WorldWideScience

Sample records for spray painting

  1. Miniature spray-painting booth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fee, K. W.

    1970-01-01

    Transparent spray booth provides method for quality painting and repair of surfaces in clean room or other specialized environments. Overspray and virtually all contaminating vapor and odor can be eliminated. Touch-up painting is achieved with spray gun.

  2. PAINT SPRAY BOOTH MODIFICATIONS FOR RECIRCULATION VENTILATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The control of emissions from spray painting operations has historically been cost prohibitive, due to the high exhaust flow rates coupled with low volatile organic compound (VOC) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) Concentrations. Past studies, conducted by the U.S. EPA and U.S. ...

  3. Dermal exposure due to airless spray painting : a semi-experimental study during spray painting of a container

    OpenAIRE

    Lansink, C.J.M.; Hengstum, C. van; Brouwer, D.H.

    1998-01-01

    In this study dermal exposure by spray painting has been investigated. After a pilot-study it was decided to start a study in the offshore industry, where the airless spray painting technique was used. The main purpose of the present study was to determine the range of potential dermal exposure to paint during airless spray painting. It was also investigated whether the observed exposure corresponds with the estimates made by the exposure model EASE. Skin exposure was measured in three offsho...

  4. PAINT SPRAY BOOTH DESIGN USING RECIRCULATION/PARTITIONING VENTILATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many spray painting facility operators have been attempting to reduce the discharge of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from paint spray booths to the atmosphere. Some have been able to convert to lower VOC containing paints and coatings such as powder coating, waterborne coatin...

  5. Path Planning for Spray Painting Robot of Workpiece Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Chen; Dean Zhao

    2013-01-01

    A new optimization algorithm of the path planning for spray painting robot of workpiece surfaces is proposed. This paper first provides the paint deposition rate function on a plane according to the experiment data. And the model of film thickness on surface is discussed. A multiobjective constraint optimization problem is formulated. An optimal tool path with an optimal time and film quantity deviation is generated. And the min-max method is adopted here to calculate the values. A workpiece,...

  6. On the fluid mechanics of electrochemical coating and spray painting

    OpenAIRE

    Olivas, Pedro

    2001-01-01

    Finite-volume methods have been used for modeling of fluidflows involved in forced convection electrochemical coating androtating spray painting systems. Electrodeposition on a singlecircular cylinder under forced convection for Reynolds numbers10 and 200 was simulated. Comparisons with earlier numericaland theoretical results are presented and it is shown that theunsteady wake that appears for Reynolds numbers greater than 50affects the mass transfer from the surface of the cylinder onlyin a...

  7. TRANSFER EFFICIENCY OF IMPROPERLY MAINTAINED OR OPERATED SPRAY PAINTING EQUIPMENT SENSITIVITY STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an investigation of the impact of common industrial operating and maintenance practices on the efficency of spray painting systems. The investigation included independent research, as well as assistance from both representatives of the spray painting e...

  8. Examination of spray paints by the use of reflection technique of microinfrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieba-Palus, Janina

    2005-06-01

    Identification of spray paint coats on various surfaces (usually plaster) is often a subject matter of forensic examination. The layer of paint, which creates an inscription, smudge or a drawing, is thin and difficult to be separated from the base. Model examinations have been carried out aiming at the evaluation of the usefulness of the reflection technique of microinfrared spectrometry in the identification of paints. About 20 spray paints, available on the Polish market,—white and black—were placed on the surface in the form of metal, glass, foil, fabric and a wall made of brick, plaster board and mineral plaster. It was found out that, obtaining a reflectance spectrum suitable for identification of the type of paint depends on the thickness of the paint coat and on the type of the base. It was observed that, the smoother and less absorptive the base is the less is its influence deforming the reflection spectrum of paint.

  9. A dermal model for spray painters. Part I: subjective exposure modelling of spray paint deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, D H; Semple, S; Marquart, J; Cherrie, J W

    2001-01-01

    The discriminative power of existing dermal exposure models is limited. Most models only allow occupational hygienists to rank workers between and within workplaces according to broad bands of dermal exposure. No allowance is made for the work practices of different individuals. In this study a process-based, structured approach has been used to estimate dermal exposure from overspray generated by a spray painting process. Factors for spray technique, object shape and workers' individual work practices involved in the processes of droplet formation and deposition were incorporated into the model. The model was applied to predict dermal exposure of airless spray painters and the results were compared with exposure data. The predicted levels of exposure showed reasonable rank correlation with the measured exposure, although the model tended to over-predict the actual level of exposure. It was concluded that a structured, process-based approach has the potential to produce reliable estimates of dermal exposure. The reliability of exposure models of this type should be explored further and the relationship between the determinants of exposure should be validated by additional field studies. PMID:11137695

  10. Modeling dermal exposure--an illustration for spray painting applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael R; Koto, Yoshi; Fent, Kenneth; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2006-09-01

    This article presents a conceptual, mathematical model of dermal exposure resulting from aerosol deposition on human forearm hair. The model is applicable to exposure scenarios where dermal deposition is governed by aerosol impaction, interception, and diffusion mechanisms. The model employs filtration theory, single fiber efficiency equations, and a modified potential airflow approximation. The results are extended, using previously published results, for application to dermal deposition on the forearm during spray painting. The average (N = 8) predicted dermal deposition of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate as collected on a 10-cm(2) tape strip is 108.9 (+/- 70.3) pmol, whereas field measurements indicated an average of 168.6 (+/- 82.0) pmol per strip. The corresponding measured average dermal flux was 3.63 pg/cm(2)s (+/- 1.34); the prediction was 2.24 pg/cm(2)sec (+/- 1.25). The study calls attention to the importance of body hair both for modeling and measuring dermal exposures. PMID:16857646

  11. [Respiratory symptoms after the use of a painting primer product spray].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbehøj, Niels E; Bang, John

    2008-09-22

    The use of waterproofing spray has been associated with the development of respiratory symptoms, but the pathogenetic mechanisms are unclear. We describe a case of acute respiratory disease with impaired diffusion developed after the use of a painting primer product spray (stain stop). Further investigation in aerosol-toxicology is needed. PMID:18822236

  12. USERS GUIDE FOR THE CONVERSION OF NAVY PAINT SPRAY BOOTH PARTICULATE EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEMS FROM WET TO DRY OPERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report is a guide or convrting U.S. Navy paint spray booth particulate emission control systems from wet to dry operation. The use of water curtains for air pollution control of paint spray booths is considered a major source of water and solid waste pol-lution from industria...

  13. A field evaluation of the impact of transfer efficiency on worker exposure during spray painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yu-Mei; Flynn, Michael R; Buller, Thomas S

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model to predict breathing-zone overspray concentrations produced during spray painting as a function of the overspray generation rate, ventilation and work practices. The overspray generation rate required an estimate of the spray gun transfer efficiency, which was provided by a previously developed mathematical model. These models were evaluated in the field under two different scenarios: first in a controlled environment that approximated the assumptions of models, and then under actual spray painting conditions. Results from the first test showed the model overestimated transfer efficiency, but the measured exposures and predicted exposures were not significantly different. During actual spray painting operations, all task exposures were within a factor of three of the model predictions, and there was no statistical difference between the measured and predicted values. The predicted average exposure of each worker was within the 95% confidence interval. The overall mean exposure was within one standard error of the model prediction. The current study expands on the original exposure model by including a transfer efficiency model to provide a better estimate of the overspray generation rate. The theoretical foundation between exposure and its primary determinants is established, and this knowledge can be applied to design and can evaluate optimal control interventions. Also, the general methodology presented here for developing an exposure model is applicable to operations other than spray painting. PMID:12005123

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF PROPOSED STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR SPRAY PAINTING TRANSFER EFFICIENCY. VOLUME 2. VERIFICATION PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two-volume report gives results of a program to develop and verify a standardized spray-painting transfer-efficiency test method. Both review of the literature and laboratory research were conducted. Transfer efficiency measurement methods presently used by industry were eval...

  15. Assessment of dermal exposure during airless spray painting using a quantitative visualisation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, D H; Lansink, C M; Cherrie, J W; van Hemmen, J J

    2000-10-01

    The range of dermal exposure to non-volatile compounds during spray painting was studied in a semi-experimental study involving three enterprises and 12 painters. A fluorescent tracer was added to the paint and deposition of the tracer on clothing and uncovered parts of the skin was assessed using video imaging and processing techniques. A container (volume 36 m(3)) was sprayed with a colourless laquer (varnish) containing 66.7 mg/l fluorescent whitening agent. All painters sprayed the outside of the container. Nine painters repeated the painting a second time and five also sprayed the inside of the container. The painters wore white Tyvek coveralls, but no gloves. Duration of spraying the outside ranged from 4 to 21 min with a mean of 10 min and the amount of paint sprayed ranged from 3.0 to 12.8 l (mean 6.6 l). The mass of tracer deposited on the coverall ranged from 2.2 to 471 microg (90th percentile 256 microg), whereas, mass deposited on skin (i.e. the hands, wrists, and face) ranged from 0.01 to 52 microg tracer (90th percentile 20 microg). The quantity of tracer on the coverall was three times higher after spraying the inside of the container compared to spraying the outside, whereas the quantity on the skin was similar in both cases. On average 10% of the surface area of the coverall and skin was exposed during spraying the outside. Exposures, expressed in units of mass per area exposed were slightly higher for skin compared to coverall. In this study, deposited mass of tracer was correlated with an alternative exposure metric, i.e. surface area exposed multiplied by the duration of exposure, which has been proposed as a surrogate for uptake. Using a quantitative fluorescent tracer technique, it could be demonstrated that body parts which showed the lowest mass of tracer had the highest exposure as mass per surface area. Compared to other techniques which only determine mass, the ability to identify and quantify the actual surface area exposed is a clear advantage of the quantitative fluorescent tracer technique. PMID:11042257

  16. Surface Modeling of Workpiece and Tool Trajectory Planning for Spray Painting Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yang; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Automated tool trajectory planning for spray-painting robots is still a challenging problem, especially for a large free-form surface. A grid approximation of a free-form surface is adopted in CAD modeling in this paper. A free-form surface model is approximated by a set of flat patches. We describe here an efficient and flexible tool trajectory optimization scheme using T-Bézier curves calculated in a new way from trigonometrical bases. The distance between the spray gun and the free-form su...

  17. Modeling breathing-zone concentrations of airborne contaminants generated during compressed air spray painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, M R; Gatano, B L; McKernan, J L; Dunn, K H; Blazicko, B A; Carlton, G N

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model to predict breathing-zone concentrations of airborne contaminants generated during compressed air spray painting in cross-flow ventilated booths. The model focuses on characterizing the generation and transport of overspray mist. It extends previous work on conventional spray guns to include exposures generated by HVLP guns. Dimensional analysis and scale model wind-tunnel studies are employed using non-volatile oils, instead of paint, to produce empirical equations for estimating exposure to total mass. Results indicate that a dimensionless breathing zone concentration is a nonlinear function of the ratio of momentum flux of air from the spray gun to the momentum flux of air passing through the projected area of the worker's body. The orientation of the spraying operation within the booth is also very significant. The exposure model requires an estimate of the contaminant generation rate, which is approximated by a simple impactor model. The results represent an initial step in the construction of more realistic models capable of predicting exposure as a mathematical function of the governing parameters. PMID:10028895

  18. Application of shadow Doppler velocimetry to paint spray: potential and limitations in sizing optically inhomogeneous droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikita, Hiroshi; Taylor, Alexander M. K. P.

    1998-02-01

    This paper reports size measurement of droplets with optically inhomogeneous media by shadow Doppler velocimetry (SDV), which can provide spatially and temporally precise in situ readings of the size and velocity of a single particle with irregular shape and with arbitrary optical properties of the particle medium. In this work, water, instant coffee solution and water-based paint with various solid contents were measured to evaluate the capability and limitations of the measurement. The experiment with instant coffee solutions of 2 and 5% (wt:wt), which contained 0957-0233/9/2/009/img1m discrete particles, atomized by a standard paint spray gun, demonstrated that the accuracy of sizing was not affected by the optical properties of the medium. Insensitivity to the optical properties is one of the primary advantages of SDV over the other optical, single-particle sizing methods. As a further demonstration, paint samples atomized by the same gun containing solid flakes of nominal diameter 0957-0233/9/2/009/img2m were also measured. The results revealed a spatially uniform arithmetic mean diameter of 0957-0233/9/2/009/img3m and suggested that the atomization characteristics were influenced in the highest flake volume fraction case (red paint containing mica, 1.5%) with the result that the mean diameter was 20% larger than that of a similar paint with a smaller flake volume fraction (green paint containing aluminium, 0.4%). It was also found that the measurable number density is limited to no more than 1000 droplets 0957-0233/9/2/009/img4 in the case of droplets with an average size of 0957-0233/9/2/009/img5m.

  19. Surface modeling of workpiece and tool trajectory planning for spray painting robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yang; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Automated tool trajectory planning for spray-painting robots is still a challenging problem, especially for a large free-form surface. A grid approximation of a free-form surface is adopted in CAD modeling in this paper. A free-form surface model is approximated by a set of flat patches. We describe here an efficient and flexible tool trajectory optimization scheme using T-Bézier curves calculated in a new way from trigonometrical bases. The distance between the spray gun and the free-form surface along the normal vector is varied. Automotive body parts, which are large free-form surfaces, are used to test the scheme. The experimental results show that the trajectory planning algorithm achieves satisfactory performance. This algorithm can also be extended to other applications. PMID:25993663

  20. Paint ablation process vs. different laser wavelengths for 18 diverse spray paints used for graffiti on the monuments and historical mansions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daurelio, G.; Comparelli, R.; Catalano, I. M.; Andriani, S. E.

    2010-09-01

    Some diverse spray paints, used for graffiti on the monuments and historical mansions, were selected and chosen. These paints are ones common used by some uncivil young peoples to produce graffiti on many monuments and historical mansions. These paints were sprayed on a stainless steel square plate substrate (30x30mm) and left to dry outdoors for 3 days. Then thickness measurements of each painting on these samples were carried out. Moreover each of the 18 paintings was subjected to reflectivity (absorption) measures by using a reflectance spectra in the range from 2500 to 300 nm. So many plots were recorded by an UV-VIS-NIR Cary 5 (Varian) spectrophotometer using a scanning rate of 600.00 nm / min, a data interval of 1,000 nm and average time of 0.1 s. By using the same technique the restricted range from 300 to 1200nm were investigated for a close, interesting and precise scanning. All this results much more useful and interesting as it can furnish many experimental information on the per cent absorption of a data laser wavelength for a specific spray paint , identified by a RAL (Reichsausschuss für Lieferbedingungen) Code for a normalized colour scales (RAL 840 HR for opaque colours and RAL 841 GL for brilliant colours). This information were not possible to obtain on the scientific literature as well as by some paint manufacturers, so it was necessary and useful to test for a better comprehension of the laser ablation process as well as for the possible chance of success. The works are still in progress.

  1. Exposures to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate during polyurethane spray painting in the U.S. Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, G N; England, E C

    2000-09-01

    1,6-Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) exposures were measured during polyurethane enamel spray painting at four Air Force bases. Breathing zone samples were collected for HDI monomer and polyisocyanates (oligomers) using three sampling methods: NIOSH Method 5521, the Iso-Chek sampler, and the total aerosol mass method (TAMM). Exposures to HDI monomer are low when compared to current occupational exposure limits; the highest 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) exposure found was 3.5 micrograms/m3, below the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) of 34 micrograms/m3. HDI oligomer levels were higher; mean task exposures indicated by either the Iso-Chek sampler or TAMM are above the Oregon ceiling limit of 1 mg/m3. Eight-hour TWA exposures, however, were much lower, with only one exceeding the Oregon standard of 0.5 mg/m3. Poor worker practices commonly observed during this study included: standing in downwind positions so paint overspray passed through breathing zones; spraying toward other painters; and using excessive paint spray gun air cap pressures. Workers should stand in upwind orientation relative to the aircraft being painted, causing overspray to move away from the painter's breathing zone; adjust their position to prevent spraying other painters or limit paint application to one worker at a time; and use air cap pressure gauges prior to spraying to limit spray gun air cap pressures and reduce paint overspray generation rates. These improved techniques will result in reduced worker exposures to isocyanates. PMID:10983405

  2. Dermal exposure to dry powder spray paints using PXRF and the method of Dirichlet tesselations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roff, Martin; Bagon, David A; Chambers, Helen; Dilworth, E Martin; Warren, Nicholas

    2004-04-01

    This paper describes workplace dermal exposure measurements that were carried out by the Health and Safety Laboratory as part of the EU RISKOFDERM project to measure dust contamination. Exposure to dry powder spray paints was measured at five sites on 12 subjects. Twenty-two samples were obtained, of which eight contained triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC) and 14 did not. All subjects wore Tyvek whole body oversuits and some wore sampling gloves. These were either analysed in their entirety to extract the TGIC or surface scanned over representative areas using a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (PXRF) to detect barium or titanium in the fillers of the paints. The method of Dirichlet tessellation was used to map the scans and the technique was developed further for these studies to extend measurements to gloves and to take limits of detection into consideration. The PXRF allowed dusts to be measured in situ that would otherwise be difficult to extract from the material and analyse by other means. The geometric mean surface loading rate of the 22 oversuits was 43 micro g/cm/(2)/h (GSD = 6.0) and of the 23 pairs of sampling gloves was 970 micro g/cm(2)/h (GSD = 8.6). Exposure patterns could be attributed to the arrangements of the subjects, spray booths and the workpieces. Similar exposures were found for TGIC and titanium fillers in factories with similar methods of ventilation. PMID:15059802

  3. Painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing struggle of painting – leading to recurrent announcements of its ‘demise’ and subsequently of its ‘return’ – serves as point of departure for an examination of ‘expanded painting’. The article suggests that contemporary painting is not only a field of incessant disciplinary and...... discursive battles over the essentially self-reflective question of “What is painting?” Over the last decades it has also become an intermedial laboratory in which artists experiment with developing a connective aesthetic in the interface between painting and other media. Accordingly, it is has become a...... commonly held opinion that painting has transformed itself into an expanded field and thus renewed itself – again. The article argues that in recent decades a remarkable number of painters have explored the possibility of developing painting by redefining what ‘space’ is in relation to painting. Much...

  4. 29 CFR 1917.153 - Spray painting (See also § 1917.2, definition of Hazardous cargo, materials, substance, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spray painting (See also § 1917.2, definition of Hazardous cargo, materials, substance, or atmosphere). 1917.153 Section 1917.153 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations...

  5. Exposure to Airborne Particles and Volatile Organic Compounds from Polyurethane Molding, Spray Painting, Lacquering, and Gluing in a Workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarke Mølgaard

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the health risk related to occupational air pollution exposure, we assessed concentrations and identified sources of particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs in a handcraft workshop producing fishing lures. The work processes in the site included polyurethane molding, spray painting, lacquering, and gluing. We measured total VOC (TVOC concentrations and particle size distributions at three locations representing the various phases of the manufacturing and assembly process. The mean working-hour TVOC concentrations in three locations studied were 41, 37, and 24 ppm according to photo-ionization detector measurements. The mean working-hour particle number concentration varied between locations from 3000 to 36,000 cm−3. Analysis of temporal and spatial variations of TVOC concentrations revealed that there were at least four substantial VOC sources: spray gluing, mold-release agent spraying, continuous evaporation from various lacquer and paint containers, and either spray painting or lacquering (probably both. The mold-release agent spray was indirectly also a major source of ultrafine particles. The workers’ exposure can be reduced by improving the local exhaust ventilation at the known sources and by increasing the ventilation rate in the area with the continuous source.

  6. Exposure to airborne particles and volatile organic compounds from polyurethane molding, spray painting, lacquering, and gluing in a workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mølgaard, Bjarke; Viitanen, Anna-Kaisa; Kangas, Anneli; Huhtiniemi, Marika; Larsen, Søren Thor; Vanhala, Esa; Hussein, Tareq; Boor, Brandon E; Hämeri, Kaarle; Koivisto, Antti Joonas

    2015-04-01

    Due to the health risk related to occupational air pollution exposure, we assessed concentrations and identified sources of particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a handcraft workshop producing fishing lures. The work processes in the site included polyurethane molding, spray painting, lacquering, and gluing. We measured total VOC (TVOC) concentrations and particle size distributions at three locations representing the various phases of the manufacturing and assembly process. The mean working-hour TVOC concentrations in three locations studied were 41, 37, and 24 ppm according to photo-ionization detector measurements. The mean working-hour particle number concentration varied between locations from 3000 to 36,000 cm-3. Analysis of temporal and spatial variations of TVOC concentrations revealed that there were at least four substantial VOC sources: spray gluing, mold-release agent spraying, continuous evaporation from various lacquer and paint containers, and either spray painting or lacquering (probably both). The mold-release agent spray was indirectly also a major source of ultrafine particles. The workers' exposure can be reduced by improving the local exhaust ventilation at the known sources and by increasing the ventilation rate in the area with the continuous source. PMID:25849539

  7. Determination of hexamethylene-based isocyanates in spray-painting operations. Part 1. Evaluation of a polyurethane foam sponge sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzinski, W E; Yin, J; Norman, S H; Glaska, D A

    1998-10-01

    A polyurethane foam (PUF) sponge was mounted in a cassette sampler and evaluated as a sorbent for the collection of hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer and HDI-based oligomers. Recovery studies indicated 112 +/- 34% average recovery of HDI monomer and 92 +/- 9% and 97 +/- 25% average recovery of HDI-based oligomers when using impregnated PUF sponges. The PUF sponge was also evaluated during actual spray-painting operations. In a series of side-by-side sampling events, an impinger filled with 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine (MOP) in toluene was compared directly with a cassette sampler containing a PUF sponge impregnated with MOP or 1-(9-anthracenylmethyl)piperazine (MAP) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). For the analysis of HDI-based oligomer, there is no significant difference (p spray-painting operations. PMID:10209893

  8. Exposure to Airborne Particles and Volatile Organic Compounds from Polyurethane Molding, Spray Painting, Lacquering, and Gluing in a Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Bjarke Mølgaard; Anna-Kaisa Viitanen; Anneli Kangas; Marika Huhtiniemi; Søren Thor Larsen; Esa Vanhala; Tareq Hussein; Brandon E. Boor; Kaarle Hämeri; Antti Joonas Koivisto

    2015-01-01

    Due to the health risk related to occupational air pollution exposure, we assessed concentrations and identified sources of particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a handcraft workshop producing fishing lures. The work processes in the site included polyurethane molding, spray painting, lacquering, and gluing. We measured total VOC (TVOC) concentrations and particle size distributions at three locations representing the various phases of the manufacturing and assembly process. The ...

  9. DEMONSTRATION OF SPLIT-FLOW VENTILATION AND RECIRCULATION AS FLOW-REDUCTION METHODS IN AN AIR FORCE PAINT SPRAY BOOTH - VOLUME II. APPENDICES D-J

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a series of painting operations in a horizontal-flow paint spray booth at Travis AFB, CA, baseline concentrations of four classes of toxic airborne pollutants were measured at 24 locations across a plane immediately forward of the exhaust filters, in the exhaust duct, and ...

  10. Spray-painted binder-free SnSe electrodes for high-performance energy-storage devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianfu; Liu, Bin; Xiang, Qingyi; Wang, Qiufan; Hou, Xiaojuan; Chen, Di; Shen, Guozhen

    2014-01-01

    SnSe nanocrystal electrodes on three-dimensional (3D) carbon fabric and Au-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) wafer have been prepared by a simple spray-painting process and were further investigated as binder-free active-electrodes for Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and flexible stacked all-solid-state supercapacitors. The as-painted SnSe nanocrystals/carbon fabric electrodes exhibit an outstanding capacity of 676 mAh g(-1) after 80 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g(-1) and a considerable high-rate capability in lithium storage because of the excellent ion transport from the electrolyte to the active materials and the efficient charge transport between current collector and electrode materials. The binder-free electrodes also provide a larger electrochemical active surface compared with electrodes containing binders, which leads to the enhanced capacities of energy-storage devices. A flexible stacked all-solid-state supercapacitor based on the SnSe nanocrystals on Au-coated PET wafers shows high capacitance reversibility with little performance degradation at different current densities after 2200 charge-discharge cycles and even when bent. This allows for many potential applications in facile, cost-effective, spray-paintable, and flexible energy-storage devices. The results indicate that the fabrication of binder-free electrodes by a spray painting process is an interesting direction for the preparation of high-performance energy-storage devices. PMID:24339208

  11. Estimating personal exposures based on mass balance material usage rates: validation of a ventilation model in a spray paint booth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jon R; O'Shaughnessy, Patrick T; Reynolds, Stephen J

    2004-04-01

    The goal of this research was to evaluate an estimating model (box model) with direct measurements of contaminants in an industrial spray painting operation. The research involved a dilution ventilation efficiency experiment that was devised to estimate the effective ventilation rate, sampling for organic compounds (xylene, ethyl benzene, methyl ethyl ketone, and methyl isobutyl ketone) in a paint booth, and simultaneously measuring the mass usage of these compounds during painting operations in order to compare measured with predicted concentrations. The results of the dilution ventilation experiment indicated that channeling of air was occurring due to a high ventilation rate in the painting area. The results of the mass balance usage and air sampling comparisons indicated that predicted concentrations were within the 95% upper/lower confidence interval about the geometric mean in 14 out of 16 area samples taken within the paint booth (87.5%). Correlation analysis between predicted concentrations and area, personal, and exhaust stack concentrations were strongest with exhaust (r = 0.923). Correlations with personal concentrations were not as strong (r = 0.828), and the area concentrations were even less strong (0.757). In conclusion, the box model does appear to be a useful additional tool for estimating worker exposures. However, the characteristics of any particular ventilation system must be understood before modeling is conducted. PMID:15204860

  12. An innovative sustainable process for VOCs recovery from spray paint booths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air emissions from surface coating operations result from the evaporation of the organic solvents in the coatings and consist primarily of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These VOC emissions can occur in a number of places along the production line: during atomization and application of the coating, during initial air drying of the part after it leaves the spray paint booth, and, eventually, in the bake oven. The aim of this paper is to present an innovative and sustainable process based on VOC absorption. An absorption tower is fed on the top by oil, which efficiently absorbs at low temperature the VOCs contained by the off-gas that enters the tower at its bottom. The mass ratio between oil and gas is approximately 1, so that a tray configuration results more efficiently than an alternative packed column. Saturated oil from the column is then stripped at high temperature in a vacuum system that condenses VOCs at a temperature slightly below the ambient temperature. Stripped oil is then recycled to the absorption tower. Special utilities are foreseen to reduce the water content in the gas and for energy recovery all over the plant. An industrial site located in Italy works at 14,000 Nm3/h off-gas absorbed with slightly more than 10 m3/h of oil. VOCs content in the off-gas ranges daily from 1200 to 2500 ppm; an average efficiency of approx. 90% recovery is presently obtained. A further reduction to an expected value of about 95-98% will be achieved in the next months

  13. Air-Fed Visors Used for Isocyanate Paint Spraying--Potential Exposure When the Visor Is Lifted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Mike; Baxter, Nick

    2015-11-01

    Continuous-flow air-supplied breathing apparatus with a visor is the respiratory protective equipment (RPE) of choice within the motor vehicle repair trade for protection against exposure to isocyanate paints. Whilst these devices are capable of providing adequate protection, a common workplace practice of sprayers lifting up the visor of their RPE immediately after spraying when checking the quality of the paint finish is thought to have an impact on the protection afforded. While the visor lift may be only for a few seconds, this action, especially if repeated numerous times during a work shift, could potentially result in a significant increase in exposure.Informal interviews with paint sprayers were conducted to understand the reasons for this behaviour followed by a series of laboratory tests to quantify the potential degree of exposure as a result of a visor lift.The majority of the paint sprayers interviewed explained their reasons for lifting their visors immediately after spraying and before the spray booth had been adequately cleared by ventilation. The main reasons given for a visor lift included a combination of habit, poor visibility due to poor visual clarity of the visor screen material, over spray, scratched visor screens, internal visor reflections, and poor booth lighting.The findings of the tests showed that the degree of protection provided by the visor when in the lifted position is in the approximate range of 1-3.7 (mean 1.7) and over the whole of the exposure period (from start of the lift to recovery of protection after refitting) is in the approximate range of 1.4-9.0 (mean 2.7). This is a significant reduction when compared to the assigned protection factor of 40 for this class of device and the measured protection factors of 5000-10 000 when worn correctly.These results clearly demonstrate that lifting the visor whilst still within a contaminated atmosphere considerably increases the wearer's exposure and that this is an example where improvements in RPE design can contribute to lower exposure. PMID:26304978

  14. Spray-painted human fibronectin coating as an effective strategy to enhance graft ligamentization of a polyethylene terephthalate artificial ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Chen, Chen; Ge, Yunsheng; Chen, Shiyi

    2014-05-01

    To enhance graft ligamentization after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, human fibronectin (FN) was coated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) ligaments by spray painting. The FN-coated PET ligaments were investigated in vitro using rat mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). MSCs cultured on FN-coated grafts resulted in similar cell densities and amounts of proliferating cells with control grafts without coating. The FN-coated group not only gave rise to MSC-derived collagen-like tissues but also enhanced the expression of collagen-I gene. Furthermore, rat ACL reconstruction models were used to evaluate the effect of the FN coating in vivo. The FN coating significantly promoted new ligament tissue regeneration into the graft fibers. In conclusion, sprayed FN coating had a positive effect to enhance graft ligamentization of PET artificial ligament. PMID:24557075

  15. IPMC paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il-Seok; Tiwari, Rashi; Kim, Kwang J.

    2008-03-01

    In this paper we are reporting a newely developed IPMC fabrication method, "IPMC Paint", which can be directly sprayed onto any complex surface. In order to fabricate the IPMC paint, liquid Nafion TM was used for the ionic conducting polymer instead of the typical film/sheet type Nafion TM. The viscosity of liquid Nafion TM was adjusted by adding Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to perform spray painting. Modified Nafion was sprayed onto the conducting substrate, Polyfoil TM which acts as base electrode layer. After three times spraying, ionic polymer layer has 45 μm thickness and 10 μm of surface roughness. Sensing tests show that IPMC paint sensor has more sensitivity (+/- 0.06 of producing voltage) than that of the typical IPMC (+/- 0.005 of producing voltage) when dynamic bending with 10 Hz frequency and 1.3 cm of displacement is applied to.

  16. Space Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Developed at Goddard, this improved inorganic paint may help protect coastal bridges subject to extreme corrosion from seawater spray. Potassium silicate formulated into a thin waterbase binder that sprays easily, adheres readily, and can be heavily loaded with zinc particles to provide uniform coverage in a single coat. Stanford Research Institute has measured an annual market in excess of $2 billion in painting highway bridges, utility pipelines, nuclear reactors, and railcar hoppers. Other suitable markets include offshore drilling facilities, railroad bridges, and ships.

  17. DEMONSTRATION OF A PAINT SPRAY BOOTH EMISSION CONTROL STRATEGY USING RECIRCULATION/PARTITIONING & UV/OZONE POLLUTION EMISSION CONTROL - VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes in detail the source testing, construction, and data reduction/analysis activities that comprise the three phases of a technology demonstration program. Phase I consisted of a detailed baseline evaluation of several paint spray booths operated at the Barstow,...

  18. Evaluation of a paint spray booth utilizing air recirculation. Final report June 1982-December 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, L.E.; Bryan, R.J.; Becvar, D.P.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of the recirculating air spray booth process at the Deere and Company facility in Davenport, Iowa. The effort involved a field measurement program and subsequent analysis of flow rates and emission data from the spray booth to define the degree of enhancement of the emissions stream and permit more efficient and economical control of spray booth emissions. Energy conservation became a matter of concern for industrial operators during the late 1970s when energy costs began to climb rapidly. Deere and Company engineers noted

  19. Isocyanate exposure and respiratory health effects in the spray painting industry

    OpenAIRE

    Pronk, A

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis exposure-response relationships between isocyanate exposure and respiratory health end-points and specific sensitization in spray painters were investigated. Isocyanates, a group of compounds characterized by reactive N=C=O groups, are among the most frequently identified causes of occupational asthma in industrialized countries. Isocyanates are used as polymerizing agents in polyurethane products, such as kits, glues, lacquers and insulation materials. Spray painters comprise ...

  20. DEMONSTRATION OF SPLIT-FLOW VENTILATION AND RECIR CULATION AS FLOW-REDUCTION METHODS IN AN AIR FORCE PAINT SPRAY BOOTH - VOLUME I. MAIN REPORT, APPENDICES A-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a series of painting operations in a horizontal-flow paint spray booth at Travis AFB, CA, baseline concentrations of four classes of toxic airborne pollutants were measured at 24 locations across a plane immediately forward of the exhaust filters, in the exhaust duct, and ...

  1. A comparison of solid sampler methods for the determination of hexamethylene-based isocyanates in spray-painting operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzinski, W E; Yin, J; England, E; Carlton, G; Key-Schwartz, R; Lesage, J

    2001-01-01

    A polyurethane foam sponge impregnated with 1-(2-methoxyphenyl) piperazine in dimethylsulfoxide was mounted in both cassette and inhalable organic monitor samplers and these were then compared with a dual-filter cassette. The samplers were used for the collection of hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer and oligomers during actual spray-painting operations. The dual filter cassettes were positioned on a mannequin. The polyurethane foam cassette (PUF CAS) and polyurethane foam inhalable organic monitor (PUF IOM) samplers were positioned on a cart in the same maximum overspray area. Data from this pilot study suggest that there is no significant difference (P < 0.05, n = 6) in the amount of HDI monomer obtained with the PUF IOM sampler when compared with the amount obtained from the dual filter cassette. The data also suggest that the PUF IOM sampler yields a higher amount of HDI oligomer than either the dual filter cassette or the PUF CAS sampler, neither of which exhibited a significant difference (P < 0.05, n = 6) from each other. PMID:11331997

  2. Air monitoring of aromatic hydrocarbons during automobile spray painting for developing change schedule of respirator cartridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangiri, Mehdi; Adl, Javad; Shahtaheri, Seyed Jamaleddin; Kakooe, Hossein; Rahimi Forushani, Abbas; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of End of Service Life Indicator (ESLI), a cartridge change schedule should be established for ensuring that cartridges are changed before their end of service life. Factors effecting service life of cartridges were evaluated, including the amount of atmospheric contamination with aromatic hydrocarbon vapors in the workplace, temperature, and relative humidity of the air. A new change schedule was established based on comparing the results of air monitoring and workplace conditions, laboratory experiment, and the NIOSH MultiVapor software. Spray painters were being exposed to aromatic hydrocarbons in a range exceeding occupational exposure limits. The cartridge change schedule was not effective and could no longer provide adequate protection against organic contaminants for sprayers. Change schedules for respirator cartridges should be reduced from 16-24 hours to 4 hours. NIOSH's service life software program could be applied to developing cartridge change schedules. PMID:24468234

  3. Paints and Preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Larry E.; Miller, Larry E.

    The publication contains an outline for use by agriculture teachers in developing a teaching plan for a unit on paints and preservatives. The topics included are (1) recognizing, solving, and preventing paint problems and (2) operating and using power spray painting equipment. Items presented for each topic are: the situation, (intended to inform…

  4. Determination of hexamethylene diisocyanate-based isocyanates in spray-painting operations. Part 2. Comparison of high performance liquid chromatography with capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzinski, W E; Yin, J; England, E; Carlton, G

    1999-02-01

    A capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) approach was developed for the determination of hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer and HDI-based oligomers. A comparison of CZE with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) indicates that the CZE separation completely isolates isocyanates from excess solvent, derivatizing reagent and pigment while offering a fivefold increase in sensitivity. The CZE approach allows for the quantification of HDI monomer and oligomer within a 1 min time window under the run conditions selected. For the determination of HDI-based oligomer, provided that the relative response with respect to HDI monomer is calculated, there is no significant difference (p spray-painting operations. PMID:10563049

  5. Process Waste Assessment - Paint Shop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate hazardous wastes generated in the Paint Shop, Building 913, Room 130. Special attention is given to waste streams generated by the spray painting process because it requires a number of steps for preparing, priming, and painting an object. Also, the spray paint booth covers the largest area in R-130. The largest and most costly waste stream to dispose of is open-quote Paint Shop wasteclose quotes -- a combination of paint cans, rags, sticks, filters, and paper containers. These items are compacted in 55-gallon drums and disposed of as solid hazardous waste. Recommendations are made for minimizing waste in the Paint Shop. Paint Shop personnel are very aware of the need to minimize hazardous wastes and are continuously looking for opportunities to do so

  6. Therapeutic Paint of Cidofovir/Sucralfate Gel Combination Topically Administered by Spraying for Treatment of orf virus Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Sonvico, Fabio; Colombo, Gaia; Gallina, Laura; Bortolotti, Fabrizio; De Rossi, Alessandra; McInnes, Colin J.; Massimo, Gina; Colombo, Paolo; Scagliarini, Alessandra

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research was to study a new cidofovir/sucralfate drug product to be used as a spray for treating the mucosal and/or skin lesions. The product, i.e., a water suspension of sucralfate (15% w/w) and cidofovir (1% w/w), combines the potent antiviral activity of the acyclic nucleoside phosphonate cidofovir ((S)-1-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]cytosine) and the wound healing properties of sucralfate gel (sucrose octasulphate basic aluminum salt). The product was characterized...

  7. On the use of computational fluid dynamics in the prediction and control of exposure to airborne contaminants-an illustration using spray painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, M R; Sills, E D

    2000-05-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is employed to simulate breathing-zone concentration for a simple representation of spray painting a flat plate in a cross-flow ventilated booth. The results demonstrate the capability of CFD to track correctly changes in breathing-zone concentration associated with work practices shown previously to be significant in determining exposure. Empirical data, and models verified through field studies, are used to examine the predictive capability of these simulations and to identify important issues in the conduct of such comparisons. A commercially available CFD package is used to solve a three-dimensional turbulent flow problem for the velocity field, and to subsequently generate particle trajectories for polydisperse aerosols. An in-house algorithm is developed to convert the trajectory data to breathing-zone concentrations, transfer efficiencies and aerosol size distributions. The mesh size, time step, duration of the simulation, and number of particles per size interval are all important variables in achieving convergent results. PMID:10775668

  8. Sign painting

    OpenAIRE

    Repstock, Anna Marie

    2012-01-01

    My MFA thesis project titled Sign Painting includes five oil paintings. Each painting contains two words squished together, eliminating the space between them: BOXINGGRIN, WHISKYMUSTACHE, SLOWAMBULANCE, PERISHOW, GRIZZLEND. In my painting practice I provocatively invite words into the visual space of oil paint. The provocation comes from the idea that language, which is verbal, and paint, which is purely visual, are opposed. But I have found that language inevitably asks to be painted. Poetic...

  9. Evaluation of high pressure water blast with rotating spray bar for removing paint and rubber deposits from airport runways, and review of runway slipperiness problems created by rubber contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, W. B.; Griswold, G. D.

    1975-01-01

    A high pressure water blast with rotating spray bar treatment for removing paint and rubber deposits from airport runways is studied. The results of the evaluation suggest that the treatment is very effective in removing above surface paint and rubber deposits to the point that pavement skid resistance is restored to trafficked but uncontaminated runway surface skid resistance levels. Aircraft operating problems created by runway slipperiness are reviewed along with an assessment of the contributions that pavement surface treatments, surface weathering, traffic polishing, and rubber deposits make in creating or alleviating runway slipperiness. The results suggest that conventional surface treatments for both portland cement and asphaltic concrete runways are extremely vulnerable to rubber deposit accretions which can produce runway slipperiness conditions for aircraft operations as or more slippery than many snow and ice-covered runway conditions. Pavement grooving surface treatments are shown to be the least vulnerable to rubber deposits accretion and traffic polishing of the surface treatments examined.

  10. COST EFFECTIVE VOC EMISSION CONTROL STARTEGIES FOR MILITARY, AEROSPACE,AND INDUSTRIAL PAINT SPRAY BOOTH OPERATIONS: COMBINING IMPROVED VENTILATION SYSTEMS WITH INNOVATIVE, LOW COST EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes a full-scale demonstration program in which several paint booths were modified for recirculation ventilation; the booth exhaust streams are vented to an innovative volatile organic compound (VOC) emission control system having extremely low operating costs. ...

  11. Exposure to mixtures of solvents among paint workers and biochemical alterations of liver function.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, J D; Wang, J D; Jang, J P; Chen, Y. Y.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine biochemical alterations of liver function among paint manufacturers and sprayers associated with exposure to organic solvents. Two paint manufacturing factories and 22 various kinds of spray painting factories (16 car painting, two aircraft painting, three video terminal painting; and one trailer painting) were included. Air concentrations of organic solvents were collected by personal samplers and analysed by gas chromatography. A total of 180 wor...

  12. Conceptual painting

    OpenAIRE

    Bracey, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Conceptual Painting is an essay that examines if the notion of conceptual painting is a misnomer or if painting is a conceptual approach to art, akin to other mediums. It looks at this through 3 artists, Ben Cook, Pavel Buchler and Anikam Toren.

  13. Replacement of corrosion protection chromate primers and paints used in cryogenic applications on the Space Shuttle with wire arc sprayed aluminum coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, R. L.; Sanders, H. L.; Zimmerman, F. R.

    1995-01-01

    With the advent of new environmental laws restricting volatile organic compounds and hexavalent chrome emissions, 'environmentally safe' thermal spray coatings are being developed to replace the traditional corrosion protection chromate primers. A wire arc sprayed aluminum coating is being developed for corrosion protection of low pressure liquid hydrogen carrying ducts on the Space Shuttle Main Engine. Currently, this hardware utilizes a chromate primer to provide protection against corrosion pitting and stress corrosion cracking induced by the cryogenic operating environment. The wire are sprayed aluminum coating has been found to have good potential to provide corrosion protection for flight hardware in cryogenic applications. The coating development, adhesion test, corrosion test and cryogenic flexibility test results will be presented.

