. However, as everybody knows, "small is beautiful" and nano- or finely structured coatings are now extensively studied with spraying of: (i) very complex alloys containing multiple elements which exhibit a glass forming capability when cooled-down, their under-cooling temperature being below the glass transition temperature; (ii) conventional micrometer-sized particles (in the 30-90 ?m range) made of agglomerated nanometer-sized particles; (iii) sub-micrometer- or nanometer-sized particles via a suspension in which also, instead of particles, stable sol of nanometer-sized particles can be introduced; and (iv) spray solutions of final material precursor. These different processes using plasma, HVOF or sometimes flame and also cold-gas spray will be discussed together with the production of nanometer-sized particles via the chemical reaction method or by a special type of milling: the cryogenic milling process often referred to as "cryomilling."

  7. Example of using strippable paint for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the prevention of salt damage to stainless steel surface or the temporary rust prevention for carbon steel welded parts, the strippable paint of synthetic rubber shows excellent performance. Based on this fact, the strippable paint was applied to actual plants, and the expected results were obtained. The strippable paint forms the coating on surfaces to protect against corrosion or mechanical damage, and at the time of using things, the coating is peeled easily. As for the kinds of strippable paint, there are organic solution type, water dispersion type, organo-sol type, aqueous solution type and so on. The strippable paint supplied by Daito Kogyo K.K. is especially excellent in the limitation of harmful substance to stainless steel, the resistance to ultraviolet deterioration, the application of thick coating and the strength of dried films. Moreover, the low temperature hardening is slight, and below 80 deg C, it withstands the use for a fairly long period. The examples of use for atomic energy equipment and other field are reported, and the matters to which attention must be paid in its use are shown. (Kako, I.)

  8. Manet/ Velazquez: The French Taste for Spanish Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    The opening sequence of this exhibition Web site depicts the bidding process for an acclaimed Spanish painting, Murillio's "Immaculate Conception," which was purchased by the Musee de Louvre in 1852. Sponsored by the Metropolitan Museum of Art and Accenture, this beautiful site explores the great love of Spanish painting by the French throughout the latter half of the nineteenth century. Visitors will want to start by viewing the Artists' Journey through Spain section, which allows them to look at an interactive map of the travels within Spain that led artists such as Mary Cassatt, Edouard Manet, and others to produce such lasting and powerful works of art. The Comparative Gallery section is a fine feature that allows visitors to drag two different paintings from five different online galleries and read text that compares these nineteenth century French and American works with the Spanish paintings that inspired them. The Artists and Paintings section offers a brief overview in the exhibit, as well as a timeline that features crucial political, social, and cultural events from 1780 to 1890 that affected the artistic milieu of Spain and France. Perhaps the finest feature of the site is the ability to view the legendary Prado Museum in Madrid as Manet would have viewed it in the 1870s. Utilizing the photographs of the museum's grand Sala Central taken by Jean Laurent between 1879 and 1885, visitors can navigate around the interior, and zoom in and out as they prefer.

  9. Cyclic voltammetry and RBS study of paint components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy metals and metalloid ions are found in environmental matrices. The most toxic are lead, cadmium and mercury. These three heavy metals have no biological function and are toxic at all concentrations. Lead is one of the most insidious heavy metals and is introduced into the environment by many different means. It persists in both urban and rural settings, being found in paint chips, pottery, crystal and pharmaceutical and nutritional products. The analysis of heavy elements such as lead in soil is of particular importance [W.T. Sturges, R.M. Harrison, Sci. Total Environ. 44 (3) (1985) 225; M.L. Lepow, L. Bruckman, M. Gillette, S. Markowitz, R. Robino, J. Kapish, Environ. Res. 10 (3) (1975) 415; A.E. Daniels, J.R. Kominsky, P.J. Clark, J. Hazard. Mater. B 87 (2001) 117; G. Hutter, D. Moshman, J. Hazard. Mater. 40 (1995) 1]. In preparing the methods for lead detection in paint, we have used Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) in order to study the type and amount of heavy metal content in paint samples collected at various sites in the historic campus at A and M University (AAMU). We will show the results of our study with emphasis on comparison of what we learned about presence of lead in paints using our ion beam methods compared with the analysis of lead in paints using cyclic voltammetry

  10. Paint coating characterization for thermoelastic stress analysis of metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) it is normal practice to coat metallic specimens with black paint to enhance and standardize the surface emissivity. It is assumed that the paint coating has no effect on the thermal emission from the specimen, but it is well known that the response is sensitive to paint coating thickness, particularly at higher frequencies. In this paper the effects of loading frequency and paint coating thickness on the thermoelastic response are investigated. The thermoelastic response is compared to theory, and optimum test conditions and coating characteristics are suggested. The motivation for the work is to develop a TSA-based means of residual stress assessment, where the measurement of much smaller temperature changes than those that are resolved in standard TSA is required; therefore the analysis is much more sensitive to the effects of the paint coating. However, the work presented in this paper is relevant to a wide range of TSA investigations and presents data that will be of interest to all practitioners of TSA

