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1

Optimizing transfer efficiency in spray painting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes an extensive program to define the effects of operating and maintenance practices on the transfer efficiency of spray painting. Three spray painting systems were used: air-atomized conventional, air-atomized electrostatic, and airless conventional. More than 30 operating variables were initially identified and evaluated. Eight were found to be most important and received intensive testing: restricted air lines, booth air rate, gun cleanliness, restricted paint lines, fan or shaping air, gun tip erosion, electrode position, and tip voltage.

Darvin, C.H.

1987-01-01

2

Automated robot inspection of spray painted surfaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Applications of paints and coatings can be greatly enhanced by using robotics spraying. Benefits include increased application rates with tighter control over coating finish, quality, and costs. The use of robotics can reduce human exposure to hazardous m...

A. T. Wilkey J. W. Schwarz

1995-01-01

3

Sampling and Analysis of Isocyanates in Spray-Painting Operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several methods were used for the sampling and analysis of airborne 1 ,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and polyisocyanates during spray-painting operations. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 5521 uses an impinger fill...

W. E. Rudzinski B. Dahlquist S. A. Svejda A. Richardson T. Thomas

1995-01-01

4

High-solids paint overspray aerosols in a spray painting booth: particle size analysis and scrubber efficiency  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Particle size distributions of high-solids acrylic-enamel paint overspray aerosols were determined isokinetically in a typical downdraft spray painting booth in which a 7-stage cascade impactor was used. Three different industrial paint atomizers were used, and the paint aerosols were characterized before and after a paint both scrubber. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of a metallic basecoat and an acrylic clearcoat paint aerosol from air-atomized spray guns ranged from 4-12 ..mu..m and was dependent on atomization pressure. When the paint booth was operated under controlled conditions simulating those in a plant, the collection efficiency of paint overspray aerosols by a paint scrubber was found to be size dependent and decreased sharply for particles smaller than 2 ..mu..m to as low as 64% for clearcoat paint particles of 0.6 ..mu..m. Improvement in the overall particulate removal efficiency can be achieved by optimizing the spray painting operations so as to produce the least amount of fine overspray paint aerosols less than 2 ..mu..m. Maintaining a higher static pressure drop across the paint both scrubber also will improve scrubber performance.

Chan, T.L.; D' arcy, J.B.; Schreck, R.M.

1986-07-01

5

Modeling dermal exposure--an illustration for spray painting applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a conceptual, mathematical model of dermal exposure resulting from aerosol deposition on human forearm hair. The model is applicable to exposure scenarios where dermal deposition is governed by aerosol impaction, interception, and diffusion mechanisms. The model employs filtration theory, single fiber efficiency equations, and a modified potential airflow approximation. The results are extended, using previously published results, for application to dermal deposition on the forearm during spray painting. The average (N = 8) predicted dermal deposition of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate as collected on a 10-cm(2) tape strip is 108.9 (+/- 70.3) pmol, whereas field measurements indicated an average of 168.6 (+/- 82.0) pmol per strip. The corresponding measured average dermal flux was 3.63 pg/cm(2)s (+/- 1.34); the prediction was 2.24 pg/cm(2)sec (+/- 1.25). The study calls attention to the importance of body hair both for modeling and measuring dermal exposures. PMID:16857646

Flynn, Michael R; Koto, Yoshi; Fent, Kenneth; Nylander-French, Leena A

2006-09-01

6

Size distribution and speciation of chromium in paint spray aerosol at an aerospace facility.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spray painters are potentially exposed to aerosol containing Cr(VI) via inhalation of chromate-based paint spray. Two field studies were conducted at an aerospace facility to determine the size distribution and speciation of Cr(VI) in paint spray aerosol. Sampled paint products consisted of sparingly soluble strontium chromate in an epoxy resin matrix, a matrix generally known for its durability and toughness. Personal aerosol samples were collected using Sierra Marple personal cascade impactors and analyzed for Cr(VI) and total Cr. The size distribution of total Cr particles in the paint aerosol had a Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter (MMAD) of 7.5 mum [Geometric Standard Deviation (GSD = 2.7 mum)] in both field studies. The MMAD of Cr(VI) particles was 8.5 mum (GSD = 2.2 mum). Particles >2 mum constituted 90% or more of the total Cr and the Cr(VI) mass, in all sampled paint aerosols and were lognormally distributed. The target site for respiratory deposition of Cr in the aerosol was estimated based on the mass distribution of Cr according to particle size. On an average, 62% of the Cr and Cr(VI) mass in the paint aerosol consisted of particles >10 mum. This study showed that 71.8% of Cr(VI) mass in paint spray aerosol potentially inhaled by a spray painter may deposit in the head airways region. Only 2.0 and 1.4% of Cr(VI) mass in the paint aerosol may potentially deposit in the alveolar and tracheobronchial region, respectively. The ratio of Cr(VI) mass to total Cr mass was determined in bulk paint and the data indicate that Cr was predominantly in the Cr(VI) valence state, before spraying. The ratio of Cr(VI) mass to total Cr mass was also determined in paint aerosol samples. The data indicated that there was a reduction of Cr(VI) regardless of Cr aerosol particle size. Cr(VI) reduction occurred most likely during the 8 h sample collection time period. These findings are in agreement with the findings that observed Cr(VI) reduction during collection of airborne Cr(VI) in samples of chromic acid mist. The use of Cr(VI) stabilizing sampling media and the storage of samples at lower temperatures (4 degrees C ) during and after sampling may avoid the underestimation of Cr(VI). PMID:15591325

Sabty-Daily, Rania A; Harris, Patricia A; Hinds, William C; Froines, John R

2005-01-01

7

Application of shadow Doppler velocimetry to paint spray: potential and limitations in sizing optically inhomogeneous droplets  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports size measurement of droplets with optically inhomogeneous media by shadow Doppler velocimetry (SDV), which can provide spatially and temporally precise in situ readings of the size and velocity of a single particle with irregular shape and with arbitrary optical properties of the particle medium. In this work, water, instant coffee solution and water-based paint with various solid contents were measured to evaluate the capability and limitations of the measurement. The experiment with instant coffee solutions of 2 and 5% (wt:wt), which contained 0957-0233/9/2/009/img1m discrete particles, atomized by a standard paint spray gun, demonstrated that the accuracy of sizing was not affected by the optical properties of the medium. Insensitivity to the optical properties is one of the primary advantages of SDV over the other optical, single-particle sizing methods. As a further demonstration, paint samples atomized by the same gun containing solid flakes of nominal diameter 0957-0233/9/2/009/img2m were also measured. The results revealed a spatially uniform arithmetic mean diameter of 0957-0233/9/2/009/img3m and suggested that the atomization characteristics were influenced in the highest flake volume fraction case (red paint containing mica, 1.5%) with the result that the mean diameter was 20% larger than that of a similar paint with a smaller flake volume fraction (green paint containing aluminium, 0.4%). It was also found that the measurable number density is limited to no more than 1000 droplets 0957-0233/9/2/009/img4 in the case of droplets with an average size of 0957-0233/9/2/009/img5m.

Morikita, Hiroshi; Taylor, Alexander M. K. P.

1998-02-01

8

DEMONSTRATION OF SPLIT-FLOW VENTILATION AND RECIRCULATION AS FLOW-REDUCTION METHODS IN AN AIR FORCE PAINT SPRAY BOOTH - VOLUME II. APPENDICES D-J  

Science.gov (United States)

During a series of painting operations in a horizontal-flow paint spray booth at Travis AFB, CA, baseline concentrations of four classes of toxic airborne pollutants were measured at 24 locations across a plane immediately forward of the exhaust filters, in the exhaust duct, and ...

9

Therapeutic paint of cidofovir/sucralfate gel combination topically administered by spraying for treatment of orf virus infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the research was to study a new cidofovir/sucralfate drug product to be used as a spray for treating the mucosal and/or skin lesions. The product, i.e., a water suspension of sucralfate (15% w/w) and cidofovir (1% w/w), combines the potent antiviral activity of the acyclic nucleoside phosphonate cidofovir ((S)-1-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]cytosine) and the wound healing properties of sucralfate gel (sucrose octasulphate basic aluminum salt). The product was characterized in vitro with respect to compatibility between drug and carrier, spray particle size, spray deposition, drying kinetics, and drug content and release. An interaction between the two active substances was found. The interaction between sucralfate and cidofovir was counteracted by introducing sodium dihydrogen phosphate (16% w/w) in the preparation. The spray formulation containing cidofovir/sucralfate gel painted the skin and dried quickly to a scab, remaining firmly adhered to the lesions. The therapeutic paint was tested in vivo on lambs infected with orf virus by treating the animals with different cidofovir/sucralfate formulations (0.5% or 1% cidofovir + sucralfate 15% + NaH(2)PO(4) 16% w/w) and with sucralfate gel suspension alone as control. The treatment with formulations containing cidofovir and phosphate salt for four consecutive days resulted in a rapid resolution of the lesions, with scabs containing significantly lower amounts of viable virus when compared with untreated lesions and lesions treated with sucralfate suspension alone. PMID:19381838

Sonvico, Fabio; Colombo, Gaia; Gallina, Laura; Bortolotti, Fabrizio; Rossi, Alessandra; McInnes, Colin J; Massimo, Gina; Colombo, Paolo; Scagliarini, Alessandra

2009-06-01

10

Space Paint  

Science.gov (United States)

Developed at Goddard, this improved inorganic paint may help protect coastal bridges subject to extreme corrosion from seawater spray. Potassium silicate formulated into a thin waterbase binder that sprays easily, adheres readily, and can be heavily loaded with zinc particles to provide uniform coverage in a single coat. Stanford Research Institute has measured an annual market in excess of $2 billion in painting highway bridges, utility pipelines, nuclear reactors, and railcar hoppers. Other suitable markets include offshore drilling facilities, railroad bridges, and ships.

1976-01-01

11

An innovative sustainable process for VOCs recovery from spray paint booths  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air emissions from surface coating operations result from the evaporation of the organic solvents in the coatings and consist primarily of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These VOC emissions can occur in a number of places along the production line: during atomization and application of the coating, during initial air drying of the part after it leaves the spray paint booth, and, eventually, in the bake oven. The aim of this paper is to present an innovative and sustainable process based on VOC absorption. An absorption tower is fed on the top by oil, which efficiently absorbs at low temperature the VOCs contained by the off-gas that enters the tower at its bottom. The mass ratio between oil and gas is approximately 1, so that a tray configuration results more efficiently than an alternative packed column. Saturated oil from the column is then stripped at high temperature in a vacuum system that condenses VOCs at a temperature slightly below the ambient temperature. Stripped oil is then recycled to the absorption tower. Special utilities are foreseen to reduce the water content in the gas and for energy recovery all over the plant. An industrial site located in Italy works at 14,000 Nm3/h off-gas absorbed with slightly more than 10 m3/h of oil. VOCs content in the off-gas ranges daily from 1200 to 2500 ppm; an average efficiency of approx. 90% recovery is presently obtained. A further reduction to an expected value of about 95-98% will be achieved in the next months

2005-06-01

12

Stratification of particulate and VOC pollutants in horizontal-flow-paint spray booths. Report for September 1988-October 1989  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper discusses stratification of particulate and volatile organic compound (VOC) pollutants in horizontal flow paint spray booths, as part of a joint U.S. Air Force/EPA research and development program on emissions from paint spray booths. The test program discussed in the paper was designed to characterize the pollutants both within and exiting a typical back-draw booth for which emissions control strategies are being developed. The results of one series of tests indicate that the pollutants, both particulate and VOC, fall to the lower level of the booth or stratify at the level at which they were generated. This might be expected since the densities of typical pollutants found in spray booths are greater than air. The results showed, however, that the concentration of pollutants in the lower level prior to exiting the booth was significantly greater than expected. Data indicated that, for the 16 ft (4.9 m) high booth tested, the concentration at the exit of the booth below the 8 ft (2.4 m) level was 5-25 times greater than the concentration above that level. The importance of these findings is that it might be possible to partition a booth's air flow into two zones, one lean and the other concentrated. The concentrated zone could be directed to a proportionally smaller VOC control system of significantly less capital and operating cost.

Darvin, C.H.

1990-01-01

13

Spray-painted human fibronectin coating as an effective strategy to enhance graft ligamentization of a polyethylene terephthalate artificial ligament.  

Science.gov (United States)

To enhance graft ligamentization after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, human fibronectin (FN) was coated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) ligaments by spray painting. The FN-coated PET ligaments were investigated in vitro using rat mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). MSCs cultured on FN-coated grafts resulted in similar cell densities and amounts of proliferating cells with control grafts without coating. The FN-coated group not only gave rise to MSC-derived collagen-like tissues but also enhanced the expression of collagen-I gene. Furthermore, rat ACL reconstruction models were used to evaluate the effect of the FN coating in vivo. The FN coating significantly promoted new ligament tissue regeneration into the graft fibers. In conclusion, sprayed FN coating had a positive effect to enhance graft ligamentization of PET artificial ligament. PMID:24557075

Li, Hong; Chen, Chen; Ge, Yunsheng; Chen, Shiyi

2014-05-01

14

Isocyanate exposure and respiratory health effects in the spray painting industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this thesis exposure-response relationships between isocyanate exposure and respiratory health end-points and specific sensitization in spray painters were investigated. Isocyanates, a group of compounds characterized by reactive N=C=O groups, are among the most frequently identified causes of occupational asthma in industrialized countries. Isocyanates are used as polymerizing agents in polyurethane products, such as kits, glues, lacquers and insulation materials. Spray painters comprise ...

2007-01-01

15

DEMONSTRATION OF SPLIT-FLOW VENTILATION AND RECIR CULATION AS FLOW-REDUCTION METHODS IN AN AIR FORCE PAINT SPRAY BOOTH - VOLUME I. MAIN REPORT, APPENDICES A-C  

Science.gov (United States)

During a series of painting operations in a horizontal-flow paint spray booth at Travis AFB, CA, baseline concentrations of four classes of toxic airborne pollutants were measured at 24 locations across a plane immediately forward of the exhaust filters, in the exhaust duct, and ...

16

Stratification of particulate and VOC pollutants in paint spray booths, June 1990. Report for April 1988-April 1989  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper discusses flow management as part of a joint EPA/U.S. Air Force program on emissions from paint spray booths. The goal of the program is to identify and develop efficient and economical emissions control concepts for this source. Flow management is one potential solution that reduces the volume of gases that must be processed in a control system. Although it will not itself control pollution, it can influence the economic and technical viability of subsequent control systems. The test program discussed here was designed to characterize the pollutants both within and exiting a typical back-draw booth for which emissions control and flow management strategies are being developed. Study results indicate that both particulate and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) fall to the lower level of the booth or, at most, stratify at the level at which they were generated. Results indicate that the concentration at the lower level of the booth near the exhaust was from 5 to 25 times greater than that at the upper level. The importance of these findings is that it might be possible to partition a booth's air flow into two zones, one lean and the other concentrated. The enriched lower zone could then be directed to a proportionately smaller VOC control system, of lower capital and operating costs.

Darvin, C.H.; Ayer, J.

1990-01-01

17

Status of the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) spray-painting transfer-efficiency research program. Published paper, May 1984-February 1986  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper gives the status of a 5-year EPA research program on spray-painting transfer efficiency. The objective of the program has been to develop a laboratory transfer-efficiency measurement method, with the ultimate goal of a production-line-standardized transfer efficiency method. The EPA program was designed and initiated to develop the necessary background and research data to permit development of a standardized transfer-efficiency test method. To ensure as broad participation in the program as possible, numerous sources in the industry were contacted and their assistance solicited where possible. In numerous instances equipment, personnel, and facilities were donated to support the program. Three systems are discussed: air-atomized conventional, air-atomized electrostatic, and airless spray.

Darvin, C.H.; Kennedy, K.C.

1986-03-01

18

Therapeutic Paint of Cidofovir/Sucralfate Gel Combination Topically Administered by Spraying for Treatment of orf virus Infections  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the research was to study a new cidofovir/sucralfate drug product to be used as a spray for treating the mucosal and/or skin lesions. The product, i.e., a water suspension of sucralfate (15% w/w) and cidofovir (1% w/w), combines the potent antiviral activity of the acyclic nucleoside phosphonate cidofovir ((S)-1-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]cytosine) and the wound healing properties of sucralfate gel (sucrose octasulphate basic aluminum salt). The product was characterized...

2009-01-01

19

Improved Orifice Plate for Spray Gun  

Science.gov (United States)

Erratic spray pattern of commercial spray gun changed to repeatable one by simple redesign of two parts. In modified spray gun orifice plate and polytetrafluoroethylene bushing redesigned to assure centering and alignment with nozzle. Such improvement useful in many industrial applications requiring repeatable spray patterns. Might include spraying of foam insulation, paint, other protective coatings, detergents, abrasives, adhesives, process chemicals, or fuels. Unmodified spray gun produces erratic spray because lateral misalignment between orifice plate and nozzle.

Cunningham, W.

1986-01-01

20

Thermal spray for commercial shipbuilding  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermal spraying of steel with aluminum to protect it from corrosion is a technology that has been proven to work in the marine environment. The thermal spray coating system includes a paint sealer that is applied over the thermally sprayed aluminum. This extends the service life of the coating and provides color to the end product. The thermal spray system protects steel both through the principle of isolation (as in painting) and galvanizing. With this dual protection mechanism, steel is protected from corrosion even when the coating is damaged. The thermal- sprayed aluminum coating system has proved the most cost- effective corrosion protection system for the marine environment. Until recently, however, the initial cost of application has limited its use for general application. Arc spray technology has reduced the application cost of thermal spraying of aluminum to below that of painting. Commercial shipbuilders could use this technology to enhance their market position in the marine industry.

Rogers, F. S.

1997-09-01

 
 
 
 
21

Replacement of corrosion protection chromate primers and paints used in cryogenic applications on the Space Shuttle with wire arc sprayed aluminum coatings  

Science.gov (United States)

With the advent of new environmental laws restricting volatile organic compounds and hexavalent chrome emissions, 'environmentally safe' thermal spray coatings are being developed to replace the traditional corrosion protection chromate primers. A wire arc sprayed aluminum coating is being developed for corrosion protection of low pressure liquid hydrogen carrying ducts on the Space Shuttle Main Engine. Currently, this hardware utilizes a chromate primer to provide protection against corrosion pitting and stress corrosion cracking induced by the cryogenic operating environment. The wire are sprayed aluminum coating has been found to have good potential to provide corrosion protection for flight hardware in cryogenic applications. The coating development, adhesion test, corrosion test and cryogenic flexibility test results will be presented.

Daniel, R. L.; Sanders, H. L.; Zimmerman, F. R.

1995-01-01

22

Conductive paints  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electrical resistivity measurements require uniformly thick, pinhole-free, smooth films. A paint preparation and deposition procedure was developed. Adhesion strength was measured on silica and glass substrates. Electrical resistivity was also measured on SiO[sub 2] coated Si wafers. 2 tabs, 4 figs.

Soukup, R.J.; Ianno, N.J.

1992-01-01

23

Light Painting  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners create art by "light painting," also known as light drawing or light graffiti. Learners use a photographic technique that manipulates the shutter speed on your camera to allow more light to be captured in your photograph. The exposures are usually made at night or in a darkened room by moving a hand-held light source or by moving the camera. Activity has a list of artists and websites to explore for inspiration.

Houston, Children'S M.

2010-01-01

24

Possible zinc composition paints as to the painting, which can be vomited; Hake nuri kano na aen gosei toryo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The painting which made the fragrance group hydrocarbon of Belgian metal company a base and to sweep it sold zinc composition paints to Otaka company. The same paints are the liquid paints, which contain the electrolytic quality zinc powder of 99.995 % of the purity. Because it is made to combine the quality of the zinc melting plating and the zinc paints, it can get a protection character like electric chemistry, and excellent in the rust power and the close adhesion power. It can be swept in the spot, and a coating by the spray can be done, and the electric power tower and a tank and the body are painted to the bottom painting of the large metal structure thing, the top, and it is the most suitable together. (translated by NEDO)

NONE

1999-07-15

25

MEASUREMENTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND PARTICLES DURING APPLICATION OF LATEX PAINT WITH AN AIRLESS SPRAYER  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper discusses experiments, conducted at EPA's Indoor Air Quality Research House, to measure airborne concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particles during and following the spray-application of latex wall paint. (NOTE: Paint may be applied indoors by a v...

26

A trade-off study on outsource or in-house painting process  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A trade-off study was conducted to make the best decision regarding the make-or-buy of the sandblasting and spray painting of parts, using the AHP, a cost analysis and risk analysis. A consistency study was performed. A painting Quality Control Plan (QCP) was developed.

Du Plessis, L.

2011-01-01

27

Judgement of abstract paintings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In two experiments the judgement of twenty one abstract paintings was investigated. In Experiment 1, subjects were asked to make similarity judgements of 210 pairs of paintings on a 7 step bipolar scale (similar-dissimilar). The Multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) method was used for data analysis. The distribution of paintings within MDS 2-D space suggested two grouping criteria: colorfullness (e.g. from Klee to Kline) and geometrization (e.g. from Vasarely to Kandinsky). In Experiment 2, subjec...

2006-01-01

28

ENVIORNMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: ANEST IWATA CORPORATION LPH400-LV HVLP SPRAY GUN  

Science.gov (United States)

This Enviornmental Technology Verification reports on the characteristics of a paint spray gun. The research showed that the spray gun provided absolute and relative increases in transfer efficiency over the base line and provided a reduction in the use of paint....

29

SPATTER! SPATTER! SPATTER! Workers' health and the spray machine debate.  

Science.gov (United States)

A conflict between industrialization and worker health developed in the painting industry during the early 1900s with the introduction of the spray machine. This technological innovation allowed the application of paint at greater speed and lower cost than hand painting and increased the rate at which painters were exposed to lead and other toxins contained in paint. From roughly 1919 to 1931, the painters' trade union clashed with employers, paint manufacturers, and legislatures over the impact of the spray machine on the health of workers and the need to enact legislation to regulate its use. While painters made gains on local, state, and national levels during the 1920s to prevent the use of the spray machine, their efforts ultimately failed. PMID:16434688

Frounfelker, Rochelle L

2006-02-01

30

Proactive Intelligence (PAINT).  

Science.gov (United States)

This report documents a Northrop Grumman contract that was awarded under the IARPA Proactive Intelligence (PAINT) program to develop a modeling technology to support the Intelligence Community in avoiding strategic national security surprises. The technol...

M. Singh

2008-01-01

31

Chromosome painting in plants.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The current 'state-of-art' as to chromosome painting in plants is reviewed. We define different situations described as painting so far: i) Genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) with total genomic DNA to distinguish alien chromosomes on the basis of divergent dispersed repeats, ii) 'Chromosomal in situ suppression' (CISS) hybridisation with chromosome-derived DNA probes and blocking of interchromosomally dispersed repeats by total genomic or C0 t-1 DNA in excess, iii) exceptional cases of sing...

Schubert, I.; Fransz, P. F.; Fuchs, J.; Jong, J. H.

2001-01-01

32

Transport of a solvent mixture across two glove materials when applied in a paint matrix.  

Science.gov (United States)

The transport of mixed paint solvents through natural rubber latex (4 mil) and nitrile rubber (5 mil) gloves was evaluated after spray application of the paint formulation directly on the glove surface. Glove materials and thicknesses were those selected by the majority of spray painters in the local automobile repair industry. A flat panel containing glove specimens mounted in multiple permeation cells permitted evaporation of solvents from the applied paint and incorporated a solid sorbent receiving medium for measuring glove membrane transport. The panel was sprayed in a paint booth to simulate use conditions. Charcoal cloth under the glove adsorbed transported solvents, which were quantified by gas chromatography. For each solvent component, results were expressed as mass transported through the glove relative to the mass applied, per unit area, during 30 min after spray application. The paint formulation contained ketones, acetates, and aromatics. Natural rubber latex allowed 6-10 times the transport of solvents relative to nitrile rubber for all eight solvent components: methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, styrene, ethyl benzene, xylene isomers, and 2-heptanone. m-Xylene showed the largest difference in transport between the two glove materials. This solvent also had the highest transport for each material. The results indicate that nitrile rubber gloves offer somewhat greater chemical resistance to all eight solvents studied compared with natural rubber latex gloves, regardless of the chemical properties of the individual solvent components. However, it must be emphasized that neither of the glove materials, in the thicknesses used in this study, provide adequate protection when exposed by direct spray painting. Simulation of realistic spray conditions may offer a source of useful information on the performance of chemical protective gloves because it accounts for solvent evaporation and the effect of paint polymerization after application on glove transport. PMID:22434453

Tran, Jackelin Q; Ceballos, Diana M; Dills, Russell L; Yost, Michael G; Morgan, Michael S

2012-07-01

33

Fiber sputtering and painting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The selection of the sigma design for the plate-fiber modules of the SSC calorimeter has reduced by a factor of two the number of fiber ends that will be read directly by photomultiplier tubes. With this design, only one of the ends of a fiber will be connected to a readout channel. In order to avoid wasting the light coming from the other end of the fiber inside the plate, mirroring techniques such as sputtering and painting are being studied. The sputtering and/or painting of optical fibers such as BCF91A considerably increases the light output of the plate-fiber system. (Author)

1992-05-02

34

Antistatic sprays  

Science.gov (United States)

Antistatic sprays from several different manufacturers are examined. The sprays are examined for contamination potential (i.e., outgassing and nonvolatile residue), corrosiveness on an aluminum mirror surface, and electrostatic effectiveness. In addition, the chemical composition of the antistatic sprays is determined by infrared spectrophotometry, mass spectrometry, and ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The results show that 12 of the 17 antistatic sprays examined have a low contamination potential. Of these sprays, 7 are also noncorrosive to an aluminum surface. And of these, only 2 demonstrate good electrostatic properties with respect to reducing voltage accumulation; these sprays did not show a fast voltage dissipation rate however. The results indicate that antistatic sprays can be used on a limited basis where contamination potential, corrosiveness, and electrostatic effectiveness is not critical. Each application is different and proper evaluation of the situation is necessary. Information on some of the properties of some antistatic sprays is presented in this document to aid in the evaluation process.

Ming, James E.

1989-01-01

35

Teaching an Industrial Robot to Spray: A spacing device establishes the spray-head positions for the point-by-point manipulator pattern.  

Science.gov (United States)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. A spacing-and-leveling device helps to 'teach' an industrial robot how to spray paint (or other coating materials) rapidly and economically over large irregular stru...

1982-01-01

36

Improved thermal paint formulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Potassium silicate-treated zinc oxide paint stabilizes pigment against ultraviolet-induced, bleachable degradation in infrared region, and permits use of ZnO as pigment in ultraviolet-stable coatings based upon polymethyl siloxane elastomers and resins. Material has low absorptance/emittance ratio.

Gates, D. W.; Roger, F. O.; Zerlaut, G. A.

1971-01-01

37

Painting for public perception  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the work of a wildlife artist, Lucas Seaward, in eliciting public opinion on the oilsands industry. He is in the process of creating 20 or more paintings using oil on canvas, not the Chagall or van Gogh sort of oil, but bitumen extracted near Fort McMurray. The paintings are designed for an exhibition to travel across Canada. His aim is to spread awareness that the oilsands industry is working hard towards sustainability and the protection of wildlife. Apart from being evil-smelling, bitumen is stiff, it does not dry quickly, and it wears out paint brushes really fast. Similarly to producers who add a diluent for proper flow, Seaward also found an additive that allowed smooth flow so that he could paint the bitumen in thin layers that dried properly and also was able to produce gradations of color. The idea is to educate the general public out of his personal experience of Fort McMurray and the oilsands industry.

Collison, M.

2011-12-15

38

Paint removal principles  

Science.gov (United States)

An attempt is made to group the various processes of paint removal into families. The classifications are distinguished by chemical, mechanical, and thermal phenomena. For each of these phenomena, it is possible to identify the main mechanisms brought into play in material removal leading to paint stripping. The chemical strippers used are methylene chloride, phenolic compounds, and activated acids or activated bases free from phenols, chromates or methylene chloride. However, the methylene chloride and phenolic compounds are being replaced by a new generation of chemical strippers which are less active and their solvent power is lower. To improve the chemical kinetics, 'active' elements are introduced into the composition of these products. Mechanical stripping includes technologies using mechanical phenomena based on erosion, achieved by friction or blasting particles. Thermal stripping, the last classification, makes use of electronics and automation.

Malavallon, Olivier

1995-04-01

39

Antifouling paint biocides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume describes the state-of-the-art advances regarding antifouling paint biocides and provides thorough evaluation of research and information on major topics such as occurrence and levels, environmental fate, analytical techniques and methods for the monitoring and control, environmental modeling, ecotoxicological effects and risk assessment placing emphasis on the knowledge acquired over the last 10 years. The contamination of the aquatic environment by antifouling compounds has been a topic of increasing importance during the last few years. The major classes of antifouling active biocides are discussed including the old-fashioned organotin compounds, the modern organic booster biocides and the promising naturally occurring antifoulant products. Therefore, the reader will get a balanced view of this developing field. Chapters were written by leading experts in their field who critically surveyed all the major areas of progress. This volume is an important resource and can constitute a good grounding in the field of antifouling paint biocides. (orig.)

Konstantinou, I.K. (ed.) [Ioannina Univ., Agrinio (Greece). Dept. of Environmental and Natural Resources Management

2006-07-01

40

24 CFR 35.1320 - Lead-based paint inspections, paint testing, risk assessments, lead-hazard screens, and...  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Lead-based paint inspections, paint testing, risk assessments, lead-hazard...35.1320 Lead-based paint inspections, paint testing, risk assessments, lead-hazard... (a) Lead-based paint inspections and paint...

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
41

Characterization and Optimization of Polymer-Ceramic Pressure-Sensitive Paint by Controlling Polymer Content  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) with fast response characteristics that can be sprayed on a test article is studied. This PSP consists of a polymer for spraying and a porous particle for providing the fast response. We controlled the polymer content (%) from 10 to 90% to study its effects on PSP characteristics: the signal level, pressure sensitivity, temperature dependency, and time response. The signal level and temperature dependency shows a peak in the polymer content around 50 to 70%. T...

Hirotaka Sakaue; Takuma Kakisako; Hitoshi Ishikawa

2011-01-01

42

Reducer Selection When Doing Overall Paint Jobs Using Enamel Paints. Lesson Plan No. 1 of Auto Repair and Painting.  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson, which is part of a high school course in auto body repair and painting, deals with selecting a reducer when doing overall paint jobs using enamel paints. Students are taught the general properties of different types of enamel paints and selection of the proper reducer for each type of paint, depending on the weather and the specific…

Tyau, Layton M.

43

Numerical and experimental study of spray coating using air-assisted high pressure atomizers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Spray coating proccsses are characterized by their relatively large paint wastage and high energy consumption, especially in car industry. The unavoidable overspray, caused by poor transfer efficiency, has to be removed quickly from the paint booth, in order to preserve the painting quality on the subject surface. The therefore needed conditioned air stream results in intensive energy requirement for the disposal of the overspray. Against the background of increasing demands on energy-efficie...

Ye, Qiaoyan; Shen, Bo; Tiedje, Oliver; Domnick, Joachim

2012-01-01

44

Spray cooling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spray cooling - using water spraying in air - is surveyed as a possible system for make-up (peak clipping in open circuit) or major cooling (in closed circuit) of the cooling water of the condensers in thermal power plants. Indications are given on the experiments made in France and the systems recently developed in USA, questions relating to performance, cost and environmental effects of spray devices are then dealt with

1975-10-06

45

Old painting digital color restoration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many old paintings suffer from the effects of certain physicochemical phenomena, that can seriously degrade their overall visual appearance.Digital image processing techniques can be utilized for the purpose of restoring the original appearance of a painting, with minimal physical interaction with the painting surface. In this paper, a number of methods are presented which can yield satisfactory results. Indeed, simulation results indicate that acceptable restoration performance may be attain...

Pappas, M.; Pitas, I.

2010-01-01

46

Additive Transforms Paint into Insulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Tech Traders Inc. sought assistance developing low-cost, highly effective coatings and paints that created useful thermal reflectance and were safe and non-toxic. In cooperation with a group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center., Tech Traders created Insuladd, a powder additive made up of microscopic, inert gas-filled, ceramic microspheres that can be mixed into ordinary interior or exterior paint, allowing the paint to act like a layer of insulation. When the paint dries, this forms a radiant heat barrier, turning the ordinary house paint into heat-reflecting thermal paint. According to Tech Traders, the product works with all types of paints and coatings and will not change the coverage rate, application, or adhesion of the paint. Other useful applications include feed storage silos to help prevent feed spoilage, poultry hatcheries to reduce the summer heat and winter cold effects, and on military vehicles and ships. Tech Traders has continued its connection to the aerospace community by recently providing Lockheed Martin Corporation with one of its thermal products for use on the F-22 Raptor.

2007-01-01

47

Painting rusted steel: The role of aluminum phosphosilicate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: •Aluminum phosphosilicate is an acid pigment which could act as mild phosphating agent. •Aluminum phosphosilicate can phosphatize iron oxides on rusted surfaces. •Aluminum phosphosilicate is compatible with acid binders. •Aluminum phosphosilicate could replace chromate in complete painting schemes. •Aluminum phosphosilicate primers improve paints adhesion on rusted surfaces. -- Abstract: Surface preparation is a key factor for the adequate performance of a paint system. The aim of this investigation is to employ a wash-primer to accomplish the chemical conversion of rusted surface when current cleaning operations are difficult to carry out. The active component of the wash-primer was aluminum phosphosilicate whose electrochemical behavior and the composition of the generated protective layer, both, were studied by electrochemical techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Primed rusted steel panels were coated with an alkyd system to perform accelerated tests in the salt spray chamber and electrochemical impedance measurements (EIS). These tests were conducted in parallel with a chromate wash primer and the same alkyd system. Results showed that the wash-primer containing aluminum phosphosilicate could be used satisfactorily to paint rusted steel exhibiting a similar performance to the chromate primer

2013-09-01

48

EVALUATION OF SUPERCRITICAL CO2 SPRAY TECHNOLOGY AS A COST EFFECTIVE APPROACH TO REDUCTION OF SOLVENTS IN WOOD FINISHING  

Science.gov (United States)

Product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues were evaluated for a spray paint application technology using supercritical carbon dioxide to replace some of the solvent in a conventional solvent-borne coatings formulation. roduct quality was evaluated by comparing product ...

49

New biocides for antifouling paints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The antifouling paints are used for protecting the hulls of the boasts from the undesirable accumulation of micro-organisms, plants, and animals on artificial surfaces (marine biological fouling). These paints constitute a potential risk for the marine environment, because of the presence in their formulation, among the other potentially toxic components, of organic compounds acting as biocide. The environmental problems associated with the use of the organotin compounds as biocides in the antifouling paints, have lead to the international ban of these compounds. In the article the new antifouling paints coming up the national and international market are shortly introduced and discussed, with particular attention respect to the new organic compounds used as biocides. In Italy quite a few marine monitoring campaigns have been carried out for organotin compounds, on the contrary there is a lack of data regarding the presence of other biocides

2005-01-01

50

Paint removal activities in Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

Paint removal activities currently under way in Canada include: research and development of laser paint stripping; development and commercialization of a new blasting medium based on wheat starch; commercialization of a new blasting medium and process using crystalline ice blasting for paint removal and surface cleaning; and the development of automated and robotic systems for paint stripping applications. A specification for plastic media blasting (PMB) of aircraft and aircraft components is currently being drafted by NDHQ for use by the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) and contractors involved in coating removal for the CAF. Defense Research Establishment Pacific (DREP) is studying the effects of various blast media on coating removal rates, and minimizing the possibility of damage to substrates other than aluminum such as graphite epoxy composite and Kevlar. The effects of plastic media blasting on liquid penetrant detection of fatigue cracks is also under investigation.

Foster, Terry

1993-03-01

51

Neutron absorbing-shielding paint  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This invention concerns neutron absorbing shielding paints showing excellent adhesion at high temperature. As such paints, although silicon rubber in which boron carbide is dispersed has been known so far, it has a drawback that defoliation, crack, etc. are caused to the painted films at a temperature higher than 200degC, and it can not be used as a pressure vessel. The present invention overcomes such a drawback. That is, the paint according to the present invention comprises 15 to 80 parts by weight of a silicon resin, 15 to 80 parts by weight of boron carbide and 1 to 50 parts by weight of low melting glazes. The glaze ingredients described above react with SiO2 formed upon thermal decomposition of the silicone resin to provide a function as a binder. (K.M.)

1988-01-07

52

Neutron absorbing-shielding paint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention concerns neutron absorbing shielding paints showing excellent adhesion at high temperature. As such paints, although silicon rubber in which boron carbide is dispersed has been known so far, it has a drawback that defoliation, crack, etc. are caused to the painted films at a temperature higher than 200degC, and it can not be used as a pressure vessel. The present invention overcomes such a drawback. That is, the paint according to the present invention comprises 15 to 80 parts by weight of a silicon resin, 15 to 80 parts by weight of boron carbide and 1 to 50 parts by weight of low melting glazes. The glaze ingredients described above react with SiO{sub 2} formed upon thermal decomposition of the silicone resin to provide a function as a binder. (K.M.).

Matsuda, Koichi; Nishikawa, Hiroshi; Harada, Hiroshi.

1989-07-13

53

The transdisciplinary potential of remediated painting  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

"The Transdisciplinary Potential of Remediated Painting" Over the last decades the notion of what painting is has been considerably widened due to intermediality, i.e. crossovers between artistic media such as painting and sculpture, painting and photography, painting and installation, painting and performance etc. This paper suggests that the transformation of the discipline of painting into an expanded field has not only liberated painting from its ties to its traditional repertoire of materials and modes of representation. It has also released a tremendous potential for image making that takes painting as a point of departure but moves beyond the limitations of dialogic intermedia into the field of transdisciplinary aesthetics. In support of my argument, I turn to the concept of remediation as it was first applied in new media theory by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin. The ambition is to develop an apprehension of painting not as an artistic artifact or 'medium-specific' practice, but as a critical remediating process - painting as remediated painting. What could be gained from this reconceptualisation of the expanded field of painting? Firstly, it introduces an apprehension of painting that starts from the transdisciplinary potential of painting instead of its historical disciplinarity and the attendant assumption that, as a discipline, painting functions independently and establishes its own separate space of cultural meaning. Secondly, it defines painting as active, performative and migrant. It suggests that today painting is active as a cultural force, not just as fine art. In order to substantiate these claims, the paper analyses works by some contemporary Northern European artists.

Petersen, Anne Ring

2011-01-01

54

Effect of ultraviolet radiation on corrosion of painted steels. Tosoko no fushoku ni oyobosu shigaisen no eikyo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the organic paint films on outdoor steel structures, the protective property decreases with increase of exposure time, water, oxygen and the polluting matters would be easy to pass through them. The passed environmental matters lead to bulge out paint films, rust was generated by corroding steels. The organic paint films were deteriorated by the sunlight, specially ultraviolet radiation among the environmental factors in the atmosphere, and gloss of surface and adhesion of paint films would be decreased. On one hand, it is known that corrosion speed was increased by ultraviolet radiation or the sunlight in un-painted soft steels and copper in outdoor or an aqueous solution. In this study, the painted steels were radiated by ultraviolet using a xenon lamp, corrosion was accelerated by a salt spraying test, influence of ultraviolet radiation on corrosion of painted steels and effect of corrosion resistance by treatment of chemical composition were examined. Specially, it was clarified that the phosphate treatment can control the corrosion acceleration by ultraviolet radiation for the painted steels. 22 refs., 10 figs.

Kurosawa, K. (National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)); Loha, V. (King Mongkut' s Inst. of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand)); Mamaril, E. (Industrial Technology Development Inst., Manila (Philippines)); Buranawanich, P. (Department of Mineral Resources, Bangkok (Thailand))

1993-05-15

55

Paints hardened by ionizing radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention deals with a paint which can be hardened by ionizing radiation from a film-forming solution of an ?-, ?-olefinic unsaturated organic resin in a compound with the resin copolimerizable under ionizing radiation (e.g. vinyl monomers), as well as the usual additions which is characterized by the addition of saturated thermoplastic vinyl polymers (mol. wt. 10.000 to 50.000). The addition should be 2 to 7 wt. % of the paint. The thus prepared coatings form weather-resistant films on wood, metal and formed polymer surfaces. (9 examples). (UWI)

1976-01-01

56

EVALUATION OF LOW-VOC LATEX PAINTS  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper gives results of an evaluation of four commercially available low-VOC (volatile organic compound) latex paints as substitutes for conventional latex paints by assessing both their emission characteristics and their performance as coatings. Bulk analysis indicated that ...

57

Motion planning for robotic spray cleaning with environmentally safe solvents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Automatic motion planning of a spray cleaning robot with collision avoidance is presented in this paper. In manufacturing environments, electronic and mechanical components are traditionally cleaned by spraying or dipping them using chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvents. As new scientific data show that such solvents are major causes for stratospheric ozone depletion, an alternate cleaning method is needed. Part cleaning with aqueous solvents is environmentally safe, but can require precision spraying at high pressures for extended time periods. Operator fatigue during manual spraying can decrease the quality of the cleaning process. By spraying with a robotic manipulator, the necessary spray accuracy and consistency to manufacture highreliability components can be obtained. Our motion planner was developed to automatically generate motions for spraying robots based on the part geometry and cleaning process parameters. For spraying paint and other coatings a geometric description of the parts and robot may be sufficient for motion planning, since coatings are usually done over the visible surfaces. For spray cleaning, the requirement to reach hidden surfaces necessitates the addition of a rule-based method to the geometric motion planning.