  14. EVALUATION OF INNOVATIVE PAINTING PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an evaluation of two novel spray painting techniques that may decrease volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions associated with the application of surface coatings. ne technique uses supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) as a solvent and a propellant to ...

  15. Evaluating paint-sludge chars for adsorption of selected paint solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.R.; Kalis, E.M.; Salmeen, I.T. [Ford Research Lab., Dearborn, MI (United States); Kruse, C.W.; Demir, I.; Rostam-Abadi, M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Carlson, S.L. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    1996-06-01

    At Ford, a study had been carried out to investigate the technical feasibility of converting paint sludge to activated char and reusing the char in paint spray-booth water to capture paint solvents from spray-booth air. As part of the study, several chars were made from a paint sludge and six dried paints to evaluate their effectiveness as adsorbents by conducting a series of liquid-phase adsorption experiments. Three commonly-used paint solvents and p-nitrophenol were selected as adsorbates. The three paint solvents were toluene, 2-methyl-1-propanol (iso-butanol), and 2-butoxyethanol (butylcellosolve). In this paper, the results of the pyrolysis and adsorption experiments are presented along with practical implications. The primary findings include the following: (1) Black-paint chars showed substantially larger surface area and higher adsorption capacity (based on total weight) than white-paint chars which had high ash contents due to the white pigment, titanium dioxide; (2) the adsorption capacity of the paint-sludge char was between those of black-paint and white-paint chars, and was 5--20% that of a commercial activated carbon; (3) titanium dioxide in white-paint chars did not improve the chars` affinity for hydrophilic compounds such as 2-methyl-1-propanol and 2-butoxyethanol; (4) coal could be added to paint sludge to improve the quality of the resulting char and to reduce ash content; and (5) the pyrolysis of paint sludge could present an attractive opportunity for reusing and recycling a waste product for pollution abatement and as a vehicle component.

  16. Chromate concentration bias in primer paint particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPuma, P T; Fox, J M; Kimmel, E C

    2001-06-01

    Chromate-containing primer paints are used to prevent corrosion on metal surfaces. Chromate contains hexavalent chromium (Cr6+), a human carcinogen. The objective of this research was to determine if there is a bias in the fraction of chromate found in various particle sizes generated during primer painting operations. A solvent-based, aviation primer paint was sprayed using a high-volume, low-pressure spray gun. Paint particles were collected and separated by size with seven-stage cascade impactors. It was determined that particles with a mass aerodynamic diameter 2.0 microm (P 2.0 microm is 70 microg of Cr/mg of dry paint. The mixed paint contains 18.75% strontium chromate, which equates to a ratio of 67 microg of Cr/mg of dry paint. Particles > 2.0 microm are more likely to impact in the upper tracheobronchial regions of the lung where mucociliary clearance is relatively rapid. Additionally, chromate emissions from spraying operations may be overestimated because larger particles, which are more easily trapped on an air filter, contain more chromate than the smaller particles, which are more likely to bypass an air filter. PMID:11407936

  17. Gestual painting

    OpenAIRE

    Jerman, Rebeka

    2014-01-01

    Gestural painting art presents the central theme of the thesis. In the theoretical part of the thesis I focused on the importance of gestures in human self-articulation, which upgrades the artistic manifestation and the associated gestural painting in art. An explanation of liberating gesture through a review of certain art - historical periods and movements is presented in next chapter. The central part of the theoretical part consists of the analysis of the occurrence of the background and ...

  18. Ultraviolet-radiation-curable paints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosset, A M; Su, W F.A.; Vanderglas, E

    1981-09-30

    In product finishing lines, ultraviolet radiation curing of paints on prefabricated structures could be more energy efficient than curing by natural gas fired ovens, and could eliminate solvent emission. Diffuse ultraviolet light can cure paints on three dimensional metal parts. In the uv curing process, the spectral output of radiation sources must complement the absorption spectra of pigments and photoactive agents. Photosensitive compounds, such as thioxanthones, can photoinitiate unsaturated resins, such as acrylated polyurethanes, by a free radical mechanism. Newly developed cationic photoinitiators, such as sulfonium or iodonium salts (the so-called onium salts) of complex metal halide anions, can be used in polymerization of epoxy paints by ultraviolet light radiation. One-coat enamels, topcoats, and primers have been developed which can be photoinitiated to produce hard, adherent films. This process has been tested in a laboratory scale unit by spray coating these materials on three-dimensional objects and passing them through a tunnel containing uv lamps.

  19. Impact of occupational health hazards on serum markers of bone formation in spray painters of Chennai region in Tamil Nadu

    OpenAIRE

    Vijaya Prakash Krishnan Muthaiah; Abel Arul Nathan; Anandan Balakrishnan; Rajiv Rose; Jayaraman Gopalsamy

    2012-01-01

    Context: The association between spray paint exposure and bone remodeling received little attention despite the high usage of spray paints in automobile industries, steel furniture workshops etc. Aim: The present study was aimed at investigating the level of serum markers of bone formation in spray painters. The spray painting subjects were selected from automobile body repair workshops in Chennai region of TamilNadu which constitutes 30% of India′s automobile industry. Setting and Design: Al...

  20. Impact of occupational health hazards on serum markers of bone formation in spray painters of Chennai region in Tamil Nadu

    OpenAIRE

    Muthaiah, Vijaya Prakash Krishnan; Nathan, Abel Arul; Balakrishnan, Anandan; Rose, Rajiv; Gopalsamy, Jayaraman

    2012-01-01

    Context: The association between spray paint exposure and bone remodeling received little attention despite the high usage of spray paints in automobile industries, steel furniture workshops etc. Aim: The present study was aimed at investigating the level of serum markers of bone formation in spray painters. The spray painting subjects were selected from automobile body repair workshops in Chennai region of TamilNadu which constitutes 30% of India's automobile industry. Setting and Design: Al...

  1. Controlling Liquid Atomization using Dilute Emulsions: Mitigation of Pesticide Spray Drift

    OpenAIRE

    Opfer, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Spray transport is mainly influenced by the velocity of the surrounding gas flow and by the distribution of drop sizes. In many applications, like spray painting, coating and crop protection, the exact location of spray deposition plays a very important role. In modern agriculture, misdirected pesticide spray is a major problem, which causes severe damages to surrounding ecosystems. This phenomenon is called spray drift. The susceptibility of a spray to drift is mainly influenced by its drop ...

  2. Painting again

    OpenAIRE

    Coulange, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The intent of the thick issue Peinture pratique théorique is praiseworthy. It involves prompting a “conversation” about the painting medium and its hold “within modernism”, once reputedly predominant but subsequently waning. The range of contributions discourages a priori any attempt to standardize a set of hypotheses that are as serried as they are complex, and defines any temptation to wax conclusive. Philip Armstrong’s essay, which introduces the volume, broaches the issue of knowing “what...

  3. Slow curing of aliphatic polyisocyanate paints in automotive refinishing: a potential source for skin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Dhimiter; Sparer, Judy; Redlich, Carrie A; Ibrahim, Karim; Stowe, Meredith H; Liu, Youcheng

    2007-06-01

    Two-component, polyurethane paints containing aliphatic isocyanates are widely used in autobody spray painting. Such isocyanates can cause asthma, and skin exposure may be an important route of sensitization and may contribute to the development of isocyanate asthma. Autobody workers are frequently in contact with recently painted, dried auto parts. It is not known how fast the newly painted car surfaces are fully cured, that is, for how long unbound, isocyanate species remain on painted surfaces after initial drying. To address this question, scrap sections of auto bodies were painted and dried by autobody shop painters following regular practice. Routinely used paints were sprayed 23 different times on the parts. Drying was accomplished by baking the part in a paint spray booth by heating it with a heat lamp or air drying in the shop. The 23 sprayed surfaces were sampled at regular time intervals after drying to determine the presence of free NCO groups using the semiquantitative SWYPE technique. Quantitative isocyanate analysis was also performed on two sprayed parts using NIOSH method 5525. Geometric mean curing time of 23 painted surfaces was 56.4 hr (range: 0.8 hrs to 32 days). Unbound isocyanate species of similar composition to the original bulk material remained present on the majority of sampled painted surfaces for up to 120 hours for typical paint formulations and for 1 month for others. The actual curing of polyurethane paints in autobody refinishing can be a slow process. Unbound isocyanates may remain on the surface of painted car parts for prolonged periods (days to weeks) after dried. Such surfaces are an under-recognized potential source of skin exposure to autobody workers. PMID:17474030

  4. ENVIORNMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: ANEST IWATA CORPORATION LPH400-LV HVLP SPRAY GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Enviornmental Technology Verification reports on the characteristics of a paint spray gun. The research showed that the spray gun provided absolute and relative increases in transfer efficiency over the base line and provided a reduction in the use of paint.

  5. SPRAY CASTING

    OpenAIRE

    SALAMCI, Elmas

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper is designed to provide a basic review of spray casting. A brief overview of the historical development of spray  casting and the description of plant and equipment have been given. Following metallurgical characteristics of spray formed alloys, process parameters and solidification mechanism of spray deposition have been discussed in detail. Finally, microstructure and mechanical properties of the selected spray cast Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys have been presented and compared...

  6. Automatic Wall Painting Robot

    OpenAIRE

    P.KEERTHANAA, K.JEEVITHA, V.NAVINA, G.INDIRA, S.JAYAMANI

    2013-01-01

    The Primary Aim Of The Project Is To Design, Develop And Implement Automatic Wall Painting Robot Which Helps To Achieve Low Cost Painting Equipment. Despite The Advances In Robotics And Its Wide Spreading Applications, Interior Wall Painting Has Shared Little In Research Activities. The Painting Chemicals Can Cause Hazards To The Human Painters Such As Eye And Respiratory System Problems. Also The Nature Of Painting Procedure That Requires Repeated Work And Hand Rising Makes It Boring, Time A...

  7. Isocyanate Exposure Below Analytical Detection When a Paint Brush and Roller Are Used to Apply Moisture-Cure Polyurethane Paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Schoonover, Todd M

    2016-05-01

    Isocyanate exposure is known to be hazardous when polyurethane paints are applied with a spray gun, but less is known of exposure when paint is applied with a paint brush and roller. Concentrations of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer and three HDI polymers were assessed when two moisture-cure polyurethane paints containing 31-35% isocyanates were applied with a paint roller and brush. Short-term 15-min samples were taken during paint application in an indoor test environment with no ventilation (n= 12); in an outdoor test environment (n= 11); and in an outdoorin situassessment (n= 22). The outdoorin situassessment involved the painting of a bus shelter and light poles at a public transit station over two night shifts. All isocyanate samples were below analytical detection. The analytical limits of detection for HDI monomer, HDI biuret, HDI isocyanurate, and HDI uretdione were 0.005, 0.84, 0.87, and 0.88 µg, respectively. The finding that isocyanate concentrations were below detection is attributed to the use of paint roller and brush which minimize paint aerosolization and the paint formulation itself which contained <1% of volatile HDI monomer. PMID:26833099

  8. Nitroglycerin Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitroglycerin spray is used to treat episodes of angina (chest pain) in people who have coronary artery disease (narrowing ... vessels that supply blood to the heart). The spray may also be used just before activities that ...

  9. CORROSION RESISTANCE OF WATER-THINNABLE PAINT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji? Votava

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anticorrosion protection on the basis of water-thinnable paint systems belongs among one of ecological ways of protection of metal parts. The aim of the experiment was to test corrosion resistance of water-thinnable systems Eternal antikor specil V9503 and Colorlak aquarex V2115 in the salt spray environment according to the norm ?SN ISO 9227. Ductility of used paint systems in complience with the norm ?SN EN ISO 1520 will be also tested, it is a test according to Erichsen. At the end of the experiment measurement, the corrosion speed depending on paint coating thickness was analyzed.

  10. The application and processing of paints hardened by electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam hardening is a process for changing liquid surface coatings of different thicknesses by irradiation with electrons of high energy into solid, hard, elastic films. In contrast to the UV process, one can harden pigmented paints with electron beams. An electron accelerator, which remits free electrons is used as the energy source for starting the chemical reaction in the coating material. In order to irradiate flat parts, which were coated with liquid paint by rolling, pouring or spraying, equally with electrons, one must produce an 'electron curtain', similar to that in a paint pouring machine. (orig./PW)

  11. Process-Painting (Manifesto)

    OpenAIRE

    Gagnon, Alex

    2014-01-01

    This was my vision of what painting was, for me, circa January, 2004. Lots of things have changed since then, and yet I still hold onto these thoughts about what Painting CAN be. The sky is the limit!

  12. MOTION IN PAINTING

    OpenAIRE

    AKÇAOĞLU, ZELİHA

    2010-01-01

    Starting from primitive society until nowadays, the paint art, which shows the life with thoughts and fantasies, has awakened interest of people. Those, who were interested in it (paint art) were tryin to catch this elusive moment which is exposed in picture or paint. This short period of time called "moment"' is really important in paint art. Painter, who transfers the moment into a picture, at the same time tryin to transfer the motion. So far, all the light and regular mo...

  13. MEASUREMENTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND PARTICLES DURING APPLICATION OF LATEX PAINT WITH AN AIRLESS SPRAYER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses experiments, conducted at EPA's Indoor Air Quality Research House, to measure airborne concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particles during and following the spray-application of latex wall paint. (NOTE: Paint may be applied indoors by a v...

  14. Spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spray cooling - using water spraying in air - is surveyed as a possible system for make-up (peak clipping in open circuit) or major cooling (in closed circuit) of the cooling water of the condensers in thermal power plants. Indications are given on the experiments made in France and the systems recently developed in USA, questions relating to performance, cost and environmental effects of spray devices are then dealt with

  15. Oxymetazoline Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrin® Nasal Spray ... Anefrin® Nasal Spray ... Dristan® Nasal Spray ... Mucinex® Nasal Spray ... Nostrilla® Nasal Spray ... Vicks Sinex® Nasal Spray ... Zicam® Nasal Spray ... Oxymetazoline nasal spray is used to relieve nasal discomfort caused by colds, allergies, and hay fever. It is also used to ...

  16. Lined canvas paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup Andersen, Cecil

    2013-01-01

    This work evaluates the lining history of the Danish Golden Age collection of canvas paintings from the nineteenths century at SMK, The National Gallery of Denmark, and seeks to understand the moisture sensitivity of the paintings before and after lining. This is done by chemical analysis and...... tensile testing samples from the tacking edges as well as lined mock-up samples. The ability of the different lining techniques to support canvas paintings is evaluated in terms of their initial stretching and during fluctuations of relative humidity. Six different combinations of lining adhesives and...... textiles were examined. These included the adhesives Beva 371, Plextol D360, wax-resin, and glue-paste. The lining textiles were linen and polyester sailcloth. A naturally aged canvas painting and a modern painting were lined using these materials and methods. Testing of the lined paintings included uni...

  17. Automatic Wall Painting Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.KEERTHANAA, K.JEEVITHA, V.NAVINA, G.INDIRA, S.JAYAMANI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Primary Aim Of The Project Is To Design, Develop And Implement Automatic Wall Painting Robot Which Helps To Achieve Low Cost Painting Equipment. Despite The Advances In Robotics And Its Wide Spreading Applications, Interior Wall Painting Has Shared Little In Research Activities. The Painting Chemicals Can Cause Hazards To The Human Painters Such As Eye And Respiratory System Problems. Also The Nature Of Painting Procedure That Requires Repeated Work And Hand Rising Makes It Boring, Time And Effort Consuming. When Construction Workers And Robots Are Properly Integrated In Building Tasks, The Whole Construction Process Can Be Better Managed And Savings In Human Labour And Timing Are Obtained As A Consequence. In Addition, It Would Offer The Opportunity To Reduce Or Eliminate Human Exposure To Difficult And Hazardous Environments, Which Would Solve Most Of The Problems Connected With Safety When Many Activities Occur At The Same Time. These Factors Motivate The Development Of An Automated Robotic Painting System.

  18. Painting the Pixel

    OpenAIRE

    Goodfellow, Paul

    2014-01-01

    PAINTING THE PIXEL includes the work of nine international artists who are navigating the inherent paradoxes between the computer's immaterial, encoded matrix and the handmade. The exhibition investigates how digital technology is used as a conceptual tool in painting, how the virtual 'non-space' is reconfigured through the material presence of paint, and how the cultural currency of the image has shifted in relation to the phenomenon of the Internet. Curated by Rachel Sharp as part of her pr...

  19. Preparation for painting

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    "The aesthetic qualities of a painted work of art are determined by composition, the colours used and the application method. Equally important are the support and its preparation. Preparatory layers are fundamental to the creative process and to the perception of the work: they influence the final surface texture, the paints' luminosity and the durability of a painting. For centuries painters were well aware of these facts and took great care in this stage of the process." "These papers were...

  20. A Place for Painting

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    For the past three years I have been a research fellow at The Academy of Fine Art through the Norwegian Artistic Research Programme. This text accompanies the exhibition "A Box and a Picture" and the book "A Picture and Box", which mark the end of my research project "A Place for Painting". In my work I have been interested in understanding how different geographical places influence the painting process and what this implies for the construction of place in painting. My painti...

  1. Selectively strippable paint schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.; Thumm, D.; Blackford, Roger W.

    1993-03-01

    In order to meet the requirements of more environmentally acceptable paint stripping processes many different removal methods are under evaluation. These new processes can be divided into mechanical and chemical methods. ICI has developed a paint scheme with intermediate coat and fluid resistant polyurethane topcoat which can be stripped chemically in a short period of time with methylene chloride free and phenol free paint strippers.

  2. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  3. History-Painting

    OpenAIRE

    Gagnon, Alex

    2014-01-01

    This was the first official "History-Painting" in The History-Project, a series of works of art - interdisciplinary! - that I engaged in from the Summer of 2001 until around circa 2005. It is an oil painting on Masonite board, roughly 6 inches by 8 inches.

  4. Automotive action painting

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, George

    2006-01-01

    Observed from an overhead camera, a man stops by the roadside one morning and empties the contents of a number of large cans of paint over the tarmac. As the light rises, along with the level of traffic, the cars spread the paint along the surface of the road, creating an abstract smear of vibrant colour.

  5. Paint-Stirrer Submarine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jocelyn; Hardy, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a unique and challenging laboratory exercise called, the paint-stir-stick submarine, that keeps the students enthralled. The paint-stir-stick submarine fits beautifully with the National Science Education Standards Physical Science Content Standard B, and with the California state science standards for physical…

  6. Archi-Paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhin, Paula

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art unit called "Archi-Painting" where high school students in a beginning art class learned about landscapes and some of the world's most important buildings. Explains that the students placed a well-known building into a new environment in their paintings. (CMK)

  7. EVALUATION OF SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE SOLVENT IN SPRAY COATING APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation, part of the Pollution Prevention Clean Technology Demonstration (CTD) Program, addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues of spray paint application using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2). Anion Carbide has developed this technology and...

  8. Occupational Exposure to Organic Solvents during Bridge Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hua; Fiedler, Nancy; Moore, Dirk F.; Weisel, Clifford P.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from bridge painting was measured in New York City and New Jersey during the summer and fall seasons from 2005 to 2007. The effect of painting activities (paint coating layer, confinement setup, and application method) and meteorological conditions (temperature, humidity, and wind speed) on solvent exposure to aromatic, ketone, ester, and alkane compounds were individually evaluated. Mixed-effect models were used to examine the combination effects of these factors on the air concentration of total VOCs as the individual compound groups were not present in all samples. Air concentration associated with spraying was not affected by meteorological conditions since spraying was done in a confined space, thus reducing their impact on solvent air concentration. The mixed models for brushing and rolling samples included two fixed factors, i.e. application method and temperature, and one random factor, i.e. sampling day. An independent dataset (daily air samples) was used to validate the mixed model constructed for brushing and rolling samples. The regression line of the predicted values and actual measurements had a slope of 1.32 ± 0.15 for daily brushing and rolling samples, with almost all points being within the 95% confidence bands. The constructed model provides practical approaches for estimating the solvent exposure from brushing and rolling activities among construction painters. An adjusted mean air concentration derived from the activity-specific spray samples was the best estimate for that painting application. PMID:20354053

  9. Occupational exposure to organic solvents during bridge painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hua; Fiedler, Nancy; Moore, Dirk F; Weisel, Clifford P

    2010-06-01

    Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from bridge painting was measured in New York City and New Jersey during the summer and fall seasons from 2005 to 2007. The effect of painting activities (paint coating layer, confinement setup, and application method) and meteorological conditions (temperature, humidity, and wind speed) on solvent exposure to aromatic, ketone, ester, and alkane compounds were individually evaluated. Mixed-effect models were used to examine the combination effects of these factors on the air concentration of total VOCs as the individual compound groups were not present in all samples. Air concentration associated with spraying was not affected by meteorological conditions since spraying was done in a confined space, thus reducing their impact on solvent air concentration. The mixed models for brushing and rolling samples included two fixed factors, i.e. application method and temperature, and one random factor, i.e. sampling day. An independent dataset (daily air samples) was used to validate the mixed model constructed for brushing and rolling samples. The regression line of the predicted values and actual measurements had a slope of 1.32 +/- 0.15 for daily brushing and rolling samples, with almost all points being within the 95% confidence bands. The constructed model provides practical approaches for estimating the solvent exposure from brushing and rolling activities among construction painters. An adjusted mean air concentration derived from the activity-specific spray samples was the best estimate for that painting application. PMID:20354053

  10. Transport of a solvent mixture across two glove materials when applied in a paint matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Jackelin Q; Ceballos, Diana M; Dills, Russell L; Yost, Michael G; Morgan, Michael S

    2012-07-01

    The transport of mixed paint solvents through natural rubber latex (4 mil) and nitrile rubber (5 mil) gloves was evaluated after spray application of the paint formulation directly on the glove surface. Glove materials and thicknesses were those selected by the majority of spray painters in the local automobile repair industry. A flat panel containing glove specimens mounted in multiple permeation cells permitted evaporation of solvents from the applied paint and incorporated a solid sorbent receiving medium for measuring glove membrane transport. The panel was sprayed in a paint booth to simulate use conditions. Charcoal cloth under the glove adsorbed transported solvents, which were quantified by gas chromatography. For each solvent component, results were expressed as mass transported through the glove relative to the mass applied, per unit area, during 30 min after spray application. The paint formulation contained ketones, acetates, and aromatics. Natural rubber latex allowed 6-10 times the transport of solvents relative to nitrile rubber for all eight solvent components: methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, styrene, ethyl benzene, xylene isomers, and 2-heptanone. m-Xylene showed the largest difference in transport between the two glove materials. This solvent also had the highest transport for each material. The results indicate that nitrile rubber gloves offer somewhat greater chemical resistance to all eight solvents studied compared with natural rubber latex gloves, regardless of the chemical properties of the individual solvent components. However, it must be emphasized that neither of the glove materials, in the thicknesses used in this study, provide adequate protection when exposed by direct spray painting. Simulation of realistic spray conditions may offer a source of useful information on the performance of chemical protective gloves because it accounts for solvent evaporation and the effect of paint polymerization after application on glove transport. PMID:22434453

  11. Experimental Study on Electrostatic Hazards in Sprayed Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwang Seok; Yamaguma, Mizuki; Ohsawa, Atsushi

    2007-12-01

    In this study, to evaluate ignition hazards in a paint process, electrostatic sparks in the sprayed area and the amount of charge while spraying were observed. With the objective of preventing accidents involving fires and/or explosions, we deal also with the ignitability due to an electrostatic spark of a sprayed liquid relative to the percentage of nitrogen (N2), including compression in an air cylinder. For this study, an air-spray-type handheld gun with a 1-mm-internal-diameter orifice and a supply of air pressure in the range of 0.1 to 1 MPa were used. With regard to the materials, water, including some sodium chloride, was used to investigate the charge amount of the sprayed liquid, and kerosene was selected for ignition tests while spraying. Several electrostatic sparks in the sprayed region were observed while spraying. Some values of the electrostatic charge observed in the course of this study would be unsafe in the painting industry. Thus, if any of the conductive parts of the equipment are not grounded, incendiary electrostatic sparks can result. The ignitability of sprayed liquid was markedly reduced; the percentage of N2 in the air was substituted for pressurized pure air, and its efficiency increased with air pressure.

  12. Multiscale effect of paint pulverization orientation on appearance after painting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The perceived quality of a vehicle is strongly affected by paint appearance that shares major part of the outer car body panels. The painting process modifies the surface topography in a wide range of roughness and waviness scales, and consequently modifies the functionality of the surface in terms of appearance. Since painting process is a multistage process leading to stratified surfaces, a multiscale surface topography characterization approach is suited. In this paper, 2D multiscale signature of the painting process was introduced and applied to track the effect of the painting process working variable on painted surface topography in a wide range of wavelength. To this aim, experimental painting tests were performed using three painting orientation modes (horizontal, oblique and vertical) on random and deterministic metal sheet surface textures. Results show that the painting orientation mode affect only the wavelength band greater than 500 μm and optimal painting orientation depends strongly on the texture of the initial sheet surface.

  13. Multiscale effect of paint pulverization orientation on appearance after painting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezghani, S [Arts and Metiers ParisTech, LMPF, rue St Dominique - BP 508, 51006 Chalons-en-Champagne (France); Zahouani, H [Ecole Centrale de Lyon, LTDS UMR CNRS 5513, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, 69131 Ecully Cedex (France); Piezanowski, J, E-mail: sabeur.mezghani@ensam.eu [Arcelor Ledeep Florange, 17 Avenue des Tilleuls, 57191 Florange (France)

    2011-08-19

    The perceived quality of a vehicle is strongly affected by paint appearance that shares major part of the outer car body panels. The painting process modifies the surface topography in a wide range of roughness and waviness scales, and consequently modifies the functionality of the surface in terms of appearance. Since painting process is a multistage process leading to stratified surfaces, a multiscale surface topography characterization approach is suited. In this paper, 2D multiscale signature of the painting process was introduced and applied to track the effect of the painting process working variable on painted surface topography in a wide range of wavelength. To this aim, experimental painting tests were performed using three painting orientation modes (horizontal, oblique and vertical) on random and deterministic metal sheet surface textures. Results show that the painting orientation mode affect only the wavelength band greater than 500 {mu}m and optimal painting orientation depends strongly on the texture of the initial sheet surface.

  14. CORROSION RESISTANCE OF WATER-THINNABLE PAINT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Jiří Votava

    2013-01-01

    Anticorrosion protection on the basis of water-thinnable paint systems belongs among one of ecological ways of protection of metal parts. The aim of the experiment was to test corrosion resistance of water-thinnable systems Eternal antikor speciál V9503 and Colorlak aquarex V2115 in the salt spray environment according to the norm ČSN ISO 9227. Ductility of used paint systems in complience with the norm ČSN EN ISO 1520 will be also tested, it is a test according to Erichsen. At the end of the...

  15. Revisiting Pollock's Drip Paintings

    CERN Document Server

    Jones-Smith, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the contentions that Jackson Pollock's drip paintings are fractals produced by the artist's Levy distributed motion and that fractal analysis may be used to authenticate works of uncertain provenance[1-5]. We find that the paintings exhibit fractal characteristics over too small a range to be usefully considered as fractal; their limited fractal characteristics are easily generated without Levy motion, both by freehand drawing and gaussian random motion. Several problems must therefore be addressed before fractal analysis can be used to authenticate paintings.

  16. Every Painting Needs (a) Light

    OpenAIRE

    Geerts, Bart

    2005-01-01

    Every Painting Needs (a) Light brings painting and artificial light in a close combination. The perception of the painting is complicated by the light closeby. The light at its turn activates much more of the space than only the painting and undermines the painting’s status as art object.

  17. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) hair spray or sprays it down their throat or into their eyes. ... The harmful ingredients in hair spray are: Carboxymethylcellulose ... Polyvinyl alcohol Propylene glycol Polyvinylpyrrolidone

  18. Azelastine Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astelin® Nasal Spray ... Astepro® Nasal Spray ... Azelastine comes as a nasal spray. Azelastine usually is sprayed in each nostril two times a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask ...

  19. Impact of occupational health hazards on serum markers of bone formation in spray painters of Chennai region in Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Prakash Krishnan Muthaiah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The association between spray paint exposure and bone remodeling received little attention despite the high usage of spray paints in automobile industries, steel furniture workshops etc. Aim: The present study was aimed at investigating the level of serum markers of bone formation in spray painters. The spray painting subjects were selected from automobile body repair workshops in Chennai region of TamilNadu which constitutes 30% of India′s automobile industry. Setting and Design: All the study subjects, exposed to spray paint were working in a workshop without standard spraying room and did not wore any aerosol removing respirator. The controls were selected from random population irrespective of occupation. Data relevant to the socioeconomic features and personal history was collected using a questionnaire. The current study included 50 spray painters and 25 control subjects of same age group. Materials and Methods: We examined the level of serum calcium, serum phosphorus, serum differentiation markers of bone such as alkaline phosphatase (bone specific and serum osteocalcin in which these levels were found to be high in serum of spray painters. Conclusion: The current study concludes dysregulation in bone remodeling of spray painters exposed to chronic solvents and paint pigments.

  20. Analysis of Benzene Concentration Effects at Workplace to the Phenol Concentration in Urine of Painting Workshop Labors in Makassar, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Syafar, Muhammad; Wahab, Abd. Wahid

    2015-01-01

    Benzene in the body can cause central nervous system disorder, hematology disorder and the target is bone marrow. Benzene is used widely at the painting workshop as dissolvent since it is easily dissolved in paint. Workers who work at the workshop using spray paint have a high risk to benzene. The aim of the study was to analyze factors such as work experience, duration of spraying, ventilation, respirator and the most dominant factor affecting the Phenol level in the urine of the workers. Th...

  1. Water blasting paint removal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Terry

    1995-04-01

    Water blasting is a paint removal technique that has been used for cleaning and paint removal for many years. The major disadvantages until recently were the slow rate of paint removal and the possibility of damage to the substrate from the high pressures used. With the improvement in nozzle design that allows for higher operating pressures and the use of environmentally compliant paint softeners or strippers, water blasting is becoming a recognized technique for paint removal in the aircraft industry.

  2. Fire retardant paints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Parihar

    1954-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism involved in the flame-proofing of cellulose is explained on modern electronic concepts. Some recent developments on intumescent paint and mastic compositions with the scope of their further improvement are discussed.

  3. Paintings and museum artefacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discusses the use of radiography to examine cultural artifacts, including everything from painting to mummies, for dating, authenticity, and history. Numerous historical photographs are included. 12 refs

  4. Stereo Painting Display Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, David

    1982-06-01

    The Spanish Surrealist artist Salvador Dali has recently perfected the art of producing two paintings which are stereo pairs. Each painting is separately quite remarkable, presenting a subject with the vivid realism and clarity for which Dali is famous. Due to the surrealistic themes of Dali's art, however, the subjects preser.ted with such naturalism only exist in his imagination. Despite this considerable obstacle to producing stereo art, Dali has managed to paint stereo pairs that display subtle differences of coloring and lighting, in addition to the essential perspective differences. These stereo paintings require a display method that will allow the viewer to experience stereo fusion, but which will not degrade the high quality of the art work. This paper gives a review of several display methods that seem promising in terms of economy, size, adjustability, and image quality.

  5. Painting, abstraction, discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Besson, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Four catalogues and compilations published this year once again raise the issue of the linkage between painting and critical discourse, with abstraction, where applicable, exacerbating the tension between the two. The first essay, La Peinture après l’abstraction, is nothing less than stimulating. Certain observations made by Alain Cueff about the neglected role of poster artists in the renewed formulation of painting, between 1955 and 1965, lie at the root of the comparison--a new departure--...

  6. Art painting Data Collection

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Saez, Jodi

    2011-01-01

    The classification of Art painting images is a computer vision applications that is growing considerably. The goal of this technology, is to classify an art painting image automatically, in terms of artistic style, technique used, or its author. For this purpose, the image is analyzed extracting some visual features. Many articles related with these problems have been issued, but in general the proposed solutions are focused in a very specific field. In particular, algorithms a...

  7. Painting Tableau Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Derby, Moyra; Elliot, Stuart; Finch, Mark; Harland, Beth

    2013-01-01

    The central visual core of Painting Tableau Stage comprised of paintings by four contemporary artists from the United Kingdom, Moyra Derby, Stuart Elliot, Mick Finch, Beth Harland, all of whom share an interest in concepts of the tableau, a term that has received recent critical attention in the U.K. and often translated as "picture form." In addition, a small selection of scenographic artifacts and models from OSU's Jerome Lawrence and Robert E. Lee Theater Research Institute act as a visual...

  8. Chromosome painting in plants.

    OpenAIRE

    I. Schubert; Fransz, P.F.; FUCHS, J.; De Jong, J.H.

    2001-01-01

    The current 'state-of-art' as to chromosome painting in plants is reviewed. We define different situations described as painting so far: i) Genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) with total genomic DNA to distinguish alien chromosomes on the basis of divergent dispersed repeats, ii) 'Chromosomal in situ suppression' (CISS) hybridisation with chromosome-derived DNA probes and blocking of interchromosomally dispersed repeats by total genomic or C0 t-1 DNA in excess, iii) exceptional cases of sing...

  9. Recovery of a Charred Painting Using Atomic Oxygen Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Chichernea, Virgil A.

    1999-01-01

    A noncontact method is described which uses atomic oxygen to remove soot and char from the surface of a painting. The atomic oxygen was generated by the dissociation of oxygen in low pressure air using radio frequency energy. The treatment, which is an oxidation process, allows control of the amount of material to be removed. The effectiveness of char removal from half of a fire-damaged oil painting was studied using reflected light measurements from selected areas of the painting and by visual and photographic observation. The atomic oxygen was able to effectively remove char and soot from the treated half of the painting. The remaining loosely bound pigment was lightly sprayed with a mist to replace the binder and then varnish was reapplied. Caution should he used when treating an untested paint medium using atomic oxygen. A representative edge or corner should he tested first in order to determine if the process would be safe for the pigments present. As more testing occurs, a greater knowledge base will be developed as to what types of paints and varnishes can or cannot be treated using this technique. With the proper precautions, atomic oxygen treatment does appear to be a technique with great potential for allowing very charred, previously unrestorable art to be salvaged.

  10. Reading Through Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Two-dimensional data matrix symbols, which contain encoded letters and numbers, are permanently etched on items for identification. They can store up to 100 times more information than traditional bar codes. While the symbols provide several advantages over bar codes, once they are covered by paint they can no longer be read by optical scanners. Since most products are painted eventually, this presents a problem for industries relying on the symbols for identification and tracking. In 1987, NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center began studying direct parts marking with matrix symbols in order to track millions of Space Shuttle parts. Advances in the technology proved that by incorporating magnetic properties into the paints, inks, and pastes used to apply the matrix symbols, the codes could be read by a magnetic scanner even after being covered with paint or other coatings. NASA received a patent for such a scanner in 1998, but the system it used for development was not portable and was too costly. A prototype was needed as a lead-in to a production model. In the summer of 2000, NASA began seeking companies to build a hand-held scanner that would detect the Read Through Paint data matrix identification marks containing magnetic materials through coatings.

  11. Landscape Painting. Rewriting Painting in the Postmedium Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Gal, Nissim

    2011-01-01

    Is landscape painting still relevant today? To answer this question the article examines the work of the contemporary artist Yehudit Sasportas. Sasporas offers a unique kind of written-drawn landscape painting that moves between the manual and the mechanical. The theoretical perspectives from which it is approached are taken, among others, from Plato, Heidegger and Derrida on the issue of writing. Sasportas painting, which may be characterized as "painting under erasure" or "Landscape Paintin...

  12. Development of Universal Portable Spray Stand for Touch-Up Process in The Automotive Paintshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatah Muhamed Mukhtar, Muhamed Abdul; Mohideen Shahul Hameed, Rasool

    2016-02-01

    A spray stand is a custom-made tool used to hold the automotive body parts as well as the devices used to facilitate the operator during the Touch Up process in Paint shop production. This paper discusses about the development of Universal Portable Spray Stand (UPSS) as a tool to hold various types of automotive body parts and model of car during the painting process. The main objective of this study is to determine the effective application of UPSS at the International College of Automotive (ICAM) and also in the automotive industry. This will be helpful to add features to the current spray stand in ICAM and to add value to the spray stand based on selected criteria which are universal, portable and cost saving. In addition, study in the UPSS is also expected to bring reduction in cycle time during the touch up process, in the paint defects and in the ergonomics issues among the operators.

  13. painting/tableau/stage

    OpenAIRE

    Harland, Beth

    2013-01-01

    Emerging out of a long and complex tradition in French art and art theory, the word tableau is often translated into English as “picture-form” or more simply as “painting.” While less familiar in the U.S., the concept of the tableau has received much critical attention in England in recent years, notably by practicing artists. For example, the Tate Modern hosted a symposium in 2011, Tableau: Painting, Photo, Object, which was organized by a painter, Mick Finch. The primary aim of the exhibiti...

  14. Paint-remover hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R D; Hake, C L

    1976-01-26

    The in-home use of paint removers containing methylene chloride results in the absorption of this solvent, which is metabolized to carbon monoxide. Exposure for two to three hours can result in the elevation of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) to levels that stress the cardiovascular system. The metabolic formation of COHb continues following the paint-remover exposure, doubling the duration of the cardiovascular stress produced by a comparable COHb level after exposure to CO. Patients with diseased cardiovascular systems may not be able to tolerate this unexpected stress. PMID:946084

  15. Miniature Painting as Muslim Cosmopolitanism

    OpenAIRE

    Dadi, I.

    2006-01-01

    Artists in Lahore have creatively reinterpreted Mughal miniature painting and its successors. The artist Chughtai initiated this process when he started to reorient his “Indian” painting towards consciously Islamic styles. Although he had no immediate followers, since the 1980s a new group of artists inspired by Chughtai’s works has started to produce playfully subversive miniature paintings. By using “obsolete” painting techniques in depicting familiar political themes, important questions a...

  16. Static-Suppressing Optical Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, M. M.; Metzler, E. C.; Cleland, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    Electrically conductive flat black paint adheres well to magnesium, aluminum, fiberglass, and other materials. Paint absorbs stray light in optical instruments while preventing buildup of electrostatic fields and arcing. Paint consists of primer and topcoat, both containing electricallyconductive carbon-black powder. Primer two-part epoxy base, and topcoat polyurethane base.

  17. Nicotine Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotine nasal spray is used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine nasal spray should be used together with a smoking cessation ... counseling, or specific behavior change techniques. Nicotine nasal spray is in a class of medications called smoking ...

  18. Painting for public perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, M.

    2011-12-15

    This paper presents the work of a wildlife artist, Lucas Seaward, in eliciting public opinion on the oilsands industry. He is in the process of creating 20 or more paintings using oil on canvas, not the Chagall or van Gogh sort of oil, but bitumen extracted near Fort McMurray. The paintings are designed for an exhibition to travel across Canada. His aim is to spread awareness that the oilsands industry is working hard towards sustainability and the protection of wildlife. Apart from being evil-smelling, bitumen is stiff, it does not dry quickly, and it wears out paint brushes really fast. Similarly to producers who add a diluent for proper flow, Seaward also found an additive that allowed smooth flow so that he could paint the bitumen in thin layers that dried properly and also was able to produce gradations of color. The idea is to educate the general public out of his personal experience of Fort McMurray and the oilsands industry.

  19. The literal in painting

    OpenAIRE

    Rahtz, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    This catalogue essay was published on the occasion of the exhibition, 'LIMBER: Spatial Painting Practices', held at the Herbert Read Gallery, Canterbury, University for the Creative Arts (UCA), from 13 September to 12 October 2013, and at the Grandes Galleries de l'Erba, Rouen, France, from 21 November to 20 December 2013.

  20. Rabbit Repellent Paint

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Five gallons of rabbit repellent paint were sent to George Wilson to be applied on the trees of the Tewaukon tree plot. Mr. Wilson requires a 3 or 4 in. brush for...

  1. Artists Paint ... Fantasy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    When he painted a portrait of Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph II (1552-1612), Giuseppe Arcimboldo used his imagination, and portrayed him as "Vertumnus," the Roman god of vegetation and the seasons. It's fun to find the different fruits, vegetables and flowers he used: pea-pod eyelids, a gourd for the forehead. Court painters of the time usually…

  2. Smart as paint

    OpenAIRE

    Wassink, J.

    2007-01-01

    In the basement of the Chemistry Building, a new method has been developed to measure the ageing process of coats of paint. The method is extremely sensitive, says Professor Stephen Picken of the department of NanoStructured Materials. The doctoral research conducted by Massimiliano Giacomelli Penon (Max) appears to offer a fresh approach to an old problem..

  3. Paint by Numbers Revived!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Nic

    2012-01-01

    Remember paint by numbers? This revived trend was a perfect solution to teaching geometric shapes to the author's first-grade students. Geometric shapes are identified and used in early elementary art classrooms, but this lesson gives students a deeper understanding of shape, encourages problem-solving, and makes a strong correlation between math

  4. An Exhibition of Recent Paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Gander, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    This show uses the physical attributes of a painting exhibition to deal with concerns other than those of painting. Gander presents us with all the component parts of an exhibition of painting, a lightbox gallery sign, packing crate, palettes and paintings. He made a self portrait every day for year, showing only the palettes used to mix the paint. We will present Self Portrait XII, 31 circular glass palettes from August 2012 wall-mounted in a grid, the last work from this series. There will ...

  5. Paint removal principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavallon, Olivier

    1995-04-01

    An attempt is made to group the various processes of paint removal into families. The classifications are distinguished by chemical, mechanical, and thermal phenomena. For each of these phenomena, it is possible to identify the main mechanisms brought into play in material removal leading to paint stripping. The chemical strippers used are methylene chloride, phenolic compounds, and activated acids or activated bases free from phenols, chromates or methylene chloride. However, the methylene chloride and phenolic compounds are being replaced by a new generation of chemical strippers which are less active and their solvent power is lower. To improve the chemical kinetics, 'active' elements are introduced into the composition of these products. Mechanical stripping includes technologies using mechanical phenomena based on erosion, achieved by friction or blasting particles. Thermal stripping, the last classification, makes use of electronics and automation.