  11. New approaches for investigating paintings by ion beam techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up to now, among the IBA techniques, only PIXE has been used for analyzing paintings. However, quantitative PIXE analysis is sometimes difficult to interpret due to the layered structure, the presence of varnish and organic binder and, in some cases, discoloration of the pigments has been observed due to the interaction of the ion beam with the compounds. In order to improve the characterization of paintings, we propose some alternative experimental procedures. First of all, backscattering spectrometry (BS) and PIXE are simultaneously combined in order to collect complementary information such as layer thickness and organic compound quantification. The simultaneous PIXE and BS experiments also have the advantage of being able to analyze the same area in one experiment. This combination, implemented with an external beam, was directly applied on paintings and on painting cross-sections for the study of Italian Renaissance masterpieces. We have obtained valuable results not only on the pigment itself but also, for the first time, on the binder to pigment proportion which is not well documented in the ancient recipes. Moreover, in order to restrain beam damages due to the ion stopping power, we propose to analyze very thin painting cross-sections by a combination of PIXE-RBS and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM).

  12. Irradiation effects on canvas oil painting: Spectroscopic observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    “Winter” oil painting, by Romanian contemporary artist George Alexandrescu was used as experimental model for the substantiation of gamma radiation treatment, as the best choice to stop the biological attack of paintings. In this purpose, spectroscopic and colorimetric methods were used to analyse in situ, non-destructively and non-contact, the experimental model before and after 60Co gamma irradiation. Chemical structure and colour changes were monitored by FTIR, FT-Raman and Vis reflectance spectroscopy. Negligible Infrared spectral transformations have been observed after irradiation. Furthermore, it was found that gamma irradiation did not induce any significant colour alterations. Insignificant structural and colour changes observed, recommend the use of gamma irradiation in the disinfection of oil paintings. - Highlights: ? Oil painting experimental model was gamma irradiated at 33 kGy. ? Changes induced by gamma irradiation were investigated in situ by spectral methods. ? Insignificant FT-IR/Raman spectral and colour variations were observed. ? Negligible changes recommend the irradiation for oil paintings disinfection.

  13. Canvas Supports in Paintings by Nicolai Abildgaard: Fabrics and Formats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filtenborg, Troels Folke

    2015-01-01

    An investigation of the technique and materials in paintings by the Danish artist Nicolai Abildgaard (1743 – 1809) included examination of the canvas supports in a large number of his works. Thread count and weave density were studied by automated weave-mapping computer software, designed for working with digital X-radiographs. This was also used for the comparison of weave patterns in order to establish matches between the canvases of various paintings and thereby verify that different canvases originated from the same bolt. The canvas supports in paintings executed by Abildgaard in Rome 1772-77 appeared to be typical only in some ways for Italian canvas production of the era. In comparison, the supports of his Danish paintings were found to have features in common that to a large degree were determined by practical and economic factors such as Danish eighteenth-century fiscal policy, market conditions and manufacture circumstances. This applied to the quality of the fabric, i.e. the type of fibre, thread count and tightness of weave, as well as the scale and the formats within which the majority of the paintings fall.

  14. Leaching of copper and zinc from spent antifouling paint particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaching of Cu and Zn from a composite of spent antifouling paint particles, containing about 300 mg g-1 and 110 mg g-1 of the respective metals, was studied in batch experiments. For a given set of simulated environmental conditions, release of Cu was independent of paint particle concentration due to attainment of pseudo-saturation, but Zn was less constrained by solubility effects and release increased with increasing particle concentration. Leaching of Cu increased but Zn decreased with increasing salinity, consistent with mechanisms governing the dissolution of Cu2O in the presence of chloride and Zn acrylates in the presence of seawater cations. Because of complex reaction kinetics and the presence of calcium carbonate in the paint matrix, metal leaching appeared to be greater at 4 deg. C than 19 deg. C under many conditions. These findings have important environmental and biological implications regarding the deliberate or inadvertent disposal of antifouling paint residues. - Copper and zinc are readily leached from particles of spent antifouling paint under a range of environmental conditions

  15. 77 FR 22612 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ...Decree Under the Residential Lead- Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act Notice is hereby given...under the Residential Lead- Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act, 42 U.S.C. 4851...they are complying with residential lead paint notification requirements. The...

  16. 75 FR 76754 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ...Decree Under the Residential Lead- Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act Notice is hereby given...under the Residential Lead- Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act, 42 U.S.C. 4851...they are complying with residential lead paint notification requirements. The...