Hwang, Yong K.; Meirans, L.; Drotning, W.D.

1993-09-01

58

Spray nozzle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a spray nozzle. It comprises: a body having fluid inlet means at one end thereof and exit orifice means at the other end thereof, the fluid inlet means communicating with the exit orifice means through a fluid flow path extending through the body, the exist orifice means being adapted to atomize a fluid as the fluid leaves the body; and separate means for atomizing the fluid independent of the exit orifice means. The separate atomizing means being axially offset and eccentrically positioned relative to the exist orifice means and communicating with the fluid flow path upstream of the exist orifice means, the separate atomizing means producing a flat spray of the fluid as the fluid leaves the body.

Shekelton, J.R.; Smith, R.W.

1990-11-20

59

Numerical simulation of thin paint film flow  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Being able to predict the visual appearance of a painted steel sheet, given its topography before paint application, is of crucial importance for car makers. Accurate modeling of the industrial painting process is required. The equations describing the leveling of the paint are complex and their numerical simulation requires advanced mathematical tools, which are described in detail in this paper. Simulations are validated using a large experimental database obtained with a wavefront sensor d...

Figliuzzi, Bruno; Jeulin, Dominique; Lemaitre, Anae?l; Fricout, Gabriel; Manneville, Paul; Jean-jacques, Piezanowski

2012-01-01

60

Household hazardous waste: composition of paint waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc.) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%.Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was low and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when incinerated. Allowing household paint waste to be collected with ordinary household waste is expected to reduce the cost of handling household hazardous waste, since paint waste in Denmark comprises the major fraction of household hazardous waste. PMID:18229744

Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas H

2007-12-01

 
 
 
 
61

Glass Beads for Traffic Paints.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intermediate index of refraction (1.65+) glass beads for traffic paint were field tested to determine whether the increased cost of these beads over standard index beads (1.50 to 1.65 index) was justified on the basis of increased nighttime reflectivity d...

J. G. F. Hiss W. M. McCarty

1966-01-01

62

Nicotine Nasal Spray  

Science.gov (United States)

Nicotine nasal spray is used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine nasal spray should be used together with a ... support groups, counseling, or specific behavior change techniques. Nicotine nasal spray is in a class of medications ...

63

Spray Nozzle Calibrations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spray nozzle calibration techniques were evaluated. Ten spray nozzles to be utilized for producing simulated icing clouds were calibrated to determine the ranges of mass median droplet diameter and water flow rate. The number and types of spray nozzles ca...

J. D. Hunt

1986-01-01

64

Theoretical and experimental aspects of paint film leveling: Presentation held at Coatings for the Next Decade, 1st European Technical Coatings Congress, ETCC 2012, 4-6 June 2012, Lausanne, Switzerland. FATIPEC-OCCA Congress  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Next to color and gloss, the leveling of paint films is the most important criterion for the evaluation of coating quality of high-quality products. In case of incomplete leveling the surface of the paint film after drying and curing shows a more or less strong "orange-peel structure". For paint films that are applied by using spraying techniques the random statistical superposition of the paint droplets during film formation is main cause for the occurrence of orange-peel structure. The part...

Hager, Christian; Schneider, Matthias; Strohbeck, Ulrich

2012-01-01

65

Evaluation of low-VOC latex paints  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper gives results of an evaluation of four commercially available low-VOC (volatile organic compound) latex paints as substitutes for conventional latex paints by assessing both their emission characteristics and their performance as coatings. Bulk analysis indicated that the VOC contents of all four paints are considerably lower than those of conventional latex paints. Low-VOC emissions were confirmed by small chamber emission tests. However, sigificant emissions of several aldehydes, especially formaldehyde, were detected from two of the paints. ASTM methods were used to evaluate the hiding power, scrubbability, washability, dry to touch, and yellowing index. The results indicated that one of the low-VOC paints tested showed performance equivalent or superior to that of a widely used conventional latex paint used as a control. It was concluded that low-VOC latex paint can be a viable option to replace conventional latex paints for prevention of indoor air pollution. However, paints marketed as low-VOC may still have significant emissions of some individual VOCs, and some may not have performance characteristics matching those of conventional latex paints.

Chang, J.C.S.; Fortmann, R.C.; Roache, N.F.; Lao, H.C.

1999-01-01

66

Evaluation of low-VOC latex paints  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper gives results of an evaluation of four commercially available low-VOC (volatile organic compound) latex paints as substitutes for conventional latex paints by assessing both their emission characteristics and their performance as coatings. Bulk analysis indicated that the VOC contents of all four paints are considerably lower than those of conventional latex paints. Low-VOC emissions were confirmed by small chamber emission tests. However, sigificant emissions of several aldehydes, especially formaldehyde, were detected from two of the paints. ASTM methods were used to evaluate the hiding power, scrubbability, washability, dry to touch, and yellowing index. The results indicated that one of the low-VOC paints tested showed performance equivalent or superior to that of a widely used conventional latex paint used as a control. It was concluded that low-VOC latex paint can be a viable option to replace conventional latex paints for prevention of indoor air pollution. However, paints marketed as low-VOC may still have significant emissions of some individual VOCs, and some may not have performance characteristics matching those of conventional latex paints.

Chang, J.C.S.; Fortmann, R.C.; Roache, N.F.; Lao, H.C.

1999-11-01

67

Computer analysis of ATR-FTIR spectra of paint samples for forensic purposes  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of subtraction and normalization of IR spectra (MSN-IR) was developed and successfully applied to extract mathematically the pure paint spectrum from the spectrum of paint coat on different bases, both acquired by the Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) technique. The method consists of several stages encompassing several normalization and subtraction processes. The similarity of the spectrum obtained with the reference spectrum was estimated by means of the normalized Manhattan distance. The utility and performance of the method proposed were tested by examination of five different paints sprayed on plastic (polyester) foil and on fabric materials (cotton). It was found that the numerical algorithm applied is able - in contrast to other mathematical approaches conventionally used for the same aim - to reconstruct a pure paint IR spectrum effectively without a loss of chemical information provided. The approach allows the physical separation of a paint from a base to be avoided, hence a time and work-load of analysis to be considerably reduced. The results obtained prove that the method can be considered as a useful tool which can be applied to forensic purposes.

Szafarska, Ma?gorzata; Wo?niakiewicz, Micha?; Pilch, Mariusz; Zi?ba-Palus, Janina; Ko?cielniak, Pawe?

2009-04-01

68

Robotic sensors for aircraft paint stripping  

Science.gov (United States)

Aircraft of all types need to have paint routinely removed from their outer surfaces. Any method needs to be controlled to remove all the paint and not damage the surface of the aircraft. Human operators get bored with the monotonous task of stripping paint from an aircraft and thus do not control the process very well. This type of tedious operation tends itself to robotics. A robot that strips paint from aircraft needs to have feedback as to the state of the stripping process, its location in respect to the aircraft, and the availability of stripping material. This paper describes the sensors used on the paint stripping robot being developed for the United States Air Force's Manufacturing Technology Program. Particular attention is given to the paint sensor which is the feedback element for determining the state of the stripping process.

Weniger, Richard J.

1990-10-01

69

Wire-Arc-Sprayed Aluminum Protects Steel Against Corrosion  

Science.gov (United States)

Aluminum coatings wire-arc sprayed onto steel substrates found effective in protecting substrates against corrosion. Coatings also satisfy stringent requirements for adhesion and flexibility, both at room temperature and at temperatures as low as liquid hydrogen. Developed as alternatives to corrosion-inhibiting primers and paints required by law to be phased out because they contain and emit such toxic substances as chromium and volatile organic compounds.

Zimmerman, Frank R.; Poorman, Richard; Sanders, Heather L.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.; Bonds, James W., Jr.; Daniel, Ronald L., Jr.

1995-01-01

70

Multiple metal contamination from house paints: consequences of power sanding and paint scraping in New Orleans.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Power sanding exterior paint is a common practice during repainting of old houses in New Orleans, Louisiana, that triggers lead poisoning and releases more than Pb. In this study we quantified the Pb, zinc, cadmium, manganese, nickel, copper, cobalt, chromium, and vanadium in exterior paint samples collected from New Orleans homes (n = 31). We used interior dust wipes to compare two exterior house-painting projects. House 1 was measured in response to the plight of a family after a paint cont...

2001-01-01

71

Nuclear analytical study of rock paintings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An exfoliated fragment of a rock painting from Lesotho was analyzed by differentiated backscatter spectrometry to obtain the paint thickness, which ranged from about 2 to 6.5 ?m, and its empirical formula for stopping power calculations. Elemental composition was determined by PIXE. Fe-rich paint spots were red in color and Ca-rich ones, pinkish. Because of the chemical mobility of calcium, this paint component should become the focus to which conservation techniques should be directed. (author) 12 refs.; 4 figs

1991-09-01

72

EMISSION RATES OF MERCURY FROM LATEX PAINTS  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper gives results of tests of latex paints containing organic mercury additives in small environmental test chambers to determine the emission rates of mercury. Five paints were evaluated: two contained phenyl mercuric acetate (PMA); and the other three, different additives...

73

Detecting Corrosion Under Paint and Insulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Corrosion is a major concern at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida due to the proximity of the center to the Atlantic Ocean and to salt water lagoons. High humidity, salt fogs, and ocean breezes, provide an ideal environment in which painted steel structures become corroded. Maintenance of painted steel structures is a never-ending process.

Bastin, Gary L.

2011-01-01

74

THz reflectometric imaging of medieval wall paintings  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Terahertz time-domain reflectometry has been applied to the investigation of a medieval Danish wall painting. The technique has been able to detect the presence of carbonblack layer on the surface of the wall painting and a buried insertion characterized by high reflectivity values has been found in depth of the lime-based historical plaster.

Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

2013-01-01

75

24 CFR 35.1320 - Lead-based paint inspections, paint testing, risk assessments, lead-hazard screens, and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint inspections, paint testing, risk assessments, lead-hazard screens, and reevaluations...Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN...

2010-04-01

76

Optical fuel spray measurements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Diesel fuel sprays, including fuel/air mixing and the physics of two-phase jet formation, are discussed in the thesis. The fuel/air mixing strongly affects emissions formation in spray combustion processes where the local combustion conditions dictate the emission formation. This study comprises optical measurements both in pressurized spray test rigs and in a running engine.The studied fuel injection was arranged with a common rail injection system and the injectors were operated with a solenoid-based injection valve. Both marine and heavy-duty diesel engine injectors were used in the study. Optical fuel spray measurements were carried out with a laser-based double-framing camera system. This kind of equipments is usually used for flow field measurements with Particle Image Velocimetry technique (PIV) as well as for backlight imaging. Fundamental fuel spray properties and spray formation were studied in spray test rigs. These measurements involved studies of mixing, atomization, and the flow field. Test rig measurements were used to study the effect of individual injection parameters and component designs. Measurements of the fuel spray flow field, spray penetration, spray tip velocity, spray angle, spray structure, droplet accumulation, and droplet size estimates are shown. Measurement campaign in a running optically accessible large-bore medium-speed engine was also carried out. The results from engine tests were compared with equivalent test rig measurements, as well as computational results, to evaluate the level of understanding of sprays. It was shown that transient spray has an acceleration and a deceleration phase. Successive flow field measurements (PIV) in optically dense diesel spray resulted in local and average velocity data of diesel sprays. Processing fuel spray generates a flow field to surrounding gas and entrainment of surrounding gas into fuel jet was also seen at the sides of the spray. Laser sheet imaging revealed the inner structure of diesel spray and accumulation of droplets. Also shockwave formation was recorded when supersonic fuel jet exits the nozzle orifice. These results were used to evaluate spray formation and the structure was compared with simulated fuel sprays. Novel information, more refined and focused results, and better understanding of the nature of atomization and sprays was gathered. It was shown that new methods enable more precise understanding of transient two-phase sprays to be gained. (orig.)

Hillamo, H.

2011-07-01

77

Spectrally selective paint coatings. Preparation and characterization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Preparation and characterization of spectrally selective paint coating for photothermal solar energy conversion are discussed. The applied methods for preparation of paints with described measurements and calculations of black-pigmented coatings were reviewed. The article represents not only possible future applications but also past and current applications of spectrally selective paint coating which are used all over the world since the 1980s. Spectrally selective paint coatings based on combinations of two types of resins, various types of pigments and three types of silica, were prepared. The influence of pigment type and pigment volume concentration (PVC) was studied by applying the Kubelka-Munk (K-M) theory. The relation between the degrees of dispersion and distribution of pigment particles across the paint layer is discussed in terms of K-M coefficients.

Crnjak Orel, Z.C.; Klanjsek Gunde, M. [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2001-06-01

78

Paint removal activities in the US Navy  

Science.gov (United States)

Use of methylene chloride and phenol based chemical strippers for aircraft paint removal generates large quantities of hazardous waste and creates health and safety problems for operating personnel. This paper presents an overview of the U.S. Navy's activities in the investigation and implementation of alternate paint stripping methods which will minimize or eliminate hazardous waste and provide a safe operating environment. Alternate paint removal methods under investigation by the Navy at the present time include use of non-hazardous chemical paint removers, xenon flashlamp/CO2 pellets, lasers and plastic media. Plastic media blasting represents a mature technology in current usage for aircraft paint stripping and is being investigated for determination of its effects on Navy composite aircraft configurations.

Kozol, Joseph

1993-03-01

79

Effects of gamma radiation on paints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The systems and components involved in reactor operation are subject to degradation and aging effects. These effects must be evaluated for accelerated aging of plant components. Generally, the organic materials used in nuclear field such as wire insulation, paints, adhesives, sealants are affected by gamma radiation. The radiation effects on paints were studied at INR - Pitesti and APPVRI - Bucuresti. This paper presents the change of the characteristics of two types of powder paints deposited in electrostatic field on metallic surface, gamma irradiated at 110 kGy and 200 kGy. After irradiation the paints have very good support adherence, high elasticity and impact resistance. They also resist to the action of the acids and the bases used for decontamination. The tests on the paints demonstrated that they can be of successfully used in nuclear field. (authors)

2005-09-13

80

Rheological effects in roll coating of paints  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english the aim of this work is the study of the problems that arise during roll coating application of paints on steel sheets. We put in evidence the particular effects due to the non-Newtonian properties of these fluids. At speeds above a certain critical value, the flow of paint through the applicator su [...] ffers a hydrodynamical instability called ribbing, which generates a patterned interface on the film applied. Threshold of instability as well as waveform of the pattern is function of rheological properties of paints as well as surface tension. Thixotropy of paints as well as shear-thinning behaviour has been determined for several industrial paints used in the steel industry, and correlated with levelling performance after application.

Varela López, F.; Rosen, M..

 
 
 
 
81

Fixed Automated Spray Technology.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research project evaluated the construction and performance of Boschungs Fixed Automated Spray Technology (FAST) system. The FAST system automatically sprays de-icing material on the bridge when icing conditions are about to occur. The FAST system in...

2011-01-01

82

Spray for all seasons  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Development of polyurethane foam spray systems and equipment for its application are briefly reviewed. The advantages of external application, the effect of climatic conditions on PUR/PTR (polyuranate/isocyanurate) rigid foam systems sprayed externally, and ways of increasing the rate of producing sprayed foam are discussed. Typical properties for four isofoam spray systems are given that illustrate the effect of density on other physical properties of the systems. (MCW)

Wildman, A.E.

1982-06-01

83

Fragmentation of drying paint layers  

Science.gov (United States)

Fragmentation of thin layers of drying granular materials on a frictional surface are studied both by experiments and computer simulations. Besides a qualitative description of the fragmentation phenomenon, the dependence of the average fragment size as a function of the layer thickness is thoroughly investigated. Experiments are done using a special nail polish, which forms characteristic crack structures during drying. In order to control the layer thickness, we diluted the nail polish in acetone and evaporated in a controlled manner different volumes of this solution on glass surfaces. During the evaporation process we managed to get an instable paint layer, which formed cracks as it dried out. In order to understand the obtained structures a previously developed spring-block model was implemented in a three-dimensional version. The experimental and simulation results proved to be in excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement. An earlier suggested scaling relation between the average fragment size and the layer thickness is reconfirmed.

Bakos, Katinka; Dombi, András; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Néda, Zoltán

2013-11-01

84

Measurement of tritium in dial painting industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tritium in the form of polystyrene is used coated on zinc sulphide as the active component for the manufacture of self-luminous paint. To study the radiological implication of airborne tritium in the luminous paint industry air monitoring study was conducted by cold strip method and Andersen method. Airborne particulate in different locations in luminous paint (LP) building and background areas were observed to be associated with activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 1.8 to 5.0 um. Dose to soft tissue and lungs and effective whole body dose were evaluated. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs., 2 ills

1995-01-01

85

Characterization of sprays  

Science.gov (United States)

It is pointed out that most practical power generation and propulsion systems involve the burning of different types of fuel sprays, taking into account aircraft propulsion, industrial furnaces, boilers, gas turbines, and diesel engines. There has been a lack of data which can serve as a basis for spray model development and validation. A major aim of the present investigation is to fill this gap. Experimental apparatus and techniques for studying the characteristics of fuel sprays are discussed, taking into account two-dimensional still photography, cinematography, holography, a laser diffraction particle sizer, and a laser anemometer. The considered instruments were used in a number of experiments, taking into account three different types of fuel spray. Attention is given to liquid fuel sprays, high pressure pulsed diesel sprays, and coal-water slurry sprays.

Chigier, N.; Mao, C.-P.

1984-01-01

86

Method of spraying  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the proposed method for spraying fluid or gas, expansion of the regulation range is achieved because regulation of the supply of the sprayer is done by changing the ratio of consumption of its streams. The device for realizing the method contains outer and inner annular collectors for supply of the sprayer with corresponding outlet nozzles, and also annular fuel slits. The streams of spraying agent flowing from the group of nozzles freely penetrate each other and form two streams. One of the streams in the form of a converging cone is directed to the central zone of the spray (S) and the other in the form of a diverging cone into the peripheral zone. With regulation of the ratio of flow of the sprayer, the spray is expanded or constricted. Thus, the proposed method makes it possible in broad limits to regulate the form of the spray and to guarantee high quality of spraying with any angle of opening of the spray.

Burminskiy, E.P.; Karpenko, V.M.; Remizov, A.V.

1981-01-01

87

Non-Chromate Primer for Painting.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention uses titanate compounds to replace chromates in metal primer paints used for corrosion protection on metal substrates. The invention is directed to corrosion protection of stainless steel and aluminum alloys.

W. C. Tucker

2008-01-01

88

Paint Test for Centifugal Pump Cavitation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The cavitation phenomenon in centrifugal pumps is occurred when the static pressure within the pumps decreases below the boiling pressure of the fluid. This can cause severe damages or failures of the pumps such as the impeller wear or the pump degradation. Many researches to resolve the problem have been performed. Gluich carried out wear prediction based on the Cooper's empirical relation on a cavity length. Grist suggested paint test as a useful tool to measure the cavity length. In the present study, a fluid test system is made, which can create cavitation artificially. A series of visualization tests for cavitation erosion using various paints are made. By comparing the paint test results and the Cooper's correlation, the effectiveness of the paint test for the cavity length estimation is noted.

Kang, Tae Seok; Lee, Do Hwan [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Min Ho; Jung, Rae Hyuk [M and D Corp., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2009-10-15

89

Automobile paint effective as an insect attractant.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two acrylic auto paints were effective attractants for sap beetles, Stelidota geminata (Say) and Glischrochilus fasciatus (Oliver). Response to the synthetic lures was sufficient to encourage additional testing of their potential in survey and control programs. PMID:6023260

Jantz, O K; Gertz, R F; Wells, M T

1967-05-19

90

Digital Embodiment in Contemporary Abstract Painting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis re-investigates Clement Greenberg’s discredited abstract expressionist claim that painting should seek its own purity through the acknowledgment of its material. I argue that Greenberg’s physical, bodily determination of painting (but not its purity) is re-located as a criticality in contemporary practice because of the changes brought about by the simulacrum and the digital. By utilizing the particularities of ‘painterly’ issues such as materiality, depth and opticality...

Stubbs, Michael

2003-01-01

91

Identification of bacterial cells by chromosomal painting.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chromosomal painting is a technique for the microscopic localization of genetic material. It has been applied at the subcellular level to identify regions of eukaryotic chromosomes. Here we describe the development of bacterial chromosomal painting (BCP), a related technology for the identification of bacterial cells. Purified genomic DNAs from six bacterial strains were labeled by nick translation with the fluorochrome Fluor-X, Cy3, or Cy5. The average size of the labeled fragments was ca. 5...

Lanoil, B. D.; Giovannoni, S. J.

1997-01-01

92

The Actinobacterial Colonization of Etruscan Paintings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paintings from Tomba della Scimmia, in Tuscany, are representative of the heavy bacterial colonization experienced in most Etruscan necropolises. The tomb remained open until the late 70?s when it was closed because of severe deterioration of the walls, ceiling and paintings after decades of visits. The deterioration is the result of environmental changes and impacts suffered since its discovery in 1846. We show scanning electron microscopy and molecular studies that reveal the extent a...

2013-01-01

93

Permeability of Paint Films towards Chloride Ion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Art apparatus for determining tire permeability of paint films towards chloride ion is described. This set-lip implements tire time-lag method and consists of a permeation cell made tip of two chambers divided by a supported paint film. The upper chamber contains air aqueous sodium chloride solution and tire lower one, water. The permeability is obtained front the conductivity history read at tire lower chamber. Osmotic pressure issue is addressed and tire reproducibility of the results repor...

Carneiro, C.; Oliveira, F.; Nogueira, J.; Mendes, A.

2006-01-01

94

Applications of Temperature and Pressure Sensitive Paints  

Science.gov (United States)

Luminescent molecular probes imbedded in a polymer binder form a temperature or pressure paint. On excitation by light of the proper wavelength, the luminescence, which is quenched either thermally or by oxygen, is detected by a camera or photodetector. From the detected luminescent intensity, temperature and pressure can be determined. The basic photophysics, calibration, accuracy and time response of a luminescent paint is described followed by applications in low speed, transonic, supersonic and cryogenic wind tunnels and in rotating machinery.

Liu, Tian-Shu; Sullivan, John P.

1998-01-01

95

Electrochemical assessment of magnetite anticorrosive paints  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the purpose of deepening in the understanding of the mechanisms of protection of anticorrosive pigments based on iron oxides, this work has been carried out on the production of pure magnetite, and copper and chromium doped magnetite, which were evaluated by different characterization techniques. The paints were prepared with a solvent less epoxy resin maintaining the Pigment Volume Content near the Practical Critical value (CPVC), established for each pigment. The paints were applied on...

Escobar, D. M.; Arroyave, C.; Jaramillo, F.; Mattos, O. R.; Margarit, I. C.; Caldero?n, J.

2003-01-01

96

Radiation curing of commercial paint samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation curable coatings which include inks, varnishes, adhesives and paints, are reactive mixtures. They contain oligomers, monomers, pigments, initiators and additives. On being irradiated, these substances polymerize to form a three dimensional thermoset polymer film. The film properties are dependent on the paint formulation and the radiation used for curing. The aim of these experiments was to explore the radiation curability of commercially available paints and to apply the results to E-Beam curing of such paints using the 750 keV D.C. accelerator. The energy requirement will be ?0.4 MeV. For our preliminary experiments an oil paint generally used for indoor and outdoor applications and a nitrocellulose based automotive paint were chosen. The E Beam has been substituted by gamma radiation from a 60Co source in these studies. Though the primary interaction with matter is different, the major interaction with matter for both is Compton scattering. Another major distinction to take into account in applying these results to E beam curing is the dose rate. The gamma radiator used delivers dose rates up to a maximum of ?5 kGy/h. The electron accelerator planned to use can deliver doses orders of magnitude higher. This will reduce the irradiation time for a dose of 100 kGy from ?20 hours to ?0.5 seconds for E beam

2003-02-03

97

Automated Laser Paint Stripping (ALPS) update  

Science.gov (United States)

To date, the DoD has played a major role in funding a number of paint stripping programs. Some technologies have proven less effective than contemplated. Others are still in the validation phase. Paint stripping is one of the hottest issues being addressed by the finishing industry since the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has mandated that chemical stripping using methylene chloride/phenolic type strippers be stopped. The DoD and commercial aircraft companies are hard-pressed to find an alternative. Automated laser paint stripping has been identified as a technique for removing coatings from aircraft surfaces. International Technical Associates (InTA) was awarded a Navy contract for an automated laser paint stripping system (ALPS) that will remove paint from metallic and composite substrates. For the program, which will validate laser paint stripping, InTA will design, build, test, and install a system for fighter-sized aircraft at both the Norfolk and North Island (San Diego) Aviation Depots.

Lovoi, Paul

1993-03-01

98

Mixed media painting and portraiture.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a technique for mixed media non-photorealistic painting and portraiture. The goal of this work is to transform digital images into renderings that approximate the appearance of mixed media artwork, which incorporates two or more traditional visual media. We achieve this by first separating an input image into distinct regions based on the degree of local detail present in the image. Each region is then processed independently with a user-selected NPR filter. This allows the user to treat highly detailed regions differently from regions of low frequency content. The separately processed regions are then smoothly fused in the gradient domain. In addition, we extend our work to the rendering of mixed media portraits. Portraits pose unique challenges that we address with our method of segmentation, which is based on a composite of face detection and image detail. Our approach offers the user a great deal of flexibility over the end result, while at the same time requiring very little input. This input takes the form of a few simple and discrete choices. The results demonstrate an impressive array of transformational possibilities. PMID:17622686

Brooks, Stephen

2007-01-01

99

Bear Spray Safety Program  

Science.gov (United States)

A bear spray safety program for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was officially initiated by the Firearms Safety Committee to address accident prevention and to promote personnel training in bear spray and its transportation, storage, and use for defense against wild animals. Used as part of a system including firearms, or used alone for those who choose not to carry a firearm, bear spray is recognized as an effective tool that can prevent injury in a wild animal attack.

Blome, C. D.; Kuzniar, R. L.

2009-01-01

100

Design and Application of The Painting Material Supply System of The Painting Robot for Steel Products  

Science.gov (United States)

With the increase of painting works and the decrease of skilled workers, the demand for robot painting of the large-scale steel product is rapidly increasing. But there are many technical problems in the development of the painting robot for this use. The collision between a robot and a work-piece is one of the most important problems, because the robot operates in a small space of a work-piece. Above all, the collision of the painting material supply hose with painted film on a work-piece is very serious. To avoid the hose collision, we propose an in-line type of paint supply mechanism using swivel joints. The key point in this system is the sealing performance and its durability, and we propose the piping system with compliance to strengthen the sealing performance. In this paper, the design method of this system is discussed on the basis of the analysis of the fluctuatinal elastic deformation of a O-ring in the swivel joint. We produced a prototype of the painting robot with the in-line system designed by this method. Application of this robot to the painting of ship-hull block is also discussed. Results from this application show the effectiveness of the in-line system.

Miyawaki, Kunio; Hisayasu, Azuma; Mori, Tsunehito; Miyazaki, Tatsuo; Nakashima, Yoshio

 
 
 
 
101

Best lighting for visual appreciation of artistic paintings--experiments with real paintings and real illumination.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a previous study based on monitor simulations of artistic paintings, it was found that the average correlated color temperature (CCT) of daylight preferred by a large set of observers to illuminate paintings was around 5100 K. The goal of the present study was to test if this result holds in real viewing conditions, i.e., with real paintings and real light sources. The same 11 paintings were tested in real conditions illuminated by a spectrally tunable light source and with accurate monitor simulations. To ensure uniform illumination across the paintings, only a central part of the paintings was visible to the observers. It was found that the average CCT preferred for real and monitor viewing conditions were very similar, 5500 and 5700 K, respectively. The somewhat larger CCT obtained with monitor viewing in relation to the former study was only observed in some paintings and was attributed to the smaller viewing area. These results confirm that CCT for best appreciation of paintings is higher than normally used in museums, and the viewing conditions, real or simulated, have only a minor effect. PMID:24695172

Nascimento, Sérgio Miguel Cardoso; Masuda, Osamu

2014-04-01

102

Lead paint removal with high-intensity light pulses.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the results of an initial investigation into using high-intensity incoherent light pulses to strip paint. Measurements of light pulse characteristics, the reflectivity of different paints and initial experiments on the threshold for paint removal, and paint removal are presented, along with an approximate model consistent with experimental results. Paint removal tests include lead paint, the reduction of lead levels to below levels required for lead abatement, as well as air and light emissions measurements that are within regulatory guidelines. PMID:17256550

Grapperhaus, Michael J; Schaefer, Raymond B

2006-12-15

103

Training facilitates object recognition in cubist paintings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To the naïve observer, cubist paintings contain geometrical forms in which familiar objects are hardly recognizable, even in the presence of a meaningful title. We used fMRI to test whether a short training session about Cubism would facilitate object recognition in paintings by Picasso, Braque and Gris. Subjects, who had no formal art education, were presented with titled or untitled cubist paintings and scrambled images, and performed object recognition tasks. Relative to the control group, trained subjects recognized more objects in the paintings, their response latencies were significantly shorter, and they showed enhanced activation in the parahippocampal cortex, with a parametric increase in the amplitude of the fMRI signal as a function of the number of recognized objects. Moreover, trained subjects were slower to report not recognizing any familiar objects in the paintings and these longer response latencies were correlated with activation in a fronto-parietal network. These findings suggest that trained subjects adopted a visual search strategy and used contextual associations to perform the tasks. Our study supports the proactive brain framework, according to which the brain uses associations to generate predictions.

2010-03-01

104

Set Up of an Automated Multi-Colour System for Interior Wall Painting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is shared that construction projects are getting bigger and more complex, hence also the productivity of the construction industry must be improved, while preserving its labour from hazardous job sites. Such requirements can be accomplished by the adoption of robotized products, which, however, need to be quickly developed and marketed. In this paper, first the issue of a new miniature laboratory for developing lightweight and well-coordinated robotized systems is pursued, then a novel robot device for high quality multi-colour interior wall painting carried by a robot arm is developed and successfully tested. Thanks to the new 1:6 scaled down laboratory and its six degree of freedom robot arm on an hexapod for horizontal moves, we tested the opportunity to introduce also in the building sector miniature robots that can change the ergonomics standardly adopted by construction workers. It is analyzed how and why switching from full size to miniature robots is convenient in construction. In addition, a new system adding further features to robotized painting has been conceived. Our new multi-colour spraying end-tool was developed and fixed on the robot arm, in order to be able to reproduce coloured artworks. Finally, a methodology to reproduce colours from digital format of artworks is presented, showing how accurate and efficient is this new robotized spraying device.

Berardo Naticchia

2008-11-01

105

Preventing clogged water sprays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Clogging of water spray nozzles in underground mines is almost always caused by coal or rock particles in the water. There are three ways to prevent clogging: remove the particles from the water, keep the particles away from the nozzles, or use spray nozzles which allow the particles to pass through the nozzle orifice. 3 figs.

Divers, E.F. (Advanced Technology Systems Inc., Monroeville, PA (USA))

1989-12-01

106

Reactor core spraying device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To elimenate the variations of water spraying amount and spraying range to respective fuel assemblies even if the flying distance of the spray water is varied by coinciding in a direction for altering the spray water flying distance with the circumferential direction of the upper plenum. Constitution: Two spargers are annularly mounted along the inner wall surface of an upper plenum, and two types of nozzles having difference direction are mounted at every other positions. At this time one nozzle is so mounted as to spray water mainly to the center of the reactor core as inclined at an angle theta in a horizontal plane with respect to the center of the plenum and the other nozzle is so mounted as to spray similarly the water to the periphery of the reactor core mainly as inclined at theta'. In this manner, even if the pressure in the plenum is varied, the spray water scattering range is merely moved in circumferential direction. Therefore, if can obtain substantially uniform spray amount as a whole. (Sekiya, K.)

1980-01-01

107

Properly engineer lead paint removal projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Deciding how to mitigate the hazards during lead paint removal is complex and requires consideration of many variables. Assessment of public health risk, environmental impact, and emissions potential of the operations must be considered. Additionally, the removal technique, containment system, and monitoring criteria must be developed. This article presents an integrated approach to identifying lead hazards, assessing risks to workers, the environment, and the public, developing the appropriate maintenance strategy, and selecting paint removal and containment systems. Also considered are guidelines for selecting a third party to design the overall project. This approach is based on a decision path that provides criteria for project assessment in an orderly fashion. The design of lead paint management projects in industrial applications requires consideration of the variables shown in the decision path.

Kaelin, A.B.

1996-01-01

108

The Actinobacterial Colonization of Etruscan Paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

The paintings from Tomba della Scimmia, in Tuscany, are representative of the heavy bacterial colonization experienced in most Etruscan necropolises. The tomb remained open until the late 70?s when it was closed because of severe deterioration of the walls, ceiling and paintings after decades of visits. The deterioration is the result of environmental changes and impacts suffered since its discovery in 1846. We show scanning electron microscopy and molecular studies that reveal the extent and nature of the biodeterioration. Actinobacteria, mainly Nocardia and Pseudonocardia colonize and grow on the tomb walls and this process is linked to the availability of organic matter, phyllosilicates (e.g. clay minerals) and iron oxides. Nocardia is found metabolically active in the paintings. The data confirm the specialization of the genera Nocardia and Pseudonocardia in the colonization of subterranean niches.

Diaz-Herraiz, Marta; Jurado, Valme; Cuezva, Soledad; Laiz, Leonila; Pallecchi, Pasquino; Tiano, Piero; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

2013-01-01

109

One year of Puma Painting: site experiences  

Science.gov (United States)

The PumaPaint project is a web robot that allows users to create original artwork on the World Wide Web. The site allows control of a PUMA 760 robot equipped with four paintbrushes; jars of red, green, blue and yellow paint and white paper attached to an easel. Users must download a JavaTM interface allowing interactive control of the robot. This interface contains two windows showing live camera views of the work site and various controls for connecting and disconnecting to the robot, viewing the task status and controlling the painting task. During the first year of operation of the site, June 3rd, 1998 to June 2nd 1999, approximately 5,000 users produced 390 canvases. This paper presents summary data from one year of operation, discusses the author's experiences in operating the site and examines some of the artwork produced.

Stein, Matthew R.

1999-11-01

110

The sorption of iodine onto containment paints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Containment structures of nuclear power plants have many inner surfaces coated with nuclear grade paints. These may provide a valuable sink for radioiodine and hence may aid to minimize its release to the environment following a possible accident. The objective of this on-going work is to identify and evaluate significant parameters involved in the sorption of iodine on painted surfaces and thereby develop a kinetic model. To date two paints have been studied, an inorganic zinc primer and a vinyl paint. Experiments were performed by passing 131I2 gas in air through 0.25 inch glass tubing coated on the inner surfaces with paint. Tubing was used to produce well characterized and rapid gas phase mass transfer. The accumulation of iodine on the surface was monitored continuously using two parallel scintillation detectors coupled to a PC based multi-channel analyzer. Test parameters such as temperature, humidity, flow-rate, and iodine concentration could be adjusted independently. The zinc primer demonstrated a high affinity for iodine. The rate of adsorption was found to increase at lower temperatures and higher humidifies. The adsorption rate was directly proportional to the gas phase iodine concentration indicating a first order process. Desorption occurred at a relatively constant rate at surface coverages below 10-6 mol I2/cm2. Iodine that desorbed from these surfaces was mostly in the chemical form of elemental iodine (I2). The vinyl paint showed a much lower affinity for iodine. Steady state adsorption was found to increase with increased gas phase iodine concentrations. Humidity had no observable effect on the rate of adsorption. Desorption rates were found to increase with increased temperature and it is suggested that the desorption process is first order with respect to surface iodine loading. (author). 7 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

1994-10-19

111

Development of spray coated cathodes for RITS-6.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents work conducted in FY13 to conduct a feasibility study on thermal spray coated cathodes to be used in the RITS-6 accelerator in an attempt to improve surface uniformity and repeatability. Currently, the cathodes are coated with colloidal silver by means of painting by hand. It is believed that improving the cathode coating process could simplify experimental setup and improve flash x-ray radiographic performance. This report documents the experimental setup and summarizes the results of our feasibility study. Lastly, it describes the path forward and potential challenges that must be overcome in order to improve the process for creating uniform and repeatable silver coatings for cathodes.

Simpson, Sean; Leckbee, Joshua J.; Miller, Stephen Samuel

2013-09-01

112

CHITOSAN-COPPER PAINT TYPES AS ANTIFOULING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A prototype of antifouling paints was prepared with a QS-Cu (I)-Fe (II) complex as a possible replacement for traditional antifouling paints, which contain a large concentration of copper, fnding them in an order of 10 - 30 % depending on the brand, and if it is water or solvent based. A Qs-Cu complex was prepared, with a solution at 3% with acetic acid, and then Fe2O3 was added to the solution. FT IR analysis was carried out, as well as analysis of the TGA at the Qs and the complex with Qs-C...

MARCIA HEUSER; CLAUDIA RIVERA; CHRISTIAN NUÑEZ; GALO CÁRDENAS

2009-01-01

113

Development of Random Work Identifying System for Paint Coating Robots.  

Science.gov (United States)

To attain greater labor-saving and automatization of painting processes in Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS) the authors have developed the 'Random work identifying system of paint coating robots' which can automatically identify the shape of a workpie...

M. Watabe T. Inano K. Suzuki

1985-01-01

114

Understanding factors that influence protective glove use among automotive spray painters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dermal contact with isocyanate-based coatings may lead to systemic respiratory sensitization. The most common isocyanates found in sprayed automotive coatings are monomeric and oligomeric 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI). Most spray painters use thin (4-5 mil) latex gloves that are not effective at preventing dermal exposures when spraying isocyanate paints. Personal interviews with collision repair industry personnel and focus groups with spray painters were held to characterize risk awareness, to examine perceptions and challenges concerning protective glove use and selection, and to generate ideas for protective glove use interventions. The most popular gloves among spray painters were thin (4-5 mil) and thick (14 mil) latex. We found that medium to thick (6-8 mil) nitrile were not always perceived as comfortable and were expected to be more expensive than thin (4-5 mil) latex gloves. Of concern is the user's difficulty in distinguishing between nitrile and latex gloves; latex gloves are now sold in different colors including blue, which has traditionally been associated with nitrile gloves. Even though spray painters were familiar with the health hazards related to working with isocyanate paints, most were not always aware that dermal exposure to isocyanates could contribute to the development of occupational asthma. There is a need for more research to identify dermal materials that are protective against sprayed automotive coatings. Automotive spray painters and their employers need to be educated in the selection and use of protective gloves, specifically on attributes such as glove material, color, and thickness. PMID:24215135

Ceballos, Diana; Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Glazer, Patricia; Murphy-Robinson, Helen; Yost, Michael

2014-05-01

115

Combinations of titanium dioxide and fillers in paints  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Titanium dioxide is a predominant white pigment, which is used as a raw material of paint. Titanium dioxide pigments are produced with both sulphate and chloride processes. In paints, the main function of titanium dioxide is to contribute to the paint film properties, like opacity and whiteness. Because titanium dioxide is a fairly valuable pigment, attempts have been made to replace it with a filler which costs less. Fillers of paint are for instance barium sulphate, kaolin, silicates and ca...

La?hteenma?ki, Laura

2009-01-01

116

Preparation of Perfluorinated Surfactant Activates for Antifouling Paints  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Antifouling paints are the most reliable way to prevent biofouling of submerged surfaces. The high toxicity of organotin paints, prompted us to look for ideas to develop paints that do not present environmental risks. In this work, we prepare a painting by a modification of acrylic acid monomer containing a free carboxyl group. The biocide that is selected is the perfluorinated chain with eight carbons. Chemical modifications of the resins are made through a radical reaction. The magnitudes o...

Bacha, A.; Me?ghabar, R.

2012-01-01

117

The social lives of paintings in Sixteenth-Century Venice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis studies Venetian painting in its golden age, the sixteenth century, from an unconventional, anthropological point of view. Paintings of masters like Titian are demonstrated to have had social lives. Together with human beings they were embedded in social networks in which humans and paintings interacted; this happened to such an extent that paintings indeed became person-like. These interactions could take many forms; examples that are analysed include the miraculous image that is...