  6. LOVE AESTHETICS AND PAINTING

    OpenAIRE

    Arda, Zuhal

    2015-01-01

    Talking about love, while we are talking about a culture and world view means. People love for the people, the passion that inhabited the earth of mankind, the "love" for the first time since love always makes life meaningful emotions has been replaced in the front row between. Throughout history, many artists, scientist, philosopher, and polymath has committed about love are in the works. Poetry, music, theatre, dance, painting, sculpture, each with its own specific language, an art form the...

  7. Reducer Selection When Doing Overall Paint Jobs Using Enamel Paints. Lesson Plan No. 1 of Auto Repair and Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyau, Layton M.

    This lesson, which is part of a high school course in auto body repair and painting, deals with selecting a reducer when doing overall paint jobs using enamel paints. Students are taught the general properties of different types of enamel paints and selection of the proper reducer for each type of paint, depending on the weather and the specific

  8. Arc spraying in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianjun

    2001-03-01

    Although are spraying is not a new technique, recent development of arc spraying device systems, spray wires, research on the coating mechanism, and the dynamic behavior of spraying make it a most active thermal spray process. In China, the arc spraying technique is the most efficient way for long life corrosion protection of steel structures. In addition, the arc spraying process is widely used for renovation and surface modification of machine components, mold making for plastic products, high-temperature corrosion resistance for waterwalls of boilers, antisliding coatings, self-lubricating coatings, etc.

  9. LDRD summary report. Part 1: initiation studies of thin film explosvies used for scabbling concrete. Part 2: investigation of spray techniques for use in explosive scabbling of concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benham, R.A.; Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C.; Wackerbarth, D.E.; Brock, J.L.

    1996-11-01

    We describe a new method for the scabbling of concrete surfaces using a thin layer of explosive material sprayed onto the surfaces. We also developed a new explosive mixture that could be applied with commercial spray painting equipment. The first part of our record describes experiments that studied methods for the initiation of the sprayed explosive. We successfully initiated layers 0.36 mm thick using a commercial EBW detonator, a flying plate detonator, and by pellet impact. The second part of our report describes a survey of spray methods and tests with two commercial spray systems that we believe could be used for developing a robotic spray system.

  10. Spray atomization and combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faeth, G. M.

    1986-01-01

    New theoretical and experimental methods for studying sprays are reviewed. Common methods to analyze dilute sprays are described and used to interpret recent measurements of the structure of dilute sprays and related dispersed turbulent jets. Particle-laden jets, nonevaporating, evaporating, and combusting sprays, and noncondensing and condensing bubbly jets are examined and used to initially evaluate current analytical methods for a wide range of conditions. Dense sprays are briefly discussed.

  11. Old painting digital color restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Pappas, M; Pitas, I

    2010-01-01

    Many old paintings suffer from the effects of certain physicochemical phenomena, that can seriously degrade their overall visual appearance.Digital image processing techniques can be utilized for the purpose of restoring the original appearance of a painting, with minimal physical interaction with the painting surface. In this paper, a number of methods are presented which can yield satisfactory results. Indeed, simulation results indicate that acceptable restoration performance may be attain...

  12. Connections between painting and music

    OpenAIRE

    Jerič, Tina

    2014-01-01

    Music and painting are two of the most widespread and intertwined fields of art. The interaction between the two of them is very common, which can be observed in the names of theoretical painting concepts that derive from music. The thesis explores the influence that music has had on painting both in the past and in the present. The first part of my theoretical section largely deals with the connections between music and painting. I focused on different human senses which allow us to perce...

  13. Critical Autobiography and Painting Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Howey, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    In 2000 I completed a PhD in Creative practice (painting) which had a contextualising thesis as part of the submission. My paintings at this time were based upon issues of memory and the text presented a narrative of the construction of the work but also examined how I was constructed by the work (both through the painting and writing). The tension between the past and what we make of it was central to my argument about the creative self in painting and so the title of this ...

  14. Neutralizing paintings with a projector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Ian E.

    2003-01-01

    A painting needs illumination to be visible. If the illumination is provided by an LCD data projector, different regions of the painting can be illuminated separately. Modern projectors have large color gamuts and can provide a wide range of illumination effects. One possible effect is to project a captured digital image of the painting onto the painting; the resulting superposition of like colors intensifies the contrast and saturation of the image. The opposite effect is to project the complement of the image onto the painting to "neutralize" it. When carefully done, with correct registration, the painting fades into a nearly uniform gray. Although a simple idea, in practice it is not trivial to accurately find the complementary color for each part of the painting, even when it is captured by a calibrated digital camera. This research examines the problems of accurately capturing the image, combining the projector gamut with typical paint reflectances, and determining the available range of complementary projector colors and the final lightness of the neutral image. The work was initially inspired by a student's fine art project, wherein computer animation was superimposed on a painting, bringing it to life.

  15. Gas/surface heat transfer in spray deposition processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical investigation of heat transfer dynamics between gas and solid surfaces during droplet spray impingement is presented. Aim of the work is to derive knowledge for control of spray deposition processes like spray painting or spray forming, analysing how the heat exchanged from the surface to the flowing gas is affected by the presence of impinging droplets. The investigation is carried on a macro- and a micro-scale, analysing velocity and temperature profiles close to a surface cooled by a spray on a scale of the whole spray and on a scale comparable to the droplet diameter, respectively. In the former case an Euler-Lagrange approach is used to reproduce the multiphase jet/spray for different nozzle geometries, gas conditions and droplets properties, as drop diameter and concentration. In the latter case, the gas flow close to the surface is studied during the collision of single and multiple droplets for different impact velocities superposed by different perpendicular gas boundary layer configurations. The 'volume of fluid' (VOF) technique is utilized for the determination of the transient shape of the gas-liquid interface during droplet impact. From the data of the numerical case studies, a quantitative consideration about the global increase of surface/gas heat transfer in impinging dilute sprays as a function of the number flux of particles approaching the wall is derived

  16. Painting rusted steel: The role of aluminum phosphosilicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Aluminum phosphosilicate is an acid pigment which could act as mild phosphating agent. •Aluminum phosphosilicate can phosphatize iron oxides on rusted surfaces. •Aluminum phosphosilicate is compatible with acid binders. •Aluminum phosphosilicate could replace chromate in complete painting schemes. •Aluminum phosphosilicate primers improve paints adhesion on rusted surfaces. -- Abstract: Surface preparation is a key factor for the adequate performance of a paint system. The aim of this investigation is to employ a wash-primer to accomplish the chemical conversion of rusted surface when current cleaning operations are difficult to carry out. The active component of the wash-primer was aluminum phosphosilicate whose electrochemical behavior and the composition of the generated protective layer, both, were studied by electrochemical techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Primed rusted steel panels were coated with an alkyd system to perform accelerated tests in the salt spray chamber and electrochemical impedance measurements (EIS). These tests were conducted in parallel with a chromate wash primer and the same alkyd system. Results showed that the wash-primer containing aluminum phosphosilicate could be used satisfactorily to paint rusted steel exhibiting a similar performance to the chromate primer

  17. Matte Painting -tekniikka

    OpenAIRE

    Niittymäki, Tiina

    2012-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä keskitytään digitaaliseen matte painting -tekniikkaan, sen käyttötarkoituksiin ja käytännön toteutukseen. Työssä tutustutaan myös matte paintingin historiaan sekä digitaaliseen maalaamiseen. Matte paintingilla tarkoitetaan valokuvarealistista visualisointia paikasta, joka olisi muuten mahdotonta tai liian kallista kuvata. Matte paintingillä luodaan virtuaaliset lavasteet, joissa näyttelijät voivat näytellä luonnollisen näköisesti. Matte paintingissä yhdistellään niin...

  18. Laser assisted graffiti paints removing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, B. Y.; Chikalev, Y. V.; Shakhno, E. A.

    2011-02-01

    It's hard to imagine a modern city view without some drawings and inscriptions, usually called "graffiti". Traditional cleaning methods do not suit modern requirements. Investigation of possibilities of laser assisted paints removing is described in this article. The conditions for removing different paints from different surfaces were defined.

  19. Breast Cancer in Art Painting

    OpenAIRE

    Forma Ewa; Bernaciak Magdalena; Bryś Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is an emotive cancer. It is a disease that affects a visible sexual organ and it is the commonest single cause of death of women between 40 and 60 years of age. Nevertheless, this type of cancer was infrequently depicted in art paintings. In this article the themes from the breast cancer in famous art paintings are discussed.

  20. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron; Küffner, Markus; Scherrer, Nadim C.; Ferreira, Ester S. B.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. 14C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the 14C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated.

  1. LOVE AESTHETICS AND PAINTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZUhal ARDA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Talking about love, while we are talking about a culture and world view means. People love for the people, the passion that inhabited the earth of mankind, the "love" for the first time since love always makes life meaningful emotions has been replaced in the front row between. Throughout history, many artists, scientist, philosopher, and polymath has committed about love are in the works. Poetry, music, theatre, dance, painting, sculpture, each with its own specific language, an art form they are given immortal works about love. Sense of friendship and love of antiquity, Medieval spiritual journeys, when more stunning and dramatic to modern times, trends, human love, to the concept of gaining various dimensions of divine love. Understanding by seeing through these exchanges pictures-meaning maybe the concept of "love" will shed light on the changing values, too. When you do this, both from the east and from the west, giving examples to do a comparison over the years has diversified, changing the concept of "love" art of painting will be an indication that reflected how.

  2. Mometasone Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mometasone nasal spray is used to prevent and relieve symptoms of sneezing, runny, stuffy, or itchy nose caused by hay fever ... of the lining of the nose). Mometasone nasal spray should not be used to treat symptoms (e. ...

  3. Bug spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... harmful effects from breathing in or swallowing bug spray (repellent). This article is for information only. DO ... ingredient. DEET is one of the few insect sprays that works to repel bugs. It is recommended ...

  4. Naloxone Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naloxone nasal spray is used along with emergency medical treatment to reverse the life-threatening effects of a known or suspected opiate (narcotic) overdose. Naloxone nasal spray is in a class of medications called opiate ...

  5. Flunisolide Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flunisolide nasal spray is used to relieve symptoms of sneezing, runny, stuffy, or itchy nose caused by hay fever or other allergies. Flunisolide nasal spray should not be used to treat symptoms (e. ...

  6. Beclomethasone Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beclomethasone nasal spray is used to relieve symptoms of sneezing, runny, stuffy, or itchy nose (rhinitis) caused by hay fever, other ... nose) after nasal polyp removal surgery. Beclomethasone nasal spray should not be used to treat symptoms (e. ...

  7. Calcitonin Salmon Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bottle together, remove the rubber stopper from the bottle, and then remove the plastic protective cap from the bottom of the spray unit. Put the spray pump into the bottle and turn to tighten. Then take the plastic ...

  8. The painted shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha, Natlia; Rosa Alexandre, Andr; Cavaca Santos, Joana; Rodrigues, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    A previously well 4-year-old boy presented to the emergency room with progressive cyanosis, pallor and vomiting over the last 5 h. Oxygen saturation on pulse oximetry was 87-89% despite 9 L/min of supplemental oxygen. He was tachypnoeic and had a systolic heart murmur, with no other findings on clinical examination. In his medical history, there was record of a restrictive atrial septal defect, with a normal echocardiogram from 3 years before. He had no relevant family history. His shoes appeared to have been recently painted, which raised the suspicion of methaemoglobinaemia, presumptively caused by aniline-containing shoe dye. The shoes were removed promptly and his feet washed profusely. After confirming the diagnosis, methylene blue was started. The level of methaemoglobin decreased rapidly and the boy made a full recovery. PMID:26338243

  9. Ciclesonide Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciclesonide nasal spray is used to treat the symptoms of seasonal (occurs only at certain times of the year), and perennial ( ... Ciclesonide comes as a solution (liquid) to spray in the nose. It is usually sprayed in each nostril once daily. Use ciclesonide at around the same time every day. Follow the ...

  10. Olopatadine Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olopatadine nasal spray is used to relieve sneezing and a stuffy, runny or itchy nose caused by allergic rhinitis (hay fever). ... Olopatadine comes as a liquid to spray in the nose. Olopatadine nasal spray ... twice daily. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, ...

  11. Fentanyl Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentanyl nasal spray is used to treat breakthrough pain (sudden episodes of pain that occur despite round the clock treatment with ... Fentanyl nasal spray comes as a solution (liquid) to spray in the nose. It is used as needed to treat breakthrough ...

  12. Butorphanol Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butorphanol nasal spray is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Butorphanol is in a class of medications called opioid agonist- ... Butorphanol nasal spray comes as a solution (liquid) to spray in the nose. It is usually used as needed for pain, ...

  13. Remotely controlled spray gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, William C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A remotely controlled spray gun is described in which a nozzle and orifice plate are held in precise axial alignment by an alignment member, which in turn is held in alignment with the general outlet of the spray gun by insert. By this arrangement, the precise repeatability of spray patterns is insured.

  14. Painting recognition from wearable cameras

    OpenAIRE

    Dalens, Théophile; Sivic, Josef; Laptev, Ivan; Campedel, Marine

    2014-01-01

    Are smart glasses the new high-tech device that will guide you through a museum? In this report, we describe a system that runs "on device" on Google Glass and retrieves the painting you're looking at among a set of paintings in a database. We perform an experimental comparison of the accuracy and speed of different feature detectors and descriptors on a realistic dataset of paintings from Musée du Louvre. Based on this analysis we design an algorithm for fast and accurate image matching usin...

  15. 46 CFR 72.05-45 - Paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Paint. 72.05-45 Section 72.05-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Structural Fire Protection 72.05-45 Paint. (a) An excessive number of coats of paint will be discouraged unless noncombustible paint is used....

  16. Radiation safety in radioluminous paint workshop handling tritium activated paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the safety features related to a workshop when tritium activated luminous paint is handled by workmen. Salient features of the workshop and the methods employed for monitoring the radiation levels are briefly outlined and results are discussed. The importance of proper ventilation of the workplace and precautions to be taken in the storage of painted articles are highlighted. (author). 1 table, 3 figs

  17. Experimental evaluation of insecticidal paints against Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, under natural climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorla David E

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triatoma infestans is the main vector of Chagas disease in the Gran Chaco region of South America. The traditional spraying technique used for the application of pyrethroid insecticides has shown low efficiency in the elimination of the vector species populations occupying peridomestic structures of rural houses in the endemic area of Argentina. As part of studies looking for better alternatives, we evaluated the residual effect of insecticidal paints on the mortality of fourth instar nymphs of T. infestans. Results The study was based on an experimental design that included two groups treated with an organophosphate (Inesfly 5A IGR™ and a pyrethroid (Inesfly 5A IGR NG™ formulations of the paint, that were applied on wood, cement blocks and adobe bricks under natural climatic conditions. A third group was an untreated control. Both paint formulations showed very long residual activity, producing mortality of 84% and 98% (pyrethroid and organophosphate formulations, respectively after 12 months of the paint application. After eight months, nymphs exposed during 6 hours to the painted surfaces with the pyrethroid and organophosphate formulations showed 81.33% and 100% mortality, respectively. Conclusion The organophosphate- and pyrethroid-based insecticidal paints showed a very long residual activity on the mortality of fourth instar nymphs of T infestans, compared with the traditional spraying technique used for the application of pyrethroid insecticides in peridomestic structures of rural houses in the endemic region for Chagas disease in the Gran Chaco of Argentina. The application of the paints by trained personnel of the vector control programmes could be considered as an alternative control tool in areas where the traditional methods have failed or showed low efficacy.

  18. The Conservation of Panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Until the early 17th century almost all portable paintings were created on wood supports, including masterpieces by famous painters, ranging from Giotto to Dürer to Rembrandt. The structural conservation of these paintings requires specific knowledge and skills as the supports are susceptible to...... damage caused by unstable environmental conditions. Unfortunately, past structural interventions often caused significant damage due to insufficient knowledge of the behaviour of the wood panels, glue and paint layers. Over the last fifty years, the field has developed treatment strategies based on...... interdisciplinary collaboration and on the knowledge of specialist conservators. Most current conservation protocols rely on empirical knowledge of conservators and are not necessarily based on a scientific understanding of the nature and behaviour of wood and paint layers. In order to move the field forward, it is...

  19. Neutron absorbing-shielding paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention concerns neutron absorbing shielding paints showing excellent adhesion at high temperature. As such paints, although silicon rubber in which boron carbide is dispersed has been known so far, it has a drawback that defoliation, crack, etc. are caused to the painted films at a temperature higher than 200degC, and it can not be used as a pressure vessel. The present invention overcomes such a drawback. That is, the paint according to the present invention comprises 15 to 80 parts by weight of a silicon resin, 15 to 80 parts by weight of boron carbide and 1 to 50 parts by weight of low melting glazes. The glaze ingredients described above react with SiO2 formed upon thermal decomposition of the silicone resin to provide a function as a binder. (K.M.)

  20. New biocides for antifouling paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antifouling paints are used for protecting the hulls of the boasts from the undesirable accumulation of micro-organisms, plants, and animals on artificial surfaces (marine biological fouling). These paints constitute a potential risk for the marine environment, because of the presence in their formulation, among the other potentially toxic components, of organic compounds acting as biocide. The environmental problems associated with the use of the organotin compounds as biocides in the antifouling paints, have lead to the international ban of these compounds. In the article the new antifouling paints coming up the national and international market are shortly introduced and discussed, with particular attention respect to the new organic compounds used as biocides. In Italy quite a few marine monitoring campaigns have been carried out for organotin compounds, on the contrary there is a lack of data regarding the presence of other biocides

  1. Painting as a Foreign Language.

    OpenAIRE

    Mullaniff, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Painting as a Foreign Language was a group exhibition of twenty-three British artists curated by Professor Gerard Hemsworth that formed part of the 25th São Paulo Biennial, 2002. The aim of the exhibition was to highlight the resurgence of painting as a vital practice in the British art environment. A fully illustrated catalogue published by Editora Cultural Inglesa (ISBN 8588116073) accompanied the exhibition, and included an essay by Suhail Mallik. Related Artists: Alain Mi...

  2. Romanesque mural painting in Catalonia

    OpenAIRE

    Montserrat Pagès

    2013-01-01

    The Romanesque mural painting in Catalonia which was saved from despoilment and dispersion in 1919, when the Junta de Museus (Board of Museums) of Barcelona embarked upon a major campaign of purchase and removal, is a unique heritage of universal value. Even though the mural paintings from the Romanesque cathedrals or the great abbeys like Ripoll no longer survive, what has been conserved is quite notable both stylistically and iconographically. The surviving frescoes were mainly inspired by ...

  3. Painting in a sonic environment

    OpenAIRE

    Greated, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    The thesis explores how painting is affected by its sonic environment. The research stems from an artistic response to noise in the environment and how this can be explored through artistic practice. The boundaries of art have and continue to be challenged as visual art has embraced an increasing range of approaches. This research explores the visual experience of viewing a painting alongside the all-encompassing time based nature of a sonic experience and readdresses the way p...

  4. Action painting and children drawing

    OpenAIRE

    Cvirn, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of my thesis is to understand the creative process of action painting in children’s drawings. Theoretical part investigates the development of abstract expressionism. It describes “Dripping art’’ of Jackson Pollock, one of the leading representatives of action painting. I explored the recent upgrades of Pollock’s performative by younger artists. At the same time I explored the developmental stages of children's artistic expressions. In the second part I’m presenting my works....

  5. Demand controlled ventilation in industrial painting workshops. Tarpeenmukainen ilmanvaihto maalaamoissa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yrjoelae, J.; Olkinuora, J. (PI-CONSULTING LTD, Helsinki (Finland)); Lehtimaeki, M.; Saeaemaenen, A. (Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Safety Engineering Laboratory)

    1990-01-01

    In earlier work, it was discovered that traditional ventilation methods for industrial painting operations tended to provide much more ventilation that was necessary. Demand controlled ventilation seems to be a viable alternative to traditional ventilation methods. Some speculations about the usability of the technology used for the time being has been made by the occupational hygienists. This experimental study examined the possibilities, the overall effects and energy savings of demand controlled ventilation for industrial painting operations. On-site measurements (two pilot plants) were made to test the possibilities, the overall effects and potential energy savings. The tested systems were: regulation of ventilation according to solvent concentrations in the air of working facilities, regulation systems connected with spray guns and no regulation (constant maximum air flow). The biggest problem was the long delay time due to many components of the controlling system. A simulation model/program was made, which allows the theoretical prediction of solvent concentrations by given facts about ventilation, production etc. The results of the simulation were verified by on-site measurements and the final result was that the starting signal must be taken from the concentration source itself, in other words, from the spraying gun. Air-quality sensors could be used to supervise the solvent concentration not to rise up to the threshold limit values.

  6. Overview of paint removal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Terry

    1995-04-01

    With the introduction of strict environmental regulations governing the use and disposal of methylene chloride and phenols, major components of chemical paint strippers, there have been many new environmentally safe and effective methods of paint removal developed. The new methods developed for removing coatings from aircraft and aircraft components include: mechanical methods using abrasive media such as plastic, wheat starch, walnut shells, ice and dry ice, environmentally safe chemical strippers and paint softeners, and optical methods such as lasers and flash lamps. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages, and some have unique applications. For example, mechanical and abrasive methods can damage sensitive surfaces such as composite materials and strict control of blast parameters and conditions are required. Optical methods can be slow, leaving paint residues, and chemical methods may not remove all of the coating or require special coating formulations to be effective. As an introduction to environmentally safe and effective methods of paint removal, this paper is an overview of the various methods available. The purpose of this overview is to introduce the various paint removal methods available.

  7. Skin painting studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to estimate eventual risks to human health as a consequence of incidental and prolonged skin contact, it is necessary to obtain some information on the potential of coal-derived liquids to elicit skin cancer. In addition, it also must be established whether prolonged dermal exposure will produce signs of toxicity not only on the skin but to internal organs. During the past 2 years, they completed a life-long skin painting study with mice designed to answer some of these questions. The following materials were tested: Raw H-coal blend, containing 5700 ppm N; H-coal blend after low hydrotreatment (2650 ppm N); H-coal blend after high hydrotreatment (0.2 ppm N); H-coal home heating oil, a devolatilized version of the high-hydrotreatment H-coal blend; and an H-coal reformed naphtha. Two petroleum-derived references samples were used: Petroleum No. 2 fuel oil and high catalytically cracked naphtha. Benzo(a)pyrene was used as reference substance. Experimental animals were male and female C3H mice

  8. Electrochemical behavior and protective property of Al-containing zinc-rich paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of Al addition on the corrosion performance of zinc-rich paints (ZRP) was investigated. Both electrochemical measurement and salt spray test were employed to evaluate the corrosion performance of ZRP with or without Al addition. The Al content as percentage of the total metallic components in the ZRP, investigated in this study, varied from 0 to 75wt%. The experimental results showed that protective nature of ZRP altered from cathodic protection to barrier former as the Al content was increased beyond 20wt%. The results from salt spray tests also revealed that the corrosion products were modified with the presence of aluminum oxide in the Al-containing ZRP. The amount of zinc white on the painted steel decreased as the Al content in the ZRP increased. The protectiveness, in terms of the time of red rust formation and cathodic protection, was reduced as the Al content was higher than 20wt%

  9. The transdisciplinary potential of remediated painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    "The Transdisciplinary Potential of Remediated Painting" Over the last decades the notion of what painting is has been considerably widened due to intermediality, i.e. crossovers between artistic media such as painting and sculpture, painting and photography, painting and installation, painting and...... performance etc. This paper suggests that the transformation of the discipline of painting into an expanded field has not only liberated painting from its ties to its traditional repertoire of materials and modes of representation. It has also released a tremendous potential for image making that takes...... painting as a point of departure but moves beyond the limitations of dialogic intermedia into the field of transdisciplinary aesthetics. In support of my argument, I turn to the concept of remediation as it was first applied in new media theory by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin. The ambition is to...

  10. The Transdisciplinary Potential of Remediated Painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    Over the last decades the notion of what painting is has been considerably widened due to intermediality, i.e. crossovers between artistic media such as painting and sculpture, painting and photography, painting and installation, painting and performance etc. This paper suggests that the...... transformation of the discipline of painting into an expanded field has not only liberated painting from its ties to its traditional repertoire of materials and modes of representation. It has also released a tremendous potential for image making that takes painting as a point of departure but moves beyond the...... limitations of dialogic intermedia into the field of transdisciplinary aesthetics. In support of my argument, I turn to the concept of remediation as it was first applied in new media theory by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin. The ambition is to develop an apprehension of painting not as an artistic...

  11. Probing a Spray Using Frequency-Analyzed Light Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskridge, Richard; Lee, Michael H.; Rhys, Noah O.

    2008-01-01

    Frequency-analyzed laser-light scattering (FALLS) is a relatively simple technique that can be used to measure principal characteristics of a sheet of sprayed liquid as it breaks up into ligaments and then the ligaments break up into droplets. In particular, through frequency analysis of laser light scattered from a spray, it is possible to determine whether the laser-illuminated portion of the spray is in the intact-sheet region, the ligament region, or the droplet region. By logical extension, it is possible to determine the intact length from the location of the laser beam at the transition between the intact-sheet and ligament regions and to determine a breakup frequency from the results of the frequency analysis. Hence, FALLS could likely be useful both as a means of performing research on sprays in general and as a means of diagnostic sensing in diverse applications in which liquid fuels are sprayed. Sprays are also used for drying and to deposit paints and other coating materials.

  12. Neurobehavioral effects and hormones profile among spray painters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Shakeel; Tiwari, Rajnarayan; Gandhi, Sumitra; Patel, Kanaiyalal; Kumar, Sunil; Saiyed, Habibullah

    2006-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in 25 spray painters and 35 control subjects to evaluate neurobehavioral function, and thyroid and reproductive hormones profile. This study indicated higher prevalence of psychological and neurological symptoms, and clinical findings among spray painters when compared with controls. Levels of TSH were significantly (pFSH, and testosterone) showed no significant changes in control and spray-painting group. However, two spray painters had abnormally high level of LH (26.43 and 12.22 IU/l; normal range 0.5-10 IU/l). These subjects were also found to have abnormally higher level of FSH (38.63 and 14.11 IU/l; normal range 1.3-11.5 IU/l). An isolated higher level of FSH (39.94 IU/l) was also observed in one spray painter. No abnormality in the level of LH was observed in control group while 3 subjects from this group had abnormally high level of FSH. Testosterone levels were under the normal range (3-12 ng/ ml) in both the groups. This study might suggest that spray painters are at risk of developing neurobehavioral, thyroid and reproductive problems. PMID:16610541

  13. Romanesque mural painting in Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Pagès

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Romanesque mural painting in Catalonia which was saved from despoilment and dispersion in 1919, when the Junta de Museus (Board of Museums of Barcelona embarked upon a major campaign of purchase and removal, is a unique heritage of universal value. Even though the mural paintings from the Romanesque cathedrals or the great abbeys like Ripoll no longer survive, what has been conserved is quite notable both stylistically and iconographically. The surviving frescoes were mainly inspired by the art of early Christian Rome and that of the Gregorian reform, yet also by Byzantine sources and by Lombard and Germanic styles and prototypes, all translated into highly original programmes of images. The most emblematic works are conserved at the Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya (MNAC, such as the apse from Sant Climent de Taüll, a capolavoro of European Romanesque painting, and the apses from Sant Pere de la Seu d’Urgell and Santa Maria d’Àneu, both boasting outstanding quality, along with the paintings from Sant Joan in Boí, Sant Quirze de Pedret, Sorpe and el Burgal. Together with the frescoes at the Museu Diocesà i Comarcal de Solsona, the Museu Episcopal de Vic, the Museu d’Art de Girona and the Museu Diocesà d’Urgell, along with the numerous murals and remains of paintings conserved in situ, many of them discovered in recent years, they enable us to envisage the scope of this Catalan Romanesque art. Of these discoveries, perhaps the most noteworthy are the paintings from Sant Vicenç d’Estamariu, as well as the new images on the triumphant arches of Sant Climent de Taüll. This article summarises the most important part of this mural painting heritage as well as the most recent literature on the subject.

  14. Bear Spray Safety Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, C.D.; Kuzniar, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    A bear spray safety program for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was officially initiated by the Firearms Safety Committee to address accident prevention and to promote personnel training in bear spray and its transportation, storage, and use for defense against wild animals. Used as part of a system including firearms, or used alone for those who choose not to carry a firearm, bear spray is recognized as an effective tool that can prevent injury in a wild animal attack.

  15. Reactive plasma spraying

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sabouni, Omar

    1999-01-01

    Reactive Plasma Spraying (RPS) with a hydrocarbon gas has been studied as a method to improve the mechanical properties of a commercially available 80: 20 nickel-chromium alloy, and subsequently as a method to reduce the oxygen content of sprayed MCrAlY coatings. A conventional d. c. plasma torch has been modified by attaching a conical graphite tube (reactor) onto the end of the gun. The powder is then sprayed through the reactor with injected reactive hydrocarbon gas. The ...

  16. Painting digitally : with Photoshop's brush tool

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkinen, Saara

    2011-01-01

    The reason I wanted to study Photoshop brushes is that with the right settings you can not only paint faster but also create more unique painting effects and styles. Photoshop is my main tool when painting digitally, but I noticed that I tend to use only the same type of default brush for everything I paint, be it smooth surfaces, organic shapes or modern structures. To be a concept artist you have to be able to paint fast. This means you need good tools to speed up the painting process. Look...

  17. Radioactive Decontamination by Strippable Paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strippable paint, one of the adhesion method, is to decontaminate solid surface of materials or/and a large area. Two kinds of specimen planchet, SUS 304 stainless steel and polycarbonate plastic, contaminated with radioactive 137Cs were studied under various conditions. It included surface bottom types, the flat and convex concentric circle type, normal condition at room temperature and overheat condition (∼80 degree celsius). This method used coating paints which contains some elements to have a reaction with radioactive materials selectively. ALARA-Decon clear, Rempack-X200 clear, JD-P5-Mrs.Coat and Pro-Blue-color guard were selected to use as the coating paints. The contaminated surface was coated by the strippable paint under the optimum time, followed by peeling the paint seal. The Rempack-X200 showed the best result, the highest decontamination efficiency which are about 99-100% for all conditions of specimens. The JD-P5 and ALARA-Decon showed good results, which are 98-99% decontamination efficiency for the normal condition set of specimens and about 94-97% for the overheat set of specimens. They can decontaminate polycarbonate specimens better than stainless steel specimens. The Pro-Blue-color guard showed the lowest decontamination efficiency of which 60% for polycarbonate specimens at normal condition and 40%, 30% for stainless steel specimens at normal and overheat conditions respectively. There was no effects of surface bottom types significantly

  18. Dihydroergotamine Injection and Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migranal® Nasal Spray ... inject subcutaneously (under the skin) and as a spray to be used in the nose. It is ... that you know how to use the nasal spray or administer the injection correctly. After that, you ...

  19. Drip Paintings and Fractal Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jones-Smith, Katherine; Krauss, Lawrence M

    2007-01-01

    It has been claimed [1-6] that fractal analysis can be applied to unambiguously characterize works of art such as the drip paintings of Jackson Pollock. This academic issue has become of more general interest following the recent discovery of a cache of disputed Pollock paintings. We definitively demonstrate here, by analyzing paintings by Pollock and others, that fractal criteria provide no information about artistic authenticity. This work has also led to two new results in fractal analysis of more general scientific significance. First, the composite of two fractals is not generally scale invariant and exhibits complex multifractal scaling in the small distance asymptotic limit. Second the statistics of box-counting and related staircases provide a new way to characterize geometry and distinguish fractals from Euclidean objects.

  20. Bubble art, learning about paint and colour

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Using paint and mixing colours students can develop an understanding of the theory of colour primary and secondary colours. The students will also develop techniques for creating texture using paint and bubbles – called bubble art.

  1. EVALUATION OF LOW-VOC LATEX PAINTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of four commercially available low-VOC (volatile organic compound) latex paints as substitutes for conventional latex paints by assessing both their emission characteristics and their performance as coatings. Bulk analysis indicated that ...

  2. Microclimate boxes for panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century. The...... increased number of travelling exhibitions in recent years has heightened the need to protect paintings during circulation (Thomson 1961; Mecklenburg 1991). The use and design of microclimate boxes have been evolving since 1892. These boxes may be divided into three broad groups: those using an active...

  3. Ketorolac Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketorolac nasal spray is used for the short-term relief of moderate to moderately severe pain. Ketorolac is in a class ... Nasal ketorolac comes as a liquid to spray in the nose. It is usually used once every 6 to 8 hours as needed to control pain for up to 5 days. ...

  4. Fentanyl Sublingual Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentanyl sublingual spray is used to treat breakthrough pain (sudden episodes of pain that occur despite round the clock treatment with ... Fentanyl comes as a solution (liquid) to spray sublingually ( under the ... breakthrough pain, but not more often than directed by your doctor. Follow ...

  5. Cold spray nozzle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Jeffrey D.; Sanders, Stuart A.

    2009-06-09

    A nozzle for use in a cold spray technique is described. The nozzle has a passageway for spraying a powder material, the passageway having a converging section and a diverging section, and at least the diverging section being formed from polybenzimidazole. In one embodiment of the nozzle, the converging section is also formed from polybenzimidazole.

  6. Spray momentum measuring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, E. W.

    1971-01-01

    Technique enables accurate prediction of erosion and cavitation produced by fluid spray. Method measures high velocity sprays produced by small orifices. Originally designed to determine oxidizer-injection patterns of liquid fueled rocket engines, technique is used with other liquids, or, with appropriate modification, with gases.

  7. SPRAY ATOMIZATION MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop protection product labels are now being written with spray droplet spectra classification terms that have specific definitions. Some of these terms are the same as previously used for generic descriptions such as fine or coarse sprays, but these terms used on new product labels have very speci...

  8. Applications of sprayed coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, H. D.; Malik, M.

    1980-03-01

    Service demands of the coating properties of sprayed coatings are classified as: preventing, fretting, wear, and corrosion; controlled abradability; and thermal barrier. Developments in both coating techniques and coating materials which have allowed production of coatings which match the performance demands are considered. Applications of sprayed coatings in aircraft components are discussed.

  9. A new method for thermal spraying of Zn-Al coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorlach, I.A., E-mail: igor.gorlach@nmmu.ac.z [Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth, 6031 (South Africa)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the development of the thermal spraying system built on the principles of the high velocity air flame (HVAF) process. HVAF sprayed coatings showed considerably higher bond strength than coatings obtained by the conventional methods, indicating the advantage of this method in areas where the adhesion strength is critically important. The highly dense structure of the coating obtained with HVAF eliminates a need for a top paint coat, which is typically applied on metal sprayed coatings to extend service life. The thermal sprayed coatings were characterized by the standard techniques, such as light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, salt spray and bond strength tests. The results show that thermal sprayed coatings have a dense structure, low presence of oxides and high resistance to corrosion. High spray rate and good coating quality make the HVAF thermal spray method a viable alternative to the conventional thermal spraying technologies, such as Wire Flame and Twin-Wire Arc.

  10. A new method for thermal spraying of Zn-Al coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the development of the thermal spraying system built on the principles of the high velocity air flame (HVAF) process. HVAF sprayed coatings showed considerably higher bond strength than coatings obtained by the conventional methods, indicating the advantage of this method in areas where the adhesion strength is critically important. The highly dense structure of the coating obtained with HVAF eliminates a need for a top paint coat, which is typically applied on metal sprayed coatings to extend service life. The thermal sprayed coatings were characterized by the standard techniques, such as light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, salt spray and bond strength tests. The results show that thermal sprayed coatings have a dense structure, low presence of oxides and high resistance to corrosion. High spray rate and good coating quality make the HVAF thermal spray method a viable alternative to the conventional thermal spraying technologies, such as Wire Flame and Twin-Wire Arc.

  11. Mural Painting as Inclusive Art Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kong

    2010-01-01

    Traditional art education, like other academic disciplines, emphasizes competitiveness and individualism. Through a mural painting curriculum, learners participate in mural art and history appreciation, are active in mural theme or content construction, and engage in hands-on mural design and painting processes. When mural paintings are produced…

  12. 29 CFR 1915.35 - Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Painting. 1915.35 Section 1915.35 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Surface Preparation and Preservation § 1915.35 Painting. (a) Paints mixed...

  13. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  14. Desalination of painted brick vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Klenz

    The subject of the thesis is salt and moisture movement that causes damage to wall paintings on church vaults. The deterioration was studied in the churches of Fanefjord, Kirkerup and Brarup. A desalination method was tested om location. The salt and moisture transfer was examined in detail in...

  15. Neural correlates of viewing paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Skov, Martin

    2014-01-01

    gyrus) and scene (parahippocampal gyrus) perception, and the anterior insula-a key structure in experience of emotion. In addition, we also observed activation in the posterior cingulate cortex bilaterally-part of the brain's default network. These results suggest that viewing paintings engages not only...

  16. Paint the World with Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, David

    2010-01-01

    Two classrooms on opposite sides of the world happened to be working on a very similar project at the same time. In both Shanghai, China, and Palm Springs, California, students were learning how to turn their flashlights and other light-emitting objects into paintbrushes. Light painting is a form of long-exposure photography in which the shutter

  17. The Painting on the Wall

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Alfano

    2016-01-01

    This personal essay describes what influenced my development as a creative writer, in my childhood and adolescence. It delineates the effect on my imagination of family story-telling and of images—paintings and prints. I grew up in Italy, where I spent the first thirty years of my life.

  18. The Painting on the Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Alfano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This personal essay describes what influenced my development as a creative writer, in my childhood and adolescence. It delineates the effect on my imagination of family story-telling and of images—paintings and prints. I grew up in Italy, where I spent the first thirty years of my life.

  19. Paint the World with Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, David

    2010-01-01

    Two classrooms on opposite sides of the world happened to be working on a very similar project at the same time. In both Shanghai, China, and Palm Springs, California, students were learning how to turn their flashlights and other light-emitting objects into paintbrushes. Light painting is a form of long-exposure photography in which the shutter…

  20. But when was it painted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstad, E.; Woll, G.

    2009-04-01

    The Munch Museum, Oslo, Norway, is dedicated to the visual works of the famous Norwegian painter Edvard Munch (1863 - 1944). Edvard Munch was a symbolist, expressionist painter and printmaker from Oslo, Norway. He was regarded as the pioneer of the amazing Expressionist movement. His art work from the late 1800's is the most well known, but his later work is gradually attracting more attention and is quite an inspiration of many of today's artists. The Munch Museum catalogue for 2008 contains about 1700 paintings of which virtually very few have a precise date. Even when the artist has written the year on the painting itself, there may be a significant uncertainty about this date, and partly due to unclear writing making it difficult to interpret the numbers. This means that other sources need to be applied to verify an accurate date. The climatologist at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute can help dating paintings of Munch. E. g. the painting "Standing Woman with Arms Folded". The painting shows a woman in front of a hill with much snow. The location is almost certainty Grimsrød on Jeløya, a property Munch began renting on March 1, 1913. Jeløya is an island at the southeastcoast of Norway near the town Moss. Jeløya has usually not so much snow because it is near by the sea and windy. The last digit in the date is unclear and has been read as both '3' and '5'. The woman in the portrait, Ingeborg Kaurin, was Munch's model up to the beginning of 1915, so both dates are possible. The year written on the painting has been read as both 1913 and 1915, and since 1974 it has usually been interpreted as 1913 (Stenersensamlingen's catalogue 1974). In the project "But when was it painted?" disclose that it could be another year. One way to reconsider when a painting was painted is to study geophysical characteristics and consider historical observations of snow. The method that is used here is to study daily meteorological snow data from this period from the meteorological station at Jeløya which has information about the precipitation and snow. The artist date "1913" is compared with meteorological snow data from the neighbouring years. The winter of that year 1913 was unusually mild with little snow, and it seems unlikely that there was this much snow lying in March. The winter of 1914 was similarly mild, with little snow in the area around Moss, while there was heavy snow in January 1915 (source: the Norwegian Meteorological institute). It therefore seems most likely that this was one of the last pictures Munch painted of his young model in the winter of 1914-15, before she married the painter Søren Onsager on January 28, 1915. The research for the catalogue raisonée implies that this date 1913 is probably wrong since the 1913 has less snow. This later examination concluded that in fact 1915 was more likely.

  1. Reactor container spray device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To enable decrease in the heat and the concentration of radioactive iodine released from the reactor vessel into the reactor container in the spray device of BWR type reactors. Constitution: A plurality of water receiving trays are disposed below the spray nozzle in the dry well and communicated to a pressure suppression chamber by way of drain pipeways passing through a diaphragm floor. When the recycling system is ruptured and coolants in the reactor vessel and radioactive iodine in the reactor core are released into the dry well, spray water is discharged from the spray nozzle to eliminate the heat and the radioactive iodine in the dry well. In this case, the receiving trays collect the portions of spray water whose absorption power for the heat and radioactive iodine is nearly saturated and falls them into the pool water of the pressure suppression chamber. Consequently, other portions of the spray water that still possess absorption power can be jetted with no hindrance, to increase the efficiency for the removal of the heat and iodine of the spray droplets. (Horiuchi, T.)

  2. Electrostatically atomised hydrocarbon sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yule, A.J.; Shrimpton, J.S.; Watkins, A.P.; Balachandran, W.; Hu, D. [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom). Thermofluids Division, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-07-01

    A burner using an electrostatic method to produce and control a fuel spray is investigated for non-burning sprays. The burner has a charge injection nozzle and the liquid flow rate and charge injection rate are varied using hydrocarbon liquids of differing viscosities, surface tensions and electrical conductivities (kerosene, white spirit and diesel oil). Droplet size distributions are measured and it is shown how the dropsize, spray pattern, breakup mechanism and breakup length depend on the above variables, and in particular on the specific charge achieved in the spray. The data are valuable for validating two computer models under development. One predicts the electric field and flow field inside the nozzle as a function of emitter potential, geometry and flow rate. The other predicts the effect of charge on spray dispersion, with a view to optimizing spray combustion. It is shown that electrostatic disruptive forces can be used to atomize oils at flow rates commensurate with practical combustion systems and that the charge injection technique is particularly suitable for highly resistive liquids. Possible limitations requiring further research include the need to control the wide spray angle, which may provide fuel-air mixtures too lean near the nozzle, and the need to design for maximum charge injection rate, which is thought to be limited by corona breakdown in the gas near the nozzle orifice. 30 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  4. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati

    2013-06-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  5. Texton-based analysis of paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Maaten, Laurens J. P.; Postma, Eric O.

