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1

PAINT SPRAY BOOTH DESIGN USING RECIRCULATION/PARTITIONING VENTILATION  

Science.gov (United States)

Many spray painting facility operators have been attempting to reduce the discharge of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from paint spray booths to the atmosphere. Some have been able to convert to lower VOC containing paints and coatings such as powder coating, waterborne coatin...

2

High-solids paint overspray aerosols in a spray painting booth: particle size analysis and scrubber efficiency  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Particle size distributions of high-solids acrylic-enamel paint overspray aerosols were determined isokinetically in a typical downdraft spray painting booth in which a 7-stage cascade impactor was used. Three different industrial paint atomizers were used, and the paint aerosols were characterized before and after a paint both scrubber. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of a metallic basecoat and an acrylic clearcoat paint aerosol from air-atomized spray guns ranged from 4-12 ..mu..m and was dependent on atomization pressure. When the paint booth was operated under controlled conditions simulating those in a plant, the collection efficiency of paint overspray aerosols by a paint scrubber was found to be size dependent and decreased sharply for particles smaller than 2 ..mu..m to as low as 64% for clearcoat paint particles of 0.6 ..mu..m. Improvement in the overall particulate removal efficiency can be achieved by optimizing the spray painting operations so as to produce the least amount of fine overspray paint aerosols less than 2 ..mu..m. Maintaining a higher static pressure drop across the paint both scrubber also will improve scrubber performance.

Chan, T.L.; D' arcy, J.B.; Schreck, R.M.

1986-07-01

3

Facility for the automatic spray painting of structural elements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process has been developed for remote controlled spray painting of structures of various sizes and shapes with a coating of sensitive explosive. The damaging effects of a hostile nuclear burst are simulated when the explosive layer is detonated. The process has evolved from a cumbersome, motor driven carriage assembly, to a facility which employs robotics and automatic positioning hardware. This paper will describe the hardware components which have been introduced into the facility and also the software which is used to control the spray application. The proper use of this hardware/software combination allows the design in advance of operations which deposit uniform or contoured thickness coatings onto complex shapes. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Duggins, B.D.; Goolsby, T.D.; Benham, R.A.

1989-01-01

4

Paint Spray Mass Spectrometry for the Detection of Additives from Polymers on Conducting Surfaces  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Paint Spray is developed as a direct sampling ionisation method for mass spectrometric analysis of additives in polymer-based surface coatings. The technique simply involves applying an external high voltage (5 kV) to the wetted sample placed in front of the mass spectrometer inlet and represents a much simpler ionisation technique compared to those currently available.The capabilities of Paint Spray are demonstrated herein with the detection of four commercially available hindered amine light stabilisers; TINUVIN® 770, TINUVIN® 292, TINUVIN® 123 and TINUVIN® 152 directly from thermoset polyester-based coil coatings. Paint Spray requires no sample preparation or pre-treatment and combined with its simplicity – requiring no specialised equipment – makes it ideal for use by non-specialists. The application of Paint Spray for industrial use has significant potential as sample collection from a coil coating production line and Paint Spray ionisation could enable fast quality control screening at high sensitivity.

Martin R. L. Paine; Philip J. Barker; Stephen J. Blanksby

2012-01-01

5

Size distribution of chromate paint aerosol generated in a bench-scale spray booth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spray painters are potentially exposed to aerosols containing hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] via inhalation of chromate-based paint sprays. Evaluating the particle size distribution of a paint spray aerosol, and the variables that may affect this distribution, is necessary to determine the site and degree of respiratory deposition and the damage that may result from inhaled Cr(VI)-containing paint particles. This study examined the effect of spray gun atomization pressure, aerosol generation source and aerosol aging on the size distribution of chromate-based paint overspray aerosols generated in a bench-scale paint spray booth. The study also determined the effect of particle bounce inside a Marple personal cascade impactor on measured size distributions of paint spray aerosols. Marple personal cascade impactors with a modified inlet were used for sample collection. The data indicated that paint particle bounce did not occur inside the cascade impactors sufficiently to affect size distribution when using uncoated stainless steel or PVC substrate sampling media. A decrease in paint aerosol mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) from 8.2 to 7.0 mum was observed as gun atomization pressure increased from 6 to 10 psi. Overspray aerosols were sampled at two locations in the spray booth. A downstream sampling position simulated the exposure of a worker standing between the painted surface and exhaust, a situation encountered in booths with multiple workers. The measured mean MMAD was 7.2 mum. The distance between the painted surface and sampler was varied to sample oversprays of varying ages between 2.8 and 7.7 s. Age was not a significant factor for determining MMAD. Overspray was sampled at a 90 degrees position to simulate a worker standing in front of the surface being painted with air flowing to the worker's side, a common situation in field applications. The resulting overspray MMAD averaged 5.9 mum. Direct-spray aerosols were sampled at ages from 5.3 to 11.7 s. Overspray and direct-spray results indicated that most of the change in aerosol size distribution occurred between the time the paint aerosol impacted the painted surface and the time the overspray became 2.8 s old. The overall mean MMAD of overspray in the study was 6.4 mum and may have been underestimated due to sampling efficiency biases. If inhaled by a worker, the overspray aerosols evaluated in this study would mostly deposit in the head airways region of the respiratory tract. Paint overspray aerosols contained Cr primarily in the Cr(VI) state.

Sabty-Daily RA; Hinds WC; Froines JR

2005-01-01

6

Color deviation controlling of phosphor conformal coating by advanced spray painting technology for white LEDs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An advanced phosphor conformal coating technology is proposed, good correlated color temperature (CCT) and chromaticity uniformity samples are fabricated through phosphor spray painting technology. Spray painting technology is also suitable for phosphor conformal coating of whole LED wafers. The samples of different CCTs are obtained through controlling the phosphor film thickness in the range of 6-80 ?m; CCT variation of samples can be controlled in the range of ±200 K. The experimental ?uv reveals that the spray painting method can obtain a much smaller CCT variation (?uv of 1.36e(-3)) than the conventional dispensing method (?uv of 11.86e(-3)) when the light is emitted at angles from -90° to +90°, and chromaticity area uniformity is also improved significantly.

Yang L; Wang S; Lv Z; Liu S

2013-04-01

7

Isocyanate exposure control in motor vehicle paint spraying: evidence from biological monitoring.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: The purpose of this work was to assess the changes in control of exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate based paints used in vehicle spraying after a Health & Safety Executive (HSE) national project. METHODS: Paint sprayers and managers from motor vehicle repair (MVR) bodyshops across the UK, were invited to one of 32 Safety and Health Awareness Days (SHADs) to increase their understanding of the hazards, and practical ways of controlling of exposure to isocyanate based paints. Exposure measurement based on biological monitoring was offered, free of charge, to each of the roughly 4000 participants and used to assess the effectiveness of controls and methods of working. Results are compared with pre and post SHAD measurements. RESULTS: Urine samples were received from 995 paint sprayers. Hexamethylene diamine (HDA) levels in urine, indicative of exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), were significantly lower (Mann-Whitney, p<0.0001) than had been seen in a wider population from previous HSE inspections and routine sampling. Where a sprayer's urinary HDA was above the quantification limit they were asked to send another sample after reviewing and improving exposure control measures. The results from these repeat samples were significantly lower than the original results. There was no difference in the exposures of sprayers using air-fed half-mask face-pieces compared with visor type air-fed breathing apparatus, or between spray booths and rooms. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of HDA in urine is a useful technique for assessing exposure to isocyanates in paint sprayers. The simplicity of this approach has allowed wide-scale use of biological monitoring in an industry dominated by small and micro businesses. Biological monitoring of exposure has enabled individual companies, and sprayers, to check that their control measures are working. This study showed overall lower levels of HDA in paint sprayers following SHADs. These lower levels have been maintained across a wider population of UK paint sprayers over the succeeding years. Whilst there may be many reasons for the reduction in exposure, the weight of evidence suggests that the key messages about exposure control measures, delivered through the SHADs and other means, were influential.

Jones K; Cocker J; Piney M

2013-03-01

8

Survey on batch-to-batch variation in spray paints: a collaborative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study represents the most extensive analysis of batch-to-batch variations in spray paint samples to date. The survey was performed as a collaborative project of the ENFSI (European Network of Forensic Science Institutes) Paint and Glass Working Group (EPG) and involved 11 laboratories. Several studies have already shown that paint samples of similar color but from different manufacturers can usually be differentiated using an appropriate analytical sequence. The discrimination of paints from the same manufacturer and color (batch-to-batch variations) is of great interest and these data are seldom found in the literature. This survey concerns the analysis of batches from different color groups (white, papaya (special shade of orange), red and black) with a wide range of analytical techniques and leads to the following conclusions. Colored batch samples are more likely to be differentiated since their pigment composition is more complex (pigment mixtures, added pigments) and therefore subject to variations. These variations may occur during the paint production but may also occur when checking the paint shade in quality control processes. For these samples, techniques aimed at color/pigment(s) characterization (optical microscopy, microspectrophotometry (MSP), Raman spectroscopy) provide better discrimination than techniques aimed at the organic (binder) or inorganic composition (fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) or elemental analysis (SEM - scanning electron microscopy and XRF - X-ray fluorescence)). White samples contain mainly titanium dioxide as a pigment and the main differentiation is based on the binder composition (CH stretches) detected either by FTIR or Raman. The inorganic composition (elemental analysis) also provides some discrimination. Black samples contain mainly carbon black as a pigment and are problematic with most of the spectroscopic techniques. In this case, pyrolysis-GC/MS represents the best technique to detect differences. Globally, Py-GC/MS may show a high potential of discrimination on all samples but the results are highly dependent on the specific instrumental conditions used. Finally, the discrimination of samples when data was interpreted visually as compared to statistically using principal component analysis (PCA) yielded very similar results. PCA increases sensitivity and could perform better on specific samples, but one first has to ensure that all non-informative variation (baseline deviation) is eliminated by applying correct pre-treatments. Statistical treatments can be used on a large data set and, when combined with an expert's opinion, will provide more objective criteria for decision making.

Muehlethaler C; Massonnet G; Deviterne M; Bradley M; Herrero A; de Lezana ID; Lauper S; Dubois D; Geyer-Lippmann J; Ketterer S; Milet S; Bertrand M; Langer W; Plage B; Gorzawski G; Lamothe V; Marsh L; Turunen R

2013-06-01

9

Survey on batch-to-batch variation in spray paints: a collaborative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study represents the most extensive analysis of batch-to-batch variations in spray paint samples to date. The survey was performed as a collaborative project of the ENFSI (European Network of Forensic Science Institutes) Paint and Glass Working Group (EPG) and involved 11 laboratories. Several studies have already shown that paint samples of similar color but from different manufacturers can usually be differentiated using an appropriate analytical sequence. The discrimination of paints from the same manufacturer and color (batch-to-batch variations) is of great interest and these data are seldom found in the literature. This survey concerns the analysis of batches from different color groups (white, papaya (special shade of orange), red and black) with a wide range of analytical techniques and leads to the following conclusions. Colored batch samples are more likely to be differentiated since their pigment composition is more complex (pigment mixtures, added pigments) and therefore subject to variations. These variations may occur during the paint production but may also occur when checking the paint shade in quality control processes. For these samples, techniques aimed at color/pigment(s) characterization (optical microscopy, microspectrophotometry (MSP), Raman spectroscopy) provide better discrimination than techniques aimed at the organic (binder) or inorganic composition (fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) or elemental analysis (SEM - scanning electron microscopy and XRF - X-ray fluorescence)). White samples contain mainly titanium dioxide as a pigment and the main differentiation is based on the binder composition (CH stretches) detected either by FTIR or Raman. The inorganic composition (elemental analysis) also provides some discrimination. Black samples contain mainly carbon black as a pigment and are problematic with most of the spectroscopic techniques. In this case, pyrolysis-GC/MS represents the best technique to detect differences. Globally, Py-GC/MS may show a high potential of discrimination on all samples but the results are highly dependent on the specific instrumental conditions used. Finally, the discrimination of samples when data was interpreted visually as compared to statistically using principal component analysis (PCA) yielded very similar results. PCA increases sensitivity and could perform better on specific samples, but one first has to ensure that all non-informative variation (baseline deviation) is eliminated by applying correct pre-treatments. Statistical treatments can be used on a large data set and, when combined with an expert's opinion, will provide more objective criteria for decision making. PMID:23683912

Muehlethaler, Cyril; Massonnet, Geneviève; Deviterne, Marie; Bradley, Maureen; Herrero, Ana; de Lezana, Itxaso Diaz; Lauper, Sandrine; Dubois, Damien; Geyer-Lippmann, Jochen; Ketterer, Sonja; Milet, Stéphane; Bertrand, Magali; Langer, Wolfgang; Plage, Bernd; Gorzawski, Gabriele; Lamothe, Véronique; Marsh, Louissa; Turunen, Raija

2013-04-24

10

DEMONSTRATION OF SPLIT-FLOW VENTILATION AND RECIRCULATION AS FLOW-REDUCTION METHODS IN AN AIR FORCE PAINT SPRAY BOOTH - VOLUME II. APPENDICES D-J  

Science.gov (United States)

During a series of painting operations in a horizontal-flow paint spray booth at Travis AFB, CA, baseline concentrations of four classes of toxic airborne pollutants were measured at 24 locations across a plane immediately forward of the exhaust filters, in the exhaust duct, and ...

11

Therapeutic paint of cidofovir/sucralfate gel combination topically administered by spraying for treatment of orf virus infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the research was to study a new cidofovir/sucralfate drug product to be used as a spray for treating the mucosal and/or skin lesions. The product, i.e., a water suspension of sucralfate (15% w/w) and cidofovir (1% w/w), combines the potent antiviral activity of the acyclic nucleoside phosphonate cidofovir ((S)-1-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]cytosine) and the wound healing properties of sucralfate gel (sucrose octasulphate basic aluminum salt). The product was characterized in vitro with respect to compatibility between drug and carrier, spray particle size, spray deposition, drying kinetics, and drug content and release. An interaction between the two active substances was found. The interaction between sucralfate and cidofovir was counteracted by introducing sodium dihydrogen phosphate (16% w/w) in the preparation. The spray formulation containing cidofovir/sucralfate gel painted the skin and dried quickly to a scab, remaining firmly adhered to the lesions. The therapeutic paint was tested in vivo on lambs infected with orf virus by treating the animals with different cidofovir/sucralfate formulations (0.5% or 1% cidofovir + sucralfate 15% + NaH(2)PO(4) 16% w/w) and with sucralfate gel suspension alone as control. The treatment with formulations containing cidofovir and phosphate salt for four consecutive days resulted in a rapid resolution of the lesions, with scabs containing significantly lower amounts of viable virus when compared with untreated lesions and lesions treated with sucralfate suspension alone. PMID:19381838

Sonvico, Fabio; Colombo, Gaia; Gallina, Laura; Bortolotti, Fabrizio; Rossi, Alessandra; McInnes, Colin J; Massimo, Gina; Colombo, Paolo; Scagliarini, Alessandra

2009-04-21

12

Therapeutic paint of cidofovir/sucralfate gel combination topically administered by spraying for treatment of orf virus infections.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the research was to study a new cidofovir/sucralfate drug product to be used as a spray for treating the mucosal and/or skin lesions. The product, i.e., a water suspension of sucralfate (15% w/w) and cidofovir (1% w/w), combines the potent antiviral activity of the acyclic nucleoside phosphonate cidofovir ((S)-1-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]cytosine) and the wound healing properties of sucralfate gel (sucrose octasulphate basic aluminum salt). The product was characterized in vitro with respect to compatibility between drug and carrier, spray particle size, spray deposition, drying kinetics, and drug content and release. An interaction between the two active substances was found. The interaction between sucralfate and cidofovir was counteracted by introducing sodium dihydrogen phosphate (16% w/w) in the preparation. The spray formulation containing cidofovir/sucralfate gel painted the skin and dried quickly to a scab, remaining firmly adhered to the lesions. The therapeutic paint was tested in vivo on lambs infected with orf virus by treating the animals with different cidofovir/sucralfate formulations (0.5% or 1% cidofovir + sucralfate 15% + NaH(2)PO(4) 16% w/w) and with sucralfate gel suspension alone as control. The treatment with formulations containing cidofovir and phosphate salt for four consecutive days resulted in a rapid resolution of the lesions, with scabs containing significantly lower amounts of viable virus when compared with untreated lesions and lesions treated with sucralfate suspension alone.