Kessel, Elisabeth Johanna Maria

2011-01-01

118

Electrostatically atomised hydrocarbon sprays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A burner using an electrostatic method to produce and control a fuel spray is investigated for non-burning sprays. The burner has a charge injection nozzle and the liquid flow rate and charge injection rate are varied using hydrocarbon liquids of differing viscosities, surface tensions and electrical conductivities (kerosene, white spirit and diesel oil). Droplet size distributions are measured and it is shown how the dropsize, spray pattern, breakup mechanism and breakup length depend on the above variables, and in particular on the specific charge achieved in the spray. The data are valuable for validating two computer models under development. One predicts the electric field and flow field inside the nozzle as a function of emitter potential, geometry and flow rate. The other predicts the effect of charge on spray dispersion, with a view to optimizing spray combustion. It is shown that electrostatic disruptive forces can be used to atomize oils at flow rates commensurate with practical combustion systems and that the charge injection technique is particularly suitable for highly resistive liquids. Possible limitations requiring further research include the need to control the wide spray angle, which may provide fuel-air mixtures too lean near the nozzle, and the need to design for maximum charge injection rate, which is thought to be limited by corona breakdown in the gas near the nozzle orifice. 30 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

Yule, A.J.; Shrimpton, J.S.; Watkins, A.P.; Balachandran, W.; Hu, D. [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom). Thermofluids Division, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-07-01

119

Thermal Arc Spray Overview  

Science.gov (United States)

Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati

2013-06-01

120

Thermal Arc Spray Overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

2013-06-06

 
 
 
 
121

Development of wall picture-painting robot. Acquisition of characteristic technology and high quality of wall picture-painting; Byoga toso robot no kaihatsu. Tokuyu gijutsu no kakuritsu to hinshitsu no kakuho  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Buildings being shifting to the time of maintenance, renewal markets such as repainting are expanding. Besides, recently harmony between construction and surrounding scene has come to important. Some robots for outer walls have been developed already, but at present function of plural coloring is not yet available and such insufficiency is obliged to be supplied by hand operation. A robot which was developed by the authors has five nozzles for color paints and almost can get out of dirty operation owing to utilization of software of a personal computer. A base frame of this robot is 2.5m in length and is assumed X-axis. On a Y-axis which can slide on a X-axis, an attachment having five nozzles can slide up and down in the range of 0.65m. Fixation to the face of wall is performed by sticking by two vacuum pads. An original picture being scanned by dots through a computer, a circular dot (5-10cm in dia.) is also dotted on the wall by a painting gun. Sprayed paint is transported to the face of wall by warm breeze. A controller, paint pumps and so on are set up on the ground. 14 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

Takasu, M. [Tokyu Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

1998-10-30

122

Elemental composition of paint cross sections by nuclear microprobe analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Physico-chemical characterization of pigments used in artistic painting give precious indications on age of paintings and sometimes on geographical origin of ores. After recalling the principle of protons microprobe, first results obtained by microanalysis of painting cross sections for non destructive microanalysis of impurities in white lead are given

1984-09-10

123

Interior Painting and Indoor Air Quality in Schools. Technical Bulletin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ways in which school facility planners, managers, and others can guard against the potential indoor air quality (IAQ) problems presented by paint are covered in this bulletin. It opens with an overview of paint formulations and the functional quality of different paints, paying special attention to the volatile organic compounds present in some…

Jacobs, Bruce W.

124

Spray dryer waste management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

EPRI has conducted a number of studies to provide utilities with cost information on waste management for conventional wet scrubbing. Studies have characterized waste products; developed engineering designs for effective waste handling, disposal, and/or utilization; and estimated waste management costs. A study, completed in late 1986 evaluated spray dryer wastes. On a dollar-per-ton-disposed basis, spray dryer waste management costs were found to be higher than those for either conventional fly ash or scrubber sludge alone. Cost estimates for new and retrofit spray dryer applications must be revised upward from those produced earlier by EPRI.

Golden, D.

1988-03-01

125

Painting on the World Wide Web: the PumaPaint project  

Science.gov (United States)

The PumaPaint project is a web robot that allows users to create original artwork on the WWW. The site allows control of a PUMA 760 robot equipped with four paintbrushes, jars of red, green, blue and yellow paint and white paper attached to a vertical easel. Users must download a Java interface allowing interactive control of the robot. This interface contains two windows showing live camera views of the work site and various controls for connecting and disconnecting to the robot, viewing the task status and controlling the painting task. Approximately fifteen hundred unique hosts have downloaded the interface in the first four months of twenty-four hour a day operation beginning June 3, 1998. This paper describes the background of the PumaPaint project, a presentation of hardware and software detail and a discussion of the author's experiences in managing the site over the first four months of operation.

Stein, Matthew R.

1998-12-01

126

Measurement of spray combustion processes  

Science.gov (United States)

A free jet configuration was chosen for measuring noncombusting spray fields and hydrocarbon-air spray flames in an effort to develop computational models of the dynamic interaction between droplets and the gas phase and to verify and refine numerical models of the entire spray combustion process. The development of a spray combustion facility is described including techniques for laser measurements in spray combustion environments and methods for data acquisition, processing, displaying, and interpretation.

Peters, C. E.; Arman, E. F.; Hornkohl, J. O.; Farmer, W. M.

1984-01-01

127

Measurement of spray combustion processes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A free jet configuration was chosen for measuring noncombusting spray fields and hydrocarbon-air spray flames in an effort to develop computational models of the dynamic interaction between droplets and the gas phase and to verify and refine numerical models of the entire spray combustion process. The development of a spray combustion facility is described including techniques for laser measurements in spray combustion environments and methods for data acquisition, processing, displaying, and interpretation.

Peters, C.E.; Arman, E.F.; Hornkohl, J.O.; Farmer, W.M.

1984-04-01

128

Fungal Susceptibility of Military Paint Formulations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eleven Military paint formulations on metal panels were evaluated for fungal susceptibity before and after weathering and leaching. TT-E-527 and TT-E-529 (olive drab) and MIL-E-52798A (forest green camouflage) formulations supported moderate fungal growth...

A. M. Kaplan B. J. Wiley D. L. Kaplan M. Greenberger

1982-01-01

129

Matte painting in stereoscopic synthetic imagery  

Science.gov (United States)

While there have been numerous studies concerning human perception in stereoscopic environments, rules of thumb for cinematography in stereoscopy have not yet been well-established. To that aim, we present experiments and results of subject testing in a stereoscopic environment, similar to that of a theater (i.e. large flat screen without head-tracking). In particular we wish to empirically identify thresholds at which different types of backgrounds, referred to in the computer animation industry as matte paintings, can be used while still maintaining the illusion of seamless perspective and depth for a particular scene and camera shot. In monoscopic synthetic imagery, any type of matte painting that maintains proper perspective lines, depth cues, and coherent lighting and textures saves in production costs while still maintaining the illusion of an alternate cinematic reality. However, in stereoscopic synthetic imagery, a 2D matte painting that worked in monoscopy may fail to provide the intended illusion of depth because the viewer has added depth information provided by stereopsis. We intend to observe two stereoscopic perceptual thresholds in this study which will provide practical guidelines indicating when to use each of three types of matte paintings. We ran subject tests in two virtual testing environments, each with varying conditions. Data were collected showing how the choices of the users matched the correct response, and the resulting perceptual threshold patterns are discussed below.

Eisenmann, Jonathan; Parent, Rick

2010-02-01

130

STABILIZATION OF LEAD-BASED PAINT WASTE  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the ability of a cementitious stabilizing agent to reduce leachable lead from lead-based paint waste removed from substrate via blasting, and to evaluate the mechanism by which the reduction occurs. Testing demonstrated that the representative cementitious ag...

131

The Ancient Art of Silk Painting  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author describes a silk-painting project with a sea-creature theme for eighth-grade students. Other themes can be used such as geometric quilt designs, tropical rain forest, large flowers, Art Nouveau motifs, portraits and more. (Contains 2 resources.)

Yonker, Kim

2010-01-01

132

Combe d'Arc Cave Paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

France's Ministry of Culture has placed four high-resolution pictures of last month's newly-discovered Combe d'Arc cave paintings on-line. They are truly exquisite and this may be the only place where you can catch a peek at them.

133

Glass Beads for Traffic Marking Paint.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study was initiated in conjunction with the national experimental and evaluation program for traffic marking beads. Its prime purpose was to evaluate the performance and economy of a traffic marking paint with drop-on beads compared to conventional st...

F. L. Holman

1971-01-01

134

Paintings - high-energy protons detect pigments and paint-layers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High-energy PIXE was used to identify pigment composition, sequencing and the thickness of paint-layers. Before applying the technique to valuable masterpieces, mock-ups were examined in a collaboration with the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. The results of high-energy PIXE were compared to conventional cross-section analysis. In addition, the non-destructiveness of the technique was investigated thoroughly. After this preparative work, two ancient paintings have been examined and the results are presented in this paper.

Denker, A. E-mail: denker@hmi.de; Opitz-Coutureau, J

2004-01-01

135

Dynamics of flare sprays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During solar cycle No. 20 new insight into the flare-spray phenomenon has been attained due to several innovations in solar optical-observing techniques (higher spatial resolution cinema-photography, tunable pass-band filters, multi-slit spectroscopy and extended angular field coronographs). From combined analysis of 13 well-observed sprays which occured between 1969-1974 we conclude that (i) the spray material originates from a preexisting active region filament which undergoes increased absorption some tens of minutes prior to the abrupt chromospheric brightening at the 'flare-start', and (ii) the spray material is confined within a steadily expanding, loop-shaped (presumably magnetically controlled) envelope with part of the material draining back down along one or both legs of the loop. (orig.)

1980-01-01

136

Modeling of engine sprays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Atomization and full-cone sprays from single cylindrical orifices are considered. The following subjects are reviewed: the structure of the breakup region; the structure of the far field; modern models that, given the outcome of the breakup process, compute the steady and transient of sprays; some comparisons with detailed measurements; and some practical applications. The following conclusions are reached: the spray breakup and the development regions are the most relevant in engine applications; the inner structure of the breakup region is still largely unknown; two- and three-dimensional spray models are available but remain mostly untested, particularly in their vaporization and combustion components, in part because of a lack of accurate measurements in controlled engine-type environments; engine applications of such models are, nonetheless, recommended for very valuable learning, interpretative, and exploratory studies, but not for predictions.

Bracco, F.V.

1985-01-01

137

Reactor core spraying device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To uniformly cool the reactor core of a BWR type reactor by increasing the bore of a sparger pipe in the vicinity of a joint connected to a spray water supply pipe larger than that of the other portion thereof and eliminating the breathing phenomenon of spray water. Constitution: The bore of a sparger pipe in the vicinity of a T-shaped joint connected through a bent pipe to a spray water supply pipe is increased larger than that of the other portion of the sparger pipe. Thus, it can alleviate the disturbance of water flow in the vicinity of the joint to eliminate the breathing phenomenon of a spray nozzle in the vicinity of the joint so as to uniformly cool the reactor core of a BWR type reactor. (Sekiya, K.)

1980-01-01

138

Containment spray system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Object: To provide a water-circulation spray system attached to a container in order to be actuated at the time of failure of a light-water nuclear reactor, which can remove iodine from the container effectively and under the stabilized operation for a long period of time without need of mixing chemical matter to spraying water. Structure: On the downstream of a residual heat exchanger mounted in the spray system there is provided a purifier as the means for removing iodine from a part of circulating water. This purifier is disposed in bypass which is formed by opening the valve, and water passed through the bypass is returned to the spray system. (Kamimura, M.)

1975-01-01

139

Bug spray poisoning  

Science.gov (United States)

... the harmful effects from breathing in or swallowing bug spray. This is for information only and not ... Most bug repellents contain DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) as their active ingredient. DEET is one of the ...

140

Fluticasone Nasal Spray  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluticasone nasal spray is used to treat the symptoms of seasonal (occurs only at certain times of ... include sneezing and stuffy, runny, or itchy nose. Fluticasone is in a class of medications called corticosteroids. ...

 
 
 
 
141

Metal atomization spray nozzle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal.

Huxford, Theodore J. (Harriman, TN)

1993-01-01

142

Measurements in liquid fuel sprays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Techniques for studying the events directly preceding combustion in the liquid fuel sprays are being used to provide information as a function of space and time on droplet size, shape, number density, position, angle of flight and velocity. Spray chambers were designed and constructed for: (1) air-assist liquid fuel research sprays (2) high pressure and temperature chamber for pulsed diesel fuel sprays and (3) coal-water slurry sprays. Recent results utilizing photography, cinematography, and calibration of the Malvern particle sizer are reported. Systems for simultaneous measurement of velocity and particle size distributions using laser Doppler anemometry interferometry and the application of holography in liquid fuel sprays are being calibrated.

Chigier, N.

1984-04-01

143

Measurements in liquid fuel sprays  

Science.gov (United States)

Techniques for studying the events directly preceding combustion in the liquid fuel sprays are being used to provide information as a function of space and time on droplet size, shape, number density, position, angle of flight and velocity. Spray chambers were designed and constructed for: (1) air-assist liquid fuel research sprays; (2) high pressure and temperature chamber for pulsed diesel fuel sprays; and (3) coal-water slurry sprays. Recent results utilizing photography, cinematography, and calibration of the Malvern particle sizer are reported. Systems for simultaneous measurement of velocity and particle size distributions using laser Doppler anemometry interferometry and the application of holography in liquid fuel sprays are being calibrated.

Chigier, N.

1984-04-01

144

Aquastrip (tm): An innovative paint removal technology  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental, safety and health issues, forced operators to search for an alternative paint removal process. High pressure water jetting and new integrated paint and stripper systems are Lufthansa's answer to this challenge. AQUASTRIP complies with the specification requirements. In order to receive approval from airframe manufacturers and authorities the process has undergone an extensive research program since 1988. An operation window was established, to enable maximum of safety during operation on metal and composite surfaces. Even though AQUASTRIP is a hybrid process and requires technological investment, it is well on the way to prove its innovative, ecological and economical character in first large scale applications under realistic conditions. Its potential has already been reflected by patents and trademarks, which were registered in conjunction with the development of AQUASTRIP and the vital interest for cooperative work on the process development and other potential utilization.

Volkmar, J.

1993-03-01

145

Water-Based Pressure Sensitive Paint  

Science.gov (United States)

Preparation and performance of a water-based pressure sensitive paint (PSP) is described. A water emulsion of an oxygen permeable polymer and a platinum porphyrin type luminescent compound were dispersed in a water matrix to produce a PSP that performs well without the use of volatile, toxic solvents. The primary advantages of this PSP are reduced contamination of wind tunnels in which it is used, lower health risk to its users, and easier cleanup and disposal. This also represents a cost reduction by eliminating the need for elaborate ventilation and user protection during application. The water-based PSP described has all the characteristics associated with water-based paints (low toxicity, very low volatile organic chemicals, and easy water cleanup) but also has high performance as a global pressure sensor for PSP measurements in wind tunnels. The use of a water-based PSP virtually eliminates the toxic fumes associated with the application of PSPs to a model in wind tunnels.

Oglesby, Donald M.; Ingram, JoAnne L.; Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Watkins, A. Neal; Leighty, Bradley D.

2004-01-01

146

Postural tremor induced by paint sniffing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Volatile substance abuse is the intentional inhalation of volatile solvents, aerosols, gases or nitrates for the purpose of intoxication. This practice is more common among young people, due, in part, to the low cost and ready availability of these inhalants. In this report, we present the case of a 22-year-old male with a seven-year history of chronic paint sniffing. The patient presented with vigorous postural and kinetic tremor in both hands. A neurological examination revealed a bilateral...

Gautschi Oliver; Cadosch Dieter; Zellweger Rene

2007-01-01

147

Electrochemical assessment of magnetite anticorrosive paints  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the purpose of deepening in the understanding of the mechanisms of protection of anticorrosive pigments based on iron oxides, this work has been carried out on the production of pure magnetite, and copper and chromium doped magnetite, which were evaluated by different characterization techniques. The paints were prepared with a solvent less epoxy resin maintaining the Pigment Volume Content near the Practical Critical value (CPVC, established for each pigment. The paints were applied on polished steel and monitored with electrochemical techniques at total immersion conditions. Permeability and impedance measurements of free films were also done. Impedance data were simulated with the Boukamp software. Results show that the paints pigmented with doped magnetite present better behavior than a paint prepared with commercial hematite.

Con el propósito de profundizar en el entendimiento de los mecanismos de protección de los pigmentos anticorrosivos a base de óxidos de hierro, se sintetizaron y caracterizaron magnetitas puras y dopadas con cobre y cromo, con las cuales se prepararon pinturas anticorrosivas que fueron evaluadas en ensayos acelerados de campo y laboratorio. Las pinturas fueron especialmente preparadas con una resina libre de solvente manteniendo la Concentración Pigmentaria en Volumen cercana al valor Crítico (CPVC, establecida para cada pigmento. Las pinturas fueron aplicadas sobre acero pulido y evaluadas con técnicas electroquímicas en condiciones de inmersión total. Para complementar el estudio se realizaron medidas de permeabilidad e impedancia sobre las películas libres. Los datos de impedancia se simularon con el programa Boukamp. Los resultados muestran que las pinturas pigmentadas con magnetitas dopadas presentan mejor comportamiento que las preparadas con hematita comercial.

Escobar, D. M.

2003-12-01

148

Thermal spray processing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thermal spray processing has been used for a number of years to cost-effecticely apply TBC`s for a wide range of heat engine applications. In particular, bond coats are applied by plasma spray and HVOF techniques and partially-stabilized zirconia top coats are applied by plasma spray methods. Thermal spray involves melting and rapid transport of the molten particles to the substrate, where high-rate solidification and coating build-up occur. It is the very nature of this melt processing that leads to the unique layered microstructure, as well as the apparent imperfections, so readily identified with thermal spray. Modeling the process, process-induced residual stresses, and thermal conductivity will be discussed in light of a new understanding of porosity and its anisotropy. Microcracking can be understood using new approaches, allowing a fuller view of the processing-performance connection. Detailed electron microscopic, novel neutron diffraction and fracture analysis of the deposits can lead to a better understanding of how overall microstructure can be controlled to influence critical properties of the deposited TBC system.

Herman, H.; Berndt, C.C.

1995-03-01

149

Thermal spray processing  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermal spray processing has been used for a number of years to cost-effecticely apply TBC's for a wide range of heat engine applications. In particular, bond coats are applied by plasma spray and HVOF techniques and partially-stabilized zirconia top coats are applied by plasma spray methods. Thermal spray involves melting and rapid transport of the molten particles to the substrate, where high-rate solidification and coating build-up occur. It is the very nature of this melt processing that leads to the unique layered microstructure, as well as the apparent imperfections, so readily identified with thermal spray. Modeling the process, process-induced residual stresses, and thermal conductivity will be discussed in light of a new understanding of porosity and its anisotropy. Microcracking can be understood using new approaches, allowing a fuller view of the processing-performance connection. Detailed electron microscopic, novel neutron diffraction and fracture analysis of the deposits can lead to a better understanding of how overall microstructure can be controlled to influence critical properties of the deposited TBC system.

Herman, H.; Berndt, C. C.

1995-01-01

150

Smart paint sensor for monitoring structural vibrations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A class of smart paint sensors is proposed for monitoring the structural vibration of beams. The sensor is manufactured from an epoxy resin which is mixed with carbon black nano-particles to make it electrically conducting and sensitive to mechanical vibrations. A comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation is presented to understand the underlying phenomena governing the operation of this class of paint sensors and evaluate its performance characteristics. A theoretical model is presented to model the electromechanical behavior of the sensor system using molecular theory. The model is integrated with an amplifier circuit in order to predict the current and voltage developed by the paint sensor when subjected to loading. Furthermore, the sensor/amplifier circuit models are coupled with a finite element model of a base beam to which the sensor is bonded. The resulting multi-field model is utilized to predict the behavior of both the sensor and the beam when subjected to a wide variety of vibration excitations. The predictions of the multi-field finite element model are validated experimentally and the behavior of the sensor is evaluated both in the time and the frequency domains. The performance of the sensor is compared with the performance of conventional strain gages to emphasize its potential and merits. The presented techniques are currently being extended to sensors that can monitor the vibration and structural power flow of two-dimensional structures. (paper)

2012-04-01

151

Nanoindentation and the micromechanics of Van Gogh oil paints  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the mechanical properties of ancient paintings is a major issue for conservation and restoration. One strategy is to measure the mechanical properties of reconstructed paints: however, the aging process is poorly known, so it is also desirable to measure mechanical properties directly on ancient paint samples. Using nanoindentation, we have characterized submillimetric samples recovered from restoration of two Van Gogh paintings and compared the results with reconstructed paint samples. We demonstrate that the reduced modulus and hardness of historical paints can be measured at a very local scale, even differentiating between each paint layer. Our reconstructed paint samples exhibit elastic moduli comparable to values of the literature, but the values measured on the two 19th century paint samples are found to be significantly larger. Similarly, the compositional dependence of the elastic modulus is consistent with literature results for our reconstructed samples while our preliminary results for ancient samples do not readily fall into the same pattern. These results all point out to a significant impact of long term aging, in a manner which is difficult to predict in our present state of understanding. They demonstrate that nanoindentation is a very adequate tool to improve our knowledge of art paint mechanics and aging.

Salvant, Johanna; Barthel, Etienne; Menu, Michel

2011-08-01

152

Measurement, modeling and perception of painted surfaces: A Multi-scale Analysis of the Touch-up Problem  

Science.gov (United States)

Real-world surfaces typically have geometric features at a range of spatial scales. At the microscale, opaque surfaces are often characterized by bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF), which describes how a surface scatters incident light. At the mesoscale, surfaces often exhibit visible texture -- stochastic or patterned arrangements of geometric features that provide visual information about surface properties such as roughness, smoothness, softness, etc. These textures also affect how light is scattered by the surface, but the effects are at a different spatial scale than those captured by the BRDF. Through this research, we investigate how microscale and mesoscale surface properties interact to contribute to overall surface appearance. This behavior is also the cause of the well-known "touch-up problem" in the paint industry, where two regions coated with exactly the same paint, look different in color, gloss and/or texture because of differences in application methods. At first, samples were created by applying latex paint to standard wallboard surfaces. Two application methods- spraying and rolling were used. The BRDF and texture properties of the samples were measured, which revealed differences at both the microscale and mesoscale. This data was then used as input for a physically-based image synthesis algorithm, to generate realistic images of the surfaces under different viewing conditions. In order to understand the factors that govern touch-up visibility, psychophysical tests were conducted using calibrated, digital photographs of the samples as stimuli. Images were presented in pairs and a two alternative forced choice design was used for the experiments. These judgments were then used as data for a Thurstonian scaling analysis to produce psychophysical scales of visibility, which helped determine the effect of paint formulation, application methods, and viewing and illumination conditions on the touch-up problem. The results can be used as base data towards development of a psychophysical model that relates physical differences in paint formulation and application methods to visual differences in surface appearance.

Kalghatgi, Suparna Kishore

153

Aviation in Sowing, Pesticide Spraying.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contents: Aerial method for sowing rice and crested wheat grass seed; Superlow volume spraying for plant protection; Aerial superlow-volume spraying for forest protection; Aviation in the national economy--Aerial chemical operations.

V. K. Sapelkin

1976-01-01

154

Dihydroergotamine Injection and Nasal Spray  

Science.gov (United States)

DHE-45® Injection ... to use the nasal spray or administer the injection correctly. After that, you may spray or inject ... home.If you are using the solution for injection, you should never reuse syringes. Dispose of syringes ...

155

Degradation of insecticides used for indoor spraying in malaria control and possible solutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The insecticide dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT is widely used in indoor residual spraying (IRS for malaria control owing to its longer residual efficacy in the field compared to other World Health Organization (WHO alternatives. Suitable stabilization to render these alternative insecticides longer lasting could provide a less controversial and more acceptable and effective alternative insecticide formulations than DDT. Methods This study sought to investigate the reasons behind the often reported longer lasting behaviour of DDT by exposing all the WHO approved insecticides to high temperature, high humidity and ultra-violet light. Interactions between the insecticides and some mineral powders in the presence of an aqueous medium were also tested. Simple insecticidal paints were made using slurries of these mineral powders whilst some insecticides were dispersed into a conventional acrylic paint binder. These formulations were then spray painted on neat and manure coated mud plaques, representative of the material typically used in rural mud houses, at twice the upper limit of the WHO recommended dosage range. DDT was applied directly onto mud plaques at four times the WHO recommended concentration and on manure plaques at twice WHO recommended concentration. All plaques were subjected to accelerated ageing conditions of 40°C and a relative humidity of 90%. Results The pyrethroids insecticides outperformed the carbamates and DDT in the accelerated ageing tests. Thus UV exposure, high temperature oxidation and high humidity per se were ruled out as the main causes of failure of the alternative insecticides. Gas chromatography (GC spectrograms showed that phosphogypsum stabilised the insecticides the most against alkaline degradation (i.e., hydrolysis. Bioassay testing showed that the period of efficacy of some of these formulations was comparable to that of DDT when sprayed on mud surfaces or cattle manure coated surfaces. Conclusions Bioassay experiments indicated that incorporating insecticides into a conventional paint binder or adsorbing them onto phosphogypsum can provide for extended effective life spans that compare favourably with DDT's performance under accelerated ageing conditions. Best results were obtained with propoxur in standard acrylic emulsion paint. Similarly, insecticides adsorbed on phosphogypsum and sprayed on cattle manure coated surfaces provided superior lifespans compared with DDT sprayed directly on a similar surface.

Massinga Pedro

2011-10-01

156

Arc spray corrosion applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Early in the development of electric arc thermal spray equipment, twin wire coatings were typically coarse and porous. Arc systems were used for dimensional buildup and anti-skid coatings. Today, arc spray technology has progressed to where arc spray systems are used in numerous types of applications. This presentation discusses corrosion applications and the industries that have driven arc technology development to improve coating quality and improve production rates--up to 4 times the original rates. This paper documents recent infrastructure applications, power plant cooling towers, and oil and gas industry applications as well as several other industry applications where the equipment is used. Physical properties, costs and testing in process will be discussed. The closing includes trends, needs for equipment and material and suggestions for future actions.

Sampson, E.R. [TAFA Inc., Concord, NH (United States); Varacalle, D. [Vartec, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1998-12-31

157

JIT Spraying and Mitigations  

CERN Document Server

With the discovery of new exploit techniques, novel protection mechanisms are needed as well. Mitigations like DEP (Data Execution Prevention) or ASLR (Address Space Layout Randomization) created a significantly more difficult environment for exploitation. Attackers, however, have recently researched new exploitation methods which are capable of bypassing the operating systemâ??s memory mitigations. One of the newest and most popular exploitation techniques to bypass both of the aforementioned security protections is JIT memory spraying, introduced by Dion Blazakis. In this article we will present a short overview of the JIT spraying technique and also novel mitigation methods against this innovative class of attacks. An anti-JIT spraying library was created as part of our shellcode execution prevention system.

Bania, Piotr

2010-01-01

158

Acoustic effects of sprays  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the early 1960's, it has been known that realistic combustion models for liquid fuel rocket engines should contain at least a rudimentary treatment of atomization and spray physics. This is of particular importance in transient operations. It has long been recognized that spray characteristics and droplet vaporization physics play a fundamental role in determining the stability behavior of liquid fuel rocket motors. This paper gives an overview of work in progress on design of a numerical algorithm for practical studies of combustion instabilities in liquid rocket motors. For flexibility, the algorithm is composed of semi-independent solution modules, accounting for different physical processes. Current findings are report and future work is indicated. The main emphasis of this research is the development of an efficient treatment to interactions between acoustic fields and liquid fuel/oxidizer sprays.

Pindera, Maciej Z.; Przekwas, Andrzej J.

1994-01-01

159

Droplets and sprays  

CERN Document Server

Providing a clear and systematic description of droplets and spray dynamic models, this book maximises reader insight into the underlying physics of the processes involved, outlines the development of new physical and mathematical models, and broadens understanding of interactions between the complex physical processes which take place in sprays. Complementing approaches based on the direct application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), Droplets and Sprays treats both theoretical and practical aspects of internal combustion engine process such as the direct injection of liquid fuel, subcritical heating and evaporation. Includes case studies that illustrate the approaches relevance to automotive applications,  it is also anticipated that the described models can find use in other areas such as in medicine and environmental science.

Sazhin, Sergei

2014-01-01

160

Compatibility of army face paint and insect repellent formulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The compatibility studies of a new controlled-release repellent formulation (NSN 6840-01-284-3982, insect repellent personal application) and a new camouflage face paint (NSN 6850-01-262-0635) indicated that the repellent did not interfere with the use of face paints when repellent was applied first, and the face paints did not reduce the effectiveness of the repellent against mosquitoes. PMID:8437734

Gupta, R K; Rutledge, L C

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Performance study of the paints for use in nuclear installations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The performance of some Brazilian commercial paints under physical, chemical and radiation conditions typical of nuclear installations is studied. Resistance to gama rays in the range of 10"4 - 10"9 rad as well as the susceptibility to contamination, ease of decontamination and chemical resistance in 9 different types of paints are studied. Finally, suggestions are provided for the best choice of commercial paints according to their specific uses

1978-10-01

162

The Monetary Appreciation of Paintings: From Realism to Magritte  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigates how investments in painted arts compare to those in stocks in terms of risk return trade off using Sharpe and Treynor ratios and Markowitz efficient frontiers. A large database was analysed consisting of more than 10500 auction prices of Belgian painted art over the period 1970-1997. Hedonic art returns are influenced by auction location and auction house, current of art, painters’ reputation, medium, signature and painting size. Surrealism and luminism were the most...

Renneboog, L. D. R.; Houte, T.

1999-01-01

163

TeraHertz imaging of hidden paint layers on canvas:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We show terahertz reflection images of hidden paint layers in a painting on canvas and compare the results with X-ray Radiography and Infrared Reflectography. Our terahertz measurements show strong reflections from both the canvas/paint interface and from the raw umber/lead white interface, indicating sufficient refractive-index contrast. Our results show that X-rays cannot be used to image through the lead white pigment which effectively blocks the X-rays. Although Infrared Reflectography is...

2009-01-01

164

Evaluation of decontamination and radiation resistance properties of Indian paints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decontamination and radiation resistance properties of paints based on epoxies, vinyls, alkyds, acrylic emulsion, chlorinated rubber and cellulose have been investigated with a view to their use for surface treatment in nuclear facilities. All the paint samples on mild steel and concrete substrate were given a total gamma dose of 1600 Mrads from 60Co. For decontamination of radioactive spills, water, teepol (10%), 3M HNO3 and EDTA 5% in 10% teepol were used. Epoxies and cellulose based paints show good decontaminability and radiation resistance, as compared to others. Vinyl based paints show both poor decontaminability and radiation resistance. (M.G.B.)

1979-01-19

165

Picosecond imaging of sprays  

Science.gov (United States)

Preliminary results from applying a Kerr-Fourier imaging system to a water/air spray produced by a shear coaxial element are presented. The physics behind ultrafast time-gated optical techniques is discussed briefly. A typical setup of a Kerr-Fourier time gating system is presented.

Breisacher, Kevin; Liou, Larry; Wang, L.; Liang, X.; Galland, P.; Ho, P. P.; Alfano, R. R.

1994-01-01

166

Sodium spray fires  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fundamental research on sodium spray fires is in progress at the Cadarache Nuclear Safety Department (DSN) to develop a computer code capable of predicting the thermodynamic effects of such fires on the containment. This paper discusses three types of phenomena which require further examination in order to obtain more realistic temperature and pressure results. (author)

1979-03-01

167

Nanorestore® for the consolidation of wall paintings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cet article présente les résultats d’un projet de recherches sur l’effet de l’application du produit Nanorestore®, dispersion de nanoparticules de chaux dans l’alcool isopropylique, pour la consolidation des peintures murales ; il évalue l’influence des conditions environnementales externes (UR et présence des sels en particulier sur le processus de carbonatation.This paper presents the results of an investigation project on the use of Nanorestore®, a dispersion of nanolime in isopropyl alcohol, used for the consolidation of wall paintings. The influence of environmental conditions outside the wall (high humidity environments and high presence of hygroscopic salts on carbonation process was considered.

Sara Di Gregorio

2010-11-01

168

Waste audit study: Automotive paint shops  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the results of a waste-audit study of automotive paint shops. The study focuses on the types and quantities of wastes generated, treatment and disposal alternatives, and the potential for reducing the amount and/or toxicity of waste generated. The analysis of solvent waste minimization focused primarily on in-plant modifications (e.g., source reduction) to reduce the generation of solvent waste. Strict inventory control is the most-readily implementable approach. While in-house recycling is viable, it is usually only cost-effective for larger firms. Specific recommendations for waste reduction were made.

1987-01-01

169

Idea Bank: The Paint Chip Lab  

Science.gov (United States)

Early on in the study of physical science, students must grasp concepts associated with the periodic table. A perfect way to introduce periodicity and periodic groups is by using paint chip color samples. The color progression (red-orange-yellow-green-blue-purple) resembles the periodic properties on the table, and the color shade (light to dark) resembles the trends within the groups. This inquiry-based, hands-on lesson is sure to help students learn about one of the key concepts of basic chemistry.

Wallingford, Lisa

2006-07-01

170

Painting a graph with competing random walks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Let $X_1,X_2$ be independent random walks on $\\mathbf{Z}_n^d$, $d\\geq3$, each starting from the uniform distribution. Initially, each site of $\\mathbf{Z}_n^d$ is unmarked, and, whenever $X_i$ visits such a site, it is set irreversibly to $i$. The mean of $|\\mathcal{A}_i|$, the cardinality of the set $\\mathcal{A}_i$ of sites painted by $i$, once all of $\\mathbf{Z}_n^d$ has been visited, is $\\frac{1}{2}n^d$ by symmetry. We prove the following conjecture due to Pemantle and Per...

Miller, Jason

2010-01-01

171

Golden Section and the Art of Painting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A statistical study on 565 works of art of different great painters was done and it was calculated the ratio of the 2 sides of a paintings. Assuming that all the painters under discussion enter in a statistics with equal weights it is shown that the average value obtained for the ratio of the sides is 1.34. This value, determined experimentally is significantly different from the value of the Golden Section F=1.618, which is a theoretical ratio, obtained from an abstract, ma...

Olariu, Agata

1999-01-01

172

Investigating shoulder muscle loading and exerted forces during wall painting tasks: Influence of gender, work height and paint tool design.  

Science.gov (United States)

The task of wall painting produces considerable risk to the workers, both male and female, primarily in the development of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders. Insufficient information is currently available regarding the potential benefits of using different paint roller designs or the possible adverse effects of painting at different work heights. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender, work height, and paint tool design on shoulder muscle activity and exerted forces during wall painting. Ten young adults, five male and five female, were recruited to perform simulated wall painting at three different work heights with three different paint roller designs while upper extremity muscle activity and horizontal push force were recorded. Results demonstrated that for female participants, significantly greater total average (p = 0.007) and integrated (p = 0.047) muscle activity was present while using the conventional and curly flex paint roller designs compared to the proposed design in which the load was distributed between both hands. Additionally, for both genders, the high working height imposed greater muscular demands compared to middle and low heights. These findings suggest that, if possible, avoid painting at extreme heights (low or high) and that for female painters, consider a roller that requires the use of two hands; this will reduce fatigue onset and subsequently mitigate potential musculoskeletal shoulder injury risks. PMID:24636728

Rosati, Patricia M; Chopp, Jaclyn N; Dickerson, Clark R

2014-07-01

173

Occupational Asthma and Contact Dermatitis in a Spray Painter after Introduction of an Aziridine Cross-Linker.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 23-year-old spray painter developed contact dermatitis and respiratory difficulty characterized by small airways obstruction shortly after the polyfunctional aziridine cross-linker CX-100 began to be used in his workplace as a paint activator. The symptoms resolved after he was removed from the workplace and was treated with inhaled and topical steroids. Painters may have an increased risk of asthma due to exposure to a variety of agents, such as isocyanates, alkyd resins, and chromates. Th...

Leffler, C. T.; Milton, Donald Kirby

1999-01-01

174

Occupational asthma and contact dermatitis in a spray painter after introduction of an aziridine cross-linker.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 23-year-old spray painter developed contact dermatitis and respiratory difficulty characterized by small airways obstruction shortly after the polyfunctional aziridine cross-linker CX-100 began to be used in his workplace as a paint activator. The symptoms resolved after he was removed from the workplace and was treated with inhaled and topical steroids. Painters may have an increased risk of asthma due to exposure to a variety of agents, such as isocyanates, alkyd resins, and chromates. Th...

Leffler, C. T.; Milton, D. K.

1999-01-01

175

Automating and controlling dry paint stripping  

Science.gov (United States)

The key parameters which affect the efficiency and success of the dry paint-stripping process are discussed, including pressure at the nozzle, the size of the nozzle, the angle of blasting, the distance from the work-piece, the hardness and the size of the media, and the media flow. It is pointed out that, by automating the dry paint stripping process, many of these parameters can be controlled, making it possible to reproduce the same result, time and again. Attention is given to a recently developed automated aircraft wheel stripping machine, whose units are operated by joy stick controls from outside the cabinet. The wheel can be rotated and moved forward and backward in order to gain access to all of the surfaces; the operator also controls the nozzle manipulator which is a five-axis unit. At present, robotic systems are being developed for small aircraft and for the jumbo jets in use throughout the commercial airline fleets of the world.

Cunliffe, F. R., III

1989-03-01

176

THERMAL SPRAY REMOVAL OF LEAD-CONTAINING PAINT ON STEEL STRUCTURES  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past, red lead primer has been used on many steel structures to control corrosion. Commonly used structures in the Department of Defense (DoD) include bridges, aircraft hangars, water storage tanks, metal buildings, fire hydrants, and structural steel. When the lead-based ...

177

Cartesian Control of a Spray-Painting Robot with Redundant Degrees of Freedom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A controller for redundant manipulators with a small, fast manipulator mounted on a positioning part has been developed. The controller distributes the fast motion to the small, fast manipulator and the slow, gross motion to the positioning part. A position reference is generated on-line to the positioning part to avoid singularities and the loss of degrees of freedom. This reference is selected according to an ad hoc procedure which makes the small, fast manipulator work around the centre of its working range. In the control system, the task space position vector is augmented with the generalized coordinates of the positioning part. The resulting augmented task space vector contains a set of generalized coordinates for the manipulator. Feedback linearization and decoupling are applied in the augmented task space to obtain a model consisting of decoupled double integrators. The low and high frequency motion is distributed by controlling the double integrators associated with the end effector with a high bandwidth, while the double integrators associated with the positioning part are controlled with a low bandwidth.

Olav Egeland

1987-10-01

178

Cartesian Control of a Spray-Painting Robot with Redundant Degrees of Freedom  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A controller for redundant manipulators with a small, fast manipulator mounted on a positioning part has been developed. The controller distributes the fast motion to the small, fast manipulator and the slow, gross motion to the positioning part. A position reference is generated on-line to the positioning part to avoid singularities and the loss of degrees of freedom. This reference is selected according to an ad hoc procedure which makes the small, fast manipulator work around the centre of...

1987-01-01

179

SUBSTRATE EFFECTS ON VOC EMISSIONS FROM A LATEX PAINT  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of two substrates -- a stainless steel plate and a gypsum board -- on the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from a latex paint were evaluated by environmental chamber tests. It was found that the amount of VOCs emitted from the painted stainless steel was 2 to...

180

Sanding dust from nanoparticle-containing paints: Physical characterisation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Increasing use of nanoparticles in different industrial applications has raised a new potential health risk to the workers as well as to the consumers. This study investigates the particle size distributions of sanding dust released from paints produced with and without engineered nanoparticles. Dust emissions from sanding painted plates were found to consist of five size modes; three modes under 1 ?m and two modes around 1 and 2 ?m. We observed that the sander was the only source of particles smaller than 50 nm and they dominated the number concentration spectra. Mass and surface area spectra were dominated by the 1 and 2 ?m modes. Addition of nanoparticles caused only minor changes in the geometric mean diameters of the particle modes generated during sanding of two paints doped with 17 nm TiO2 and 95 nm Carbon Black nanoparticles as compared to the size modes generated during sanding a conventional reference paint. However, the number concentrations in the different size modes varied considerably in between the two NP-doped paints and the reference paint. Therefore, from a physical point of view, there may be a difference in the exposure risk during sanding surfaces covered with nanoparticle-based paints as compared to sanding conventional paints.

2009-02-01

 
 
 
 
181

Dissolution of organic solvents from painted surfaces into water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presence of volatile iodine in containment buildings is one of the major safety concerns in the potential event of nuclear reactor accidents. Organic impurities in containment water, originating from various painted structural surfaces and organic materials, could have a significant impact on iodine volatility following an accident. To determine the source and magnitude of organic impurities and their effects on time-dependent iodine volatility, the dissolution for organic constituents from paints used in reactor buildings has been studied under postulated accident conditions. The studies of the organic dissolution from carbon steel coupons coated with zinc-primed vinyl, epoxy-primed polyurethane or epoxy paints over the temperature range 25-90 deg C are reported. Relatively large activation energies were measured for the release of the principal organic compounds from painted surfaces, suggesting it is the release of the solvents from the paint matrix rather than their diffusion through the solution that is the rate determining step for the dissolution mechanism. The similarities in the values of activation energies for the dissolution of different organic compounds from the paints suggest the release rate is independent of the nature of the painted surface or the type of organic being released from the surface. These two observations indicate that it may be possible to write a generalized rate expression for the release of organic compounds from painted surfaces in containment following an accident. The possible implications of these results for predicting iodine volatility in containment are also discussed. (author)

2000-01-01

182

Dissolution of organic solvents from painted surfaces into water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The presence of volatile iodine in containment buildings is one of the major safety concerns in the potential event of nuclear reactor accidents. Organic impurities in containment water, originating from various painted structural surfaces and organic materials, could have a significant impact on iodine volatility following an accident. To determine the source and magnitude of organic impurities and their effects on time-dependent iodine volatility, the dissolution for organic constituents from paints used in reactor buildings has been studied under postulated accident conditions. The studies of the organic dissolution from carbon steel coupons coated with zinc-primed vinyl, epoxy-primed polyurethane or epoxy paints over the temperature range 25-90 deg C are reported. Relatively large activation energies were measured for the release of the principal organic compounds from painted surfaces, suggesting it is the release of the solvents from the paint matrix rather than their diffusion through the solution that is the rate determining step for the dissolution mechanism. The similarities in the values of activation energies for the dissolution of different organic compounds from the paints suggest the release rate is independent of the nature of the painted surface or the type of organic being released from the surface. These two observations indicate that it may be possible to write a generalized rate expression for the release of organic compounds from painted surfaces in containment following an accident. The possible implications of these results for predicting iodine volatility in containment are also discussed. (author)

Wren, J.C. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Jobe, D.J. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Sanipelli, G.G.; Ball, J.M

2000-07-01

183

An advanced analytical study on linseed oil paint binder  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Drying oils, and in particular linseed oil, were the most common binding media employed in painting between XVI and XIX centuries. Artists usually operated some pre-treatments on the oils to obtain binders with modified properties, such as different handling qualities or colour. Oil processing has a key role on the subsequent ageing of and degradation of linseed oil paints.