  17. Esquemas de pintura para estruturas marítimas / Paint systems for marine structures

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    T. C., Diamantino; I. N., Alves; R. P., Gonçalves; M. J. F., Marques; M. R., Costa.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas tem-se verificado um grande aumento das aplicações das ligas de alumínio nas estruturas marítimas. Os danos estruturais que se têm verificado em embarcações devem-se, em grande parte, a problemas de corrosão. Assim, as ligas de alumínio têm que ter uma protecção anticorrosiva ade [...] quada. As estruturas marítimas, nomeadamente os cascos dos navios devem ser mantidos preferencialmente livres de organismos por forma a minimizar a resistência ao atrito e consequentemente o consumo de combustível. Para tal são aplicados revestimentos anti-incrustantes para evitar a fixação destes organismos. Nos últimos anos têm-se verificado grandes desenvolvimentos de investigação, desenvolvimento e inovação (IDI) para obtenção de tintas anti-incrustantes (AI) com uma melhor eficiência anti-incrustante em total concordância com a legislação ambiental. O principal objetivo deste estudo reside na avaliação da proteção anticorrosiva e da eficiência anti-incrustant e de 3 diferentes esquemas de pintur a envolvendo tintas AI c om diferentes biocidas. Estas avaliações envolveram ensaios de envelhecimento artificial (resistência ao nevoeiro salino, à imersão em água do mar sintética e à delaminação catódica) e de exposição natural durante dois anos. Estes esquemas de pintur a foram caracterizados visualmente, em termos de espessura e em termos morfológicos e químicos por microscopia electrónica de varrimento com espectrometria de dispersão de ener gias (SEM/ EDS), por espec troscopia de infravermelho com transformada de Fourier (FTIR) e por difr acção de raios-X (XRD). Finalmente referem-se algumas das linhas de in vestigação actualmente em curso no domínio da luta c ontra a fixação dos or ganismos marinhos em estruturas marítimas. Abstract in english The increase of aluminum alloys applications registered some decades ago for marine constructions has led to a considerable number of cases of structure damages mainly due to corrosion problems. So, the use of aluminum alloys for these constructions implies a suitable anticorrosive protection. The i [...] mmersed structures like ship hulls need to be kept free from marine organisms in order to minimize drag resistance and reduce fuel consumption. Antifouling paints (AFP) are applied and developed to avoid the micro and macrofouling. A great development of AFP has been registered aiming for a better efficiency in compliance with emerging environmental legislation. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the anticorrosive behaviour and antifouling efficiency of three different paint systems that include antifouling paints with different biocides. With this purpose tests were carried out including artificial ageing (salt spray resistance, immersion resistance and cathodic disbonding) and natural exposure during two years. All this paint systems were evaluated in terms of visual assessment, thickness, and morphological and chemical characterization by Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), Fourier Transform Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Finally the actual research lines on antifouling technologies are pointed.

  18. Raman spectroscopic study of “The Malatesta”: A Renaissance painting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G. M.; Vandenabeele, Peter; Benoy, Timothy J.

    2015-02-01

    Raman spectroscopic analysis of the pigments on an Italian painting described as a "Full Length Portrait of a Gentleman", known also as the "Malatesta", and attributed to the Renaissance period has established that these are consistent with the historical research provenance undertaken earlier. Evidence is found for the early 19th Century addition of chrome yellow to highlighted yellow ochre areas in comparison with a similar painting executed in 1801 by Sir Thomas Lawrence of John Kemble in the role of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. The Raman data are novel in that no analytical studies have previously been made on this painting and reinforces the procedure whereby scientific analyses are accompanied by parallel historical research.

  19. Raman spectroscopic study of "The Malatesta": a Renaissance painting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G M; Vandenabeele, Peter; Benoy, Timothy J

    2015-02-25

    Raman spectroscopic analysis of the pigments on an Italian painting described as a "Full Length Portrait of a Gentleman", known also as the "Malatesta", and attributed to the Renaissance period has established that these are consistent with the historical research provenance undertaken earlier. Evidence is found for the early 19th Century addition of chrome yellow to highlighted yellow ochre areas in comparison with a similar painting executed in 1801 by Sir Thomas Lawrence of John Kemble in the role of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. The Raman data are novel in that no analytical studies have previously been made on this painting and reinforces the procedure whereby scientific analyses are accompanied by parallel historical research. PMID:25194320

  20. Siquieros accidental painting technique: a fluid mechanics point of view

    CERN Document Server

    Zetina, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This is an entry for the Gallery of Fluid Motion of the 65th Annual Meeting of the APS-DFD (fluid dynamics video). This video shows an analysis of the 'accidental painting' technique developed by D.A. Siqueiros, a famous Mexican muralist. We reproduced the technique that he used: pouring layers of paint of different colors on top of each other. We found that the layers mix, creating aesthetically pleasing patterns, as a result of a Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Due to the pigments used to give paints their color, they can have different densities. When poured on top of each other, if the top layer is denser than the lower one, the viscous gravity current undergoes unstable as it spread radially. We photograph the process and produced slowed-down video to visualize the process.