    2010-08-01

    The visual examination of paintings is traditionally performed by skilled art historians using their eyes. Recent advances in intelligent systems may support art historians in determining the authenticity or date of creation of paintings. In this paper, we propose a technique for the examination of brushstroke structure that views the wildly overlapping brushstrokes as texture. The analysis of the painting texture is performed with the help of a texton codebook, i.e., a codebook of small prototypical textural patches. The texton codebook can be learned from a collection of paintings. Our textural analysis technique represents paintings in terms of histograms that measure the frequency by which the textons in the codebook occur in the painting (so-called texton histograms). We present experiments that show the validity and effectiveness of our technique for textural analysis on a collection of digitized high-resolution reproductions of paintings by Van Gogh and his contemporaries. As texton histograms cannot be easily be interpreted by art experts, the paper proposes to approaches to visualize the results on the textural analysis. The first approach visualizes the similarities between the histogram representations of paintings by employing a recently proposed dimensionality reduction technique, called t-SNE. We show that t-SNE reveals a clear separation of paintings created by Van Gogh and those created by other painters. In addition, the period of creation is faithfully reflected in the t-SNE visualizations. The second approach visualizes the similarities and differences between paintings by highlighting regions in a painting in which the textural structure of the painting is unusual. We illustrate the validity of this approach by means of an experiment in which we highlight regions in a painting by Monet that are not very "Van Gogh-like". Taken together, we believe the tools developed in this study are well capable of assisting for art historians in support of their study of paintings.

  6. 2001 spray program prospectus

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes weed control on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge in 2001. A total of 2,152 acres were sprayed. Pesticide application report records are...

  7. Dynamics of flare sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During solar cycle No. 20 new insight into the flare-spray phenomenon has been attained due to several innovations in solar optical-observing techniques (higher spatial resolution cinema-photography, tunable pass-band filters, multi-slit spectroscopy and extended angular field coronographs). From combined analysis of 13 well-observed sprays which occured between 1969-1974 we conclude that (i) the spray material originates from a preexisting active region filament which undergoes increased absorption some tens of minutes prior to the abrupt chromospheric brightening at the 'flare-start', and (ii) the spray material is confined within a steadily expanding, loop-shaped (presumably magnetically controlled) envelope with part of the material draining back down along one or both legs of the loop. (orig.)

  8. Triamcinolone Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gently blow his or her nose. Remove the bottle cap and gently shake the bottle. Hold the pump ... on the applicator to remove it from the bottle. Soak the cap and spray nozzle in warm water for a ...

  9. Thermal spray shape deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, L. E.; Prinz, F. B.; Adams, D. A.; Siewiorek, D. P.

    1992-09-01

    This paper describes a new spray-forming process based on thermal spray shape deposition. Shape deposition processes build 3D shapes by incremental material buildup of thin, planar cross-sectional layers. These processes do not require preformed mandrels and can directly build 3D structures of arbitrary geometric complexity. The basis for the thermal spray approach is to spray each layer using a disposable mask that has the shape of the current cross section. Masks can be produced from paper rolls, for example, with a CO2 laser. In addition to applications for rapid prototyping, this approach makes possible the fabrication of composite structures and integrated electronic/mechanical assemblies that are not feasible with conventional manufacturing technologies.

  10. Metal atomization spray nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxford, Theodore J. (Harriman, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal.

  11. Plasma Sprayed Resistors

    OpenAIRE

    J. C. Anderson; Smith, D. P. H.

    1980-01-01

    A range of films of mixed composition, prepared by arc plasma spraying, has been investigated. Both free powder and powder in a plastic binder forming a rod have been used in the spray process. A variety of mixtures of insulators, metals and semiconductors has been examined and it is shown that resistivity/temperature curves for the specimens produced have in general two points of inflection, the temperatures of which vary with composition. This allows prediction of a composition giving low T...

  12. Cultural landscape and slovenian painting

    OpenAIRE

    Jakomin, Jernej

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the thesis work was to show the relationship between painting and slovenian cultural landscape and present a plan teaching art workshops on the topic. The work consists of two parts. The theoretical part shows the starting point for the presentation of the concept of cultural landscape. It presents the formation of terms of cultural landscape, its importance, the type of cultural landscape and its components. The work is focused on the development of landscape design in Sloveni...

  13. Painting as Crime”

    OpenAIRE

    Fleck, Robert

    2012-01-01

    La Peinture comme crime (19 October 2001-14 January 2002) was undoubtedly the most controversial exhibition in France for several years. Devised in a deliberately polemical form (agin all decorative thinking in the aesthetics, but also agin the formal or formalist interpretation of old, modern and contemporary art), it was also iconclastic, if we are to judge by the paintings and pictures (from the Happening–and in particular from Viennese Actionism–to William Blake) which it introduced into ...

  14. Fashioning food in impressionist painting

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Sau-mui, Alice; 黃秀梅

    2011-01-01

     This thesis explores the various roles of food in Impressionism by examining paintings of food so as to sort out their relationship with one another and their linkage to modern life in Paris in the 19th century. Food was related to spectacle, class reconfiguration, gender relations, consumerism and capitalism, and leisure, all of which were part of the revolution of modernity in Paris. By analyzing Impressionist images of food production, display and consumption in relation to these mod...

  15. Development of spray coated cathodes for RITS-6.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Sean; Leckbee, Joshua J.; Miller, Stephen Samuel

    2013-09-01

    This report documents work conducted in FY13 to conduct a feasibility study on thermal spray coated cathodes to be used in the RITS-6 accelerator in an attempt to improve surface uniformity and repeatability. Currently, the cathodes are coated with colloidal silver by means of painting by hand. It is believed that improving the cathode coating process could simplify experimental setup and improve flash x-ray radiographic performance. This report documents the experimental setup and summarizes the results of our feasibility study. Lastly, it describes the path forward and potential challenges that must be overcome in order to improve the process for creating uniform and repeatable silver coatings for cathodes.

  16. A novel method for preparing proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrodes by the ultrasonic-spray technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millington, Ben; Whipple, Vincent; Pollet, Bruno G.

    2011-10-01

    A novel ultrasonic-spray method for preparing gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is described. Platinum (Pt) loaded on Nafion®-bonded GDEs were prepared by the ultrasonic-spray method on various commercial woven and non-woven gas diffusion layers (GDLs) at several Pt loadings in the range of 0.40-0.05 mg cm-2. The ultrasonic-sprayed GDEs were tested and compared to commercial and hand-painted GDEs. It was found that the GDEs prepared by the ultrasonic-spray method exhibited better performances compared to those prepared by the hand-painting technique, especially at low Pt loadings. GDEs fabricated by the ultrasonic-spray method with a platinum loading of 0.05 mg cm-2 exhibited a peak power rating of 10.9 W mg-1 compared to 9.8 W mg-1 for hand-painted GDEs. For all experiments using various GDLs, Sigracet SGL 10BC exhibited the best performance with a peak power of 0.695 W cm-2.

  17. Conservation problems with paintings containing fluorescent layers of paint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie De Winter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available L’artiste moderne cherche continuellement de nouvelles techniques. Des nouveaux matériaux tels que l’éponge, le polyester, le sable, etc. sont devenus courants. Ces développements amènent de nouveaux problèmes dans le domaine de la conservation (préventive des matériaux en question. Chaque matériau doit être analysé individuellement afin de préserver  le mieux possible l’intention de l’artiste à long terme. La présente recherche concerne des matériaux très récents: les pigments et les couleurs fluorescentes. Ces derniers n’ont fait leur apparition qu’au vingtième siècle. Pour cette raison les données concernant leur dégradation et leur conservation sont peu nombreuses. La majorité des tableaux fluorescents sont conçus pour être montrés sous éclairage UV. En cas de dommage, si l’œuvre a besoin d’être retouchée, ceci pose un grand problème esthétique. La retouche devient visible sous les lampes UV. La première partie de la recherche concerne la composition des différentes sortes de pigments et de peintures. Par la suite, les différentes causes de dégradation- lumière UV, chaleur, etc.- sont analysées en détail. Pour conclure, un possible remède est proposé.In modern art we can see that artists are breaking with traditional techniques. New materials like sponge, polyester, sand, etc. are being used. This causes a lot of new problems in the (preventive conservation of works containing these materials. Every material needs to be researched individually so the exact intention of the artist can be preserved for a (relatively long period. My research is about very recent materials: fluorescent pigments and paints. These only started to be used by artists from the 60’s. That's why there is not much information about their aging and ways to (preventively conserve them. A lot of fluorescent paintings are meant to be shown under UV-light. If a fluorescent painting has damage and needs to be retouched there is a big esthetical problem. The retouched damage is visible under UV-light. The title of this thesis is born out of this last problem: Conservation problems with paintings containing fluorescent layers of paint. The first topic of research for this thesis concerns the composition of these different sorts of paint and pigments. Afterwards, the causes of damage resulting from UV-light –and other factors- were thoroughly analyzed. Finally, a possible remedy is being proposed.

  18. Ernst H. Gombrich on Abstract Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Caldarola

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ernst H. Gombrich criticized abstract painting with several remarks scattered around his wide oeuvre. I argue that his view of abstract paintings is coherent with the account of pictorial representation he put forward in Art and Illusion, show some limits of such view, and maintain that, although several of Gombrich’s criticisms of abstract painting should be rejected, some of his remarks are insightful and worth of consideration.

  19. Francis Bacon and the practice of painting

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, Mike

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the question about why painting continues to be relevant in our contemporary cultural climate. A key reason can be located in the means by which the material of paint can be utilized, manipulated, and perceived through entire sensory and bodily mechanisms. As the practice of Francis Bacon (1909–1992) demonstrates, it is within the elusive behaviour and handling of pigment that the full transformative potential of painting can be released. In fact it can activate a whole...

  20. Laser Cleaning of Easel Paintings: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Bordalo, Rui; Morais, Paulo J.; Gouveia, Helena; Young, Christina

    2006-01-01

    The application of laser cleaning to paintings is relatively recent despite its use on stone-based materials for over 30 years. The cleaning of paintings is of high importance, because it is the least reversible invasive intervention, as well as the most usual of all conservation treatments. Paintings are multilayer system of heterogeneous nature, often very sensitive and inherent difficult to clean. Being a noncontact method, laser cleaning has advantages compared to alternative techniques. ...

  1. Paint Scaler. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Paint Scaler can collect paint samples quickly and efficiently for lab analysis. The Rotary Hammer Drill is a 24-V battery operated, 3/4-in. rotary hammer drill. When used with an optional chipping adapter, the Bosch Rotary Hammer Drill can be used to perform chipping and chiseling tasks such as paint removal from either concrete or metal surfaces. It is ultra-compact, lightweight with an ergonomic balanced grip. The battery operation gives the operator more flexibility during sampling activities

  2. The magnetic imaging of oil paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a new technique for authentication of oil paintings, using a scanning SQUID technique to measure its magnetic field. The paintings are pre-magnetized in an homogeneous field of 100 G. It was observed that the response depends on the ferromagnetic properties of each paint independent of its colour. This shows that a magnetic image could be used as a magnetic signature for authentication purposes. (rapid communication)

  3. Diffuse pulmonary injury following paint remover exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buie, S E; Pratt, D S; May, J J

    1986-10-01

    A case of paint remover inhalation causing pulmonary edema and pleural effusions is described. Methylene chloride, an ingredient of paint removers, can cause pulmonary edema and carbon monoxide poisoning. The expanding interest in home projects involving furniture refinishing and paint removal puts a large segment of the population at risk. The implications of such exposure need to be recognized by the medical community. PMID:3766599

  4. Occupational risk assessment of paint industry workers

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo M de Oliveira; Gracilene P Dagostim; da Silva, Arielle Mota; Tavares, Priscila; da Rosa, Luiz A. Z. C.; VANESSA M. DE ANDRADE

    2011-01-01

    Background: Thousands of chemical compounds are used in paint products, like pigments, extenders, binders, additives, and solvents (toluene, xylene, ketones, alcohols, esters, and glycol ethers). Paint manufacture workers are potentially exposed to the chemicals present in paint products although the patterns and levels of exposure to individual agents may differ from those of painters. The aim of the present study was to evaluate genome damage induced in peripheral blood lymphocytes and oral...

  5. The Simulation of Paint Cracking and Peeling

    OpenAIRE

    Paquette, Eric; Poulin, Pierre; Drettakis, George

    2002-01-01

    Weathering over long periods of time results in cracking and peeling of layers such as paint. To include these effects in computer graphics images it is necessary to simulate crack propagation, loss of adhesion, and the curling effect of paint peeling. We present a new approach which computes such a simulation on surfaces. Our simulation is inspired by the underlying physical properties. We use paint strength and tensile stress to determine where cracks appear on the surface. Cracks are then ...

  6. IntuPaint: Bridging the Gap Between Physical and Digital Painting

    OpenAIRE

    VANDOREN, Peter; VAN LAERHOVEN, Tom; Claesen, Luc; Taelman, Johannes; Raymaekers, Chris; VAN REETH, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel interface for a digital paint system: IntuPaint. A tangible interface for a digital paint easel, using an interactive surface and electronic brushes with a tuft of bristles, has been developed. The flexible brush bristles conduct light by means of total internal reflection inside the individual bristles. This enables to capture subtle paint nuances of the artist in a way that was not possible in previous technologies. This approach provides natural interaction and ...

  7. Multiple metal contamination from house paints: consequences of power sanding and paint scraping in New Orleans.

    OpenAIRE

    Mielke, H W; Powell, E T; Shah, A.; Gonzales, C R; Mielke, P W

    2001-01-01

    Power sanding exterior paint is a common practice during repainting of old houses in New Orleans, Louisiana, that triggers lead poisoning and releases more than Pb. In this study we quantified the Pb, zinc, cadmium, manganese, nickel, copper, cobalt, chromium, and vanadium in exterior paint samples collected from New Orleans homes (n = 31). We used interior dust wipes to compare two exterior house-painting projects. House 1 was measured in response to the plight of a family after a paint cont...

  8. Nuclear analytical study of rock paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An exfoliated fragment of a rock painting from Lesotho was analyzed by differentiated backscatter spectrometry to obtain the paint thickness, which ranged from about 2 to 6.5 μm, and its empirical formula for stopping power calculations. Elemental composition was determined by PIXE. Fe-rich paint spots were red in color and Ca-rich ones, pinkish. Because of the chemical mobility of calcium, this paint component should become the focus to which conservation techniques should be directed. (author) 12 refs.; 4 figs

  9. Antifungal efficiency assessment of the TiO2 coating on façade paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vučetić, Snežana B; Rudić, Ognjen Lj; Markov, Siniša L; Bera, Oskar J; Vidaković, Ana M; Skapin, Andrijana S Sever; Ranogajec, Jonjaua G

    2014-10-01

    The work studies the photocatalytic activity and the antifungal efficiency of the TiO2/Zn-Al coatings placed on the target commercial façade paints. The photocatalytic active nanocomposite based on TiO2 and Zn-Al-layered double hydroxides (ZnAl-LDHs) was synthesized by a wet impregnation technique with 3 % w/w TiO2. The freshly prepared suspension was applied by spray technique on the surfaces of the white façade paints. The goal of the work was to develop a method that quickly quantifies the antifungal activity of the commercial façade paints with and without biocidal components covered with a photocatalytic coating. The essence of the proposed method is the monitoring of the fungal growth (artificial ageing conditions) and the quantification of its development (UV-A 0.13 mWcm(-2)) on the façade paint surfaces. A special fungus nutrient (potato dextrose agar (PDA)) was inoculated with the spores of the Aspergillus niger ATCC 6275, and the test samples (façade paints with and without photocatalytic coating) were placed on the inoculated nutrient in the petri dishes. The images of the fungal growth on the samples of the facade paints, during a period of 5 days, were imported into Matlab R2012a where they were converted to binary images (BW), based on the adequate threshold. The percentage of the surface coverage was calculated by applying the specifically written program code which determines the ratio of the black and white pixels. The black pixels correspond to the surface covered with hyphae and mycelia of the fungus. PMID:24875311

  10. Spray boom for selectively spraying a herbicidal composition onto dicots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    There is provided a method and spray boom for discriminating cereal crop (monocot) and weeds (dicots). The spray boom includes means for digitally recording an image of a selected area to be treated by a nozzle on the spray boom, whereby a plant material is identified based on a segmentation...

  11. Retrospective dosimetry using chromosome painting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromosome aberration frequency measured in peripheral lymphocytes of persons exposed to ionizing radiation has been used since 1960s for dose assessment. Suspected overexposure is usually evaluated by the frequency of dicentrics and centric rings using an appropriate in vitro calibration curve. However, these chromosome aberrations are unstable with time after exposure and dose reconstruction may encounter uncertainties when the time between the exposure and the analysis is considerable or even unknown. It appears that translocations persist with time after exposure and may be used as an indication of acute past overexposures. Moreover, they appear to accumulate the cytogenetical information, which correlates with the dose received under fractionated, chronic or even occupational exposure conditions. Translocations may be detected using G-banding, which allows to score the total amount of radiation induced translocations but it is a time consuming method, or by Chromosome Painting, a method base on the Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) technique, painting only some chromosome pairs with specific whole chromosome probes and then extrapolating the observed translocation frequencies to the full genome. The latter method allows a faster aberration scoring than G-banding and appears to be the most promissory tool for biodosimetry, particularly when it is necessary to assess low doses and consequently to score a large number of metaphases, e.g. radiation workers exposed within dose limits. As with the unstable chromosome aberration, it is necessary an in vitro calibration curve based on the frequency of stable chromosome aberrations to assess doses. Our laboratory performed calibration curves for Co60 γ-rays based on the frequencies of unstable (dicentrics and centric rings detected by conventional Giemsa staining) and stable chromosome aberrations (translocations and inversions, detected by G-banding). In order to minimize the interlaboratory variability, we have performed our own dose response relationship, based on the frequency of stable chromosome aberrations detected by Chromosome Painting for Co60 γ-rays, with doses ranging from 0 Gy to 3 Gy delivered at a 0.4 Gy/min dose rate and painting chromosomes 1, 2 and 4, which represent 22% of the genome. We have scored reciprocal and non-reciprocal translocations, excess of painted acentrics, insertions, dicentrics and centric rings. After extrapolating the obtained frequencies to the full genome, the corresponding data set agree well with our previous results of dicentrics and centric rings and reciprocal and non reciprocal translocations, obtained using the same in vitro irradiation protocol. In order to collect information about the stability and the cumulative behavior of stable chromosome aberrations, we have retrospectively evaluated, using the Chromosome Painting calibration curve, a nuclear power plant worker sample with doses ranging from 500 mSv to 800 mSv. As a whole, the observed frequencies do not differ significantly from the expected frequencies obtained applying the calibration curve α coefficient. Some workers of this samples were previously evaluated using G-banding in 1995 and the present results agree well with the expected frequencies due to the accumulated during the last four years. (author)

  12. JIT Spraying and Mitigations

    CERN Document Server

    Bania, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    With the discovery of new exploit techniques, novel protection mechanisms are needed as well. Mitigations like DEP (Data Execution Prevention) or ASLR (Address Space Layout Randomization) created a significantly more difficult environment for exploitation. Attackers, however, have recently researched new exploitation methods which are capable of bypassing the operating system’s memory mitigations. One of the newest and most popular exploitation techniques to bypass both of the aforementioned security protections is JIT memory spraying, introduced by Dion Blazakis. In this article we will present a short overview of the JIT spraying technique and also novel mitigation methods against this innovative class of attacks. An anti-JIT spraying library was created as part of our shellcode execution prevention system.

  13. Droplets and sprays

    CERN Document Server

    Sazhin, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    Providing a clear and systematic description of droplets and spray dynamic models, this book maximises reader insight into the underlying physics of the processes involved, outlines the development of new physical and mathematical models, and broadens understanding of interactions between the complex physical processes which take place in sprays. Complementing approaches based on the direct application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), Droplets and Sprays treats both theoretical and practical aspects of internal combustion engine process such as the direct injection of liquid fuel, subcritical heating and evaporation. Includes case studies that illustrate the approaches relevance to automotive applications,  it is also anticipated that the described models can find use in other areas such as in medicine and environmental science.

  14. Silica dust, diesel exhaust, and painting work are the significant occupational risk factors for lung cancer in nonsmoking Chinese men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, L A; Yu, IT-s; Au, J S K; Qiu, H; Wang, X-r

    2011-01-01

    Background: Few epidemiological studies have explored the associations between occupational exposures and lung cancer in lifelong nonsmoking men. Methods: We obtained lifetime occupational history and other relevant information for 132 newly diagnosed lung cancer cases among nonsmoking Chinese men and 536 nonsmoking community referents. Unconditional multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of lung cancer for specific occupational exposures. Results: Significantly increased lung cancer risk was found for nonsmoking workers occupationally exposed to silica dust (OR=2.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11, 6.01), diesel exhaust (OR=3.47, 95% CI: 1.08, 11.14), spray painting (OR=2.81, 95% CI: 1.14, 6.93), and nonspray painting work (OR=2.36, 95% CI: 1.04, 5.37). Silica dust exposure was associated with a significantly increased risk of adenocarcinoma (OR=2.91, 95% CI: 1.10, 7.68). We observed a positive gradient of all lung cancers and of adenocarcinoma with duration of employment for workers exposed to silica dust and spray painting. Conclusion: This study found an increased risk of lung cancer among nonsmoking Chinese men occupationally exposed to silica dust, diesel exhaust, and painting work. PMID:21102581

  15. Neutron activation analysis of paint smears on cloth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for element concentration analysis of NAA and a comparison between the paint smears on cloth and paint fragments are introduced. Reduction to absurdity and statistic calculation are used to negate the suspected paint. Calculation steps are given and illustrated

  16. Color sensation in figurative painting

    OpenAIRE

    Carroggio de Molina, Alberto, 1946-

    2013-01-01

    The figurative painter accesses very complex levels of knowledge. To produce a painting requires, first, a deep analysis of the image of the reality and, afterwards, the study of the reconstruction of this reality. This is not about a process of copying, but a process of the comprehension of the concepts that appear in the representation. The drawing guides us in the process of the production of the surface and in the distribution of the colours that, after all, are the data with which the vi...

  17. SPRAY code user's report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SPRAY computer code has been developed to model the effects of postulated sodium spray release from LMFBR piping within containment chambers. The calculation method utilizes gas convection, heat transfer and droplet combustion theory to calculate the pressure and temperature effects within the enclosure. The applicable range is 0-21 mol percent oxygen and .02-.30 inch droplets with or without humidity. Droplet motion and large sodium surface area combine to produce rapid heat release and pressure rise within the enclosed volume

  18. Three generations of inorganic phosphates in solvent and water-borne paints: A synergism case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blustein, G.; Deyá, M. C.; Romagnoli, R.; Amo, B. del

    2005-12-01

    This research work is intended to compare the anti-corrosive properties of three generations of inorganic phosphate pigments in solvent-based paints and in water-borne ones, both of the epoxy type. The anti-corrosive properties of phosphate pigments were assessed by means of electrochemical techniques (corrosion potential measurements, polarisation tests, etc.), employing a steel electrode dipped into pigments suspensions. The behaviour of these pigments in anti-corrosive paints, formulated with different binders, have been studied by accelerated (salt spray cabinet and humidity chamber) and electrochemical tests (corrosion potential and ionic resistance measurements). Accelerated and electrochemical tests allowed to differentiate the anti-corrosive performance of the three phosphates studied in this research. These test are also able to detect and characterise possible synergism between the water-borne resin and the pigments.

  19. A review of ultralow-volume aerial sprays of insecticide for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, G A; Biery, T L; Haile, D G

    1996-12-01

    This review of research on ultralow-volume (ULV) aerial sprays for mosquito control is a component of an Aerial SPray EXpert system (ASPEX). Topics include application volume, adulticiding, larviciding, droplet size, and meteorology. The review discusses the efficacy of ULV aerial sprays against many important pest and vector species of mosquitoes in a wide range of locations and habitats in the USA and in some countries of Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Nine conclusions were drawn from this review. 1) ULV applications are as effective for mosquito control as highly-diluted, water-based sprays. 2) More acres can be sprayed per aircraft load with the ULV method than with dilute sprays. 3) High-altitude ULV sprays using wide or stacked swaths could be used in emergencies if wind speed and direction data at appropriate altitudes are available to accurately place the spray. 4) Successful adult mosquito control can be achieved in dense foliage or open housing with ULV aerial sprays, but doses of insecticide must be increased. 5) ULV aerial application of mosquito larvicides can be used successfully in large areas. 6) The optimum droplet size for adult mosquito control is 5-25 microns volume median diameter (VMD). 7) For mosquito adulticiding, near optimum atomization of ULV sprays is achieved with flat-fan nozzles oriented straight down or slightly forward for high-speed aircraft (> or = 150 mph) or rotary atomizers on slow-speed aircraft (< 150 mph). 8) Optimum atomization minimizes paint spotting. 9) Maximum adult mosquito control is achieved just after sunrise and just before sunset with 2-10-mph crosswinds. PMID:9046465

  20. Toluene removal by oxidation reaction in spray wet scrubber: experimental, modeling and optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Roumporn Nikom; Juntima Chungsiriporn; Charun Bunyakan

    2006-01-01

    Toluene, an important volatile organic compound (VOC), is used in many kinds of industries, such as painting, printing, coating, and petrochemical industries. The emission of toluene causes serious air pollution, odor problem, flammability problem and affects human health. This paper proposes the removal of toluene from waste air using a spray wet scrubber combining the absorption and oxidation reaction. Aqueous sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution was used as the scrubbing liquid in the syst...

  1. Use of paints in construction applications

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Casanova, Miguel Ángel

    2008-01-01

    The Research Group of Materials Performance works in collaboration with some paint manufacturer and paint applier companies. It is sought to open the scope of this activity through tests that include and link activities of both sectors. This improvement will widen the application areas to construction companies.

  2. THz reflectometric imaging of medieval wall paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz time-domain reflectometry has been applied to the investigation of a medieval Danish wall painting. The technique has been able to detect the presence of carbonblack layer on the surface of the wall painting and a buried insertion characterized by high reflectivity values has been found...

  3. Digital Color Restoration of Old Painting

    OpenAIRE

    Pappas, M; Pitas, I

    2010-01-01

    Physical and chemical changes can degrade the visual color appearance of old paintings. Five digital color restoration techniques, which can be used to simulate the original appearance of paintings, are presented. Although a small number of color samples is employed in the restoration procedure, simulation results indicate that good restoration quality can be attained

  4. Detecting Corrosion Under Paint and Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion is a major concern at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida due to the proximity of the center to the Atlantic Ocean and to salt water lagoons. High humidity, salt fogs, and ocean breezes, provide an ideal environment in which painted steel structures become corroded. Maintenance of painted steel structures is a never-ending process.

  5. Lead content in household paints in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead and its compounds are used in paints not only to impart colour but also to make it durable, corrosion resistant and to improve drying. Adverse health impacts of lead especially on children have led countries to restrict or ban its use in paints. While U.S. and other developed countries instituted measures to limit the use of lead in paints, some developing countries including India have failed to regulate their lead content. The present study was undertaken to determine the levels of lead in new latex (water-based) and enamel paints (oil-based) intended for residential use in India. A total of 69 paint samples (38 latex and 31 enamel samples) from six of the most popular brands were analysed for lead concentrations. While all latex paint samples contained low levels of lead, (i.e., well below 600 ppm as regulated by United States' Consumer Products Safety Commission) the enamel paint samples of all but one brand contained significant concentrations of lead, ranging up to 140,000 ppm. In fact 84% of the enamel paints tested exceeded 600 ppm whereas only 38 % of all samples (including latex and enamel types) exceeded this regulatory level

  6. Bank layout of spray nozzles in a spray pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of the spray pond performance is dependent on the type of spray nozzles. The investigations conducted at the B.E.Vedeneev VNIIG indicated that tangential spray nozzles hold much promise as they are reliable in operation and do not require careful centering during assembly. This is confirmed by special studies which showed that the cooling capacity of the sprayer plume does not change if the nozzle deflects by up to 30 degree from the vertical, whereas it decreases by less than 10% if the nozzle is inclined at an angle of 45 degree. Taking the aforesaid into consideration, a spray pond with a bank layout of spray nozzles has been constructed at the Takhiatashskaya thermal power plant. The construction of the spray pond was carried out in a non-constricted channel without shutting down the operating power plant. On-site studies of the first stage of the spray pond proved its reliability and maneuverability at the startup

  7. Structural Color Painting by Rubbing Particle Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Choojin; Koh, Kunsuk; Jeong, Unyong

    2015-02-01

    Structural colors originate from purely physical structures. Scientists have been inspired to mimic the structures found in nature, the realization of these structures still presents a great challenge. We have recently introduced unidirectional rubbing of a dry particle powder on a rubbery surface as a quick, highly reproducible means to fabricate a single crystal monolayer assembly of particles over an unlimited area. This study extends the particle-rubbing process to a novel fine-art painting, structural color painting (SCP). SCP is based on structural coloring with varying iridescence according to the crystal orientation, as controlled by the rubbing direction. This painting technique can be applied on curved surfaces, which enriches the objects to be painted and helps the painter mimic the structures found in nature. It also allows for quick fabrication of complicated particle-assembly patterns, which enables replication of paintings.

  8. Paint removal activities in the US Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozol, Joseph

    1993-03-01

    Use of methylene chloride and phenol based chemical strippers for aircraft paint removal generates large quantities of hazardous waste and creates health and safety problems for operating personnel. This paper presents an overview of the U.S. Navy's activities in the investigation and implementation of alternate paint stripping methods which will minimize or eliminate hazardous waste and provide a safe operating environment. Alternate paint removal methods under investigation by the Navy at the present time include use of non-hazardous chemical paint removers, xenon flashlamp/CO2 pellets, lasers and plastic media. Plastic media blasting represents a mature technology in current usage for aircraft paint stripping and is being investigated for determination of its effects on Navy composite aircraft configurations.

  9. Sodium spray fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundamental research on sodium spray fires is in progress at the Cadarache Nuclear Safety Department (DSN) to develop a computer code capable of predicting the thermodynamic effects of such fires on the containment. This paper discusses three types of phenomena which require further examination in order to obtain more realistic temperature and pressure results. (author)

  10. Budesonide Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the applicator to remove it from the bottle. Wash the dust cap and applicator in warm water and rinse them in cold water, let them dry at room temperature, and then put them back on the bottle.If the spray tip is clogged, wash it ...

  11. Plasma Spraying of Silicates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chráska, Pavel; Neufuss, Karel; Kolman, Blahoslav Jan; Dubský, Jiří

    Materials Park, OH : ASM International, 1998 - (Berndt, C.), s. 477-481 ISBN 0-87170-618-0. [United Thermal Spray Conference /1./. Indianapolis (US), 15.09.1997-18.09.1997] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/96/1353; GA ČR GA202/95/0216 Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass

  12. Shields to reduce spray drift

    OpenAIRE

    Ozkan, H.E.; Miralles, A.; Sinfort, C.; Zhu, D.; Fox, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of several spray-boom shield designs and "low-drift" nozzles on spray drift are presented. Results are based on experiments conducted in a wind tunnel. Performances of all experimental shields were evaluated under two spray pressures (0·15 and 0·3 MPa), and two air velocities (2·75 and 4·80 m/s) in the wind tunnel. The distance to the centre of mass of the spray pattern from the nozzle (Dc) was used to characterize spray drift from different shield and nozzle combinations. Dc valu...

  13. Heterogeneous Reactivity of NO2 with Photocatalytic Paints: A Possible Source of Nitrous Acid (HONO) in the Indoor Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligorovski, S.; Bartolomei, V.; Gandolfo, A.; Gomez Alvarez, E.; Kleffmann, J.; Wortham, H.

    2014-12-01

    There is an increasing concern about the indoor air environment, where we spend most of our time. Common methods of improving indoor air quality include controlling pollution sources, increasing ventilation rates or using air purifiers. Photocatalytic remediation technology was suggested as a new possibility to eliminate indoor air pollutants instead of just diluting or disposing them. In the present study, heterogeneous reactions of NO2 were studied on photocatalytic paints containing different size and quantity of TiO2. The heterogeneous reactions were conducted in a photo reactor under simulated atmospheric conditions. The flat pyrex rectangular plates covered with the paint were inserted into the reactor. These plates have been sprayed with the photocatalytic paints at our industrial partner's (ALLIOS) facilities using a high precision procedure that allowed the application of a thin layer of a given thickness of the paint. This allows a homogeneous coverage of the surface with the paint and an accurate determination of the exact amount of paint exposed to gaseous NO2. We demonstrate that the indoor photocatalytic paints which contain TiO2 can substantially reduce the concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2). We show that the efficiency of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) removal increase with the quantity of TiO2 in the range 0 - 7 %. The geometric uptake coefficients increase from 5 · 10-6 to 1.6 · 10-5 under light irradiation of the paints. On the other hand, during the reactions of NO2 with this paint (7 % of TiO2) nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous acid (HONO) are formed. Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important harmful indoor pollutant and its photolysis leads to the formation of highly reactive OH radicals (Gomez Alvarez et al., 2013). Maximum conversion efficiencies of NO2to HONO and NO of 15 % and 33 % were observed at 30 % RH, respectively. Thus, the quantity of TiO2 embedded in the paint is an important parameter regarding the nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) remediation, but may also influence formation of harmful by-products such as HONO, which should be considered for future optimization of photocatalytic paints aimed for indoor applications. Reference: Gómez Alvarez E., Amedro D., Afif C., Gligorovski S., Schoemacker C., Fittschen C., Doussin J.F., Wortham H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A, 110(33), 13294-13299, 2013.

  14. Characterization and Optimization of Polymer-Ceramic Pressure-Sensitive Paint by Controlling Polymer Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Ishikawa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A pressure-sensitive paint (PSP with fast response characteristics that can be sprayed on a test article is studied. This PSP consists of a polymer for spraying and a porous particle for providing the fast response. We controlled the polymer content (% from 10 to 90% to study its effects on PSP characteristics: the signal level, pressure sensitivity, temperature dependency, and time response. The signal level and temperature dependency shows a peak in the polymer content around 50 to 70%. The pressure sensitivity was fairly constant in the range between 0.8 and 0.9 %/kPa. The time response is improved by lowering the polymer content. The variation of the time response is shown to be on the order of milliseconds to ten seconds. A weight coefficient is introduced to optimize the resultant PSPs. By setting the weight coefficient, we can optimize the PSP for sensing purposes.

  15. Increased persistence of antifouling paint biocides when associated with paint particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Release of biocides associated with paint particles into marinas may increase their persistence in the environment. - Current regulatory risk assessment procedures only assess the impact of antifouling paint biocides that are released through leaching from a painted surface. Hull cleaning activities can lead to particles of antifouling paint containing biocides to enter the environment. Comparative pseudo-first order anaerobic degradation rate constants and half-lives were determined for a selection of common antifouling paint booster biocides, their degradation products, and associated with paint particles. Anaerobic half-lives of <0.5 days were calculated for chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, and SeaNine 211, between 1 and 3 days for DCPMU and DCPU, between 14 and 35 days for diuron and CPDU, and over 226 days for GS26575 and Irgarol 1051. Increased persistence was observed when the compounds were introduced to sediments associated with antifouling paint particles. When present as antifouling paint particles, an increased half-life of 9.9 days for SeaNine 211 and 1.4 days was calculated for dichlofluanid, no significant degradation was observed for diuron. It is suspected that this is due to much of the biocide being initially bound within the matrix of the paint particle that is slowly released through dissolution processes into the sediment pore water prior to degradation. The release of booster biocides associated with paint particles into marinas has the potential to lead to their accumulation unless activities such as hull cleaning are strictly regulated

  16. Electron beam hardened paint binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention concerns a paint binder hardened by the effect of electron beams (0.1-100 Mrad/sec). It consists of a dispersion of (A) an ethylenic unsaturated material in (B) at least one vinyl monomer. The component (A) in a reaction product of degraded rubber particles (0.1-4 ?m) and an ethylenic unsaturated component with a reactive epoxy, hydroxy or carboxy group which is bonded to the rubber particles by ester or urethane compounds. The rubber particles possess a nucleus and a cross-linked elastomeric acryl polymer, an outer shell with reactive groups and an intermediate layer formed by the monomers of the nucleus and the shell. The manner of production is described in great detail and supplemented by 157 examples. The coatings are suitable to coat articles which will be subject to deformation. (UWI)

  17. KLIMT, FROM PAINTING TO FASHION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    URDEA Olimpia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fashion has been a subject for most fields of art, starting from visual arts to cinema and literature. The metamorphoses of fashion, an art in itself, are under the sign of history that marked the social during the evolution of humanity. The present paper makes a reference to the links between fashion and Klimt’s work. Klimt proved to be a visionary by means of his visual, unique and unmistakable signature concerning the way he treated the clothed woman. As he worshipped the female body, he portrayed it, reflecting the fashion style of an era that was meant to be renewed. His work, strongly influenced by feminine values, became conspicuous as a manifesto against the rigidity of the Viennese society in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century. The modernity of Klimt’s vision generated the metamorphosis of the woman model, from the corseted woman until that time, and not only in terms of fashion, to the freed woman, using the metaphorical instruments of his art. The artist’s complex creativity helps us find him in four different situations, all in close connection with fashion art: the painter Klimt, who portrays woman who shows herself by showing her garment; the fashion designer Klimt who suggests outfits for his collaborator, Emilie Flöge, remoulding the dress as a clothing item; the fashion photographer from the photographs of Emilie Flöge wearing his creations; and, indirectly, by his paintings from the cycle Women, which had a powerful impact on contemporary fashion. Such a complex, visionary creator, whose painting and fashion interfere, is worth mentioning for his contribution to the fashion art avatars.

  18. Denotative and connotative meanings of paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the relationships between judgments of paintings denotative and connotative meanings was investigated. Denotative domain was defined as motif (represented object, e.g. portrait, landscape etc. and message (information carried by paintings, e.g. celebration of patriotism. Connotative domain was defined as subjective experience, i.e. affective or metaphoric impression produced by painting (e.g. feeling of pleasure, impression of dynamics, and so on. In preliminary study the list of 39 motifs was specified empirically. The four dimensions of pictorial message were taken from the previous study (Marković, 2006: Subjectivism, Ideology, Decoration and Constructivism vs. Realism. The four dimensions of paintings subjective experience were taken from the previous study as well (Radonjić and Marković, 2005: Regularity, Attraction, Arousal and Relaxation. In Experiment 1 subjects were asked to associate 39 motifs with 18 paintings. In Experiment 2 subjects were asked to judge 24 paintings on four dimensions of pictorial message. Results form Experiment 1 have shown that dimensions of paintings subjective experience were significantly correlated with only five motifs (e.g. everyday life was negatively correlated with Arousal, battle was negatively correlated with Relaxation, and so on. Results from Experiment 2 have shown that Subjectivism and Constructivism are negatively correlated with Regularity, and positively correlated with Arousal. Decoration is negatively correlated with Arousal and positively with Attraction and Relaxation.

  19. Occupational risk assessment of paint industry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo M de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thousands of chemical compounds are used in paint products, like pigments, extenders, binders, additives, and solvents (toluene, xylene, ketones, alcohols, esters, and glycol ethers. Paint manufacture workers are potentially exposed to the chemicals present in paint products although the patterns and levels of exposure to individual agents may differ from those of painters. The aim of the present study was to evaluate genome damage induced in peripheral blood lymphocytes and oral mucosa cells of paint industry workers. Materials and Methods: Genotoxicity was evaluated using the alkaline Comet assay in blood lymphocytes and oral mucosa cells, and the Micronucleus test in oral mucosa cells. For the micronucleus test in exfoliated buccal cells, no significant difference was detected between the control and paint industry workers. Results: The Comet assay in epithelia buccal cells showed that the damage index (DI and damage frequency (DF observed in the exposed group were significantly higher relative to the control group ( P≤0.05. In the same way, the Comet assay data in peripheral blood leukocytes showed that both analysis parameters (DI and DF were significantly greater than that for the control group ( P≤0.05. Conclusions: Chronic occupational exposure to paints may lead to a slightly increased risk of genetic damage among paint industry workers.

  20. Numerical modelling of fuel sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, C.

    1999-06-01

    The way the fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber is one of the most important parameters for the power output and the generation of emissions in the combustion of liquid fuels. The interaction between the turbulent gas flow field and the liquid fuel droplets, the vaporisation of them and the mixing of the gaseous fuel with the ambient air that are vital parameters in the combustion process. The use of numerical calculations is an important tool to better understand these complex interacting phenomena. This thesis reports on the numerical modelling of fuel sprays in non-reacting cases using an own developed spray module. The spray module uses the stochastic parcel method to represent the spray. The module was made in such manner that it could by coupled with different gas flow solver. Results obtained from four different gas flow solvers are presented in the thesis, including the use of two different kinds of turbulence models. In the first part the spray module is coupled with a k-{eta} based 2-D cylindrical gas flow solver. A thorough sensitivity analysis was performed on the spray and gas flow solver parameters, such as grid size dependence and sensitivity to initial values of k-{eta}. The results of the spray module were also compared to results from other spray codes, e.g. the well known KIVA code. In the second part of this thesis the spray was injected into a turbulent and fully developed crossflow studied. The spray module was attached to a LES (Large Eddy Simulation) based flow solvers enabling the study of the complex structures and time dependent phenomena involved in spray in crossflows. It was found that the spray performs an oscillatory motion and that the Strouhal number in the wake was about 0.1. Different spray breakup models were evaluated by comparing with experimental results 66 refs, 56 figs

  1. A STUDY ON HIGH STRENGTH BOLTED JOINT WITH METAL-SPRAYED CONTACT SURFACES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Kuniaki; Saito, Masamichi; Yokoyama, Hideki; Sugimoto, Ichiro; Nojima, Takao; Masunaga, Toshihiko; Nagasaki, Eiji

    Slip coefficient of high-strength bolt friction joints is well known to depend on the condition of contact surfaces. The coefficient is determined as 0.4 in the Specifications for Highway Bridges and the Design Standards for Railway Structures and Commentary (Steel Structures) in Japan, in the condition of roughened contact surfaces with mill scale removed or painted contact surfaces with inorganic zinc rich paint. However, the slip coefficient with metal-sprayed surfaces is not clear. For the joints with metalsprayed surfaces, hot-dip galvanized bolts are applied and such bolts are tightened by turn-of-nut method. However, it is unclear how much axial force is induced into the bolts in the joints with metal-sprayed surfaces. In order to examine slip coefficient of the bolted joints with metal-sprayed contact surfaces slip tests of high strength bolted joints were carried out. On the basis of above examinations, the slip coefficient with metal-sprayed surfaces is proposed in this paper. To clarify the induced axial force of the bolts, bolt-tightening tests were carried out. Considering bolt diameter, bolt length, induced axial forces and their relaxation, nut rotation angles are proposed in relation to different bolt size.