Sonvico F; Colombo G; Gallina L; Bortolotti F; Rossi A; McInnes CJ; Massimo G; Colombo P; Scagliarini A

2009-06-01

13

An innovative sustainable process for VOCs recovery from spray paint booths  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Air emissions from surface coating operations result from the evaporation of the organic solvents in the coatings and consist primarily of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These VOC emissions can occur in a number of places along the production line: during atomization and application of the coating, during initial air drying of the part after it leaves the spray paint booth, and, eventually, in the bake oven. The aim of this paper is to present an innovative and sustainable process based on VOC absorption. An absorption tower is fed on the top by oil, which efficiently absorbs at low temperature the VOCs contained by the off-gas that enters the tower at its bottom. The mass ratio between oil and gas is approximately 1, so that a tray configuration results more efficiently than an alternative packed column. Saturated oil from the column is then stripped at high temperature in a vacuum system that condenses VOCs at a temperature slightly below the ambient temperature. Stripped oil is then recycled to the absorption tower. Special utilities are foreseen to reduce the water content in the gas and for energy recovery all over the plant. An industrial site located in Italy works at 14,000 Nm3/h off-gas absorbed with slightly more than 10 m3/h of oil. VOCs content in the off-gas ranges daily from 1200 to 2500 ppm; an average efficiency of approx. 90% recovery is presently obtained. A further reduction to an expected value of about 95-98% will be achieved in the next months

2005-01-01

14

DEMONSTRATION OF A PAINT SPRAY BOOTH EMISSION CONTROL STRATEGY USING RECIRCULATION/PARTITIONING & UV/OZONE POLLUTION EMISSION CONTROL - VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT  

Science.gov (United States)

The report describes in detail the source testing, construction, and data reduction/analysis activities that comprise the three phases of a technology demonstration program. Phase I consisted of a detailed baseline evaluation of several paint spray booths operated at the Barstow,...

15

DEMONSTRATION OF A PAINT SPRAY BOOTH EMISSION CONTROL STRATEGY USING RECIRCULATION/PARTITIONING AND UV/OZONE POLLUTANT EMISSION CONTROL. VOLUME 2. APPENDICES A-E  

Science.gov (United States)

The report describes in detail the source testing, construction, and data reduction/analysis activities that comprise the three phases of a technology demonstration program. Phase I consisted of a detailed baseline evaluation of several paint spray booths operated at the Barstow ...

16

DEMONSTRATION OF A PAINT SPRAY BOOTH EMISSION CONTROL STRATEGY USING RECIRCULATION/PARTITIONING AND UV/OZONE POLLUTANT EMISSION CONTROL. VOLUME 1  

Science.gov (United States)

The report describes in detail the source testing, construction, and data reduction/analysis activities that comprise the three phases of a technology demonstration program. Phase I consisted of a detailed baseline evaluation of several paint spray booths operated at the Barstow ...

17

DEMONSTRATION OF SPLIT-FLOW VENTILATION AND RECIR CULATION AS FLOW-REDUCTION METHODS IN AN AIR FORCE PAINT SPRAY BOOTH - VOLUME I. MAIN REPORT, APPENDICES A-C  

Science.gov (United States)

During a series of painting operations in a horizontal-flow paint spray booth at Travis AFB, CA, baseline concentrations of four classes of toxic airborne pollutants were measured at 24 locations across a plane immediately forward of the exhaust filters, in the exhaust duct, and ...

18

Process Waste Assessment - Paint Shop  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate hazardous wastes generated in the Paint Shop, Building 913, Room 130. Special attention is given to waste streams generated by the spray painting process because it requires a number of steps for preparing, priming, and painting an object. Also, the spray paint booth covers the largest area in R-130. The largest and most costly waste stream to dispose of is open-quote Paint Shop wasteclose quotes -- a combination of paint cans, rags, sticks, filters, and paper containers. These items are compacted in 55-gallon drums and disposed of as solid hazardous waste. Recommendations are made for minimizing waste in the Paint Shop. Paint Shop personnel are very aware of the need to minimize hazardous wastes and are continuously looking for opportunities to do so.

1993-01-01

19

Process Waste Assessment - Paint Shop  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate hazardous wastes generated in the Paint Shop, Building 913, Room 130. Special attention is given to waste streams generated by the spray painting process because it requires a number of steps for preparing, priming, and painting an object. Also, the spray paint booth covers the largest area in R-130. The largest and most costly waste stream to dispose of is {open_quote}Paint Shop waste{close_quotes} -- a combination of paint cans, rags, sticks, filters, and paper containers. These items are compacted in 55-gallon drums and disposed of as solid hazardous waste. Recommendations are made for minimizing waste in the Paint Shop. Paint Shop personnel are very aware of the need to minimize hazardous wastes and are continuously looking for opportunities to do so.

Phillips, N.M.

1993-06-01

20

Using a flame ionization detector (FID) to continuously measure toxic organic vapors in a paint spray booth. Rept. for Jul 91-Jan 92  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper reports the demonstration of linear and similar responses of a Ratfisch RS-55CA flame ionization detector (FID) to a solvent mixture identical to the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the coating and catalyst (NSN 8010-01-336-3036) and to the calibrating gas (propane) used in field calibrations of the FID. Sensitivity and linearity have been shown to extend from 715 to 45 mg/cu m, which brackets the calculated short-term exposure limit (STEL) and lower action thresholds. Monitoring is maintained constantly and, under field conditions, equilibration occurs rapidly (analysis and output transpire in milliseconds). As a trigger for fail-safe conversion from recirculation mode to a straight-through paint spray booth configuration, the FID may confidently be expected to initiate a corrective response before a transient elevation of VOC concentrations overexposes area personnel.

Whitfield, J.K.; Howe, G.B.; Pate, B.A.; Wander, J.D.

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Solar-absorber-selective paint research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research and development on thickness-sensitive and thickness-insensitive solar paints are discussed. The thickness-sensitive paints include reverse roll coated, gravure printed, and spray coated paints. The coating methods and optical properties of the thickness-sensitive paints are discussed. The thickness-insensitive solar paints include a low emittance flake such as aluminium-flake, and pigment. Durability tests are discussed, including accelerated weathering and humidity durability tests, for the thickness-sensitive coatings. (LEW)

Moore, S.W.

1982-01-01

22

Evaluation of recommended REACH exposure modeling tools and near-field, far-field model in assessing occupational exposure to toluene from spray paint.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Predictive modeling is an available tool to assess worker exposures to a variety of chemicals in different industries and product-use scenarios. The European Chemical Agency (ECHA)'s guidelines for manufacturers to fulfill the European Union's legal requirements pursuant to the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) initiative include recommendations for the use of modeling to predict worker exposures. ECHA recommends different models for different target populations (i.e. workers, consumers, environment) and routes of exposure (i.e. skin absorption, ingestion, inhalation), and presents them hierarchically, with Tier 1 models presented as the most simplistic, conservative models and Tier 2 models recommended for further intensive evaluation of substances or preparations. In order to assess these models for one exposure (product-use) scenario, a simulation of the scenario was completed in a controlled environment and the measured results were compared with the modeling outputs. The authors predicted, based on the design of the modeling tools, that all models would overestimate worker exposures under the simulated product-use scenario, with the lower-tiered model producing the most conservative estimate of exposure. In this study, a Tier 1 model and a Tier 2 model were evaluated for comparison with the near-field, far-field (NF-FF) deterministic model and measured experimental results in a real-time worker inhalation exposure assessment. Modeling was conducted prior to actual air monitoring. The exposure scenario that was evaluated involved the application of a toluene-containing spray paint to a work surface. Air samples were collected to evaluate short-term (15-min) and long-term (240-min) exposures. Eight-hour time-weighted averages (8-h TWAs) were calculated and compared with the modeling outputs from the recommended REACH modeling tools and the NF-FF model. A comparison of each of the modeling tools with measured experimental results was generated. The Tier 1 Targeted Risk Assessment tool overestimated the 8-h TWA airborne concentration of toluene in the spray scenario by a factor of 3.61. The higher tiered Advanced REACH Tool and NF-FF models showed greater concordance with experimental results, overestimating the TWA exposure by a factor of 2.92 and 1.96, respectively. In conclusion, the Tier 1 and 2 exposure modeling tools performed as expected for the simulated exposure scenario, providing relatively accurate, though conservative, estimates according to the level of detail and precision accounted for in each model.

Hofstetter E; Spencer JW; Hiteshew K; Coutu M; Nealley M

2013-03-01

23

Design and evaluation of a solid sampler for the monitoring of airborne 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and its prepolymers in two-component spray painting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An active, solvent-free solid sampler was developed for the collection of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) aerosol and prepolymers. The sampler was made of a filter impregnated with 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine contained in a filter holder. Interferences with HDI were observed when a set of cellulose acetate filters and a polystyrene filter holder were used; a glass fiber filter and polypropylene filter cassette gave better results. The applicability of the sampling and analytical procedure was validated with a test chamber, constructed for the dynamic generation of HDI aerosol and prepolymers in commercial two-component spray paints (Desmodur N75) used in car refinishing. The particle size distribution, temporal stability, and spatial uniformity of the simulated aerosol were established in order to test the sampler. The monitoring of aerosol concentrations was conducted with the solid sampler paired to the reference impinger technique (impinger flasks contained 10 mL of 0.5 mg/mL 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine in toluene) under a controlled atmosphere in the test chamber. Analyses of derivatized HDI and prepolymers were carried out by using high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet detection. The correlation between the solvent-free and the impinger techniques appeared fairly good (Y = 0.979X-0.161; R = 0.978), when the tests were conducted in the range of 0.1 to 10 times the threshold limit value (TLV) for HDI monomer and up to 60 micrograms/m3 (3 U.K. TLVs) for total -N=C=O groups.

Huynh, C.K.; Vu-Duc, T.; Savolainen, H. (Institut Universitaire de Medecine et d' Hygiene du Travail, Universite de Lausanne, (Switzerland))

1992-03-01

24

Exposure to mixtures of solvents among paint workers and biochemical alterations of liver function.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to determine biochemical alterations of liver function among paint manufacturers and sprayers associated with exposure to organic solvents. Two paint manufacturing factories and 22 various kinds of spray painting factories (16 car painting, two aircraft painting, thre...

Chen, J D; Wang, J D; Jang, J P; Chen, Y Y

25

COST EFFECTIVE VOC EMISSION CONTROL STARTEGIES FOR MILITARY, AEROSPACE,AND INDUSTRIAL PAINT SPRAY BOOTH OPERATIONS: COMBINING IMPROVED VENTILATION SYSTEMS WITH INNOVATIVE, LOW COST EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper describes a full-scale demonstration program in which several paint booths were modified for recirculation ventilation; the booth exhaust streams are vented to an innovative volatile organic compound (VOC) emission control system having extremely low operating costs. ...

26

Evaluating paint-sludge chars for adsorption of selected paint solvents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At Ford, a study had been carried out to investigate the technical feasibility of converting paint sludge to activated char and reusing the char in paint spray-booth water to capture paint solvents from spray-booth air. As part of the study, several chars were made from a paint sludge and six dried paints to evaluate their effectiveness as adsorbents by conducting a series of liquid-phase adsorption experiments. Three commonly-used paint solvents and p-nitrophenol were selected as adsorbates. The three paint solvents were toluene, 2-methyl-1-propanol (iso-butanol), and 2-butoxyethanol (butylcellosolve). In this paper, the results of the pyrolysis and adsorption experiments are presented along with practical implications. The primary findings include the following: (1) Black-paint chars showed substantially larger surface area and higher adsorption capacity (based on total weight) than white-paint chars which had high ash contents due to the white pigment, titanium dioxide; (2) the adsorption capacity of the paint-sludge char was between those of black-paint and white-paint chars, and was 5--20% that of a commercial activated carbon; (3) titanium dioxide in white-paint chars did not improve the chars` affinity for hydrophilic compounds such as 2-methyl-1-propanol and 2-butoxyethanol; (4) coal could be added to paint sludge to improve the quality of the resulting char and to reduce ash content; and (5) the pyrolysis of paint sludge could present an attractive opportunity for reusing and recycling a waste product for pollution abatement and as a vehicle component.

Kim, B.R.; Kalis, E.M.; Salmeen, I.T. [Ford Research Lab., Dearborn, MI (United States); Kruse, C.W.; Demir, I.; Rostam-Abadi, M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Carlson, S.L. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

1996-06-01

27

Subconjunctival latex paint from occupational injury.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Accidental eye trauma with spray guns are rare, but potentially very serious, injuries. Although it is agreed that these injuries require immediate and vigorous therapy, the specifics of such therapy are poorly defined. With latex paint sprayer injuries to hands and extremities, resulting chemical-induced inflammation, high-pressure necrosis, ischemic necrosis, and gangrene require surgical debridement and possibly, amputation. With eye injuries, treatment is directed at preservation of vision, as there is a potential risk of visual loss. OBJECTIVE: There is currently no consensus on optimal treatment of ocular spray paint injuries. Here we propose a management approach to ocular spray paint injuries with a successful outcome in the case reported. CASE REPORT: We report the first case, to our knowledge, of an industrial airless spray gun injury that resulted in subconjunctival deposition of latex paint in a soft contact lens wearer. Vision was preserved with medical management consisting of irrigation and topical corticosteroids, antibiotics and cycloplegics. CONCLUSION: Although latex paint spray gun injuries to the eye are not encountered frequently in practice, this case shows that conservative medical management with no surgical intervention is effective for ocular injuries with preserved vision.

Odhav A; Kollipara R; Teymoorian S; Lord RK; Lyon DB

2013-05-01

28

Paint and Pregnancy  

Science.gov (United States)

... or visit us online at: www.OTISpregnancy.org . Paint and Pregnancy This sheet talks about paint exposure ... advice from your health care provider. What is paint? Paint is made up of pigment particles (color) ...

29

Ultraviolet-radiation-curable paints  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In product finishing lines, ultraviolet radiation curing of paints on prefabricated structures could be more energy efficient than curing by natural gas fired ovens, and could eliminate solvent emission. Diffuse ultraviolet light can cure paints on three dimensional metal parts. In the uv curing process, the spectral output of radiation sources must complement the absorption spectra of pigments and photoactive agents. Photosensitive compounds, such as thioxanthones, can photoinitiate unsaturated resins, such as acrylated polyurethanes, by a free radical mechanism. Newly developed cationic photoinitiators, such as sulfonium or iodonium salts (the so-called onium salts) of complex metal halide anions, can be used in polymerization of epoxy paints by ultraviolet light radiation. One-coat enamels, topcoats, and primers have been developed which can be photoinitiated to produce hard, adherent films. This process has been tested in a laboratory scale unit by spray coating these materials on three-dimensional objects and passing them through a tunnel containing uv lamps.

Grosset, A.M.; Su, W.F.A.; Vanderglas, E.

1981-09-30

30

Playtime Paint  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity on page 9 of the PDF, learners make their own paint using chalk as a pigment and glue and water as binders. This activity introduces learners to special mixtures called suspensions. Safety notes: follow Milli's safety tips (on page 2) and do this activity with an adult.

Society, American C.

2006-01-01

31

Thermal Spray Coatings for Coastal Infrastructure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several protection strategies for coastal infrastructure using thermal-spray technology are presented from research at the Albany Research Center. Thermal-sprayed zinc coatings for anodes in impressed current cathodic protection systems are used to extend the service lives of reinforced concrete bridges along the Oregon coast. Thermal-sprayed Ti is examined as an alternative to the consumable zinc anode. Sealed thermal-sprayed Al is examined as an alternative coating to zinc dust filled polyurethane paint for steel structures.

Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, BernardS. Jr.; Cramer, S.D.; Bullard, S.J.

1997-11-01

32

Light Painting  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners create art by "light painting," also known as light drawing or light graffiti. Learners use a photographic technique that manipulates the shutter speed on your camera to allow more light to be captured in your photograph. The exposures are usually made at night or in a darkened room by moving a hand-held light source or by moving the camera. Activity has a list of artists and websites to explore for inspiration.

Houston, Children'S M.

2010-01-01

33

Effect of ULV malathion on automotive paint finishes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relationship between malathion droplet size (VMD) and degree of damage to 1990, 1K and 2K General Motors paint standards was investigated in the laboratory and field. Laboratory tests indicated a positive correlation between malathion droplet VMD and damage spot size. Laboratory settling chamber tests revealed that size-thresholds of droplets too small to cause visible damage averaged 8 and 11 mu on washed 1K and 2K paints, respectively. Field tests indicated malathion caused no visible damage to 1K or 2K paint panels under routine operating conditions, although droplet sizes (VMD) sampled on the automobile surface averaged 10.2 +/- 4.5 and 11.7 +/- 5.7 mu. Microscopic damage was found on paint panels placed on the hood, roof, trunk and doors of the automobile when parked parallel or perpendicular to the course of the spray truck and when driven through the spray of a stationary spray truck.

Tietze NS; Ruff JP; Hallmon CF; Hester PG; Shaffer KR

1992-09-01

34

MEASUREMENTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND PARTICLES DURING APPLICATION OF LATEX PAINT WITH AN AIRLESS SPRAYER  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper discusses experiments, conducted at EPA's Indoor Air Quality Research House, to measure airborne concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particles during and following the spray-application of latex wall paint. (NOTE: Paint may be applied indoors by a v...