2011-01-01

184

Pressure-sensitive paint as a distributed optical microphone array.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pressure-sensitive paint is presented and evaluated in this article as a quantitative technique for measurement of acoustic pressure fluctuations. This work is the culmination of advances in paint technology which enable unsteady measurements of fluctuations over 10 kHz at pressure levels as low as 125 dB. Pressure-sensitive paint may be thought of as a nano-scale array of optical microphones with a spatial resolution limited primarily by the resolution of the imaging device. Thus, pressure-sensitive paint is a powerful tool for making high-amplitude sound pressure measurements. In this work, the paint was used to record ensemble-averaged, time-resolved, quantitative measurements of two-dimensional mode shapes in an acoustic resonance cavity. A wall-mounted speaker generated nonlinear, standing acoustic waves in a rigid enclosure measuring 216 mm wide, 169 mm high, and 102 mm deep. The paint recorded the acoustic surface pressures of the (1,1,0) mode shape at approximately 1.3 kHz and a sound pressure level of 145.4 dB. Results from the paint are compared with data from a Kulite pressure transducer, and with linear acoustic theory. The paint may be used as a diagnostic technique for ultrasonic tests where high spatial resolution is essential, or in nonlinear acoustic applications such as shock tubes. PMID:16454281

Gregory, James W; Sullivan, John P; Wanis, Sameh S; Komerath, Narayanan M

2006-01-01

185

Preparation of Perfluorinated Surfactant Activates for Antifouling Paints  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antifouling paints are the most reliable way to prevent biofouling of submerged surfaces. The high toxicity of organotin paints, prompted us to look for ideas to develop paints that do not present environmental risks. In this work, we prepare a painting by a modification of acrylic acid monomer containing a free carboxyl group. The biocide that is selected is the perfluorinated chain with eight carbons. Chemical modifications of the resins are made through a radical reaction. The magnitudes of changes are monitored by proton nuclear magnetic resonance NMR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC and the light scattering (LS at a fixed angle 90?. The glass transition temperature of the surfactant is obtained by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The antifouling properties of the paint are followed by exposure of panels to the marine environment by visual observation.

A. Bacha

2012-10-01

186

Automotive Painting Technology A Monozukuri-Hitozukuri Perspective  

CERN Document Server

This book offers unique and valuable contributions to the field. It offers breadth and inclusiveness. Most existing works on automotive painting cover only a single aspect of this complex topic, such as the chemistry of paint or paint booth technology. Monozukuri and Hitozukuri are Japanese terms that can be translated as “making things” and “developing people” but their implications in Japanese are richer and more complex than this minimal translation would indicate. The Monozukuri-Hitozukuri perspective is drawn from essential principles on which the Toyota approach to problem-solving and continuous improvement is based. From this perspective, neither painting technology R&D nor painting technology use in manufacturing can be done successfully without integrating technological and human concerns involved with making and learning in the broadest sense, as the hyphen is meant to indicate. The editors provide case studies and examples -- drawn from Mr. Toda’s 33 years of experience with automotiv...

Salazar, Abraham; Saito, Kozo

2013-01-01

187

Kelvin spray ionization.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel self-powered dual spray ionization source has been developed for applications in mass spectrometry. This new source does not use any power supply and produces both positive and negative ions simultaneously. The idea behind this ionization source comes from the Kelvin water dropper. The source employs one or two syringes, two pneumatic sprays operated over a range of flow rates (0.15-15 ?L min(-1)) and gas pressures (0-150 psi), and two double layered metal screens for ion formation. A variable electrostatic potential from 0 to 4 kV can be produced depending on solvent and gas flow rates that allow gentle ionization of compounds. There are several parameters that affect the performance during ionization of molecules including the flow rate of solvent, gas pressure, solvent acidity, position of spray and metal screens with respect to each other and distance between metal screens and the counter electrode. This ionization method has been successfully applied to solutions of peptides, proteins and non-covalent complexes. In comparison with ESI, the charge number of the most populated state is lower than that from ESI. It indicates that this is a softer ionization technique and it produces more protein ions with folded structures. The unique features of Kelvin spray ionization (KeSI) are that the method is self-powered and ionization occurs at very low potentials by providing very low internal energy to the ions. This advantage can be used for the ionization of very fragile molecules and investigation of non-covalent interactions. PMID:24080942

Özdemir, Abdil; Lin, Jung-Lee; Gillig, Kent J; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

2013-11-21

188

Tissue Paper Spray Art  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners observe color mixing and absorbency using colored tissue paper and spray bottles. Learners create collages out of colored tissue paper shapes and then lightly mist the tissue paper with water. When the learners remove the colored tissue, a colorful print appears. Use this activity to illustrate how materials absorb water as well as how colors can mix to form new colors.

Museum, Kohl C.

2012-01-01

189

Spray forming of Zircaloy-4  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Zircaloy-4 was spray formed using an induction skull melting/spray atomization and deposition unit. The microstructure and phase composition of the spray formed Zircaloy-4 bulk materials and oversprayed Zircaloy-4 powders were investigated. The microstructure of the spray formed Zircaloy-4 bulk materials was found to be Widmanstaetten {alpha} plates precipitated out from equiaxed {beta} grains, with evident microstructure refinement in terms of the sizes corresponding to equiaxed {beta} phase grains and the {alpha} plates, respectively. The microstructure of oversprayed Zircaloy-4 powders was also revealed to be Widmanstaetten {alpha} plates precipitated out from equiaxed {beta} grains, in contrast with the dendritic structure generally reported for oversprayed powders. These microstructure characteristics were discussed in light of the thermal history experienced by the powders and the deposit. Finally, the density and hardness of spray formed Zircaloy-4 were also characterized, indicating that spray forming had little effect on these properties for Zircaloy-4 studied herein. (orig.) 41 refs.

Li, B.; Lavernia, E.J. [California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Chem. and Biochem. Eng. and Mater. Sci.; Nordstrom, N. [Parmatech Corporation, 2221 Pine View Way, Petaluma, CA 94954 (United States)

1997-09-30

190

Structure of evaporating diesel sprays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance of compression ignition engine is known to be spray characteristics related. Precise experimental information on fuel sprays is of utmost importance to model the fuel spray formation and its development in the engine combustion chamber. The previous experimental work of the present author on non-evaporating sprays produced by using a FIAT single-hole orifice type nozzle and a distribution type commercial fuel injection pump forms the basis to derive correlations for penetration rates, break up times and lengths of diesel sprays. The results are compared with the existing published work and the agreement is found ideal. The correlations derived can be useful to do CFD modeling of sprays under variable conditions of injector nozzle hole diameter, fuel injection pressure, combustion chamber pressure and temperature or air density. (author)

2007-07-01

191

Fundamental studies of spray combustion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our research on spray combustion involves both experiment and theory and addresses the characteristics of individual droplets and of sprays in a variety of flows: laminar and turbulent, opposed and impinging. Currently our focus concerns water and fuel sprays in two stage laminar flames, i.e., flames arising, for example from a stream of fuel and oxidizer flowing opposite to an air stream carrying a water spray. Our interest in these flames is motivated by the goals of reducing pollutant emissions and extending the range of stable spray combustion. There remains considerable research to be carried out in order to achieve these goals. Thus far our research on the characteristics of sprays in turbulent flows has been limited to nonreacting jets impinging on a plate but this work will be extended to opposed flows with and without a flame. In the following we discuss details of these studies and our plans for future work.

Li, S.C.; Libby, P.A.; Williams, F.A. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

1997-12-31

192

Noncircular Cross Sections Could Enhance Mixing in Sprays  

Science.gov (United States)

A computational study has shown that by injecting drops in jets of gas having square, elliptical, triangular, or other noncircular injection cross sections, it should be possible to increase (relative to comparable situations having circular cross section) the entrainment and dispersion of liquid drops. This finding has practical significance for a variety of applications in which it is desirable to increase dispersion of drops. For example, in chemical-process sprays, increased dispersion leads to increases in chemical- reaction rates; in diesel engines, increasing the dispersion of drops of sprayed fuel reduces the production of soot; and in household and paint sprays, increasing the dispersion of drops makes it possible to cover larger surfaces. It has been known for some years that single-phase fluid jets that enter flow fields through noncircular inlets entrain more fluid than do comparable jets entering through circular inlets. The computational study reported here was directed in part toward determining whether and how this superior mixing characteristic of noncircular single phase jets translates to a similar benefit in cases of two-phase jets (that is, sprays). The study involved direct numerical simulations of single- and two-phase free jets with circular, elliptical, rectangular, square, and triangular inlet cross sections. The two-phase jets consisted of gas laden with liquid drops randomly injected at the inlets. To address the more interesting case of evaporating drops, the carrier gas in the jets was specified to be initially unvitiated by the vapor of the liquid chemical species and the initial temperature of the drops was chosen to be smaller than that of the gas. The mathematical model used in the study was constructed from the conservation equations for the two-phase flow and included complete couplings of mass, momentum, and energy based on thermodynamically self-consistent specification of the enthalpy, internal energy, and latent heat of vaporization of the vapor.

Bellan, Josette; Abdel-Hameed, Hesham

2003-01-01

193

Generalized Sprays and Nonlinear Connections  

CERN Multimedia

The main purposes of this article are to extend our previous results on homogeneous sprays to arbitrary (generalized) sprays, to show that locally diffeomorphic exponential maps can be defined for any (generalized) spray, and to give a (possibly nonlinear) covariant derivative for any (possibly nonlinear) connection. In the process, we introduce vertically homogeneous connections. Unlike homogeneous connections, these allow us to include Finsler spaces among the applications. We provide significant support for the prospect of studying nonlinear connections via (generalized) sprays. One of the most important is our generalized APS correspondence.

Riego, L D; Parker, Phillip. E.

2003-01-01

194

Vacuum Plasma Spraying Replaces Electrodeposition  

Science.gov (United States)

Vacuum plasma spraying used to fabricate large parts with complicated contours and inner structures, without uninspectable welds. Reduces time, and expense of fabrication. Wall of combustion chamber built up inside of outer nickel-alloy jacket by plasma spraying. Particles of metal sprayed partially melted in plasma gun and thrown at supersonic speed toward deposition surface. Vacuum plasma-spray produces stronger bond between the grooves and covering layer completing channels and wall of combustion chamber. In tests, bond withstood pressure of 20 kpsi, three times allowable limit by old method.

Holmes, Richard R.; Power, Chris; Burns, David H.; Daniel, Ron; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

1992-01-01

195

The perils of paint-balling.  

Science.gov (United States)

While paint-balling a 15-year-old boy was shot on the front of his face guard causing him to hyperextend his neck. Over the next few days he developed neck stiffness and a large painful swelling over his upper left sternocleidomastoid muscle. CT confirmed this to be a haematoma abscess and at operation it was found to originate from the parapharyngeal vessels, extending from the skull base and tracking inferiorly along the carotid sheath, compressing (and partially thrombosing) the internal jugular vein (IJV). After surgical decompression, double-dose low molecular weight heparin and antibiotics, the patient made an uneventful recovery, including recanalisation of his IJV. Delayed cervical haematoma can result in neck space infection and potential airway compromise. Early CT scanning optimises timely intervention, consisting of airway protection, broad-spectrum antibiotics and surgical drainage. PMID:22707547

McKay-Davies, I; Tweedie, D; Pitkin, L

2011-01-01

196

Decommissioning of a luminous dial painting facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A luminous dial painting plant operated in Georgia from 1954 until 1978 with a clean bill of health until 1976, when a routine inspection cited the company for questionable measurement techniques for tritium surface contamination, possible environment tritium releases and detectable tritium body burdens in the employees. The company chose to discontinue operations in June 1978, due to the above problems. Radium had been used from 1954 until 1966-67, with tritium use begun in 1966-67. A three phase plan for decommissioning the facility, was submitted to the Georgia Department of Human Resources. Phase 1 - Pre-decontamination Survey - entailed cursory environmental analyses for "2"2"6Ra and tritium, building and equipment surveys with portable instruments and wipe samples, bioassays, air samples/and soil/vegetation/water samples. Phase 2 - Decontamination, and Disposal. Phase 3 - Post-decontamination Survey. This paper deals with Phase 1 - methodology, instrumentation, problems, pitfalls and the results obtained. (author)

197

'Amarna blue' painted on ancient Egyptian pottery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Amarna blue' pigments (18 Dynasty, c. 1400 BC) painted on pottery fragments were investigated using the PIXE, XRF and XRD methods in laboratories and also using a portable type of X-ray spectrometer at the sites of excavation. On the blue-colored part enrichment of Na, Al, S, Cl, Ca, Mn, Co, Ni and Zn was found using X-ray spectroscopy, and CaSO4, NaCl and Co(M)Al2O4, M denoting Mn, Fe, Ni and Zn, were found by the help of X-ray diffraction. This means that Amarna blue is a mixture of CaSO4 and Co(M)Al2O4, at least in part

2002-04-01

198

``Amarna blue'' painted on ancient Egyptian pottery  

Science.gov (United States)

"Amarna blue" pigments (18 Dynasty, c. 1400 BC) painted on pottery fragments were investigated using the PIXE, XRF and XRD methods in laboratories and also using a portable type of X-ray spectrometer at the sites of excavation. On the blue-colored part enrichment of Na, Al, S, Cl, Ca, Mn, Co, Ni and Zn was found using X-ray spectroscopy, and CaSO 4, NaCl and Co(M)Al 2O 4, M denoting Mn, Fe, Ni and Zn, were found by the help of X-ray diffraction. This means that Amarna blue is a mixture of CaSO 4 and Co(M)Al 2O 4, at least in part.

Uda, M.; Nakamura, M.; Yoshimura, S.; Kondo, J.; Saito, M.; Shirai, Y.; Hasegawa, S.; Baba, Y.; Ikeda, K.; Ban, Y.; Matsuo, A.; Tamada, M.; Sunaga, H.; Oshio, H.; Yamashita, D.; Nakajima, Y.; Utaka, T.

2002-04-01

199

The ‘Philosophical paintings’ of the Republic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article I examine Plato’s appropriation of poetic language in the Republic and argue that, despite his criticism of poetry in Books 3 and 10, poetic language is justifiably weaved into the philosophical fabric to depict the corrupt, the ugly and the base. In specific terms, Plato’s adaptation of several poetic motifs and images in the Republic becomes more meaningful if we choose to pay attention to Socrates as a quasi painter in the dialogue and interpret his philosophical images as philosophy’s response to the deceptive dramatic representations of poetry. Thus the art of painting, which is also criticised in Republic Book 10, in Plato’s hands becomes a philosophical tool which helps him investigate the relation of our mundane sense-perceptive world to the metaphysical realm of the Ideas and humans’ place in it.

Zacharoula A. Petraki

2013-12-01

200

Paint compositions for indicating irradiation dose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paint compositions for indicating irradiation dose are prepared from chlorine-combined polyester, 5 to 30 percent by weight of a reductive discoloring substance or a mixture of said substances, and/or 0.005 to 2.0 percent by weight of a reducing dyestuff or a mixture of said dyestuffs, in which said chlorine-combined polyester is obtained by a chlorinated dibasic acid or its anhydride as an acid component or a part of an acid component selected from a group consisting of 3-chlorophthalic acid, 4-chlorophthalic acid, dichlorinated phthalic acid, tetrachlorophthalic acid, 1,4,5,6,7,7-hexachlorobicyclo-(2,2,1)-5-heptene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, 4-chloro-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboxylic acid and the anhydrides corresponding to said acids. (auth)

1975-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Judgement of paintings belonging to different tendencies in the 20th century painting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study Trifunovi?’ hypothesis that there are three objective lines in the development of modern art was psychologically evaluated. According to Trifunovi?, in the first line (Cézanne - cubism - neoplasticism - suprematism the geometrization of form prevails, in the second (Van Gogh - expressionism - abstract expressionism the use of color is dominant, whereas the main features of the third line (Gauguin - fauvism are symbolic use of color and reduction of perspective. Fifteen reproductions of paintings that represent the three developmental lines were used as stimuli. The subjects were asked to judge the stimuli on nine bipolar 7-step scales. These scales constitute the three factors of instrument SDF 9: Evaluation, Arousal and Regularity (3 scales x 3 factors = 9 scales. Four clusters of paintings were obtained: Abstract-expressionistic (moderate Evaluation, high Arousal and low Regularity, Figural-expressionistic (very low Evaluation, low Arousal and high Regularity, Constructivistic (moderate Evaluation, low Arousal and high Regularity and Realistic (high Evaluation, high Arousal and high Regularity. The results partially confirm Trifunovi?’ hypothesis indicating that, besides the formal features, the content (abstract vs. figural is also significant factor of subjective clustering of paintings.

Radonji? Ana

2004-01-01

202

Pigeons can discriminate "good" and "bad" paintings by children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Humans have the unique ability to create art, but non-human animals may be able to discriminate "good" art from "bad" art. In this study, I investigated whether pigeons could be trained to discriminate between paintings that had been judged by humans as either "bad" or "good". To do this, adult human observers first classified several children's paintings as either "good" (beautiful) or "bad" (ugly). Using operant conditioning procedures, pigeons were then reinforced for pecking at "good" paintings. After the pigeons learned the discrimination task, they were presented with novel pictures of both "good" and "bad" children's paintings to test whether they had successfully learned to discriminate between these two stimulus categories. The results showed that pigeons could discriminate novel "good" and "bad" paintings. Then, to determine which cues the subjects used for the discrimination, I conducted tests of the stimuli when the paintings were of reduced size or grayscale. In addition, I tested their ability to discriminate when the painting stimuli were mosaic and partial occluded. The pigeons maintained discrimination performance when the paintings were reduced in size. However, discrimination performance decreased when stimuli were presented as grayscale images or when a mosaic effect was applied to the original stimuli in order to disrupt spatial frequency. Thus, the pigeons used both color and pattern cues for their discrimination. The partial occlusion did not disrupt the discriminative behavior suggesting that the pigeons did not attend to particular parts, namely upper, lower, left or right half, of the paintings. These results suggest that the pigeons are capable of learning the concept of a stimulus class that humans name "good" pictures. The second experiment showed that pigeons learned to discriminate watercolor paintings from pastel paintings. The subjects showed generalization to novel paintings. Then, as the first experiment, size reduction test, grayscale test, mosaic processing test and partial occlusion test were carried out. The results suggest that the pigeons used both color and pattern cues for the discrimination and show that non-human animals, such as pigeons, can be trained to discriminate abstract visual stimuli, such as pictures and may also have the ability to learn the concept of "beauty" as defined by humans. PMID:19533184

Watanabe, Shigeru

2010-01-01

203

Photonic Paint Developed with Metallic Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work details the design and simulation of an inconspicuous photonic paint that can be applied onto an object for anticounterfeit and tag, track, and locate (TTL applications. The paint consists of three-dimensional metallic tilted woodpile photonic crystals embedded into a visible and infrared transparent polymer film, which can be applied to almost any surface. The tilted woodpile photonic crystals are designed with a specific pass band detectable at nearly all incident angles of light. When painted onto a surface, these crystals provide a unique reflective infra-red optical signature that can be easily observed and recorded to verify the location or contents of a package.

John D. Williams

2012-07-01

204

Intelligent control of robotic paint stripping using color vision feedback  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper describes a color-based machine vision system which is capable of functioning as a real-time process control system for a robotic work cell currently being developed for stripping paint from both large and small aircraft. The system is based on hue, saturation, and intensity representation of the image data and on rapid analysis techniques and is capable of differentiating between painted, primed, stripped, and roughened aircraft surfaces. These techniques were tested on a large number of aircraft paint schemes under actual stripping conditions, and were found to be fast and robust enough for real-time process control.

Harvey, D. N.; Rogers, T. W.

1993-08-01

205

Trends in the automotive paint industry for corrosion protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since many years ED-paints are protecting car bodies against corrosion. Currently the automotive paint industry is faced with increasing demands of higher levels of corrosion protection and also requests to comply with new environmental regulations and economical pressures. Some key factors that contributed significantly towards the improvement of corrosion protection systems are: - New generations of lead free ED-paints; - Weldable organic thin film for corrosion protection, especially in box cavities and flange areas. The goal of this paper is to show how the various elements of the 'anti-corrosion package' interact. (authors)

Blandin, Nathalie; Brunat, William [PPG Industries France, 3 Z.A.E. Les Dix Muids, B.P. 89, F-59583 Marly (France); Neuhaus, Ralf [PPG Industries Lacke GmbH, Stackenbergstrasse 34, D-42329 Wuppertal (Germany); Sibille, Ettore [PPG Industries Italia, Via Serra11, I-15028 Quattordio (Italy)

2004-07-01

206

Reflections of consumerism in Damien Hirst’s Spot Paintings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In what way do Damien Hirst’s artworks reflect (consumer) society? His Pharmaceutical Spot Paintings recall, Damien Hirst is often called a “brand”. Spot Paintings are one of his “product lines” and a logo at the same time. Hirst reflects this with a form of over identification (Slavoj Žižek). Since their transfer from wall to canvas in 1991 each Spot Painting hints at its status as a consumer object in positive, negative and ironic ways. They reflect belief in medicine, advertisi...

Blanche?, Ulrich

2011-01-01

207

Spray-formed tooling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) has formed a partnership with the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a process for the rapid production of low-cost tooling based on spray forming technology developed at the INEL. Phase 1 of the program will involve bench-scale system development, materials characterization, and process optimization. In Phase 2, prototype systems will be de signed, constructed, evaluated, and optimized. Process control and other issues that influence commercialization will be addressed during this phase of the project. Technology transfer to USCAR, or a tooling vendor selected by USCAR, will be accomplished during Phase 3. The approach INEL is using to produce tooling, such as plastic injection molds and stamping dies, combines rapid solidification processing and net-shape materials processing into a single step. A bulk liquid metal is pressure-fed into a de Laval spray nozzle transporting a high velocity, high temperature inert gas. The gas jet disintegrates the metal into fine droplets and deposits them onto a tool pattern made from materials such as plastic, wax, clay, ceramics, and metals. The approach is compatible with solid freeform fabrication techniques such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, and laminated object manufacturing. Heat is extracted rapidly, in-flight, by convection as the spray jet entrains cool inert gas to produce undercooled and semi-solid droplets. At the pattern, the droplets weld together while replicating the shape and surface features of the pattern. Tool formation is rapid; deposition rates in excess of 1 ton/h have been demonstrated for bench-scale nozzles.

McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

1994-12-31

208

Experimental evaluation of a mathematical model for predicting transfer efficiency of a high volume-low pressure air spray gun.  

Science.gov (United States)

The transfer efficiency of a spray-painting gun is defined as the amount of coating applied to the workpiece divided by the amount sprayed. Characterizing this transfer process allows for accurate estimation of the overspray generation rate, which is important for determining a spray painter's exposure to airborne contaminants. This study presents an experimental evaluation of a mathematical model for predicting the transfer efficiency of a high volume-low pressure spray gun. The effects of gun-to-surface distance and nozzle pressure on the agreement between the transfer efficiency measurement and prediction were examined. Wind tunnel studies and non-volatile vacuum pump oil in place of commercial paint were used to determine transfer efficiency at nine gun-to-surface distances and four nozzle pressure levels. The mathematical model successfully predicts transfer efficiency within the uncertainty limits. The least squares regression between measured and predicted transfer efficiency has a slope of 0.83 and an intercept of 0.12 (R2 = 0.98). Two correction factors were determined to improve the mathematical model. At higher nozzle pressure settings, 6.5 psig and 5.5 psig, the correction factor is a function of both gun-to-surface distance and nozzle pressure level. At lower nozzle pressures, 4 psig and 2.75 psig, gun-to-surface distance slightly influences the correction factor, while nozzle pressure has no discernible effect. PMID:11036729

Tan, Y M; Flynn, M R

2000-10-01

209

Flat jet spray nozzle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention refers to the mining industry and can be used to reduce the dust content of air in the face of cleaning and preparatory shafts. The proposed spray nozzle is flat jet, including a housing, parallel water-supplying channels, channel connected to them for forming a fluid jet and a slit intersecting with the channel for forming the fluid jet. In order to increase the angle of opening of the jet, the slit is made with arch-shaped convex bottom arranged below the channel for forming the fluid jet.

Zhunusov, A.O.; Likharev, B.D.

1982-01-01

210

Spray rolling aluminum alloy strip  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spray rolling combines spray forming with twin-roll casting to process metal flat products. It consists of atomizing molten metal with a high velocity inert gas, cooling the resultant droplets in flight and directing the spray between mill rolls. In-flight convection heat transfer from atomized droplets teams with conductive cooling at the rolls to rapidly remove the alloy's latent heat. Hot deformation of the semi-solid material in the rolls results in fully consolidated, rapidly solidified product. While similar in some ways to twin-roll casting, spray rolling has the advantage of being able to process alloys with broad freezing ranges at high production rates. This paper describes the process and summarizes microstructure and tensile properties of spray-rolled 2124 and 7050 aluminum alloy strips. A Lagrangian/Eulerian poly-dispersed spray flight and deposition model is described that provides some insight into the development of the spray rolling process. This spray model follows droplets during flight toward the rolls, through impact and spreading, and includes oxide film formation and breakup when relevant.

McHugh, Kevin M.; Delplanque, J.-P.; Johnson, S.B.; Lavernia, E.J.; Zhou, Y.; Lin, Y

2004-10-10

211

Pseudoconvex and Disprisoning Homogeneous Sprays  

CERN Document Server

The pseudoconvex and disprisoning conditions for geodesics of linear connections are extended to the solution curves of general homogeneous sprays. The main result is that pseudoconvexity and disprisonment are jointly stable in the fine topology on the space of all homogeneous sprays of any degree of homogeneity.

Riego, L D

1994-01-01

212

Spray pyrolysis and thermal processing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spray pyrolysis and thermal processing of superconducting wire are outlined. Topics discussed include: spray pyrolysis, 2-zone processing, PBSCCO precursor on LaAlO{sub 3}, GE verification study, verification results, physical properties of lattice - matched metal oxide materials, and thick film processing, future plans, major results, and program plans for FY95 are summarized.

Parilla, P.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1994-07-29

213

Spray tube for reactor container  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A container of an advanced BWR reactor has a double walled steel plate comprising inner and outer shells. A spray header as a tubular pipeline constituting a spray tube is incorporated in the inside of a ceiling of the double walled steel plate (gap between the inner shell and the outer shell). A plurality of spray nozzles extend from the spray header to the inner shell of the double walled steel plate and protruded to the inside of the container. The spray header is connected to a cooling water flowing pipe secured passing through the outer shell of the double walled steel plate. The cooling water flowing pipe is connected to a pump chamber disposed to the upper portion of the container. The spray nozzles extended from the spray header are secured to the inner shell of the double walled steel plate by way of a reinforcing plate. With such a constitution, the spray header can be protected from jetting force caused upon rupture of pipelines. (I.N.)

Tokita, Tadanori

1998-01-16

214

Fuel spray technology and applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume contains 18 papers related to diagnostic techniques for fuel injection systems, mostly for diesel engines. Spray characteristics, turbulent flow, atomization, air entrainment, interactions of sprays with chamber walls, and mathematical modeling are described. Other papers described the design of fuel injection systems. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

NONE

1996-09-01

215

Aerial vehicle with paint for detection of radiological and chemical warfare agents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A paint that warns of radiological or chemical substances comprising a paint operatively connected to the surface, an indicator material carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances, and a thermo-activation material carried by the paint. In one embodiment, a method of warning of radiological or chemical substances comprising the steps of painting a surface with an indicator material, and monitoring the surface for indications of the radiological or chemical substances. In another embodiment, a paint is operatively connected to a vehicle and an indicator material is carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances.

Farmer, Joseph C.; Brunk, James L.; Day, S. Daniel

2013-04-02

216

Constrained Response Surface Optimisation and Taguchi Methods for Precisely Atomising Spraying Process  

Science.gov (United States)

This research presents a development of a design of experiment technique for quality improvement in automotive manufacturing industrial. The quality of interest is the colour shade, one of the key feature and exterior appearance for the vehicles. With low percentage of first time quality, the manufacturer has spent a lot of cost for repaired works as well as the longer production time. To permanently dissolve such problem, the precisely spraying condition should be optimized. Therefore, this work will apply the full factorial design, the multiple regression, the constrained response surface optimization methods or CRSOM, and Taguchi's method to investigate the significant factors and to determine the optimum factor level in order to improve the quality of paint shop. Firstly, 2? full factorial was employed to study the effect of five factors including the paint flow rate at robot setting, the paint levelling agent, the paint pigment, the additive slow solvent, and non volatile solid at spraying of atomizing spraying machine. The response values of colour shade at 15 and 45 degrees were measured using spectrophotometer. Then the regression models of colour shade at both degrees were developed from the significant factors affecting each response. Consequently, both regression models were placed into the form of linear programming to maximize the colour shade subjected to 3 main factors including the pigment, the additive solvent and the flow rate. Finally, Taguchi's method was applied to determine the proper level of key variable factors to achieve the mean value target of colour shade. The factor of non volatile solid was found to be one more additional factor at this stage. Consequently, the proper level of all factors from both experiment design methods were used to set a confirmation experiment. It was found that the colour shades, both visual at 15 and 45 angel of measurement degrees of spectrophotometer, were nearly closed to the target and the defective at quality gate was also reduced from 0.35 WDPV to 0.10 WDPV. This reveals that the objective of this research is met and this procedure can be used as quality improvement guidance for paint shop of automotive vehicle.

Luangpaiboon, P.; Suwankham, Y.; Homrossukon, S.

2010-10-01

217

A dry ice jet system for decontamination of painted metal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, decontamination of painting on metal surface by dry ice jet was carried out. The influence of jet parameters on decontamination efficiency was examined. The results showed that the painting weight loss decreased with increasing speed of jet movement. The optimized parameters were target distance of 25 mm, jet angle of 63 degree, and the pressure of 0.6 -0.7 MPa, with a filtration efficiency of over 99% and 5.8-9.0 ?m particle sizes of the aerosol. For the painted samples polluted by 137Cs and 235U, the decontamination effect is excellent. For the polluted plumbum kettles,this method is effective. Therefore, the dry ice jet is an excellent technology for painting on metal surface. (authors)

2012-07-01

218

Paints binding materials hardenable by ionizing radiations and their applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention concerns a paint binding material, which can be hardened by ionising radiation, made from a dispersion of material, which is unsaturated as regards ethylene, in a vinyl monomer, and its use for the manufacture of pigmented or coloured paints. In order to improve the properties of the hardened paints (elasticity, resistance to wear) a reaction product consisting of rubber particles (0.04-1?m) and a compound unsaturated as regards ethylene with reactive epoxy, hydroxy or carboxy-groups is used, which is joined to the rubber particles by ester or urethane-bonds. The detailed process is explained by 68 examples. The paints adhere particularly well to metal sheets. (UWI)

1976-01-01

219

Opportunities application of cleaner production practices in paint industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are releases of volatile organic compounds VOC from paint manufacturing process steps and from cleaning operations in El Mohandas Paint Factory. These emission can cause health, safety and productivity problems in the work area. Hence cleaner production application is necessary in this case. Some of the manufacturing processes and equipment used to accomplish these manufacturing are analyzed and generate cleaner production opportunities, implement some of cleaner production solutions of VOC emission control by some of the methods used by paint facilities in reducing emissions. It was found that there is no control available for emissions factors in paints manufacturing process, so that VOC emission based on raw material consumption rather than calculation emission from processes or equipment by alternative method. (Author)

2010-01-01

220

Fatal pediatric poisoning from leaded paint--Wisconsin, 1990  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although fatal lead poisoning among children occurs rarely in the United States, it represents a medical and public health emergency. This report summarizes the investigation of a child who died from poisoning associated with ingestion of lead-based paint.

1991-03-29

 
 
 
 
221

Spiritual Space Making in Persian Painting (Geometry, Proportion and Composition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Concept of space and its use is the basic and main topic in imagery arts works which takes shape proportion with artist view, because Persian painting space is imagination and subjective space thus passes place and time limits of material world and goes around spiritual space imagination called as archetype space, and in it depth feeling is due to surfaces adjustment with each other, although they have differences but their common point is proportion and move due to special geometrical system on shapes, by placing painting motifs in a shape under title geometry of shapes and then its spread a set of regularity and proportion with geometrical forms is created like circle and its divisions in a painting which constitutes composition base of Persian painting works.

Mehrdad Ahmad Amiraghaei

2012-06-01

222

Behaviour of painted aluminium in Ibero-American atmosphere  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aluminium generally presents good corrosion resistance to the atmosphere. However, unprotected aluminium and aluminium alloys weather outdoors to an ugly grey colour, which deepens to black in industrial atmospheres, and undergo superficial pitting in marine atmospheres, etc. Finishing technologies are applied for their protection and decoration in a wide range of applications. These technologies basically consist of two protection processes: anodizing and painting: the latter going from conventional solvent base paints to modern water-born, high solids and powder coatings. This paper considers the weathering performance of three paint systems: alkyl, polyurethane and polyester, after more than three years of exposure in a wide spectra of Ibero-American atmospheric conditions. The information reported includes resistance to undercutting corrosion at the scribe, filiform corrosion, fungal attack and change in the physico-chemical properties of the paint surface (loss of gloss, colour changes, chalking, etc.). (Author) 9 refs

2003-01-01

223

Behaviour of painted aluminium in Ibero-American atmosphere  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aluminium generally presents good corrosion resistance to the atmosphere. However, unprotected aluminium and aluminium alloys weather outdoors to an ugly grey colour, which deepens to black in industrial atmospheres, and undergo superficial pitting in marine atmospheres, etc. Finishing technologies are applied for their protection and decoration in a wide range of applications. These technologies basically consist of two protection processes: anodizing and painting: the latter going from conventional solvent base paints to modern water-born, high solids and powder coatings. This paper considers the weathering performance of three paint systems: alkyl, polyurethane and polyester, after more than three years of exposure in a wide spectra of Ibero-American atmospheric conditions. The information reported includes resistance to undercutting corrosion at the scribe, filiform corrosion, fungal attack and change in the physico-chemical properties of the paint surface (loss of gloss, colour changes, chalking, etc.). (Author) 9 refs.

Morcillo, M.; Simancas, J.; Corvo, F.; Rosales, B.; Fragata, F.; Pena, J.; Sanchez, M.; Flores, S.; Almeida, E.; Rivero, S.; Rincon, O. T. de

2003-07-01

224

Formulation effects on the release of silica dioxide nanoparticles from paint debris to water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Waterborne paints with integrated nanoparticles have been recently introduced into the market as nanoparticles offer improved or novel functionalities to paints. However, the release of nanoparticles during the life cycle of nano-enhanced paint has only been studied to a very limited extent The paint composition could determine in what quantities and forms the nanoparticles are released. In this work, paint formulations containing the same amount of silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles but di...

2014-01-01

225

ATTAINING THE ROOM COMFORT BY SOLAR REFLECTIVE PAINT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this research was to provide the Room comfort by means of Solar Reflective Paint (SRP) on the roof and thereby reducing the consumption of electrical energy. Solar heat diffuses through roof into the room resulting in human discomfort. Human discomfort leads to the usage of electrical energy. Valuable energy has to be conserved. Three different samples of solar reflective paint were collected and their properties were studied. The sample suitable for the research was selected...

Sekar, M.; Sakthivel, M.; Satheesh Kumar, S.; Ramesh, C.

2012-01-01

226

Can children's paintings of their doctors be interpreted?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is increased emphasis nowadays on the role of the general practitioner in preventive care for children. Accordingly, an analysis of the child's perception of the doctor and of the factors which influence and mould that perception are important. In New Zealand children's paintings have been used for such analyses. The present study looked at children's paintings of their family doctors in a Devonshire village. The findings show that boys are more likely than girls to depict their doctors...

Philipp, Robin; Philipp, Ernst; Pendered, Lucy; Barnard, Colin; Hall, Michael

1986-01-01

227

Recovery of archaeological wall paintings using novel multispectral imaging approaches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

New approaches in the application of multispectral imaging to the recovery of archeological wall paintings are presented, based on statistical techniques and on a novel method of image treatment (Chromatic Derivative Imaging - ChromaDI) which offers a way of embedding information coming from four spectral bands into a standard RGB image. The methods are applied to some wall paintings from the Tomb of the Monkey, an Etruscan tomb in the necropolis of Poggio Renzo, near the city of Chiusi (Sien...

Legnaioli, Stefano; Lorenzetti, Giulia; Cavalcanti, Gildo H.; Grifoni, Emanuela; Marras, Luciano; Tonazzini, Anna; Salerno, Emanuele; Pallecchi, Pasquino; Giachi, Gianna; Palleschi, Vincenzo

2013-01-01

228

A simple model to describe the thixotropic behavior of paints.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose a simple rheological model to describe the thixotropic behavior of paints, since the classical hysteresis area, which is usually used, is not enough to evaluate thixotropy. The model is based on the assumption that viscosity is a direct measure of the structural level of the paint. The model depends on two equations: the Cross-Carreau equation to describe the equilibrium viscosity and a second order kinetic equation to express the time dependence of viscosity. Two characteristic th...

Armelin, Elaine; Marti?, Mireia; Rude? I Payro?, Elisabet; Labanda, Jordi; Llorens Llacuna, Joan; Alema?n, Carlos

2006-01-01

229

PAINT : Pareto front interpolation for nonlinear multiobjective optimization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A method called PAINT is introduced for computationally expensive multiobjective optimization problems. The method interpolates between a given set of Pareto optimal outcomes. The interpolation provided by the PAINT method implies a mixed integer linear surrogate problem for the original problem which can be optimized with any interactive method to make decisions concerning the original problem. When the scalarizations of the interactive method used do not introduce nonlinearity to the proble...

Miettinen, Kaisa; Hartikainen, Markus; Wiecek, Margaret M.

2012-01-01

230

Effect of paint on vapour resistivity in plaster  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The vapour resistivity of plaster coatings such as paint and their effectiveness as water repellents were studied in several types of plaster. To this end, painted, unpainted and pigmented specimens were tested. Experimental values were collected on diffusion and vapour permeability, or its inverse, water vapour resistivity.The data obtained were very useful for evaluating moisture exchange between plaster and the surrounding air, both during initial drying and throughout the life...

Villanueva, L.

2008-01-01

231

A study of paint sludge deactivation by pyrolysis reactions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The production of large quantities of paint sludge is a serious environmental problem. This work evaluates the use of pyrolysis reaction as a process for deactivating paint sludge that generates a combustible gas phase, a solvent liquid phase and an inert solid phase. These wastes were classified into three types: water-based solvent (latex resin) and solvents based on their resins (alkyd and polyurethane). An electrically heated stainless steel batch reactor with a capacity of 579 mL and a m...

2003-01-01

232

Pressure and Temperature Sensitive Paint Measurements on Rotors  

Science.gov (United States)

Luminescent molecular probes imbedded in a polymer binder form a temperature or pressure paint. On excitation by light of the proper wavelength, the luminescence, which is quenched either thermally or by oxygen, is detected by a camera or photodetector. From the detected luminescent intensity, temperature and pressure can be determined. The basic photophysics, calibration, accuracy and time response of luminescent paints is described followed by applications in wind tunnels and in rotating machinery.

Sullivan, John

1999-01-01

233

Surface Measurement Techniques Temperature and Pressure Sensitive Paints  

Science.gov (United States)

Luminescent molecular probes imbedded in a polymer binder form a temperature or pressure paint. On excitation by light of the proper wavelength, the luminescence,which is quenched either thermally or by oxygen, is detected by a camera or photodetector. From the detected luminescent intensity, temperature and pressure can be determined. Tl e basic photophysics, calibration, accuracy and the response of a luminescent paints is described followed by applications in wind tunnels and in rotating machinery.

Sullivan, John P.; Liu, Tian-Shu

1999-01-01

234

Siloxane-unsaturated ester paint and coated product  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radiation-curable paint binder is described comprising a film-forming solution of between 10 and 80 weight percent vinyl monomers and between 20 and 90 weight percent alpha-beta olefinically unsaturated siloxane. The paint binder is formed by reacting a siloxane which has at least two functional groups selected from the group consisting of hydroxyl groups and hydrocarbonoxy groups and a hydroxy ester of an alpha-beta olefinically unsaturated monocarboxylic acid. (author)

1969-11-07

235

Emission of isothiazolinones from water-based paints.  