  1. Recent discoveries of Paleolithic cave painting in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a few years, discoveries of cave paintings in France have increased considerably. Two of them were particularly impressive and are now famous worldwide. The first one is the Cosquer cave, discovered in 1991 under the sea level near Marseille. The second is the Chauvet-Pont-d'Arc cave, discovered in 1994 in Ardeche. However, other discoveries were less mediatized but provided a huge amount of informations: in 10 years, 24 new cave painting sites were described. This paper describes these recent discoveries (paintings, engravings), and a special emphasis is given to the analyses of pigments and to the radiocarbon dating of the archaeological specimens. (J.S.). 37 refs., 3 figs., 9 photos

  2. Effect Of Zen Regulation On The Sohrab Sepahri's Paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Maamari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, at first we tried to introduce the sects separated from Buddhism and also introduce “Maha- Yana” who were among the well known sects of the Buddhism and the introduction of “Confucius” regulation and moral principles and the “Lao-tse” and “Shinto” faiths and their place among Chinese and Japanese and their relation with ZEN sect and Zen philosophy, method of its formation and Zen conduct and initial introduction of Zenga and the effect of Zen philosophy on paintings and Calligraphy of far east. In next sections the effect of Zen philosophy on Sohrab Sepehri's paintings will be mentioned with a short introduction of Sepehri and a fast veiw into his advancement in painting and finally his recognition in east and the effect of Zen philosophy on spirit of Sohrab Seperi.

  3. Evaluation of paint industry effluents for irrigation purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effluent samples collected from a paints factory for a period of seven months were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), soluble cations and anions, nitrogen, phosphorus, and trace elements (Cd, B, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb). Compared with the natural groundwater used for washing paint wastes, the paint industry effluents were found to contain elevated concentrations of cations with the exception of Ca and moderately high concentrations of trace elements. Evaluation of the effluents was made, based on the integration of EC and both the sodium absorption ratio (SAR) and soluble sodium percent (SSP), BOD and COD values, and maximum permissible limits of heavy metals in the irrigation water. From the overall assessment, the effluents were considered suitable for use as supplement irrigation water. However, it is essential that the heavy metals in the effluents, as well as their accumulation in plants and soils, are monitored regularly. (author)

  4. Perception and Painting in Merleau-Ponty’s Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyne Quinn

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining that “the perceived world is the always presupposed foundation of all rationality, all value and all existence” (1964/1964: 13, Maurice Merleau-Ponty sought to develop a descriptive philosophy of perception, our kinaesthetic, prescientific, lived-bodily experience and cognition of the world—the unification of our affective, motor and sensory capacities. For Merleau-Ponty, ‘perception’ is an expressive and creative instance intimately linked with artistic practice, and although he wrote about all kinds of art, painting was the art form he considered in most depth. This paper seeks to elaborate upon the links between perception and painting in his thought, examining his three main essays on the topic of painting. We begin with the descriptive phenomenology of “Cézanne’s Doubt” under the influence of Edmund Husserl (1945, to structuralism in “Indirect Language and the Voices of Silence” (1952, and finally to his formulation of an original ontology in “Eye and Mind” (1961.

  5. Longitudinal painting by using large amplitude second harmonic RF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For stable acceleration of the high intensity proton beams, increasing the bunching factor by the longitudinal painting is essentially important to reduce the space-charge tune shift. The momentum offset injection method and applying the second harmonic RF are employed for the longitudinal painting in the J-PARC RCS. We employ wide band magnetic alloy (MA) cavities to realize the dual-harmonic operation, in which each cavity is driven by the superposition of the fundamental and the second harmonic RF signals. By the dual-harmonic operation we can generate the large amplitude second harmonic RF without extra cavities for the second harmonic. We report the beam test results of the longitudinal painting. (author)

  6. Contamination of aluminum and painted surfaces exposed to tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the problem of outgassing of contaminated room surfaces following a significant tritium (T) room release, painted metal strips were exposed to tritium (T/sub 2/ or HTO) and the outgassing rates measured. This was followed by exposures in a 1-m/sup 3/ chamber, whose walls were coated with the material to be studied. The results show that the differences in the contamination of, and subsequent outgassing by, several epoxy and latex paints may be significant. The greatest differences, however, were the much higher contamination following exposure to HTO compared to T/sub 2/, and the lower contamination of exposed bare aluminium foil compared to painted surfaces, for both HTO and T/sub 2/

  7. 9 CFR 590.540 - Spray process drying facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray process drying facilities. 590.540 Section 590.540 ...Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.540 Spray process drying facilities. (a) Driers shall be of a...

  8. 40 CFR 158.1100 - Spray drift data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Spray drift data requirements table. 158.1100 Section 158.1100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Spray...

  9. COUPLED ATOMIZATION AND SPRAY MODELLING IN THE SPRAY FORMING PROCESS USING OPENFOAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesing, Rasmus; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a numerical model capable of simulating the atomization, break-up and in-flight spray phenomena in the spray forming process. The model is developed and implemented in the freeware code openFOAM. The focus is on studying the coupling effect of the melt break-up phenomena with the local gas and droplets flow fields. The work is based on an Eulerian-Lagrangian description, which is implemented in a full 3D representation. The gas is described by the incompressible RANS equations, whereas the movement of the droplets is modeled by a tracking approach, together with a full thermal model for droplet cooling and solidification. The model is tested and validated against results from literature and experiments. Subsequently, the model is used to simulate the complex flow fields in the spray forming process and the results are discussed. The presented model of the spray forming process is able to predict the droplet size distribution of the spray from the process conditions, by introducing submodelsfor the melt fragmentation and successive secondary break-up processes as part of the spray model. Furthermore, the competition of drop break-up and solidification is derived by describing the thermal state of the particles in the spray. Therefore, the model includes a full thermal solver for the droplets, which also takes the rapid solidification of different drop sizes into account.