35

Solar-selective paints  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar-selective paint provides a high absorption over the solar spectrum and reduction of thermal radiative heat losses to solar collector surfaces. As paints which are available for various present solar collectors, two types of solar-selective paints have been developed. One is applied to a metal surface having high infrared reflection, and the other is applied to a plastic surface having low infrared reflection. These paints can make use of ordinary painting methods and having low infrared reflection. By choosing the optimum paint type in accordance with the uses and the specifications of solar collectors, it has become possible to compose solar-heat systems with high cost-performance efficiency. 7 references, 10 figures, 8 tables.

Maki, M.; Fukuda, H.; Kaneko, Y.

1983-02-01

36

Automatic Wall Painting Robot  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Primary Aim Of The Project Is To Design, Develop And Implement Automatic Wall Painting Robot Which Helps To Achieve Low Cost Painting Equipment. Despite The Advances In Robotics And Its Wide Spreading Applications, Interior Wall Painting Has Shared Little In Research Activities. The Painting Chemicals Can Cause Hazards To The Human Painters Such As Eye And Respiratory System Problems. Also The Nature Of Painting Procedure That Requires Repeated Work And Hand Rising Makes It Boring, Time And Effort Consuming. When Construction Workers And Robots Are Properly Integrated In Building Tasks, The Whole Construction Process Can Be Better Managed And Savings In Human Labour And Timing Are Obtained As A Consequence. In Addition, It Would Offer The Opportunity To Reduce Or Eliminate Human Exposure To Difficult And Hazardous Environments, Which Would Solve Most Of The Problems Connected With Safety When Many Activities Occur At The Same Time. These Factors Motivate The Development Of An Automated Robotic Painting System.

P.KEERTHANAA, K.JEEVITHA, V.NAVINA, G.INDIRA, S.JAYAMANI

2013-01-01

37

Characterization and Optimization of Polymer-Ceramic Pressure-Sensitive Paint by Controlling Polymer Content  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) with fast response characteristics that can be sprayed on a test article is studied. This PSP consists of a polymer for spraying and a porous particle for providing the fast response. We controlled the polymer content (%) from 10 to 90% to study its effects on PSP ch...

Hirotaka Sakaue; Takuma Kakisako; Hitoshi Ishikawa

38

Pollock without Paint?  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes how the author exposes her students to the world of Jackson Pollock, the artist who brings to mind dripping, meandering, splashing puddles of paint. Pollock's action paintings of the late 1940s-'50s call out for unfettered movement, fluidity, and freedom of application. Is it even possible to capture the action, rhythm and…

Sutley, Jane

2011-01-01

39

Paint-Stirrer Submarine  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the authors discuss a unique and challenging laboratory exercise called, the paint-stir-stick submarine, that keeps the students enthralled. The paint-stir-stick submarine fits beautifully with the National Science Education Standards Physical Science Content Standard B, and with the California state science standards for physical…

Young, Jocelyn; Hardy, Kevin

2007-01-01

40

Archi-Paintings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes an art unit called "Archi-Painting" where high school students in a beginning art class learned about landscapes and some of the world's most important buildings. Explains that the students placed a well-known building into a new environment in their paintings. (CMK)

Guhin, Paula

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Multiscale effect of paint pulverization orientation on appearance after painting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The perceived quality of a vehicle is strongly affected by paint appearance that shares major part of the outer car body panels. The painting process modifies the surface topography in a wide range of roughness and waviness scales, and consequently modifies the functionality of the surface in terms of appearance. Since painting process is a multistage process leading to stratified surfaces, a multiscale surface topography characterization approach is suited. In this paper, 2D multiscale signature of the painting process was introduced and applied to track the effect of the painting process working variable on painted surface topography in a wide range of wavelength. To this aim, experimental painting tests were performed using three painting orientation modes (horizontal, oblique and vertical) on random and deterministic metal sheet surface textures. Results show that the painting orientation mode affect only the wavelength band greater than 500 ?m and optimal painting orientation depends strongly on the texture of the initial sheet surface.

2011-08-19

42

Occupational exposure to organic solvents during bridge painting.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from bridge painting was measured in New York City and New Jersey during the summer and fall seasons from 2005 to 2007. The effect of painting activities (paint coating layer, confinement setup, and application method) and meteorological conditions (temperature, humidity, and wind speed) on solvent exposure to aromatic, ketone, ester, and alkane compounds were individually evaluated. Mixed-effect models were used to examine the combination effects of these factors on the air concentration of total VOCs as the individual compound groups were not present in all samples. Air concentration associated with spraying was not affected by meteorological conditions since spraying was done in a confined space, thus reducing their impact on solvent air concentration. The mixed models for brushing and rolling samples included two fixed factors, i.e. application method and temperature, and one random factor, i.e. sampling day. An independent dataset (daily air samples) was used to validate the mixed model constructed for brushing and rolling samples. The regression line of the predicted values and actual measurements had a slope of 1.32 +/- 0.15 for daily brushing and rolling samples, with almost all points being within the 95% confidence bands. The constructed model provides practical approaches for estimating the solvent exposure from brushing and rolling activities among construction painters. An adjusted mean air concentration derived from the activity-specific spray samples was the best estimate for that painting application.

Qian H; Fiedler N; Moore DF; Weisel CP

2010-06-01

43

Occupational exposure to organic solvents during bridge painting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from bridge painting was measured in New York City and New Jersey during the summer and fall seasons from 2005 to 2007. The effect of painting activities (paint coating layer, confinement setup, and application method) and meteorological conditions (temperature, humidity, and wind speed) on solvent exposure to aromatic, ketone, ester, and alkane compounds were individually evaluated. Mixed-effect models were used to examine the combination effects of these factors on the air concentration of total VOCs as the individual compound groups were not present in all samples. Air concentration associated with spraying was not affected by meteorological conditions since spraying was done in a confined space, thus reducing their impact on solvent air concentration. The mixed models for brushing and rolling samples included two fixed factors, i.e. application method and temperature, and one random factor, i.e. sampling day. An independent dataset (daily air samples) was used to validate the mixed model constructed for brushing and rolling samples. The regression line of the predicted values and actual measurements had a slope of 1.32 +/- 0.15 for daily brushing and rolling samples, with almost all points being within the 95% confidence bands. The constructed model provides practical approaches for estimating the solvent exposure from brushing and rolling activities among construction painters. An adjusted mean air concentration derived from the activity-specific spray samples was the best estimate for that painting application. PMID:20354053

Qian, Hua; Fiedler, Nancy; Moore, Dirk F; Weisel, Clifford P

2010-03-30

44

Revisiting Pollock's Drip Paintings  

CERN Multimedia

We investigate the contentions that Jackson Pollock's drip paintings are fractals produced by the artist's Levy distributed motion and that fractal analysis may be used to authenticate works of uncertain provenance[1-5]. We find that the paintings exhibit fractal characteristics over too small a range to be usefully considered as fractal; their limited fractal characteristics are easily generated without Levy motion, both by freehand drawing and gaussian random motion. Several problems must therefore be addressed before fractal analysis can be used to authenticate paintings.

Jones-Smith, Katherine

2009-01-01

45

Transport of a solvent mixture across two glove materials when applied in a paint matrix.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The transport of mixed paint solvents through natural rubber latex (4 mil) and nitrile rubber (5 mil) gloves was evaluated after spray application of the paint formulation directly on the glove surface. Glove materials and thicknesses were those selected by the majority of spray painters in the local automobile repair industry. A flat panel containing glove specimens mounted in multiple permeation cells permitted evaporation of solvents from the applied paint and incorporated a solid sorbent receiving medium for measuring glove membrane transport. The panel was sprayed in a paint booth to simulate use conditions. Charcoal cloth under the glove adsorbed transported solvents, which were quantified by gas chromatography. For each solvent component, results were expressed as mass transported through the glove relative to the mass applied, per unit area, during 30 min after spray application. The paint formulation contained ketones, acetates, and aromatics. Natural rubber latex allowed 6-10 times the transport of solvents relative to nitrile rubber for all eight solvent components: methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, styrene, ethyl benzene, xylene isomers, and 2-heptanone. m-Xylene showed the largest difference in transport between the two glove materials. This solvent also had the highest transport for each material. The results indicate that nitrile rubber gloves offer somewhat greater chemical resistance to all eight solvents studied compared with natural rubber latex gloves, regardless of the chemical properties of the individual solvent components. However, it must be emphasized that neither of the glove materials, in the thicknesses used in this study, provide adequate protection when exposed by direct spray painting. Simulation of realistic spray conditions may offer a source of useful information on the performance of chemical protective gloves because it accounts for solvent evaporation and the effect of paint polymerization after application on glove transport.

Tran JQ; Ceballos DM; Dills RL; Yost MG; Morgan MS

2012-07-01

46

Laser paint stripping  

Science.gov (United States)

A study to assess the utility of high powered CO2 pulsed laser depainting methods was conducted on aluminum and graphite epoxy composites. The various tests were designed to detect potential forms of damage or loss of properties of various aircraft structural materials during removal of paint with pulsed laser energy. Tests for changes in physical properties, paint adhesion and corrosion protection of repainted materials showed no detectable adverse changes in any of the samples studied.

Head, J. D.; Niedzielski, J. Peter

1991-06-01

47

Chemical distribution in high-solids paint overspray aerosols.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The chemical composition of high-solids basecoat paint overspray aerosols was determined as a function of particle size. Detailed information on the chemical composition of the overspray aerosols is important in health hazard evaluation since the composition and distribution within the airborne particles may differ significantly from the bulk paint material. This study was conducted in a typical down-draft paint booth equipped with air-atomized spray painting equipment. A fixed paint target was used to simulate typical overspray generation conditions and the aerosols were collected isokinetically with a seven-stage cascade impactor for size-fractionated analysis. The overspray aerosol from six paints consisted of organic paint binders with varying amounts of inorganic species as pigments or luster enhancers. These overspray aerosols had mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) ranging from 2.9 to 9.7 microns. The size-fractionated paint samples collected on the impaction stages were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry on a scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDXRS) to identify the metallic elements. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the mass distribution of aluminum and iron as indicators of nonuniform distribution. Three of the aerosols containing aluminum were found to have bimodal distributions with most aluminum distributions having cumulative MMADs larger than the total aerosol. Iron in the aerosols was bimodal for three of the paints with all samples having an overall iron MMAD less than or equal to the overspray aerosol MMAD. Analysis using ultraviolet spectrometry revealed that the organic compounds present in the size-fractionated particulate samples consisted of a single, polydispersed mode with an MMAD similar to that of the total overspray aerosol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

D'Arcy JB; Chan TL

1990-03-01

48

Proposition of road marks to apply thermoplastic materials on expressways and its practical application; Yoyushiki traffic paint wo kosoku dorojo de mochiiru teian to sono jitsuyoka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heating paint marks are generally used as traffic paint on expressways. Thermoplastic paint preliminarily heated and molten in a hopper is proposed in this paper. Glass beads can be mixed in the thermoplastic paint. Since the mixed glass beads appear on the surface of road marks after the falling of sprayed glass beads, its visibility at night can be maintained for longer term compared with the heating paint marks. Traffic control during painting works is shortened due to its shorter time for drying. However, thickness of thermoplastic paint is thick and irregularity of road surface is covered, which results in the slippery surface. It is required for thermoplastic paint to make thin painting. To paint thinly, a method was adopted, in which thermoplastic materials were atomized by the rotor and projected on the road surface. Atomization was affected by the number of revolution of rotor. Thickness of 0.7 mm was achieved, which was conventionally 2.0 mm. The durability of thin thermoplastic marks increased by around ten times of paint marks with a thickness of 0.2 mm. It was considered that the durability is affected by the thickness of paint. There was no significant difference between the dynamic skid resistance coefficients on wet surface of thin thermoplastic and paint marks. The total cost of thin thermoplastic marks was less than that of paint marks due to its thin painting. 17 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

Fujiya, A. [Hitachi Chemical Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Imada, H.

1996-06-20

49

International forensic automotive paint database  

Science.gov (United States)

The Technical Working Group for Materials Analysis (TWGMAT) is supporting an international forensic automotive paint database. The Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) are collaborating on this effort through TWGMAT. This paper outlines the support and further development of the RCMP's Automotive Paint Database, `Paint Data Query'. This cooperative agreement augments and supports a current, validated, searchable, automotive paint database that is used to identify make(s), model(s), and year(s) of questioned paint samples in hit-and-run fatalities and other associated investigations involving automotive paint.

Bishea, Gregory A.; Buckle, Joe L.; Ryland, Scott G.

1999-02-01

50

Monet's painting under the microscope.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An oil painting by Claude Monet, Port-Goulphar, Belle-Ile 1887 (collection of the Art Gallery of New South Wales), was examined to determine both the identity of the pigments used by the artist in this painting and his technique of mixing colors and laying paint on the canvas. The extremely complex construction of the painting was revealed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS), and X-ray mapping (XRM) analysis of cross sections of paint flakes excised from damaged regions of Port-Goulphar, Belle-Ile. Nine different pigments were found on the painting. Many of the identified colors were modern pigments that became available only late in the 19th century as a result of scientific advances in pigment chemistry. Although similar colors were available in a natural mineral form, they lacked the vivid color of their manufactured counterparts. The use of these new synthetic metallic oxide colors by Monet accounts for the brilliance of his paintings. In addition, a separation between successive paint layers was observed in some areas of paint chip cross sections, indicating that oil-based paint was applied to paint that had dried, and consequently, Port-Goulphar, Belle-Ile was painted over a long period of time. This observation is contrary to the general perception of Monet's technique of painting freely and quickly.

Dredge P; Wuhrer R; Phillips MR

2003-04-01

51

Paint decontamination kinetics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Decontamination kinetics of a high-gloss polyurethane paint have been investigated using a novel flow cell experiment where the sample was counted in situ during decontamination. The /sup 134/Cs, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 90/Y decontaminations follow a rate law that can be predicted theoretically for contaminant ion desorption from weakly heterogeneous random surface adsorption sites. Paint surfaces show the same decontamination kinetics after damage by abrasion or ultraviolet irradiation prior to contamination. The systems investigated exhibit Freundlich adsorption isotherm behavior during contamination; this is also characteristic of weakly heterogeneous random surfaces and is very commonly observed in ion adsorption studies at low concentrations.

Thornton, E.W.

1984-04-01

52

New paint technology from Opel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Opel's new paint shop went into operation in the Spring of 1981, just two years after the start of construction. With total expenditures of DM 500 million a paint shop was erected, which includes all important advanced technologies with regard to paint material and application.

Sotta, F.

1983-10-01

53

Occupational exposure to organic solvents during paint stripping and painting operations in the aeronautical industry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The exposure of workers to methylene chloride and phenol in an aeronautical workshop was measured during stripping of paint from a Boeing B 747. Methylene chloride exposure was measured during two work days by personal air sampling, while area sampling was used for phenol. During paint stripping operations, methylene chloride air concentrations ranged from 299.2 mg/m3 (83.1 ppm) to 1888.9 mg/m3 (524.7 ppm). The exposures to methylene chloride calculated for an 8-h work day ranged from 86 mg/m3 (23.9 ppm) to 1239.5 mg/m3 (344.3 ppm). In another aeronautical workshop, exposure to organic solvents, especially ethylene glycol monoethylether acetate (EGEEA), was controlled during the painting of an Airbus A 320. The external exposure to solvents and EGEEA was measured by means of individual air sampling. The estimation of internal exposure to EGEEA was made by measuring its urinary metabolite, ethoxyacetic acid (EAA). Both measurements were made during the course of 3 days. The biological samples were taken pre- and post-shift. During painting operations, methyl ethyl ketone, ethyl acetate, n-butyl alcohol, methyl isobutyl ketone, toluene, n-butyl acetate, ethylbenzene, xylenes and EGEEA were detected in working atmospheres. For these solvents, air concentrations ranged from 0.1 ppm to 69.1 ppm. EGEEA concentrations ranged from 29.2 mg/m3 (5.4 ppm) to 150.1 mg/m3 (27.8 ppm). For biological samples, the average concentrations of EAA were 108.4 mg/g creatinine in pre-shift and 139.4 mg/g creatinine in post-shift samples. Despite the fact that workers wore protective respiratory equipment during paint spraying operations, EEA urinary concentrations are high and suggest that percutaneous uptake is the main route of exposure for EGEEA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Vincent R; Poirot P; Subra I; Rieger B; Cicolella A

1994-01-01

54

Judgement of abstract paintings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In two experiments the judgement of twenty one abstract paintings was investigated. In Experiment 1, subjects were asked to make similarity judgements of 210 pairs of paintings on a 7 step bipolar scale (similar-dissimilar). The Multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) method was used for data analysis. The distribution of paintings within MDS 2-D space suggested two grouping criteria: colorfullness (e.g. from Klee to Kline) and geometrization (e.g. from Vasarely to Kandinsky). In Experiment 2, subjects were asked to judge the same paintings on three factors of the instrument SDF 9 (Markovi? et al., 2002b): Evaluation, Arousal and Regularity. The purpose of this experiment was to specify the subjective criteria on which the (dis)similarity judgements were based. In the regression analysis the three factors of SDF 9 were defined as predictors, whereas the x and y coordinates of MDS 2-D space were defined as dependent variables. The results have shown that the dimension x was reducible to the Evaluation factor, and dimension y is reducible to the Regularity factor.