Science.gov (United States)

The isothiazolinone preservatives methylisothiazolinone (MI), methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI), and benzisothiazolinone (BIT) are used in a wide variety of products including paint and cosmetics, and they are known to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Among painters they are one of the most common causes of contact dermatitis. Furthermore, they are all volatile, and severe reactions caused by emissions of especially MI from paint have been reported recently. In this study the concentrations of MI, BIT, and MCI in water-based paint were analyzed by LC-MS-MS, and the emissions from the paints were measured in climate chambers and in an apartment. Nineteen paints were analyzed for the content of MI, MCI, and BIT. All 19 paints contained MI, 16 contained BIT, and 4 contained MCI. In the chamber experiment emission of MI peaked within hours of application but then continued at a slow rate for more than 42 days. MCI was emitted more slowly and peaked after several days. BIT emissions were all around the limit of detection. In the apartment we were able to detect emission of MI several days after application. Long lasting evaporation and thus chronic exposure give credibility to the clinical observations that MI can be an important cause of airborne contact dermatitis among painters and consumers. PMID:24869638

Lundov, Michael D; Kolarik, Barbara; Bossi, Rossana; Gunnarsen, Lars; Johansen, Jeanne D

2014-06-17

236

Emission of Isothiazolinones from Water-Based Paints  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The isothiazolinone preservatives methylisothiazolinone (MI), methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI), and benzisothiazolinone (BIT) are used in a wide variety of products including paint and cosmetics, and they are known to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Among painters they are one of the most common causes of contact dermatitis. Furthermore, they are all volatile, and severe reactions caused by emissions of especially MI from paint have been reported recently. In this study the concentrations of MI, BIT, and MCI in water-based paint were analyzed by LC-MS-MS, and the emissions from the paints were measured in climate chambers and in an apartment. Nineteen paints were analyzed for the content of MI, MCI, and BIT. All 19 paints contained MI, 16 contained BIT, and 4 contained MCI. In the chamber experiment emission of MI peaked within hours of application but then continued at a slow rate for more than 42 days. MCI was emitted more slowly and peaked after several days. BIT emissions were all around the limit of detection. In the apartment we were able to detect emission of MI several days after application. Long lasting evaporation and thus chronic exposure give credibility to the clinical observations that MI can be an important cause of airborne contact dermatitis among painters and consumers.

Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Kolarik, Barbara

2014-01-01

237

Perhydrolase-nanotube paint composites with sporicidal and antiviral activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

AcT (perhydrolase) containing paint composites were prepared leading to broad-spectrum decontamination. AcT was immobilized onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and then incorporated into latex-based paints to form catalytic coatings. These AcT-based paint composites showed a 6-log reduction in the viability of spores of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis (Sterne) within 60 min. The paint composites also showed >4-log reduction in the titer of influenza virus (X-31) within 10 min (initially challenged with 10(7) PFU/mL). AcT-based paint composites were also tested using various perhydrolase acyl donor substrates, including propylene glycol diacetate (PGD), glyceryl triacetate, and ethyl acetate, with PGD observed to be the best among the substrates tested for generation of peracetic acid and killing of bacillus spores. The operational stability of paint composites was also studied at different relative humidities and temperatures to simulate real-life operation. PMID:23188457

Grover, Navdeep; Douaisi, Marc P; Borkar, Indrakant V; Lee, Lillian; Dinu, Cerasela Zoica; Kane, Ravi S; Dordick, Jonathan S

2013-10-01

238

SIRIS: a high resolution scanning infrared camera for examining paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

The new SIRIS (Scanning InfraRed Imaging System) camera developed at the National Gallery in London allows high-resolution images of paintings to be made in the near infrared region (900-1700 nm). Images of 5000 × 5000 pixels are made by moving a 320 × 256 pixel InGaAs array across the focal plane of the camera using two orthogonal translation stages. The great advantages of this camera over scanning infrared devices are its relative portability and that image acquisition is comparatively rapid - a full 5000 × 5000 pixel image can be made in around 20 minutes. The paper describes the development of the mechanical, optical and electronic components of the camera, including the design of a new lens. The software routines used to control image capture and to assemble the individual 320 × 256 pixel frames into a seamless mosaic image are also mentioned. The optics of the SIRIS camera have been designed so that the camera can operate at a range of resolutions; from around 2.5 pixels per millimetre on large paintings of up to 2000 × 2000 mm to 10 pixels per millimetre on smaller paintings or details of paintings measuring 500 × 500 mm. The camera is primarily designed to examine underdrawings in paintings; preliminary results from test targets and paintings are presented and the quality of the images compared with those from other cameras currently used in this field.

Saunders, David; Atkinson, Nick; Cupitt, John; Liang, Haida; Sawyers, Craig; Bingham, Richard

2005-06-01

239

Radiocarbon determinations for Chillagoe rock paintings: small sample AMS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indirect dating methods have been applied to the rock paintings of Chillagoe, north Queensland, revealing patterns of superimposition, depictions of items of known antiquity, the use of fragile paints such as mud, and in-situ pigment stratigraphies (David 1994). These patterns suggest that the Chillagoe rock paintings are relatively young, likely less than 3000 years old. A change in the geographical distribution of rock painting styles suggests a regionalization of the styles starting around 3000 years BP. Such regionalization implies that major cultural changes accompanied the changes in rock painting styles. This model of temporal change is now being investigated through a collaboration between the University of Queensland, ANSTO and the Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University to directly analyze radiocarbon in the charcoal pigments in several of the Chillagoe rock paintings. Samples collected from fourteen separate charcoal rock drawings at five rock shelters in the Chillagoe region were submitted to plasma chemical treatment. Though unreactive, the excited and energetic argon atoms in the plasma remove surface-absorbed CO2 through inelastic collisions. Samples yielding less than 100 micrograms carbon required special handling for AMS analysis. An isotope dilution technique utilizing 14C-free carbon was chosen. Radiocarbon analysis were also performed and the results will be presented

1997-02-10

240

Degradation of lime wood painting supports  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Degradation of wood, being a natural process, leads to destruction of wooden objects of historic and cultural value, resulting in loss of cultural heritage. Wood can survive centuries or even thousands of years, if kept in an environment, which limits microbial activity. In an unfavourable environment physical, chemical and morphological modifications of wood also take place as a result of biodegradation. It is important to know the type of degradation and how the processes influence material properties if wooden items are to be properly preserved. The objective of this study is to present new knowledge on non-invasive techniques useful to assess the preservation status of lime wood in art objects. The methods of investigation were optical and electronic microscopy, wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS, and FT-IR spectroscopy. Following a deconvolution process of the diffraction patterns, crystalline index, apparent lateral crystallite size, proportion of crystallite interior chains, orientation index, mesomorphism, cellulose fraction have been determined and shown to change with increasing age of painting supports. Structural modifications were assessed by FT-IR spectrometry and 2D correlation FT-IR spectroscopy, while morphological modification were characterised using SEM. The principal hetero-elements of the lime wood samples were detected by EDX. It can be concluded that only a multi-analytical approach can provide the information needed on wood degradation processes.

Cristina Maria Popescu

2005-09-01

 
 
 
 
241

Vibrational and electronic properties of painting lakes  

Science.gov (United States)

Naturally occurring dyes have been used to produce painting pigments, called lakes, by precipitation or adsorption of an organic dyestuff onto an insoluble inorganic substrate. Most natural dyes link to metal cations, by means of coordination bonds. The stable complexes formed precipitate together with solid amorphous hydrous aluminum oxide in alkaline solutions, yielding a hybrid material called a lake. Conventional chromatographic methods for lake analysis require dye extraction from the substrate; as a consequence, they do not provide any information about the organo-metallic complexes. In this work a comprehensive investigation based on X-ray fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared and UV-visible absorption and emission spectroscopies was carried out on 13 organic pigments derived from eight different natural sources. Three different kinds of substrate containing aluminum hydroxide were distinguished dependent on different preparation procedures. Information concerning the recipe and the dye composition was obtained by UV-visible spectroscopies. Dyes from different sources (animal or vegetal) could be distinguished. This study shows that the combined use of different spectroscopic techniques provides complementary information to high-performance liquid chromatography and therefore can be proposed for a molecular non-invasive investigation of these materials on works of art.

Clementi, C.; Doherty, B.; Gentili, P. L.; Miliani, C.; Romani, A.; Brunetti, B. G.; Sgamellotti, A.

2008-07-01

242

INEL spray-forming research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spray forming is a near-net-shape fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is deposited onto a suitably shaped substrate or mold to produce a coherent solid. The technology offers unique opportunities for simplifying materials processing without sacrificing, and oftentimes substantially improving, product quality. Spray forming can be performed with a wide range of metals and nonmetals, and offers property improvements resulting from rapid solidification (e.g. refined microstructures, extended solid solubilities and reduced segregation). Economic benefits result from process simplification and the elimination of unit operations. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials. Results from several spray-forming programs are presented to illustrate the range of capabilities of the technique as well as the accompanying technical and economic benefits. Low-carbon steel strip >0.75 mm thick and polymer membranes for gas/gas and liquid/liquid separations that were spray formed are discussed; recent advances in spray forming molds, dies, and other tooling using low-melting-point metals are described.

McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

1992-01-01

243

INEL spray-forming research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spray forming is a near-net-shape fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is deposited onto a suitably shaped substrate or mold to produce a coherent solid. The technology offers unique opportunities for simplifying materials processing without sacrificing, and oftentimes substantially improving, product quality. Spray forming can be performed with a wide range of metals and nonmetals, and offers property improvements resulting from rapid solidification (e.g. refined microstructures, extended solid solubilities and reduced segregation). Economic benefits result from process simplification and the elimination of unit operations. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials. Results from several spray-forming programs are presented to illustrate the range of capabilities of the technique as well as the accompanying technical and economic benefits. Low-carbon steel strip >0.75 mm thick and polymer membranes for gas/gas and liquid/liquid separations that were spray formed are discussed; recent advances in spray forming molds, dies, and other tooling using low-melting-point metals are described.

McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

1992-12-31

244

Transfer of tritium in concrete coated with hydrophobic paints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Rates of tritium migration in porous concrete materials coated with or without hydrophobic paints for the safety of fusion reactor rooms are correlated in terms of diffusivity or linear sorption. - Abstract: An experimental study on tritium (T) transfer in porous concrete for the tertiary T safety containment is performed to investigate (i) how fast HTO penetrates through concrete walls, (ii) how well concrete walls contaminated with water-soluble T are decontaminated by a solution-in-water technique, and (iii) how well hydrophobic paint coating works as a protecting film against HTO migrating through concrete walls. The experiment is comparatively carried out using disks of cement paste which W(water)/C(cement) weight ratio is 0.6:1 with or without hydrophobic paints, and mortar disks which W/C/sand ratio is 0.6:1:2 with or without the paints. The hydrophobic paints tested in the present study are an epoxy polymer resin paint and an acrylic-silicon polymer resin one. After T exposure during specified time under a constant HTO vapor pressure in an acrylic box, the amount of water-soluble HTO on/in the disks is determined using a technique of H2O dissolution during specified time. The results obtained here are summarized as follows: (1) HTO penetration in porous concrete can be correlated in terms of the effective diffusivity. (2) Its value in porous cement without coating is 1.2 × 10?11 m2/s at 25 °C. (3) HTO penetrates only through pores in cement, and there is no path for HTO transfer in non-porous sand. (4) Rates of sorption and dissolution of HTO in disks of cement and mortar coated with the epoxy resin paint are correlated in terms of the effective diffusivity through the paint film which value is DT = 1.0 × 10?16 m2/s. The rate-determining step is diffusion through the paint. (5) The epoxy resin paint works more effectively as an anti-HTO diffusion coating. (6) Another acrylic-silicon resin paint does not work well as anti-HTO diffusion coating. This may be because the hydrophobic property of the silicon resin paint is deteriorated with elongating the contact time with H2O vapor or liquid. (7) The HTO uptake inside the epoxy paint is greater than that of the silicon one. (8) The permeation reduction factor (PRF) of HTO for the epoxy paint at steady-state is expected large, if HTO vapor only contributes to diffusion. However, when concrete surfaces coated with the epoxy paint are under wet conditions, the PRF value becomes smaller. All those results can be used to estimate the effect of HTO soaking in concrete walls in case of accidental T release in a fusion reactor room and to decontaminate wastes of tritiated concrete.

2012-01-01

245

Transfer of tritium in concrete coated with hydrophobic paints  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rates of tritium migration in porous concrete materials coated with or without hydrophobic paints for the safety of fusion reactor rooms are correlated in terms of diffusivity or linear sorption. - Abstract: An experimental study on tritium (T) transfer in porous concrete for the tertiary T safety containment is performed to investigate (i) how fast HTO penetrates through concrete walls, (ii) how well concrete walls contaminated with water-soluble T are decontaminated by a solution-in-water technique, and (iii) how well hydrophobic paint coating works as a protecting film against HTO migrating through concrete walls. The experiment is comparatively carried out using disks of cement paste which W(water)/C(cement) weight ratio is 0.6:1 with or without hydrophobic paints, and mortar disks which W/C/sand ratio is 0.6:1:2 with or without the paints. The hydrophobic paints tested in the present study are an epoxy polymer resin paint and an acrylic-silicon polymer resin one. After T exposure during specified time under a constant HTO vapor pressure in an acrylic box, the amount of water-soluble HTO on/in the disks is determined using a technique of H{sub 2}O dissolution during specified time. The results obtained here are summarized as follows: (1) HTO penetration in porous concrete can be correlated in terms of the effective diffusivity. (2) Its value in porous cement without coating is 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} m{sup 2}/s at 25 Degree-Sign C. (3) HTO penetrates only through pores in cement, and there is no path for HTO transfer in non-porous sand. (4) Rates of sorption and dissolution of HTO in disks of cement and mortar coated with the epoxy resin paint are correlated in terms of the effective diffusivity through the paint film which value is D{sub T} = 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -16} m{sup 2}/s. The rate-determining step is diffusion through the paint. (5) The epoxy resin paint works more effectively as an anti-HTO diffusion coating. (6) Another acrylic-silicon resin paint does not work well as anti-HTO diffusion coating. This may be because the hydrophobic property of the silicon resin paint is deteriorated with elongating the contact time with H{sub 2}O vapor or liquid. (7) The HTO uptake inside the epoxy paint is greater than that of the silicon one. (8) The permeation reduction factor (PRF) of HTO for the epoxy paint at steady-state is expected large, if HTO vapor only contributes to diffusion. However, when concrete surfaces coated with the epoxy paint are under wet conditions, the PRF value becomes smaller. All those results can be used to estimate the effect of HTO soaking in concrete walls in case of accidental T release in a fusion reactor room and to decontaminate wastes of tritiated concrete.

Fukada, S., E-mail: sfukada@nucl.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Edao, Y.; Sato, K.; Takeishi, T.; Katayama, K. [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Kobayashi, K.; Hayashi, T.; Yamanishi, T. [Tritium Process Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hatano, Y.; Taguchi, A.; Akamaru, S. [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)

2012-01-15

246

Plasma spraying with wire feedstock  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plasma spraying has been limited to using powder feedstocks for a number of reasons. One limitation has been the low energy output of conventional plasma guns. The advent of high energy plasma spraying (HEPS) devices and the associated technology has effectively removed this functional limitation. With HEPS, the combination of high gas velocities and high thermal plasma temperatures coupled with a large exit gas volume enables wire and rod feedstocks to be effectively utilized. Rather than a bulk melting mechanism, a model based on ablation phenomena is considered. The paper examines an analysis of melting phenomena and presents a simple model for molten droplet formation for plasma spraying using wire feedstocks.

Scholl, M. [Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Portland, OR (United States)

1994-12-31

247

Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using 'L' clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and 'picture framing' the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

Herk, A.; Baker, R.; Prahl, D.

2014-03-01

248

Failure-probability driven dose painting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To demonstrate a data-driven dose-painting strategy based on the spatial distribution of recurrences in previously treated patients. The result is a quantitative way to define a dose prescription function, optimizing the predicted local control at constant treatment intensity. A dose planning study using the optimized dose prescription in 20 patients is performed.Methods: Patients treated at our center have five tumor subvolumes from the center of the tumor (PET positive volume) and out delineated. The spatial distribution of 48 failures in patients with complete clinical response after (chemo)radiation is used to derive a model for tumor control probability (TCP). The total TCP is fixed to the clinically observed 70% actuarial TCP at five years. Additionally, the authors match the distribution of failures between the five subvolumes to the observed distribution. The steepness of the dose–response is extracted from the literature and the authors assume 30% and 20% risk of subclinical involvement in the elective volumes. The result is a five-compartment dose response model matching the observed distribution of failures. The model is used to optimize the distribution of dose in individual patients, while keeping the treatment intensity constant and the maximum prescribed dose below 85 Gy.Results: The vast majority of failures occur centrally despite the small volumes of the central regions. Thus, optimizing the dose prescription yields higher doses to the central target volumes and lower doses to the elective volumes. The dose planning study shows that the modified prescription is clinically feasible. The optimized TCP is 89% (range: 82%–91%) as compared to the observed TCP of 70%.Conclusions: The observed distribution of locoregional failures was used to derive an objective, data-driven dose prescription function. The optimized dose is predicted to result in a substantial increase in local control without increasing the predicted risk of toxicity

2013-08-01

249

Failure-probability driven dose painting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To demonstrate a data-driven dose-painting strategy based on the spatial distribution of recurrences in previously treated patients. The result is a quantitative way to define a dose prescription function, optimizing the predicted local control at constant treatment intensity. A dose planning study using the optimized dose prescription in 20 patients is performed.Methods: Patients treated at our center have five tumor subvolumes from the center of the tumor (PET positive volume) and out delineated. The spatial distribution of 48 failures in patients with complete clinical response after (chemo)radiation is used to derive a model for tumor control probability (TCP). The total TCP is fixed to the clinically observed 70% actuarial TCP at five years. Additionally, the authors match the distribution of failures between the five subvolumes to the observed distribution. The steepness of the dose–response is extracted from the literature and the authors assume 30% and 20% risk of subclinical involvement in the elective volumes. The result is a five-compartment dose response model matching the observed distribution of failures. The model is used to optimize the distribution of dose in individual patients, while keeping the treatment intensity constant and the maximum prescribed dose below 85 Gy.Results: The vast majority of failures occur centrally despite the small volumes of the central regions. Thus, optimizing the dose prescription yields higher doses to the central target volumes and lower doses to the elective volumes. The dose planning study shows that the modified prescription is clinically feasible. The optimized TCP is 89% (range: 82%–91%) as compared to the observed TCP of 70%.Conclusions: The observed distribution of locoregional failures was used to derive an objective, data-driven dose prescription function. The optimized dose is predicted to result in a substantial increase in local control without increasing the predicted risk of toxicity.

Vogelius, Ivan R.; Håkansson, Katrin; Due, Anne K.; Aznar, Marianne C.; Kristensen, Claus A.; Rasmussen, Jacob; Specht, Lena [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100 (Denmark); Berthelsen, Anne K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark and Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100 (Denmark); Bentzen, Søren M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark and Departments of Human Oncology and Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)

2013-08-15

250

/ The 'Philosophical paintings' of the Republic  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el presente artículo examino la apropiación platónica del lenguaje poético en República y sostengo que, a pesar de sus críticas a la poesía en los libros 3 y 10, el lenguaje poético está correctamente entrelazado dentro del tejido filosófico para pintar lo corrupto, lo feo y lo inmoral. En términ [...] os específicos, la adaptación platónica de diversos motivos poéticos e imágenes en República se vuelve más significativa si prestamos atención a Sócrates como un quasi-pintor en el diálogo e interpretamos sus imágenes filosóficas como una respuesta de la filosofía a las engañosas representaciones dramáticas de la poesía. De este modo, el arte de la pintura que, incluso es criticado en el libro 10 de República, en manos de Platón resulta una herramienta filosófica que le permite investigar la relación de nuestro mundo senso-perceptivo ordinario con el campo metafísico de las Ideas y el lugar de lo humano en él. Abstract in english In this article I examine Plato's appropriation of poetic language in the Republic and argue that, despite his criticism of poetry in Books 3 and 10, poetic language is justifiably weaved into the philosophical fabric to depict the corrupt, the ugly and the base. In specific terms, Plato's adaptatio [...] n of several poetic motifs and images in the Republic becomes more meaningful if we choose to pay attention to Socrates as a quasi painter in the dialogue and interpret his philosophical images as philosophy's response to the deceptive dramatic representations of poetry. Thus the art of painting, which is also criticised in Republic Book 10, in Plato's hands becomes a philosophical tool which helps him investigate the relation of our mundane sense-perceptive world to the metaphysical realm of the Ideas and humans' place in it.

Zacharoula A., Petraki.

251

Disposable Aerosol Tissue Adhesive Spray.  

Science.gov (United States)

A sterile, individually disposable spray unit for aerosol tissue adhesive has been developed which is simple and effective for surgical application of tissue adhesive. The porosity of the polymer film may accelerate the speed of degradation and phagocytos...

T. Matsumoto R. M. Hardaway K. C. Pani P. M. Margetis

1967-01-01

252

A Plasma Flame Spray Handbook.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Plasma Spraying process is a versatile fabrication technique used to apply a wide range of coatings on various workpiece materials. Coatings are applied to restore or attain desired dimensions, to provide electrical or thermal shielding or conduction,...

T. J. Roseberry F. W. Boulger

1977-01-01

253

Pesticide Spray and Dust Drift  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticide Spray and Dust Drift Quick Resources 3/31/14: EPA Response to "Pesticides in the Air – ... works: pesticide volatilization Worker risk assessment Questions on Pesticides? National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) 1-800-858- ...

254

Mechanofused powders for thermal spray  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mechanofusion is a novel powder processing technique, in which raw powdered materials are fed into the apparatus, and through mechanical-thermal interactions, the powder characteristics are changed, e.g., shape, size, and composition distribution. Mechanofusion has been used in this study to produce intermetallic nickel aluminide compounds and composite powders as feedstock for vacuum plasma spraying. Significant effects of the mechanofusion production route on the powder characteristics and spray deposition features have been observed. 16 refs.

Herman, H.; Chen, Z.J.; Huang, C.C.; Cohen, R. (New York, State University, Stony Brook (United States) Micron Powder Systems, Summit, NJ (United States))

1992-06-01

255

Plasma spraying theory and applications  

CERN Multimedia

The recent advances in plasma spraying are discussed in this book which divides into two sections - theory and application. The book presents sophisticated experimental techniques, diagnostics, theoretical models and computer simulations which not only improve the understanding and uses of the spraying process but also help to increase the reliability factor of the manufacturing components. Applications that are metallurgical, aeronautical, automobile, chemical, etc. are also shown. More importantly, applications that include silicon for solar cells, magnets and superconductors are also discus

Suryanarayanan, R

1993-01-01

256

In situ investigations of vault paintings in the Antwerp cathedral  

Science.gov (United States)

X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and Raman spectroscopy have been used to examine 15th century mediaeval and 16th century renaissance vault paintings in the Our Lady's Cathedral (Antwerp, Belgium) in view of their restoration. The use of mobile instruments made it possible to work totally non-destructively. This complementary approach yields information on the elemental (XRF) and on the molecular composition (Raman) of the pigments. For the 15th century vault painting the pigments lead-tin yellow (Pb 2SnO 4), lead white (2PbCO 3·Pb(OH) 2), vermilion (HgS), massicot (PbO) and azurite (2CuCO 3·Cu(OH) 2) could be identified. The pigments used for the 16th century vault painting could be identified as red lead (Pb 3O 4), hematite (Fe 2O 3), lead white (2PbCO 3·Pb(OH) 2) and azurite (2CuCO 3·Cu(OH) 2). For both paintings the presence of the strong Raman scatterer calcite (CaCO 3) resulted in a difficult identification of the pigments by Raman spectroscopy. The presence of gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O) on the mediaeval vault painting probably indicates that degradation took place.

Deneckere, Annelien; Schudel, Walter; Van Bos, Marina; Wouters, Helena; Bergmans, Anna; Vandenabeele, Peter; Moens, Luc

2010-02-01

257

New approaches for investigating paintings by ion beam techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Up to now, among the IBA techniques, only PIXE has been used for analyzing paintings. However, quantitative PIXE analysis is sometimes difficult to interpret due to the layered structure, the presence of varnish and organic binder and, in some cases, discoloration of the pigments has been observed due to the interaction of the ion beam with the compounds. In order to improve the characterization of paintings, we propose some alternative experimental procedures. First of all, backscattering spectrometry (BS) and PIXE are simultaneously combined in order to collect complementary information such as layer thickness and organic compound quantification. The simultaneous PIXE and BS experiments also have the advantage of being able to analyze the same area in one experiment. This combination, implemented with an external beam, was directly applied on paintings and on painting cross-sections for the study of Italian Renaissance masterpieces. We have obtained valuable results not only on the pigment itself but also, for the first time, on the binder to pigment proportion which is not well documented in the ancient recipes. Moreover, in order to restrain beam damages due to the ion stopping power, we propose to analyze very thin painting cross-sections by a combination of PIXE-RBS and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM).

Beck, L.; de Viguerie, L.; Walter, Ph.; Pichon, L.; Gutiérrez, P. C.; Salomon, J.; Menu, M.; Sorieul, S.

2010-06-01

258

A haptically enhanced painting as a tool for neurorehabilitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines a new form of interaction combining haptic and sonic exploration with static visual information from a real painting. Motivated by recent work in neurorehabilitation exploring group interactions with a robot, and by the educational and explorative value of artefacts, we investigate the feasibility of an interactive painting as a potential tool for the rehabilitation of brain injuries. The study consisted of a series of thirty-six single case studies with healthy individuals exploring a painting through haptic feedback with/without sonic interaction and assessed using a multidimensional measurement intended to evaluate the participants' subjective experience. The results showed that participants engaged with the interactive installation and executed more movements while exploring the painting in pairs. It appears that the haptic painting paradigm encourages development of analytical skills, imagination, promotes spatial skills realisation and enhances touch/hearing sensory channels. The results suggest that this approach might be of value to neurorehabilitation by exploring concepts of augmented artefact installations with technology (haptics + sound), promoting social integration and potential use in public spaces. PMID:24187285

Le, Hoang H; Loureiro, Rui C V; Dussopt, Florian; Phillips, Nicholas; Zivanovic, Aleksander; Loomes, Martin J

2013-06-01

259

New approaches for investigating paintings by ion beam techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Up to now, among the IBA techniques, only PIXE has been used for analyzing paintings. However, quantitative PIXE analysis is sometimes difficult to interpret due to the layered structure, the presence of varnish and organic binder and, in some cases, discoloration of the pigments has been observed due to the interaction of the ion beam with the compounds. In order to improve the characterization of paintings, we propose some alternative experimental procedures. First of all, backscattering spectrometry (BS) and PIXE are simultaneously combined in order to collect complementary information such as layer thickness and organic compound quantification. The simultaneous PIXE and BS experiments also have the advantage of being able to analyze the same area in one experiment. This combination, implemented with an external beam, was directly applied on paintings and on painting cross-sections for the study of Italian Renaissance masterpieces. We have obtained valuable results not only on the pigment itself but also, for the first time, on the binder to pigment proportion which is not well documented in the ancient recipes. Moreover, in order to restrain beam damages due to the ion stopping power, we propose to analyze very thin painting cross-sections by a combination of PIXE-RBS and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM).

Beck, L., E-mail: Lucile.beck@cea.f [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France (C2RMF), CNRS-UMR 171, Palais du Louvre - Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Viguerie, L. de; Walter, Ph.; Pichon, L. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France (C2RMF), CNRS-UMR 171, Palais du Louvre - Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Gutierrez, P.C. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Salomon, J.; Menu, M. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France (C2RMF), CNRS-UMR 171, Palais du Louvre - Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Sorieul, S. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, IN2P3, UMR 5797, Universite de Bordeaux 1, Chemin du Solarium BP120, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France)

2010-06-15

260

Leaching of copper and zinc from spent antifouling paint particles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Leaching of Cu and Zn from a composite of spent antifouling paint particles, containing about 300 mg g{sup -1} and 110 mg g{sup -1} of the respective metals, was studied in batch experiments. For a given set of simulated environmental conditions, release of Cu was independent of paint particle concentration due to attainment of pseudo-saturation, but Zn was less constrained by solubility effects and release increased with increasing particle concentration. Leaching of Cu increased but Zn decreased with increasing salinity, consistent with mechanisms governing the dissolution of Cu{sub 2}O in the presence of chloride and Zn acrylates in the presence of seawater cations. Because of complex reaction kinetics and the presence of calcium carbonate in the paint matrix, metal leaching appeared to be greater at 4 deg. C than 19 deg. C under many conditions. These findings have important environmental and biological implications regarding the deliberate or inadvertent disposal of antifouling paint residues. - Copper and zinc are readily leached from particles of spent antifouling paint under a range of environmental conditions.

Singh, Nimisha [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk

2009-02-15

 
 
 
 
261

Manet/ Velazquez: The French Taste for Spanish Painting  

Science.gov (United States)

The opening sequence of this exhibition Web site depicts the bidding process for an acclaimed Spanish painting, Murillio's "Immaculate Conception," which was purchased by the Musee de Louvre in 1852. Sponsored by the Metropolitan Museum of Art and Accenture, this beautiful site explores the great love of Spanish painting by the French throughout the latter half of the nineteenth century. Visitors will want to start by viewing the Artists' Journey through Spain section, which allows them to look at an interactive map of the travels within Spain that led artists such as Mary Cassatt, Edouard Manet, and others to produce such lasting and powerful works of art. The Comparative Gallery section is a fine feature that allows visitors to drag two different paintings from five different online galleries and read text that compares these nineteenth century French and American works with the Spanish paintings that inspired them. The Artists and Paintings section offers a brief overview in the exhibit, as well as a timeline that features crucial political, social, and cultural events from 1780 to 1890 that affected the artistic milieu of Spain and France. Perhaps the finest feature of the site is the ability to view the legendary Prado Museum in Madrid as Manet would have viewed it in the 1870s. Utilizing the photographs of the museum's grand Sala Central taken by Jean Laurent between 1879 and 1885, visitors can navigate around the interior, and zoom in and out as they prefer.

262

Sprays in containment: Final results of the SARNET spray benchmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Modelling of nuclear reactor containment sprays is assessed through codes benchmarking. ? This benchmark is proposed in the frame of the European network of excellence, SARNET. ? Spray thermodynamics as well as gas entrainment and atmosphere mixing is studied here. ? Four types of experiments are proposed on the TOSQAN and MISTRA facilities. ? The code level of validation of is encouraging for the use of spray modelling for risk analysis. - Abstract: The influence of containment sprays on atmosphere behaviour, a sub-task of the Work Package WP12-2 CAM (Containment Atmosphere Mixing), has been investigated through benchmark exercises based on TOSQAN (IRSN) and MISTRA (CEA) experiments. These tests are being simulated with lumped-parameter (LP) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. Both atmosphere depressurization and mixing are being studied in two phases: a 'thermalhydraulic part', which deals with depressurization by sprays (TOSQAN 101 and MISTRA MASPn), and a 'dynamic part', dealing with light gas stratification break-up by spray (TOSQAN 113 and MISTRA MARC2b). In the thermalhydraulic part of the benchmark, participants have found the appropriate modelling to obtain good global results in terms of experimental pressure and mean gas temperature, for both TOSQAN and MISTRA tests. It can thus be considered that code users have a good knowledge of their spray modelling parameters. On a local level, for the TOSQAN test, single droplet behaviour is found to be well estimated by some calculations, but the global modelling of multiple droplets, i.e. of the spray, specifically for the spray dilution, is questionable in some CFD calculations. It can lead to some discrepancies localized in the spray region and can thus have a high impact on the global results, since most of the heat and mass transfers occur inside this region. In the MISTRA tests, wall condensation mass flow rates and local temperatures were used for code-experiment comparison and show that improvement of the local modelling, including initial conditions determination, is needed. In this dynamic part, a general result, in both tests, is that calculations do not recover the same kinetics of the mixing. Furthermore, concerning global mixing, LP contributions seem not suitable here. For the TOSQAN benchmark, the one-phase CFD calculations recover partially the phenomena involved during the mixing, whereas the two-phase flow CFD contributions generally recover the phenomena. Moreover, one important result is also that none of the contributions finds the exact amount of helium remaining in the dome above the spray nozzle in the TOSQAN 113. Discrepancies are rather high (above 5%vol of helium). Results are thus encouraging, but the level of validation should be improved. The same kind of conclusions can be drawn for the MISTRA MARC2B tests. As a conclusion of this SARNET spray benchmark, the level of validation obtained here is encouraging for the use of spray modelling for risk analysis. However, some more detailed investigations are needed to improve model parameters and decrease the uncertainty for containment applications as well as to increase the predictability of the phenomena within the containment analyses. Further activities are well encouraged on this topic, such as numerical benchmarks on analytical separate-effect experiments.

2011-06-01

263

Sprays in containment: Final results of the SARNET spray benchmark  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: > Modelling of nuclear reactor containment sprays is assessed through codes benchmarking. > This benchmark is proposed in the frame of the European network of excellence, SARNET. > Spray thermodynamics as well as gas entrainment and atmosphere mixing is studied here. > Four types of experiments are proposed on the TOSQAN and MISTRA facilities. > The code level of validation of is encouraging for the use of spray modelling for risk analysis. - Abstract: The influence of containment sprays on atmosphere behaviour, a sub-task of the Work Package WP12-2 CAM (Containment Atmosphere Mixing), has been investigated through benchmark exercises based on TOSQAN (IRSN) and MISTRA (CEA) experiments. These tests are being simulated with lumped-parameter (LP) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. Both atmosphere depressurization and mixing are being studied in two phases: a 'thermalhydraulic part', which deals with depressurization by sprays (TOSQAN 101 and MISTRA MASPn), and a 'dynamic part', dealing with light gas stratification break-up by spray (TOSQAN 113 and MISTRA MARC2b). In the thermalhydraulic part of the benchmark, participants have found the appropriate modelling to obtain good global results in terms of experimental pressure and mean gas temperature, for both TOSQAN and MISTRA tests. It can thus be considered that code users have a good knowledge of their spray modelling parameters. On a local level, for the TOSQAN test, single droplet behaviour is found to be well estimated by some calculations, but the global modelling of multiple droplets, i.e. of the spray, specifically for the spray dilution, is questionable in some CFD calculations. It can lead to some discrepancies localized in the spray region and can thus have a high impact on the global results, since most of the heat and mass transfers occur inside this region. In the MISTRA tests, wall condensation mass flow rates and local temperatures were used for code-experiment comparison and show that improvement of the local modelling, including initial conditions determination, is needed. In this dynamic part, a general result, in both tests, is that calculations do not recover the same kinetics of the mixing. Furthermore, concerning global mixing, LP contributions seem not suitable here. For the TOSQAN benchmark, the one-phase CFD calculations recover partially the phenomena involved during the mixing, whereas the two-phase flow CFD contributions generally recover the phenomena. Moreover, one important result is also that none of the contributions finds the exact amount of helium remaining in the dome above the spray nozzle in the TOSQAN 113. Discrepancies are rather high (above 5%vol of helium). Results are thus encouraging, but the level of validation should be improved. The same kind of conclusions can be drawn for the MISTRA MARC2B tests. As a conclusion of this SARNET spray benchmark, the level of validation obtained here is encouraging for the use of spray modelling for risk analysis. However, some more detailed investigations are needed to improve model parameters and decrease the uncertainty for containment applications as well as to increase the predictability of the phenomena within the containment analyses. Further activities are well encouraged on this topic, such as numerical benchmarks on analytical separate-effect experiments.

Malet, J., E-mail: jeanne.malet@irsn.fr [IRSN, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Blumenfeld, L. [CEA, DEN/DM2S, Saclay (France); Arndt, S. [GRS, Berlin (Germany); Babic, M. [JSI, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Bentaib, A. [IRSN, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Dabbene, F. [CEA, DEN/DM2S, Saclay (France); Kostka, P. [VEIKI, Budapest (Hungary); Mimouni, S. [EDF, Chatou (France); Movahed, M. [AREVA, Offenbach (Germany); Paci, S. [DIMNP-UNIPI, Pisa (Italy); Parduba, Z. [UJV (Czech Republic); Travis, J. [FZK, Karlsruhe (Germany); Urbonavicius, E. [LEI, Kaunas (Lithuania)

2011-06-15

264

Spray Lakes reclamation project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When the level of the Spray Lakes (Alberta) reservoir was lowered by four metres, 208 ha of shoreline was exposed offering little to no wildlife benefit and only limited recreation potential. A reclamation plan for 128 ha of shoreline was therefore developed. A wild life-palatable, self-sustaining vegetation cover was established. Approximately 90 ha was scarified, and/or had tree stumps removed prior to seeding, while approximately 40 ha was seeded and fertilized only. The remaining 80 ha of shoreline was not revegetated due to limited access; these areas will be allowed to re-establish naturally from the forested edge. The species were selected based on their adaptation to alkaline soils, drought tolerance, persistence in a stand and rooting characteristics, as well as palatability to wildlife. Alfalfa, white clover and fall rye were seeded. In general, all areas of the reclamation plan are successfully revegetated. Areas which were recontoured are stable and non-eroding. Success was most significant in areas which had been scarified, then seeded and trackpacked. Areas that were seeded and fertilized only were less well established at the end of the first year, but showed improvement in the second and third years. The area will be monitored to ensure the reclaimed vegetation is self-sustaining

1996-09-18

265

Slurry spray distribution within a simulated laboratory scale spray dryer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It was found that the distribution of liquid striking the sides of a simulated room temperature spray dryer was not significantly altered by the choice of nozles, nor by a variation in nozzle operating conditions. Instead, it was found to be a function of the spray dryer's configuration. A cocurrent flow of air down the drying cylinder, not possible with PNL's closed top, favorably altered the spray distribution by both decreasing the amount of liquid striking the interior of the cylinder from 72 to 26% of the feed supplied, and by shifting the zone of maximum impact from 1.0 to 1.7 feet from the nozzle. These findings led to the redesign of the laboratory scale spray dryer to be tested at the Savannah River Plant. The diameter of the drying chamber was increased from 5 to 8 inches, and a cocurrent flow of air was established with a closed recycle. Finally, this investigation suggested a drying scheme which offers all the advantages of spray drying without many of its limitations

1979-01-01

266

Mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) in interior and exterior New Orleans house paint films.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pre-1992, latex paint was formulated with mercury (Hg) as phenylmercuric acetate (PMA). Hg vaporizes reducing its content, and lead (Pb) is stable and remains unchanged. The objective of this study is to describe the content of Hg and Pb in existing paint coatings. Forty paint chip samples were collected from both interior and exterior surfaces of homes in metropolitan New Orleans and analyzed for Hg and Pb. The median Hg in exterior paints is 26.9 mg kg(-1) (0.8-214.0) compared with 7.1 mg kg(-1) (0.03-39.2) for interior paints. The median Pb content is 76603 mg kg(-1) (464-317151) and 416 mg kg(-1) (24-63313) respectively, for exterior and interior paints. The Spearman correlation coefficients for Hg and Pb are -0.312 (P=0.13) and -0.471 (P=0.07) respectively, in exterior and interior samples. Hg and Pb vary independently with each other in paint films. Median Hg in exterior paints is four times larger than for interior paints. Median Pb in exterior paints is 184 times larger than interior paints. The Pb and Hg content in exterior and interior paint chips are significantly different (Mann-Whitney Rank Sum Test, P0.001 and P=0.006, respectively). Only 1 of the 25 exterior paints contained less than the current 5000 mg kg(-1) US standard for Pb, the criteria for exemption from the power-sanding restrictions of the New Orleans Lead Ordinance. Prior to banning PMA in paint, Hg poisonings presented as acrodynia were reported for children living in homes freshly painted with latex paint. Because of the affinity of Hg and Pb for sulfur-containing amino acid proteins, their presence in paint coatings poses an increased hazard when released as dust. PMID:18485443

Mielke, Howard W; Gonzales, Chris

2008-06-01

267

Contamination of aluminum and painted surfaces exposed to tritium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To study the problem of outgassing of contaminated room surfaces following a significant tritium (T) room release, painted metal strips were exposed to tritium (T/sub 2/ or HTO) and the outgassing rates measured. This was followed by exposures in a 1-m/sup 3/ chamber, whose walls were coated with the material to be studied. The results show that the differences in the contamination of, and subsequent outgassing by, several epoxy and latex paints may be significant. The greatest differences, however, were the much higher contamination following exposure to HTO compared to T/sub 2/, and the lower contamination of exposed bare aluminium foil compared to painted surfaces, for both HTO and T/sub 2/

1986-11-01

268

Photometric approach to surface reconstruction of artist paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose a method for surface reconstruction of artist paintings. In order to reproduce the appearance of a painting, including color, surface texture, and glossiness, it is essential to acquire the pixel-wise light reflection property and orientation of the surface and render an image under an arbitrary lighting condition. A photometric approach is used to estimate bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) and surface normals from a set of images photographed by a fixed camera with sparsely distributed point light sources. A robust and computationally less expensive nonlinear optimization algorithm is proposed that optimizes the small number of parameters to simultaneously determine all of the specular BRDF, diffuse albedo, and surface normal. The proposed method can be applied to moderately glossy surfaces without separating captured images into diffuse and specular reflections beforehand. Experiments were conducted using oil paintings with different surface glossiness. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by comparing captured and rendered images.

Hasegawa, Takayuki; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Iino, Koichi

2011-01-01

269

Radiation Induced Degradation of White Thermal Control Paint  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper details a comparison analysis of the zinc-oxide pigmented white thermal control paints Z-93 and Z-93P. Both paints were simultaneously exposed to combined space environmental effects and analyzed using an in-vacuo reflectance technique. The dose applied to the paints was approximately equivalent to 5 yr in a geosynchronous orbit. This comparison analysis showed that Z-93P is an acceptable substitute for Z-93. Irradiated samples of Z-93 and Z-93P were subjected to additional exposures of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and analyzed using the in-vacuo reflectance technique to investigate UV activated reflectance recovery. Both samples showed minimal UV activated reflectance recovery after an additional 190 equivalent Sun hour (ESH) exposure. Reflectance response utilizing nitrogen as a repressurizing gas instead of air was also investigated. This investigation found the rates of reflectance recovery when repressurized with nitrogen are slower than when repressurized with air.