  10. LET-painting increases tumour control probability in hypoxic tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Toftegaard, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Abstract LET-painting was suggested as a method to overcome tumour hypoxia. In vitro experiments have demonstrated a well-established relationship between the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) and linear energy transfer (LET), where OER approaches unity for high-LET values. However, high-LET radiation also increases the risk for side effects in normal tissue. LET-painting attempts to restrict high-LET radiation to compartments that are found to be hypoxic, while applying lower LET radiation to normoxic tissues. Methods. Carbon-12 and oxygen-16 ion treatment plans with four fields and with homogeneous dose in the target volume, are applied on an oropharyngeal cancer case with an identified hypoxic entity within the tumour. The target dose is optimised to achieve a tumour control probability (TCP) of 95% when assuming a fully normoxic tissue. Using the same primary particle energy fluence needed for this plan, TCP is recalculated for three cases assuming hypoxia: first, redistributing LET to match the hypoxic structure (LET-painting). Second, plans are recalculated for varying hypoxic tumour volume in order to investigate the threshold volume where TCP can be established. Finally, a slight dose boost (5-20%) is additionally allowed in the hypoxic subvolume to assess its impact on TCP. Results. LET-painting with carbon-12 ions can only achieve tumour control for hypoxic subvolumes smaller than 0.5 cm(3). Using oxygen-16 ions, tumour control can be achieved for tumours with hypoxic subvolumes of up to 1 or 2 cm(3). Tumour control can be achieved for tumours with even larger hypoxic subvolumes, if a slight dose boost is allowed in combination with LET-painting. Conclusion. Our findings clearly indicate that a substantial increase in tumour control can be achieved when applying the LET-painting concept using oxygen-16 ions on hypoxic tumours, ideally with a slight dose boost.

  11. Strategies for longitudinal painting in the EHF booster at injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on proposals for high- current hadron facilities that rely on painting during charge-exchange injection as a nearly lossless technique to transform a continuous stream of linac microbunches into a number of bunches matched to the characteristics of a circular machine. In order to find the best strategy to fill the RF buckets of the European Hadron Facility Booster, meeting the design goal of a bunching factor better than 0.33, the LONG1D computer simulation code, including space charge, was modified to cope with the EHF scenario and upgraded to higher spatial resolution. Strategies consist in phase and energy ramping the locus of the injected microbunches in the bucket and the methods compared in this study can be divided into two groups: painting with two linac bunches (corresponding to the EHF linac specifications); the best results (bunching factor ?0.38) have been achieved with a stationary injection position in phase-space (no-paint scheme); more ambitious strategies aiming at obtaining a square-shaped linear density, which require painting with single bunch. For 200 turns injected into the EHF Booster, these spiral filling schemes, however, do not yield substantially better bunching factors, the best results being comparable to when tracking with higher spatial resolution. Another distinctive difference between the two approaches in the sensitivity of group to tracking parameters, mainly to the spatial resolution of group to tracking paramet resolution of group to tracking parameters, mainly to the spatial resolution involved in the computation of the space-charge force; this sensitivity is absent in the simple painting strategies. A criterion for the resolution required is given and all relevant painting strategies have been checked with this resolution. The more favorable results of the simple strategies led to the recommendation of one of those for the EHF

  12. Current problems in plasma spray processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndt, C.C.; Brindley, W.; Goland, A.N.; Herman, H.; Houck, D.L.; Jones, K.; Miller, R.A.; Neiser, R.; Riggs, W.; Sampath, S.; Smith, M.; Spanne, P. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Thermal Spray Lab.

    1991-12-31

    This detailed report summarizes 8 contributions from a thermal spray conference that was held in late 1991 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, Long Island, NY, USA). The subject of ``Plasma Spray Processing`` is presented under subject headings of Plasma-particle interactions, Deposit formation dynamics, Thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings, Mechanical properties of coatings, Feed stock materials, Porosity: An integrated approach, Manufacture of intermetallic coatings, and Synchrotron x-ray microtomographic methods for thermal spray materials. Each section is intended to present a concise statement of a specific practical and/or scientific problem, then describe current work that is being performed to investigate this area, and finally to suggest areas of research that may be fertile for future activity.

  13. Current problems in plasma spray processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndt, C.C.; Brindley, W.; Goland, A.N.; Herman, H.; Houck, D.L.; Jones, K.; Miller, R.A.; Neiser, R.; Riggs, W.; Sampath, S.; Smith, M.; Spanne, P. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Thermal Spray Lab.)

    1991-01-01

    This detailed report summarizes 8 contributions from a thermal spray conference that was held in late 1991 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, Long Island, NY, USA). The subject of Plasma Spray Processing'' is presented under subject headings of Plasma-particle interactions, Deposit formation dynamics, Thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings, Mechanical properties of coatings, Feed stock materials, Porosity: An integrated approach, Manufacture of intermetallic coatings, and Synchrotron x-ray microtomographic methods for thermal spray materials. Each section is intended to present a concise statement of a specific practical and/or scientific problem, then describe current work that is being performed to investigate this area, and finally to suggest areas of research that may be fertile for future activity.