Dakulovi? Sandra; Markovi? Slobodan

2006-01-01

55

Painted supported lipid membranes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report herein measurements on a novel type of supported lipid films, which we call painted supported membranes (PSM). These membranes are formed in a self-assembly process on alkylated gold films from an organic solution. The formation process was investigated with surface plasmon resonance micro...

Florin, E.-L.; Gaub, H. E.

56

Wet/dry film thickness measurement of paint by absorption spectroscopy with acousto-optic tunable filter spectrometer  

Science.gov (United States)

Controlling/monitoring the thickness of applied paint in real time is important to many situations including painting ship and submarine hulls in dry docks for maintaining health of ships and submarines against the harshness of the sea, in automobile and aerospace industries, and in a variety of other industries as a control sensor that plays significant role in product quality, process control, and cost control. Insufficient thickness results to inadequate protection while overspray leads to waste and pollution of the environment. A rugged instrumentation for the real time non-contact accurate measurement of wet and dry paint film thickness measurement will be immensely valuable. As paint is applied with several layers of the same or different type, thickness of each newly sprayed wet layer is of most interest, but measurement on dry paint is also useful. In this study, we use acousto-optic tunable filter-based near infrared spectrometer to obtain the absorption spectrum of layers of paint sprayed on sand blasted steel surface and thus measure the thickness of coating under both wet and dry situations. NIR spectra are obtained from 1100 to 2300 nm on four sample of different thickness of paint up to 127 micron. Partial least squares model built with the spectra shows good correlation with standard error of prediction within ~ 0.7 micron. Results indicate that the spectra also respond to the amount of organic solvent in the wet paint and can be used to monitor the degree of dryness of the paint in real time.

Sinha, Pranay G.; Xiong, Xiangchun; Jin, Feng; Trivedi, Sudhir; Prasad, Narashima S.

2005-08-01

57

Spraying robots  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pesticide treatment index is increasing in Denmark despite the expected and desired goal of decreasing the number of treatments to 1.7 by the end of 2009. Optimisation of herbicide choice, dosage, mechanical methods and spraying technique have not counteracted the general increase in treatment index. Therefore, there is a need for new thinking and a technological leap if the goal have to be obtain. The paper presents three categories of spraying robots with different levels of resolution and precision.

Christensen, Svend; Lund, Ivar

2008-01-01

58

Old paint learns new tricks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Seattle, Washington project is described in which latex paint is recycled into a quality product called Community Pride. Unused paints (about equal solvent-base and latex composition) were found to be the largest single component of hazardous household waste. While solvent-based paints must be considered hazardous, tests showed that only a small fraction of latex paint was contaminated with heavy metals and could not be recycled. Recyclable latex is sorted and converted into a paint that consistently meets industry specifications. It was found during the pilot project that public agencies should be the initial market with later expansion to painting contractors and the general public after the paint recycling industry is established.

Musick, M.

1991-05-01

59

Mobile zone, spray booth ventilation system. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This concept endeavors to reduce the volume of air (to be treated) from spray paint booths, thereby increasing efficiency and improving air pollution abatement (VOC emissions especially). Most of the ventilation air is recycled through the booth to maintain laminar flow; the machinery is located on the supply side of the booth rather than on the exhaust side. 60 to 95% reduction in spray booth exhaust rate should result. Although engineering and production prototypes have been made, demand is low.

1994-04-26

60

Antifouling paint biocides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume describes the state-of-the-art advances regarding antifouling paint biocides and provides thorough evaluation of research and information on major topics such as occurrence and levels, environmental fate, analytical techniques and methods for the monitoring and control, environmental modeling, ecotoxicological effects and risk assessment placing emphasis on the knowledge acquired over the last 10 years. The contamination of the aquatic environment by antifouling compounds has been a topic of increasing importance during the last few years. The major classes of antifouling active biocides are discussed including the old-fashioned organotin compounds, the modern organic booster biocides and the promising naturally occurring antifoulant products. Therefore, the reader will get a balanced view of this developing field. Chapters were written by leading experts in their field who critically surveyed all the major areas of progress. This volume is an important resource and can constitute a good grounding in the field of antifouling paint biocides. (orig.)

Konstantinou, I.K. (ed.) [Ioannina Univ., Agrinio (Greece). Dept. of Environmental and Natural Resources Management

2006-07-01

 
 
 
 
61

Hokusai: Mad About Painting  

Science.gov (United States)

The Smithsonian's Freer Gallery presents this Web interactive on the life and work of the Japanese painter and printmaker, Katsushika Hokusai (1760Â1849), the creator of the woodblock print "The Great Wave", one of the most recognized images in the world. The Flash interactive consists of four main sections on Hokusai's art: Brush & Block, Color, Composition, and Subject, plus an introductory, biographical section. In the Subject section see a long handscroll with a wide range of subjects from a pampered house cat, fish, foxes, and a man and boy looking at a waterfall; a 27 page manga, orIllustrated book; and a painting of a fisherman made when Hokusai was in his late eighties. In the Brush & Block section, compare painted and printed images of Mount Fuji, plants, and shellfish, to see Hokusai's expert use of both techniques.

2006-01-01

62

Implementation of a solvent management program to control paint shop volatile organic compounds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The majority of automobile assembly plant volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are generated from painting operations. Typical paint operations generate more than 90 percent of the total plant emissions and, up to, 50 percent can be released by cleaning sources. Plant practices which contribute to the release of VOC emissions include the cleaning of paint lines and equipment, tanks, spray booths, floors and vehicles. Solvents continue to be the largest contributing source of VOC emissions in an automotive paint shop. To reduce overall VOC emissions, environmental regulations and guidelines were introduced under the Clean Air Act; Pollution Prevention and Waste Minimization programs, Control Techniques, and special air permit conditions. The introduction of these regulations and guidelines has driven industry toward continual refinement of their present cleaning methods while pursuing new techniques and technologies. Industry has also shown a proactive approach by introducing new waterborne and powder coating paint technologies to reduce overall emissions. As new paint technologies are developed and introduced, special attention must be given to the types of materials utilized for cleaning. The development and implementation of a solvent management program allows a facility to standardize a program to properly implement materials, equipment, technologies and work practices to reduce volatile organic compound emissions, meet strict cleaning requirements posed by new paint technologies and produce a vehicle which meets the high quality standards of the customer. This paper will assess the effectiveness of a solvent management program by examining pollution prevention initiatives and data from four different painting operations.

Floer, M.M.; Hicks, B.H. [Chrysler Corp., Auburn Hills, MI (United States)

1997-12-31

63

Reflective ink, dye or paint  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An ink, dye or paint containing inclusions which reflect incident light in a low ambient light environment, such as at night is provided and is transparent or invisible during the day or in high light environments. The ink, dye or paint provided comprises a fluid component which is invisible or transparent when dry and at least one inclusion that reflects visible light when incident light strikes the surface of the ink, dye or paint in low ambient light conditions, such as at night

KANTOR BARBARA C

64

Low volatile organic compound paints  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increasingly stringent air emission standards in various states has dictated the elimination of engineering finishes which are derived from high volatile organic compound (VOC) paint chemistries. In July 1989, Allied-Signal, Inc., Kansas City Division, Kansas City, Missouri, voluntarily closed its paint facility, due to non-compliance with local air emission standards. The following details the materials selection and evaluations which led to current processing using low VOC paints, which permitted the Allied Signal, Inc., paint facility to achieve compliance and resume operations. 1 tab.

Martinez, F.E.

1991-01-01

65

Sesshu and Chinese academic painting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

(Uncorrected OCR) Abstract of thesis entitled Sesshii and Chinese Academic Painting submitted by Ng Yuk Lan for the degree of Master of Philosophy at the University of Hong Kong in November 1997 Sesshii (1420-1506), a figure of national pride, dominated the world of ink painting in the fift...

Ng, Yuk-lan; ???

66

Thickness-insensitive selective surface paint. Status report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Testing and evaluation of passive Trombe/mass wall systems have identified the need for a selective absorber paint that can be applied to concrete, brick, or any storage or absorber surface that does not particularly lend itself to the application of a selective foil. Testing and modeling at Los Alamos have shown the large benefits that can result from the incorporation of selective surfaces into passive systems. The grouting and surface preparation required to prepare a storage wall for application of a selective foil have proven to be a problem area that can be highly labor intensive. Large thermal resistances between a selective foil and the storage mass can also severely degrade the selective absorber benefits. There is a great need for an inexpensive, good performing, paint-type selective coating that can be easily applied to solar absorber elements, that is, applied by merely spraying it on the rough, unprepared surface.

Moore, S.W.

1985-03-01

67

The Transdisciplinary Potential of Remediated Painting  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Over the last decades the notion of what painting is has been considerably widened due to intermediality, i.e. crossovers between artistic media such as painting and sculpture, painting and photography, painting and installation, painting and performance etc. This paper suggests that the transformation of the discipline of painting into an expanded field has not only liberated painting from its ties to its traditional repertoire of materials and modes of representation. It has also released a tremendous potential for image making that takes painting as a point of departure but moves beyond the limitations of dialogic intermedia into the field of transdisciplinary aesthetics. In support of my argument, I turn to the concept of remediation as it was first applied in new media theory by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin. The ambition is to develop an apprehension of painting not as an artistic artifact or 'medium-specific' practice, but as a critical remediating process - painting as remediated painting. establishes its own separate space of cultural meaning. Secondly, it defines painting as active, performative and migrant. It suggests that today painting is active as a cultural force, not just as fine art. In order to substantiate these claims, the paper analyses works by some contemporary Northern European artists. What could be gained from this reconceptualisation of the expanded field of painting? Firstly, it introduces an apprehension of painting that starts from the transdisciplinary potential of painting instead of its historical disciplinarity and the attendant assumption that, as a discipline, painting functions independently and

Petersen, Anne Ring

2010-01-01

68

Motion planning for robotic spray cleaning with environmentally safe solvents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Automatic motion planning of a spray cleaning robot with collision avoidance is presented in this paper. In manufacturing environments, electronic and mechanical components are traditionally cleaned by spraying or dipping them using chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvents. As new scientific data show that such solvents are major causes for stratospheric ozone depletion, an alternate cleaning method is needed. Part cleaning with aqueous solvents is environmentally safe, but can require precision spraying at high pressures for extended time periods. Operator fatigue during manual spraying can decrease the quality of the cleaning process. By spraying with a robotic manipulator, the necessary spray accuracy and consistency to manufacture highreliability components can be obtained. Our motion planner was developed to automatically generate motions for spraying robots based on the part geometry and cleaning process parameters. For spraying paint and other coatings a geometric description of the parts and robot may be sufficient for motion planning, since coatings are usually done over the visible surfaces. For spray cleaning, the requirement to reach hidden surfaces necessitates the addition of a rule-based method to the geometric motion planning.

Hwang, Yong K.; Meirans, L.; Drotning, W.D.

1993-09-01

69

Paint rheology. Toryo no rheology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper summarizes paint compositions (resins, pigments, additives, and solvents), and their different coating and painting methods. The paper then describes the following matters on rheological measurement of paints: Because a paint goes through a wide shear velocity region during a coating process, its viscosity behavior changes largely through change in the state of dispersion as a dispersion system. Measurement of paint aqueous solutions is divided into measurements in low, medium, and high shear velocity regions, each region being measured with measuring methods and devices suitable for a particular region. Measurement of a paint during its film forming process is difficult because of increase in non-volatile matters due to evaporation of solvents, and effects of the hardening reaction, hence dynamic visco-elasticity measurement is carried out mainly. Paint films are measured generally by tensile tests and dynamic visco-elasticity measurements. The paper introduces a low shear viscometer, an improved viscometer for low shear regions, and an FT-Rm, an improved rheometer for dynamic visco-elasticity measurement. 4 refs., 7 figs.

Ueda, T. (Nippon Paint Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

1993-11-01

70

Alkyd paint for scientific and medical illustration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Within the past decade, alkyd paint was introduced as one of the leading contenders for a new color painting medium. The paint has been proven to be durable and to blend as easily as oil. Because of the ideal drying time for easy blending and because of its durability and versatility, alkyd paint is an excellent choice for medical and biological illustrators.

Hodge GP

1988-01-01

71

Alkyd paint for scientific and medical illustration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the past decade, alkyd paint was introduced as one of the leading contenders for a new color painting medium. The paint has been proven to be durable and to blend as easily as oil. Because of the ideal drying time for easy blending and because of its durability and versatility, alkyd paint is an excellent choice for medical and biological illustrators. PMID:3360768

Hodge, G P

1988-01-01

72

LDRD summary report. Part 1: initiation studies of thin film explosvies used for scabbling concrete. Part 2: investigation of spray techniques for use in explosive scabbling of concrete  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We describe a new method for the scabbling of concrete surfaces using a thin layer of explosive material sprayed onto the surfaces. We also developed a new explosive mixture that could be applied with commercial spray painting equipment. The first part of our record describes experiments that studied methods for the initiation of the sprayed explosive. We successfully initiated layers 0.36 mm thick using a commercial EBW detonator, a flying plate detonator, and by pellet impact. The second part of our report describes a survey of spray methods and tests with two commercial spray systems that we believe could be used for developing a robotic spray system.

Benham, R.A.; Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C.; Wackerbarth, D.E.; Brock, J.L.

1996-11-01

73

Slug and snail barrier paint  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A slug and snail barrier paint comprises fine, sharp shards of glass and a binder, wherein the glass shards are 1-5 mm in length. The binder may be a synthetic or natural resin and may be selected from acrylics, vinyl acrylics, ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA), polyurethanes, polyesters, melamine resins, epoxy resins, or oils. The binder may be a two components system and preferably includes a polyurethane or epoxy resin binder. The liquid portion of the paint typically comprises 65-75 wt.% of the total weight of the composition. The paint may be applied to a surface, such as a flower pot or timber, to provide a sharp, abrasive barrier against slugs and snails. The paint is not intended to kill the animal and avoids the use of harmful chemicals that can be washed away by rain.

JACQUIN FREDDY HAROLD

74

New biocides for antifouling paints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The antifouling paints are used for protecting the hulls of the boasts from the undesirable accumulation of micro-organisms, plants, and animals on artificial surfaces (marine biological fouling). These paints constitute a potential risk for the marine environment, because of the presence in their formulation, among the other potentially toxic components, of organic compounds acting as biocide. The environmental problems associated with the use of the organotin compounds as biocides in the antifouling paints, have lead to the international ban of these compounds. In the article the new antifouling paints coming up the national and international market are shortly introduced and discussed, with particular attention respect to the new organic compounds used as biocides. In Italy quite a few marine monitoring campaigns have been carried out for organotin compounds, on the contrary there is a lack of data regarding the presence of other biocides.

2005-01-01

75

Paint for selective solar absorbers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A paint with good adhesion and durability made of standard raw materials, is reported that, laid on aluminum, gives a surface with the solar absorptance of 0.90 and the hemispherical emittance at 100/sup 0/C of 0.30. The paint consists of polyurethanealkyd lacquer that is pigmented with soot. The optical properties of the samples were tested, and exposure testing was performed. (LEW)

Loefving, S.

1981-06-01

76

Evaluation of the chromium oxide arc spraying treatment on solar energy collectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Accelerated aging tests were performed on steel specimens coated with plasma gun Cr2O3 arc sprays. The chromium oxide coating is attractive due to its radiation absorptance characteristic, especially for solar thermal energy absorption applications. The use of plasma blowpipes gives low porosity coatings. Collector efficiency curves were determined and compared to the curves of conventional black paint collectors. The efficiency is close to conventional painting. The excellent behavior at high temperatures makes this treatment applicable to concentrated radiation absorbers.

Fernandezarroyo, Gloria; Gonzalezgarcia-Conde, Antonio; Moralespoyato, Francisco; Arrerajaraiz, Jose Maria; Blancotemprano, Cristina; Camonalvarez, Francisco

77

[FTIR-based vehicles paint comparison].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to determine a range on vehicle types by the vehicle paints left on the accident site, 940 infrared spectra of vehicle paint from 287 vehicle samples were collected, and then the infrared spectrum database on vehicle body paint was established. The vehicle paints comparison was implemented by characteristic peaks method and correlation coefficient method, and the comparison tests on different vehicle scrap paints were carried out. The test results show that the key of vehicle paint comparison is the spectrum of topcoat layer and the coating layer for the integrated scrap paint, and spectrum should be searched after layer separating for partial scrap paint. For aging paint, topcoat layer spectrum should be main emphasis and the range of suspect vehicle should be extended.