  2. Kolmogorov scaling in impassioned van Gogh paintings

    CERN Document Server

    Aragon, J L; Bai, M; Torres, M; Maini, P K; Naumis, Gerardo G.

    2006-01-01

    We show that some impassioned van Gogh paintings display scaling properties similar to the observed in turbulent fluids, suggesting that these paintings reflect the fingerprint of turbulence with such a realism that is even consistent with the way that a mathematical model characterizes this phenomenon. Specifically, we show that the probability distribution function (PDF) of luminance fluctuations of points (pixels) separated by a distance R is consistent with the Kolmogorov scaling theory in turbulent fluids. We also show that the most turbulent paintings of van Gogh coincide with periods of prolonged psychotic agitation of this artist.

  3. Measurement of tritium in dial painting industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium in the form of polystyrene is used coated on zinc sulphide as the active component for the manufacture of self-luminous paint. To study the radiological implication of airborne tritium in the luminous paint industry air monitoring study was conducted by cold strip method and Andersen method. Airborne particulate in different locations in luminous paint (LP) building and background areas were observed to be associated with activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 1.8 to 5.0 um. Dose to soft tissue and lungs and effective whole body dose were evaluated. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs., 2 ills

  4. Flame spraying of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical design-of-experiment studies of the thermal spraying of polymer powders are presented. Studies of the subsonic combustion (i.e., Flame) process were conducted in order to determine the quality and economics of polyester and urethane coatings. Thermally sprayed polymer coatings are of interest to several industries for anticorrosion applications, including the chemical, automotive, and aircraft industries. In this study, the coating design has been optimized for a site-specific application using Taguchi-type fractional-factorial experiments. Optimized coating designs are presented for the two powder systems. A substantial range of thermal processing conditions and their effect on the resultant polymer coatings is presented. The coatings were characterized by optical metallography, hardness testing, tensile testing, and compositional analysis. Characterization of the coatings yielded the thickness, bond strength, Knoop microhardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and porosity. Confirmation testing was accomplished to verify the coating designs

  5. Incite Their Interest with a Collaborative Painting Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Jo

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a collaborative painting project that allows first- through third-grade students to work with partners to create a four-inch square of a group painting and learn the basics of mixing paints to produce lights and darks, and tints and shades. One by one, the students worked on the painting in their free time. The author kept a…

  6. 24 CFR 35.135 - Use of paint containing lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of paint containing lead. 35... Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.135 Use of paint containing lead....

  7. Prehistoric cave painting PIXE analysis for the identification of paint ``pots''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menu, Michel; Walter, Philippe

    1992-02-01

    Prior to the advent of modern analytical techniques, the methods of producing prehistoric paintings were a subject of conjecture. We have sampled and extensively analysed prehistoric paint in several French cave sites of the Upper Paleolithic. The results indicate that, more than 12000 years ago, artists working within a restricted area utilized a number of "paint recipes" which are chronologically significant and may thus assist in dating the paintings. These recipes consist of a precise manufacturing of the different elements: pigment, extender and sometimes binder. The chemical impurities associated with the paint (here the mineral part composed of pigment + extender) may determine the "paint pot". These impurities are characteristic of the sources of the minerals. Among the different sites that we analysed, three from the most important ones are presented here: Niaux, Gargas (French Pyrenees) and Lascaux (Perigord, France).

  8. Degradation of insecticides used for indoor spraying in malaria control and possible solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massinga Pedro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The insecticide dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT is widely used in indoor residual spraying (IRS for malaria control owing to its longer residual efficacy in the field compared to other World Health Organization (WHO alternatives. Suitable stabilization to render these alternative insecticides longer lasting could provide a less controversial and more acceptable and effective alternative insecticide formulations than DDT. Methods This study sought to investigate the reasons behind the often reported longer lasting behaviour of DDT by exposing all the WHO approved insecticides to high temperature, high humidity and ultra-violet light. Interactions between the insecticides and some mineral powders in the presence of an aqueous medium were also tested. Simple insecticidal paints were made using slurries of these mineral powders whilst some insecticides were dispersed into a conventional acrylic paint binder. These formulations were then spray painted on neat and manure coated mud plaques, representative of the material typically used in rural mud houses, at twice the upper limit of the WHO recommended dosage range. DDT was applied directly onto mud plaques at four times the WHO recommended concentration and on manure plaques at twice WHO recommended concentration. All plaques were subjected to accelerated ageing conditions of 40C and a relative humidity of 90%. Results The pyrethroids insecticides outperformed the carbamates and DDT in the accelerated ageing tests. Thus UV exposure, high temperature oxidation and high humidity per se were ruled out as the main causes of failure of the alternative insecticides. Gas chromatography (GC spectrograms showed that phosphogypsum stabilised the insecticides the most against alkaline degradation (i.e., hydrolysis. Bioassay testing showed that the period of efficacy of some of these formulations was comparable to that of DDT when sprayed on mud surfaces or cattle manure coated surfaces. Conclusions Bioassay experiments indicated that incorporating insecticides into a conventional paint binder or adsorbing them onto phosphogypsum can provide for extended effective life spans that compare favourably with DDT's performance under accelerated ageing conditions. Best results were obtained with propoxur in standard acrylic emulsion paint. Similarly, insecticides adsorbed on phosphogypsum and sprayed on cattle manure coated surfaces provided superior lifespans compared with DDT sprayed directly on a similar surface.

  9. Spray combustion stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Pak-Yan; Jeng, S. M.; Litchford, Ronald

    1995-01-01

    The central purpose of this project is the improvement of liquid-fueled rocket motor design technology in order to assist the establishment of economical commercial access to space through the development of engines with enhanced performance and reliability. Specific research effort in the project is focused on spray physics and associated combustion instability phenomena. Results garnered from this work will contribute to the development of new computational tools for design of stable liquid propellant rocket engines. The specific objectives of the research effort include identifying and evaluating physical submodels which pertain to spray combustion stability with the idea of enhancing or refining existing submodels with a more comprehensive approach. In particular, any refinements to the spray combustion physical submodels which are achieved during the project will be channeled back to Rocketdyne for incorporation in their ARICC liquid rocket combustor code as second generation improvements. Also, as the ARICC code forms the basis or future CFD development, some effort is devoted to an evaluation of the code's capability for modeling oscillating pressure waves within the combustor.

  10. Paint for detection of radiological or chemical agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA); Brunk, James L. (Martinez, CA); Day, Sumner Daniel (Danville, CA)

    2010-08-24

    A paint that warns of radiological or chemical substances comprising a paint operatively connected to the surface, an indicator material carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances, and a thermo-activation material carried by the paint. In one embodiment, a method of warning of radiological or chemical substances comprising the steps of painting a surface with an indicator material, and monitoring the surface for indications of the radiological or chemical substances. In another embodiment, a paint is operatively connected to a vehicle and an indicator material is carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances.

  11. Fundamental studies of spray combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S.C.; Libby, P.A.; Williams, F.A. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Our research on spray combustion involves both experiment and theory and addresses the characteristics of individual droplets and of sprays in a variety of flows: laminar and turbulent, opposed and impinging. Currently our focus concerns water and fuel sprays in two stage laminar flames, i.e., flames arising, for example from a stream of fuel and oxidizer flowing opposite to an air stream carrying a water spray. Our interest in these flames is motivated by the goals of reducing pollutant emissions and extending the range of stable spray combustion. There remains considerable research to be carried out in order to achieve these goals. Thus far our research on the characteristics of sprays in turbulent flows has been limited to nonreacting jets impinging on a plate but this work will be extended to opposed flows with and without a flame. In the following we discuss details of these studies and our plans for future work.

  12. Electrochemical assessment of magnetite anti corrosive paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the purpose of deepening in the understanding of the mechanisms of protection of anticorrosive pigments based on iron oxides, this work has been carried out on the production of pure magnetite, and copper and chromium doped magnetite, which were evaluated by different characterization techniques. The paints were prepared with a solvent less epoxy resin maintaining the Pigment volume Content near the Practical Critical value (CPVC), established for each pigment. The paints were applied on polished steel and monitored with electrochemical techniques at total immersion conditions. Permeability and impedance measurements of free films were also done. Impedance data were simulated with the Boukamp software. Results show that the paints pigmented with doped magnetite present better behaviour than a paint prepared with commercial hematite. (Author) 8 refs

  13. Practice of using the multiple painting method

    CERN Document Server

    Drapchinsky, L V; Soloviev, S M

    1999-01-01

    A technique for the preparation of homogeneous minor-actinide layers by the multiple-painting method is described in detail. The advantages of the method used, as well as characteristics of the layers, are discussed.

  14. Electrochemical Study Of Corrosion Of Painted Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendrek, M. H.; Higgins, R. H.; Danford, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    Resistor-and-capacitor circuit models represent evolving properties of coated specimens. Electrochemical experiments on corrosion of painted 4130 steel described in report. Study part of general development of ac-impedance method for measurement of properties of coated metals.

  15. Darkness and depth in early Renaissance painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Christopher

    2010-02-01

    Contrast has always been appreciated as a significant factor in image quality, but it is less widely recognized that it is a key factor in the representation of depth, solidity and three-dimensionality in images in general, and in paintings in particular. This aspect of contrast was a key factor in the introduction of oil paint as a painting medium at the beginning of the fifteenth century, as a practical means of contrast enhancement. However, recent conservatorship efforts have established that the first oil paintings were not, as commonly supposed, by van Eyck in Flanders in the 1430s, but by Masolino da Panicale in Italy in the 1420s. These developments led to the use of chiaroscuro technique in various forms, all of which are techniques for enhanced shadowing.

  16. Digital Color Restoration of Old Paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Pappas, M; Pitas, I

    2010-01-01

    Many old paintings suffer from the effects of certain  physicochemical phenomena, that can seriously degrade  their overall visual appearance. Cleaning methods, that  utilize chemical treatment substances, can not always  be used, due to possible deterioration of the painting  surface or reduction of the painting artistic value.  Digital image processing techniques can be utilized for the  purpose of restoring the original appearance of a painting,  with minimal physical...

  17. Paint Test for Centifugal Pump Cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cavitation phenomenon in centrifugal pumps is occurred when the static pressure within the pumps decreases below the boiling pressure of the fluid. This can cause severe damages or failures of the pumps such as the impeller wear or the pump degradation. Many researches to resolve the problem have been performed. Gluich carried out wear prediction based on the Cooper's empirical relation on a cavity length. Grist suggested paint test as a useful tool to measure the cavity length. In the present study, a fluid test system is made, which can create cavitation artificially. A series of visualization tests for cavitation erosion using various paints are made. By comparing the paint test results and the Cooper's correlation, the effectiveness of the paint test for the cavity length estimation is noted

  18. The evaluation of GOES black paint materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Philip T.; Kauder, Lonny R.; Triolo, Jack J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the contamination effect of black paint materials on the GOES instrument performance. The GOES spacecraft materials were originally selected for their low outgassing properties. Samples of the materials were tested according to the ASTM E-595 test method to fulfill the total mass loss and collected volatile condensable materials criteria for traditional spacecraft material selection. Due to the instrument design, the cavity will experience high temperatures during operation greater than the specified temperature in the ASTM test. As a result of this high cavity temperature, normally stable paint materials on the painted surface may severely outgas even though they have passed the ASTM test. Further enhancement of the contaminant remaining on the mirror by UV irradiation is also a great consideration. This concern prompted an investigation into the outgassing characteristics of the black paints at the predicted operating temperatures.

  19. The actinobacterial colonization of etruscan paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Diaz-Herraiz; Valme Jurado; Soledad Cuezva; Leonila Laiz; Pasquino Pallecchi; Piero Tiano; Sergio Sanchez-Moral; Cesareo Saiz-Jimenez

    2013-01-01

    The paintings from Tomba della Scimmia, in Tuscany, are representative of the heavy bacterial colonization experienced in most Etruscan necropolises. The tomb remained open until the late 70′s when it was closed because of severe deterioration of the walls, ceiling and paintings after decades of visits. The deterioration is the result of environmental changes and impacts suffered since its discovery in 1846. We show scanning electron microscopy and molecular studies that reveal the extent and...

  20. Field study of experimental antifouling paint formulations

    OpenAIRE

    FRANKLIN JARAMILLO ISAZA; JUAN GUILLERMO CASTAÑO; FÉLIX ECHEVERRÍA ECHEVERRÍA

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the results of field testing of several experimental antifouling paints, which were exposed for up to 471 days to natural sea water in the Caribbean. The testing site was selected in order to obtain very critical conditions; therefore, static panels were immersed in water considered as having an intense biological activity. Paints formulations are based in natural rosin as binder, and cuprous oxide as biocide. Three different plasticizers and binder/plasticizers ratios were...

  1. Usability Analysis of SmartPaint

    OpenAIRE

    Röning, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Image segmentation is the process of identifying and separating relevant objects and structures in an image. The purpose of segmentation is to simplify and/or change the representation of an image into something that is easier to analyze. SmartPaint is a software for semi-automatic segmentation of medical volume  images, developed by Filip Malmberg.  This thesis investigates whether SmartPaint is useful on several levels, such as usability, functionality and instructional effectiveness. The d...

  2. Statistical simulation of optical characteristics of paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozakov, Oleg N.; Lasurka, I. I.

    1999-11-01

    The computation algorithm to obtain both integral and differential optical characteristics of paints based on statistical modeling (Monte-Carlo method) is proposed. The results of calculation of a reflectivity, an absorptivity, a covering power, a distribution of the energy absorbed by a layers as a whole, as well as an absorptivities of a pigment and binder separately are given for a zinc oxide-based paint.

  3. Identification of bacterial cells by chromosomal painting.

    OpenAIRE

    Lanoil, B. D.; Giovannoni, S J

    1997-01-01

    Chromosomal painting is a technique for the microscopic localization of genetic material. It has been applied at the subcellular level to identify regions of eukaryotic chromosomes. Here we describe the development of bacterial chromosomal painting (BCP), a related technology for the identification of bacterial cells. Purified genomic DNAs from six bacterial strains were labeled by nick translation with the fluorochrome Fluor-X, Cy3, or Cy5. The average size of the labeled fragments was ca. 5...

  4. Vacuum Plasma Spraying Replaces Electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Power, Chris; Burns, David H.; Daniel, Ron; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

    1992-01-01

    Vacuum plasma spraying used to fabricate large parts with complicated contours and inner structures, without uninspectable welds. Reduces time, and expense of fabrication. Wall of combustion chamber built up inside of outer nickel-alloy jacket by plasma spraying. Particles of metal sprayed partially melted in plasma gun and thrown at supersonic speed toward deposition surface. Vacuum plasma-spray produces stronger bond between the grooves and covering layer completing channels and wall of combustion chamber. In tests, bond withstood pressure of 20 kpsi, three times allowable limit by old method.

  5. Set Up of an Automated Multi-Colour System for Interior Wall Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berardo Naticchia

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available It is shared that construction projects are getting bigger and more complex, hence also the productivity of the construction industry must be improved, while preserving its labour from hazardous job sites. Such requirements can be accomplished by the adoption of robotized products, which, however, need to be quickly developed and marketed. In this paper, first the issue of a new miniature laboratory for developing lightweight and well-coordinated robotized systems is pursued, then a novel robot device for high quality multi-colour interior wall painting carried by a robot arm is developed and successfully tested. Thanks to the new 1:6 scaled down laboratory and its six degree of freedom robot arm on an hexapod for horizontal moves, we tested the opportunity to introduce also in the building sector miniature robots that can change the ergonomics standardly adopted by construction workers. It is analyzed how and why switching from full size to miniature robots is convenient in construction. In addition, a new system adding further features to robotized painting has been conceived. Our new multi-colour spraying end-tool was developed and fixed on the robot arm, in order to be able to reproduce coloured artworks. Finally, a methodology to reproduce colours from digital format of artworks is presented, showing how accurate and efficient is this new robotized spraying device.

  6. Automated Laser Paint Stripping (ALPS) update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovoi, Paul

    1993-03-01

    To date, the DoD has played a major role in funding a number of paint stripping programs. Some technologies have proven less effective than contemplated. Others are still in the validation phase. Paint stripping is one of the hottest issues being addressed by the finishing industry since the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has mandated that chemical stripping using methylene chloride/phenolic type strippers be stopped. The DoD and commercial aircraft companies are hard-pressed to find an alternative. Automated laser paint stripping has been identified as a technique for removing coatings from aircraft surfaces. International Technical Associates (InTA) was awarded a Navy contract for an automated laser paint stripping system (ALPS) that will remove paint from metallic and composite substrates. For the program, which will validate laser paint stripping, InTA will design, build, test, and install a system for fighter-sized aircraft at both the Norfolk and North Island (San Diego) Aviation Depots.

  7. Development of painting technology using plasma surface technology for automobile parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, C.-K. [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: ckjung7818@skku.edu; Bae, I.-S. [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.-B. [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, J.-H. [Woosin Cryovac Co., Ltd. Uiwang 437-820 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, E.-S. [Woosin Cryovac Co., Ltd. Uiwang 437-820 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.-C. [Plakor Co., Ltd, Seoul 152-050 (Korea, Republic of); Boo, J.-H. [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jhboo@chem.skku.ac.kr

    2006-05-26

    One of the major areas in organic coatings for corrosion protection of automobile parts is the surface treatment of polyolefin (Polypropylene (RX-2000)) bumper substrates. In order to develop the painting technology, in this work, we directly tried to paint on the plastic bumper substrates without both wet washing process with VOC solvents and phosphate primer spray process. Microwave (MW) plasma treatment represents an efficient, clean and economic alternative to activate polymeric surfaces. O{sub 2} plasma treatment at room temperature within 300 s in the power range of 300-1000 W were used to elevate hydrophilic property of the polyolefin surfaces, resulting in distinctive change of wettability and adhesion between painting layer and polymeric bumper substrates. The treated surfaces have been analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Wettability and adhesion properties were elevated by the measurement of the contact angle, adhesion test, impact test, cold resistant impact test and water resistant impact test. We confirmed that the O{sub 2} plasma treatment was a very reliable method for the synthesis of polyolefin substrates with high wettability and adhesion performance.

  8. Development of painting technology using plasma surface technology for automobile parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major areas in organic coatings for corrosion protection of automobile parts is the surface treatment of polyolefin (Polypropylene (RX-2000)) bumper substrates. In order to develop the painting technology, in this work, we directly tried to paint on the plastic bumper substrates without both wet washing process with VOC solvents and phosphate primer spray process. Microwave (MW) plasma treatment represents an efficient, clean and economic alternative to activate polymeric surfaces. O2 plasma treatment at room temperature within 300 s in the power range of 300-1000 W were used to elevate hydrophilic property of the polyolefin surfaces, resulting in distinctive change of wettability and adhesion between painting layer and polymeric bumper substrates. The treated surfaces have been analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Wettability and adhesion properties were elevated by the measurement of the contact angle, adhesion test, impact test, cold resistant impact test and water resistant impact test. We confirmed that the O2 plasma treatment was a very reliable method for the synthesis of polyolefin substrates with high wettability and adhesion performance

  9. Spray-formed tooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, K. M.; Key, J. F.

    The United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) has formed a partnership with the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a process for the rapid production of low-cost tooling based on spray forming technology developed at the INEL. Phase 1 of the program will involve bench-scale system development, materials characterization, and process optimization. In Phase 2, prototype systems will be designed, constructed, evaluated, and optimized. Process control and other issues that influence commercialization will be addressed during this phase of the project. Technology transfer to USCAR, or a tooling vendor selected by USCAR, will be accomplished during Phase 3. The approach INEL is using to produce tooling, such as plastic injection molds and stamping dies, combines rapid solidification processing and net-shape materials processing into a single step. A bulk liquid metal is pressure-fed into a de Laval spray nozzle transporting a high velocity, high temperature inert gas. The gas jet disintegrates the metal into fine droplets and deposits them onto a tool pattern made from materials such as plastic, wax, clay, ceramics, and metals. The approach is compatible with solid freeform fabrication techniques such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, and laminated object manufacturing. Heat is extracted rapidly, in-flight, by convection as the spray jet entrains cool inert gas to produce undercooled and semi-solid droplets. At the pattern, the droplets weld together while replicating the shape and surface features of the pattern. Tool formation is rapid; deposition rates in excess of 1 ton/h have been demonstrated for bench-scale nozzles.

  10. Microplasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Arjun

    2015-01-01

    ""This unique book on development of microplasma sprayed HAp coating has been organized in a very compact yet comprehensive manner. This book also highlights the horizons of future research that invites the attention of global community, particularly those in bio-medical materials and bio-medical engineering field. This book will surely act as a very useful reference material for both graduate/post-graduate students and researchers in the field of biomedical, orthopedic and manufacturing engineering and research. I truly believ that this is the first ever effort which covers almost all the

  11. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. 173.173 Section 173.173 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS...

  12. Spray algorithm without interface construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kadhem Majhool, Ahmed Abed; Watkins, A. P.

    2012-05-01

    This research is aimed to create a new and robust family of convective schemes to capture the interface between the dispersed and the carrier phases in a spray without the need to build up the interface boundary. The selection of the Weighted Average Flux (WAF) scheme is due to this scheme being designed to deal with random flux scheme which is second-order accurate in space and time. The convective flux in each cell face utilizes the WAF scheme blended with Switching Technique for Advection and Capturing of Surfaces (STACS) scheme for high resolution flux limiters. In the next step, the high resolution scheme is blended with the WAF scheme to provide the sharpness and boundedness of the interface by using switching strategy. In this work, the Eulerian-Eulerian framework of non-reactive turbulent spray is set in terms of theoretical proposed methodology namely spray moments of drop size distribution, presented by Beck and Watkins [1]. The computational spray model avoids the need to segregate the local droplet number distribution into parcels of identical droplets. The proposed scheme is tested on capturing the spray edges in modelling hollow cone sprays without need to reconstruct two-phase interface. A test is made on simple comparison between TVD scheme and WAF scheme using the same flux limiter on convective flow hollow cone spray. Results show the WAF scheme gives a better prediction than TVD scheme. The only way to check the accuracy of the presented models is by evaluating the spray sheet thickness.

  13. Spray tube for reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A container of an advanced BWR reactor has a double walled steel plate comprising inner and outer shells. A spray header as a tubular pipeline constituting a spray tube is incorporated in the inside of a ceiling of the double walled steel plate (gap between the inner shell and the outer shell). A plurality of spray nozzles extend from the spray header to the inner shell of the double walled steel plate and protruded to the inside of the container. The spray header is connected to a cooling water flowing pipe secured passing through the outer shell of the double walled steel plate. The cooling water flowing pipe is connected to a pump chamber disposed to the upper portion of the container. The spray nozzles extended from the spray header are secured to the inner shell of the double walled steel plate by way of a reinforcing plate. With such a constitution, the spray header can be protected from jetting force caused upon rupture of pipelines. (I.N.)

  14. Characterization of Sodium Spray Aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences of pool and spray fires require evaluation in the safety analysis of liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors. Sodium spray fires are characterized by high temperature and pressure, produced during the rapid combustion of sodium in air. Following the initial energy release, some fraction of the reaction products are available as aerosols which follow the normal laws of agglomeration, growth, settling, and plating. An experimental study is underway at Atomics International to study the characteristics of high concentration sprays of liquid sodium in reduced oxygen atmospheres and in air. The experiments are conducted in a 31.5 ft3 (2 ft diam. by 10 ft high) vessel, certified for a pressure of 100 lb/in2 (gauge). The spray injection apparatus consists of a heated sodium supply pot and a spray nozzle through which liquid sodium is driven by nitrogen pressure. Spray rate and droplet size can be varied by the injection velocity (nozzle size, nitrogen pressure, and sodium temperature). Aerosols produced in 0, 4, and 10 vol. % oxygen environments have been studied. The concentration and particle size distribution of the material remaining in the air after the spray injection and reaction period are measured. Fallout rates are found to be proportional to the concentration of aerosol which remains airborne following the spray period. (author)

  15. Spray rolling aluminum alloy strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spray rolling combines spray forming with twin-roll casting to process metal flat products. It consists of atomizing molten metal with a high velocity inert gas, cooling the resultant droplets in flight and directing the spray between mill rolls. In-flight convection heat transfer from atomized droplets teams with conductive cooling at the rolls to rapidly remove the alloy's latent heat. Hot deformation of the semi-solid material in the rolls results in fully consolidated, rapidly solidified product. While similar in some ways to twin-roll casting, spray rolling has the advantage of being able to process alloys with broad freezing ranges at high production rates. This paper describes the process and summarizes microstructure and tensile properties of spray-rolled 2124 and 7050 aluminum alloy strips. A Lagrangian/Eulerian poly-dispersed spray flight and deposition model is described that provides some insight into the development of the spray rolling process. This spray model follows droplets during flight toward the rolls, through impact and spreading, and includes oxide film formation and breakup when relevant

  16. Laser paint removal on the outside walls of the Church Abbey Saint Adoeno in Bisceglie (BAT), Italy: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daurelio, G.; Catalano, I. M.; Bassi, P.

    2010-09-01

    It is the oldest church in the city after the cathedral. It is among the purest examples of Romanesque. It was founded in 1074 and expenses for its construction helped the inhabitants of the agricultural hamlets of the Cirignano, Pacciano and Zappino. The church was dedicated to St. Adoeno Dado, bishop of Rouen, protector of Norman, because , according to tradition, the building also participated Norman soldiers. San Adoeno church has a façade at cusp with a truncated tympanum , crowned by an eagle. In the centre of the façade there is a rose ornament surrounded by four lions and a statue of St. Adoeno ( Figs. A to I ). On the outside walls of this Abbey many graffiti, produced by different coloured spray paints were found. After the usual photographical tests some Laser Paint Removal trials were executed to verify the damage threshold of the calcareous stony substrate as well as the possibility to ablate these paints by a Nd - YAG laser in Q-Switch mode. Even if all the classical four laser paint ablation techniques were employed some paints showed a great difficulty to be removed from the substrate. For these ones it was necessary to increase at maximum both the energy per pulse and the fluence value for obtaining some acceptable result but the substrate looked turned pale. It was decided to remove a small amount of these paints and subject to chemical analysis for determining whether they were acrylic based. At the same time it was investigated on the type of limestone substrate that appeared more porous and less hard on the surface than the common local limestone marble basin, that is, Trani or Bisceglie. So, on the light of these investigations, the possible solution for this hard laser ablation problem was carried out with an acceptable final result.

  17. Paint selection for coating radioactive-waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is concluded that although the white epoxy Paint Sample E is suitable for coating waste drums, the additional pretreated costs of grit blasting prior to paint application would preclude adoption of that paint system. The specified 10.0-mil coating thickness of that coating would also incur higher costs. The Vorac epoxy-phenolic base paint (buff or yellow) was the only other paint that exhibited suitable corrosion and impact resistance required for coating the waste drums. In addition, that paint does not require a grit-blasted substrate or other costly pretreatment prior to coating

  18. Laser cleaning treatment of burnt paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulou-Athera, N.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Doulgerides, M.; Evangelatos, Ch.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Terlixi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Three samples taken from two paintings partly burned by fire are investigated for cleaning with lasers. The paintings belong to the collection of the National Gallery of Athens and were made by the great Greek artist Konstantinos Parthenis. To remove the damaged surface and achieve an acceptable restoration result, the optimum combination of fluence and wavelength are sought. Seven different wavelengths with a set of fluences where used, i.e., the five harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser (1064, 532, 355, 266, and 213 nm), a TEA 10.6 μm CO2 and a free running laser Er:YAG 2.94 μm. Characterization was performed prior and after the cleaning process by optical and electron microscopy and analysis (SEM/BSE EDS), as well as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The results of this work indicate that the wavelength in the visible spectrum (532 nm) with fluences between 0.1-0.4J/cm2 show the optimum cleaning. The optical microscopy observation shows that with these laser parameters the burnt layer was preferentially removed, exposing the original colors that Parthenis had used in these paintings. Electron microscopy imaging and chemical analysis revealed that the original texture and materials of these samples are preserved after irradiation. Since the damage varies along the surface of the painting, more experiments should be performed in order to find and optimize the full cleaning and characterization process for the homogeneous cleaning of the whole surface of the painting.

  19. Training facilitates object recognition in cubist paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmann, Martin; Ishai, Alumit

    2010-01-01

    To the nave observer, cubist paintings contain geometrical forms in which familiar objects are hardly recognizable, even in the presence of a meaningful title. We used fMRI to test whether a short training session about Cubism would facilitate object recognition in paintings by Picasso, Braque and Gris. Subjects, who had no formal art education, were presented with titled or untitled cubist paintings and scrambled images, and performed object recognition tasks. Relative to the control group, trained subjects recognized more objects in the paintings, their response latencies were significantly shorter, and they showed enhanced activation in the parahippocampal cortex, with a parametric increase in the amplitude of the fMRI signal as a function of the number of recognized objects. Moreover, trained subjects were slower to report not recognizing any familiar objects in the paintings and these longer response latencies were correlated with activation in a fronto-parietal network. These findings suggest that trained subjects adopted a visual search strategy and used contextual associations to perform the tasks. Our study supports the proactive brain framework, according to which the brain uses associations to generate predictions. PMID:20224810

  20. Training facilitates object recognition in cubist paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To the naïve observer, cubist paintings contain geometrical forms in which familiar objects are hardly recognizable, even in the presence of a meaningful title. We used fMRI to test whether a short training session about Cubism would facilitate object recognition in paintings by Picasso, Braque and Gris. Subjects, who had no formal art education, were presented with titled or untitled cubist paintings and scrambled images, and performed object recognition tasks. Relative to the control group, trained subjects recognized more objects in the paintings, their response latencies were significantly shorter, and they showed enhanced activation in the parahippocampal cortex, with a parametric increase in the amplitude of the fMRI signal as a function of the number of recognized objects. Moreover, trained subjects were slower to report not recognizing any familiar objects in the paintings and these longer response latencies were correlated with activation in a fronto-parietal network. These findings suggest that trained subjects adopted a visual search strategy and used contextual associations to perform the tasks. Our study supports the proactive brain framework, according to which the brain uses associations to generate predictions.

  1. Metallic paint appearance measurement and rendering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihalik Andrej

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans recognize objects visually on the basis of material composition as well as shape. To acquire a certain level of photorealism, it is necessary to analyze, how the materials scatter the incident light. The key quantity for expressing the directional optical effect of materials on the incident radiance is the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF. Our work is devoted to the BRDF measurements, in order to render the synthetic images, mostly of the metallic paints. We measured the spectral reflectance off multiple paint samples then used the measured data to fit the analytical BRDF model, in order to acquire its parameters. In this paper we describe the methodology of the image synthesis from measured data. Materials such as the metallic paints exhibit a sparkling effect caused by the metallic particles scattered within the paint volume. Our analysis of sparkling effect is based on the processing of the multiple photographs. Results of analysis and the measurements were incorporated into the rendering process of car paint

  2. Effect of shielding spray boom on spray deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Ozkan, H.E.; Miralles, A.; Sinfort, C.; Zhu, D.; Reichard, D.; Fox, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of several spray-boom shield designs and "low-drift" nozzles on spray deposition are presented. Results are based on experiments conducted in a wind tunnel and computer simulations using the same experimental parameters. Performances of all experimental shields were evaluated under two spray pressures (0.15 and 0.3 MPa), and two air flow rates (2.75 and 4.80 m/s) in the wind tunnel. All nine shields tested during this study effectively reduced droplet deposition distance. Even the...

  3. Preference for and discrimination of paintings by mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    I measured preference for paintings (Renoir vs. Picasso or Kandinsky vs. Mondrian) in mice. In general mice did not display a painting preference except for two mice: one preferred Renoir to Picasso, and the other preferred Kandinsky to Mondrian. Thereafter, I examined discrimination of paintings with new mice. When exposure to paintings of one artist was associated with an injection of morphine (3.0 mg/kg), mice displayed conditioned preference for those paintings, showing discrimination of paintings by Renoir from those by Picasso, and paintings by Kandinsky from those by Mondrian after the conditioning. They also exhibited generalization of the preference to novel paintings of the artists. After conditioning with morphine for a set of paintings consisting of two artists, mice showed discrimination between two sets of paintings also from the two artists but not in association with morphine. These results suggest that mice can discriminate not only between an artist's style but also among paintings of the same artist. When mice were trained to discriminate a pair of paintings by Kandinsky and Renoir in an operant chamber equipped with a touch screen, they showed transfer of the discrimination to new pairs of the artists, but did not show transfer of discrimination of paintings by other artists, suggesting generalization. PMID:23762346

  4. INEL Spray-forming Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mchugh, Kevin M.; Key, James F.

    1993-01-01

    Spray forming is a near-net-shape fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is deposited onto a suitably shaped substrate or mold to produce a coherent solid. The technology offers unique opportunities for simplifying materials processing without sacrificing, and oftentimes substantially improving, product quality. Spray forming can be performed with a wide range of metals and nonmetals, and offers property improvements resulting from rapid solidification (e.g., refined microstructures, extended solid solubilities and reduced segregation). Economic benefits result from process simplification and the elimination of unit operations. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials. Results from several spray forming programs are presented to illustrate the range of capabilities of the technique as well as the accompanying technical and economic benefits. Low-carbon steel strip greater than 0.75 mm thick and polymer membranes for gas/gas and liquid/liquid separations that were spray formed are discussed; recent advances in spray forming molds, dies, and other tooling using low-melting-point metals are described.

  5. Matte Painting : Skapandet av en virtuell kuliss

    OpenAIRE

    Hasseltun, Andreas; Terman, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Det här kandidatarbetet kommer framförallt att beröra filmtekniken, Matte Painting, men vi kommer även röra oss runt omkring ämnet och presentera andra delar från filmproduktionen och framförallt postproduktionen för att lättare kunna sätta Matte Painting i ett relevant sammanhang. Vi jämför Matte Painting med en teaterkuliss, en bakgrund som på nära håll eller ses från fel vinkel kan bryta illusionen av att det är en verklig miljö. Vi undersöker och presenterar hur man kan bygga upp en digit...

  6. Visual comparison testing of automotive paint simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gary; Fan, Hua-Tzu; Seubert, Christopher; Evey, Curtis; Meseth, Jan; Schnackenberg, Ryan

    2015-03-01

    An experiment was performed to determine whether typical industrial automotive color paint comparisons made using real physical samples could also be carried out using a digital simulation displayed on a calibrated color television monitor. A special light booth, designed to facilitate evaluation of the car paint color with reflectance angle, was employed in both the real and virtual color comparisons. Paint samples were measured using a multi-angle spectrophotometer and were simulated using a commercially available software package. Subjects performed the test quicker using the computer graphic simulation, and results indicate that there is only a small difference between the decisions made using the light booth and the computer monitor. This outcome demonstrates the potential of employing simulations to replace some of the time consuming work with real physical samples that still characterizes material appearance work in industry.

  7. The actinobacterial colonization of Etruscan paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Herraiz, Marta; Jurado, Valme; Cuezva, Soledad; Laiz, Leonila; Pallecchi, Pasquino; Tiano, Piero; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2013-01-01

    The paintings from Tomba della Scimmia, in Tuscany, are representative of the heavy bacterial colonization experienced in most Etruscan necropolises. The tomb remained open until the late 70's when it was closed because of severe deterioration of the walls, ceiling and paintings after decades of visits. The deterioration is the result of environmental changes and impacts suffered since its discovery in 1846. We show scanning electron microscopy and molecular studies that reveal the extent and nature of the biodeterioration. Actinobacteria, mainly Nocardia and Pseudonocardia colonize and grow on the tomb walls and this process is linked to the availability of organic matter, phyllosilicates (e.g. clay minerals) and iron oxides. Nocardia is found metabolically active in the paintings. The data confirm the specialization of the genera Nocardia and Pseudonocardia in the colonization of subterranean niches. PMID:23486535

  8. Paintings and emotion: A nonemotivist reevaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kone?ni Vladimir J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Arguments are presented that paintings are unable to induce basic psychobiological emotions because they do not powerfully engage with spectators intimate associative-memory systems. However, it is suggested that art installations containing properties subsumable under the classical concept of the sublime (physical grandeur, rarity, novelty, an association with beauty and with biologically significant outcomes, are capable of producing a memorable, though non-basic, emotional response, aesthetic awe - the peak aesthetic response as defined in Aesthetic Trinity Theory (Kone?ni, 2005, 2011. A skeptical view is presented of emotivism, defined as a proclivity for excessive insertion of emotion into scientific and lay accounts of behavior, especially regarding the arts: The loci in the domain of paintings are specified in which emotion has often been unjustifiably implicated. Psychobiological and contrasting viewpoints on emotion are outlined. Several possible routes from paintings attributes to viewers emotions are found to be analytically indefensible and psychologically improbable. Implications for empirical aesthetics are examined.

  9. [Disease in Velázquez' painting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller Pérez, A

    2000-01-01

    A short biographical abstract of Painter Velázquez and his artistical and cultural background with relation to this own time is given. His whole work and of the court and official jobs he had has, been analysed. Together with his artistical vocation and great capacity and aptitude for painting, he felt the ambition to seek a position of nobility. A peculiar research of the pathological aspects appearing in his pictures has been made, regardless of the technical characteristics of his painting and style. For this purpose, his paintings have been classified in still lives, religious pictures, mythological pictures, portraits of royal male and female family members, portraits of ordinary people, big peoples such as Las Lanzas, Las Hilanderas and Las Meninas, etc., to conclude with the really singular group of buffoons, dwarfs, jesters and mad people. The pathological issues have been commented. A list of bibliographical references is also added. PMID:11382150

  10. Gloss paints in late paintings by Francis Picabia: a multi-analytical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkori, Maria; Hubert, Marie-Odile; Balcar, Nathalie; Barabant, Gilles; Sutherland, Ken; Casadio, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a multi-analytical approach for the study of the materials used by Francis Picabia in two paintings dating from 1949 and 1950 is reported, with a particular reference to the possible use of enamel paints. The study is complemented by analysis of paints that had the appearance of glossy enamel sampled from the artist's easel in the collection of the Comité Francis Picabia. Analysis with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry with thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM-Py-GCMS) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that only few paints match the composition of historical reference samples of Ripolin enamels, while the majority of the glossy paints sampled likely consist of mixtures of binders and varnishes made by the artist. This study confirms the importance of scientific testing and comparison with reference materials, when determining artists' use of enamel paints. Results should be interpreted in the context of documentary/historical evidence, for a more informed characterization of oleoresinous paint media.

  11. A fluorescent tracer method for evaluating spray transport and fate of field and laboratory spray applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field and laboratory testing spray nozzles and application systems use spray collectors to assess where the spray deposits once it leaves the spray system. Tracer materials, such as oil and water soluble fluorescent dyes, can be mixed into spray solutions in small amounts with minimal impact on the...

  12. Influence of Cold-Sprayed, Warm-Sprayed and Plasma Sprayed Layers Deposition on Fatigue Properties of Steel Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Čížek, Jan; Khor, Khiam Aik; Loke, Kelvin; Siegl, Jan; KOVÁŘÍK, Ondřej; KURODA, Seiji; Karthikeyan, Jeganathan; Kay, Charles; Šiška, Filip; Dlouhý, Ivo; Matějková, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    Titanium powder was deposited onto steel specimens using four thermal spray technologies: plasma spray, low-pressure cold spray, portable cold spray, and warm spray. The specimens were then subjected to strain controlled cyclic bending test in a dedicated in-house built device. The crack propagation was monitored by observing the changes in the resonance frequency of the samples. For each series, the number of cycles corresponding to a pre-defined specimen cross-section damage was used as a p...