  14. Density of Spray-Formed Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin M. McHugh; Volker Uhlenwinkel; Nils Ellendr

    2008-06-01

    Spray Forming is an advanced materials processing technology that transforms molten metal into a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a substrate. Depending on the application, the spray-formed material may be used in the as-deposited condition or it may undergo post-deposition processing. Regardless, the density of the as-deposited material is an important issue. Porosity is detrimental because it can significantly reduce strength, toughness, hardness and other properties. While it is not feasible to achieve fully-dense material in the as-deposited state, density greater than 99% of theoretical density is possible if the atomization and impact conditions are optimized. Thermal conditions at the deposit surface and droplet impact angle are key processing parameters that influence the density of the material. This paper examines the factors that contribute to porosity formation during spray forming and illustrates that very high as-deposited density is achieved by optimizing processing parameters.

  15. Water spray assisted ultrashort laser pulse ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? We show the novel method to use multibeam processing with ultrashort pulses efficiently. ? Sprayed thin water layer on ablation zone enhances ablation rate and quality. ? In some cases this method also enables ablation of the deeper and straighter holes compared to ones made without the water layer. ? Method also makes possible to directly write features without the self-organizing structures. - Abstract: We have studied femtosecond ablation under sprayed thin water film and its influence and benefits compared with ablation in the air atmosphere. These have been studied in case of the hole and the groove ablation using IR femtosecond laser. Water enhances the ablation rate and in some situations it makes possible to ablate the holes with a higher aspect ratio. While ablating the grooves, the water spray allows using the high fluences without the generation of the self-organized structures.

  16. Spray Drying of Mosambi Juice in Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. V.; Verma, A.

    2014-01-01

    The studies on spray drying of mosambi juice were carried out with Laboratory spray dryer set-up (LSD-48 MINI SPRAY DRYER-JISL). Inlet and outlet air temperature and maltodextrin (drying agent) concentration was taken as variable parameters. Experiments were conducted by using 110 °C to 140 °C inlet air temperature, 60 °C to 70 °C outlet air temperature and 5-7 % maltodextrin concentration. The free flow powder of mosambi juice was obtained with 7 % maltodextrin at 140 °C inlet air temperature and 60 °C outlet air temperature. Fresh and reconstituted juices were evaluated for vitamin C, titrable acidity and sensory characteristics. The reconstituted juice was found slightly acceptable by taste panel.

  17. 24 CFR 965.215 - Lead-based paint liability insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... false Lead-based paint liability insurance coverage. 965.215 Section 965...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Required Insurance Coverage § 965.215 Lead-based paint liability insurance coverage. (a) General. The...

  18. Surface with two paint strips for detection and warning of chemical warfare and radiological agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2013-04-02

    A system for warning of corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances. The system comprises painting a surface with a paint or coating that includes an indicator material and monitoring the surface for indications of the corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances.

  19. Paint for detection of corrosion and warning of chemical and radiological attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA)

    2010-08-24

    A system for warning of corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances. The system comprises painting a surface with a paint or coating that includes an indicator material and monitoring the surface for indications of the corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances.

  20. A components paint facility upgrade to improve production efficiency, quality and working conditions at UCW Company

    OpenAIRE

    Masombuka, Willy Sizo

    2011-01-01

    A design of an improved facilities plan for Components Paint Shop, with appropriate and efficient material flow and handling system. The facility should optimise production efficiency throughout Components Paint Shop.

  1. The influence of retinal eye diseases on painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivaniševi?, Petar; Ivaniševi?, Milan

    2015-03-01

    In this work the possible influences of some retinal eye problems on paintings of several famous artists are considered. The change of painting styles and artistic expression in different periods and ages in a group of world-wide well-known painters are described and correlated with known or suspected retinal diseases. Some of them largely became recognizable because of that. Contemplations are offered about the effects of retinal diseases in the works of Degas, Munch, Cézanne, O'Keeffe, Constable and Goya. Retinal eye diseases have a significant impact on the work of selected famous painters. PMID:26040100

  2. Measurement method of radon mitigation efficiency for interior wall paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop a effective measurement method of radon mitigation efficiency for interior wall paint. By using a local static method, the average radon flux rate of a measured material surface during the period of monitoring can be gotten. The method has been developed using organic glass to make radon cumulation chamber, lint board with a single smooth surface to make samples, PCMR-1 continuous radon monitor and GD-LI gas-through solid radon source. The same measurement conditions can be realized easily and the measurement results can be compared very well. The method can meet the need of radon mitigation efficiency measurement for interior wall paint