Chen T; Long XJ; Wei L; Gong B; Li CM

2013-02-01

78

The transdisciplinary potential of remediated painting  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

"The Transdisciplinary Potential of Remediated Painting" Over the last decades the notion of what painting is has been considerably widened due to intermediality, i.e. crossovers between artistic media such as painting and sculpture, painting and photography, painting and installation, painting and performance etc. This paper suggests that the transformation of the discipline of painting into an expanded field has not only liberated painting from its ties to its traditional repertoire of materials and modes of representation. It has also released a tremendous potential for image making that takes painting as a point of departure but moves beyond the limitations of dialogic intermedia into the field of transdisciplinary aesthetics. In support of my argument, I turn to the concept of remediation as it was first applied in new media theory by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin. The ambition is to develop an apprehension of painting not as an artistic artifact or 'medium-specific' practice, but as a critical remediating process - painting as remediated painting. What could be gained from this reconceptualisation of the expanded field of painting? Firstly, it introduces an apprehension of painting that starts from the transdisciplinary potential of painting instead of its historical disciplinarity and the attendant assumption that, as a discipline, painting functions independently and establishes its own separate space of cultural meaning. Secondly, it defines painting as active, performative and migrant. It suggests that today painting is active as a cultural force, not just as fine art. In order to substantiate these claims, the paper analyses works by some contemporary Northern European artists.

Petersen, Anne Ring

2011-01-01

79

Radioactive Decontamination by Strippable Paint  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The strippable paint, one of the adhesion method, is to decontaminate solid surface of materials or/and a large area. Two kinds of specimen planchet, SUS 304 stainless steel and polycarbonate plastic, contaminated with radioactive 137Cs were studied under various conditions. It included surface bottom types, the flat and convex concentric circle type, normal condition at room temperature and overheat condition (?80 degree celsius). This method used coating paints which contains some elements to have a reaction with radioactive materials selectively. ALARA-Decon clear, Rempack-X200 clear, JD-P5-Mrs.Coat and Pro-Blue-color guard were selected to use as the coating paints. The contaminated surface was coated by the strippable paint under the optimum time, followed by peeling the paint seal. The Rempack-X200 showed the best result, the highest decontamination efficiency which are about 99-100% for all conditions of specimens. The JD-P5 and ALARA-Decon showed good results, which are 98-99% decontamination efficiency for the normal condition set of specimens and about 94-97% for the overheat set of specimens. They can decontaminate polycarbonate specimens better than stainless steel specimens. The Pro-Blue-color guard showed the lowest decontamination efficiency of which 60% for polycarbonate specimens at normal condition and 40%, 30% for stainless steel specimens at normal and overheat conditions respectively. There was no effects of surface bottom types significantly

1998-01-01

80

Breast cancer in Rubens paintings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rubens was one of main baroque painters who practices realism, which means that he painted whatever his eyes capture. That fact has helped us with the visual aspect and the circumstances where such paintings were painted. This has allowed us to discover alterations in the breast of the models he painted, which suggest breast cancer. Such painting are 'The three Graces', 'Diana and her nymphs pursued by satyrs', 'Orpheus and Euridice'. In 'The three Graces' we can see that the model on the right has an open ulcer with reddening of the skin, nipple retraction, reduction of breast volume as well as axilar lymph nodes. This is a visual aspect of a locally advanced breast cancer. In Diana and her nymphs pursued by satyrs and in Orpheus and Euridice we can see a breast retraction in the same place as in 'The three Graces', which suggest breast cancer indirectly. The analysis of the tumor mass in the models of these pictures allow us to know more on the works, the social environment and the diseases happened in the years this painter lived.

Grau JJ; Estapé J; Diaz-Padrón M

2001-07-01

 
 
 
 
81

Evaluation of encapsulants for sprayed-on asbestos-containing materials in buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

About 150 water-based liquid coatings sprayable by conventional airless paint-spraying equipment were applied to two-inch-thick sprayed mineral wool test matrices mounted overhead. After curing, specimens of the encapsulated test matrix were tested for fire resistance, flame spreading index, smoke, and toxic-gas release. Cohesive and adhesive strengths were measured as well as impact resistance. Thirteen materials met all of the criteria established for satisfactory performance and twenty-one others met most of the criteria.

Mirick, W.; Schmidt, E.W.; Melton, C.W.; Anderson, S.J.; Nowacki, L.J.

1987-10-01

82

Improved energy efficiency by use of the new ultraviolet light radiation paint curing process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In product finishing lines, ultraviolet radiation curing of paints on prefabricated structures is more energy efficient than curing by natural gas fired ovens, and could eliminate solvent emission. The replacement of a conventional natural gas fired oven by an ultraviolet radiation curing line for paint curing could save quadrillions of joules per year for each finishing line. In this program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Programs, two photoinduced polymerizations, via free radical or cationic mechanisms, were considered in the formulation of UV curable paints. The spectral output of radiation sources was chosen so as to complement the absorption spectra of pigments and photoactive agents; thus highly pigmented thick films could be cured fully by UV radiation. One coat enamels, topcoats, and primers have been developed which can be applied on three dimensional objects by spraying and can be cured by passing through a tunnel containing UV lamps.

Grosset, A.M.; Su, W.-F.A.

1984-08-01

83

Mars Throne Room Paintings, Dublin Castle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Donatella Biagi Maino lists a total of 268 oil paintings and frescoes among Gandolfi's oeuvre. [Gaetano Gandolphi, Turin, 1995] The present painting is part of a series acquired for Dublin Castle in 1839.

Gandolfi, Gaetano (Italian painter, draftsman, and etcher, 1734-1802)

84

EVALUATION OF LOW-VOC LATEX PAINTS  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper gives results of an evaluation of four commercially available low-VOC (volatile organic compound) latex paints as substitutes for conventional latex paints by assessing both their emission characteristics and their performance as coatings. Bulk analysis indicated that ...

85

Paints hardened by ionizing radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention deals with a paint which can be hardened by ionizing radiation from a film-forming solution of an ?-, ?-olefinic unsaturated organic resin in a compound with the resin copolimerizable under ionizing radiation (e.g. vinyl monomers), as well as the usual additions which is characterized by the addition of saturated thermoplastic vinyl polymers (mol. wt. 10.000 to 50.000). The addition should be 2 to 7 wt. % of the paint. The thus prepared coatings form weather-resistant films on wood, metal and formed polymer surfaces. (9 examples). (UWI)

1976-01-01

86

FluidPaint: an Interactive Digital Painting System using Real Wet Brushes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents FluidPaint, a novel digital paint system using real wet brushes. A new interactive canvas, accurately registering brush footprints and paint strokes in high precision has been developed. It is based on the real-time imaging of brushes and other painting instruments as well as the...

VANDOREN, Peter; CLAESEN, Luc; VAN LAERHOVEN, Tom; TAELMAN, Johannes; RAYMAEKERS, Chris; FLERACKERS, Eddy; VAN REETH, Frank

87

THE HAZARDS OF PAINTING AND VARNISHING 1965  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A review of paint hazards is made, giving brief descriptions of methods of application in use in 1965, of paint usage according to resin base, and of paint ingredients. The most interesting and complex of these are the resin bases, which have much in common with plastics.

Piper, Robert

88

EMISSIONS OF ODOROUS ALDEHYDES FROM ALKYD PAINT  

Science.gov (United States)

Aldehyde emissions are widely held responsible for the acrid after-odor of drying alkyd-based paint films. The aldehyde emissions from three different alkyd paints were measured in small environmental chambers. It was found that, for each alkyd paint applied, more than 2 mg of ...

89

Household hazardous waste: composition of paint waste.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc.) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%.Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was low and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when incinerated. Allowing household paint waste to be collected with ordinary household waste is expected to reduce the cost of handling household hazardous waste, since paint waste in Denmark comprises the major fraction of household hazardous waste.

Fjelsted L; Christensen TH

2007-12-01

90

Optical fuel spray measurements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Diesel fuel sprays, including fuel/air mixing and the physics of two-phase jet formation, are discussed in the thesis. The fuel/air mixing strongly affects emissions formation in spray combustion processes where the local combustion conditions dictate the emission formation. This study comprises optical measurements both in pressurized spray test rigs and in a running engine.The studied fuel injection was arranged with a common rail injection system and the injectors were operated with a solenoid-based injection valve. Both marine and heavy-duty diesel engine injectors were used in the study. Optical fuel spray measurements were carried out with a laser-based double-framing camera system. This kind of equipments is usually used for flow field measurements with Particle Image Velocimetry technique (PIV) as well as for backlight imaging. Fundamental fuel spray properties and spray formation were studied in spray test rigs. These measurements involved studies of mixing, atomization, and the flow field. Test rig measurements were used to study the effect of individual injection parameters and component designs. Measurements of the fuel spray flow field, spray penetration, spray tip velocity, spray angle, spray structure, droplet accumulation, and droplet size estimates are shown. Measurement campaign in a running optically accessible large-bore medium-speed engine was also carried out. The results from engine tests were compared with equivalent test rig measurements, as well as computational results, to evaluate the level of understanding of sprays. It was shown that transient spray has an acceleration and a deceleration phase. Successive flow field measurements (PIV) in optically dense diesel spray resulted in local and average velocity data of diesel sprays. Processing fuel spray generates a flow field to surrounding gas and entrainment of surrounding gas into fuel jet was also seen at the sides of the spray. Laser sheet imaging revealed the inner structure of diesel spray and accumulation of droplets. Also shockwave formation was recorded when supersonic fuel jet exits the nozzle orifice. These results were used to evaluate spray formation and the structure was compared with simulated fuel sprays. Novel information, more refined and focused results, and better understanding of the nature of atomization and sprays was gathered. It was shown that new methods enable more precise understanding of transient two-phase sprays to be gained. (orig.)

Hillamo, H.

2011-07-01

91

Paint the World with Light  

Science.gov (United States)

Two classrooms on opposite sides of the world happened to be working on a very similar project at the same time. In both Shanghai, China, and Palm Springs, California, students were learning how to turn their flashlights and other light-emitting objects into paintbrushes. Light painting is a form of long-exposure photography in which the shutter…

Gran, David

2010-01-01

92

Oil painting of Gerard Moerdyk  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Image of an oil painting of Gerhard Moerdijk commisioned by the University of Pretoria to commemorate the years he served as Chairman of the Council of the University of Pretoria; 18 October 1935 - 25 June 1942. , Oil on canvas with Afrikaans inscription: "G Moerdyk, Voorsitter Universiteitsraad 18 Okt...

Henkel, Irmin

93

Atomization and sprays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book presents a scientific basis for understanding the physical processes of atomization and guidelines for atomizer design. Moreover, it demonstrates how measurement of particle size and velocity contribute to improved spray characterization. Included in this unique coverage are such key areas as: basic processes in atomization; disintegration of liquid jets and sheets; various types of atomizers; flow in atomizers; drop size distributions; various types of sprays; effects of liquid and gas properties on sprays; measuring spray characteristics; particle sizing; and imaging.

Lefebvre, A.H. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States))

1989-01-01

94

Conservation problems with paintings containing fluorescent layers of paint  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L’artiste moderne cherche continuellement de nouvelles techniques. Des nouveaux matériaux tels que l’éponge, le polyester, le sable, etc. sont devenus courants. Ces développements amènent de nouveaux problèmes dans le domaine de la conservation (préventive) des matériaux en question. Chaque matériau doit être analysé individuellement afin de préserver  le mieux possible l’intention de l’artiste à long terme. La présente recherche concerne des matériaux très récents: les pigments et les couleurs fluorescentes. Ces derniers n’ont fait leur apparition qu’au vingtième siècle. Pour cette raison les données concernant leur dégradation et leur conservation sont peu nombreuses. La majorité des tableaux fluorescents sont conçus pour être montrés sous éclairage UV. En cas de dommage, si l’œuvre a besoin d’être retouchée, ceci pose un grand problème esthétique. La retouche devient visible sous les lampes UV. La première partie de la recherche concerne la composition des différentes sortes de pigments et de peintures. Par la suite, les différentes causes de dégradation- lumière UV, chaleur, etc.- sont analysées en détail. Pour conclure, un possible remède est proposé.In modern art we can see that artists are breaking with traditional techniques. New materials like sponge, polyester, sand, etc. are being used. This causes a lot of new problems in the (preventive) conservation of works containing these materials. Every material needs to be researched individually so the exact intention of the artist can be preserved for a (relatively) long period. My research is about very recent materials: fluorescent pigments and paints. These only started to be used by artists from the 60’s. That's why there is not much information about their aging and ways to (preventively) conserve them. A lot of fluorescent paintings are meant to be shown under UV-light. If a fluorescent painting has damage and needs to be retouched there is a big esthetical problem. The retouched damage is visible under UV-light. The title of this thesis is born out of this last problem: Conservation problems with paintings containing fluorescent layers of paint. The first topic of research for this thesis concerns the composition of these different sorts of paint and pigments. Afterwards, the causes of damage resulting from UV-light –and other factors- were thoroughly analyzed. Finally, a possible remedy is being proposed.

Stefanie De Winter

2010-01-01

95

Evaluation of low-VOC latex paints  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper gives results of an evaluation of four commercially available low-VOC (volatile organic compound) latex paints as substitutes for conventional latex paints by assessing both their emission characteristics and their performance as coatings. Bulk analysis indicated that the VOC contents of all four paints are considerably lower than those of conventional latex paints. Low-VOC emissions were confirmed by small chamber emission tests. However, sigificant emissions of several aldehydes, especially formaldehyde, were detected from two of the paints. ASTM methods were used to evaluate the hiding power, scrubbability, washability, dry to touch, and yellowing index. The results indicated that one of the low-VOC paints tested showed performance equivalent or superior to that of a widely used conventional latex paint used as a control. It was concluded that low-VOC latex paint can be a viable option to replace conventional latex paints for prevention of indoor air pollution. However, paints marketed as low-VOC may still have significant emissions of some individual VOCs, and some may not have performance characteristics matching those of conventional latex paints.

Chang, J.C.S.; Fortmann, R.C.; Roache, N.F.; Lao, H.C.

1999-11-01

96

Evaluation of low-VOC latex paints  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper gives results of an evaluation of four commercially available low-VOC (volatile organic compound) latex paints as substitutes for conventional latex paints by assessing both their emission characteristics and their performance as coatings. Bulk analysis indicated that the VOC contents of all four paints are considerably lower than those of conventional latex paints. Low-VOC emissions were confirmed by small chamber emission tests. However, sigificant emissions of several aldehydes, especially formaldehyde, were detected from two of the paints. ASTM methods were used to evaluate the hiding power, scrubbability, washability, dry to touch, and yellowing index. The results indicated that one of the low-VOC paints tested showed performance equivalent or superior to that of a widely used conventional latex paint used as a control. It was concluded that low-VOC latex paint can be a viable option to replace conventional latex paints for prevention of indoor air pollution. However, paints marketed as low-VOC may still have significant emissions of some individual VOCs, and some may not have performance characteristics matching those of conventional latex paints.

Chang, J.C.S.; Fortmann, R.C.; Roache, N.F.; Lao, H.C.

1999-01-01

97

Inhalation exposure to isocyanates of car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As part of a large-scale epidemiological study, occupational isocyanate exposure was assessed in spray-painting environments. The aim was to assess which compounds contribute to isocyanate exposure in car body repair shops and industrial painting companies, and to identify tasks with high risk of isocyanate exposure. Mainly personal task-based samples (n = 566) were collected from 24 car body repair shops and five industrial painting companies using impingers with DBA in toluene. Samples were analysed by LC-MS for isocyanate monomers, oligomers and products of thermal degradation. From the 23 analysed compounds, 20 were detected. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a HDI, TDI and MDI factor with the thermal degradation products divided over the TDI and MDI factors. The HDI factor mainly consisted of HDI oligomers and was dominant in frequency and exposure levels in both industries. Spray painting of PU lacquers resulted in the highest exposures for the HDI factor (spray painting was large with a variability over time of (ww)S(2) = 9.1 compared with between-worker variability of (bw)S(2) = 1.6. Lower level exposure to the HDI factor was found during other painting-related tasks and even tasks without direct exposure to paint. Exposure to the TDI factor was found more regularly in car body repair shops than in industrial painting companies. Exposure levels were low (spraying and welding in car body repair shops (paint is the most important source and major contributor of isocyanate exposure in both industries with highest exposures during PU spraying. However, since respiratory protection is less extensively used during other tasks, lower level exposure during these other tasks may significantly contribute to the internal dose.