  13. The sorption of iodine onto containment paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Containment structures of nuclear power plants have many inner surfaces coated with nuclear grade paints. These may provide a valuable sink for radioiodine and hence may aid to minimize its release to the environment following a possible accident. The objective of this on-going work is to identify and evaluate significant parameters involved in the sorption of iodine on painted surfaces and thereby develop a kinetic model. To date two paints have been studied, an inorganic zinc primer and a vinyl paint. Experiments were performed by passing 131I2 gas in air through 0.25 inch glass tubing coated on the inner surfaces with paint. Tubing was used to produce well characterized and rapid gas phase mass transfer. The accumulation of iodine on the surface was monitored continuously using two parallel scintillation detectors coupled to a PC based multi-channel analyzer. Test parameters such as temperature, humidity, flow-rate, and iodine concentration could be adjusted independently. The zinc primer demonstrated a high affinity for iodine. The rate of adsorption was found to increase at lower temperatures and higher humidifies. The adsorption rate was directly proportional to the gas phase iodine concentration indicating a first order process. Desorption occurred at a relatively constant rate at surface coverages below 10-6 mol I2/cm2. Iodine that desorbed from these surfaces was mostly in the chemical form of elemental iodine (I2). The vinyl paint showed a much lower affinity for iodine. Steady state adsorption was found to increase with increased gas phase iodine concentrations. Humidity had no observable effect on the rate of adsorption. Desorption rates were found to increase with increased temperature and it is suggested that the desorption process is first order with respect to surface iodine loading. (author). 7 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  14. Perceptual dimensions of style in paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to specify the basic perceptual dimensions underlying the judgments of the physical features which define the style in paintings (e.g. salient form, colorful surface, oval contours etc.. The other aim of the study is to correlate these dimensions with the subjective (affective dimensions of the experience of paintings. In the preliminary study a set of 25 pairs of elementary perceptual descriptors were empirically specified, and a set of 25 bipolar scales were made (e.g. uncolored-multicolored. In the experiment 30 subjects judged 24 paintings (paintings were taken from the study of Radonjić and Marković, 2004 on 25 scales. Factor analysis revealed the four factors: form (scales: precise, neat, salient form etc., color (color contrast, lightness contrast, vivid colors, space (voluminosity, depth and oval contours and complexity (multicolored, ornate, detailed. Obtained factors reflected the nature of the phenomenological and neural segregation of form, color, depth processing, and partially of complexity processing (e.g. spatial frequency processing within both the form and color subsystem. The aim of the next step of analysis was to specify the correlations between two groups of judgments: (a mean judgments of 24 paintings on perceptual factors and (b mean judgments of the same set of 24 paintings on subjective (affective experience factors, i.e. regularity, attraction, arousal and relaxation (judgments taken from Radonjić and Marković, 2005. The following significant correlations were obtained: regularity-form, regularity-space, attraction-form and arousal-complexity (negative correlation. The reasons for the unexpected negative correlation between arousal and complexity should be specified in further studies.

  15. Sea Spray Aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butcher, Andrew Charles

    Aerosols are important climactically. Their specific emissions are key to reducing the uncertainty in global climate models. Marine aerosols make up the largest source of primary aerosols to the Earth's atmosphere. Uncertainty in marine aerosol mass and number flux lies in separating primary...... cloud condensation nuclei ounter. Proxy solutions with high inorganic salt concentrations and some organics produce sea spray aerosol particles with little change in cloud condensation activity relative to pure salts. Comparison is made between a frit based method for bubble production and a plunging...... jet in high concentrations of surface active organics and brackish water salinities. The jet produces particles with less cloud condensation activity, implying an increase in organic material in aerosol particles produced by the plunging jet over the frit. In the second paper we determine a...

  16. BICARBONATE OF SODA BLASTING TECHNOLOGY FOR AIRCRAFT WHEEL PAINTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation addressed product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention and economics in replacing chemical solvent strippers with a bicarbonate of soda blasting technology for removal of paint from aircraft wheels. The evaluation was conducted in the Paint Stripping Sho...

  17. Assessment of the painting support based on irradiation Am-241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is concerned with the noninvasive investigation of wooden backing of painting support. The article describes a method making use of weakened gamma irradiation (Am-241) to estimate the degree of damage of painting support. (author)

  18. What You Should Know about Using Paint Strippers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More consumers are choosing to complete do-it-yourself (DIY) projects in their homes. Using paint strippers in ... the work done professionally instead of attempting it ... fire. DIY use of methylene chloride-based paint strippers has ...

  19. Developing a dispersant spraying capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    In developing a national dispersant spraying capability, the Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) has undertaken a modification program to enable the conventional offshore spraying gear to be mounted on almost any vessel of convenience. Smaller, more versatile inshore spraying vessels and pumps have been designed and built. With the popularization of concentrated dispersants, the inshore pumping equipment can be used aboard hovercraft for special application situations. A program of acquiring mobile dispersant storage tanks has been undertaken with auxiliary equipment that will facilitate the shipment of dispersants in bulk by air freight. Work also has commenced on extending the dispersant application program to include the CCG fleet of helicopters.

  20. Detailed fuel spray analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mularz, E. J.; Bosque, M. A.; Humenik, F. M.

    1984-01-01

    Fuel spray analyses which are a necessary input to the analytical modeling of the complex mixing and combustion processes which occur in advanced combustor systems are discussed. It is anticipated that by controlling fuel air reaction conditions, combustor temperatures can be better controlled, leading to improved combustion system durability. The capability to measure liquid droplet size, velocity, and number density throughout a fuel spray and to utilize this measurement technique in laboratory benchmark experiments was demonstrated. The experiment to characterize fuel sprays is described. The experiments and data are useful for application to and validation of turbulent flow modeling to improve the design systems of future advanced technology engines.

  1. Breast Mass in a Rubens Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Davide; Lippi, Donatella; Castello, Manuel Francisco; Weisz, George M

    2016-01-01

    Deformity of the breast and axilla observed in famous paintings is a fascinating field for the medico-artists. The attempt of a retrospective diagnosis of breast tumors is highly challenging. This paper deals with a Rubens painting portraying the heroine Judith with a visible but previously unreported left breast mass. Though speculative, the present medico-artistic diagnosis is of a tumor likely to be of benign nature. It is of interest that the present case is the sixth breast disease discovered in Rubens's works. PMID:27101221

  2. Hardware accelerated 3D nesh painting

    OpenAIRE

    Schärfig, Randolf; Hormann, Kai

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a new algorithm for interactively painting onto 3D meshes that exploits recent advances of GPU technology. As the user moves a brush over the 3D mesh, its paint pattern is projected onto the 3D geometry at the current viewing angle and copied to the corresponding region in the object’s texture atlas. Both operations are realized on the GPU, with the advantage that all data resides in the fast GPU memory, which in turn leads to high frame rates. A main feature of our...

  3. Dynamic Painting of Animated 3D scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderhaeghe, David; Barla, Pascal; Thollot, Joëlle; Sillion, François X.

    2006-01-01

    Painterly rendering is a technique that takes inspiration from traditional painting, such as oil or acrylic. The main idea is to render a 3D scene with 2D strokes in image space. Creating hand made painterly animations is very time-consuming since each frame of the animation is usually obtained by adding some paint strokes over previous frames. With an automated system, a user can not only build his animation faster but can handle the temporal coherence of strokes via a frame-to-frame corresp...

  4. Energy conservation in the painting process; Energieeinsparung im Lackierprozess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-07-01

    A new technology developed by Duerr enables energy savings of up to 30% in automobile painting, which is by far the most energy-intensive manufacturing process in the production of vehicles. The EcoDryScrubber system works with recirculation of the booth process air and dry separation of the surplus paint particles during paint application. This leads to considerable improvements in energy consumption and in CO{sub 2} and paint particle emissions.

  5. Edge-Based Shading as a Depth Cue in Paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Venderbosch, M. E.; van Doorn, Andrea J.; Koenderink, Jan J.; te Pas, Susan F.

    2014-01-01

    We explored how an artist who uses a particular monochrome modern painting style generates the impression of relief in paintings. Three portraits, painted after model, were created especially for the experiment. Photographs of the paintings were presented on a computer screen. To investigate the perceived relief of observers we used a gauge figure task. We expected an effect of background contrast on perceived total depth range of the relief, because this is well known in the case of photogra...

  6. Air-Fed Visors Used for Isocyanate Paint Spraying—Potential Exposure When the Visor Is Lifted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Mike; Baxter, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Continuous-flow air-supplied breathing apparatus with a visor is the respiratory protective equipment (RPE) of choice within the motor vehicle repair trade for protection against exposure to isocyanate paints. Whilst these devices are capable of providing adequate protection, a common workplace practice of sprayers lifting up the visor of their RPE immediately after spraying when checking the quality of the paint finish is thought to have an impact on the protection afforded. While the visor lift may be only for a few seconds, this action, especially if repeated numerous times during a work shift, could potentially result in a significant increase in exposure. Informal interviews with paint sprayers were conducted to understand the reasons for this behaviour followed by a series of laboratory tests to quantify the potential degree of exposure as a result of a visor lift. The majority of the paint sprayers interviewed explained their reasons for lifting their visors immediately after spraying and before the spray booth had been adequately cleared by ventilation. The main reasons given for a visor lift included a combination of habit, poor visibility due to poor visual clarity of the visor screen material, over spray, scratched visor screens, internal visor reflections, and poor booth lighting. The findings of the tests showed that the degree of protection provided by the visor when in the lifted position is in the approximate range of 1–3.7 (mean 1.7) and over the whole of the exposure period (from start of the lift to recovery of protection after refitting) is in the approximate range of 1.4–9.0 (mean 2.7). This is a significant reduction when compared to the assigned protection factor of 40 for this class of device and the measured protection factors of 5000–10 000 when worn correctly. These results clearly demonstrate that lifting the visor whilst still within a contaminated atmosphere considerably increases the wearer’s exposure and that this is an example where improvements in RPE design can contribute to lower exposure. PMID:26304978

  7. Modelling The Dynamic Distribution Of Spray Deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Lebeau, Frédéric

    2004-01-01

    A mathematical model to estimate the spray distribution of phytopharmaceutical deposits under a spray boom is proposed. It focuses on the need to take account of the dynamic effects of the forward movement of the boom. These are related both to the horizontal and vertical boom movement and to the influence of aerodynamic factors on the nozzle spray distribution. The distribution of the spray deposits is computed by multiplying the nozzle spray pattern by the time needed to m...

  8. Modifications Of A Commercial Spray Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter B.

    1993-01-01

    Commercial spray gun modified to increase spray rate and make sprayed coats more nearly uniform. Consists of gun head and pneumatic actuator. Actuator opens valves for two chemical components, called "A" and "B," that react to produce foam. Components flow through orifices, into mixing chamber in head. Mixture then flows through control orifice to spray tip. New spray tip tapered to reduce area available for accumulation of foam and makes tip easier to clean.

  9. 33 CFR 118.140 - Painting bridge piers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Painting bridge piers. 118.140 Section 118.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.140 Painting bridge piers. The District Commander may require painting the sides of bridge channel piers...

  10. 29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33 Section... Preparation and Preservation 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees shall be... requirements of subpart I of this part. (b) When using flammable paint and preservative removers,...

  11. A Short History of the Chemistry of Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedstein, Harriet G.

    1981-01-01

    Includes information on: (1) relationship of art and science; (2) paintings' early history; (3) Egyptian, Greek, Chinese, Byzantine, and Medieval painting; (4) chemical analysis of pigments; (5) chemistry of early pigments; and (6) paint media. Tabular data are provided on chemical names for artists' pigments with their earliest known dates. (CS)

  12. Brushstrokes: Styles and Techniques of Chinese Painting. A Teacher Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, CA.

    Brushwork is the essential characteristic of Chinese painting. Ink and brushwork provide the foundation of Chinese pictures, even when color also is used. In the quality of the brushwork the artist captures the spirit resonance, the raison d'etre of a painting. In China, painting and writing developed hand in hand, sharing the same tools and…

  13. Suspension and solution plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suspension and solution plasma spraying makes it possible to achieve coatings with fine microstructural features and is becoming a common route in laboratories to elaborate coatings a few tenths to a few hundreds of micrometres thick. This paper presents the recent developments in direct current plasma spraying of suspensions or solutions. It begins with a short description of the main plasma torches used for liquid feedstock spraying as well as the techniques used to experimentally observe droplets and particles in the plasma jet and characterize the void network of nanostructured plasma-sprayed coatings. The paper then turns to the momentum and heat transfers between fine particles and the plasma jet and the interactions between the plasma jet and a liquid in the form of a jet or drops. It concludes by linking some characteristic features of coating microstructures with the liquid processing in the plasma jet. (paper)

  14. Hexavalent chromium and isocyanate exposures during military aircraft painting under crossflow ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, James S; Marlow, David A; Nourian, Fariba; Breay, James; Hammond, Duane

    2016-05-01

    Exposure control systems performance was investigated in an aircraft painting hangar. The ability of the ventilation system and respiratory protection program to limit worker exposures was examined through air sampling during painting of F/A-18C/D strike fighter aircraft, in four field surveys. Air velocities were measured across the supply filter, exhaust filter, and hangar midplane under crossflow ventilation. Air sampling conducted during painting process phases (wipe-down, primer spraying, and topcoat spraying) encompassed volatile organic compounds, total particulate matter, Cr[VI], metals, nitroethane, and hexamethylene diisocyanate, for two worker groups: sprayers and sprayer helpers ("hosemen"). One of six methyl ethyl ketone and two of six methyl isobutyl ketone samples exceeded the short term exposure limits of 300 and 75 ppm, with means 57 ppm and 63 ppm, respectively. All 12 Cr[VI] 8-hr time-weighted averages exceeded the recommended exposure limit of 1 µg/m(3), 11 out of 12 exceeded the permissible exposure limit of 5 µg/m(3), and 7 out of 12 exceeded the threshold limit value of 10 µg/m(3), with means 38 µg/m(3) for sprayers and 8.3 µg/m(3) for hosemen. Hexamethylene diisocyanate means were 5.95 µg/m3 for sprayers and 0.645 µg/m(3) for hosemen. Total reactive isocyanate group-the total of monomer and oligomer as NCO group mass-showed 6 of 15 personal samples exceeded the United Kingdom Health and Safety Executive workplace exposure limit of 20 µg/m(3), with means 50.9 µg/m(3) for sprayers and 7.29 µg/m(3) for hosemen. Several exposure limits were exceeded, reinforcing continued use of personal protective equipment. The supply rate, 94.4 m(3)/s (200,000 cfm), produced a velocity of 8.58 m/s (157 fpm) at the supply filter, while the exhaust rate, 68.7 m(3)/s (146,000 cfm), drew 1.34 m/s (264 fpm) at the exhaust filter. Midway between supply and exhaust locations, the velocity was 0.528 m/s (104 fpm). Supply rate exceeding exhaust rate created re-circulations, turbulence, and fugitive emissions, while wasting energy. Smoke releases showing more effective ventilation here than in other aircraft painting facilities carries technical feasibility relevance. PMID:26698920

  15. Insider Art. The use of the painting-in-painting motif by British artists c. 1900-1920.

    OpenAIRE

    Maarel, S.H. van der

    2012-01-01

    In the period 1900-1920 a number of British artists with different artistic allegiances incorporated identifiable paintings by other artists into their own. The paintings they depicted were predominantly by contemporary British or French artists or by recently deceased masters who were mostly active in the second half of the nineteenth century. Through several thematic case studies, this thesis examines how the use of this painting-in-painting motif relates to developments in art and the...

  16. Plasma sprayed Ce:YAG

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Pala, Zdeněk; Nevrlá, Barbara; Kubát, J.

    Düsseldorf : DVS Media GmbH, 2014, s. 593-598. ISBN 978-3-87155-574-9. - (DVS-Berichte. 302). [ITSC 2014 :Interational Thermal Spray Conference and Exposition. Barcelona (ES), 21.05.2014-23.05.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Plasma spraying * YAG * scintallator * thermal post- treatment Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass http://www.dvs-media.eu/media/pdf/inhalt_300302.pdf

  17. Plasma spraying theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Suryanarayanan, R

    1993-01-01

    The recent advances in plasma spraying are discussed in this book which divides into two sections - theory and application. The book presents sophisticated experimental techniques, diagnostics, theoretical models and computer simulations which not only improve the understanding and uses of the spraying process but also help to increase the reliability factor of the manufacturing components. Applications that are metallurgical, aeronautical, automobile, chemical, etc. are also shown. More importantly, applications that include silicon for solar cells, magnets and superconductors are also discus

  18. Work-related asthma in automobile spray painters: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minov, Jordan; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Vasilevska, Kristin; Risteska-Kuc, Snezana; Stoleski, Saso

    2008-06-01

    This report describes two patients who had developed asthma after working as automobile painters with isocyanate-based aerosol paint for two years or over. In both patients asthma was confirmed using the standard diagnostic procedure. One of the subjects was atopic. One was ex-smoker and the other had never smoked. Neither had a family history of asthma. The symptoms occurred after workplace exposure lasting two years in one patient and three in the other. As both reported work-relatedness of the symptoms, they underwent serial peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) measurement and bronchoprovocation testing. Significant work-related changes in PEFR diurnal variations and in non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness (NSBH) were observed in one patient, suggesting allergic occupational asthma (OA), while the other patient was diagnosed work-exacerbated asthma (WEA). Our data confirm that spray painting is an occupation with increased risk of respiratory impairment and asthma. PMID:18573749

  19. Failure-probability driven dose painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelius, Ivan R; Håkansson, Katrin; Due, Anne K; Aznar, Marianne C; Berthelsen, Anne K; Kristensen, Claus A; Rasmussen, Jacob; Specht, Lena; Bentzen, Søren M

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate a data-driven dose-painting strategy based on the spatial distribution of recurrences in previously treated patients. The result is a quantitative way to define a dose prescription function, optimizing the predicted local control at constant treatment intensity. A dose planning study...

  20. Painting: Is It Indigenous to Ghanaian Culture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Antwi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Painting could be said to be well grounded in all cultures worldwide. This is underpinned by the vast record of cave art as globally represented, even though this phenomenon does not seamlessly continue into some ancient traditions that followed. In the face of the above however, to find the traditional period of a people one has to identify the geographical area of this group in order to consider the autochthonous art practice of the place so as to determine its cultural beginnings, extent, and forms of art explored. In the case of Ghana, one observes that, art historians usually site the beginning of painting at the time when colonial educational training of the arts was begun in Achimota from the 1900s. The study was conducted using historical review and analysis, unstructured interview guides as well as participant and non-participant observational techniques in a descriptive design at Sirigu, Ahwiaa and Ntonso, revealing the forms of painting that existed in the country before the introduction of formal training by the colonial masters. The result showed that Ghanaians traditionally practiced different kinds of painting, long before the colonial art training programme was introduced. We feel it should be of concern for any people to be able to tell, not only how, and why but also when they started doing the things that matter to their existence and cultural heritage.

  1. The Ancient Art of Silk Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonker, Kim

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a silk-painting project with a sea-creature theme for eighth-grade students. Other themes can be used such as geometric quilt designs, tropical rain forest, large flowers, Art Nouveau motifs, portraits and more. (Contains 2 resources.)

  2. Piezoelectric paint: characterization for further applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piezoelectric paint is a very attractive piezoelectric composite in many fields, such as non-destructive testing, or structural health monitoring. However, there are still many obstacles which restrict the real application of it. One of the main problems is that piezoelectric paint lacks a standard fabrication procedure, thus characterization is needed before use. The work presented here explores the characterization of piezoelectric paint. It starts with fabrication of samples with certain piezoelectric powder weight percentages. The microstructures of the samples are investigated by a scanning electron microscope; the results indicate that the fabrication method can produce high quality samples. This is followed by measurements of Young’s modulus and sensitivity. The piezoelectric charge constant d31 is then deduced from the experimental data; the results agree well with a published result, which validates the effectiveness of the fabrication and characterization method. The characterized piezoelectric paint can expand its applications into different fields and therefore becomes a more promising and competitive smart material. (paper)

  3. Failure-probability driven dose painting

    OpenAIRE

    Vogelius, Ivan R.; Håkansson, Katrin; Due, Anne K; Aznar, Marianne C.; Berthelsen, Anne K.; Kristensen, Claus A.; Rasmussen, Jacob; Specht, Lena; Bentzen, Søren M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate a data-driven dose-painting strategy based on the spatial distribution of recurrences in previously treated patients. The result is a quantitative way to define a dose prescription function, optimizing the predicted local control at constant treatment intensity. A dose planning study using the optimized dose prescription in 20 patients is performed.

  4. Lead Paint Test Kits Workshop: Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) designed and conducted the Lead Paint Test Kits Workshop on October 19 and 20, 2006, at the Environmental Protection Agency's Research Triangle Park, NC campus. The workshop was conducted as...

  5. Preparation of accelerator targets by painting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1969 to 1978 approximately 400 fission foils, for use in fission ionization chambers, were produced at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) by painting metal substrates with multiple coats of fissionable isotopes. Areal densities as great as 2.0 mg/cm2 were obtained with excellent adhesion. With care, the variation in uniformity of the coating can be kept to less than +-10%. This painting technique has been successful in depositing high-purity isotopes of thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium on metal substrates made of beryllium, aluminum, copper, and nickel. Most of the foils were produced for use in high-accuracy fission cross-section measurements conducted at the LLNL 100 MeV electron linear accelerator from 1973 to 1978. The cost of this painting technique is estimated to be approximately one tenth the cost of producing foils by evaporation, electrodeposition, or sputtering techniques. In addition, the painting technique is highly efficient (> 90%), thereby minimizing waste of the available fissionable material. This fact of great importance where only small amounts of high-purity isotopes are available. (orig.)

  6. Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents progress made on a technique for 14C dating pictographs. A low-temperature oxygen plasma is used coupled with high-vacuum technologies to selectively remove C-containing material in the paints without contamination from inorganic carbon from rock substrates or accretions

  7. Integrate Art! Match Poetry to Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Mary

    1994-01-01

    It is possible to connect art and language arts using traditional Japanese art. After explaining the Japanese art forms of Haiku poetry and sumi-e painting, the article describes a project in which students write haiku on special paper then illustrate their poems with gung and shey strokes. (SM)

  8. Rendering Visible: Painting and Sexuate Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I examine Luce Irigaray's aesthetic of sexual difference, which she develops by extrapolating from Paul Klee's idea that the role of painting is to render the non-visible rather than represent the visible. This idea is the premise of her analyses of phenomenology and psychoanalysis and their respective contributions to understanding…

  9. Brush up your painting skills - Realistic brush design for interactive painting applications

    OpenAIRE

    Van Laerhoven, Tom; Van Reeth, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Most present-day interactive paint applications lack the means of adequately capturing a user's gestures and translating them into realistic and predictable strokes, despite the importance of such a mechanism. We present a novel brush design that adopts constrained energy optimization to deform the brush tuft according to the user's input movement. It incorporates bidirectional paint transfer and an anisotropic friction model. The main advantage of our method is its ability to handle a wide r...

  10. Cartesian Control of a Spray-Painting Robot with Redundant Degrees of Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olav Egeland

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available A controller for redundant manipulators with a small, fast manipulator mounted on a positioning part has been developed. The controller distributes the fast motion to the small, fast manipulator and the slow, gross motion to the positioning part. A position reference is generated on-line to the positioning part to avoid singularities and the loss of degrees of freedom. This reference is selected according to an ad hoc procedure which makes the small, fast manipulator work around the centre of its working range. In the control system, the task space position vector is augmented with the generalized coordinates of the positioning part. The resulting augmented task space vector contains a set of generalized coordinates for the manipulator. Feedback linearization and decoupling are applied in the augmented task space to obtain a model consisting of decoupled double integrators. The low and high frequency motion is distributed by controlling the double integrators associated with the end effector with a high bandwidth, while the double integrators associated with the positioning part are controlled with a low bandwidth.

  11. Cartesian Control of a Spray-Painting Robot with Redundant Degrees of Freedom

    OpenAIRE

    Olav Egeland; Jens G. Balchen

    1987-01-01

    A controller for redundant manipulators with a small, fast manipulator mounted on a positioning part has been developed. The controller distributes the fast motion to the small, fast manipulator and the slow, gross motion to the positioning part. A position reference is generated on-line to the positioning part to avoid singularities and the loss of degrees of freedom. This reference is selected according to an ad hoc procedure which makes the small, fast manipulator work around the centre of...

  12. Air monitoring of aromatic hydrocarbons during automobile spray painting for developing change schedule of respirator cartridges

    OpenAIRE

    Jahangiri, Mehdi; Adl, Javad; Shahtaheri, Seyed Jamaleddin; Kakooe, Hossein; Rahimi Forushani, Abbas; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of End of Service Life Indicator (ESLI), a cartridge change schedule should be established for ensuring that cartridges are changed before their end of service life. Factors effecting service life of cartridges were evaluated, including the amount of atmospheric contamination with aromatic hydrocarbon vapors in the workplace, temperature, and relative humidity of the air. A new change schedule was established based on comparing the results of air monitoring and workplace condit...

  13. Spray Lakes reclamation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the level of the Spray Lakes (Alberta) reservoir was lowered by four metres, 208 ha of shoreline was exposed offering little to no wildlife benefit and only limited recreation potential. A reclamation plan for 128 ha of shoreline was therefore developed. A wild life-palatable, self-sustaining vegetation cover was established. Approximately 90 ha was scarified, and/or had tree stumps removed prior to seeding, while approximately 40 ha was seeded and fertilized only. The remaining 80 ha of shoreline was not revegetated due to limited access; these areas will be allowed to re-establish naturally from the forested edge. The species were selected based on their adaptation to alkaline soils, drought tolerance, persistence in a stand and rooting characteristics, as well as palatability to wildlife. Alfalfa, white clover and fall rye were seeded. In general, all areas of the reclamation plan are successfully revegetated. Areas which were recontoured are stable and non-eroding. Success was most significant in areas which had been scarified, then seeded and trackpacked. Areas that were seeded and fertilized only were less well established at the end of the first year, but showed improvement in the second and third years. The area will be monitored to ensure the reclaimed vegetation is self-sustaining

  14. Establishment of Meaning of Ink Wash Painting in Modern Times: Evolution of Chinese Ink Wash Painting as a Formal Language of Oriental Figure Painting

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaoguang

    2014-01-01

    As an ancient oriental type of figure painting, Chinese ink wash painting’s development and evolution is the most prominent part that most reflects the characteristics of contemporary era in Chinese artistic exploration in the 20th century. Present Chinese ink wash figure painting has already become one of the forms of creation among Chinese painting mainstream and the reform spirit it reflects has special aesthetic meaning to Chinese contemporary art in the multicultural background. This pap...

  15. Slurry spray distribution within a simulated laboratory scale spray dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was found that the distribution of liquid striking the sides of a simulated room temperature spray dryer was not significantly altered by the choice of nozles, nor by a variation in nozzle operating conditions. Instead, it was found to be a function of the spray dryer's configuration. A cocurrent flow of air down the drying cylinder, not possible with PNL's closed top, favorably altered the spray distribution by both decreasing the amount of liquid striking the interior of the cylinder from 72 to 26% of the feed supplied, and by shifting the zone of maximum impact from 1.0 to 1.7 feet from the nozzle. These findings led to the redesign of the laboratory scale spray dryer to be tested at the Savannah River Plant. The diameter of the drying chamber was increased from 5 to 8 inches, and a cocurrent flow of air was established with a closed recycle. Finally, this investigation suggested a drying scheme which offers all the advantages of spray drying without many of its limitations

  16. Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings: Influence of Spraying Power on Microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings are used on metallic implants to enhance the bonding between the implant and bone in human body. The coating process was implemented at different spraying power for each spraying condition. The coatings formed from a rapid solidification of molten and partly molten particles that impact on the surface of substrate at high velocity and high temperature. The study was concentrated on different spraying power that is between 23 to 31 kW. The effect of different power on the coatings microstructure was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and phase composition was evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The coatings surface morphology showed distribution of molten, partially melted particles and some micro-cracks. The produced coatings were found to be porous as observed from the cross-sectional morphology. The coatings XRD results indicated the presence of crystalline phase of HA and each of the patterns was similar to the initial powder. Regardless of different spraying power, all the coatings were having similar XRD patterns.

  17. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, A.; Baker, R.; Prahl, D.

    2014-03-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using 'L' clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and 'picture framing' the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  18. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anatasia [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Baker, Richard [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using "L" clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and "picture framing" the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  19. Protective coatings (paints) for light water nuclear reactor containment facilities - approved 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Standard is to provide a common basis on which protective coatings (paints) for the surfaces of light water-moderated nuclear reactor containment facilities may be compared and selected by reproducible evaluation tests. Under the environmental conditions of nuclear reactor containment facilities, encompassing thermal Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR's) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR's), coating may deteriorate by exposure to any one, all, or a combination of, the following conditions: ionizing radiation, contamination by radioactive nuclides and subsequent decontamination processes, chemical and water sprays, high-temperature, high-pressure steam, and abrasion or wear. This Standard specifically applies to the interior surfaces of the containment for PWR's and of the primary containment for BWR's and to all equipment therein. The Standard covers coatings applied to only the following materials: carbon steel, stainless steel, zinc-coated (galvanized) steel, aluminum, concrete, and masonry

  20. Influence of Nozzle geometry on spray shape, particle size, spray velocity and Air entrainment of high pressure Diesel spray

    OpenAIRE

    Hespel, Camille; Blaisot, Jean-Bernard; Margot, Xandra; Patouna, S.; Cessou, Armelle; Lecordier, Bertrand

    2010-01-01

    Air/fuel mixing process in the combustion chamber of Diesel engines plays an important role on the combustion efficiency. This mixing depends on the particle size distribution in the spray, on the local velocity of fuel droplets in the spray and on the air entrainment. Nozzle geometry as well as nozzle internal flow conditions influence many of these spray properties. An experimental study of the influence of the nozzle geometry on these properties has been conducted. The spray structure and ...

  1. Noise resistance applied to the study paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical noise is one of the methods of analysis used to interpret the phenomenon of corrosion. It has a number of advantages over other methodology types including its simplicity, its low cost and the fact that it does not disturb the system. This methodology appears to be effective together with other techniques in metal-electrolyte systems. In this case the technique is applied on its own on commercial anti-corrosion paints for which no information is available from other techniques. The main result of this study reveals the effectiveness of the noise resistance parameter, which had already been tested in the lab, when it is used to explain how the paint system behaves in industry. (Author)

  2. A Modular Framework for Digital Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiVerdi, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    While there has been tremendous research in the simulation of natural media painting, little academic work has been written to understand how all these contributions interrelate and to use this knowledge to direct future work. In this paper, we survey the set of interesting artistic tools to categorize their effects and motivate a modular framework for digital painting that can reproduce those effects in a loosely coupled way. We use this framework as a lens through which we survey the literature and classify the achievements of previous efforts. We examine our own contributions in the field in more detail, discussing how the framework motivated those results and how it impacted our accomplishments. Finally, we discuss the open challenges that remain for the research community, and how the framework can help to make contributions towards those challenges. PMID:26357241

  3. Waveguide BEC Interferometry with Painted Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshier, Malcolm; Lebedev, Vyacheslav; Samson, Carlo; Ryu, Changhyun

    2015-05-01

    Waveguide atom interferometers offer the possibility of long measurement times in a compact geometry, which can be an advantage over free space interferometers if the dephasing due to interatomic interactions can be controlled. We are investigating waveguide BEC interferometers created with the painted potential, a technique which allows for the creation and manipulation of BECs in arbitrary 2D potentials. The goal is to measure a linear acceleration of the device. The painted potential allows new approaches to the initial splitting of the BEC. For example, instead of smoothly deforming a single well potential into a double well, it is possible instead to gradually remove a weak link coupling two initially separated waveguides. This strategy should reduce excitations created in the splitting process. We are currently implementing such schemes and measuring the coherence time of the BEC after division. We will present the results of these measurements, and report progress towards measuring linear accelerations. Supported by LANL/LDRD.

  4. Aquastrip (tm): An innovative paint removal technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmar, J.

    1993-03-01

    Environmental, safety and health issues, forced operators to search for an alternative paint removal process. High pressure water jetting and new integrated paint and stripper systems are Lufthansa's answer to this challenge. AQUASTRIP complies with the specification requirements. In order to receive approval from airframe manufacturers and authorities the process has undergone an extensive research program since 1988. An operation window was established, to enable maximum of safety during operation on metal and composite surfaces. Even though AQUASTRIP is a hybrid process and requires technological investment, it is well on the way to prove its innovative, ecological and economical character in first large scale applications under realistic conditions. Its potential has already been reflected by patents and trademarks, which were registered in conjunction with the development of AQUASTRIP and the vital interest for cooperative work on the process development and other potential utilization.

  5. Pressure-Sensitive Paint: Effect of Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Kontis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous ways in which pressure-sensitive paint can be applied to a surface. The choice of substrate and application method can greatly affect the results obtained. The current study examines the different methods of applying pressure-sensitive paint to a surface. One polymer-based and two porous substrates (anodized aluminum and thin-layer chromatography plates are investigated and compared for luminescent output, pressure sensitivity, temperature sensitivity and photodegradation. Two luminophores [tris-Bathophenanthroline Ruthenium(II Perchlorate and Platinum-tetrakis (pentafluorophenyl Porphyrin] will also be compared in all three of the substrates. The results show the applicability of the different substrates and luminophores to different testing environments.

  6. NASA logo painted on orbiter Endeavour

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    A KSC worker paints the NASA logo on the port wing of the orbiter Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch in December for STS-88. The paint is a special pigment that takes 18 hours to dry; the whole process takes approximately two weeks to complete. The NASA logo, termed 'meatball,' was originally designed in the late 1950s. It symbolized NASA's role in aeronautics and space in the early years of the agency. The original design included a white border surrounding it. The border was dropped for the Apollo 7 mission in October 1968, replaced with royal blue to match the background of the emblem. In 1972 the logo was replaced by a simple and contemporary design -- the 'worm' -- which was retired from use last year. NASA reverted to its original logo in celebration of the agency's 40th anniversary in October, and the 'golden age' of America's space program. All the orbiters will bear the new logo.

  7. Multiple metal contamination from house paints: consequences of power sanding and paint scraping in New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, H W; Powell, E T; Shah, A; Gonzales, C R; Mielke, P W

    2001-09-01

    Power sanding exterior paint is a common practice during repainting of old houses in New Orleans, Louisiana, that triggers lead poisoning and releases more than Pb. In this study we quantified the Pb, zinc, cadmium, manganese, nickel, copper, cobalt, chromium, and vanadium in exterior paint samples collected from New Orleans homes (n = 31). We used interior dust wipes to compare two exterior house-painting projects. House 1 was measured in response to the plight of a family after a paint contractor power sanded all exterior paint from the weatherboards. The Pb content (approximately 130,000 microg Pb/g) was first realized when the family pet died; the children were hospitalized, the family was displaced, and cleanup costs were high. To determine the quantity of dust generated by power sanding and the benefits of reducing Pb-contaminated dust, we tested a case study house (house 2) for Pb (approximately 90,000 microg/g) before the project was started; the house was then dry scraped and the paint chips were collected. Although the hazards of Pb-based paints are well known, there are other problems as well, because other toxic metals exist in old paints. If house 2 had been power sanded to bare wood like house 1, the repainting project would have released as dust about 7.4 kg Pb, 3.5 kg Zn, 9.7 g Cd, 14.8 g Cu, 8.8 g Mn, 1.5 g Ni, 5.4 g Co, 2.4 g Cr, and 0.3 g V. The total tolerable daily intake (TTDI) for a child under 6 years of age is 6 microg Pb from all sources. Converting 7.4 kg Pb to this scale is vexing--more than 1 billion (10(9)) times the TTDI. Also for perspective, the one-time release of 7.4 x 10(9) microg of Pb dust from sanding compares to 50 x 10(9) microg of Pb dust emitted annually per 0.1 mile (0.16 km) from street traffic during the peak use of leaded gasoline. In this paper, we broaden the discussion to include an array of metals in paint and underscore the need and possibilities for curtailing the release of metal dust. PMID:11673129

  8. Brain activity accompanying perception of implied motion in abstract paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chai-Youn; Blake, Randolph

    2007-01-01

    Early 20th century artists including Duchamp and Balla tried to portray moving objects on a static canvas by superimposing objects in successive portrayals of an action. We investigated whether implied motion in those paintings is associated with activation of motion-sensitive area MT+. In Experiment 1, we found that observers rated these kinds of paintings higher in portraying motion than they did other abstract paintings in which motion is not intended. We also found that observers who had previously experienced abstract paintings with implied motion tended to give higher motion ratings to that class of paintings. In Experiment 2, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain activity of observers while viewing abstract paintings receiving the highest and the lowest motion rating scores in Experiment 1. We found MT+, but not primary visual cortex (V1), showed greater BOLD responses to abstract paintings with implied motion than to abstract paintings with little motion impression, but only in observers with prior experience viewing those kinds of paintings. These results imply that the neural machinery ordinarily engaged during perception of real visual motion is activated when people view paintings explicitly designed to convey a sense of visual motion. Experience, however, is necessary to achieve this sense of motion. PMID:18338460

  9. Blanching of paint and varnish layers in easel paintings: contribution to the understanding of the alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genty-Vincent, Anaïs; Eveno, Myriam; Nowik, Witold; Bastian, Gilles; Ravaud, Elisabeth; Cabillic, Isabelle; Uziel, Jacques; Lubin-Germain, Nadège; Menu, Michel

    2015-11-01

    The blanching of easel paintings can affect the varnish layer and also the paint layer with a blurring effect. The understanding of the physicochemical and optical phenomena involved in the whitening process remains an important challenge for the painting conservation. A set of ca. 50 microsamples from French, Flemish, and Italian blanched oil paintings, from sixteenth to nineteenth century, have been collected for in deep investigations. In parallel, the reproduction of the alteration was achieved by preparing some paint layers according to historical treatises and altering them in a climatic chamber in a humid environment or directly by immersing in ultrapure water. The observation of raw samples with a field-emission gun scanning electron microscope revealed for the first time that the altered layers have an unexpected highly porous structure with a pore size ranging from ca. 40 nm to 2 μm. The formation mechanism of these pores should mostly be physical as the supplementary analyses (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) do not reveal any noticeable molecular modification. Considering the tiny size of the pores, the alteration can be explained by the Rayleigh or Mie light scattering.

  10. Center for Cold Spray Research and Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This is the only DoD facility capable of cold spray research and development, production, and field-repair. It features three stationary cold spray systems used for...

  11. A Quantitative Approach to Painting Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Vilson; Fabbri, Renato; Sbrissa, David; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura; Travieso, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    This research extends a method previously applied to music and philosophy,representing the evolution of art as a time-series where relations like dialectics are measured quantitatively. For that, a corpus of paintings of 12 well-known artists from baroque and modern art is analyzed. A set of 93 features is extracted and the features which most contributed to the classification of painters are selected. The projection space obtained provides the basis to the analysis of measurements. This quan...

  12. Exploring a Parameterized Portrait Painting Space

    OpenAIRE

    DiPaola, Steve

    2009-01-01

    We overview our interdisciplinary work building parameterized knowledge domains and their authoring tools that allow for expression systems which move through a space of painterly portraiture. With new computational systems it is possible to conceptually dance, compose and paint in higher level conceptual spaces. We are interested in building art systems that support exploring these spaces and in particular report on our software-based artistic toolkit and resulting experiments using paramete...

  13. Fiction, Film, Painting, and Comparative Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Ceciu, Ramona L.

    2013-01-01

    In her article "Fiction, Film, Painting, and Comparative Literature" Ramona L. Ceciu proposes a view of comparative literature as a "language in a process of ascertaining its proper grammar." She argues that like any language in order to survive, comparative literature must allow for a constant rejuvenation of its vocabulary and methods it must keep an "open" structure that would accommodate fresh extra-methodological approaches through a procedure of re-invention and expansion. Ceciu posits ...

  14. 'Weightless' acrylic painting by Jack Kroehnke

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    'Weightless' acrylic painting by Jack Kroehnke depicts STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers participating in extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation in JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. In the payload bay (PLB) mockup, Hilmers, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), holds onto the mission-peculiar equipment support structure in foreground while SCUBA-equipped diver monitors activity overhead and camera operator records EVA procedures. Copyrighted art work for use by NASA.

  15. Fluorescence Molecular Painting of Enveloped Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Metzner, Christoph; Kochan, Feliks; Dangerfield, John A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we describe a versatile, flexible, and quick method to label different families of enveloped viruses with glycosylphosphatidylinositol-modified green fluorescent protein, termed fluorescence molecular painting (FMP). As an example for a potential application, we investigated virus attachment by means of flow cytometry to determine if viral binding behavior may be analyzed after FMP of enveloped viruses. Virus attachment was inhibited by using either dextran sulfate or by blocki...

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA IN LATEX PAINTS

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas, J.

    2008-01-01

    The bacteria are prokaryote organisms with a high capacity to colonize many types of habits. This research was developed with the object to identify extremophiles bacteria presents in latex paint. The bacteria were cultivated in culture mediums TSA, Blood Agar, Mc Conkey and finally the biochemical proof API-NF® for bacteria's isolation and identification, respectively. Characterization showed bacterial profile of Pasteurella sp. Hypothesis that could be found extremophiles bac...

  17. Simulation of radiation regime into paint coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozakov, Oleg N.

    2006-05-01

    A method of calculating the integral and differential characteristics of paints is proposed. The method is based on statistical simulation (the Monte Carlo method). For white alkyd enamel formed on the basis of titanium dioxide, the results of calculations of the reflectance, absorptance, covering power, and distribution of the absorbed energy over the layer as a whole, along with the absorptance ofthe pigment and the binder separately, are presented.

  18. Personality and preference for painting style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, J B; Paxson, L

    1978-04-01

    40 university students were asked to choose between the cubist or surrealist from among 15 pairs of slides of paintings according to their aesthetic preference. Their choices were correlated with scores on Rotter's internal vs external locus of control scale. The data support the hypothesis that there is a positive relationship between preference for cubism over surrealism and internal locus control and vice versa. PMID:662531

  19. Solar Paint: From Synthesis to Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Zhou

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Water-based polymer nanoparticle dispersions (solar paint offer the prospect of addressing two of the main challenges associated with printing large area organic photovoltaic devices; namely, how to control the nanoscale architecture of the active layer and eliminate the need for hazardous organic solvents during device fabrication. In this paper, we review progress in the field of nanoparticulate organic photovoltaic (NPOPV devices and future prospects for large-scale manufacturing of solar cells based on this technology.

  20. Facultatively oligotrophic bacteria in Roman mural paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Laiz Trobajo, L.; Hermosín, Bernardo; Caballero, Belén; Sáiz-Jiménez, Cesáreo

    2002-01-01

    [EN]: Due to the limitation of nutrients during long periods, deteriorated monuments, and particularIy their walls, represent an interesting ecosystem where oligotrophic bacteria can be isolated. Therefore, facultatively oligotrophic bacteria, present in the deteriorated mural paintings decoratíng the Tomb of Servilia, Roman Necropolis of Carmona, 1st and 2nd century AD, were studied. The most abundant genera were Bacillus and Paenibacillus, which were also the most abundant copio...