  3. PaintShop Pro x6 for photographers

    CERN Document Server

    McMahon, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Written for photographers of all levels, PaintShop Pro X6 for Photographers is packed with inspirational, full-color images and easy-to-follow step-by-step projects that will have you producing great images in PaintShop Pro in no time! Everything you need to enhance and improve your digital photography is right here in this Corel® endorsed guide.In this new edition, Ken McMahon looks at the pros and cons of the new, faster 64-bit version of the software and covers new features, including working with the Instant Effects palette, using the Smart selection brush, mapping photos, automatically ta

  4. PaintShop Pro X4 for photographers

    CERN Document Server

    McMahon, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Great for those new to PaintShop Pro or digital imaging in general, this book is packed with inspirational, full-color images and easy to follow, step-by-step projects that will have you producing great images in PaintShop Pro in no time! Everything you need to turn your photos into stunning works of art is right here in this Corel-reviewed guide. In this new edition, Ken covers new features including how to make the most of the newly organized workspaces, use the redesigned HDR tool, and instantly publish photos on Flickr and Facebook. Squeeze every ounce of detail out of RAW files using the

  5. Paint stripping with high power flattened Gaussian beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Andrew; du Preez, Neil C.; Belyi, Vladimir; Botha, Lourens R.

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we present results on improved paint stripping performance with an intra-cavity generated Flattened Gaussian Beam (FGB). A resonator with suitable diffractive optical elements was designed in order to produce a single mode flat-top like laser beam as the output. The design was implemented in a TEA CO2 laser outputting more than 5 J per pulse in the desired mode. The FGB showed improved performance in a paint stripping application due to its uniformity of intensity, and high energy extraction from the cavity.

  6. Iodine-paint interactions during a core fusion accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If a core fusion accident should occur, radioactive iodine would be released from the fuel and would reach the reactor containment building, and then react with wall paintings to form organic iodine compounds, i.e. volatile compounds which are difficult to filtrate and therefore would be released in the environment. This article briefly reports investigations of the formation/destruction mechanisms of these volatile iodine compounds, notably through the Epicur program. This program focused on two prevailing phenomena: the radiolytic oxidation of iodine present in sump water, and the production of volatile organic iodides from painted surfaces where iodine adsorption occurs. Iodine behaviour is modelled by using the Astec code

  7. Diagnostic-analytical study of the painting “Gioconda with columns”

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Lorusso; Chiara Matteucci; Andrea Natali; Salvatore Andrea Apicella; Flavia Fiorillo

    2014-01-01

    The painting “Gioconda with columns” from a private collection re-proposes a work of art that is “unique” in the art world, in other words, the “Mona Lisa” by Leonardo da Vinci. The presence of the columns represents the most significant distinguishing feature when compared to the “Mona Lisa” housed in the Louvre.Consequently the question arises: “Is the painting “Gioconda with columns” attributable to the genius of Leonardo or one of his followers or is it to be considered a copy of the “Mon...

  8. Control of temperature profile for a spray deposition process

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Pda; Duncan, Sr; Rayment, T.; Grant, Ps

    2003-01-01

    Spray forming is a novel method of rapidly manufacturing tools and dies for stamping and injection operations. The process sprays molten tool steel from a set of arc spray guns onto a ceramic former to build up a thick steel shell. The volumetric contraction that occurs as the steel cools is offset by a volumentric expansion taking place within the sprayed steel, which allows the dimensional accurate tools to be produced. To ensure that the required phase transformation takes place, the tempe...

  9. USING A FLAME IONIZATION DETECTOR (FID) TO CONTINUOUSLY MEASURE TOXIC ORGANIC VAPORS IN A PAINT SPRAY BOOTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper reports the demonstration of linear and similar responses of a Ratfisch RS-55CA flame ionization detector (FID) to a solvent mixture identical to the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the coating and catalyst (NSN 8010-01-336- 3036) and to the calibrating gas (propan...

  10. Control of spray spot in cold spray technology. Part 1. Gas dynamic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaikovskii, V. N.; Klinkov, S. V.; Kosarev, V. F.; Melamed, B. M.; Trubacheev, G. V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study of supersonic jets formed by approaches that are new for cold spray technique: the main flow is swirled, the nozzles with permeable profiles and with exit slots on the supersonic section are engineered. The flow swirling achieved in the nozzle prechamber retains downstream to substrate surface. The system of vortices created within the permeable nozzles changes the shock wave features of the overexpanded jet and the geometry of the bow shock wave ahead of the substrate surface. These new features of flow may affect particle motion and particlesubstrate interaction under the conditions of cold spray process; this offers tools for obtaining the necessary shape of a spray spot.

  11. Conservation of a Rare Painted Ancient Egyptian Textile Object from the Egyptian Museum in Cairo

    OpenAIRE

    Yasin Zidan; Omar Abdel-Kareem; Nadia Lokma; Hanaa Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    This study describes conservation of a painted ancientEgyptian textile object from the collection of Osiris clothsin the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, Egypt. An evaluation ofthe reactivation consolidation technique to reinforcementof ancient Egyptian painted textiles was performed.Various investigation methods were carried out to identifythe fibres, paints, and other materials, which are part ofthe selected object. The condition of the object was alsoinvestigated. Newly prepared painted linen tex...