Edwards, D. L.; Zwiener, J. M.; Wertz, G. E.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Finckenor, M. M.; Meshishnek, M. J.

1999-01-01

270

Paint binders hardened by electron beams and their use  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention concerns a paint binder hardened by electron beams (0.1 - 100 Mrad/sec.) consisting of a dispersion of an ethylenic unsaturated material in at least one vinyl monomer and the use of the former in manufacturing pigmented or coloured points. In order to improve the properties of the hardened paints (elasticity, wear resistance) a reaction product is used consisting of rubber particles (0.04-1 ?m) and an ethylenic unsaturated component with a reactive epoxy, hydroxy or carboxy group which is bonded to the rubber particles by ester or urethane compounds. The detailed description of the manufacture is explained by 68 examples. The paints hold particularly well on sheet steel. (UWI)

1976-01-01

271

Perception and Painting in Merleau-Ponty’s Thought  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Maintaining that “the perceived world is the always presupposed foundation of all rationality, all value and all existence” (1964/1964: 13, Maurice Merleau-Ponty sought to develop a descriptive philosophy of perception, our kinaesthetic, prescientific, lived-bodily experience and cognition of the world—the unification of our affective, motor and sensory capacities. For Merleau-Ponty, ‘perception’ is an expressive and creative instance intimately linked with artistic practice, and although he wrote about all kinds of art, painting was the art form he considered in most depth. This paper seeks to elaborate upon the links between perception and painting in his thought, examining his three main essays on the topic of painting. We begin with the descriptive phenomenology of “Cézanne’s Doubt” under the influence of Edmund Husserl (1945, to structuralism in “Indirect Language and the Voices of Silence” (1952, and finally to his formulation of an original ontology in “Eye and Mind” (1961.

Carolyne Quinn

2009-01-01

272

The Planetary and Eclipse Oil Paintings of Howard Russell Butler  

Science.gov (United States)

The physics-trained artist Howard Russell Butler (1856-1934) has inspired many astronomy students through his planetary and eclipse paintings that were long displayed at the Hayden Planetarium in New York, the Fels Planetarium at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, and the Buffalo Museum of Science. We discuss not only the eclipse triptychs (1918, 1923, and 1925) at each of those institutions but also his paintings of Mars as seen from Phobos and from Deimos (with landscapes of those moons in the foreground depicted in additional oils hung at Princeton University) and the Earth from our Moon. We also describe his involvement with astronomy and his unique methodology that allowed him to surpass the effects then obtainable with photography, as well as his inclusion in a U.S. Naval Observatory eclipse expedition in 1918, as well as his auroral, solar-prominence, and 1932-eclipse paintings.

Pasachoff, Jay M.; Olson, R. M.

2013-10-01

273

Effect Of Zen Regulation On The Sohrab Sepahri's Paintings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, at first we tried to introduce the sects separated from Buddhism and also introduce “Maha- Yana” who were among the well known sects of the Buddhism and the introduction of “Confucius” regulation and moral principles and the “Lao-tse” and “Shinto” faiths and their place among Chinese and Japanese and their relation with ZEN sect and Zen philosophy, method of its formation and Zen conduct and initial introduction of Zenga and the effect of Zen philosophy on paintings and Calligraphy of far east. In next sections the effect of Zen philosophy on Sohrab Sepehri's paintings will be mentioned with a short introduction of Sepehri and a fast veiw into his advancement in painting and finally his recognition in east and the effect of Zen philosophy on spirit of Sohrab Seperi.

Mohammad Maamari

2012-09-01

274

Recent discoveries of Paleolithic cave painting in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a few years, discoveries of cave paintings in France have increased considerably. Two of them were particularly impressive and are now famous worldwide. The first one is the Cosquer cave, discovered in 1991 under the sea level near Marseille. The second is the Chauvet-Pont-d'Arc cave, discovered in 1994 in Ardeche. However, other discoveries were less mediatized but provided a huge amount of informations: in 10 years, 24 new cave painting sites were described. This paper describes these recent discoveries (paintings, engravings), and a special emphasis is given to the analyses of pigments and to the radiocarbon dating of the archaeological specimens. (J.S.). 37 refs., 3 figs., 9 photos

1996-01-01

275

A new chemical model for the removal of iodine vapour from a reactor containment by aqueous sprays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes methods for the calculation of the removal rate of I2 vapour by aqueous sprays from a large volume such as a reactor containment. The kinetic methods used involve the latest information on the reaction of dissolved iodine with water which causes the I2 molecules to be quickly transformed into virtually involatile products. This hydrolysis increases the effective waterside mass transfer coefficient of I2, and depends on the I2 concentration, the acidity of the water and the temperature. Comparisons of calculated removal rates with a range of suitable experimental data show that for agreement with observation the hydrolysis product HOI, hypoiodous acid, must be considered effectively involatile. When the water is alkaline (pH 9) the overall mass transfer coefficient for I2 can be put equal to that for the gas side. Acidic sprays can cause a major uptake of iodine by painted walls. In summary: A new spray removal calculational method has been developed which agrees reasonably with experiment over a wide range of [I2(g)]0 values (7 x 10-10 to 1.2 x 10-5 M), water pH values 5 to 14, flow rates (.007 to 10 dm s-1 ) and vessel sizes (5.3 to 595 m3 ). Calculations and experiments show alkaline water to be greatly superior to acidic water in I2 removal. Acid sprays may cause reasonably high removal rates by moving I2 gas to painted walls. The calculations have taken no account of iodine sinks or sources. In some reactor faults a likely I2 source is irradiated aerosol containing I- (aq). Our INSPECT code is being upgraded to include the spray removal method described here as well as such sources. (authors)

1992-03-01

276

40 CFR 158.1100 - Spray drift data requirements table.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-07-01 false Spray drift data requirements table. 158.1100...Spray Drift § 158.1100 Spray drift data requirements table. (a) General...this table to determine the spray drift data requirements for a...

2010-07-01

277

Identification of proteins in renaissance paintings by proteomics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presented work proposes a new methodology based on proteomics techniques to identify proteins in old art paintings. The main challenging tasks of this work were (i) to find appropriate conditions for extracting proteins from the binding media without protein hydrolysis in amino acids and (ii) to develop analytical methods adapted to the small sample quantity available. Starting from microsamples of painting models (ovalbumin-based, which is the major egg white protein, and egg-based paintings), multiple extraction solutions (HCl, HCOOH, NH3, NaOH) and conditions (ultrasonic bath, mortar and pestle, grinding resin) were evaluated. The best results were obtained using a commercial kit including a synthetic resin, mortar and pestle to grind the sample in an aqueous solution acidified with trifluoroacetic acid at 1% with additional multiple steps of ultrasonic baths. The resulting supernatant was analyzed by MALDI-TOF in linear mode to verify the efficiency of the extraction solution. An enzymatic hydrolysis step was also performed for protein identification; the peptide mixture was analyzed by nanoLC/nanoESI/Q-q-TOF MS/MS with an adapted chromatographic run for the low sample quantity. Finally, the developed methodology was successfully applied to Renaissance art painting microsamples of approximately 10 microg from Benedetto Bonfigli's triptych, The Virgin and Child, St. John the Baptist, St. Sebastian (XVth century), and Niccolo di Pietro Gerini's painting, The Virgin and Child (XIVth century), identifying, for the first time and without ambiguity, the presence of whole egg proteins (egg yolk and egg white) in a painting binder. PMID:16503599

Tokarski, Caroline; Martin, Elisabeth; Rolando, Christian; Cren-Olivé, Cécile

2006-03-01

278

[Effect of painting work on alcoholic liver dysfunction].  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of painting on alcoholic liver dysfunction was investigated. The subjects were male workers engaged in small-scale enterprises under contract to with heavy industries. Painting involved metal cleaning and painting, and the air concentrations of organic solvents were frequently high. The study population consisted of 1,157 male workers over 40 yr of age. Of them, 85 were painters engaged for a mean duration of 20.9 +/- 9.8 yr. There was no significant difference in GOT and GPT between painters who did not drink and non-painters who did not drink, but GOT and GPT were significantly higher in painters drinking several days a week than in non-painters. A past history of hepatitis affected GOT, GPT and gamma-GTP. Painting, daily alcohol consumption, drinking frequency and body mass index affected gamma-GTP. A questionnaire survey of hepatitis was also conducted in 206 male workers (age range 18-67 yr). Of them, 134 were painters (mean duration of painting, 16.8 +/- 10.4 yr). This questionnaire survey showed that 13 painters (9.6% of the painters) and two non-painters (2.6% of the non-painters) had a history of hepatitis. Of the 13 painters, five painters had a history of hepatitis C and four had a history of alcoholic hepatitis. All of these 13 painters had the habit of drinking. This study indicated that painting had little effect on the liver function in painters not drinking, but increased alcoholic liver dysfunction in painters with the drinking habit. PMID:14696391

Goji, Junko; Tsuchiya, Goro; Fujita, Daisuke; Koizumi, Naoko

2003-11-01

279

Health Assessment for Fletcher's Paint Works and Storage Facility Hazardous Waste Material, Milford, Hillsborough County, New Hampshire, Region 1. CERCLIS No. NHD981067614.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fletcher's Paint Works and Storage Facility Hazardous Waste Site (Fletcher's Paint Site) in Milford, New Hampshire, consists of three distinct entities: Fletcher's Paint Works at 21 Elm Street, Fletcher's Paint Storage Facility on Mill Street, and a drain...

1990-01-01

280

Poly (3-hydroxyalkanoate) paint and method for the preparation thereof  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) are used as binders for drying paint systems, wherein the poly (3-hydroxyalkanoate) component comprises poly (3-hydroxyalkanoate) containing mono- and/or poly-unsaturated side groups. Medium chain length PHAs based on unsaturated vegetable fatty acids are preferred. PHAs are used in the form of a solution in organic solvents and in the form of a dispersion in water. The PHA binders are used for the formulation of solvent-based PHA paint systems and for the for...

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Bioaccessibility of trace metals in boat paint particles.  

Science.gov (United States)

A ground composite of paint fragments collected from a leisure boatyard has been analysed for total and bioaccessible trace metal concentrations. The sample contained concentrations of Cu and Zn of about 1% due to their use in antifouling formulations, and significant quantities of Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Sb and Sn. In a simulated stomach phase (pH 2.5), bioaccessible concentrations relative to respective total concentrations ranged from formulation of risk assessments for individuals exposed to paint particles during vessel maintenance or in home environments subjected to particulate track-in. PMID:20304494

Turner, Andrew; Radford, Abigail

2010-07-01

282

Gerbrand Bredero wants to borrow a painting: proleptic negotiation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a letter to Badens, his painting teacher, Gerbrand Bredero asks for the loan of a painting to make a copy of it. The act of writing (a letter) requires a proactive role in managing the reader’s reactions. In what at first sight may look like a simple, insignificant and most of all polite letter, it is argued that, from the viewpoint of argumentation theory, negotiation and bargaining tactics, this politeness may be considered as a carefully devised and potentially effective strategy, con...

Jansen, J.

2013-01-01

283

Determining the Carbon Dioxide Permeability of Paint Films  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An in-house set-up was developed for determining the permeability of paint films towards carbon dioxide. The system implemented the so-called Wicke-Kallenback method, described in EN 1062-6. This method consists of a two-chamber permeation cell divided by a supported paint film. A carbon dioxide/nitrogen mixture stream (15% CO2/85% N-2) is fed to the retentate chamber and a nitrogen carrier stream is fed to the permeate chamber. Carbon dioxide permeates from the retentate to the permeate cham...

Carneiro, C.; Oliveira, F.; Nogueira, J.; Mendes, A.

2006-01-01

284

Iodine-paint interactions during a core fusion accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

If a core fusion accident should occur, radioactive iodine would be released from the fuel and would reach the reactor containment building, and then react with wall paintings to form organic iodine compounds, i.e. volatile compounds which are difficult to filtrate and therefore would be released in the environment. This article briefly reports investigations of the formation/destruction mechanisms of these volatile iodine compounds, notably through the Epicur program. This program focused on two prevailing phenomena: the radiolytic oxidation of iodine present in sump water, and the production of volatile organic iodides from painted surfaces where iodine adsorption occurs. Iodine behaviour is modelled by using the Astec code

2011-01-01

285

Differential PIXE for investigating the layer structure of paintings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports an example of how the differential PIXE technique can be successfully applied to the investigation of wood or canvas paintings. The work analysed is a famous wood painting by Leonardo da Vinci, the 'Madonna dei fusi' (ex-Reford version, 1501), chosen for a pilot study in a wide international project aimed at analysing Leonardo's works of art by means of non-destructive techniques. While illustrating the results obtained concerning the identification of pigments and the discrimination of the stratigraphy of layers, the merits and limits of differential PIXE in general are pointed out

2005-09-01

286

Differential PIXE for investigating the layer structure of paintings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports an example of how the differential PIXE technique can be successfully applied to the investigation of wood or canvas paintings. The work analysed is a famous wood painting by Leonardo da Vinci, the 'Madonna dei fusi' (ex-Reford version, 1501), chosen for a pilot study in a wide international project aimed at analysing Leonardo's works of art by means of non-destructive techniques. While illustrating the results obtained concerning the identification of pigments and the discrimination of the stratigraphy of layers, the merits and limits of differential PIXE in general are pointed out.

Mando, P.A. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and INFN, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: mando@fi.infn.it; Fedi, M.E. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and INFN, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Grassi, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and INFN, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Migliori, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and INFN, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy)

2005-09-15

287

PaintShop Pro x6 for photographers  

CERN Multimedia

Written for photographers of all levels, PaintShop Pro X6 for Photographers is packed with inspirational, full-color images and easy-to-follow step-by-step projects that will have you producing great images in PaintShop Pro in no time! Everything you need to enhance and improve your digital photography is right here in this Corel® endorsed guide.In this new edition, Ken McMahon looks at the pros and cons of the new, faster 64-bit version of the software and covers new features, including working with the Instant Effects palette, using the Smart selection brush, mapping photos, automatically ta

McMahon, Ken

2014-01-01

288

40 CFR 745.325 - Lead-based paint activities: State and Tribal program requirements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...ensure that lead-based paint activities...for conducting inspections, risk assessments...assessments. (ii) Risk assessments are...presence of lead-based paint hazards. (iii) Risk assessments consist...including a visual inspection, of the...

2010-07-01

289

Robotic Bridge Paint Removal: Field Testing and Evaluation of Promising Technologies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Periodic paint removal and re-application is necessary to protect steel girder bridges against corrosion. The Robotic Bridge Paint Removal (RBPR) project was initiated under a grant agreement with Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to study the importa...

L. E. Bernold S. Moon

1995-01-01

290

A components paint facility upgrade to improve production efficiency, quality and working conditions at UCW Company  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A design of an improved facilities plan for Components Paint Shop, with appropriate and efficient material flow and handling system. The facility should optimise production efficiency throughout Components Paint Shop.

Masombuka, Willy Sizo

2011-01-01

291

Microbial diversity on paintings and engravings in Doña Trinidad Cave (Ardales, Spain)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Cave of Doña Trinidad (Ardales, Malaga, Spain) contains numerous paintings and engravings dated back to 20,000 years. In this study, we study the microorganisms thriving on these paintings and engravings using molecular and culturing approaches.

Stomeo, Francesca; Laiz Trobajo, L.; Gonza?lez Grau, Juan Miguel; Sa?iz-jime?nez, Cesa?reo

2006-01-01

292

78 FR 79058 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Chinese Paintings from...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Chinese Paintings from Japanese Collections'' SUMMARY: Notice is...determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Chinese Paintings from Japanese Collections,'' imported from...

2013-12-27

293

Surface with two paint strips for detection and warning of chemical warfare and radiological agents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A system for warning of corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances. The system comprises painting a surface with a paint or coating that includes an indicator material and monitoring the surface for indications of the corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances.

Farmer, Joseph C.

2013-04-02

294

Status of thermal spray technology in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper summarizes the profile of the fundamental research, the developments in industrial applications, and the business in thermal spray technology in Japan and discusses prospects for future progress in this technology. Particular attention is given to the status of new process technologies (including reactive low-pressure spraying, RF plasma spraying, laser spray, and multielectrode spray) and the development of functional materials. It is noted that, although up to now the progress of thermal spraying in Japan depended on the technologies of the United States and Europe, the thermal spraying technologies in the steel making and automotive industry superseded the technologies of other countries. In the first half of 1992, the thermal spray market in Japan was estimated at more than 100 billion yen (770 million U.S. dollars) per year.

Tani, K.; Nakahira, H.

1992-12-01

295

Effect of drop breakup on fuel sprays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently developed computer models are being applied to calculate complex interactions between sprays and gas motions. The three-dimensional KIVA code was modified to address drop breakup and was used to study fuel sprays. The results show that drop breakup influences spray penetration, vaporization and mixing in high pressure sprays. The spray drop size is the outcome of a competition between drop breakup and drop coalescence phenomena, and the atomization details at the injector are lost during these size rearrangements. Drop breakup dominates in hollow-cone sprays because coalescence is minimized by the expanding spray geometry. The results imply that it may be possible to use a simple injector and still control spray drop size and vaporization if the flow details are modified so as to enhance drop breakup and coalescence.

Reitz, R.D.; Diwaker, R.

1986-01-01

296

Modeling and optimization of white paint back reflectors for thin-film silicon solar cells :  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diffusive dielectric materials such as white paint have been demonstrated as effective back reflectors in the photovoltaic technology. In this work, a one-dimensional (1D) optical modeling approach for simulation of white paint films is developed and implemented in a 1D optical simulator for thin-film solar cells. The parameters of white paint, such as the paint film thickness, the pigment volume concentration (PVC), and the pigment/binder refractive index ratio (RIR), are examined and optimi...

Lipovs?ek, B.; Krc?, J.; Isabella, O.; Zeman, M.; Topic?, M.

2010-01-01

297

Formulation effects on the release of silica dioxide nanoparticles from paint debris to water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Waterborne paints with integrated nanoparticles have been recently introduced into the market as nanoparticles offer improved or novel functionalities to paints. However, the release of nanoparticles during the life cycle of nano-enhanced paint has only been studied to a very limited extent. The paint composition could determine in what quantities and forms the nanoparticles are released. In this work, paint formulations containing the same amount of silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles but differing in the pigment volume concentration (PVC) and in amount and type of binder and pigment, were studied through leaching test to investigate the influence of these parameters on release of Si from paint. The results indicate greater release of Si, about 1.7 wt.% of the SiO2 nanoparticles in the paint, for paint formulated with higher PVC value (63%), suggesting that the PVC is a crucial factor for release of SiO2 nanoparticles from paints. This hypothesis was also based on the fact that agglomerates of SiO2 nanoparticles were only found in leachates from paint with higher PVC. A paint sample with the higher amount of binder and less calcite filler exhibited a lower release of Si among the paints with a low PVC value (35%), and no SiO2 particles were detected in leachates collected from this paint. This could be due to the fact that a high portion of binder forms a suitable matrix to hold the SiO2 ENPs in paint. The paint sample in which the amount of calcite was partially substituted with TiO2 pigment did not show an important reduction on Si release. Our work suggests that paint debris containing SiO2 nanoparticles may release a limited amount of Si into the environment, and that by adjusting the properties of the binder in combination with common pigments it is possible to reduce the release of SiO2 nanoparticles. PMID:24468504

Zuin, Stefano; Massari, Andrea; Ferrari, Arlen; Golanski, Luana

2014-04-01

298

Properties of ``Sonarc`` sprayed coatings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The combination of electric arc and HVOF-spraying offers a lot of opportunities to enlarge the field of application for thermal spray technology. If hard material powders are processed by HVOF and simultaneously metal wires by arc spraying, metal matrix composites (MMC) can be formed out. NiCr8020 and aluminum coatings were reinforced by applying various contents of SiC and tested by a taber abraser device. Beside the investigations of the microstructure and the determination of the volume percentage of the hard particle content bond strength tests according European standard EN 582 were carried out. Furthermore, the coatings were tested by corrosion tests. The results are compared to other coating systems and discussed in relation to the obtained microstructure.

Steffens, H.D.; Wilden, J.; Nassenstein, K. [Univ. of Dortmund (Germany)

1995-12-31

299

Measurements in liquid fuel sprays  

Science.gov (United States)

A ground test facility is being established at NASA Lewis Research Center to simulate the environmental and flight conditions needed to study adverse weather effects. One of the most important components is the water spray system which consists of many nozzles fitted on spray bars. Water is injected through air-assisted atomizers to generate uniform size drops to simulate icing in clouds. The primary objective is to provide experimental data on drop size distribution over a wide range of operating conditions. Correlation equations for mean drop size and initial injection parameters are being determined to assist in the design and modification of the Altitude Wind Tunnel. Special emphasis is being placed on the study of the aerodynamic structure of the air-assisted atomizer sprays. Detailed measurements of the variation of drop size distribution and velocity as a function of time and space are being made. Accurate initial and boundary conditions are being provided for computer model evaluation.

Chigier, N.; Mao, C. P.

1985-01-01

300

Cold gas dynamic spraying of titanium coatings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cold gas dynamic spraying, CGDS, is a relatively new technique used to deposit materials onto the surface of a substrate. It differs to the majority of other thermal spray techniques as the substrate and particles are not exposed to high temperatures during the spraying process. This makes CGDS particularly advantageous for spraying materials such as titanium which react at high temperature. The aim of this project was to investigate the potential use of titanium coatings by CGDS as a surface...

Price, Timothy Simon

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Diesel spray characterization; Dieselmoottorin polttoainesuihkujen ominaisuudet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fuel injection of diesel engines will be studied using large-scale models of fuel injectors. The advantage of large-scale models is that the measurement of large-scale diesel sprays will be easier than the measurement of actual sprays. The objective is to study the break-up mechanism of diesel sprays and to measure drop size distributions in the inner part of the spray. The results will be used in the development of diesel engines and diesel fuels. (orig.)

Pitkaenen, J.; Turunen, R.; Paloposki, T.; Rantanen, P.; Virolainen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Internal Combustion Engine Lab.

1997-10-01

302

"Teaching" an Industrial Robot To Spray  

Science.gov (United States)

Teaching device, consisting of spacer rod or tube with three-pointed tip and line level, is used during pattern "teach-in" to make sure that robot manipulator holds spray gun perpendicular to surface to be sprayed and at right distance from it. For slanted surfaces angle adapter is added between spacer rod and line-level indicator. Angle is determined by slope of surface to be sprayed, thus allowing a perpendicular spray pattern against even slanted surfaces.

Evans, A. R.; Sweet, G. K.

1982-01-01

303

Hollow Cone Spray Characterization and Integral Modeling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thesis presents a computationally efficient spray model for hollow cone sprays suitable for engine system simulation of direct injecting gasoline internal combustion engines. The model describes the transient evolution of the spray as a two-phase jet. Spatial gradients are resolved along the main injection direction. Momentum exchange, droplet heat-up, and fuel evaporation are accounted for. Diffusive transport of momentum, energy, and fuel species mass between the dense spray zone an...

Bollweg, Peter

2013-01-01

304

Influence of the spray velocity on arc-sprayed coating structures  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermal spray processes such as plasma spraying and HVOF have gained markets due to a steady process of development of materials and equipment. One disadvantage of thermal spray processes is that costs must be competitive compared to techniques such as PTA and electroplating. In order to reduce costs, the more economical spray processes like conventional wire flame spraying, as well as arc spraying, are becoming more popular. There are modern arc spray gun designs on the market that meet the requirements of modern coating properties, for example aviation overhaul applications as well as the processing of cored wires. Nevertheless, the physical basis of arc spraying is well known. The aim of the present investigation is to show how the influence of spray velocity (not particle velocity) affects coating structure with respect to arc spray parameters.

Steffens, H.-D.; Nassenstein, K.

1999-09-01

305

On the Dependence of Spray Momentum Flux in Spray Penetration: Momentum Flux Packets Penetration Model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Momentum flux is a very important parameter for predicting the mixing potential of injection processes. Important factors such as spray penetration, spray cone angle, and air entrainment depend largely on spray momentum. In this article, a model is obtained which is able to predict the spray tip penetration using as an input the spray momentum flux signal. The model is based on the division of the momentum flux signal into momentum packets (fuel parcels) sequentially injected, and the tracking of them along the spray. These packets follow a theoretical equation which relates the penetration with the ambient density, momentum, spray cone angle and time. In order to validate the method, measures of momentum flux (impingement force) and macroscopic spray visualization in high density conditions have been performed on several mono-orifice nozzles. High agreement has been obtained between spray penetration prediction from momentum flux measurements and real spray penetration from macroscopic visualization.

Payri, R.; Ruiz, S.; Salvador, F. J.; Gimeno, J. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia Camino de Vera, Madrid (Spain)

2007-07-15

306

VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM LATEX PAINT - PART 1. CHAMBER EXPERIMENTS AND SOURCE MODEL DEVELOPMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

Latex paints are widely used in residential and commercial indoor environments. The surface areas covered by the paints in these environments are relatively large. Thus, latex paints have the potential for having a major impact on indoor air quality (IAQ). A study was undertaken ...

307

75 FR 31317 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for Paints and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Sheet (MSDS), which is how paints and allied products manufacturers...the area source standards for Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing...NESHAP) for area source paints and allied products manufacturing...percent by weight, as shown in formulation data provided by the...

2010-06-03

308

Survey of crowbar and household paints in burglary cases-population studies, transfer and interpretation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experimental data useful for the interpretation of paint evidence recovered during burglary cases were obtained. A population study was carried out on 41 blue crowbars seized on suspects in Switzerland and 37 blue paints traces found at burglary scenes. Paint traces were also searched on the blades of 207 crowbars seized by the police in Switzerland and 24 white traces were analysed: these paints were analysed using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in order to estimate relative frequencies of each paint type. Simulated contacts were carried out between crowbars and painted wood in order to study the phenomenon of transfer and to evaluate the amount of paint transferred: a total of 198 simulations were carried out including individual, successive and cross transfer. The paint properties such as the chemical composition and its age influenced the amount of paint transferred. Cross transfer from the tool paint to the wood and vice versa was regularly observed. Moreover, secondary transfer of paint coming from the preceding wooden surfaces was also systematically observed: this could establish links between several burglary scenes and a suspected tool. A scenario of a burglary case involving the cross transfer between tool and household paints is proposed as a numerical example: the evaluation of such case was formalised using likelihood ratios based on the experimental data obtained. PMID:15978349

Buzzini, Patrick; Massonnet, Geneviève; Birrer, Stéphane; Egli, Nicole M; Mazzella, Williams; Fortini, Annarita

2005-09-10

309

40 CFR 446.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory. 446.10 ...FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.10 Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory. The...

2009-01-01

310

Allergic contact dermatitis from 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, a paint mildewcide  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Severe allergic contact dermatitis from a paint mildewcide, 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, developed in a worker formulating latex paints within a paint manufacturing company, Guinea pig maximization testing demonstrated this to be a moderate sensitizer. Further cases of allergic contact dermatitis may be encountered as the use of this biocide increases in the market place.

Mathias, C G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

1983-01-01

311

Spray casting project final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step

1996-01-01

312

Spray casting project final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step.

Churnetski, S.R.; Thompson, J.E.

1996-08-01

313

Spray-ring mounting assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a thrust augmentation combustor for a gas turbine engine having a duct, an assembly for mounting a spray ring or the like to the duct and having improved vibration isolation characteristics. It comprises a clevis arranged for fixed mounting to the duct, a circular pin mounted in the clevis, an elongated slider having a central circular axial bore and mounted for rotational movement on the pin, the slider having at least two parallel exterior sidewalls, and a bracket for mounting the spray ring having an elongated bore mounted on the slider.

Barcza, W.K.; Concordia, M.J.

1992-07-07

314

Aesthetic experience and the emotional content of paintings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study we investigated the relationship between aesthetic experience and other emotional qualities judged in paintings. Aesthetic experience was defined as an exceptional state of mind in which a person is focused on a particular object, transcending its everyday uses and meanings and losing the awareness of surroundings and even of himself/herself. In this state a person has an exceptional emotional experience, that is a feeling of unity with the object. Our basic idea is that aesthetic experience is not reducible to pleasure or a positive hedonic tone, but a person can equally be fascinated with both pleasant and unpleasant objects. In preliminary studies we specified the stimulus set of figural and semi-figural paintings, and a set of descriptors of emotions, feelings and aesthetic experience. Participants judged the paintings on descriptors (seven-point scales. Factor analysis revealed two large factors: the bipolar factor Affective Tone (descriptors on the positive pole: lovely, charming, cheerful, etc; descriptors on the negative pole: scary, disgusting, hateful etc. and Aesthetic Experience (descriptors: exceptional, profound, unique, etc.. Additional analyses have shown no significant correlation between the two factors. These findings confirmed our idea that aesthetic experience is independent of pleasure or affective attraction, and that it can be induced by both pleasant and unpleasant paintings.

Slobodan Markovi?

2010-03-01

315

Schoolchildren's Use of Poetry and Paintings in Conveying Environmental Messages  

Science.gov (United States)

Pupils aged 12-14 from the University of Ghana Primary and Junior High School conducted studies off the coast adjacent to Accra, including a field visit to explore the effects of climate change on the country's biology, ecology and physical environment. They composed poems and made paintings about the coast and sea as means of conveying their…

Gebbels, Susan; Hunter, Jo; Nunoo, Francis K. E.; Tagoe, E.; Evans, Stewart M.

2012-01-01

316

Synthesis of Copper Pigments, Malachite and Verdigris: Making Tempera Paint  

Science.gov (United States)

Malachite and verdigris, two copper-based pigments, are synthesized in this experiment intended for use in a general chemistry laboratory. The preparation of egg tempera paint from malachite is also described. All procedures can be done with a magnetic stir plate, standard glassware present in any first-year laboratory, and household chemicals.…

Solomon, Sally D.; Rutkowsky, Susan A.; Mahon, Megan L.; Halpern, Erica M.

2011-01-01

317

Infrared Scan of Concrete Admixtures and Structural Steel Paints.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluates correlation coefficients for concrete admixtures and structural steel paints by performing IR scans using ASTM C494-05a specifications. The intent of this study is to perform a sufficient number of IR scans from different batches of t...

A. Casale H. Najm J. Doukakis N. Scott T. Shibeshi

2011-01-01

318

Experiments on an Exhaust Hood for the Paint Industry  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There is a great variation of production machinery and pollution sources in the paint industry. This paper shows the examination of a process where wood preservation is filled into cans in a process which releases organic solvents to the surrounding air.

Nielsen, Peter V.; Madsen, Ulla

1991-01-01

319

Beauty in abstract paintings: Perceptual contrast and statistical properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we combined the behavioral and objective approach in the field of empirical aesthetics. First, we studied the perception of beauty by investigating shifts in evaluation on perceived beauty of abstract artworks (Experiment 1. Because the participants showed heterogeneous individual preferences for the paintings, we divided them into seven clusters for the test. The experiment revealed a clear pattern of perceptual contrast. The perceived beauty of abstract paintings increased after exposure to paintings that were rated as less beautiful, and it decreased after exposure to paintings that were rated as more beautiful. Next, we searched for correlations of beauty ratings and perceptual contrast with statistical properties of abstract artworks (Experiment 2. The participants showed significant preferences for certain image properties. These preferences differed between the clusters of participants. Strikingly, next to color measures like hue, saturation, value and lightness, the recently described PHOG self-similarity value seems to be a predictor for aesthetic appreciation of abstract artworks. We speculate that the shift in evaluation in Experiment 1 was, at least in part, based on low-level adaptation to some of the statistical image properties analyzed in Experiment 2. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the perception of beauty in abstract artworks is altered after exposure to beautiful or non-beautiful images and correlates with particular image properties, especially color measures and self-similarity.

ChristophRedies

2014-03-01

320

Conductive paints. Progress report, October 1, 1992--December 1, 1992  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electrical resistivity measurements require uniformly thick, pinhole-free, smooth films. A paint preparation and deposition procedure was developed. Adhesion strength was measured on silica and glass substrates. Electrical resistivity was also measured on SiO{sub 2} coated Si wafers. 2 tabs, 4 figs.

Soukup, R.J.; Ianno, N.J.

1992-12-31

 
 
 
 
321

Characteristics of Pressure Sensitive Paint Intrusiveness Effects on Aerodynamic Data  

Science.gov (United States)

One effect of using pressure sensitive paint (PSP) is the potential intrusiveness to the aerodynamic characteristics of the model. The paint thickness and roughness may affect the pressure distribution, and therefore, the forces and moments on the wind tunnel model. A study of these potential intrusive effects was carried out at NASA Langley Research Center where a series of wind tunnel tests were conducted using the Modem Design of Experiments (MDOE) test approach. The PSP effects on the integrated forces were measured on two different models at different test conditions in both the Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT) and the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) at Langley. The paint effect was found to be very small over a range of Reynolds numbers, Mach numbers and angles of attack. This is due to the very low surface roughness of the painted surface. The surface roughness, after applying the NASA Langley developed PSP, was lower than that of the clean wing. However, the PSP coating had a localized effects on the pressure taps, which leads to an appreciable decrease in the pressure tap reading.

Amer, Tahani R.; Liu, Tianshu; Oglesby, Donald M.

2001-01-01

322

Characterization of Pressure Sensitive Paint Intrusiveness Effects on Aerodynamic Data  

Science.gov (United States)

One effect of using pressure sensitive paint (PSP) is the potential intrusiveness to the aerodynamic characteristics of the model. The paint thickness and roughness may affect the pressure distribution. and therefore, the forces and moments on the wind tunnel model. A study of these potential intrusive effects was carried out at NASA Langley Research Center where a series of wind tunnel tests were conducted using the Modem Design of Experiments (MDOE) test approach. The PSP effects on the integrated forces were measured on two different models at different test conditions in both the Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT) and the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) at Langley. The paint effect was found to be very small over a range of Reynolds numbers, Mach numbers and angles of attack. This is due to the very low surface roughness of the painted surface. The surface roughness, after applying the NASA Langley developed PSP, was lower than that of the clean wing. However, the PSP coating had a localized effects on the pressure taps, which leads to an appreciable decrease in the pressure tap reading.

Amer, Tahani R.; Liu, Tianshu; Oglesby, Donald M.

2001-01-01

323

Pilot-Scale Testing of Paint Waste Incineration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Operations at the U.S. Army depots generate large quantities of paint removal and application wastes. These wastes, many of which are hazardous, are currently disposed of off site. Off-site disposal of solids is often by landfilling, which will be banned ...

1989-01-01

324

Do Roads Reduce Painted Turtle (Chrysemys picta) Populations?  

Science.gov (United States)

Road mortality is thought to be a leading cause of turtle population decline. However, empirical evidence of the direct negative effects of road mortality on turtle population abundance is lacking. The purpose of this study was to provide a strong test of the prediction that roads reduce turtle population abundance. While controlling for potentially confounding variables, we compared relative abundance of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) in 20 ponds in Eastern Ontario, 10 as close as possible to high traffic roads (Road sites) and 10 as far as possible from any major roads (No Road sites). There was no significant effect of roads on painted turtle relative abundance. Furthermore, our data do not support other predictions of the road mortality hypothesis; we observed neither a higher relative frequency of males to females at Road sites than at No Road sites, nor a lower average body size of turtles at Road than at No Road sites. We speculate that, although roads can cause substantial adult mortality in turtles, other factors, such as release from predation on adults and/or nests close to roads counter the negative effect of road mortality in some populations. We suggest that road mitigation for painted turtles can be limited to locations where turtles are forced to migrate across high traffic roads due, for example, to destruction of local nesting habitat or seasonal drying of ponds. This conclusion should not be extrapolated to other species of turtles, where road mortality could have a larger population-level effect than on painted turtles.

Dorland, Alexandra; Rytwinski, Trina; Fahrig, Lenore

2014-01-01

325

Paint Remover for Non-Ferrous Metal Parts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paint stripping composition contains 13 to 20 percent (by weight) of sodium metasilicate pentahydrate, 18-27 percent of trisodium phosphate dodecohydrate, 4 to 7 percent of sodium biphosphate monohydrate, 1.7 to 2.5 percent of lauric acid, 0.2 to 0.3 ...

A. Mankowich

1965-01-01

326

Birds of a Feather... and Clay, Wire, Tissue and Paint!  

Science.gov (United States)

What began as a review lesson in clay construction quickly became a fun learning experience filled with inspiring conversations and creatively painted birds. This lesson was successful from beginning to end, with a final reward when the artwork was displayed. The author describes the process of working on this project and shares how the students…

Feiner, Lois

2011-01-01

327

Metaphor as a basic mechanism of art (painting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article describes research on visual semantics, diff erent forms of metaphorused in rhetoric and philology (tropes: metonymy, hyperbole, litotes, oxymoron,and others, and images, which are metaphorical also. The research was carried outusing paintings. The authors state that the function of metaphor is to transformthe sense of the image from a psychological point of view.

Evgeniya A. Korotchenko

2012-01-01

328

INFLUENCE OF ATOMIZATION AND SPRAY PARAMETERS ON THE FLAME SPRAY PROCESS FOR NANOPARTICLE PRODUCTION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Within the Flame Spray Pyrolysis (FSP) process for nanoparticle production, the effects of the liquid atomization process and the spray properties on the spray flame structure were studied by means of experiments and numerical simulations. The influence of precursor concentration variations on the spray droplet size distribution was studied for two different FSP nozzles. The resulting spray has been characterized in terms of drop sizes and velocities by means of Laser Diffraction and Particle...

2014-01-01

329

CONCHAS-SPRAY, Reactive Flows with Fuel Sprays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Description of program or function: CONCHAS-SPRAY solves the equations of transient, multicomponent, chemically reactive fluid dynamics, together with those for the dynamics of an evaporating liquid spray. The program was developed with applications to internal combustion engines in mind. The formulation is spatially two-dimensional, and encompasses both planar and axisymmetric geometries. In the latter case, the flow is permitted to swirl about the axis of symmetry. CONCHAS-SPRAY is a time-marching, finite- difference program that uses a partially implicit numerical scheme. Spatial differences are formed with respect to a generalized two- dimensional mesh of arbitrary quadrilaterals whose corner locations are specified functions of time. This feature allows a Lagrangian, Eulerian, or mixed description, and is particularly useful for representing curved or moving boundary surfaces. Arbitrary numbers of species and chemical reactions are allowed. The latter are subdivided into kinetic and equilibrium reactions, which are treated by different algorithms. A turbulent law-of-the-wall boundary layer option is provided. CONCHAS-SPRAY calls a number of LANL system subroutines to display graphic or numerical information on microfiche. These routines are not included, but are described in the reference report. Several routines called from LINPACK and SLATEC1.0 are included

2001-01-01

330

Effect of hydrophobic paints coating for tritium reduction in concrete materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of hydrophobic paint coating in tritium transport are investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two kinds of paints, acrylic-silicon resin and epoxy resin are used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hydrophobic paints are effective to reduce tritium permeation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of tritium reduction of epoxy paint is higher than that of silicon. - Abstract: The effects of hydrophobic paint coating on a concrete material of cement paste on the tritium transport are investigated. The cement paste is coated with two kinds of paints, acrylic-silicon resin paint and epoxy resin paint. We investigated the amount of tritium trapped in the samples exposed to tritiated water vapor by means of sorption and release. It was found that both the hydrophobic paints could reduce effectively tritium permeation during 50 days exposure of tritiated water vapor. The effect of tritium reduction of the epoxy paint was higher than that of silicon while the amount of tritium trapped in the epoxy paint was larger than that of silicon due to difference of the structure. Based on an analysis of a diffusion model, the rate-determining step of tritium migration through cement paste coated with the paints is diffusion through the paints respectively. It was found that tritium was easy to penetrate through silicon because there were many pores or voids in the silicon comparatively. In the case of tritium released from the epoxy paint, it is considered that tritium diffusion in epoxy is slow due to retardation by isotope exchange reaction to water included in epoxy paint.

Edao, Y., E-mail: edao@aees.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Fukada, S.; Nishimura, Y.; Katayama, K.; Takeishi, T. [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Hatano, Y.; Taguchi, A. [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)

2012-08-15

331

Mass Spectrometric and Synchrotron Radiation based techniques for the identification and distribution of painting materials in samples from paints of Josep Maria Sert  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Establishing the distribution of materials in paintings and that of their degradation products by imaging techniques is fundamental to understand the painting technique and can improve our knowledge on the conservation status of the painting. The combined use of chromatographic-mass spectrometric techniques, such as GC/MS or Py/GC/MS, and the chemical mapping of functional groups by imaging SR FTIR in transmission mode on thin sections and SR XRD line scan...