Pronk A; Tielemans E; Skarping G; Bobeldijk I; VAN Hemmen J; Heederik D; Preller L

2006-01-01

98

Inhalation exposure to isocyanates of car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters.  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a large-scale epidemiological study, occupational isocyanate exposure was assessed in spray-painting environments. The aim was to assess which compounds contribute to isocyanate exposure in car body repair shops and industrial painting companies, and to identify tasks with high risk of isocyanate exposure. Mainly personal task-based samples (n = 566) were collected from 24 car body repair shops and five industrial painting companies using impingers with DBA in toluene. Samples were analysed by LC-MS for isocyanate monomers, oligomers and products of thermal degradation. From the 23 analysed compounds, 20 were detected. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a HDI, TDI and MDI factor with the thermal degradation products divided over the TDI and MDI factors. The HDI factor mainly consisted of HDI oligomers and was dominant in frequency and exposure levels in both industries. Spray painting of PU lacquers resulted in the highest exposures for the HDI factor (spray painting was large with a variability over time of (ww)S(2) = 9.1 compared with between-worker variability of (bw)S(2) = 1.6. Lower level exposure to the HDI factor was found during other painting-related tasks and even tasks without direct exposure to paint. Exposure to the TDI factor was found more regularly in car body repair shops than in industrial painting companies. Exposure levels were low (spraying and welding in car body repair shops (paint is the most important source and major contributor of isocyanate exposure in both industries with highest exposures during PU spraying. However, since respiratory protection is less extensively used during other tasks, lower level exposure during these other tasks may significantly contribute to the internal dose. PMID:16126758

Pronk, Anjoeka; Tielemans, Erik; Skarping, Gunnar; Bobeldijk, Ivana; VAN Hemmen, Joop; Heederik, Dick; Preller, Liesbeth

2005-08-26

99

Increased persistence of antifouling paint biocides when associated with paint particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Release of biocides associated with paint particles into marinas may increase their persistence in the environment. - Current regulatory risk assessment procedures only assess the impact of antifouling paint biocides that are released through leaching from a painted surface. Hull cleaning activities can lead to particles of antifouling paint containing biocides to enter the environment. Comparative pseudo-first order anaerobic degradation rate constants and half-lives were determined for a selection of common antifouling paint booster biocides, their degradation products, and associated with paint particles. Anaerobic half-lives of

2003-01-01

100

CHITOSAN-COPPER PAINT TYPES AS ANTIFOULING  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english A prototype of antifouling paints was prepared with a QS-Cu (I)-Fe (II) complex as a possible replacement for traditional antifouling paints, which contain a large concentration of copper, fnding them in an order of 10 - 30 % depending on the brand, and if it is water or solvent based. A Qs-Cu complex was prepared, with a solution at 3% with acetic acid, and then Fe2O3 was added to the solution. FT IR analysis was carried out, as well as analysis of the TGA at the Qs and (more) the complex with Qs-Cu, and with the solution, three different paints were prepared. Those that varied volumen of diethylene glycol added to them. The analysis of the paints was carried out, once the paint was pervaded in a network of polyamide, through SEM with EDX and TEM, which was purchased with the commercial paints, water based and solvent based. One of the objectives is to be able to compare the coverage of the network with the commercial paint, and that of the complex QS-Cu. The results showed that the best paint obtained was paint #2, found to be similar to that pervaded with water based paint.

HEUSER, MARCIA; RIVERA, CLAUDIA; NUÑEZ, CHRISTIAN; CÁRDENAS, GALO

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
101

CHITOSAN-COPPER PAINT TYPES AS ANTIFOULING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A prototype of antifouling paints was prepared with a QS-Cu (I)-Fe (II) complex as a possible replacement for traditional antifouling paints, which contain a large concentration of copper, fnding them in an order of 10 - 30 % depending on the brand, and if it is water or solvent based. A Qs-Cu complex was prepared, with a solution at 3% with acetic acid, and then Fe2O3 was added to the solution. FT IR analysis was carried out, as well as analysis of the TGA at the Qs and the complex with Qs-Cu, and with the solution, three different paints were prepared. Those that varied volumen of diethylene glycol added to them. The analysis of the paints was carried out, once the paint was pervaded in a network of polyamide, through SEM with EDX and TEM, which was purchased with the commercial paints, water based and solvent based. One of the objectives is to be able to compare the coverage of the network with the commercial paint, and that of the complex QS-Cu. The results showed that the best paint obtained was paint #2, found to be similar to that pervaded with water based paint.

MARCIA HEUSER; CLAUDIA RIVERA; CHRISTIAN NUÑEZ; GALO CÁRDENAS

2009-01-01

102

Paint Scaler. Innovative Technology Summary Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Paint Scaler can collect paint samples quickly and efficiently for lab analysis. The Rotary Hammer Drill is a 24-V battery operated, 3/4-in. rotary hammer drill. When used with an optional chipping adapter, the Bosch Rotary Hammer Drill can be used to perform chipping and chiseling tasks such as paint removal from either concrete or metal surfaces. It is ultra-compact, lightweight with an ergonomic balanced grip. The battery operation gives the operator more flexibility during sampling activities.

None

2000-06-01

103

Mercury exposure from interior latex paint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many paint companies have used phenylmercuric acetate as a preservative to prolong the shelf life of interior latex paint. In August 1989, acrodynia, a form of mercury poisoning, occurred in a child exposed to paint fumes in a home recently painted with a brand containing 4.7 mmol of mercury per liter (at that time the Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit was 1.5 mmol or less per liter). To determine whether the recent use of that brand of paint containing phenylmercuric acetate was associated with elevated indoor-air and urinary mercury concentrations, we studied 74 exposed persons living in 19 homes recently painted with the brand and 28 unexposed persons living in 10 homes not recently painted with paint containing mercury. The paint samples from the homes of exposed persons contained a median of 3.8 mmol of mercury per liter, and air samples from the homes had a median mercury content of 10.0 nmol per cubic meter (range, less than 0.5 to 49.9). No mercury was detected in paint or air samples from the homes of unexposed persons. The median urinary mercury concentration was higher in the exposed persons (4.7 nmol of mercury per millimole of creatinine; range, 1.4 to 66.5) than in the unexposed persons (1.1 nmol per millimole; range, 0.02 to 3.9; P less than 0.001). Urinary mercury concentrations within the range that we found in exposed persons have been associated with symptomatic mercury poisoning. We found that potentially hazardous exposure to mercury had occurred among persons whose homes were painted with a brand of paint containing mercury at concentrations approximately 2 1/2 times the Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit.

Agocs, M.M.; Etzel, R.A.; Parrish, R.G.; Paschal, D.C.; Campagna, P.R.; Cohen, D.S.; Kilbourne, E.M.; Hesse, J.L. (Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA (USA))

1990-10-18

104

Paint Scaler. Innovative Technology Summary Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Paint Scaler can collect paint samples quickly and efficiently for lab analysis. The Rotary Hammer Drill is a 24-V battery operated, 3/4-in. rotary hammer drill. When used with an optional chipping adapter, the Bosch Rotary Hammer Drill can be used to perform chipping and chiseling tasks such as paint removal from either concrete or metal surfaces. It is ultra-compact, lightweight with an ergonomic balanced grip. The battery operation gives the operator more flexibility during sampling activities.

2000-01-01

105

IntuPaint: Bridging the Gap Between Physical and Digital Painting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a novel interface for a digital paint system: IntuPaint. A tangible interface for a digital paint easel, using an interactive surface and electronic brushes with a tuft of bristles, has been developed. The flexible brush bristles conduct light by means of total internal reflectio...

VANDOREN, Peter; VAN LAERHOVEN, Tom; CLAESEN, Luc; TAELMAN, Johannes; RAYMAEKERS, Chris; VAN REETH, Frank

106

Appetite suppressant mouth spray  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An appetite suppressant mouth spray formulation which simultaneously suppresses the user's appetite while promoting intraoral health. The mouth spray composition includes mouth spray base ingredients; and a plurality of appetite suppressant and appetite depressant herbs. The mouth spray base ingredients include a combination of Water; Glycerin; Xylitol; Propylene Glycol; Sodium Benzoate, Wintergreen Oil and a flavoring agent. A plurality of appetite suppressing and depressing herbs selected from the group consisting of Griffonia Simplicofolia; Garcina Cambogia; Kola Nut; Guarana; Yerba Mate; Myrrh Gum; Citrus Aurantium; Gymnema Sylvestre and Green Tea.

ZUCKERMAN ARTHUR

107

What You Should Know about Using Paint Strippers  

Science.gov (United States)

... consumers are choosing to complete do-it-yourself (DIY) projects in their homes. Using paint strippers in ... chance of flammable paint stripper fumes catching fire. DIY use of methylene chloride-based paint strippers has ...

108

75 FR 18237 - Natural Bristle Paint Brushes From China  

Science.gov (United States)

...Third Review)] Natural Bristle Paint Brushes From China AGENCY: United States International...antidumping duty order on natural bristle paint brushes from China...antidumping duty order on natural bristle paint brushes from China would be likely to lead...

2010-04-09

109

Laser ablation of paint in nuclear industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nuclear dismantling faces the challenge of paint removal on large surfaces of painted walls. The conventional methods for paint stripping on concrete walls are mainly based on mechanical grinder and lead to an important volume of aerosols and wastes. Laser ablation has been evaluated as a promising method for paint removal with a number of advantages. The method reduces considerably the waste volume as the removal of paint is selective. The ablated matter can be collected by aerosol aspiration/filtration. The automation of the process can provide a higher capacity of paint removal. Laser ablation of paint was under our extensive studies. Laser ablation with different nanosecond repetition rate lasers was comparatively studied to understand the ablation mechanisms, and to obtain the highest efficiency of paint removal. The investigations were made with three Q-Switched Nd:YAG lasers ({lambda} = 532 nm and {lambda} = 1.064 {mu}m). The different pulse durations (5 ns and 100 ns) demonstrated the different ablation regimes. Ablation with long pulses (100 ns) provided the best removal efficiency while the short ones (5 ns) decreased the ablation threshold fluence. It was demonstrated that the pulse repetition rate increasing in the 20 Hz - 10 kHz range induced heat accumulation in the paint. It resulted in ablation efficiency increase with a large decrease in the ablation threshold fluence. Laser ablation in the 0 - 10 J / cm{sup 2} fluence range was investigated. Various paints were under investigation to obtain the maximum efficiency of paint removal for each specific experimental case. The ejected matter recording with a high speed imaging system allows to analyse the laser-matter interaction. (authors)

Brygo, Francois; Semerok, Alexandre; Weulersse, Jean-Marc; Thro, Pierre-Yves [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA, 31-33, rue de la Federation, 75752 Paris cedex (France); Oltra, Roland [University of Burgundy, Esplanade Erasme, BP 27877, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Decobert, Guy [AREVA, 1, place de la Coupole 92084 Paris-la-Defense (France)

2006-07-01

110

Laser ablation of paint in nuclear industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear dismantling faces the challenge of paint removal on large surfaces of painted walls. The conventional methods for paint stripping on concrete walls are mainly based on mechanical grinder and lead to an important volume of aerosols and wastes. Laser ablation has been evaluated as a promising method for paint removal with a number of advantages. The method reduces considerably the waste volume as the removal of paint is selective. The ablated matter can be collected by aerosol aspiration/filtration. The automation of the process can provide a higher capacity of paint removal. Laser ablation of paint was under our extensive studies. Laser ablation with different nanosecond repetition rate lasers was comparatively studied to understand the ablation mechanisms, and to obtain the highest efficiency of paint removal. The investigations were made with three Q-Switched Nd:YAG lasers (? = 532 nm and ? = 1.064 ?m). The different pulse durations (5 ns and 100 ns) demonstrated the different ablation regimes. Ablation with long pulses (100 ns) provided the best removal efficiency while the short ones (5 ns) decreased the ablation threshold fluence. It was demonstrated that the pulse repetition rate increasing in the 20 Hz - 10 kHz range induced heat accumulation in the paint. It resulted in ablation efficiency increase with a large decrease in the ablation threshold fluence. Laser ablation in the 0 - 10 J / cm2 fluence range was investigated. Various paints were under investigation to obtain the maximum efficiency of paint removal for each specific experimental case. The ejected matter recording with a high speed imaging system allows to analyse the laser-matter interaction. (authors)

2006-01-01

111

75 FR 51808 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied...  

Science.gov (United States)

...FRL-9191-9] Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities in...administer and enforce requirements for renovation, repair and painting programs in accordance...general, to entities offering Lead Safe Renovation courses, and to firms and...

2010-08-23

112

Selective paint coatings for coloured solar absorbers: Polyurethane thickness insensitive spectrally selective (TISS) paints (Part II)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Red, green and blue paints were prepared for use as thickness insensitive spectrally selective (TISS) paint coatings for solar facade absorbers. The paints were composed of a polyurethane resin binder in which various pigments were incorporated in such a way that they formed stable paint dispersions, satisfying stability criteria for facade coatings. A low emittance of the paints was achieved by using low-emittance aluminium flake pigments combined with iron oxide (red coloured paints). Black pigment was added to adjust solar absorptance. Blue and green paints were made by the addition of coloured aluminium flake pigment and the solar absorptance was also adjusted by the addition of black pigment. Efficiency for photo-thermal conversion of solar radiation was assessed by evaluation of the corresponding performance criteria, which enabled the selection of paints whose performance criteria values were higher than 0 (spectrally non-selective black coating). The results confirmed that blue and green paints and to minor extent red ones, combined selectivity with colour. The morphology of the paints was assessed, revealing that the colours originated from the deposition of finely dispersed colour and/or black pigment on the surface of the aluminium flakes during paint preparation. (author)

Orel, B.; Spreizer, H.; Surca Vuk, A.; Fir, M. [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Merlini, D.; Vodlan, M. [Color d.d., Cesta komandanta Staneta 4, SI-1230 Medvode (Slovenia); Koehl, M. [Fraunhofer-Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany)

2007-01-23

113

Cold spray nozzle design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A nozzle for use in a cold spray technique is described. The nozzle has a passageway for spraying a powder material, the passageway having a converging section and a diverging section, and at least the diverging section being formed from polybenzimidazole. In one embodiment of the nozzle, the converging section is also formed from polybenzimidazole.

Haynes, Jeffrey D. (Stuart, FL); Sanders, Stuart A. (Palm Beach Gardens, FL)

2009-06-09

114

Managing lead-based paint abatement wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renovation, remodeling, demolition, and surface preparation for painting, in addition to specified lead abatement, are all activities that have the potential to produce hazardous wastes if a property was painted with lead-based paint. Lead-based paint was used on residential structures until 1978, when most residential uses were banned by the Consumer Products Safety Council. Prior to the 1950s, paints for residential uses may have contained up to 50% lead by weight. Today, commercial and military paints may still contain lead and can be used on non-residential structures. The lead content of residential paints is limited to 0.06% lead (by weight) in the dried film. This paper provides an overview of some of the information needed to properly manage lead-based paint abatement wastes. The issues covered in this paper include waste classification, generator status, treatment, and land disposal restrictions. The author assumes that the reader is familiar with the provision of the Health and Safety Code and the California Code of Regulations that pertain to generation and management of hazardous wastes. Citations provided herein do not constitute an exhaustive list of all the regulations with which a generator of hazardous waste must comply.

Steele, N.L.C.

1994-12-31

115

Real-time simulation of watery paint  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Existing work on applications for thin watery paint is mostly focused on automatic generation of painterly-style images from input images, ignoring the fact that painting is a process that intuitively should be interactive. Efforts to create real-time interactive systems are limited to a single pain...

VAN LAERHOVEN, Tom; VAN REETH, Frank

116

Pressure-Sensitive Paint: Effect of Substrate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are numerous ways in which pressure-sensitive paint can be applied to a surface. The choice of substrate and application method can greatly affect the results obtained. The current study examines the different methods of applying pressure-sensitive paint to a surface. One polymer-based and two...

Mark Kenneth Quinn; Leichao Yang; Konstantinos Kontis

117

Digital color restoration of old paintings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Physical and chemical changes can degrade the visual color appearance of old paintings. Five digital color restoration techniques, which can be used to simulate the original appearance of paintings, are presented. Although a small number of color samples is employed in the restoration procedure, simulation results indicate that good restoration quality can be attained.

Pappas M; Pitas I

2000-01-01

118

EMISSION RATES OF MERCURY FROM LATEX PAINTS  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper gives results of tests of latex paints containing organic mercury additives in small environmental test chambers to determine the emission rates of mercury. Five paints were evaluated: two contained phenyl mercuric acetate (PMA); and the other three, different additives...

119

Spatiogram features to characterize pearls in paintings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective characterization of jewels in paintings, especially pearls, has been a long lasting challenge for art historians. The way an artist painted pearls reflects his ability to observing nature and his knowledge of contemporary optical theory. Moreover, the painterly execution may also be consid...

Platisa, Ljiljana; Cornelis, Bruno; Ruzic, Tijana; Pizurica, Aleksandra; Dooms, Ann; Martens, Maximiliaan; De Mey, Marc

120

THz reflectometric imaging of medieval wall paintings  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Terahertz time-domain reflectometry has been applied to the investigation of a medieval Danish wall painting. The technique has been able to detect the presence of carbonblack layer on the surface of the wall painting and a buried insertion characterized by high reflectivity values has been found in depth of the lime-based historical plaster.

Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Liquid spraying apparatus  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This invention is related to sanitary apparatus, more particularly, it is involved with the liquid spraying apparatus (include spraying nozzle and its joint one-way valve; gasbag and its joint gas pipe; liquid container and the built-in water inlet pipe as well as the water inlet valve connected with the water inlet pipe.) used in the sanitary tools such as wringing mop, glass eraser, water broom and hair brush, etc. The nozzle, gasbag and liquid container shall be connected with a T-pipe. This newly invented liquid spraying device adopts liquid spraying principle based on pneumatic compression. The alkaline liquid and the cleaning water shall be sprayed out by pressing the gasbag. The device can be incorporated in various sanitary tools, with excellent reliability and convenient operation.

ZHANG ZHI XIONG

122

Rheological effects in roll coating of paints  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available the aim of this work is the study of the problems that arise during roll coating application of paints on steel sheets. We put in evidence the particular effects due to the non-Newtonian properties of these fluids. At speeds above a certain critical value, the flow of paint through the applicator suffers a hydrodynamical instability called ribbing, which generates a patterned interface on the film applied. Threshold of instability as well as waveform of the pattern is function of rheological properties of paints as well as surface tension. Thixotropy of paints as well as shear-thinning behaviour has been determined for several industrial paints used in the steel industry, and correlated with levelling performance after application.

F. Varela López; M. Rosen

2002-01-01

123

Method for evaluating anti-fouling paints  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method of evaluating marine paints for their ability to inhibit growth and attachment of organisms to ship bottoms, to find chemicals toxic to marine fouling organisms and to permit rapid formulation of superior anti-fouling paints, using a bioluminescent microbiological assay. The bottoms of test vials are coated with a paint solution, the paint dried, and identical aliquots of an assay medium containing Pyrocystis lunula cells are added to the tests vials and to identical (but unpainted) control vials. After a preselected settling time, the vials are agitated and their light outputs measured and compared. Any dimuition of light in the test vials, relative to the control vials, in an indication of the anti-fouling characteristics of the paints being tested.

STIFFEY ARTHUR V

124

Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

2006-05-10

125

Steel corrosion protection by means of alkyd paints pigmented with calcium acid phosphate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of classic anticorrosive pigments is becoming more and more restricted by increasing environmental concerns; they are gradually being replaced by zinc phosphate and related compounds. Other anticorrosive pigments such as surface-exchanged silicas were also proposed. The object of this research is to study the anticorrosive properties of calcium acid phosphate as an inhibitive pigment, introducing a careful selection of complementary pigments in order to achieve an efficient anticorrosive protection. Several alkyd paints were prepared and evaluated through accelerated and electrochemical tests. The nature of the passive film formed was also studied. Paint containing zinc oxide and calcium carbonate (50/50) as complementary pigments showed the best performance in the salt spray test. Zinc oxide and calcium carbonate decreased film permeability and improved steel passivation. The passive film was composed of ferric oxyhydroxide, the pores of which became plugged by ferric phosphate.

Amo, B. del; Romagnoli, R.; Vetere, V.F. [CIC-CONICET, La Plata (Argentina)

1999-06-01

126

Increased persistence of antifouling paint biocides when associated with paint particles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Release of biocides associated with paint particles into marinas may increase their persistence in the environment. - Current regulatory risk assessment procedures only assess the impact of antifouling paint biocides that are released through leaching from a painted surface. Hull cleaning activities can lead to particles of antifouling paint containing biocides to enter the environment. Comparative pseudo-first order anaerobic degradation rate constants and half-lives were determined for a selection of common antifouling paint booster biocides, their degradation products, and associated with paint particles. Anaerobic half-lives of <0.5 days were calculated for chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, and SeaNine 211, between 1 and 3 days for DCPMU and DCPU, between 14 and 35 days for diuron and CPDU, and over 226 days for GS26575 and Irgarol 1051. Increased persistence was observed when the compounds were introduced to sediments associated with antifouling paint particles. When present as antifouling paint particles, an increased half-life of 9.9 days for SeaNine 211 and 1.4 days was calculated for dichlofluanid, no significant degradation was observed for diuron. It is suspected that this is due to much of the biocide being initially bound within the matrix of the paint particle that is slowly released through dissolution processes into the sediment pore water prior to degradation. The release of booster biocides associated with paint particles into marinas has the potential to lead to their accumulation unless activities such as hull cleaning are strictly regulated.

Thomas, K.V.; McHugh, M.; Hilton, M.; Waldock, M

2003-05-01

127

Stabilization/solidification of an alkyd paint waste by carbonation of waste-lime based formulations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The application of solvent-based paints by spraying in paint booths is extensively used in a wide range of industrial activities for the surface treatment of a vast array of products. The wastes generated as overspray represent an important environmental and managerial problem mainly due to the hazardous characteristics of the organic solvent, rendering it necessary to appropriately manage this waste. In this paper a solidification/stabilization (S/S) process based on accelerated carbonation was investigated as an immobilization pre-treatment prior to the disposal, via landfill, of an alkyd solvent-based paint waste coming from the automotive industry; the purpose of this S/S process was to immobilize the contaminants and reduce their release into the environment. Different formulations of paint waste with lime, lime-coal fly-ash and lime-Portland cement were carbonated to study the effect of the water/solid ratio and carbonation time on the characteristics of the final product. To assess the efficiency of the studied S/S process, metals, anions and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were analyzed in the leachates obtained from a battery of compliance and characterization leaching tests. Regarding the carbonation of paint waste-lime formulations, a mathematical expression has been proposed to predict the results of the leachability of DOC from carbonated mixtures working at water/solid ratios from 0.2 to 0.6. However, lower DOC concentrations in leachates (400mg/kg DOC in L/S=10 batch leaching test) were obtained when carbonation of paint waste-lime-fly-ash mixtures was used at 10h carbonation and water to solid ratio of 0.2. The flammability characteristics, the total contents of contaminants and the contaminant release rate in compliance leaching tests provide evidence for a final product suitable for deposition in non-hazardous landfills. The characterization of this carbonated sample using a dynamic column leaching test shows a high stabilization of metals, partial immobilization of Cl(-), SO(4)(2-), F(-) and limited retention of DOC. However, the obtained results improve the previous findings obtained after the paint waste S/S using uncarbonated formulations and would be a useful pre-treatment technique of the alkyd paint waste prior to its disposal in a landfill.

Arce R; Galán B; Coz A; Andrés A; Viguri JR

2010-05-01

128

Stabilization/solidification of an alkyd paint waste by carbonation of waste-lime based formulations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of solvent-based paints by spraying in paint booths is extensively used in a wide range of industrial activities for the surface treatment of a vast array of products. The wastes generated as overspray represent an important environmental and managerial problem mainly due to the hazardous characteristics of the organic solvent, rendering it necessary to appropriately manage this waste. In this paper a solidification/stabilization (S/S) process based on accelerated carbonation was investigated as an immobilization pre-treatment prior to the disposal, via landfill, of an alkyd solvent-based paint waste coming from the automotive industry; the purpose of this S/S process was to immobilize the contaminants and reduce their release into the environment. Different formulations of paint waste with lime, lime-coal fly-ash and lime-Portland cement were carbonated to study the effect of the water/solid ratio and carbonation time on the characteristics of the final product. To assess the efficiency of the studied S/S process, metals, anions and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were analyzed in the leachates obtained from a battery of compliance and characterization leaching tests. Regarding the carbonation of paint waste-lime formulations, a mathematical expression has been proposed to predict the results of the leachability of DOC from carbonated mixtures working at water/solid ratios from 0.2 to 0.6. However, lower DOC concentrations in leachates (400mg/kg DOC in L/S=10 batch leaching test) were obtained when carbonation of paint waste-lime-fly-ash mixtures was used at 10h carbonation and water to solid ratio of 0.2. The flammability characteristics, the total contents of contaminants and the contaminant release rate in compliance leaching tests provide evidence for a final product suitable for deposition in non-hazardous landfills. The characterization of this carbonated sample using a dynamic column leaching test shows a high stabilization of metals, partial immobilization of Cl(-), SO(4)(2-), F(-) and limited retention of DOC. However, the obtained results improve the previous findings obtained after the paint waste S/S using uncarbonated formulations and would be a useful pre-treatment technique of the alkyd paint waste prior to its disposal in a landfill. PMID:20060213

Arce, R; Galán, B; Coz, A; Andrés, A; Viguri, J R

2009-12-16

129

Electron beam hardened paint binder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The invention concerns a paint binder hardened by the effect of electron beams (0.1-100 Mrad/sec). It consists of a dispersion of (A) an ethylenic unsaturated material in (B) at least one vinyl monomer. The component (A) in a reaction product of degraded rubber particles (0.1-4 ?m) and an ethylenic unsaturated component with a reactive epoxy, hydroxy or carboxy group which is bonded to the rubber particles by ester or urethane compounds. The rubber particles possess a nucleus and a cross-linked elastomeric acryl polymer, an outer shell with reactive groups and an intermediate layer formed by the monomers of the nucleus and the shell. The manner of production is described in great detail and supplemented by 157 examples. The coatings are suitable to coat articles which will be subject to deformation. (UWI)

1976-01-01

130

Preparation of water paint by radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of coatings which do not require any organic solvent have been the social needs. The emulsion made by radiation method is considered to meet possibly this requirement, but it has not been utilized well in the application to water paint. In this review, the investigation concerning the synthesis of water paint raw material by radiation is summarized. In the introduction, radiation curing, water paint and radiation emulsion polymerization are outlined, in the section of ?-ray emulsion polymerization, clean emulsion, cross-linked polymer particles and low temperature polymerization are described, and in the section of paint characteristics of radiation-induced emulsion-polymerized emulsion, the synthesis of thermosetting emulsion, the relation between the method of polymerization and the properties of emulsion, the performance of coating film, and self-hardening emulsion are explained. In the following section of skin-core double layer structured particle emulsion, skin-core double layer structured particles, optimal monomer composition, optimal polymerization process, the manufacturing test with a pilot plant, the performance of the paint, the durability of skin-core double layer structured particle coating film and low temperature curing water paint are described, and in the section of synthesis of emulsion by utilization of electron beam, electron beam emulsion polymerization and the synthesis of water paint by electron beam graft polymerization are described. (Yoshitake, I.)

1984-01-01

131

Preparation of water paint by radiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of coatings which do not require any organic solvent have been the social needs. The emulsion made by radiation method is considered to meet possibly this requirement, but it has not been utilized well in the application to water paint. In this review, the investigation concerning the synthesis of water paint raw material by radiation is summarized. In the introduction, radiation curing, water paint and radiation emulsion polymerization are outlined, in the section of ..gamma..-ray emulsion polymerization, clean emulsion, cross-linked polymer particles and low temperature polymerization are described, and in the section of paint characteristics of radiation-induced emulsion-polymerized emulsion, the synthesis of thermosetting emulsion, the relation between the method of polymerization and the properties of emulsion, the performance of coating film, and self-hardening emulsion are explained. In the following section of skin-core double layer structured particle emulsion, skin-core double layer structured particles, optimal monomer composition, optimal polymerization process, the manufacturing test with a pilot plant, the performance of the paint, the durability of skin-core double layer structured particle coating film and low temperature curing water paint are described, and in the section of synthesis of emulsion by utilization of electron beam, electron beam emulsion polymerization and the synthesis of water paint by electron beam graft polymerization are described.

Makuuchi, Keizo (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma. Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)

1984-06-01

132

Solvent exposure in construction and maintenance painting.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Exposure to solvents in interior house painting was determined by industrial hygiene surveys and questionnaires on work history. Painting work was observed in 92 work situations at 18 sites, mainly during maintenance work. The effects of the size of the work area, the volume of air, the type of paint, the amount used, the method of application, and the use of ventilation on the solvent concentrations were also studied. In small, poorly ventilated rooms the concentration of solvent naphtha averaged 275 ppm when alkyd paints were used. Wall and ceiling painting with alkyd paints yielded an average solvent naphtha concentration of 210 ppm, and window and door painting 80 ppm. The presence of a strong draft reduced the solvent concentrations by two-thirds. The painters' average lifetime dose of solvent naphtha was 12.2 kg, the average annual dose 0.54 kg. These levels decreased over the study period. The mean 8-h concentration of solvent naphtha in the breathing zone averaged 40 ppm over the painters' total worklife.

Riala R; Kalliokoski P; Pyy L; Wickström G

1984-08-01

133

Sewage spreading spray bar  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The spray bar for spreading sewage has a gas spring or hydraulic actuator and accumulator for balancing the oscillating weight. A ground sensor allows spreading close to the terrain. The spray bar arms are equipped with very low pressure nozzles whose large passage avoids aerosol effects. The nozzles are connected to the spray bar through an elbow opposite to the flow direction. This eliminates sharp corners in the flow direction and the risk of anchoring fibrous parts. The use of paddles under the nozzles produces a vortex in the lower part of the flow. This deflects the flow perpendicularly and increase the spreading width.

CASSERON JACQUES JEAN MARIE

134

Full containment spray drying  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aspects of safety, environmental protection, and powder quality will continue to influence advances within spray dryer design and operation, and the concept of full containment spray drying offers a means to meet future industrial requirements. Process air recycle and powder containment within the drying chamber leads to no process air discharge to atmosphere, provides a more favorable operator environment around the spray dryer installation, reduces regions within the dryer layout where potential explosive powder/air mixtures can exist, improves yields, reduces powder losses, and provides easier cleaning operations with reduced wash water requirements.

Masters, K.

1999-11-01

135

Development of spray coated cathodes for RITS-6.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents work conducted in FY13 to conduct a feasibility study on thermal spray coated cathodes to be used in the RITS-6 accelerator in an attempt to improve surface uniformity and repeatability. Currently, the cathodes are coated with colloidal silver by means of painting by hand. It is believed that improving the cathode coating process could simplify experimental setup and improve flash x-ray radiographic performance. This report documents the experimental setup and summarizes the results of our feasibility study. Lastly, it describes the path forward and potential challenges that must be overcome in order to improve the process for creating uniform and repeatable silver coatings for cathodes.

Simpson, Sean; Leckbee, Joshua J.; Miller, Stephen Samuel

2013-09-01

136

Preparation of Perfluorinated Surfactant Activates for Antifouling Paints  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Antifouling paints are the most reliable way to prevent biofouling of submerged surfaces. The high toxicity of organotin paints, prompted us to look for ideas to develop paints that do not present environmental risks. In this work, we prepare a painting by a modification of acrylic acid monomer cont...

A. Bacha; R. Méghabar

137

Systematic review of the effects of domestic paints on asthma related symptoms in people with or without asthma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Introduction The association of respiratory problems with chemical emissions from common indoor materials has been studied but the specific effect of domestic paint has not been widely investigated. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive evaluation of experimental, occupational and epidemiological studies that examine the adverse respiratory effects of exposure to domestic paints. Methods A literature search of PubMed together with consultation with an expert resulted in 997 articles published up to May 2011 of which 3 experimental, 4 occupational and 13 epidemiological studies met selection criteria and were included in the review. Results The occupational literature suggested that work as a (non-spray) painter increases the risk of asthma but it provides little insight to the risks of painting in the domestic setting. All epidemiological studies, except one, reported associations with some asthma-like symptoms. In children at least there was evidence that painting was associated with wheezing, but the study designs and the exposure assessment were unsuitable to differentiate between acute and longer terms affects. We found the epidemiological evidence to be weak and certainly insufficient to infer causality. Conclusion The variable quality of the exposure assignment and heterogeneous study design makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions on whether domestic paint exposures cause or exacerbate asthma in children and/or adults.

Canova C; Jarvis D; Walker S; Cullinan P

2013-09-01

138

Color alteration of the paint used for iris painting in ocular prostheses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess color alteration of the paints used for iris painting in artificial eyes. Five disks of heat cured acrylic resin were confectioned by microwave energy for each paint analyzed, in a total of 40 specimens. Each specimen consisted of a colorless acrylic resin disk and another of equal size, of scleral white colored acrylic resin, with the painting interposed between the two disks. The specimens were submitted to an accelerated aging process in a chamber under ultraviolet radiation for 1,008 hours. To assess color variation, a reflective spectrophotometer was used. The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and the Tukey test (p < 0.05). All the paints underwent chromatic alteration. The oil paint presented the highest resistance to accelerated aging.