  12. The prevalence of lead-based paint hazards in U.S. housing.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, David E; Clickner, Robert P.; Zhou, Joey Y; Viet, Susan M; Marker, David A.; Rogers, John W; ZELDIN, DARRYL C.; Broene, Pamela; Friedman, Warren

    2002-01-01

    In this study we estimated the number of housing units in the United States with lead-based paint and lead-based paint hazards. We included measurements of lead in intact and deteriorated paint, interior dust, and bare soil. A nationally representative, random sample of 831 housing units was evaluated in a survey between 1998 and 2000; the units and their occupants did not differ significantly from nationwide characteristics. Results indicate that 38 million housing units had lead-based paint...

  13. Latex Paint-gun Injuries of the Hand: Are the Outcomes Better?

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano-Calderón, Santiago A.; Mudgal, Chaitanya S; Mudgal, Sharmila; Ring, David

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to present the functional outcome in patients who sustained paint-gun injuries to the hand with latex paint and review the current trends, recommendations, and pitfalls of surgical treatment in contemporary literature. Five male patients with an average age of 35 years were treated between 2000 and 2003 after sustaining a paint-gun injury with latex paint. All wounds were located volarly on the digits of the nondominant hand. Preoperative radiographs were obtained in every pa...

  14. Modeling and optimization of white paint back reflectors for thin-film silicon solar cells :

    OpenAIRE

    Lipovšek, B.; Kr?, J.; Isabella, O.; Zeman, M.; M. Topi?

    2010-01-01

    Diffusive dielectric materials such as white paint have been demonstrated as effective back reflectors in the photovoltaic technology. In this work, a one-dimensional (1D) optical modeling approach for simulation of white paint films is developed and implemented in a 1D optical simulator for thin-film solar cells. The parameters of white paint, such as the paint film thickness, the pigment volume concentration (PVC), and the pigment/binder refractive index ratio (RIR), are examined and optimi...

  15. Plasma spraying of high Tc superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a review on the role of plasma spraying in fabrication of high Tc superconducting ceramic oxide, especially the Y-Ba-Cu-O system. Plasma spraying parameters, characterization and possible application to devices of the thick film will be discussed. Understanding of the plasma-ceramic particles interaction is important in obtaining proper high critical temperature and high critical density. It will also be pointed out that other processes such as plasma oxidation, plasma sputtering etc. play a significant part in the development of this new exciting high Tc superconductor

  16. Plasma-sprayed tantalum/alumina cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cermets of tantalum and alumina were fabricated by plasma spraying, with the amount of alumina varied from 0 to 65 percent (by volume). Each of four compositions was then measured for tensile strength, elastic modulus, and coefficient of thermal expansion. In general, strength and strain to failure decreased with increasing alumina content: 62 MPa for 100 percent Ta to 19 MPa for 35 v percent Ta. A maximum of 0.1 percent strain was observed for the sprayed 100 percent Ta specimens. The coefficient of thermal expansion measured for the pure Ta was 6.2 (10-6)/K

  17. Spray characterization using planar laser imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, S.; Lee, W.; Santoro, R. J.; Ryan, H. M.

    1991-01-01

    Results on the application of a planar polarization ratio technique to spray and soot particle measurements are presented and compared with the phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) measurements. With the assumption of a logarithmic normal distribution, reasonable agreement between the two techniques were obtained, demonstrating the capability of the planar polarization ratio technique to differentiate regions containing soot particles from those containing droplets. A comparison of quantitative measurement capabilities of the two techniques showed that the planar polarization ratio technique can be applied to complicated combustion environments for at least semiquantitative investigation of sprays.

  18. Spray pyrolysis for high Tc superconductors films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spray pyrolysis at high temperature is reviewed and applied to the formation of epitaxial thick layers of YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO). The necessary conditions to enhance the texture quality and the critical current density are discussed. High critical current densities, over 1.0 MA cm-2 (at 77 K, self-field), are reported, making this technique very promising for low cost applications. This emphasizes the need for more comprehensive studies regarding the chemical phenomena involved in film deposition by spray pyrolysis at high temperature, especially those concerning local equilibrium and reactions occurring in the area involved in the deposition

  19. Calculation inadvertent operation of pressurizer spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RELAP5/MOD1 code was used to perform malfunction analyses of inadvertent operation of pressurizer spray valve. Primary system and part of secondary system including control systems was modeled. The model used in calculation was tested with the results of start-up tests. For detailed calculation of core behaviour COBRA-III-C code was used. The results from calculation of spray malfunction show very good agreement with the data measured in the plant. It can be seen from the analyses that the most important parameters reached values well below allowed margins. (author)

  20. WWER-type NPP spray ponds screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to develop a protection screen of WWER-type NPP spray ponds. The screen design is to ensure reduction of the water droplets blown by the wind and, if possible, their return back to the spray ponds. The cooling capacity of the ponds is not to be changed below the design level for safety reasons. Computational fluid dynamics analysis is used to assess the influence of each design variant on the behavior of the water droplets distribution. Two variants are presented here. The one with plants is found not feasible. The second variant, with steel screen and terrain profile modification is selected for implementation. (author)