  1. Cyclic variations of diesel sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yule, A.J.; Aval, S.M. (UMIST, Manchester (UK). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1989-12-01

    The spray pulses produced by a single hole diesel injector were investigated and the cyclic variations, from pusle to pulse, of spray penetration rate were quantified. These variations were found to be significant, with a 10% standard deviation of spray tip penetration velocity, at any downstream position, being typical. Cyclic variations of the nozzle exit velocity, due to the characteristics of the internal flow in the nozzle and the pump, were also investigated. These variations have a standard deviation {lt}2%. From these and other data it was concluded that the principal causes of cyclic variations are rooted in a lack of repetition of the atomization process, from pulse to pulse. This variation in the atomization or break-up process is a natural phenomenon although nozzle turbulence may increase the effect. The influence of these variations on engine performance and their control are discussed. 11 refs., 11 figs.

  2. Effects of post-LOCA conditions on a protective coating (paint) for the Nuclear Power Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When corrosion protection of steel cannot be achieved by galvanizing due to size, use, or other restrictions, the steel is frequently protected by the application of a suitable corrosion-inhibiting paint. A widely accepted corrosion inhibiting coating is one in which finely powdered zinc metal is dispersed in an organic polymer matrix and applied to steel as a paint. This system is often used with a non-zinc bearing topcoat for enhanced protection. We have studied the oxidation of zinc in a zinc-rich coating used in the nuclear power industry and have measured the rates of hydrogen generation from these coatings due to zinc oxidation at temperatures of up to 1750C. The results suggest that the real-time rates of hydrogen generation are considerably higher than previously believed. A second concern involves the generation of debris or solid reaction products which could cause plugging or fouling of the recirculation pumps, spray nozzles, and/or heat exchangers. Coatings are observed to fail at post-LOCA conditions which are well within the limits predicted by Design Basis Accident analysis. The failures involve cracking and/or delamination of the topcoat and production of solid corrosion products involving the zinc-rich primer. 22 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  3. Air and spray mixture temperature effects on atomization of agricultural sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spray drift associated with agrochemical operations is highly dependent upon the physical properties of the spray solution with respect to how they influence atomization. This study examined effects on spray atomization with two spray solutions across a wide range of solution temperatures for two n...

  4. External beam PIXE analysis of painting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascholati, Paulo R.; Rizzutto, Marcia A.; Barbosa, Marcel D.L.; Albuquerque, Cindy [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: pascholati@if.usp.br; rizzutto@if.usp.br; mbarbosa@if.usp.br; cindy@if.usp.br; Neves, Graziela [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: graziela@if.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    The preservation and conservation of mankind cultural heritage has become an important issue worldwide. Non-destructive analytical techniques are suitable, for example, to analyze precious and unique objects of art and archaeology. Among those techniques Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) has good advantage to identify elemental composition present in these kinds of objects. The Laboratorio de Analise de Materiais por Feixes Ionicos-LAMFI of the Institute of Physics of the University of Sao Paulo has been installed an external beam facility for PIXE analysis. This new setup is being used for the analysis of archaeological pottery artifacts, paintings and biological tissues (teeth and bones), which are not compatible with the high vacuum of the regular PIXE target chamber. In addition most art and archaeological objects are too large for the evacuated analysis chamber. Applications of this facility will be presented in the analysis of one painting of the beginning of the last century. The chemical elements identified in the painting were Ca, Ti, Cr, Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb and Ba. The PIXE measurements were done non-destructively and no visible damage was observed on the irradiated object. (author)

  5. Smart paint sensor for monitoring structural vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A class of smart paint sensors is proposed for monitoring the structural vibration of beams. The sensor is manufactured from an epoxy resin which is mixed with carbon black nano-particles to make it electrically conducting and sensitive to mechanical vibrations. A comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation is presented to understand the underlying phenomena governing the operation of this class of paint sensors and evaluate its performance characteristics. A theoretical model is presented to model the electromechanical behavior of the sensor system using molecular theory. The model is integrated with an amplifier circuit in order to predict the current and voltage developed by the paint sensor when subjected to loading. Furthermore, the sensor/amplifier circuit models are coupled with a finite element model of a base beam to which the sensor is bonded. The resulting multi-field model is utilized to predict the behavior of both the sensor and the beam when subjected to a wide variety of vibration excitations. The predictions of the multi-field finite element model are validated experimentally and the behavior of the sensor is evaluated both in the time and the frequency domains. The performance of the sensor is compared with the performance of conventional strain gages to emphasize its potential and merits. The presented techniques are currently being extended to sensors that can monitor the vibration and structural power flow of two-dimensional structures. (paper)

  6. External beam PIXE analysis of painting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preservation and conservation of mankind cultural heritage has become an important issue worldwide. Non-destructive analytical techniques are suitable, for example, to analyze precious and unique objects of art and archaeology. Among those techniques Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) has good advantage to identify elemental composition present in these kinds of objects. The Laboratorio de Analise de Materiais por Feixes Ionicos-LAMFI of the Institute of Physics of the University of Sao Paulo has been installed an external beam facility for PIXE analysis. This new setup is being used for the analysis of archaeological pottery artifacts, paintings and biological tissues (teeth and bones), which are not compatible with the high vacuum of the regular PIXE target chamber. In addition most art and archaeological objects are too large for the evacuated analysis chamber. Applications of this facility will be presented in the analysis of one painting of the beginning of the last century. The chemical elements identified in the painting were Ca, Ti, Cr, Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb and Ba. The PIXE measurements were done non-destructively and no visible damage was observed on the irradiated object. (author)

  7. External beam applications to painting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characterisation of painting materials has to overcome specific problems due to the special and precious characteristics of paintings. Sampling is hardly possible and is seldom so where it is most desirable. One has to be content with opportunities such as the presence of cracks or to limit the sampling near the edge of the frame. Nondestructive techniques must then be developed and external PIXE is one of the powerful available analytical tools; it may also be associated with complementary techniques such as X-ray fluorescence and external PIGME. Another major problem is related to the great heterogeneity of painting materials which are always a mixture of several components at the micrometric scale. The analysis has then to be complemented with other techniques (scanning electron microprobe, nuclear microbeam etc.) for a more accurate interpretation of the results given by the PIXE direct examination. Yet, the major difficulty lies in finding the way to build a real and constructive dialogue between the art historian and the physicist. (orig.)

  8. [Deafness and mentality in Francisco Goya's paintings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betlejewski, Stanis?aw; Ossowski, Roman

    2009-01-01

    The famous painter Francisco Goya y Lucientes (1746-1828) suffered during his life one or several diseases, the nature of which has not been determined with certainty. At age of 46, Goya suffered from severe illness that lasted a few months. It caused loss of vision and hearing, tinnitus, dizziness, a right-sides paralysis, weakness and general malaise. Although he recovered from a cerebral stroke which accompanied it, the deafness remained unaltered. The illness divides Goya's artistic life into two great different periods. After in the painter produces his greatest works. The visual experience after the illness was heightened by the exclusion of acoustics stimuli and the artist's talent rose to the highest level. His character became more withdrawn and introspective and his entire vitality was direscted to his painting. Goya's painting became progressively more gloom and satirical during his long convalescence. The artist suffered a stroke at age 73 that again rendered him paralysed on the right side. The precise cause of his illness has long been debated. Ome medical writers have favored the diagnosis of syphilis, some consider the possibility of an exogenous psychosis, and other suggests that the symptoms of the illness are more congruent with heavy metal poisoning, particulary lead. It is interesting to speculate how the Goya's deafness influenced the artist's mentality and the changes of his painting. Interesting is also the problem of the sensory compensation in fact of disturbance of physiological function of one of the senses. PMID:19681494

  9. Spray casting project final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churnetski, S.R.; Thompson, J.E.

    1996-08-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step.

  10. Spray casting project final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step

  11. The Ocular Effects of Pepper Spray

    OpenAIRE

    Canan Aslı Utine; İsmet Durak

    2012-01-01

    Recently, pepper spray has been used by both civilians, as a non-lethal personal defense spray, and law enforcement agencies in population movements. People exposed to pepper spray experience panic and disorientation due to acute severe pain, blepharospasm, tearing and sometimes blurred vision and even temporary blindness. Having knowledge about the properties and mechanism of action of pepper spray and the different aspects of this exposure from other ocular chemical injuries is imp...

  12. Diesel spray characterization; Dieselmoottorin polttoainesuihkujen ominaisuudet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkaenen, J.; Turunen, R.; Paloposki, T.; Rantanen, P.; Virolainen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Internal Combustion Engine Lab.

    1997-10-01

    Fuel injection of diesel engines will be studied using large-scale models of fuel injectors. The advantage of large-scale models is that the measurement of large-scale diesel sprays will be easier than the measurement of actual sprays. The objective is to study the break-up mechanism of diesel sprays and to measure drop size distributions in the inner part of the spray. The results will be used in the development of diesel engines and diesel fuels. (orig.)

  13. Cold gas dynamic spraying of titanium coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Timothy Simon

    2008-01-01

    Cold gas dynamic spraying, CGDS, is a relatively new technique used to deposit materials onto the surface of a substrate. It differs to the majority of other thermal spray techniques as the substrate and particles are not exposed to high temperatures during the spraying process. This makes CGDS particularly advantageous for spraying materials such as titanium which react at high temperature. The aim of this project was to investigate the potential use of titanium coatings by CGDS as a surface...

  14. Influence of the spray velocity on arc-sprayed coating structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, H.-D.; Nassenstein, K.

    1999-09-01

    Thermal spray processes such as plasma spraying and HVOF have gained markets due to a steady process of development of materials and equipment. One disadvantage of thermal spray processes is that costs must be competitive compared to techniques such as PTA and electroplating. In order to reduce costs, the more economical spray processes like conventional wire flame spraying, as well as arc spraying, are becoming more popular. There are modern arc spray gun designs on the market that meet the requirements of modern coating properties, for example aviation overhaul applications as well as the processing of cored wires. Nevertheless, the physical basis of arc spraying is well known. The aim of the present investigation is to show how the influence of spray velocity (not particle velocity) affects coating structure with respect to arc spray parameters.

  15. 21 CFR 524.2482 - Triamcinolone spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Triamcinolone spray. 524.2482 Section 524.2482... Triamcinolone spray. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 0.15 milligrams triamcinolone...) Amount. Apply sufficient pump sprays to uniformly and thoroughly wet the affected areas while...

  16. 14 CFR 23.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 23.239 Section 23.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Handling Characteristics § 23.239 Spray characteristics. Spray may not dangerously obscure the vision...

  17. 14 CFR 29.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 29.239 Section 29.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray...

  18. 14 CFR 27.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 27.239 Section 27.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray...

  19. How to Use Nasal Pump Sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using Nasal Pump SpraysBlow your nose gently before using the spray. Prime the pump bottle by spraying it into the air a ... Breathe in quickly while squeezing down on the pump bottle one time. Repeat in other nostril. Do ...

  20. Establishment of Meaning of Ink Wash Painting in Modern Times: Evolution of Chinese Ink Wash Painting as a Formal Language of Oriental Figure Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang LI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As an ancient oriental type of figure painting, Chinese ink wash painting’s development and evolution is the most prominent part that most reflects the characteristics of contemporary era in Chinese artistic exploration in the 20th century. Present Chinese ink wash figure painting has already become one of the forms of creation among Chinese painting mainstream and the reform spirit it reflects has special aesthetic meaning to Chinese contemporary art in the multicultural background. This paper analyzes the language form transformation that Chinese ink wash figure painting has achieved by drawing on western modern artistic concepts for reference and other issues including artists’ individual and personalized representation styles; it also discusses the artistic spirit and contemporary cultural significance reflected by deconstruction of classical ink wash painting language and integration of modern works under the background of globalization.

  1. Emission of Isothiazolinones from Water-Based Paints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael; Bossi, Rossana; Gunnarsen, Lars; Kolarik, Barbara; Duus Johansen, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    The isothiazolinone preservatives methylisothiazolinone (MI), methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI), and benzisothiazolinone (BIT) are used in a wide variety of products including paint and cosmetics, and they are known to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Among painters they are one of the most...... common causes of contact dermatitis. Furthermore, they are all volatile, and severe reactions caused by emissions of especially MI from paint have been reported recently. In this study the concentrations of MI, BIT, and MCI in water-based paint were analyzed by LC-MS-MS, and the emissions from the paints...... were measured in climate chambers and in an apartment. Nineteen paints were analyzed for the content of MI, MCI, and BIT. All 19 paints contained MI, 16 contained BIT, and 4 contained MCI. In the chamber experiment emission of MI peaked within hours of application but then continued at a slow rate for...

  2. Clay ground in paintings: from Northern to Southern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buti, David; Vila, Anna; Haack Christensen, Anne; Filtenborg, Troels Folke; Ludvigsen, Loa; Dalby, Kim Nicole; Wadum, Jørgen

    constituent in paintings has still not been much investigated, neither with regard to the processing nor the trade of the material. Did it give a particular colour/structure in order to achieve a specific final effect of the painted surface? Was clay cheaper than chalk, calcium sulphate or earth pigments? Did...... it give more flexibility to the painting support? Was it connected to the tile industry? Was it a waste/reuse from the ceramic production? To better understand the role of clay ground as a material and its influence on painting techniques, a number of Danish and Italian 17th century paintings from......-based compounds. The investigation is demonstrating how widespread the use was of clays as constituent in paintings when comparing the analytical results performed on artworks from Northern and Southern Europe. This preliminary study will lead to further research focused on the link between artistic schools of...

  3. Tests of paints in the JRR-2 modification and the paint coating methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JRR-2 was shut down in December 1973 in order to the lower shielding plug concerning its corrosion and other aspects. The tests of paints made in choosing suitable ones for the purpose and the works of coating with paints are described. Tests were on the radiation, heat, alkali and wear resistances and the adhesiveness before and after irradiation. For corrosion, radiation, heat and alkali resistance, the following were selected; polyamide imide (polymide resin) for sleeve, amercoat (epoxy resin) for inside of shielding vessel and black varnish (tar succession) for inside of plug etc. (auth.)

  4. Influence of Cold-Sprayed, Warm-Sprayed, and Plasma-Sprayed Layers Deposition on Fatigue Properties of Steel Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizek, J.; Matejkova, M.; Dlouhy, I.; Siska, F.; Kay, C. M.; Karthikeyan, J.; Kuroda, S.; Kovarik, O.; Siegl, J.; Loke, K.; Khor, Khiam Aik

    2015-06-01

    Titanium powder was deposited onto steel specimens using four thermal spray technologies: plasma spray, low-pressure cold spray, portable cold spray, and warm spray. The specimens were then subjected to strain-controlled cyclic bending test in a dedicated in-house built device. The crack propagation was monitored by observing the changes in the resonance frequency of the samples. For each series, the number of cycles corresponding to a pre-defined specimen cross-section damage was used as a performance indicator. It was found that the grit-blasting procedure did not alter the fatigue properties of the steel specimens (1% increase as compared to as-received set), while the deposition of coatings via all four thermal spray technologies significantly increased the measured fatigue lives. The three high-velocity technologies led to an increase of relative lives to 234% (low-pressure cold spray), 210% (portable cold spray), and 355% (warm spray) and the deposition using plasma spray led to an increase of relative lives to 303%. The observed increase of high-velocity technologies (cold and warm spray) could be attributed to a combination of homogeneous fatigue-resistant coatings and induction of peening stresses into the substrates via the impingement of the high-kinetic energy particles. Given the intrinsic character of the plasma jet (low-velocity impact of semi/molten particles) and the mostly ceramic character of the coating (oxides, nitrides), a hypothesis based on non-linear coatings behavior is provided in the paper.

  5. The physicochemical characterization of cave paintings of Baja California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Palaeolithic paintings of Baja California constitute an important contribution to the national, historic and cultural patrimony of Mexico. The aim of this investigation was to determine the physicochemical characteristics, the microstructure and texture of these polychrome paintings, painted on rocks encountered in the mountainous, desert/arid zones of Baja California and Baja California South. The first stage of this work was devoted to the examination and recording of the cave paintings of 'El Vallecito', a narrow fluvial valley displaying large granitic rocks emerging from the sandy soil. Tiny painting samples were collected and analyzed by SEM, EDS and FTIR techniques. The painters used four main colours: red, black, yellow and white. The paint raw materials are mineral pigments: white (kaolin, calcite, and gypsum), red (hematite), yellow (ochre, limonite), black (charcoal from burnt wood or calcined bones) and water as a diluent and/or a binder, all encountered in the painters habitat. The minerals were collected, ground and sometimes heated to change their tone. By mixing with water, a spreadable paste or a thick slurry was produced, which was applied with the fingers for lines or a piece of animal skin for figures, respectively. The 100% solids, dry paint converts into a dense, hard layer, incrusted into the grainy, rough, hollow granite rock surface. This paint might be called stone on stone, explaining its permanence for centuries enduring heat, wind and weather. A simulation of the painting technique was done at the Materials and Corrosion Laboratory, UABC by collecting mineral pigments, preparing the paint as a paste or slurry and applying it on a granitic rock. Knowing the paint composition, production and application techniques will be useful in e conservation and restoration of cave paintings and stone-built, ancient structures such as pyramids, cathedrals and monuments. (Author)

  6. Test Production of Anti-Corrosive Paint in Laboratory Scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this project is to produce the anti-corrosive paint in laboratory scale. In these experiments, local raw materials, natural resin (shellac), pine oil, turpentine and ethyl alcohol wer applied basically. Laboratory trials were undrtaken to determine the suitablity of raw materials ane their composition for anti-corrosive paint manufacture.The results obtained show that the anti-corrosive paint from experiment No.(30) is suitable for steel plate and this is also considered commercially economics

  7. Smart Surfaces: New Coatings & Paints with Radiation Detection Functionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J; Choi, J

    2007-03-12

    Paints are being developed and tested that might ultimately be able to detect radiological agents in the environment by incorporating special pigments into an organic polymeric binder that can be applied as a paint or coatings. These paints detect radioactive sources and contaminants with inorganic or organic scintillation or thermo-luminescent pigments, which are selected based upon the radiation ({alpha}, {beta}, {gamma} or n) to be detected, and are shown in Figure 1.

  8. Large-Scale Quantitative Analysis of Painting Arts

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Kim; Seung-Woo Son; Hawoong Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have made efforts to understand the beauty of painting art in their own languages. As digital image acquisition of painting arts has made rapid progress, researchers have come to a point where it is possible to perform statistical analysis of a large-scale database of artistic paints to make a bridge between art and science. Using digital image processing techniques, we investigate three quantitative measures of images – the usage of individual colors, the variety of colors, and th...

  9. Occupational Exposure to Organic Solvents during Bridge Painting

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Hua; Fiedler, Nancy; Moore, Dirk F; Weisel, Clifford P.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from bridge painting was measured in New York City and New Jersey during the summer and fall seasons from 2005 to 2007. The effect of painting activities (paint coating layer, confinement setup, and application method) and meteorological conditions (temperature, humidity, and wind speed) on solvent exposure to aromatic, ketone, ester, and alkane compounds were individually evaluated. Mixed-effect models were used to examine the combination effects...

  10. Influence of adding painted recyclated on polypropylene properties

    OpenAIRE

    Jiří Habr

    2012-01-01

    These days just because of still increasing price of oil and its products there is tendency about using recycled plastics at full blast. That´s mainly in automotive industry where is produced great amount of plastic scrap added by painted layers. This article deals with examination influence of such painted layer on mechanical and rheological polymer properties which are necessary to know because of further possible using such painted recycled.

  11. Military themes in British painting 1815-1914

    OpenAIRE

    Hichberger, J. W. M.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis examines the treatment of the British Army and military themes, in painting, during the period 1815- 1914. All the works discussed were exhibited at the Royal Academy, which, although it underwent modifications in status, remained the nearest equivalent to a State Institution for Art in Britain. All the paintings shown there were painted with the knowledge that they were to be seen by the controllers of the Academy and the dominant classes of society. It wi...

  12. Large-Scale Quantitative Analysis of Painting Arts

    OpenAIRE

    KIM, DANIEL; Son, Seung-Woo; Jeong, HaWoong

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have made efforts to understand the beauty of painting art in their own languages. As digital image acquisition of painting arts has made rapid progress, researchers have come to a point where it is possible to perform statistical analysis of a large-scale database of artistic paints to make a bridge between art and science. Using digital image processing techniques, we investigate three quantitative measures of images the usage of individual colors, the variety of colors, and th...

  13. Study of decontamination and radiation resistance properties of Indian paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief introduction to the study of contamination and radiation resistance properties of Indian paints used as coating for structural materials in the nuclear industry is given. The general composition of paints such as epoxy, vinyl, alkyd, phenolic, chlesimated rubber, etc. is given. Method of sample preparation, processing and actual evaluation of decontaminability are described. The results have been discussed in terms of decontamination factors. Some recommendations based on the performance of the paints studied are also included. (K.B.)

  14. Insecticidal paint and fumigant canisters for Chagas' disease control: community acceptance in Honduras Pintura insecticida y botes de fumigación para el control de la enfermedad de Chagas: aceptación por la comunidad en Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Adolfo Ávila Montes; Carlos Ponce; Elisa Ponce; Mercedes Martínez Hernández; Mario Flores

    1999-01-01

    This study assessed public acceptance for two new vectorial control techniques for Chagas' disease: insecticidal paint and fumigant canisters. The study compared the two with traditional fenitrothion insecticide spraying. An experimental field study was performed in an endemic area of central Honduras from August to November 1992, a year after the initial application of the treatments. The objectives of the study were to determine the acceptability of the tools on the part of the population w...

  15. Spray pyrolysis of CZTS nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exarhos, S; Bozhilov, K N; Mangolini, L

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate that copper-zinc-tin-sulphide nanoplatelets can be directly grown onto a molybdenum-coated substrate using spray pyrolysis starting from a mixture of metal thiocarbamates precursors. The structure and phase purity of the nanoplatelets is discussed in detail. PMID:25119262

  16. Sprayer technology: reduce spray drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enhancing environmental quality and sustaining the economic viability of food production are keys to sustainable agriculture. Modern vegetable production uses a variety of materials to manage pest problems. Selecting the proper spray nozzle for the application of liquid products is critical to red...

  17. The certification of a new paint reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of paint as a coating for toys intended for sale on the European market is controlled by a European Standard (EN 71-3: 1994 - European Commission to produce a new paint reference material which can be used to validate the test methods given in the European Standard. The migration of elements from painted panels and comminuted paint produced by the Laboratory of the Government Chemist, (U.K.) was studied. Several methods were used in this certification exercise and this work reports the results of neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine the migration of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Se and Sb into a simulated stomach environment. Replicate extracts obtained from paint samples gave a precision of within 10% for most elements by both analytical techniques for the paint panels and for the comminuted paint sample. This preliminary study has shown that the standard method can provide reproducible results for each of the paint materials studied and indicates that the study should be continued to produce a fully certified paint reference material. (author)

  18. Noninvasive nuclear magnetic resonance profiling of painting layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presciutti, Federica; Perlo, Juan; Casanova, Federico; Glöggler, Stefan; Miliani, Costanza; Blümich, Bernhard; Brunetti, Brunetto Giovanni; Sgamellotti, Antonio

    2008-07-01

    In this work we demonstrate the potential of single-sided nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensors to access deeper layers of paintings noninvasively by means of high-resolution depth profiles spanning several millimeters. The performance of the sensor in resolving painting structures was tested on models for which excellent agreement with microscopy techniques was obtained. The depth profiling NMR technique was used in situ to investigate old master paintings. The observation of differences in NMR relaxation times of tempera binders from these paintings and from artificially aged panels raises the possibility to differentiate between original and recently restored areas.

  19. DIP-IT: Digital Infrared Painting on an Interactive Table

    OpenAIRE

    VANDOREN, Peter; Van Laerhoven, Tom; Claesen, Luc; Taelman, Johannes; Di Fiore, Fabian; Van Reeth, Frank; Flerackers, Eddy

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we report on our work to develop a novel input technique for a digital paint system. Using a brush with infrared (IR) light emitting fibers, we were able to create a natural paint interface on an interactive table. This IR-brush adds two important properties to our paint environment: haptic feedback and an accurate brush footprint. The modified brush approaches the haptic feedback of the traditional paint brush. The use of IR-light in the brush enables tracking of the contact ar...

  20. A new chemical model for the removal of iodine vapour from a reactor containment by aqueous sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes methods for the calculation of the removal rate of I2 vapour by aqueous sprays from a large volume such as a reactor containment. The kinetic methods used involve the latest information on the reaction of dissolved iodine with water which causes the I2 molecules to be quickly transformed into virtually involatile products. This hydrolysis increases the effective waterside mass transfer coefficient of I2, and depends on the I2 concentration, the acidity of the water and the temperature. Comparisons of calculated removal rates with a range of suitable experimental data show that for agreement with observation the hydrolysis product HOI, hypoiodous acid, must be considered effectively involatile. When the water is alkaline (pH 9) the overall mass transfer coefficient for I2 can be put equal to that for the gas side. Acidic sprays can cause a major uptake of iodine by painted walls. In summary: A new spray removal calculational method has been developed which agrees reasonably with experiment over a wide range of [I2(g)]0 values (7 x 10-10 to 1.2 x 10-5 M), water pH values 5 to 14, flow rates (.007 to 10 dm s-1 ) and vessel sizes (5.3 to 595 m3 ). Calculations and experiments show alkaline water to be greatly superior to acidic water in I2 removal. Acid sprays may cause reasonably high removal rates by moving I2 gas to painted walls. The calculations have taken no account of iodine sinks or sources. In some reactor faults a likely I2 source is irradiated aerosol containing I- (aq). Our INSPECT code is being upgraded to include the spray removal method described here as well as such sources. (authors)

  1. Fabrication and performance of organic thin film solar cells using a painting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, S.; Ishihara, H.; Mizutani, T.; Kojima, K.

    2010-05-01

    As organic thin film solar cells fabricated by the active layer of organic materials are economical, lightweight, and flexible, as well as generating no CO2, and being easy to fabricate, they have attracted significant attention as green energy sources from a past decade to date. Therefore, their power conversion efficiency (PCE) has been investigated and studied worldwide. In organic thinfilm solar cells, the effect of the performance depends not only on the adopted active material but also relates to the molecular orientation on the electrode. Using a mixed solution of Poly(3-hexylthiophene) and PCBM, both of which were dissolved in a solvent, the organic thin films were fabricated using the paint and spray methods, while the morphology of the thin film was evaluated by an AFM image, UV/vis spectra, and so forth. Based on these data, an organic thin-film solar cell using both solution methods for the active layer was fabricated, and the performance evaluated and examined. For organic thin film solar cells fabricated using a spin-coating method, the open-circuit voltage (Voc) is 0.41V, the short circuit current density (Jsc) is 2.07mA/cm2, and the fill factor is 0.34, while the efficiency η of PCE become 0.29%. In the spray method, the short circuit current (Isc) is 2.5 mA/cm2, the open circuit voltage (Voc) is 0.45 V, the fill factor (FF) is 0.28, and the power conversion factor (PCE) 0.35%. The area of organic solar cells fabricated by spin coating and spray methods is 1 cm2 respectively. The organic solar cells are not thermally treated, and hence have high respective power conversion efficiencies.

  2. Impact on the environment from steel bridge paint deterioration using lead isotopic tracing, paint compositions and soil deconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, Brian; Chiaradia, Massimo; Davis, Jeffrey; O'Connor, Gary

    2016-04-15

    Deterioration and repair of lead paint on steel structures can result in contamination of the ambient environment but other sources of lead such as from past use of leaded paint and gasoline and industrial activities can also contribute to the contamination. Using a combination of high precision lead isotopic tracing, detailed paint examination, including with scanning electron microscopy, and soil deconstruction we have compared paint on a steel bridge and bulk soil and lead-rich particles separated from soil. The majority of Pb found in the paint derives from Australian sources but some also has a probable US origin. The isotopic data for the bulk soils and selected particles lie on a mixing line with end members the geologically ancient Broken Hill lead and possible European lead which is suggested to be derived from old lead paint and industrial activities. Data for gasoline-derived particulates lie on this array and probably contribute to soil Pb. Although paint from the bridge can be a source of lead in the soils, isotopic tracing, paint morphology and mineralogical identification indicate that other sources, including from paint, gasoline and industrial activities, are contributing factors to the lead burden. Even though physical characteristics and elemental composition are the same in some particles, the isotopic signatures demonstrate that the sources are different. Plots using (206)Pb/(208)Pb vs (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios, the common representation these days, do not allow for source discrimination in this investigation. PMID:26803686

  3. Electronic Paint: Understanding Children's Representation through Their Interactions with Digital Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, John; Seow, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates very young children's use of a stylus-driven, electronic painting and drawing on the tablet PC. The authors compare their development in the use of this device with their use of other mark-making media, including those which derive from pencil and paper technologies and also with mouse-driven electronic paintbox programs.

  4. Self Cleaning Paint: Introduction of Photocatalytic Particles into a Paint System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Sverrir Grimur

    The current industrial PhD work was aimed at synthesising a photocatalytic composite material which could be used to give organic wood paint films self-cleaning and anti-microbial properties. The current PhD work was done in collaboration between Dyrup A/S and Technical University of Denmark. The...

  5. Thermal characterization of intumescent fire retardant paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intumescent coatings are now the dominant passive fire protection materials used in industrial and commercial buildings. The coatings, which usually are composed of inorganic components contained in a polymer matrix, are inert at low temperatures and at higher temperatures, they expand and degrade to provide a charred layer of low conductivity materials. The charred layer, which acts as thermal barrier, will prevent heat transfer to underlying substrate. The thermal properties of intumescent paints are often unknown and difficult to be estimated since they vary significantly during the expansion process; for this reason the fire resistance validation of a commercial coatings is based on expensive, large-scale methods where each commercial coating-beam configuration has to be tested one by one. Adopting, instead, approaches based on a thermal modelling of the intumescent paint coating could provide an helpful tool to make easier the test procedure and to support the design of fire resistant structures as well. The present investigation is focused on the assessment of a methodology intended to the restoration of the equivalent thermal conductivity of the intumescent layer produced under the action of a cone calorimetric apparatus. The estimation procedure is based on the inverse heat conduction problem approach, where the temperature values measured at some locations inside the layer during the expansion process are used as input known data. The results point out that the equivalent thermal conductivity reached by the intumescent material at the end of the expansion process significantly depends on the temperature while the initial thickness of the paint does not seem to have much effect

  6. A method of using commercial virtual satellite image to check the pattern painting spot effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-gang; Kang, Qing; Shen, Zhi-qiang; Cui, Chang-bin

    2014-02-01

    A method of using commercial virtual satellite image to check the pattern painting spot effect contrast with the satellite images before painting and after painting have been discussed. Using a housetop as the testing platform analyses and discusses the factors' influence such as resolution of satellite image, spot size and color of pattern painting spot and pattern painting camouflage method choosing to the plan implement. The pattern painting design and spot size used in the testing has been ensured, and housetop pattern painting has been painted. Finally, the small spot pattern painting camouflage effect of engineering using upon painting pattern size, color and texture have been checked, contrasting with the satellite image before painting and after painting.

  7. Golden Section and the Art of Painting

    OpenAIRE

    Olariu, Agata

    1999-01-01

    A statistical study on 565 works of art of different great painters was done and it was calculated the ratio of the 2 sides of a paintings. Assuming that all the painters under discussion enter in a statistics with equal weights it is shown that the average value obtained for the ratio of the sides is 1.34. This value, determined experimentally is significantly different from the value of the Golden Section F=1.618, which is a theoretical ratio, obtained from an abstract, mathematical theory,...

  8. Visualising painting: a space drawn in ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Derby, Moyra

    2013-01-01

    This text was contributed to the catalogue published on the occasion of the exhibition, 'LIMBER: Spatial Painting Practices', curated by Cherry Smyth and Jost Münster. The exhibition was held at the Herbert Read Gallery, Canterbury, University for the Creative Arts (UCA), from 13 September to 12 October 2013, and at the Grandes Galleries de l’Erba, Rouen, France, from 21 November to 20 December 2013. As a part of the ICR (Interregional Culture-led Regeneration) Project and co-financed by th...

  9. Painting a graph with competing random walks

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Let $X_{1}$, $X_{2}$ be independent random walks on $\\mathbf{Z} _{n}^{d}$, $d\\geq3$, each starting from the uniform distribution. Initially, each site of $\\mathbf{Z} _{n}^{d}$ is unmarked, and, whenever $X_{i}$ visits such a site, it is set irreversibly to $i$. The mean of $|\\mathcal{A} _{i}|$, the cardinality of the set $\\mathcal{A} _{i}$ of sites painted by $i$, once all of $\\mathbf{Z} _{n}^{d}$ has been visited, is $\\frac{1}{2}n^{d}$ by symmetry. We prove the following conjecture due to Pe...

  10. The Figure in the Painting [catalogue essay

    OpenAIRE

    Archer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Essay for the catalogue accompanying the major exhibition of paintings by Dexter Dalwood at Centre PasquArt Art Center, Biel/Bienne, Switzerland, April 21 - June 16, 2013. The essay examines the nature of Dalwood's practice as a history painter, his use of collage, and in particular the significance of the ways in which he refers to and borrows from the work of other painters. The character of this borrowing not only structures his compositions, but also provides the interlocutors in the poli...

  11. Pressure sensitive paint measurement on a rotor

    OpenAIRE

    Varner, Donald R.

    1995-01-01

    Toward the development of a measurement system for transonic compressor rotors, the static pressure field over a high-speed test rotor was recorded using pressure sensitive paint (PSP) and an electronically-gated, intensified CCD video camera and frame-grabber. Semi-conductor digital logic circuits were developed to form a phase-locked image capture system which acquired ultra-high-speed, low-light-level gated images once per revolution (1/Rev). A monostable pulse circuit was developed to sum...

  12. Technique for painting light integration boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the application of a highly reflectant, diffuse coating to the interior of light integration boxes is described. Simple box design considerations are presented in addition to techniques for dealing with a variety of problems which have been experienced. An analysis of the performance of a light integration box of 4m2 surface area is given. The overall box reflectivity is found to be 96.7% and that of the paint is found to be 97.3% at a wavelength of 425 nm. (Auth.)

  13. Coating Prepared by Air Plasma Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jianhui; Liu, Longfei; Mao, Zhengyu; Xu, Hongmei; Wang, Yueming

    2014-08-01

    Molybdenum disilicide (MoSi2) coatings were deposited on carbon steel by air plasma spraying technology with different feedstock powder sizes (i.e., powder A: -15 + 2.5 ?m, powder B: -30 + 15 ?m, powder C: -54 + 30 ?m, powder D: -74 + 54 ?m and powder E: -106 + 74 ?m). Phase composition and microstructure of coatings were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope. The bonding strength and microhardness of coatings were also evaluated. The XRD results show that there exists mutual transformation between T-MoSi2 and H-MoSi2 phase and part of Mo-rich phases are formed because of oxidization during the spraying process. With the increase of spraying powders size, the content of Mo-rich phases (Mo or Mo5Si3) and molybdenum oxide (MoO3) in coatings decreases, and that of disilicide-rich phase (MoSi2) in coatings increases. The oxidation degree of MoSi2 particle gradually decreases during the spraying process with the increase of spraying powders size. The MoSi2 is the main phase of the as-sprayed coatings when the spraying powders size is beyond 30 ?m. With the increase of spraying powders size, the porosity of the as-sprayed coating increases, and the bonding strength of the coating gradually decreases. The hardness of coatings first increases and then decreases with the increase of spraying powders size.

  14. Cold Spray Forming of Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, W.; Irissou, E.; Vo, P.; Sone, M.; Bernier, F.; Legoux, J.-G.; Fukanuma, H.; Yue, S.

    2013-03-01

    Inconel 718 was cold spray formed to a 6-mm thickness on an 8-cm diameter aluminum alloy tube using Sulzer Amdry 1718 powder and the Plasma Giken PCS-1000 cold spray system. The effects of spray particle velocity and post-spray heat treatment were studied. Post-spray annealing was performed from 950 to 1250 C for 1-2 h. The resulting microstructures as well as the corresponding mechanical properties were characterized. As-sprayed coatings exhibited very low ductility. The tensile strength and ductility of the heat-treated coatings were improved to varying levels depending on the heat-treatment and spray conditions. For coatings sprayed at higher particle velocity and heat treated at 1250 C for 1 h, an elongation of 24% was obtained. SEM micrographs showed a higher fraction of interparticle metallurgical bonds due to some sintering effect. Corresponding fracture surfaces also revealed a higher fraction of dimple features, typically associated with ductile fracture, in the annealed coatings. The results demonstrate that cold spray forming of Inconel 718 is feasible, and with appropriate heat treatment, metallurgical bonding can be increased. The ductility of the spray-formed samples was comparable to that of the bulk material.

  15. 47 CFR 17.21 - Painting and lighting, when required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Painting and lighting, when required. 17.21 Section 17.21 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL CONSTRUCTION, MARKING, AND LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Specifications for Obstruction Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures § 17.21 Painting and lighting, when...

  16. Logic Analysis of Painting Modeling Rules and Avoiding Narrative Viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Shao, Jie

    2009-01-01

    Painting modeling rules are constructed based on objective representing with material substances as the main body and the construction methods and orders are mostly limited to narrative viewing and expression, which, obviously, is not the best method. Logistic thinking in virtue of modeling art could gender a more "painting-like"…

  17. 76 FR 17379 - National Tree-Marking Paint Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ...The National Tree-Marking Paint Committee will meet in Missoula, Montana on June 14-16, 2011. The purpose of the meeting is to discuss activities related to improvements in, concerns about, and the handling and use of tree-marking paint by personnel of the Forest Service and the Department of the Interior's Bureau of Land...

  18. 78 FR 20295 - National Tree-Marking Paint Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ...The National Tree-Marking Paint Committee will meet in Awendaw, SC on May 21-23, 2013. The purpose of the meeting is to discuss activities related to improvements in, concerns about, and the handling and use of tree-marking paint by personnel of the Forest Service and the Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land...

  19. Chromosome-specific painting in Cucumis species using bulked oligonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromosome-specific painting is a powerful technique in molecular cytogenetic and genome research. We developed an oligonucleotide (oligo)-based chromosome painting technique in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) that will be applicable in any plant species with a sequenced genome. Oligos specific to a sing...

  20. 77 FR 20612 - National Tree-Marking Paint Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ...The National Tree-Marking Paint Committee will meet in Flagstaff, Arizona on May 15-17, 2012. The purpose of the meeting is to discuss the activities related to improvements in, concerns about, and the handling and use of tree-marking paint by personnel of the Forest Service and the Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land...

  1. 46 CFR 108.147 - Certain paints prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certain paints prohibited. 108.147 Section 108.147 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection 108.147 Certain paints prohibited. No nitrocellulose or other...

  2. 75 FR 17897 - National Tree-Marking Paint Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ...The National Tree-marking Paint Committee will meet in Colorado Springs, Colorado on May 4-6, 2010. The purpose of the meeting is to discuss activities related to improvements in, concerns about, and the handling and use of tree-marking paint by personnel of the Forest Service and the Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land...

  3. 13 CFR 120.173 - Lead-based paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lead-based paint. 120.173 Section 120.173 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Policies Applying to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders 120.173 Lead-based paint. If loan proceeds are for the construction...

  4. 24 CFR 92.355 - Lead-based paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 92.355 Section 92.355 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Other Federal Requirements 92.355 Lead-based paint. Housing assisted with HOME funds is subject to the...

  5. Dissolution of organic solvents from painted surfaces into water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of volatile iodine in containment buildings is one of the major safety concerns in the potential event of nuclear reactor accidents. Organic impurities in containment water, originating from various painted structural surfaces and organic materials, could have a significant impact on iodine volatility following an accident. To determine the source and magnitude of organic impurities and their effects on time-dependent iodine volatility, the dissolution for organic constituents from paints used in reactor buildings has been studied under postulated accident conditions. The studies of the organic dissolution from carbon steel coupons coated with zinc-primed vinyl, epoxy-primed polyurethane or epoxy paints over the temperature range 25-90 deg C are reported. Relatively large activation energies were measured for the release of the principal organic compounds from painted surfaces, suggesting it is the release of the solvents from the paint matrix rather than their diffusion through the solution that is the rate determining step for the dissolution mechanism. The similarities in the values of activation energies for the dissolution of different organic compounds from the paints suggest the release rate is independent of the nature of the painted surface or the type of organic being released from the surface. These two observations indicate that it may be possible to write a generalized rate expression for the release of organic compounds from painted surfaces in containment following an accident. The possible implications of these results for predicting iodine volatility in containment are also discussed. (author)

  6. 47 CFR 17.53 - Lighting equipment and paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Color No. 17875, FS-595). Aviation surface orange TT-P-59 1 (Color No. 12197, FS-595). Aviation surface orange, enamel TT-E-489 1 (Color No. 12197, FS-595). Aviation red obstruction light—color MIL-C-25050 2... Lighting equipment and paint. The lighting equipment, color or filters, and shade of paint referred to...

  7. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF LEAD PAINT ABATEMENT TECHNOLOGIES IN RESIDENTIAL HOUSING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to demonstrate lead-based paint (LBP) removal from architectural wood components in CO2 unoccupied residential housing using four technologies: granular carbon dioxide (CO2 blasting), pelletized CO2 blasting, encapsulant paint remover, and wet abrasive bl...

  8. Analysis of paint degradation by fungal and bacterial species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paint is a liquor blend, used as a decorative or protective coating. Paints are the main source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), very harmful for the environment and human beings. In the present study, fungal and bacterial growth on paint flakes sandwiched between the mineral salt medium agar layers were subjected to various analysis. Dry cell mass quantification was carried out by shake flask experiment with fungal inoculum. The maximum growth of 0.7g observed on 28th day. Further evidence of paint film biodegradation was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies. The loss in intensity of the bands at a wavelength of 1115.7 cm-1 and 1065.67 cm-1 for ester linkages indicated degradation of the paints through the breaking of the ester group. A loss in intensity of bands at a wavelength of 3286.87 cm-1 (corresponding alcoholic peak) due to breakage of alcoholic linkages. Scanning electron micrographs clearly showed the adherence and fungal growth on paint flakes and the distorted / ruptured surface was also observed in three months treated paint samples. The current research study represents the significant trends of paint biodegradation by isolated microorganism. (author)

  9. SUBSTRATE EFFECTS ON VOC EMISSIONS FROM A LATEX PAINT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of two substrates -- a stainless steel plate and a gypsum board -- on the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from a latex paint were evaluated by environmental chamber tests. It was found that the amount of VOCs emitted from the painted stainless steel was 2 to...