Lluveras-Tenorio Anna; Andreotti Alessia; Bonaduce Ilaria; Boularand Sarah; Cotte Marine; Roqué Josep; Colombini Maria; Vendrell-Saz Marius

2012-01-01

332

The history and future of thermal sprayed galvanically active metallic anticorrosion coatings used on pipelines and steel structures in the oil and gas industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since its invention by M. U. Schoop in the beginning of the 20th century, thermal spray has been used for corrosion protection applications in naval, on-shore, submerged and atmospheric environments. Thermally sprayed coatings of zinc, zinc alloys, aluminum and aluminum alloys are currently the most popular materials used for active corrosion protection of steel and concrete, which can be applied using either of the widely known thermal spray processes of combustion wire or electric arc wire. In the oil and gas exploration and production industry, corrosion protection applications using these technologies have evolved since the early sixties. Thermal spray technology has successfully been used to protect steel-based materials from corrosion in many different fields of application like platforms and pipelines. The most used material in the oil and gas industry is TSA (Thermally Sprayed Aluminum) coating. TSA coatings, with a lifetime of 25 to 30 years, require no maintenance except for cosmetic reasons when painted. The surface temperature of a TSA can go as high as 480 deg C. Although TS (Thermal Spray) is an older process, the number of applications and the number of m{sup 2} it is applied to is still increasing resulting from its maintenance-free and reliable active corrosion-protection features. (author)

Rodijnen, Fred van [Sulzer Metco, Duisburg (Germany)

2008-07-01

333

Optimization of portable systems for energy dispersive X ray fluorescence analysis of paintings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Portable energy-dispersive X ray fluorescence equipment, mainly composed of a small sized X ray tube and thermoelectrically cooled X ray detector, were employed to analyse paintings. The frescos of Giotto in the chapel of the Scrovegni in Padua were analysed, and oil paintings by De Chirico, of which 15 of certain attribution, and 11 supposedly painted by De Chirico. The pollution effects on the Giotto frescos were determined by analysing sulphur on the surface, and the thickness and composition of golden haloes were also measured. The 11 oil paintings by De Chirico are possibly fakes, on the basis of the different fingerprints of authentified and unauthentified paintings. (author)

2005-09-01

334

Nanostructures in thermal spray coatings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nature of the nanograins formed by high velocity oxy-fuel thermal spraying of (FeAl) milled powder has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy on cross-sectional thin foils. Equiaxed 3D nanometer crystallites are formed by recrystallization in the unmelted powder particles while 2D nanometer columnar grains are produced by rapid solidification within the fully molten splats

2003-06-01

335

Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Schoeniger, Luke (Pittsford, NY)

2002-01-01

336

Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Schoeniger, Luke (Pittsford, NY)

2005-11-01

337

Spray nozzles reduce furnace emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) told an Illinois wood pallet manufacturer to reduce emissions of heavy smoke from its twice-weekly incineration of old pallets, the company didn't find many options. The company applied spray nozzles to enhance the efficiency of the furnaces, and scrub the smoke and gas, removing toxins and particulates before they could reach the furnace chimney and be emitted into the atmosphere. Three types of spray nozzles were installed in the incinerator. Six UniJet air blow-off nozzles, fed by a compressed air line, were installed in the fire box. These nozzles target a flat spray of pressured air to intensify the heat of the fire. As a result, the pallets burn more efficiently and completely. Eight standard FullJet nozzles also were installed in the fire box. Since the smoke concentration is heaviest in this area, the nozzles provide the large drops and the heavy spray distribution needed to clean carbon particulates from the smoke.

1993-10-01

338

Plasma Spraying of Silikates 2.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

. Düsseldorf : DSV Verlag, Düsseldorf, 1999 - (Lugscheider, E.; Kammer, P.), s. 636-640 ISBN 3-87155-653-x.[United Thermal Spray Conference /2./. Düsseldorf (DE), 17.03.1999-19.03.1999]Kód oboru RIV: JH - Keramika, žáruvzdorné materiály a skla

Neufuss, Karel; Ilavský, Jan; Dubský, Ji?í; Kolman, Blahoslav Jan; Chráska, Pavel

339

Spray tube in nuclear reactor container  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A first spray header and a second spray header are held on a support protruded from an inner wall of a nuclear reactor container. The first spray header and the second spray header are disposed in vertically adjacent with each other. A spray nozzle is disposed to each of the spray headers for spraying cooling water. The spray nozzles are disposed each at such a jetting angle that water is dispersed over the surface of the reactor pressure vessel and the entire region of the inner space of the reactor container. Since a plurality of spray headers are disposed in adjacent with each other and they are concentrated in a predetermined narrow region, the structure can be simplified, and the region at the periphery of the spray header where the installation of equipments is inhibited can be reduced. Accordingly, installation of equipments is facilitated. In addition, spray headers can easily be added and extended in existent or under construction nuclear power plants. (I.N.).

Ajimori, Shigehiro [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Sakanoue, Ryoichi

1994-11-25

340

The future of thermal spray technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thermal spray technology is emerging as an important processing tool for both surface protection and advanced materials forming. Despite the technology having been in use for over 100 years, much of its advancement, driven by aerospace applications, has occurred in the past 15 years. Increased understanding of process/structure/property relationships has resulted in the growing application of thermal spray coating technology resulting in new processes; for example, low-pressure plasma spray, high-velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) spray and reactive plasma spray. New equipment, automation and materials have been introduced. This article reviews many of the commercial thermal spray processes, borrowing from educational programs at ASM International and the Hobart Institute of Welding Technology, and reviews the applications and growth potential for emerging thermal spray processing technologies. A review of the needs in education and standardization and comparisons to programs on other countries is also presented.

Smith, R.W. (Materials Resources, Inc., Blue Bell, PA (United States)); Fast, R.D. (Hobart Inst. of Welding Technology, Troy, OH (United States))

1994-07-01

 
 
 
 
341

Experimental investigation of drag reduction effect of Si-Polyurea paint  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel Silicone-Polyurea paint has been newly developed and introduced for the antifouling marine paint. This paint is featured with such advantages as the shock-proofness and the scratch-proofness. In addition, the roughness of the resulting paint film is found to be much less than the conventional SPC AF paints. Ultra fast drying ability enables the formation of very thick paint film, e. g., 500?m. The Silicone-Polyurea resin exhibits similar material behavior as that of silicone rubber in terms of hardness and elongation. This material is regarded as a potent candidate to substantiate the compliant coating for the skin friction reduction. This study aims at the assessment of the drag reducing efficiency of the silicone-polyurea paint

2008-04-24

342

Experimental investigation of drag reduction effect of Si-Polyurea paint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel Silicone-Polyurea paint has been newly developed and introduced for the antifouling marine paint. This paint is featured with such advantages as the shock-proofness and the scratch-proofness. In addition, the roughness of the resulting paint film is found to be much less than the conventional SPC AF paints. Ultra fast drying ability enables the formation of very thick paint film, e. g., 500{mu}m. The Silicone-Polyurea resin exhibits similar material behavior as that of silicone rubber in terms of hardness and elongation. This material is regarded as a potent candidate to substantiate the compliant coating for the skin friction reduction. This study aims at the assessment of the drag reducing efficiency of the silicone-polyurea paint.

Lee, In Won; Jang, Ho Yun; Chun, Ho Hwan [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sang Hoon [Durachemie Company, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

2008-07-01

343

Inflammatory and genotoxic effects of sanding dust generated from nanoparticle-containing paints and lacquers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Nanoparticles are increasingly used in paints and lacquers. Little is known of the toxicity of nanoparticles incorporated in complex matrices and released during different phases of the life cycle. DNA damaging activity and inflammogenicity of sanding dust sampled during standardised sanding of boards painted with paints with and without nanoparticles were determined 24 h after intratracheal instillation of a single dose of 54 mu g in mice. Dusts from nanoparticle-containing paints and lacquers did not generate pulmonary inflammation or oxidative stress. Sanding dust from both the nanoparticle-containing and the conventional lacquer and the outdoor acrylic-based reference paint increased the level of DNA strand breaks in bronchoalveolar fluid cells. In conclusion, addition of nanoparticles to paint or lacquers did not increase the potential of sanding dust for causing inflammation, oxidative stress or DNA damage, suggesting that the paint/lacquer matrix is more important as determinant of DNA damage than the nanomaterial.

Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Koponen, Ismo Kalevi

2012-01-01

344

Vitrification of lead contained in lead based organic coatings using thermal spray technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The feasibility of in situ vitrification of lead oxide contained in red lead based organic coatings was investigated. The removal of organic lead based primers and paints has been achieved by a flame spray process that uses a glass/ceramic compound designed for high lead solubility and resistance to devitrification. The two designer glass waste forms that exhibited the best results belong to the lead borosilicate and the lead alkali silicate systems. The glass/ceramic compounds were prepared by fusing, fritting, and ball milling to produce the desired powder. The resulting powder was collected and used to flame spray previously prepared samples containing a commonly used red lead primer. Oxyacetylene flame spray technology was used to apply the glass compound to the steel substrate. The resulting glass waste was collected and analyzed for lead content using X-Ray Spectrometry (XRS) and the lead cation leachability rates using the US Environmental Agency approved Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Of the alkali silicate glass compositions that were tested, the least lead leached from the glass was 2 ppm of lead. The lowest leachate concentration from the borosilicate glass compositions was 12 ppm of lead.

Covey, S.W.; Petreanu, J.P.; Kumar, A. [ACERL, Champaign, IL (United States)

1996-12-31

345

Novel Process for Laser Stain Removal from Archaeological Oil Paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

Some samples of oil paintings (5 × 5 cm) were prepared on wooden panel with four types of fungi commonly encountered on oil paintings were selected for this study. Each of the fungi is associated with different colored stains. Fungus Alternaria tenuis is associated by a dense black stain, Chetomium globosum by a brownish gray stain, Aspergillus flavus by a yellowish stain, and Fusaruim oxysporum by a pinkish stain. Fungi growing on oil paintings affect the surface characteristics by forming a variety of colored patches typically composed of many complex chemical substances that are produced during metabolic processes. These colored stains may be encrusted in spores, present in mycelium or secreted to a substance such as oil paintings surfaces. While the fungal stains can sometimes be extracted with appropriate solvents, there are some stains that resist solvent extraction entirely. Developing new solvent system that might attack the paint structure, and is time consuming and requires a great deal of trial and error. Mechanical stain removal is also problematic in that it often produces abrasion of the surface, markedly deteriorating the artwork, and is extra ordinarily fine and tedious. For these reasons, we decided to examine an alternative physical technique as a new approach to deal with stain removal. Since the stains are due to the existence of fungi, we thought it a good idea to remove them by singlet oxygen. We applied the photo dynamic process through which the fungi stains were covered with organic dye derivatives in solution under controlled illumination in the lab. The samples were then irradiated by low power Laser light from a He-Ne laser, the dye will be photodecomposed and produce singlet oxygen. We report in this work the results obtained as a function of: - The concentration and types of the organic dye in solution, - The presence of certain amounts of liquids added to the solution, - The scanning speed of the laser beam on the sample surface, - The irradiation time. For each case fresh samples were used and photographed before and after the treatment. The results obtained will be speculated and discussed. This procedure was applied to the cleaning of archaeological oil paintings for the first time to our knowledge. The method could well be considered as a new field of combined science and technology applied to laser stain removal and represents a significant addition to the techniques available to art conservation.

El-Nadi, Lotfia; El-Feky, Osama; Abdellatif, Galila; Darwish, Sawsan

2013-03-01

346

Modeling of spray deposition: Measurements of particle size, gas velocity, particle velocity, and spray temperature in Gas-Atomized sprays  

Science.gov (United States)

Spray deposition is a novel manufacturing process which is currently being developed for producing near-net-shape preforms. Spray deposition involves the creation of a spray of droplets by a gas atomizer and the consolidation of these droplets on a substrate to create a preform. In order to maximize the metallurgical benefits of spray deposition, a thorough characterization of momentum and heat transfer in the gas-atomized spray is required. The present paper describes measurements of particle size, gas velocity, particle velocity, and spray temperature in gasatomized Sn-Pb sprays. Measurements were performed on steady-state axisymmetric sprays which were generated using a close-coupled gas atomizer with Sn-5 wt p t Pb and Sn-38 wt p t Pb alloys, atomizer gas flow rates of 2.5 g/s (0.56 MPa) and 3.4 g/s (1.04 MPa), melt flow rates of 35 and 61 g/s, and atomizer-substrate distances of 180 and 360 mm. Gas velocities in the range to 4 m/s were measured using Pitot tube and laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). Droplet velocities in the range 3 to 32 m/s were determined from photographic streak-length measurements and LDA. Oil calorimetry of the spray enthalpy indicated that the spray temperature decreased with increasing axial distance from the gas atomizer, increasing gas flow rate, and decreasing melt flow rate.

Bewlay, B. P.; Cantor, B.

1990-10-01

347

Fundamento e desenho do teste randomizado PAINT Fundamento y diseño del test randomizado PAINT Rationale and design for the PAINT randomized trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Descrevemos as bases teóricas e o formato do "Estudo PAINT - Intervenção percutânea com stents com eluição de paclitaxel ou sirolimus em polímero biodegradável comparados com stents sem recobrimento no tratamento de lesões coronárias de novo". OBJETIVO: Avaliar duas novas formulações de stents com eluição de paclitaxel ou sirolimus em comparação com um stent de estrutura metálica idêntica, porém sem recobrimento polimérico ou eluição de droga. MÉTODOS: O PAINT é um estudo randomizado, multicêntrico, de 3 braços, conduzido em centros terciários brasileiros, que incluiu 275 pacientes alocados para tratamento com os stents InfinniumR (paclitaxel, the SupralimusR (sirolimus ou Milennium MatrixR (sem recobrimento na proporção 2:2:1 ratio. Os pacientes apresentavam lesões coronarianas de novo em vasos nativos com um diâmetro entre 2,5 e 3,5 mm, passíveis de tratamento com um único stent com comprimento de 29 mm ou menos. O objetivo primário era comparar a perda tardia aos nove meses de ambos stents com paclitaxel- ou sirolimus versus a perda luminal dos stents convencionais de controle. Objetivos secundários importantes incluíam a comparação angiográfica entre os dois tipos de stents farmacológicos, bem como a análise da ocorrência de eventos clínicos adversos. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: O estudo PAINT apresenta um formato peculiar e único que permitiu a avaliação da segurança e eficácia de duas novas formulações de stents farmacológicos, com carreador polimérico biodegradável, e liberação de paclitaxel ou sirolimus, os quais foram comparados contra um stent metálico convencional (objetivo primário. Uma vez que os stents farmacológicos diferiram entre sí somente pela droga, mas eram idênticos nas suas outras características, os estudo também permitiu a comparação do efeito anti-restenótico entre sirolimus e paclitaxel (objetivo secundário.FUNDAMENTO: Describimos las bases teóricas y el formato del "Estudio PAINT - Intervención percutánea con stents recubiertos de paclitaxel o sirolimus en polímero biodegradable comparados con stents no recubiertos en el tratamiento de lesiones coronarias de novo". OBJETIVO: Evaluar dos nuevas formulaciones de stents con liberación de paclitaxel o sirolimus en comparación con un stent de estructura metálica idéntica, pero sin recubierto polimérico o liberación de droga. MÉTODOS: El PAINT es un estudio randomizado, multicéntrico, de 3 brazos, llevado a cabo en centros terciaros brasileños, que incluyó a 275 pacientes destinados a tratamiento con los stents InfinniumR (paclitaxel, the SupralimusR (sirolimus o Milennium MatrixR (no recubierto en la proporción 2:2:1. Los pacientes presentaban lesiones coronarias de novo en vasos nativos con un diámetro entre 2,5 y 3,5 mm, pasibles de tratamiento con un único stent de hasta 29 mm de longitud. El objetivo primario era comparar la pérdida luminal tardía a los nueve meses de ambos stents con paclitaxel- o sirolimus versus la pérdida luminal de los stents convencionales de control. Los objetivos secundarios importantes incluían la comparación angiográfica entre los dos tipos de stents farmacológicos, así como el análisis de la ocurrencia de eventos clínicos adversos. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: El estudio PAINT presenta un formato peculiar y único que permitió la evaluación de la seguridad y eficacia de dos nuevas formulaciones de stents farmacológicos, con transportador polimérico biodegradable, y liberación de paclitaxel o sirolimus, los que fueron comparados con un stent metálico convencional (objetivo primario. Dado que los stents farmacológicos diferían entre sí solamente por la droga, pero eran idénticos en sus otras características, el estudio también permitió la comparación del efecto antireestenótico entre sirolimus y paclitaxel (objetivo secundario.BACKGROUND: We describe the rationale and design for the "PercutAneous INTervention with biodegradable-polymer based paclitaxel-eluting or sirolimus-eluting vers

Pedro A. Lemos

2009-12-01

348

Casting Light on the Darkening of Colors in Historical Paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

The degradation of colors in historical paintings affects our cultural heritage in both museums and archeological sites. Despite intensive experimental studies, the origin of darkening of one of the most ancient pigments known to humankind, vermilion (?-HgS), remains unexplained. Here, by combining many-body theoretical spectroscopy and high-resolution microscopic x-ray diffraction, we clarify the composition of the damaged paint work and demonstrate possible physicochemical processes, induced by illumination and exposure to humidity and air, that cause photoactivation of the original pigment and the degradation of the secondary minerals. The results suggest a new path for the darkening process which was never considered by previous studies and prompt a critical examination of their findings.

Da Pieve, F.; Hogan, C.; Lamoen, D.; Verbeeck, J.; Vanmeert, F.; Radepont, M.; Cotte, M.; Janssens, K.; Gonze, X.; Van Tendeloo, G.

2013-11-01

349

Detection of beta radiation emitted from painted tiles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Krafwerk Union (KWU), Erlangen, Germany, it was confirmed that some types of painted tiles of italian origin were radioactive. In this Work, performed at Institut fur Strahlenschutz, GSF, Germany, ultrathin 60?m) thermoluminescent samples of CaSO4:Tm were used for the determination of absorved dose rates in air (at the tile surface and at distance of 5cm from it) and of transmission factors for different tissue equivalent material thicknesses. For comparison the absorved dose rates in air from cement walls without tile revestment and with simple tile revestment (tiles without painted ornaments) were also determined. In these cases the results were the same as those obtained normally from building materials. (Author)

1987-05-05

350

Captured Emotions: Baroque Painting in Bologna, 1575-1725  

Science.gov (United States)

This web exhibition from the Getty Museum traces the influences of the Carracci family of Bologna, Italy, thought by some art historians to have revitalized painting in the late 16th century, after the passing of the great Renaissance artists. The Explore tool provided by the Museum allows visitors to see and read about all 43 paintings in the exhibition, including works by the Carracci themselves, brothers Annibale and Agostino, and their cousin Ludovico, as well as some of their followers and students, Guido Reni, Domenichino, and Francesco Albani. Works can be sorted by theme, artist, or lending museum using the tool. For example, sorting by portraiture creates a set of portraits: a young boy, possibly Antonio Carracci, who was Agostino Carracci's illegitimate son, shown with cherries and a lute; Giulio Mascheroni, a lute player; and two important religious leaders: Pope Gregory XV and Cardinal Roberto Ubaldino.

351

Detection of beta radiation emitted from painted tiles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Kraftwerk Union (KWU), Erlangen, Federal Republic of Germany, it was confirmed that some types of painted tiles of italian origin were radioactive. In this work, performed at Institut fur Strahlenschutz, GSF, Munich, Germany, ultra-thin (60?m) thermoluminescent samples of CaSO4:Tm were used for the determination of absorved dose rates in air (at the tile surface and at the distance of 5 cm from it) and of transmission factors for different tissue equivalent material thicknesses. For comparison the absorved dose rates in air from cement walls without tile revestment and with simple tile revestment (tiles without painted ornaments) were also determined. In these cases the results were the same as those obtained normally from building materials. (author)

1988-01-01

352

Diffusion Time-Scale of Porous Pressure-Sensitive Paint  

Science.gov (United States)

Pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) is an optical pressure sensor that utilizes the oxygen quenching of luminescence. PSP measurements in unsteady aerodynamic flows require fast time response of the paint. There are two characteristic time-scales that are related to the time response of PSP. One is the luminescent lifetime representing an intrinsic physical limit for the achievable temporal resolution of PSP. Another is the time-scale of oxygen diffusion across the PSP layer. When the time-scale of oxygen diffusion is much larger than the luminescent lifetime, the time response of PSP is controlled by oxygen diffusion. In a thin homogenous polymer layer where diffusion is Fickian, the oxygen concentration 1021 can be described by the diffusion equation in one-dimension.

Liu, Tianshu; Teduka, Norikazu; Kameda, Masaharu; Asai, Keisuke

2001-01-01

353

Detection of lead in paint using x-ray fluorescence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lead is now recognized as a toxic substance that can cause adverse health effects, particularly in children. One of the leading causes of lead poisoning in children is the ingestion of lead-based paint. A popular, commercially viable method of detecting lead in paint is through the use of x-ray fluorescence (XRF). Several companies now produce hand-held devices that use an x-ray source to excite either the K-shell (n=1) or L-shell (n=2) fluorescence lines in lead atoms and determine the concentration of lead based on the number of characteristic lead x-rays detected. Typical sensitivities are in the region of 0.1 mg of lead/cm2. This paper discusses the physics of lead detection using XRF and the features necessary for a commercially viable instrument. The advantages and disadvantages of techniques using K-shell or L-shell XRF are examined

1994-03-13

354

Cold Spray Forming of Inconel 718  

Science.gov (United States)

Inconel 718 was cold spray formed to a 6-mm thickness on an 8-cm diameter aluminum alloy tube using Sulzer Amdry 1718 powder and the Plasma Giken PCS-1000 cold spray system. The effects of spray particle velocity and post-spray heat treatment were studied. Post-spray annealing was performed from 950 to 1250 °C for 1-2 h. The resulting microstructures as well as the corresponding mechanical properties were characterized. As-sprayed coatings exhibited very low ductility. The tensile strength and ductility of the heat-treated coatings were improved to varying levels depending on the heat-treatment and spray conditions. For coatings sprayed at higher particle velocity and heat treated at 1250 °C for 1 h, an elongation of 24% was obtained. SEM micrographs showed a higher fraction of interparticle metallurgical bonds due to some sintering effect. Corresponding fracture surfaces also revealed a higher fraction of dimple features, typically associated with ductile fracture, in the annealed coatings. The results demonstrate that cold spray forming of Inconel 718 is feasible, and with appropriate heat treatment, metallurgical bonding can be increased. The ductility of the spray-formed samples was comparable to that of the bulk material.

Wong, W.; Irissou, E.; Vo, P.; Sone, M.; Bernier, F.; Legoux, J.-G.; Fukanuma, H.; Yue, S.

2013-03-01

355

Colloids in Paints Colloids and Interface Science, Volume 6  

CERN Document Server

The first modern approach to relate fundamental research to the applied science of colloids, this series bridges academic research and practical applications, thus providing the information vital to both. Written by the very best scientists in their respective disciplines, this volume describes the role of colloids in paints, highlighting the importance of fundamental research in industrial applications.For surface, polymer and physicochemists, materials scientists, and chemical engineers.

Tadros, Tharwat F

2011-01-01

356

Oil painting on tinplate by Francisco José Resende  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cet article se concentre sur l'étude des techniques d'exécution, des matériaux et de l'état de conservation de trois peintures à l'huile sur fer-blanc (acier couvert d'étain du peintre portugais Francisco José Resende (1825 – 1893. Bien que le choix de peindre sur un support métallique n'était pas commun au XIXème siècle, cet auteur a exécuté au long de sa vie différentes œuvres sur ce substrat. Dans ces recherches, apparaissent les résultats comparatifs de la technique d'exécution de Francisco Resende et des matériaux présents dans les couches picturales et dans le support des trois œuvres faisant l'objet de l'étude. Bien qu'elles aient été exécutées à des dates similaires, on remarque des problèmes de conservation distincts - notamment les détachements, les cloques et la corrosion -, qui sont décrits et liés aux matériaux constituants des peintures.This article focuses on the study of execution techniques, material composition and condition of three oil paintings on tinplate – a thin sheet of steel coated with tin - by the Portuguese painter Francisco José Resende (1825-1893. Although the choice to paint on a metallic support was not very common in the nineteenth century, the painter executed several works on this support. The comparative results focus on Francisco Resende’s technique of execution, the materials used in the paint layers and on the support of the three works which are being studied. Although executed in the same period, they show different conservation problems - namely delamination and blistering of the paint layers, and also corrosion of the support.

Ana Rita Veiga

2010-11-01

357

Wood Ash Effectiveness in Cadmium Removal from Paint Industrial Effluent  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was conducted in order to present more information and evidence to authorities to make them capable of making better decisions. Survey was done in batch conditions on wastewater of Binalood paint industries using different amount of wood ash as adsorbent and in variable pH from acidic to alkaline and different contact times. Cadmium measurement in samples was done with atomic absorption equipment and test methods were adapted from standard methods for the examination of water and w...

2006-01-01

358

Pressure-Sensitive Paint Measurements of Transient Shock Phenomena  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Measurements of the global pressure field created by shock wave diffraction have been captured optically using a porous pressure-sensitive paint. The pressure field created by a diffracting shock wave shows large increases and decreases in pressure and can be reasonably accurately captured using CFD. The substrate, a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plate, has been dipped in a luminophore solution. TLC plates are readily available and easy to prepare. Illumination comes from two high-intensity...

Mark Kenneth Quinn; Konstantinos Kontis

2013-01-01

359

Chromosome painting in the manatee supports Afrotheria and Paenungulata  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Sirenia (manatees, dugongs and Stellar's sea cow) have no evolutionary relationship with other marine mammals, despite similarities in adaptations and body shape. Recent phylogenomic results place Sirenia in Afrotheria and with elephants and rock hyraxes in Paenungulata. Sirenia and Hyracoidea are the two afrotherian orders as yet unstudied by comparative molecular cytogenetics. Here we report on the chromosome painting of the Florida manatee. Resul...

Kellogg Margaret E; Burkett Sandra; Dennis Thomas R; Stone Gary; Gray Brian A; McGuire Peter M; Zori Roberto T; Stanyon Roscoe

2007-01-01

360

Imagery Scenery – Innovative Expression of Washing Landscape Painting Photography  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

The rich and colorful aesthetic sentiment in Chinese traditional landscape culture is the foundation and resource of the current innovation of landscape photography. This paper tries to combine modern photography skills and technologies with traditional landscape aesthetic theory so that to investigate an innovative expression of transforming the realistic characteristic of photography into creative form of imagery scenery.

Key words: Imagery scenery; Washing landscape painting; Creative photography

Wei KONG

2012-08-01

 
 
 
 
361

Breve História das Tintas Antivegetativas / Brief History of Antifouling Paints  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, os autores apresentam uma panorâmica geral sobre as tintas antivegetativas. Após a conveniente localização destas tintas no esquema de protecção anticorrosiva das obras vivas dos navios e / ou outras estruturas móveis, fazem uma síntese dos principais tipos de produtos antivegetativo [...] s usados ao longo dos tempos, até aos nossos dias. Complementarmente, sistematizam as principais tipologias dos organismos vivos que se fixam nas obras vivas das embarcações e referem alguns tipos de fauna e flora predominantes em duas regiões da Ibero-América. Abordam também, ainda que sumariamente, os principais mecanismos básicos de funcionamento dos diferentes tipos de tintas antivegetativas. Finalmente, referem algumas das principais linhas de investigação actualmente em curso, no domínio da luta contra a fixação dos organismos marinhos nos cascos dos navios. Abstract in english In this work the authors present a general overview of maritime paints, paying particular attention to the case of antifouling paints. After locating these paints in the anticorrosive protection systems used on the underwater parts of ships and/or other moving structures, a summary is made of the ma [...] in types of antifouling products used through history up to the present time. This is complemented by an assessment of the main types of living organisms that fix themselves to the underwater parts of ships, mentioning a number of families of fouling predominant in two regions of Ibero-America. Consideration is also briefly made of the main basic mechanisms by which the different types of antifouling paints work. Finally, a number of actual research lines on antifouling technologies are mentioned.

Almeida, Elisabete; Diamantino, Teresa; Sousa, Orlando de.

362

Dominant inheritance of overo spotting in paint horses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of selected studbook records of the American Paint Horse Association, consisting of 687 foals sired by 13 overo stallions from non-overo mares, supports the inheritance of overo spotting as an autosomal dominant gene. More than one gene may control patterns registered as overo. Additional studies are necessary to explain the sporadic occurrence of overo spotting from nonspotted quarter horse parents and to confirm the inheritance of overo spotting in other breeds. PMID:8014463

Bowling, A T

1994-01-01

363

A French view on FISH painting as a biodosemeter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

formation about the temporal persistence of translocations was obtained by FISH analysis of highly irradiated rhesus monkeys 4-7 years before blood sampling. The dose estimation based on translocation scoring using FISH triple-painting was underestimated according to the initial physical dose of irradiation. This underestimation appeared smaller when only the complete reciprocal translocations were taken into account for the dose estimates. (author)

2000-01-01

364

Male painted gobies (Pomatoschistus pictus) vocalise to defend territories  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many fish species emit sounds in agonistic contexts. During direct confrontations sounds are typically produced during the display phase in conjunction with visual exhibitions. Here we studied sound production during territorial defence in captive painted gobies, Pomatoschistus pictus, and related acoustic parameters with male traits and the date of recording (Julian day, i.e., with the approach of the peak of the breeding season). Territorial males emitted drumming sounds duri...

Amorim, Maria Clara Pessoa; Neves, A. S. M.

2008-01-01

365

‘James Cahill and the Study of Chinese Painting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available James Cahill was a leading scholar in the field of Chinese painting studies through his influential teaching and most original and prolific writings. From a global, verbal, and visual perspective, this essay examines how significantly he has challenged and thereby enriched the extant art scholarships in China and the West, and what an enduring legacy he has left behind him in the art historiography.

Zaixin Hong

2014-06-01

366

A heat exchanger analogy of automotive paint ovens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computational prediction of vehicle temperatures in an automotive paint oven is essential to predict paint quality and manufacturability. The complex geometry of vehicles, varying scales in the flow, transient nature of the process, and the tightly coupled conjugate heat transfer render the numerical models computationally very expensive. Here, a novel, simplified model of the oven is developed using an analogy to a three-stream cross flow heat exchanger that transfers heat from air to a series of moving bodies and supporting carriers. The analogous heat exchanger equations are developed and solved numerically. Steady state Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are carried out to model the flow field and to extract the heat transfer coefficients around the body and carriers. The air temperature distribution from the CFD models is used as a boundary condition in the analogous model. Correction coefficients are used in the analogy to take care of various assumptions. These are determined from existing test data. The same corrections are used to predict air temperatures for a modified configuration of the oven and a different vehicle. The method can be used to conduct control volume analysis of ovens to determine energy efficiency, and to study new vehicle or oven designs. -- Highlights: • Analogy of an automotive paint oven as a three stream cross flow heat exchanger. • The three streams are vehicle bodies, carriers and hot air. • Convection coefficients and inlet air stream temperatures from steady CFD simulations. • Analogy useful for overall energy efficiency analysis of conveyor ovens in general

2013-11-03

367

Using Hypermedia in Teaching Art & Design: Baroque Dutch Paintings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although the whole world adapts ICT -information and communication technologies- in learning and teaching visual arts for the benefit of both the student and the society, the Middle East is motionless. ME teachers need training, institutional support and motivation to apply ICT in classrooms. Preparing a traditional lecture, including visual projected examples by data show takes less time. Doing comparisons and contrast, going through formal analysis or juggling between visual examples is complex within classrooms' technological limitations of having one projector. There is an urgent need to alter traditional methods of teaching art and design and integrate pictorial approaches. This paper discusses design/art pedagogy via a suggested model lesson, which utilizes hypermedia to resemble internet interface. The lesson teaches Dutch Baroque interior design through a selection of Vermeer's paintings. Vermeer accurately painted interior elements in his paintings. The development of technology stimulates students’ imagination and develops their understanding of more influencing graphical forms. Any other art and design themes and styles can be taught by using the same interface.

Inas A. Alkholy

2010-09-01

368

Comparison of pigment content of paint samples using spectrometric methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the paper was to evaluate the influence of pigment concentration and its distribution in polymer binder on the possibility of colour identification and paint sample comparison. Two sets of paint samples: one containing red and another one green pigment were prepared. Each set consisted of 13 samples differing gradually in the concentration of pigment. To obtain the sets of various colour shades white paint was mixed with the appropriate pigment in the form of a concentrated suspension. After solvents evaporation the samples were examined using spectrometric methods. The resin and main filler were identified by IR method. Colour and white pigments were identified on the base of Raman spectra. Colour of samples were compared based on Vis spectrometry according to colour theory. It was found that samples are homogenous (parameter measuring colour similarity ?E<3). The values of ?E between the neighbouring samples in the set revealed decreasing linear function and between the first and following one--a logarithmic function. PMID:24813282

Trzci?ska, Beata; Kowalski, Rafa?; Zi?ba-Palus, Janina

2014-09-15

369

Processing of antifouling paint particles by Mytilus edulis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Particles of spent antifouling paint collected from a marine boatyard were ground and subsequently administered to the filter-feeding bivalve, Mytilus edulis, maintained in static aquaria. Concentrations of Cu and Zn were measured in seawater throughout a 16 h feeding phase and a 24 h depuration phase, in rejected and egested particles collected during the respective phases, and in the organisms themselves at the end of the experiments. Concentrations and distributions of Cu and Zn in processed particles indicated that M. edulis was able to ingest paint particles, regardless of whether nutritionally viable silt was present, and no mechanism of particle discrimination was evident. Enrichment of Cu and Zn in the visceral mass of individuals and in the aqueous phase during depuration supported these assertions, although elevated concentrations in other compartments of the organism (e.g. shell, gill) suggested that biotic and abiotic uptake of aqueous metal was also important. - Particles of antifouling paint enriched in Cu and Zn are ingested and digested by the marine bivalve M. edulis.

Turner, Andrew [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk; Barrett, Mark [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Brown, Murray T. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

2009-01-15

370

Spray shield for oil wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A spray shield is provided which prevents well fluids from contaminating the atmosphere or surrounding areas of an oil well. The shield assembly includes a hollow bonnet member and a seal assembly wherein the seal assembly is supported in overlying relationship relative to a stuffing box on an oil well. The bonnet member is affixed to oil well structure by resilient biasing means. A polished rod is sealingly and reciprocatingly received axially of the bonnet member and the seal assembly. The spray shield is made in component parts which are joined together in a manner which enables its assembly to the wellhead without the necessity of dismantling any portion of the pumpjack. (5 claims)

Edge, B.J.; Collins, L.O.

1974-01-08

371

Spray shield for oil wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A spray shield assembly was designed for use in conjunction with oil wells that require artificial lift apparatus. The shield assembly includes a split hollow bonnet member which carries a seal assembly with the seal assembly being supported in overlying relationship relative to a stuffing box on the oil well. The bonnet member is removably affixed to structure of the oil well in a position to admit a polished rod to be sealingly and reciprocatingly received within the bonnet member and axially through the seal assembly. The spray shield assembly is made of component parts which are joined together in a manner that enables its assembly to the wellhead without the necessity of dismantling any portion of the pumpjack and wellhead apparatus. (auth)

Edge, B.J.; Collins, L.O.

1975-09-02

372

The Visual Poetry of Chinese Bamboo: Some Notes on Traditional Chinese Xieyi Painting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chinese painting (Huo Hua which dates back to the Han Dynasty (25 A.D.-135 A.D. has two traditions: the Xieyi and the Gong Pi. Xieyi means "writing the meaning down" and its practitioners are literati artists who execute expressionistic and gestural strokes. Gong Pi painting is known for its application of colors and fine strokes. It is a naturalistic rendition of the subject that imitates the superficial likeness of the world. While Xieyi painting aims to capture the Qi or the vital spirit in the practice of painting and calligraphy,1 the naturalistic rendition of Gong Pi painting exhibits the dexterity of the artist. However, capturing the Qi is a more sophisticated preoccupation as far as the Chinese scholars of the classical times are concerned.Xieyi painting is associated with literati paintings or the Wen Ren Hua practiced by scholars. It includes mainly landscapes, flora and fauna, human figures, and the Si Jun Zi Hua2 or the Four Noblemen Painting. In the Si Jun Zi Hua painting of the Bamboo, the different brushstrokes of Chinese calligraphy are applied.3 Unlike Gong Pi painting, which takes many days or weeks to finish,4 the Xieyi painting is finished in one sitting. A Xieyi painting is composed by the artist on the spot. The blank paper signifies Yin and the brush strokes signify Yang. To balance a composition is to achieve harmony and wholeness. A good composition is achieved when the spirit or the essence of the subject is captured with the masterful brush strokes and a good sense of balance in the composition.In this paper, I will examine the history of Chinese literati painting, its materials, its tradition and milieu, the symbolism of its themes, and its practice in post-Cultural Revolution China.

Maningning C. Miclat

2000-06-01

373

Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor to Monitor Stress Kinetics in Drying Process of Commercial Latex Paints  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we report a study about the application of packaged fiber Bragg gratings used as strain sensors to monitor the stress kinetics during the drying process of commercial latex paints. Three stages of drying with distinct mechanical deformation and temporal behaviors were identified for the samples, with mechanical deformation from 15 ?m to 21 ?m in the longitudinal film dimension on time intervals from 370 to 600 minutes. Drying time tests based on human sense technique described by the Brazilian Technical Standards NBR 9558 were also done. The results obtained shows that human sense technique has a limited perception of the drying process and that the optical measurement system proposed can be used to characterize correctly the dry-through stage of paint. The influence of solvent (water addition in the drying process was also investigated. The paint was diluted with four parts paint and one part water (80% paint, and one part paint and one part water (50% paint. It was observed that the increase of the water ratio mixed into the paint decreases both the mechanical deformation magnitude and the paint dry-through time. Contraction of 5.2 ?m and 10.4 ?m were measured for concentrations of 50% and 80% of paint in the mixture, respectively. For both diluted paints the dry-through time was approximately 170 minutes less than undiluted paint. The optical technique proposed in this work can contribute to the development of new standards to specify the drying time of paint coatings.

Ivo de Lourenço

2010-05-01

374

Uniform-droplet spray forming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The uniform-droplet process is a new method of liquid-metal atomization that results in single droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on to substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructure. The mono-sized powder-production capability of the uniform-droplet process also has the potential of permitting engineered powder blends to produce components of controlled porosity. Metal and alloy powders are commercially produced by at least three different methods: gas atomization, water atomization, and rotating disk. All three methods produce powders of a broad range in size with a very small yield of fine powders with single-sized droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructures. The economical analysis has shown the process to have the potential of reducing capital cost by 50% and operating cost by 37.5% when applied to powder making. For the spray-forming process, a 25% savings is expected in both the capital and operating costs. The project is jointly carried out at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Tuffs University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Preliminary interactions with both finished parts and powder producers have shown a strong interest in the uniform-droplet process. Systematic studies are being conducted to optimize the process parameters, understand the solidification of droplets and spray deposits, and develop a uniform-droplet-system (UDS) apparatus appropriate for processing engineering alloys.

Blue, C.A.; Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Chun, Jung-Hoon [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ando, T. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

1997-04-01

375

Spray nozzle for fire control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A spray nozzle for fire control produces a spray of gas and liquid having an oval transverse cross-section and comprises a mixing chamber having an oval transverse cross-section adapted to induce a toroidal mixing pattern in a pressurized gas and liquid introduced to the mixing chamber through a plurality of inlets. In a preferred embodiment, the mixing chamber is toroidal. The gas is preferably air but other gases such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide, or halogenated hydrocarbons may be used. Preferably, the liquid is water or a water solution containing, for example, fire suppressants. A firefighting method using the above nozzle is also disclosed. The apparatus and method of this invention are particularly suitable for liquid hydrocarbon fires. The relatively small amount of liquid required by the spray nozzle of the invention makes it especially useful in vehicles or the like where a limited amount of liquid is available, such as trains, ships, offshore modules, oil rigs, and aircraft. It is also useful where the use of excessive amounts of liquid should be avoided, as in underground workings, hotels, warehouses, and computer rooms. 5 figs.

Papavergos, P.G.

1990-09-15

376

1994 Thermal spray industrial applications: Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 7th National Thermal Spray Conference met on June 20--24, 1994, in Boston, Massachusetts. The conference was sponsored by the Thermal Spray Division of ASM International and co-sponsored by the American Welding Society, Deutscher Verband fur Schweisstechnik e.V., High Temperature Society of Japan, International Thermal Spray Association, and Japanese Thermal Spraying Society. The conference covered applications for automobiles, aerospace, petrochemicals, power generation, and biomedical needs. Materials included metals, ceramics, and composites with a broad range of process developments and diagnostics. Other sections included modeling and systems control; spray forming and reactive spraying; post treatment; process, structure and property relationships; mechanical properties; and testing, characterization and wear. One hundred and seventeen papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

1994-06-20

377

Effectiveness of containment sprays in containment management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A limited study has been performed assessing the effectiveness of containment sprays-to mitigate particular challenges which may occur during a severe accident. Certain aspects of three specific topics related to using sprays under severe accident conditions were investigated. The first was the effectiveness of sprays connected to an alternate water supple and pumping source because the actual containment spray pumps are inoperable. This situation could occur during a station blackout. The second topic concerned the adverse as well as beneficial effects of using containment sprays during severe accident scenario where the containment atmosphere contains substantial quantities of hydrogen along with steam. The third topic was the feasibility of using containment sprays to moderate the consequences of DCH

1993-01-01

378

Heat transfer characteristics of impinging diesel sprays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The heat transfer characteristics of impinging diesel sprays were studied in a Rapid Compression Machine. The temporal and spatial distributions of the heat transfer around the impingement point were measured by an array of high frequency response surface thermocouples. Simultaneously, the flow field of the combusting spray was photographed with high speed movie through the transparent head of the apparatus. In this paper the results for the auto-ignited fuel sprays are compared to those of non-combusting sprays which were carried out in nitrogen. The values of the heat flux from the combusting sprays are found to be substantially different from those of the non-combusting sprays. The difference is attributed to the radiative heat transfer and the combustion generated bulk motion and small scale turbulence.

Wolf, R.S.; Cheng, W.K.

1989-01-01

379

Effectiveness of containment sprays in containment management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A limited study has been performed assessing the effectiveness of containment sprays-to mitigate particular challenges which may occur during a severe accident. Certain aspects of three specific topics related to using sprays under severe accident conditions were investigated. The first was the effectiveness of sprays connected to an alternate water supple and pumping source because the actual containment spray pumps are inoperable. This situation could occur during a station blackout. The second topic concerned the adverse as well as beneficial effects of using containment sprays during severe accident scenario where the containment atmosphere contains substantial quantities of hydrogen along with steam. The third topic was the feasibility of using containment sprays to moderate the consequences of DCH.

Nourbakhsh, H.P.; Perez, S.E.; Lehner, J.R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1993-05-01

380

Effect of Spray Angle on Temperature Distribution within the Metallic Substrate in Cold Spraying  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigates the effect of spray angle on the temperature distribution within the metallic substrate in cold spraying. Computational fluid dynamic approach is employed in this work to achieve this objective. The simulated results show that spray angle significantly influences the temperature distribution within the substrate. For the perpendicular spraying, the temperature gradient contours present regularly annular shape, which means the temperature distribution is only dependent ...

Yin, Shuo; Sun, Yan; Wang, Xiaofang; Guo, Zhiwei; Liao, Hanlin

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

A critical investigation into the spray-drying of hydroxyapatite powder for thermal spray applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work examines the investigation of the spray drying process of Hydroxyapatite powder (HA) used as a thermal spray deposit in the application of orthopaedic femoral implants. In this research, the Niro- Minor™ mixed spray dryer was used for both modelling and experimental studies. The process parameters investigated included HA slurry viscosity, temperature, and air flowrate. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modelling and validation of the spray drying of HA powder was performed. An an...

2006-01-01

382

Evaluation of the Eulerian-Lagrangian spray atomisation (ELSA) in spray simulations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many approaches have been used to simulate the spray structure especially in modelling fuel sprays, i.e., Eulerian, Lagrangian, Lagrangian- Eulerian, Eulerian-Eulerian and Eulerian-Lagrangian approaches. The present study uses an Eulerian-Lagrangian spray atomisation (ELSA) method which is an integrated model for capturing the whole spray evolution starting directly from injector nozzle still the end. Our goal in this study is to evaluate the ELSA model which is implementing into the commerci...

Hoyas, S.; Pastor Engui?danos, Jose? Manuel; Khuong, Anh Dung; Mompo? Laborda, Juan Manuel; Ravet, Frederic

2011-01-01

383

Henry's law constants for paint solvents and their implications on volatile organic compound emissions from automotive painting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes experimental results of equilibrium partitioning of several significant paint solvents and formaldehyde between air and water to quantify the potential for capturing and retaining the constituents in spraybooth scrubber water during automotive painting. The compounds studied are toluene, n-butanol, methyl ethyl ketone methyl propyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, methyl amyl ketone, butyl cellosolve, butyl cellosolve acetate, butyl carbitol, and n-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone. A set of field data collected at a Ford Motor Company assembly plant was also analyzed to determine whether data were consistent with the equilibrium phenomenon. The primary findings include: (a) There were more than six orders of magnitude difference in the Henry's law constants among the solvents studied. A solvent with a smaller constant is less easily stripped from water. The Henry's law constants decrease in the following order: toluene and xylenes > methyl ethyl ketone > n-butanol > butyl cellosolve acetate > butyl cellosolve > formaldehyde > butyl carbitol > n-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone. (b) Field data showed accumulation of n-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and stable concentrations of butyl carbitol, butyl cellosolve, and n-butanol in the paint-sludge pit water during a 2-month period. Stable concentrations indicate a continuous, balanced capture and stripping of the solvents. Data were consistent with measured Henry's law constants. (c) The low Henry's law constant for formaldehyde is the result of the fact that it is hydrated when dissolved in water.

Kim, B.R.; Kalis, E.M.; DeWulf, T.; Andrews, K.M.

2000-02-01

384

Toluene removal by oxidation reaction in spray wet scrubber: experimental, modeling and optimization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Toluene, an important volatile organic compound (VOC, is used in many kinds of industries, such as painting, printing, coating, and petrochemical industries. The emission of toluene causes serious air pollution, odor problem, flammability problem and affects human health. This paper proposes the removal of toluene from waste air using a spray wet scrubber combining the absorption and oxidation reaction. Aqueous sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl solution was used as the scrubbing liquid in the system. NaOCl, the strongest oxidative agent, presents an effective toluene removal. As the scrubbed toluene is reacted, recirculation of the scrubbing liquid could be operated with a constant removal efficiency throughout the operting time. The investigated variables affecting the removal efficiency were air flow rate, inlet toluene concentration, NaOCl concentration, scrubbing liquid flow rate and size of spray nozzle. Influence of the scrubbing parameters was experimentally studied to develop a mathematical model of the toluene removal efficiency. The removal model reveals that the increase of scrubbing liquid flow rate, toluene concentration, and NaOCl concentration together with the decrease of air flow rate and size of spray nozzle can increase the toluene removal efficiency. Optimization problem with an objective function and constraints was set to provide the maximum toluene removal efficiency and solved by Matlab optimization toolbox. The optimization constraints were formed from the mathematical model and process limitation. The solution of the optimization was an air flow rate of 100 m3/h, toluene concentration of 1500 ppm, NaOCl concentration of 0.02 mol/l, NaOCl solution feed rate of 0.8 m3/h, and spray nozzle size of 0.5 mm. Solution of the optimization gave the highest toluene removal efficiency of 91.7%.

Roumporn Nikom

2006-11-01

385

Synthesis of thermal spray grade yttrium oxide powder and its application for plasma spray deposition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A process to transform the commercially available yttrium oxide powder (M/s. IRE) into thermal spray grade powder and development of plasma spray coating of it on graphite/metallic substrate are described. Experimental results show that the synthesized powder had very good flow characteristics and could be used for plasma spray deposition efficiently

2007-12-15

386

Synthesis of thermal spray grade yttrium oxide powder and its application for plasma spray deposition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process to transform the commercially available yttrium oxide powder (M/s. IRE) into thermal spray grade powder and development of plasma spray coating of it on graphite/metallic substrate are described. Experimental results show that the synthesized powder had very good flow characteristics and could be used for plasma spray deposition efficiently.

Padmanabhan, P.V.A. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)], E-mail: pvananth@barc.gov.in; Ramanathan, S. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sreekumar, K.P.; Satpute, R.U. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kutty, T.R.G. [Radio Metallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Gonal, M.R. [Materials Processing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Gantayet, L.M. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

2007-12-15

387

Structure of high-pressure fuel sprays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A multi-dimensional model was used to calculate interactions between spray drops and gas motions close to the nozzle in dense high-pressure sprays. The model also accounts for the phenomena of drop breakup, drop collision and coalescence, and the effect of drops on the gas turbulence. The calculations used a new method to describe atomization (a boundary condition in current spray codes). The method assumes that atomization and drop breakup are indistinguishable processes within the dense spray near the nozzle exit. Accordingly, atomization is prescribed by injecting drops ('blobs') that have a size equal to the nozzle exit diameter.

Reitz, R.D.; Diwakar, R.

1987-01-01

388

Evolution and Prospect of Thermal Spraying Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, current state development and process evolution ofthermal spray technology during last century (1910―2010) were reviewed. An "three―step evolution trend" (heat energy dominance, kineticenergy dominance, innovative idea and composite performance dominance) wasadvanced in order to get comprehensive understanding on this technology and dobetter in promoting its future development. Low pressure plasma spraying―thinfilm (LPPS―TF), cold spray (CS) and suspension orsolution srecursor plasma spray (SPS/SPPS) were selected among emerging novelspray processes to be briefly introduced from two aspects (process characteristics and potential applications). Comparison of spray output valueand detail contribution ratio distribution of various industry or process through world and Asia spray industry market were made to probe into what canbe improved as for China thermal spray industry in future. It was suggested that increasing plasma spray and HVOF contribution to applications, take activesteps to explore R&D of some novel spray technology like above mentioned and their possible applications especially in high―tech industrial such aselectrics, semiconductor and new energy.

YIN Zhi-Jian, , WANG Shu-Bao, FU-Wei,TAN Xin-Hai, TAO Shun-Yan, DING Chuan-Xian

2011-03-01

389

Performance model for ultimate heat spray ponds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mathematical model for the performance of spray ponds is developed using a detailed computational approach. The model considers heat transfer and evaporation from individual droplets of sprayed water and the pond surface, and drift loss from the sprays. Modification of the temperature and humidity of the surrounding air is taken into account in calculating heat and mass transport from the sprays. Flow of air through the spray field is considered to be either driven by the ambient wind, or by natural convection. Relationships for heat and mass transfer from the drops are derived from the empirical studies of Ranz and Marshall. Numerical experiments demonstrate that simplified models can still be useful for spray pond performance assessments. The models are validated with data on several industrial and nuclear power plant spray ponds, and with data from an extensively instrumented, experimental spray pond. Results of the validation studies demonstrate generally good agreement. These models are used in a complex methodology for predicting the performance of spray ponds used for nuclear power plant service, although it is not limited to this application. A companion paper describes the overall assessment methodology

1986-01-01

390

Thermally sprayed coatings: Aluminum on lead  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental program to determine the feasibility of thermally spraying aluminum on a lead substrate was initiated in support of the accelerator production of tritium (APT) Project for the US Department of Energy. The program consisted of two distinct parts: (1) the characterization of the thermally sprayed coatings, including microhardness testing, effects of heating, and microstructure and porosity determinations, and (2) effects of mercury doping and heat treatments on the thermally sprayed composite. The project determined that aluminum could successfully be thermally sprayed onto the lead. The coatings had a dense microstructure, with a Vicker's Pyramid Hardness (VPH) of about 60, and a maximum porosity (found in strips on the samples) of 12%

1999-01-01

391

Head spray nozzle in reactor pressure vessel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a reactor pressure vessel of a BWR type reactor, a head spray nozzle is used for cooling the head of the pressure vessel and, in view of the thermal stresses, it is desirable that cooling is applied as uniformly as possible. A conventional head spray is constituted by combining full cone type nozzles. Since the sprayed water is flown down upon water spraying and the sprayed water in the vertical direction is overlapped, the flow rate distribution has a high sharpness to form a shape as having a maximum value near the center and it is difficult to obtain a uniform flow rate distribution in the circumferential direction. Then, in the present invention, flat nozzles each having a spray water cross section of laterally long shape, having less sharpness in the circumferential distribution upon spraying water to the inner wall of the pressure vessel and having a wide angle of water spray are combined, to make the flow rate distribution of spray water uniform in the inner wall of the pressure vessel. Accordingly, the pressure vessel can be cooled uniformly and thermal stresses upon cooling can be decreased. (N.H.).

Hatano, Shun-ichi.

1990-07-20

392

40 CFR 161.440 - Spray drift data requirements.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2009-07-01 false Spray drift data requirements. 161.440 Section...Requirement Tables § 161.440 Spray drift data requirements. (a) Table. ...table to determine the aerial spray drift data requirements and the substance...

2009-07-01

393

Correction of Spray Concentration and Bioassay Cage Penetration Data.  

Science.gov (United States)

Field trials were conducted to demonstrate the need for correcting sampled spray concentration data for sampler collection efficiencies and estimated spray exposure levels in mosquito bioassays for cage interference effects. A large spray block was target...

B. K. Fritz J. Bonds K. Haas W. C. Hoffmann

2012-01-01

394

Neutron-induced autoradiography in the study of Venetian oil paintings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A complex technological investigation of 14th-18th centuries Venetian paintings from the collection of the National Museum in Warsaw has been performed in connection with the 'Serenissima - Light of Venice' exhibition. All the paintings under analysis were irradiated in a specially designed station at the research reactor MARIA in Swierk near Warsaw. Beta-rays emerging from the painting surface irradiated by thermal neutrons and recorded on a X-ray film displayed the distribution of elements in pigments used for creating individual layers of the painting. It allows for tracing the particular phases of the painting structure invisible to the naked eye. The report presents results obtained for the following paintings: J. Tintoretto - Portrait of a Venetian Admiral, M. Marieschi - The palace of Doges in Venice, B. Bellotto called Canaletto - Fantasy architecture with self-portrait of the artist. (author)

2003-11-05

395

Airborne contact dermatitis from methylchloroisothiazolinone in wall paint. Abolition of symptoms by chemical allergen inactivation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preservatives such as isothiazolinones in paints have been reported to cause airborne contact dermatitis. The patients whom we report experienced acute dermatitis on air-exposed skin and respiratory symptoms after staying in recently painted rooms. Kathon (methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone) added as preservative to the wall paint was identified as causative agent. In one individual symptoms rapidly disappeared after treatment of the painted walls with inorganic sulfur salt, which leads to inactivation of the allergenic properties of methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone. We describe the patients, the clinical course and review the literature pertinent to such cases. In addition we report on the chemical analyses of the decorating paints used, and on experiments on emission and air concentration of methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone from a painted surface before and after inactivation by sodium bisulfite. PMID:10750849

Bohn, S; Niederer, M; Brehm, K; Bircher, A J

2000-04-01

396

The qualitative change from naturalistic to transcendental space in selected paintings by El Greco  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The first group of El Greco's paintings discussed in this article are all naturalistic representations of the Annunciation theme and are chosen from his Italian period. The examples of his later paintings are chosen from the Spanish period and include various themes. These paintings are discussed with reference to encounters between human and angelic figures in transcendental space. The aim of this research is to emphasize [the] radical shift in El Greco's representation of space and the tran...

Mare, Estelle Alma

2003-01-01

397

A comparative analysis of glove permeation resistance to paint stripping formulations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although there is a wide variety of work gloves available to users of commercial paint stripping products, there are no published studies examining which type of gloves provide the best protection. To address this need, a multiphase study was undertaken to evaluate how several types of gloves resist multichemical-based paint stripping formulations. Due to the wide range of commercial paint stripping formulations available, seven categories of surrogate paint stripper formulations were created to evaluate glove performance initially. Twenty different glove types were identified for initial evaluation. Degradation resistance screening was carried out for each glove style and paint stripping formulation. Screening results were used to identify those glove styles least affected by the surrogate paint strippers. Those gloves were then evaluated for their resistance to permeation using continuous contact testing based on ASTM Test Method F 739. Glove styles showing extensive permeation with early breakthrough were then evaluated to see how they performed with only intermittent contact with the surrogate paint strippers using a modified form of ASTM Test Method F 1383. These results were used to select glove styles to be tested using commercially available paint stripping products. Gloves made of plastic laminate and butyl rubber were the most effective against the majority of paint strippers. More glove styles resisted permeation by N-methylpyrrolidone and dibasic ester-based paint strippers than conventional solvent products such as methylene chloride, methanol, isopropanol, acetone, and toluene. The study also found that decreased contact time caused relatively little change in permeation resistance and that the surrogate paint stripper data did not always accurately predict resistance to the commercial paint stripper formulations. PMID:11843429

Stull, Jeffrey O; Thomas, Richard W; James, Lawrence E

2002-01-01

398

Formulation of an Anti-bacterial and Anti-corrosion Paint  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, formulation of a paint which can resist the rough weather condition containing the water has been proposed. This type of paint can be useful for coating metal in port, ship structure, oil vessels and in agricultural and food safety applications. Also, usage of this paint for disinfection of veterinary environment such as aviculture space and walls and other places, inhibit the growth of pathogenic micro-organism, it can be used in generally for all positions and locations...

2012-01-01

399

Evaluation of the effect of dry-film biocides on paint film preservation using neural networks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biocides play an important role in the preservation of a variety of products susceptible to microbiological growth such as paint, a material that can undergo microbial deterioration both in storing (inside the can) and after the application on a surface. In this work, artificial neural networks were used to predict the level of fungal growth on surfaces painted with water-based paints with biocide formulations containing different concentrations of ten kinds of commercial and experimental che...

2010-01-01

400

Analysis of the Distributions of Color Characteristics in Art Painting Images  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we study some of the characteristics of the art painting image color semantics. We analyze the color features of differ- ent artists and art movements. The analysis includes exploration of hue, saturation and luminance. We also use quartile’s analysis to obtain the dis- tribution of the dispersion of defined groups of paintings and measure the degree of purity for these groups. A special software system “Art Paint- ing Image Color Semantics” (APICSS) for ...

Ivanova, Krassimira; Stanchev, Peter; Dimitrov, Boyan

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Remediation and Stabilization of Soils Contaminated by Lead Resulting from the Removal of Paint from Bridges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lead-based paints are commonly used for painting steel bridge structures. Soils in the immediate vicinity of older bridges have been contaminated with Pb as a result of normal weathering and peeling of the paint coupled with removal prior to repainting. The objectives of this project were to assess the extent of lead contamination near highway bridges and to evaluate phytoremediation and immobilization as means of remediation. We examined soils in the vicinity of approximately 20 bridges in I...

2005-01-01

402

The Development of Natural Pigments in Esaan Folk Wisdom for Usage of Painting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: The objectives of this research were: (1) History and background of pigments from natural material in Esaan painting, (2) current condition and problems of pigments from natural material in painting work and (3) develop pigments from natural material for painting work usage. Approach: The instrument consisted of the observation form, interview form, focus group discussion and workshop record form. The sample consisted of the persons involved in the pigments us...

Suchat Sukna; Sastra Laoakka; Thaksina Krairach

2009-01-01

403

The effects of soluble salts at the metal/paint interface: advances in knowledge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The presence of soluble salts (particularly sulphates and chlorides) at the metal/paint interface is known to have a detrimental effect on the integrity of most paint systems. Though this is a long-standing problem, it has recently come to receive greater attention from the protective coatings industry. International Standards Organization (ISO) has for some time been trying to develop a standard about guidance levels for water-soluble salt contamination before the application of paints and r...

La Fuente, D.; Chico, B.; Morcillo, M.

2006-01-01

404

Optical and Mechanical Properties of Cool Roof Paint Containing Hollow Thermoplastic Microspheres  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This master thesis examines the effect of hollow thermoplastic microspheres in coolroof paints. These types of paints are characterized by their high reflectivity forwavelengths up to 2.5 micrometers and high absorptivity in the IR region. Thethermoplastic microspheres were produced by Expancel®, a unit withinAkzoNobel®. Optical properties were measured using a UV-VIS-NIRspectrophotometer and FTIR. The paint systems were kept as simple as possible, onlycontaining binder, pigment and additiv...

Sandin, Olof

2013-01-01

405

Frames as visual links between paintings and the museum environment: an analysis of statistical image properties  

Science.gov (United States)

Frames provide a visual link between artworks and their surround. We asked how image properties change as an observer zooms out from viewing a painting alone, to viewing the painting with its frame and, finally, the framed painting in its museum environment (museum scene). To address this question, we determined three higher-order image properties that are based on histograms of oriented luminance gradients. First, complexity was measured as the sum of the strengths of all gradients in the image. Second, we determined the self-similarity of histograms of the orientated gradients at different levels of spatial analysis. Third, we analyzed how much gradient strength varied across orientations (anisotropy). Results were obtained for three art museums that exhibited paintings from three major periods of Western art. In all three museums, the mean complexity of the frames was higher than that of the paintings or the museum scenes. Frames thus provide a barrier of complexity between the paintings and their exterior. By contrast, self-similarity and anisotropy values of images of framed paintings were intermediate between the images of the paintings and the museum scenes, i.e., the frames provided a transition between the paintings and their surround. We also observed differences between the three museums that may reflect modified frame usage in different art periods. For example, frames in the museum for 20th century art tended to be smaller and less complex than in the two other two museums that exhibit paintings from earlier art periods (13th–18th century and 19th century, respectively). Finally, we found that the three properties did not depend on the type of reproduction of the paintings (photographs in museums, scans from books or images from the Google Art Project). To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the relation between frames and paintings by measuring physically defined, higher-order image properties.

Redies, Christoph; Gross, Franziska

2013-01-01

406

Examination of lead concentrations in new decorative enamel paints in four countries with different histories of activity in lead paint regulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paints with high lead concentrations (ppm) continue to be sold around the world in many developing countries and those with economies in transition representing a major preventable environmental health hazard that is being increased as the economies expand and paint consumption is increasing. Prior lead paint testing had been performed in Brazil and India and these countries were selected to examine the impact of a new regulatory limit in Brazil and the impact of efforts of non-governmental organizations and others to stop the use of lead compounds in manufacturing paints. Armenia and Kazakhstan, in Central Asia, were selected because no information on lead concentration in those regions was available, no regulatory activities were evident and non-governmental organizations in the IPEN network were available to participate. Another objective of this research was to evaluate the lead loading (µg/cm(2)) limit determined by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) for areas on toys that are too small to obtain a sample of sufficient size for laboratory analysis. The lead concentrations in more than three-fourths of the paints from Armenia and Kazakhstan exceeded 90ppm, the limit in the United States, and 600ppm, the limit in Brazil. The percentages were about one-half as high in Brazil and India. The average concentration in paints purchased in Armenia, 25,000ppm, is among the highest that has been previously reported, that in Kazakhstan, 15,700ppm, and India, 16,600, about median. The average concentration in Brazil, 5600ppm, is among the lowest observed. Paints in Brazil that contained an average of 36,000ppm before the regulatory limit became effective were below detection (content as part of regulatory enforcement makes it difficult to determine whether the regulation was a major factor contributing to the decline in lead use in these paints. Using data from the current study and those available from other studies 24 of 28 paints from major brands in India decreased from high concentrations to 90ppm or lower. Since lead concentrations in golden yellow paints from these brands were found to decrease to ?90ppm, it is possible that all 28 of these paints now contain ?90ppm since yellow paints usually have the highest lead concentrations. Other brands in Brazil and India that have been analyzed only one time had lead concentrations up to 59,000ppm and 134,000ppm, respectively. Less than one-third of the paints had notations on their labels with information about lead content and these were sometimes inaccurate. The label from one brand indicating "no added lead" contained paint with 134,000ppm lead, the highest found in this study. Three percent (3 of 98) of the paints with surface lead loading that did not exceed 2µg/cm(2), the limit established by the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act for small areas on toys, contained greater than 90ppm lead and thus were false negatives. Of the new paint samples that contained ?600ppm, 88% contained ?90ppm. Of the samples that contained ?90ppm, 97% contained ?45ppm and 92% contained ?15ppm. Based on these data it appears to be technically feasible to manufacture paints containing ?90ppm and in many cases to produce paints that have lead concentrations that do not exceed 15ppm. PMID:24819125

Clark, C Scott; Kumar, Abhay; Mohapatra, Piyush; Rajankar, Prashant; Nycz, Zuleica; Hambartsumyan, Amalia; Astanina, Lydia; Roda, Sandy; Lind, Caroline; Menrath, William; Peng, Hongying

2014-07-01

407

APPLICATION OF PARALLEL ALGORITHM APPROACH FOR PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION OF OIL PAINT IMAGE FILTER ALGORITHM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper gives a detailed study on the performance of image filter algorithm with various parameters applied on an image of RGB model. There are various popular image filters, which consumes large amount of computing resources for processing. Oil paint image filter is one of the very interesting filters, which is very performance hungry. Current research tries to find improvement in oil paint image filter algorithm by using parallel pattern library. With increasing kernel-size, the processing time of oil paint image filter algorithm increases exponentially. I have also observed in various blogs and forums, the questions for faster oil paint have been asked repeatedly.

Siddhartha Mukherjee

2014-04-01

408

Investigation of leaching of an antifouling agent from marine paint formulations using radiotracer technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radiotracer technique was used to investigate the leaching of an antifouling agent from different marine paint formulations with an objective to select the best paint formulation for bulk production. The antifouling agent (Diuron) itself was labeled with carbon-14 (half-life: 5,730 years, ?-energy: 156 keV) and used as a radiotracer. The different paint formulations added with radiolabeled Diuron were applied onto suitably selected substrates and measured for initial intensity of ?-radiation using a Geiger-Muller detector connected to a ratemeter. The painted substrates were subjected to shower tests for a pre-decided time and subsequently measured for ?-radiations. The comparison of intensity of ?-radiations in substrates prior and post shower tests provides information about leaching of antifouling agent Diuron from the paint formulation. The high leaching percentage of antifouling agent Diuron post shower tests indicates non-suitability of paint formulation for marine and civil structures. However, low leaching rate of Diuron will make a paint formulation more efficient and suitable. Based on the results of investigation, a paint formulation with minimum leaching rate was identified and selected for bulk production by a paint company. (author)

2012-10-01

409

Laboratory evaluation of a prospective remediation method for PCB-contaminated paint  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Paint laden with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) often acts as a point source for environmental contamination. It is advantageous to address contaminated paint before the PCBs transport to surrounding media; however, current disposal methods of painted material introduce a variety of complications. Previous work demonstrates that PCBs can be broken down at ambient temperatures and pressures through a degradation process involving magnesium metal and acidified ethanol. This report is an extension of that work by describing the development of a delivery system for said reaction in preparation for a field test. Two treatment options including the Activated Metal Treatment System (AMTS) and the Non-Metal Treatment System (NMTS) remove and degrade PCBs from painted surfaces. Findings AMTS decreased the Aroclor® concentration of a solution by more than 97% within 120 minutes and the Aroclor® concentration of industrial paint chips by up to 98% over three weeks. After removing up to 76% of PCBs on a painted surface after seven days, NMTS also removed trace amounts of PCBs in the paint’s concrete substrate. The evaporation rate of the solvent (ethanol) from the treatment system was reduced when the application area was increased. The solvent system’s ability to remove more than 90% of PCBs was maintained after losing 36% of its mass to solvent evaporation. Conclusions The delivery systems, AMTS and NMTS, are able to support the hydrodechlorination reaction necessary for PCB degradation and are therefore attractive options for further studies regarding the remediation of contaminated painted surfaces.

2014-01-01

410

An ink-diffusion-based rendering method for Chinese ink painting  

Science.gov (United States)

In non-photorealistic rendering (NPR), the Chinese ink painting style rendering is a traditional NPR skill of China. In this paper, we propose a method for image-based and ink-diffusion-based Chinese ink painting NPR. Users without painting experience can also convert a normal image to a Chinese ink painting automatically. As we known, ink is an important pigment for Chinese ink painting and the various ink shade effects on the painting are produced by ink mixed with water. In addition, the ink diffusion along the boundaries is a very important aspect of Chinese ink painting. In order to realize the effects described above, we present a Chinese ink painting NPR method based on ink diffusion. We use Mean Shift based image segmentation algorithm to preprocess the input image to get regions with different tones. Then, we detect the segmentation regions' edges letting the edge points to be the start points for diffusion. We set each point an ink value which is corresponding to its gray value. At the same time, a new algorithm simulating ink diffusion is proposed to make the segmentation image look like a black-ink painting. Results in this paper demonstrate our method is promising.

Zhang, Yao; Miao, Zhenjiang; Liu, Yanghua; Zhou, Wei

2012-04-01

411

Efficacy and toxicity of self-polishing biocide-free antifouling paints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ban on harmful substances in antifouling paints requires the development of new antifouling strategies. Alternatives should be as effective as conventional paints but of lower toxicity. In the present study two commercially available, self-polishing antifouling paints were examined in order to get information on their antifouling properties and toxicological potential. Efficacy was shown in settlement assays with the marine barnacle species Balanus amphitrite, however, efficacy was related to toxic effects observed on target and non-target organisms. Toxicity of the paint extracts was concentration-dependent and differed according to the paint and the species investigated. Toxicity could at least partially be attributed to zinc leached from the paints. Effects of a water-soluble paint were more pronounced in larvae of B. amphitrite, Artemia salina and in the green algae Dunaliella tertiolecta. Embryos of the freshwater species Danio rerio and Vibrio fisheri were more affected by a paint based on organic solvents. - For alternative antifouling paints efficacy as well as adverse effects on non-target organisms and the aquatic environment should be carefully assessed

2005-11-01

412

Efficacy and toxicity of self-polishing biocide-free antifouling paints  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ban on harmful substances in antifouling paints requires the development of new antifouling strategies. Alternatives should be as effective as conventional paints but of lower toxicity. In the present study two commercially available, self-polishing antifouling paints were examined in order to get information on their antifouling properties and toxicological potential. Efficacy was shown in settlement assays with the marine barnacle species Balanus amphitrite, however, efficacy was related to toxic effects observed on target and non-target organisms. Toxicity of the paint extracts was concentration-dependent and differed according to the paint and the species investigated. Toxicity could at least partially be attributed to zinc leached from the paints. Effects of a water-soluble paint were more pronounced in larvae of B. amphitrite, Artemia salina and in the green algae Dunaliella tertiolecta. Embryos of the freshwater species Danio rerio and Vibrio fisheri were more affected by a paint based on organic solvents. - For alternative antifouling paints efficacy as well as adverse effects on non-target organisms and the aquatic environment should be carefully assessed.

Loeschau, Margit [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Technischen Umweltschutz, Sekretariat CR1, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: loeschau@ut.tu-berlin.de; Kraetke, Renate [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Technischen Umweltschutz, Sekretariat CR1, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: r.kraetke@bfr.bund.de

2005-11-15

413

Spraying angle and spray polydispersity in modeling of the aerodynamic characteristics of FGD towers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A model predicting aerodynamic characteristics of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber with polydispersed spray is developed on the basis of two-dimensional, nonstationary droplet motion. The model predicts pressure drop caused by the spray, the concentration of the dispersed phase, and its residence time in the system. A comparison of the results with those obtained from models assuming either monodispersed spray or solution carried out for polydispersed spray and vertical droplet motion is performed. The effects of spray polydispersity and two-dimensional droplet motion are discussed and explained.

Michalski, J.A. [Polish Academy of Science, Warsaw (Poland). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

2002-12-01

414

A new concept for anti-fouling paint for Yachts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

It is shown to be possible to develop yacht paint with a reduction of 70% of biocide, without pigments/fillers (cuprous oxide and zinc oxide) that may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment, and to obtain application and usage properties that match present commercial anti-fouling products for yachts. To be able to reduce the amount of biocide, in this case zinc pyrithione, it is necessary to have control over the amount of biocide present in the surface layer. The control is achieved by encapsulating the biocide in a silica gel. The silica gel is dispersed together with pigments and fillers in the paint. The gel contributes to the polishing properties, where the gel particles are worn down throughout the polishing process. When a gel particle is opened by wear the biocide will be effective on the coating surface. It is also shown that zinc pyrithione is more efficient when it is encapsulated in a gel compared to a situation where it is not. This conclusion is based on the fact that the gelswells when exposed to water, and therefore the leach of zinc pyrithione is initially delayed and the biocide may start to solubilise and degrade. The result is an anti-fouling product that is formulated without introducing new compounds and with reduced amount of zinc pyrithione (1/3). Finally, it is shown that it is possible to make antifouling paint for yachts without zinc or copper based pigments by using other traditional pigments and fillers, which have no known long-term adverse effect in the aquatic environment, in combination with the gel. The results are documented in raft tests. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Wallstroem, Eva; Jespersen, Henrik T.

2011-01-01

415

Experimental Analysis of Spray Dryer Used in Hydroxyapatite Thermal Spray Powder  

Science.gov (United States)

The spray drying process of hydroxyapatite (HA) powder used as a plasma spray powder on human hip implants was examined. The Niro-Minor mixed spray dryer was studied because it incorporates both co-current and counter-current air mixing systems. The process parameters of the spray drying were investigated: temperature, flow rate of the inlet hot air in the spray dryer, viscosity of feed/HA slurry, and responses (chamber and cyclone powder size, deposition of powder on the wall of spray dryer, and overall thermal efficiency). The statistical analysis (ANOVA test) showed that for the chamber particle size, viscosity was the most significant parameter, while for the cyclone particle size, the main effects were temperature, viscosity, and flow rate, but also their interaction effects were significant. The spray dried HA powder showed the two main shapes were a doughnut and solid sphere shape as a result of the different input.

Murtaza, Q.; Stokes, J.; Ardhaoui, M.

2012-09-01

416

Modification of optoelectronic properties of sprayed CZTS thin films through spray rate variation  

Science.gov (United States)

Effect of spray rate on structural, optical and electrical properties of spray pyrolysed Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films was investigated. We deposited films by varying spray rate from 2 ml/min to 10 ml/min in steps of 2 ml/min. For very low and high spray rates presence of secondary phases could be observed while for the films prepared at a spray rate of 6 ml/min were devoid of secondary phases. As spray rate increases band gap decreased. Samples prepared at 6 ml/min had optimum band gap of 1.5 eV. All the samples were observed to be p-type. Resistivity values increased steadily up to 6 ml/min and then slightly decreased. From the present work, CZTS films prepared at a spray rate of 6 ml/min is found to be ideal for absorber layer in solar cell.

Rajeshmon, V. G.; Kartha, C. Sudha; Vijayakumar, K. P.

2014-04-01

417

Spray Deflector For Water-Jet Machining  

Science.gov (United States)

Disk on water-jet-machining nozzle protects nozzle and parts behind it from erosion by deflected spray. Consists of stainless-steel backing with neoprene facing deflecting spray so it does not reach nut or other vital parts of water-jet apparatus.

Cawthon, Michael A.

1989-01-01

418

Arc spraying solderable tabs to glass  

Science.gov (United States)

Tabs suitable for electrical or mechanical connections in solar cells and integrated circuits are made by spraying technique. Solder wets copper, copper bonds to aluminum, and aluminum adheres to glass. Arc spraying is automated and integrated with encapsulation, eliminating hand tabbing, improving reliability, and reducing cost.

Lindmayer, J.

1981-01-01

419

Accepted practices of thermal spray technology  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the fourth and final article in a series of articles dealing with the metallographic preparation and evaluation of thermal spray coatings. Previous articles have covered variables and best practices for the sectioning, mounting, and coarse grinding of coated components. In this article, the relationship between fine grinding and polishing practices, consumables, and resultant plasma spray coating structure are discussed.

Sobota, Lori

2006-06-01

420

Maintenance applications of the thermal spray process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper offers a brief introduction to the thermal spray process, followed by a description of the administration and application of spray coatings to conventional and nuclear parts or components for repair or anticorrosion coatings. This includes a practical discussion of equipment requirements, application methods, operator qualification, coatings used, finishing techniques, and documentation for various components. 4 refs., 8 figs

1992-11-22

 
 
 
 
421

The Testing of Plasma Spray Coatings.  

Science.gov (United States)

This program was conducted for the purpose of providing reference data on plasma-sprayed coatings for use in the design and repair/salvage of naval ordnance hardware. Plasma-spray deposition parameters and surface finishing techniques were developed for m...

T. J. Roseberry E. J. Onesto K. F. Dufrane

1976-01-01

422

Spray attemperators. Potential problems and solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spray attemperation is one of the most efficient and commonly used methods for controlling superheater and reheater temperature in power boilers. In this paper, results of experiences gained about spray attemperators and their potential problems are discussed and two case studies have also been presented. At the end of the paper recommendations about inspections have been made. (orig.)

Boroumandi, B. [Neka Power Generation Management Co., Shahid Salimi Power Station (Iran)

2006-07-01

423

Spray drying of liquid radioactive wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full scale performance tests of a Koch spray dryer were conducted on simulated liquid radioactive waste streams. The liquid feeds simulated the solutions that result from radwaste incineration of DAW an ion exchange resins, as well as evaporator bottoms. The integration of the spray dryer into a complete system is discussed

1984-01-01

424

Spray dryer or wet limestone FGD  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the comparison of spray dryer and wet limestone FGD system costs and provides information regarding a decision of which to use. The differences between a retrofit and application are discussed with the conclusion being that the wet limestone system has advantages for some retrofit applications while the spray dryer has the advantage for many new plant applications

1990-04-23

425

[About an insecticidal paint for controlling Triatoma infestans, in Bolivia].  

Science.gov (United States)

Preliminary evaluations of an insecticidal paint based on diazinon, chlorpyrifos and pyriproxyfen in a micro-encapsulated formulation (Inesfly 5A IGR) have shown that it has effective and persistent activity against Triatoma infestans inside homes and in areas surrounding homes, in a highly infested region of the Bolivian Chaco. Furthermore, the evaluations have highlighted that the product presents good handling characteristics and gives a good appearance to houses and outhouses that have been treated, and that its acceptance among the population and the local sanitary authorities is excellent. This encourages new investigations and the use of the product on a larger scale and against other vector species for Chagas disease. PMID:18368277

Dias, João Carlos Pinto; Jemmio, A

2008-01-01

426

Pressure-sensitive paint measurements in a shock tube  

Science.gov (United States)

Surface pressures were measured in the short-duration, transient flow environment of a small-scale, low pressure-ratio shock tube using thin-film pressure-sensitive paint (PSP). Issues regarding coating formulation, measurement uncertainty, optical system design, and temperature and illumination compensation are discussed. The pressure measurements were acquired during steady flow conditions following the passage of normal shocks and expansion regions along a flat sidewall and a wedge sidewall. The PSP characteristic response time was 3 to 6 ms. Overall pressure uncertainty for the shock tube measurements ranged up to 5% over one atmosphere and compared well with theoretical estimates of uncertainty.

Hubner, J. P.; Carroll, B. F.; Schanze, K. S.; Ji, H. F.

427

Chromosome painting in the manatee supports Afrotheria and Paenungulata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Sirenia (manatees, dugongs and Stellar's sea cow have no evolutionary relationship with other marine mammals, despite similarities in adaptations and body shape. Recent phylogenomic results place Sirenia in Afrotheria and with elephants and rock hyraxes in Paenungulata. Sirenia and Hyracoidea are the two afrotherian orders as yet unstudied by comparative molecular cytogenetics. Here we report on the chromosome painting of the Florida manatee. Results The human autosomal and X chromosome paints delimited a total of 44 homologous segments in the manatee genome. The synteny of nine of the 22 human autosomal chromosomes (4, 5, 6, 9, 11, 14, 17, 18 and 20 and the X chromosome were found intact in the manatee. The syntenies of other human chromosomes were disrupted in the manatee genome into two to five segments. The hybridization pattern revealed that 20 (15 unique associations of human chromosome segments are found in the manatee genome: 1/15, 1/19, 2/3 (twice, 3/7 (twice, 3/13, 3/21, 5/21, 7/16, 8/22, 10/12 (twice, 11/20, 12/22 (three times, 14/15, 16/19 and 18/19. Conclusion There are five derived chromosome traits that strongly link elephants with manatees in Tethytheria and give implicit support to Paenungulata: the associations 2/3, 3/13, 8/22, 18/19 and the loss of the ancestral eutherian 4/8 association. It would be useful to test these conclusions with chromosome painting in hyraxes. The manatee chromosome painting data confirm that the associations 1/19 and 5/21 phylogenetically link afrotherian species and show that Afrotheria is a natural clade. The association 10/12/22 is also ubiquitous in Afrotheria (clade I, present in Laurasiatheria (clade IV, only partially present in Xenarthra (10/12, clade II and absent in Euarchontoglires (clade III. If Afrotheria is basal to eutherians, this association could be part of the ancestral eutherian karyotype. If afrotherians are not at the root of the eutherian tree, then the 10/12/22 association could be one of a suite of derived associations linking afrotherian taxa.

Zori Roberto T

2007-01-01

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Effect of paint on vapour resistivity in plaster  

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Full Text Available The vapour resistivity of plaster coatings such as paint and their effectiveness as water repellents were studied in several types of plaster. To this end, painted, unpainted and pigmented specimens were tested. Experimental values were collected on diffusion and vapour permeability, or its inverse, water vapour resistivity.The data obtained were very useful for evaluating moisture exchange between plaster and the surrounding air, both during initial drying and throughout the life of the material. They likewise served as a basis for ensuring the proper evacuation of water vapour in walls, and use of the capacity of the porous network in plaster products to regulate moisture content or serve as a water vapour barrier to avoid condensation.Briefly, the research showed that pigments, water-based paints and silicon-based water repellents scantly raised vapour resistance. Plastic paints, enamels and lacquers, however, respectively induced five-, ten- and twenty-fold increases in vapour resistivity, on average.Se estudia el fenómeno de la resistividad al vapor de los de yeso y el efecto impermeabilizante que producen los recubrimientos de pintura sobre diversos tipos de yeso y escayola. Para ello, se ensayan probetas desnudas y recubiertas con distintos tipos de pintura, así como coloreados en masa. Se obtienen valores experimentales de la difusividad o permeabilidad al vapor o su inverso la resistividad al vapor de agua.Los datos obtenidos son muy útiles para valorar el fenómeno del intercambio de humedad entre el yeso y el ambiente, tanto durante el proceso de su secado inicial, como en el transcurso de su vida. Así como para disponer soluciones adecuadas para la evacuación del vapor de agua a través de los cerramientos, para utilizar la capacidad de regulación de la humedad, que proporciona el entramado poroso de los productos de yeso, o para impedir el paso del vapor de agua y evitar condensaciones.Como resumen de la investigación, se puede decir que la coloración en masa y las pinturas al agua, así como los hidrofugantes de silicona aumentan muy poco la resistencia al vapor. Por el contrario las pinturas plásticas y en mayor medida los esmaltes y las lacas aumentan un promedio de 5, 10 y 20 veces respectivamente esta resistividad al vapor.

de Villanueva, L.

2008-12-01