  10. Dissolution of organic solvents from painted surfaces into water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wren, J.C. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Jobe, D.J. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Sanipelli, G.G.; Ball, J.M

    2000-07-01

    The presence of volatile iodine in containment buildings is one of the major safety concerns in the potential event of nuclear reactor accidents. Organic impurities in containment water, originating from various painted structural surfaces and organic materials, could have a significant impact on iodine volatility following an accident. To determine the source and magnitude of organic impurities and their effects on time-dependent iodine volatility, the dissolution for organic constituents from paints used in reactor buildings has been studied under postulated accident conditions. The studies of the organic dissolution from carbon steel coupons coated with zinc-primed vinyl, epoxy-primed polyurethane or epoxy paints over the temperature range 25-90 deg C are reported. Relatively large activation energies were measured for the release of the principal organic compounds from painted surfaces, suggesting it is the release of the solvents from the paint matrix rather than their diffusion through the solution that is the rate determining step for the dissolution mechanism. The similarities in the values of activation energies for the dissolution of different organic compounds from the paints suggest the release rate is independent of the nature of the painted surface or the type of organic being released from the surface. These two observations indicate that it may be possible to write a generalized rate expression for the release of organic compounds from painted surfaces in containment following an accident. The possible implications of these results for predicting iodine volatility in containment are also discussed. (author)

  11. Chromatic changes on the wall paintings in Sanderum Church (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brajer, Isabelle Eve; Christensen, Mads Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes observations and results of analyses undertaken to find explanations for several phenomena affecting the colours on the Gothic wall paintings in Sanderum Church (Denmark). Paintings have been exposed on four webs of the chancel vault and one web in the nave since 1882. Three...

  12. Microanalysis of paint layers in polychrome sculptures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross sections paint layers of polychromes sculpture of the 16 century, located at the City Museum of Havana and currently in the restoration process, have been analyzed by capillary based μXRF , μPIXE , SEM -EDX and light microscopy. Experimental parameters (geometry measurement time) of the capillary based μXRF set up (nominal end diameter equal to 10 μm) were optimized to achieve the resolution required for meaningful scintigraphic studies of the art and archaeological objects, Cumulative x-rays spectra for each layer were obtained in order to perform semi-quantitative analysis. The employed pigments were identified by the characteristics elements and the elemental maps precisely reproduced photographs obtained by means of light microscopy. In the case of nuclear microprobe, RBS for Stoichiometry analysis of paint layers was also performed. additional information on the organic materials was also obtained by chemical analysis. Complementary results obtained by using the analytical techniques are presented and discussed from the point of view of the restoration processes

  13. Biological dosimetry by interphase chromosome painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, M.; George, K.; Yang, T. C.

    1996-01-01

    Both fluorescence in situ hybridization of metaphase spreads with whole-chromosome probes and premature chromosome condensation in interphase nuclei have been used in the past to estimate the radiation dose to lymphocytes. We combined these techniques to evaluate the feasibility of using painted interphase chromosomes for biodosimetry. Human peripheral lymphocytes were exposed to gamma rays and fused to mitotic Chinese hamster cells either immediately after irradiation or after 8 h incubation at 37 degrees C. Interphase or metaphase human chromosomes were hybridized with a composite probe specific for human chromosomes 3 and 4. The dose-response curve for fragment induction immediately after irradiation was linear; these results reflected breakage frequency in the total genome in terms of DNA content per chromosome. At 8 h after irradiation, the dose-response curve for chromosome interchanges, the prevalent aberration in interphase chromosomes, was linear-quadratic and similar to that observed for metaphase chromosomes. These results suggest that painting prematurely condensed chromosomes can be useful for biological dosimetry when blood samples are available shortly after the exposure, or when interphase cells are to be scored instead of mitotic cells.

  14. Augmenting painted architectures for communicating cultural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Sdegno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a research under development at the University of Trieste to analyze a painted architecture by Paolo Veronese and to present the results using AR systems (Augmented Reality Systems. The canvas was painted in 1573 and it is now at the Gallerie dell’Accademia Museum in Venice. The aim of the research was to transform a two-dimensional work of art in a three dimensional one, allowing all the visitors of a museum to enter the space of the representation and perceive it in a more direct way. After the geometrical analysis of the picture, we started the digital restitution of the perspective references and proceed to model the virtual scene using Boolean primitives and applying all the textures to render the scene in a very realistic way. The further step was to convert the model into a dynamic form with AR algorithms and associate it with spatial references to allow users to do a virtual experience of it.

  15. Characterization of Membrane Electrode Assembly for Fuel Cells Prepared by Electrostatic Spray Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Minoru; Kawaguchi, Syunsuke; Uchida, Isamu

    2006-07-01

    A novel electrocatalyst painting technique for realizing an extremely high yield of deposition in a limited surface area of a polymer electrolyte membrane has been developed by electrostatic spray deposition (ESD). First, a dispersion containing Pt/C powder and Nafion solution was sprayed by ESD. As a result, the dispersion was deposited on the entire surface area of a Nafion membrane placed on an Au counterelectrode, but not on the insulating poly(ethylene terephthalete) membrane. Second, for the highest-quality Pt/C catalyst layer, the solid content of the dispersion and the ejection rate were set to 3-4 wt % and 10-20 mm3\\cdotmin-1, respectively. The catalyst layer thus prepared demonstrated a fine, smooth structure. Third, in the case in which the sizes of the Nafion membrane and Au electrode were the same, the deposition occurred only on the Nafion/Au layered structure. This enabled an extremely high yield of deposition. The ESD of the Pt/C dispersion was conducted on a dry Nafion membrane with a water droplet on the surface. Consequently, an electrocatalyst layer was successfully formed only at the wetted point of the Nafion membrane. This technique enables the painting of the electrocatalyst layer over a limited area without the use of any surface masks. Finally, the membrane electrode assembly prepared by ESD was installed in a fuel cell and demonstrated as high a performance as that prepared by air-spraying. The cross-sectional morphology of the catalyst layer explained the coupling strength in the peel-off test well, as well as the dependence of current-voltage characteristics on catalyst layer thickness.

  16. through spray pyrolisis-nitriding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Cubillos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of zirconium oxynitride were deposited on stainless steel 316L and characterized through ultrasonic spray pyrolysis-nitriding (UPS-N. Initially, thin films of ZrO2 are deposited using ultrasonic spray pyrolysis, and later ZrO2 films were nitrided in a NH3 atmosphere. We analyzed the effect of some variables, such as substrate temperature, flow ratio, and time of the production of coatings and their influence on the structure of the films. The characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron (XPS, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Films that were grown using the UPS method exhibited a tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline structure with preferential orientation in plane (101. These films, after being nitrided in an atmosphere of anhydrous ammonia at 1023 K, go through two processes: a phase transition from tetragonal to monoclinic, and later the formation of zirconium oxynitride rhombohedral ZrOx Ny .

  17. Uniform-droplet spray forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, C.A.; Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Chun, Jung-Hoon [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ando, T. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The uniform-droplet process is a new method of liquid-metal atomization that results in single droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on to substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructure. The mono-sized powder-production capability of the uniform-droplet process also has the potential of permitting engineered powder blends to produce components of controlled porosity. Metal and alloy powders are commercially produced by at least three different methods: gas atomization, water atomization, and rotating disk. All three methods produce powders of a broad range in size with a very small yield of fine powders with single-sized droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructures. The economical analysis has shown the process to have the potential of reducing capital cost by 50% and operating cost by 37.5% when applied to powder making. For the spray-forming process, a 25% savings is expected in both the capital and operating costs. The project is jointly carried out at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Tuffs University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Preliminary interactions with both finished parts and powder producers have shown a strong interest in the uniform-droplet process. Systematic studies are being conducted to optimize the process parameters, understand the solidification of droplets and spray deposits, and develop a uniform-droplet-system (UDS) apparatus appropriate for processing engineering alloys.

  18. Ultrafast imaging of fuel sprays

    OpenAIRE

    Purwar, Harsh

    2015-01-01

    Fuel atomization plays a very crucial role in determining the overall efficiency of diesel internal combustion engines. This work focuses on developing fast optical diagnostic tools for the study of the liquid fuel atomization with an aim to characterize the fuel sprays in the near-field of the injector nozzle. At first, classical imaging techniques using continuous illumination with a high-speed camera and an ultra-short pulsed illumination with a high-resolution CCD camera are reviewed. Nex...

  19. Large-Scale Quantitative Analysis of Painting Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Son, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hawoong

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have made efforts to understand the beauty of painting art in their own languages. As digital image acquisition of painting arts has made rapid progress, researchers have come to a point where it is possible to perform statistical analysis of a large-scale database of artistic paints to make a bridge between art and science. Using digital image processing techniques, we investigate three quantitative measures of images – the usage of individual colors, the variety of colors, and the roughness of the brightness. We found a difference in color usage between classical paintings and photographs, and a significantly low color variety of the medieval period. Interestingly, moreover, the increment of roughness exponent as painting techniques such as chiaroscuro and sfumato have advanced is consistent with historical circumstances. PMID:25501877

  20. Population densities of painted buntings in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, J. Michael

    2011-01-01

    The eastern population trend of Passerina ciris (Painted Bunting) declined 3.5% annually during the first 30 yrs of the Breeding Bird Survey (BBS, 19661996). Recently, the US Fish and Wildlife Service listed Painted Buntings as a focal species. Surveys for this focal species for the next 10 yrs (BBS, 19972007), however, are too low (2 in young pine plantations to 42 per km2 in maritime shrub. Effective detection radii for habitats varied from 64 to 90 m and were slightly higher in developed than in undeveloped habitats. Distance sampling is recommended to determine densities of Painted Buntings; however, large sample sizes (70100 detections/habitat type) are required to monitor Painted Bunting densities in most habitats in the Atlantic coastal region of the southeastern United States. Special attention should be given to maritime shrub habitats, which may be important to maintaining the Painted Bunting population in the southeastern US.

  1. Large-scale quantitative analysis of painting arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Son, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hawoong

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have made efforts to understand the beauty of painting art in their own languages. As digital image acquisition of painting arts has made rapid progress, researchers have come to a point where it is possible to perform statistical analysis of a large-scale database of artistic paints to make a bridge between art and science. Using digital image processing techniques, we investigate three quantitative measures of images - the usage of individual colors, the variety of colors, and the roughness of the brightness. We found a difference in color usage between classical paintings and photographs, and a significantly low color variety of the medieval period. Interestingly, moreover, the increment of roughness exponent as painting techniques such as chiaroscuro and sfumato have advanced is consistent with historical circumstances. PMID:25501877

  2. Large-Scale Quantitative Analysis of Painting Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Son, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hawoong

    2014-12-01

    Scientists have made efforts to understand the beauty of painting art in their own languages. As digital image acquisition of painting arts has made rapid progress, researchers have come to a point where it is possible to perform statistical analysis of a large-scale database of artistic paints to make a bridge between art and science. Using digital image processing techniques, we investigate three quantitative measures of images - the usage of individual colors, the variety of colors, and the roughness of the brightness. We found a difference in color usage between classical paintings and photographs, and a significantly low color variety of the medieval period. Interestingly, moreover, the increment of roughness exponent as painting techniques such as chiaroscuro and sfumato have advanced is consistent with historical circumstances.

  3. Fly ash based zeolitic pigments for application in anticorrosive paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ruchi; Tiwari, Sangeeta

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the utilization of waste fly ash in anticorrosive paints. Zeolite NaY was synthesized from waste fly ash and subsequently modified by exchanging its nominal cation Na+ with Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions. The metal ion exchanged zeolite was then used as anticorrosive zeolitic pigments in paints. The prepared zeolite NaY was characterized using X-Ray diffraction technique and Scanning electron microscopy. The size, shape and density of the prepared fly ash based pigments were determined by various techniques. The paints were prepared by using fly ash based zeolitic pigments in epoxy resin and the percentages of pigments used in paints were 2% and 5%. These paints were applied to the mild steel panels and the anticorrosive properties of the pigments were assessed by the electrochemical spectroscopy technique (EIS).

  4. Automatic forensic analysis of automotive paints using optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoonen, Guy; Nys, Bart; Vander Haeghen, Yves; De Roy, Gilbert; Scheunders, Paul

    2016-02-01

    The timely identification of vehicles involved in an accident, such as a hit-and-run situation, bears great importance in forensics. To this end, procedures have been defined for analyzing car paint samples that combine techniques such as visual analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. This work proposes a new methodology in order to automate the visual analysis using image retrieval. Specifically, color and texture information is extracted from a microscopic image of a recovered paint sample, and this information is then compared with the same features for a database of paint types, resulting in a shortlist of candidate paints. In order to demonstrate the operation of the methodology, a test database has been set up and two retrieval experiments have been performed. The first experiment quantifies the performance of the procedure for retrieving exact matches, while the second experiment emulates the real-life situation of paint samples that experience changes in color and texture over time. PMID:26774250

  5. Application of infrared and Raman spectroscopy in paint trace examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi?ba-Palus, Janina; Trzci?ska, Beata M

    2013-09-01

    Raman spectroscopy has proved to be a promising technique in forensic examinations, where optical microscopy, micro-infrared spectroscopy, and microspectrophotometry in the visible and UV range are used for identification and differentiation between paint traces. Often no organic pigments are detected using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, because their content in a trace is usually undetectable. Application of a micro-Raman spectrometer equipped with several excitation lasers helps forensic experts in paint analysis enabling identification of main pigments. Three cases concerning comparative examination of car paint are discussed in detail. The comparison of Raman spectra of paint chips found on clothing of a victim or smears found on body of a damaged car to these of paint chips originated from the suspected car enabled us to identify the car involved in the accident. When no comparative material is available, the method can be useful in establishing the color and make of the car. PMID:23865525

  6. Automotive Painting Technology A Monozukuri-Hitozukuri Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Salazar, Abraham; Saito, Kozo

    2013-01-01

    This book offers unique and valuable contributions to the field. It offers breadth and inclusiveness. Most existing works on automotive painting cover only a single aspect of this complex topic, such as the chemistry of paint or paint booth technology. Monozukuri and Hitozukuri are Japanese terms that can be translated as “making things” and “developing people” but their implications in Japanese are richer and more complex than this minimal translation would indicate. The Monozukuri-Hitozukuri perspective is drawn from essential principles on which the Toyota approach to problem-solving and continuous improvement is based. From this perspective, neither painting technology R&D nor painting technology use in manufacturing can be done successfully without integrating technological and human concerns involved with making and learning in the broadest sense, as the hyphen is meant to indicate. The editors provide case studies and examples -- drawn from Mr. Toda’s 33 years of experience with automotiv...

  7. Mold manufacture with plasma spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossand, K. A.; Kovalevskis, A.

    1996-12-01

    A process has been developed to produce molds or tooling using a steel or chrome- plated steel model. The investigation examined the effect of coating and model materials, model temperature and spray angle on the coating separation from the model surface, coating delamination, and surface quality. A polished model disk was heated and then plasma sprayed with iron, nickel, Ni- Al, or Ni- Cr- B- Si. It was found that the minimum temperature to facilitate entire coating removal was lower for steel models and varied be tween 200 and 450 C depending on the material. However, at higher temperatures the higher bond strength produced by oxidation on the steel resulted in significant coating pullout. A chrome- plated model, heated to 600 to 700 C, is required to produce a defect- free coating. The effect of substrate angle on open porosity is most critical for the Ni- Cr- B- Si alloy and least important for Ni- Al coatings. The sur face roughness of the plasma- sprayed molds is comparable to the corresponding models, permitting good surface detail reproducibility. Several molds and tools were produced for use in the glass, rubber, and plastics industries.

  8. The history and future of thermal sprayed galvanically active metallic anticorrosion coatings used on pipelines and steel structures in the oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodijnen, Fred van [Sulzer Metco, Duisburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Since its invention by M. U. Schoop in the beginning of the 20th century, thermal spray has been used for corrosion protection applications in naval, on-shore, submerged and atmospheric environments. Thermally sprayed coatings of zinc, zinc alloys, aluminum and aluminum alloys are currently the most popular materials used for active corrosion protection of steel and concrete, which can be applied using either of the widely known thermal spray processes of combustion wire or electric arc wire. In the oil and gas exploration and production industry, corrosion protection applications using these technologies have evolved since the early sixties. Thermal spray technology has successfully been used to protect steel-based materials from corrosion in many different fields of application like platforms and pipelines. The most used material in the oil and gas industry is TSA (Thermally Sprayed Aluminum) coating. TSA coatings, with a lifetime of 25 to 30 years, require no maintenance except for cosmetic reasons when painted. The surface temperature of a TSA can go as high as 480 deg C. Although TS (Thermal Spray) is an older process, the number of applications and the number of m{sup 2} it is applied to is still increasing resulting from its maintenance-free and reliable active corrosion-protection features. (author)

  9. 75 FR 39524 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and Pre-Renovation Education Activities in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    .... 2681-2692), entitled Lead Exposure Reduction. In the Federal Register dated April 22, 2008, (73 FR..., 1998, (63 FR 29908), EPA promulgated final TSCA section 406(b) regulations governing pre-renovation... AGENCY Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and Pre- Renovation Education Activities...

  10. CAPSTONE REPORT ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF A STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR VOC EMISSIONS FROM INTERIOR LATEX PAINT AND ALKYD PAINTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives details of a small-chamber test method developed by the EPA for characterizing volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from interior latex and alkyd paints. Current knowledge about VOC, including hazardous air pollutant, emissions from interior paints generated...

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF LOW-VOC LATEX PAINTS: VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND CONTENT, VOC AND ALDEHYDE EMISSIONS, AND PAINT PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of laboratory tests to evaluate commercially available latex paints advertised as "low-odor," "low-VOC (volatile organic compound)," or "no-VOC." Measurements were performed to quantify the total content of VOCs in the paints...

  12. THz pulsed time-domain imaging of an oil canvas painting: a case study of a painting by Pablo Picasso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Kaori; Ikari, Tomofumi; Iwai, Kikuko

    2016-02-01

    The terahertz pulsed time-domain imaging technique and near-infrared observation were applied to investigate an oil painting on canvas by Pablo Picasso. The multilayer structure is clearly observed in cross-sectional image by terahertz pulsed time-domain imaging, and particular Cubism style lines were revealed under newly painted area by near-infrared image.

  13. Outline of pressurizer spray line thermal stratification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressurizer spray system of the PWR receives a large number of transient cycles when the main spray valve opens and closes, during normal operations (heat up and cool down operation etc.). The spray line is one of the most severe locations from the viewpoint of fatigue. On the other hand, it has been known in recent years that thermal stratification phenomena occur following the main spray valve's closure, according to the field temperature data measured by thermocouples on the outer surface of the spray line during plant operation. The effect of these thermal stratification phenomena on fatigue damage has been proved not to be negligible. In this paper, the results of visual and thermal hydraulic test that simulates thermal stratification of the spray line and the results of stress and fatigue analysis are described

  14. Effectiveness of containment sprays in containment management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A limited study has been performed assessing the effectiveness of containment sprays-to mitigate particular challenges which may occur during a severe accident. Certain aspects of three specific topics related to using sprays under severe accident conditions were investigated. The first was the effectiveness of sprays connected to an alternate water supple and pumping source because the actual containment spray pumps are inoperable. This situation could occur during a station blackout. The second topic concerned the adverse as well as beneficial effects of using containment sprays during severe accident scenario where the containment atmosphere contains substantial quantities of hydrogen along with steam. The third topic was the feasibility of using containment sprays to moderate the consequences of DCH

  15. Laser tomographic investigation of liquid fuel sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yule, A.J.; Ah Seng, C.; Felton, P.G.; Ungut, A.; Chigier, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    A light scattering technique is combined with a tomographic transformation to convert line of sight integrated data, measured in sprays, to measurements of droplet size and concentration in volume elements within the spray. The technique is developed and assessed by systematic experiments in axisymmetric sprays generated by twin-fluid atomizers. The angular distribution of forward scattered light from a laser beam passing through the spray is measured for a series of scans with the beam passing through different sections of the spray at the same axial position. This data is transformed numerically into 'point' measurements of droplet size distribution and volume concentration and these measurements are compared with data obtained by analysis of spark photographs obtained in the same spray. 8 refs.

  16. Advanced Measurement Techniques for Spray Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Bodoc, V.; Laurent, C.; Biscos, Y.; Lavergne, G.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present recent advances at Onera in the spray diagnostic and simulation fields. In the context of the reduction of engine pollutant emissions, the optimization of fuel spray injection represents phenomena of great fundamental and practical interest and is an important feature in the design of new prototypes of turbojet injection devices. The physics of spray formation, transport, evaporation and combustion are not completely understood and the models must be ...

  17. Spray controller for horizontal boom movements compensation

    OpenAIRE

    El Bahir, Loussain; Lebeau, Frédéric; Destain, Marie-France; Kinnaert; Hanus, Raymond

    2002-01-01

    Longitudinal spray distribution is mainly affected by the horizontal speed variations of the nozzles. Manufacturers classically try to reduce unwanted nozzles movements using horizontal boom suspension but these methods show performance and price limitations. The purpose of this paper is to propose a spray controller aiming to compensate the effect of the horizontal boom movements on the spray distribution besides the effect of tractor speed variations. The controller is based on ...

  18. Wire Whip Keeps Spray Nozzle Clean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, H. R.

    1982-01-01

    Air-turbine-driven wire whip is clamped near spray-gun mount. When spray gun is installed, wire whip is in position to remove foam buildup from nozzle face. Two lengths of wire 1 to 2 inches long and about 0.03 inch in thickness are used. Foam spray would be prevented from accumulating on nozzle face by increasing purge flow and cutting vortex-generating grooves inside cap and on nozzle flats.

  19. Indoor spray measurement of spray drift potential using a spray drift test bench : effect of drift-reducing nozzle types, spray boom height, nozzle spacing and forward speed

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Ruiz, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    In a series of indoor experiments spray drift potential was assessed when spraying over a spray drift testbench with two different driving speeds, 2m/s and 4m/s, two different spray boom heights, 30 cm and 50 cm, and two different nozzle spacing, 25 cm and 50 cm, for six different nozzle types. The nozzles types used were the standard flat fan XR as a reference nozzle and the DG, XLTD, IDN, AIXR and AIRmix as drift reducing nozzles types. A Patternator was used to check the cross distribution...

  20. Dynamic characteristics of pulsed supersonic fuel sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianthong, K.; Matthujak, A.; Takayama, K.; Milton, B. E.; Behnia, M.

    2008-06-01

    This paper describes the dynamic characteristics of pulsed, supersonic liquid fuel sprays or jets injected into ambient air. Simple, single hole nozzles were employed with the nozzle sac geometries being varied. Different fuel types, diesel fuel, bio-diesel, kerosene, and gasoline were used to determine the effects of fuel properties on the spray characteristics. A vertical two-stage light gas gun was employed as a projectile launcher to provide a high velocity impact to produce the liquid jet. The injection pressure was around 0.88-1.24 GPa in all cases. The pulsed, supersonic fuel sprays were visualized by using a high-speed video camera and shadowgraph method. The spray tip penetration and velocity attenuation and other characteristics were examined and are described here. An instantaneous spray tip velocity of 1,542 m/s (Mach number 4.52) was obtained. However, this spray tip velocity can be sustained for only a very short period (a few microseconds). It then attenuates very quickly. The phenomenon of multiple high frequency spray pulses generated by a single shot impact and the changed in the angle of the shock structure during the spray flight, which had already been observed in previous studies, is again noted. Multiple shock waves from the conical nozzle spray were also clearly captured.

  1. Pulsed spray structure and atomisation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, A. J.

    1987-08-01

    The process of atomisation from diesel injectors is found to persist for a significant proportion of the spray length before impaction on the cylinder wall. Both aerodynamic shear and cavitation appear to be of importance for the liquid jet breakdown. In addition cyclic variations are found in the atomisation and penetration of sprays. The transient nature of the spray initial conditions can cause pile up and coagulation of droplets at the leading edge of the spray pulse for certain cases. Improved modeling of diesel injection requires recognition of these phenomena and this is supported by both modeling and experimental data which have been obtained under realistic engine conditions in a specially developed rig.

  2. Evolution and Prospect of Thermal Spraying Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YIN Zhi-Jian, , WANG Shu-Bao, FU-Wei,TAN Xin-Hai, TAO Shun-Yan, DING Chuan-Xian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, current state development and process evolution ofthermal spray technology during last century (1910―2010) were reviewed. An "three―step evolution trend" (heat energy dominance, kineticenergy dominance, innovative idea and composite performance dominance) wasadvanced in order to get comprehensive understanding on this technology and dobetter in promoting its future development. Low pressure plasma spraying―thinfilm (LPPS―TF), cold spray (CS) and suspension orsolution srecursor plasma spray (SPS/SPPS) were selected among emerging novelspray processes to be briefly introduced from two aspects (process characteristics and potential applications). Comparison of spray output valueand detail contribution ratio distribution of various industry or process through world and Asia spray industry market were made to probe into what canbe improved as for China thermal spray industry in future. It was suggested that increasing plasma spray and HVOF contribution to applications, take activesteps to explore R&D of some novel spray technology like above mentioned and their possible applications especially in high―tech industrial such aselectrics, semiconductor and new energy.

  3. Thermally sprayed coatings: Aluminum on lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental program to determine the feasibility of thermally spraying aluminum on a lead substrate was initiated in support of the accelerator production of tritium (APT) Project for the US Department of Energy. The program consisted of two distinct parts: (1) the characterization of the thermally sprayed coatings, including microhardness testing, effects of heating, and microstructure and porosity determinations, and (2) effects of mercury doping and heat treatments on the thermally sprayed composite. The project determined that aluminum could successfully be thermally sprayed onto the lead. The coatings had a dense microstructure, with a Vicker's Pyramid Hardness (VPH) of about 60, and a maximum porosity (found in strips on the samples) of 12%

  4. 'Dose-painting': Myth or reality?; 'Dose-painting': mythe ou realite?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supiot, S.; Paris, F. [Service de radiotherapie, centre Rene-Gauducheau, 44 - Nantes-St-Herblain (France); Centre de recherche sur le cancer Nantes-Angers (CRCNA), institut de recherche therapeutique, universite de Nantes, 44 - Nantes (France); Inserm UMR 892, 44 - Nantes (France); Lisbona, A. [Centre de recherche sur le cancer Nantes-Angers (CRCNA), institut de recherche therapeutique, universite de Nantes, 44 - Nantes (France); Inserm UMR 892, 44 - Nantes (France); Service de radiophysique, centre Rene-Gauducheau, 44 - Nantes-St-Herblain (France); Azria, D. [Service de radiotherapie, centre Val d' Aurelle Paul-Lamarque, 34 - Montpellier (France); Fenoglietto, P. [Service de radiophysique, centre Val d' Aurelle Paul-Lamarque, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2010-10-15

    'Dose-painting' radiotherapy allows for a heterogeneous delivery of radiation within the tumour volume by targeting radioresistant areas defined by functional imaging. Within gross tumour volume, it is possible to define one or more target volumes based on biology (biological target volume [BTV]) and to apply a strategy of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) that will deliver a higher dose to these regions. In this review of the literature, we will highlight the biological elements responsible for radioresistance, and how to image them, then we will detail the radiotherapy techniques necessary for this approach, before presenting clinical results in various situations (head and neck tumours, prostate, brain tumours, etc.). Despite many difficulties that make dose-painting IMRT unusable in routine nowadays, biology-guided radiation therapy represents one of the major pathways of development of radiotherapy in the coming years. (authors)

  5. Wind tunnel and field evaluation of drift from aerial spray applications with multiple spray formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of different spray tank modifiers into an active ingredient spray mixture on spray atomization and in-field behavior under aerial application conditions were examined. Wind tunnel tests demonstrated that active ingredient solutions potentially results in significantly different atomizati...

  6. Spray drift reduction evaluations of spray nozzles using a standardized testing protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development and testing of drift reduction technologies has come to the forefront of application research in the past few years in the United States. Drift reduction technologies (DRTs) can be spray nozzles, sprayer modifications, spray delivery assistance, spray property modifiers (adjuvants),...

  7. Synthesis of thermal spray grade yttrium oxide powder and its application for plasma spray deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process to transform the commercially available yttrium oxide powder (M/s. IRE) into thermal spray grade powder and development of plasma spray coating of it on graphite/metallic substrate are described. Experimental results show that the synthesized powder had very good flow characteristics and could be used for plasma spray deposition efficiently

  8. A new chemical model for the removal of iodine vapour from a reactor containment by aqueous sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes methods for the calculation of the removal rate of I2 vapour by aqueous sprays from a large volume such as a reactor containment. The kinetic methods used involve the latest information on the reaction of dissolved iodine with water which causes the I2 molecules to be quickly transformed into virtually involatile products. This hydrolysis increases the effective waterside mass transfer coefficient of I2, and depends on the I2 concentration, the acidity of the water and the temperature. Comparisons of calculated removal rates with a range of suitable experimental data show that for agreement with observation the hydrolysis product HOI, hypoiodous acid, must be considered effectively involatile. When the water is alkaline (pH 9) the overall mass transfer coefficient for I2 can be put equal to that for the gas side. Acidic sprays can cause a major uptake of iodine by painted walls. (author)

  9. Paint compositions for indicating irradiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paint compositions for indicating irradiation dose are prepared from chlorine-combined polyester, 5 to 30 percent by weight of a reductive discoloring substance or a mixture of said substances, and/or 0.005 to 2.0 percent by weight of a reducing dyestuff or a mixture of said dyestuffs, in which said chlorine-combined polyester is obtained by a chlorinated dibasic acid or its anhydride as an acid component or a part of an acid component selected from a group consisting of 3-chlorophthalic acid, 4-chlorophthalic acid, dichlorinated phthalic acid, tetrachlorophthalic acid, 1,4,5,6,7,7-hexachlorobicyclo-(2,2,1)-5-heptene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, 4-chloro-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboxylic acid and the anhydrides corresponding to said acids. (auth)

  10. Thermal indicating paints for ammunition health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunino, James L., III; Iqbal, Zafar

    2010-04-01

    Thermochromic semiconductive polymers that change color in response to external stimuli, such as heat and radiation, can be utilized to monitor the temperature range and elapsed time profiles of stored and prepositioned munitions. These polymers are being tailored to create paints and coatings that will alert Army logistic staff of dangerous temperature exposures. Irreversible indication via color change in multiple thermal bands, 145 F - 164 F (63o-73°C), 165 F - 184 F (74° - 84° C) and over 185 F (>85°C) are possible with these thermochromic polymers. The resulting active coating can be visually inspected to determine if safe temperatures were exceeded. More detailed information, including cumulative time of exposure in certain temperature bands through changes in optical chromaticity describing the vividness or dullness of a color, can be assessed using a hand-held optical densitometer.

  11. Laser cleaning of steel for paint removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G. X.; Kwee, T. J.; Tan, K. P.; Choo, Y. S.; Hong, M. H.

    2010-11-01

    Paint removal is an important part of steel processing for marine and offshore engineering. For centuries, a blasting techniques have been widely used for this surface preparation purpose. But conventional blasting always has intrinsic problems, such as noise, explosion risk, contaminant particles, vibration, and dust. In addition, processing wastes often cause environmental problems. In recent years, laser cleaning has attracted much research effort for its significant advantages, such as precise treatment, and high selectivity and flexibility in comparison with conventional cleaning techniques. In the present study, we use this environmentally friendly technique to overcome the problems of conventional blasting. Processed samples are examined with optical microscopes and other surface characterization tools. Experimental results show that laser cleaning can be a good alternative candidate to conventional blasting.

  12. A radiation polymerizable paint and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention relates to a radiation polymerizable paint which to the exclusion of any non-polymerizable solvent, pigment initiator or particulate filler essentially comprises a binder solution: from about 90 to 10 parts of a saturated vinylic thermoplastic polymer (prepared from at least 85% by weight monofunctional vinylic monomers), from about 10 to 90 parts of monofunctional vinylic solvents for the vinylic polymer (at least 10% and, preferably, at least 30% by weight of the solvent monomers being selected from the group comprising divinylic monomers, trivinylic monomers, tetravinylic monomers and mixtures) and from about 0.05 to 1.0 part, for a total amount of 100 parts of thermoplastic vinylic polymer and of solvent vinylic monomers, of a phosphoric acid mono- or di-ester with one or several vinyl unsaturated sites. That high quality coating composition adheres remarkably to a variety of supports, in particular metals, including metals deposited in the vapor phase

  13. Preparation and Application of Temperature Sensitive Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chi

    2015-11-01

    Temperature sensitive painting (TSP) is a rapidly developing surface optical measurement technology, which uses temperature sensitive fluorescent probe molecular to obtain the temperature distribution on the surface of the model. Two different types of TSP material are prepared to apply in fluid mechanical experiments. Rhodamine is used as fluorescer and acetone as solvent for the first recipe, while rare earth material as fluorescer and zirconia as solvent for the second recipe. With proper calibration, surface temperature nephogram and temperature gradient nephogram is obtained based on the measured light intensity data, and transition location and heat flux is analyzed. Double layer - multi component TSP measurement technology and more strict calibration will be developed in the near future to get more precise heat flux distribution.

  14. 'Amarna blue' painted on ancient Egyptian pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Amarna blue' pigments (18 Dynasty, c. 1400 BC) painted on pottery fragments were investigated using the PIXE, XRF and XRD methods in laboratories and also using a portable type of X-ray spectrometer at the sites of excavation. On the blue-colored part enrichment of Na, Al, S, Cl, Ca, Mn, Co, Ni and Zn was found using X-ray spectroscopy, and CaSO4, NaCl and Co(M)Al2O4, M denoting Mn, Fe, Ni and Zn, were found by the help of X-ray diffraction. This means that Amarna blue is a mixture of CaSO4 and Co(M)Al2O4, at least in part

  15. Judgement of paintings belonging to different tendencies in the 20th century painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radonji? Ana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study Trifunovi? hypothesis that there are three objective lines in the development of modern art was psychologically evaluated. According to Trifunovi?, in the first line (Czanne - cubism - neoplasticism - suprematism the geometrization of form prevails, in the second (Van Gogh - expressionism - abstract expressionism the use of color is dominant, whereas the main features of the third line (Gauguin - fauvism are symbolic use of color and reduction of perspective. Fifteen reproductions of paintings that represent the three developmental lines were used as stimuli. The subjects were asked to judge the stimuli on nine bipolar 7-step scales. These scales constitute the three factors of instrument SDF 9: Evaluation, Arousal and Regularity (3 scales x 3 factors = 9 scales. Four clusters of paintings were obtained: Abstract-expressionistic (moderate Evaluation, high Arousal and low Regularity, Figural-expressionistic (very low Evaluation, low Arousal and high Regularity, Constructivistic (moderate Evaluation, low Arousal and high Regularity and Realistic (high Evaluation, high Arousal and high Regularity. The results partially confirm Trifunovi? hypothesis indicating that, besides the formal features, the content (abstract vs. figural is also significant factor of subjective clustering of paintings.

  16. Flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) for synthesis of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bismuth oxide is used as additive in paints and in cataphoresis, and as substitute for lead oxide in glass or porcelain. The presence of a small amount of Bi2O3 in calcined ZnO ceramics promotes non-linear current voltage characteristics that are used in varistor production. Also tin oxide based gas sensors for carbon monoxide, exhibit improved sensitivity and selectivity when doped with Bi2O3. Furthermore, the total oxidation of isobutene is enhanced on bismuth containing tin oxide catalysts. Bismuth oxide itself serves also as catalyst for conversion of propylene to 1,5 hexadiene and can be regenerated when supported on α-Al2O3. In electrolyte, varistor, sensor and catalyst applications high purity and small Bi2O3 particles with controlled morphology are required. Especially in catalysts the available surface area (below 17 m2/g) of Bi2O3 limits applications at the moment. Typically, Bi2O3 is prepared by oxidation of bismuth metal at 750-800 deg C or by thermal decomposition of carbonates or by addition of alkali-metal hydroxides to a bismuth salt solution. High temperature synthesis of Bi2O3 from precursor gases was proposed by Liu and Kleinschmit using the established Aerosil route of reacting chloride precursors in a hydrogen / air (or oxygen) flame, but the volatility of the starting materials poses the most severe limitation. Suzuki et al. prepared spherical bismuth oxide particles of about 26 nm in diameter by the ICP-method. Spraying an aqueous bismuth nitrate solution into a hot wall reactor resulted in Bi2O3 particles of about 100 nm in diameter. Here, synthesis of bismuth oxide nanoparticles is investigated by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) as flame technology is used for manufacture of oxide commodities and as such FSP has high potential for manufacture of oxide nanoparticles. The FSP process, in particular, has the ability to synthesize metal oxides and mixed metal oxides of high purity at high production rates and under controlled conditions. Here bismuth nitrate is used as raw material since it is widely used in wet chemical processing of bismuth oxide and it is one of the cheapest precursors available. However, in conventional spray pyrolysis this precursor has resulted in hollow particles. Therefore special emphasis is placed on the control of morphology and primary particle size of the product bismuth oxide nanoparticles

  17. Iodine–paint interactions during nuclear reactor severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Iodine interacts with containment paint in several ways. • Some mechanistic understanding is required. • Paint aging and degradation mechanisms. • Iodine adsorption and release mechanisms. • The Severe Accident Research Network (SARNET) facilitates collaboration between members. - Abstract: To assess the radiological consequences of a severe reactor accident, it is important to be able to predict the behaviour of iodine in containment. Some interactions between iodine and containment paint (e.g., adsorption) have been well known for a long time. However, in recent years, new phenomena have been identified that can affect the gas phase iodine concentration in the longer term (e.g., the release of molecular iodine and organic iodides from irradiated painted surfaces). Several international collaborations and organizations around the world are currently addressing different aspects of this topic, including laboratory experiments and theoretical studies (ab initio) designed to improve the mechanistic understanding of the phenomena. Knowledge of the underlying mechanisms will provide explanations for behavioural differences observed between paint types, and will support the extrapolation of laboratory results to the safety analyses of nuclear reactors. The purpose of this paper is to present a selection of recent work performed by Severe Accident Research Network (SARNET) members regarding iodine–paint interactions and paint aging in order to improve the common understanding and better define what has still to be done in this area. The Severe Accident Research Network (SARNET) provides a framework within which members can share and discuss results

  18. Investigation on the hazing of a Brazilian contemporary painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglieri, Thiago S.; Lavezzo, Ariane S.; Santos, Isabela F. S. dos; de Faria, Dalva L. A.

    2016-04-01

    A whitish crystalline-like coating was observed on the surface of the painting "Incêndio", 1990, produced by Emmanuel Nassar and awarded at the 6th Biennial of Cuenca. This work belongs to the Contemporary Art Museum of the University of São Paulo (MAC-USP) and such coating modified the artwork characteristics, causing an unpleasant effect and compromising its exhibition. The choice of the proper conservation and restoration strategies involves the understanding of the degradation process, demanding the identification of the chemical compounds formed on the painting surface, as well as of the other components in the painting. The results here obtained from Raman and optical microscopies, FTIR-ATR, SEM-EDS and GC-MS, revealed that the efflorescence chemical composition is almost only palmitic acid, with minor contents of stearic acid and their methyl esters, and that the paints are composed by chrome yellow, amorphous carbon and toluidine red pigment; an aluminum silicate filler in the black paint applied on the aluminum ground was also detected. Hierarchical Cluster Analyses (HCA) of the Raman spectra also revealed that the concentration of the efflorescence minor components depends on the paint composition. It was suggested, therefore, that the degradation process resulted from segregation and migration of mainly palmitic acid from the dried paints. Restoration methodologies used in similar cases, as well as factors that contribute to this process, were discussed.

  19. Investigation on the hazing of a Brazilian contemporary painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglieri, Thiago S; Lavezzo, Ariane S; Santos, Isabela F S Dos; de Faria, Dalva L A

    2016-04-15

    A whitish crystalline-like coating was observed on the surface of the painting "Incêndio", 1990, produced by Emmanuel Nassar and awarded at the 6th Biennial of Cuenca. This work belongs to the Contemporary Art Museum of the University of São Paulo (MAC-USP) and such coating modified the artwork characteristics, causing an unpleasant effect and compromising its exhibition. The choice of the proper conservation and restoration strategies involves the understanding of the degradation process, demanding the identification of the chemical compounds formed on the painting surface, as well as of the other components in the painting. The results here obtained from Raman and optical microscopies, FTIR-ATR, SEM-EDS and GC-MS, revealed that the efflorescence chemical composition is almost only palmitic acid, with minor contents of stearic acid and their methyl esters, and that the paints are composed by chrome yellow, amorphous carbon and toluidine red pigment; an aluminum silicate filler in the black paint applied on the aluminum ground was also detected. Hierarchical Cluster Analyses (HCA) of the Raman spectra also revealed that the concentration of the efflorescence minor components depends on the paint composition. It was suggested, therefore, that the degradation process resulted from segregation and migration of mainly palmitic acid from the dried paints. Restoration methodologies used in similar cases, as well as factors that contribute to this process, were discussed. PMID:26836452

  20. Reassessing the extent of the Q classification for containment paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mounting number of site-specific paint debris transport and screen clogging analyses submitted to justify substandard containment paint work have been deemed persuasive by virtue of favorable U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission safety evaluation report (SER) findings. These lay a strong foundation for a standardized approach to redefining the extent to which paint in containment needs to be considered open-quotes Q.close quotes This information justifies an initiative by licensees to roll back paint work quality commitments made at the design phase. This paper questions the validity of the basic premise that all primary containment paint can significantly compromise core and containment cooling [emergency core cooling system/engineered safeguard feature (ECCS/ESF)]. It is posited that the physical extent of painted containment surfaces for which extant material qualification and quality control (QC) structures need apply can be limited to zones relatively proximate to ECCS/ESF suction points. For other painted containment surfaces, simplified criteria should be allowed