Aline Úrsula Rocha Fernandes; Marcelo Coelho Goiato; Marcos Antônio Jacó Batista; Daniela Micheline dos Santos

2009-01-01

139

Characterization and Optimization of Polymer-Ceramic Pressure-Sensitive Paint by Controlling Polymer Content  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) with fast response characteristics that can be sprayed on a test article is studied. This PSP consists of a polymer for spraying and a porous particle for providing the fast response. We controlled the polymer content (%) from 10 to 90% to study its effects on PSP characteristics: the signal level, pressure sensitivity, temperature dependency, and time response. The signal level and temperature dependency shows a peak in the polymer content around 50 to 70%. The pressure sensitivity was fairly constant in the range between 0.8 and 0.9 %/kPa. The time response is improved by lowering the polymer content. The variation of the time response is shown to be on the order of milliseconds to ten seconds. A weight coefficient is introduced to optimize the resultant PSPs. By setting the weight coefficient, we can optimize the PSP for sensing purposes.

Hirotaka Sakaue; Takuma Kakisako; Hitoshi Ishikawa

2011-01-01

140

Metal atomization spray nozzle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal.

Huxford, Theodore J. (Harriman, TN)

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Insecticidal paint and fumigant canisters for Chagas' disease control: community acceptance in Honduras  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study assessed public acceptance for two new vectorial control techniques for Chagas' disease: insecticidal paint and fumigant canisters. The study compared the two with traditional fenitrothion insecticide spraying. An experimental field study was performed in an endemic area of central Honduras from August to November 1992, a year after the initial application of the treatments. The objectives of the study were to determine the acceptability of the tools on the part of the population whose homes were treated, and on the part of the personnel applying the treatments. The sample size was drawn up according to a uniform protocol applied in six Latin American countries. For this study a total of 651 persons were surveyed in 15 rural communities. Along with the surveys, focus groups were used to collect information to learn the reasons for accepting or rejecting particular treatments. The survey was done with heads of households. Focus groups were done with heads of households and also with the field operators who applied the treatments. The research showed that insecticidal paint had a low level of community acceptance (28.8%). Field operators strongly disliked the paint because of problems with its transport, application, unpleasant smell, and very low effectiveness against triatomines and pest insects. The traditional insecticide was more acceptable to the community (93.9%) and to the field operators, especially for its strong effect against the triatomines and pest insects. The results showed that in order to increase the public acceptance for insecticidal paint, it would be necessary to make the paint easier to transport and apply and to increase its effectiveness. Because of their very low effectiveness, fumigant canisters did not represent an acceptable alternative for triatomine vector control. A public educational effort should be a component of any new control method developed.

Ávila Montes Gustavo Adolfo; Ponce Carlos; Ponce Elisa; Martínez Hernández Mercedes; Flores Mario

1999-01-01

142

A Qualitative Study of Student Responses to Body Painting  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes a study conducted studying focus groups to determine whether or not medical students found body painting anatomical structures to be an educationally beneficial learning activity. Outcomes discussed surround the following themes that emerged from the data. (1) body painting as a fun learning activity, (2) body painting promoting retention of knowledge, (3) factors contributing to the memorability of body painting, (4) removal from comfort zone, and (5) the impact of body painting on students' future clinical practice.

Gabrielle Finn (Durham University); John McLachlan (Durham University Medicine)

2009-11-16

143

Paint Test for Centifugal Pump Cavitation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cavitation phenomenon in centrifugal pumps is occurred when the static pressure within the pumps decreases below the boiling pressure of the fluid. This can cause severe damages or failures of the pumps such as the impeller wear or the pump degradation. Many researches to resolve the problem have been performed. Gluich carried out wear prediction based on the Cooper's empirical relation on a cavity length. Grist suggested paint test as a useful tool to measure the cavity length. In the present study, a fluid test system is made, which can create cavitation artificially. A series of visualization tests for cavitation erosion using various paints are made. By comparing the paint test results and the Cooper's correlation, the effectiveness of the paint test for the cavity length estimation is noted

2009-01-01

144

Raw materials for paint industry products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current situation as regards raw materials for the United States paint industry is outlined, under the following headings: availability of methanol, chemical products from methanol, alkyd resins, petrochemistry, coal chemistry, and ethanol production by fermentation.

Brushwell, W.

1984-01-01

145

Investigation of paint drying by radiotracers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] 14C-labelled solvents (toluene, 1-buthanol, acetone) have been used to follow the drying process of paint coats (alkyd varnish, polyurethane resin, chlorinated polyethylene, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride)

1984-01-01

146

Investigation of paint drying by radiotracers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

/sup 14/C-labelled solvents (toluene, 1-butanol, acetone) have been used to follow the drying process of paint coats (alkyd varnish, polyurethane resin, chlorinated polyethylene, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride).

Hecht, P.; Otto, R. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Leipzig. Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung); Gerber, K. (Forschungszentrum des Werkzeugmaschinenbaus Karl-Marx-Stadt (German Democratic Republic))

1984-11-01

147

Automobile paint effective as an insect attractant.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two acrylic auto paints were effective attractants for sap beetles, Stelidota geminata (Say) and Glischrochilus fasciatus (Oliver). Response to the synthetic lures was sufficient to encourage additional testing of their potential in survey and control programs.

Jantz OK; Gertz RF; Wells MT Jr

1967-05-01

148

Radiation curing of commercial paint samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation curable coatings which include inks, varnishes, adhesives and paints, are reactive mixtures. They contain oligomers, monomers, pigments, initiators and additives. On being irradiated, these substances polymerize to form a three dimensional thermoset polymer film. The film properties are dependent on the paint formulation and the radiation used for curing. The aim of these experiments was to explore the radiation curability of commercially available paints and to apply the results to E-Beam curing of such paints using the 750 keV D.C. accelerator. The energy requirement will be ?0.4 MeV. For our preliminary experiments an oil paint generally used for indoor and outdoor applications and a nitrocellulose based automotive paint were chosen. The E Beam has been substituted by gamma radiation from a 60Co source in these studies. Though the primary interaction with matter is different, the major interaction with matter for both is Compton scattering. Another major distinction to take into account in applying these results to E beam curing is the dose rate. The gamma radiator used delivers dose rates up to a maximum of ?5 kGy/h. The electron accelerator planned to use can deliver doses orders of magnitude higher. This will reduce the irradiation time for a dose of 100 kGy from ?20 hours to ?0.5 seconds for E beam

2003-01-01

149

Cleaning of Easel Paintings: An Overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application of laser cleaning to paintings is relatively recent despite its use on stone-based materials for over 30 years. The cleaning of paintings is of high importance, because it is the least reversible invasive intervention, as well as the most usual of all conservation treatments. Paintings are multilayer system of heterogeneous nature, often very sensitive and inherent difficult to clean. Being a noncontact method, laser cleaning has advantages compared to alternative techniques. Over the last decade, there have been important research studies and advances. However, they are far from sufficient to study the effects on painting materials and to establish the best parameters for each material under investigation. This paper presents a historical overview of the application of laser technology to the cleaning of paintings giving special emphasis on the research of the last decade. An overview of the current research into the interaction between the radiation and the different painting materials (varnish, pigments, and medium) is also given. The pigment's mechanisms of discoloration and the presence of media as a variable factor in the discoloration of pigments are discussed.

2006-01-01

150

Water spraying ash tray  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides a water spraying ashtray, and relates to human necessities, smoker articles and the technical field of ashtray sets. The water spraying ashtray at least comprises an ashtray body, a nozzle, a plug, an ashtray seat and a micro submersible pump and the ashtray seat and ashtray body take the shape of a disc, the micro submersible pump is arranged at the bottom surface of the inside of the ashtray seat, the side wall of the ashtray seat is provided with an air hole, the bottom of the ashtray seat is provided with a power line hole, the lower edge of the ashtray is sheathed on the upper edge of the ashtray seat, the bottom surface of the ashtray body is provided with a plurality of through holes, one end of the nozzle is connected with the micro submersible pump, and the other end of the nozzle is inserted into the ashtray body by passing through the bottom surface of the ashtray body. The water spraying ashtray is characterized by further comprising a filtering layer which is fixed below the bottom surface of the ashtray body. The water spraying ashtray helps solve the problem of unclean and heavily odorous water for spraying in the prior art.

YUYING YUAN

151

Water spray ashtray  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model provides a water spray ashtray, relating to the smoker article class of human life demand part and belonging to the technical field of ashtray group, which at least comprises a tray body, a spray tube, a plug, a tray base and a micro submersible pump, wherein the tray base and the tray body are in plate body the micro submersible pump is arranged at the bottom face at the inner side of the tray base the side wall of the tray base is provided with vent holes and the bottom is provided with a power cord hole the lower flange of the tray body is sheathed on the upper flange of the tray base the bottom face of the tray body is provided with a plurality of through holes one end of the spray tube is connected with the micro submersible pump and the other end penetrates through the bottom of the tray body and is plugged into the tray body. The water spray ashtray is characterized by further comprising a filter layer fixed under the bottom face of the tray body. The utility model resolves the problems such as that the water sprayed in prior art is unclean and has peculiar smell.

YUYING YUAN

152

Paint-on-glass animation: the fellowship of digital paint and artisanal control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we deal with paint-on-glass animation, which is a technique for making animated films by pushing slow-drying paints from frame to frame directly under the camera. As artwork is continuously destroyed upon creating new frames, the animator is not able to rehearse or refine the animation...

VAN LAERHOVEN, Tom; DI FIORE, Fabian; VAN HAEVRE, William; VAN REETH, Frank

153

Paint-on-Glass Animation: The Fellowship of Digital Paint and Artisanal Control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract In this paper we deal with paint-on-glass animation, which is a technique for making animated films by pushing slow-drying paints from frame to frame directly under the camera. As artwork is continuously destroyed upon creating new frames, the animator is not able to rehearse or ref...

154

Set Up of an Automated Multi-Colour System for Interior Wall Painting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is shared that construction projects are getting bigger and more complex, hence also the productivity of the construction industry must be improved, while preserving its labour from hazardous job sites. Such requirements can be accomplished by the adoption of robotized products, which, however, need to be quickly developed and marketed. In this paper, first the issue of a new miniature laboratory for developing lightweight and well-coordinated robotized systems is pursued, then a novel robot device for high quality multi-colour interior wall painting carried by a robot arm is developed and successfully tested. Thanks to the new 1:6 scaled down laboratory and its six degree of freedom robot arm on an hexapod for horizontal moves, we tested the opportunity to introduce also in the building sector miniature robots that can change the ergonomics standardly adopted by construction workers. It is analyzed how and why switching from full size to miniature robots is convenient in construction. In addition, a new system adding further features to robotized painting has been conceived. Our new multi-colour spraying end-tool was developed and fixed on the robot arm, in order to be able to reproduce coloured artworks. Finally, a methodology to reproduce colours from digital format of artworks is presented, showing how accurate and efficient is this new robotized spraying device.

Berardo Naticchia; Alberto Giretti; Alessandro Carbonari

2008-01-01

155

JIT Spraying and Mitigations  

CERN Document Server

With the discovery of new exploit techniques, novel protection mechanisms are needed as well. Mitigations like DEP (Data Execution Prevention) or ASLR (Address Space Layout Randomization) created a significantly more difficult environment for exploitation. Attackers, however, have recently researched new exploitation methods which are capable of bypassing the operating systemâ??s memory mitigations. One of the newest and most popular exploitation techniques to bypass both of the aforementioned security protections is JIT memory spraying, introduced by Dion Blazakis. In this article we will present a short overview of the JIT spraying technique and also novel mitigation methods against this innovative class of attacks. An anti-JIT spraying library was created as part of our shellcode execution prevention system.

Bania, Piotr

2010-01-01

156

Development of painting technology using plasma surface technology for automobile parts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the major areas in organic coatings for corrosion protection of automobile parts is the surface treatment of polyolefin (Polypropylene (RX-2000)) bumper substrates. In order to develop the painting technology, in this work, we directly tried to paint on the plastic bumper substrates without both wet washing process with VOC solvents and phosphate primer spray process. Microwave (MW) plasma treatment represents an efficient, clean and economic alternative to activate polymeric surfaces. O2 plasma treatment at room temperature within 300 s in the power range of 300-1000 W were used to elevate hydrophilic property of the polyolefin surfaces, resulting in distinctive change of wettability and adhesion between painting layer and polymeric bumper substrates. The treated surfaces have been analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Wettability and adhesion properties were elevated by the measurement of the contact angle, adhesion test, impact test, cold resistant impact test and water resistant impact test. We confirmed that the O2 plasma treatment was a very reliable method for the synthesis of polyolefin substrates with high wettability and adhesion performance.

2006-05-26

157

Paint selection for coating radioactive-waste drums  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is concluded that although the white epoxy Paint Sample E is suitable for coating waste drums, the additional pretreated costs of grit blasting prior to paint application would preclude adoption of that paint system. The specified 10.0-mil coating thickness of that coating would also incur higher costs. The Vorac epoxy-phenolic base paint (buff or yellow) was the only other paint that exhibited suitable corrosion and impact resistance required for coating the waste drums. In addition, that paint does not require a grit-blasted substrate or other costly pretreatment prior to coating.

Briggs, J.L.

1980-07-01

158

Air entrainment in spray jets  

Science.gov (United States)

The entrainment of air into spray jets has been considered. Measurements have been made of the air entrainment into spray jets and compared with the results of a simple model of air entrainment. Comparison of the results from free air jet experiments with that from sprays indicate that a free air jet is able to entrain as much as 50 times more fluid than its spray counterpart over a similar length.

MacGregor, S. A.

1991-09-01

159

SPRAY code user's report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The SPRAY computer code has been developed to model the effects of postulated sodium spray release from LMFBR piping within containment chambers. The calculation method utilizes gas convection, heat transfer and droplet combustion theory to calculate the pressure and temperature effects within the enclosure. The applicable range is 0-21 mol percent oxygen and .02-.30 inch droplets with or without humidity. Droplet motion and large sodium surface area combine to produce rapid heat release and pressure rise within the enclosed volume

1977-01-01

160

Reducing spray booth VOCs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reducing spray booth overspray, volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions and solid waste can be achieved in every installation--from the simplest one-gun booth to the high-production multigun booth. The changes may be as basic as getting the present system under control or changing to another process. Conventional, airless and electrostatic application methods have been available to the finishing market for over 25 years. Each method has advantages and disadvantages. As VOC restrictions began to close in on the coatings industry, the need to improve spray equipment capability increased. The principal objective was to increase transfer efficiency to decrease VOCs.

Adams, J.

1990-03-01

 
 
 
 
161

Quo vadis thermal spraying?  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is devoted to thermal spraying and presents the state of our current knowledge, as well as the following research or development needs: spraying heat sources, i.e., flame, high-velocity oxifuel flame (HVOF), detonation gun (D-Gun), and plasma torches; particle heat and momentum transfer (measurements and modeling), process on-line control, powder morphologies, and injection within the hot jet and reactions with environment; coating formation, i.e., particle flattening and solidification, splat layering, residual stresses, coating microstructure, and properties; and reliability and reproducibility of coatings.

Fauchais, P.; Vardelle, A.; Dussoubs, B.

2001-03-01

162

Painting with polygons: a procedural watercolor engine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Existing natural media painting simulations have produced high-quality results, but have required powerful compute hardware and have been limited to screen resolutions. Digital artists would like to be able to use watercolor-like painting tools, but at print resolutions and on lower end hardware such as laptops or even slates. We present a procedural algorithm for generating watercolor-like dynamic paint behaviors in a lightweight manner. Our goal is not to exactly duplicate watercolor painting, but to create a range of dynamic behaviors that allow users to achieve a similar style of process and result, while at the same time having a unique character of its own. Our stroke representation is vector based, allowing for rendering at arbitrary resolutions, and our procedural pigment advection algorithm is fast enough to support painting on slate devices. We demonstrate our technique in a commercially available slate application used by professional artists. Finally, we present a detailed analysis of the different vector-rendering technologies available.

DiVerdi S; Krishnaswamy A; M?ch R; Ito D

2013-05-01

163

Paint indusry and environmental problem. Toryo kogyo to kankyo mondai  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Relating to the paint industry, introduction was made of environmental problem, particularly trend of the hydrocarbonexhaust regulation, and problem against the global warming gas and acid rain. Environmental pollution matter produced by the paint industry and painting industry being mainly hybrocarbon (organic solvent), the worldwide quantity of hydrocabon exhausted in the atmosphere is estimated to be annually 20 million tons, of which 18%, i.e., an annual quantity of 3.5 million tons is exhausted from the field of paint industry. The role to be played by the paint industry is important for the lowering in pollution by the hydrocarbon. Useful paints for the environmental maintenance comprise high solid paint, aqueous paint, slurry paint, powder paint and UV-hardened paint. The automobile coating is being also changed from the metallic coating to the aqueous coating. Low temperature hardening paint is used for the countermeasures against the global warming gas. For those against the acid rain, urethane hardening, hardening by the acid-epoxy group reaction, hardening by the alkoxyl froup reaction and other hardenings are developed to replace the conventional hardening by the melamine resin for heightening in acidproofness of paint film. 5 ref., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Osawa, A. (Nippon Oil and Fats Co., Tokyo (Japan))

1991-10-11

164

Wash solvent reuse in paint production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project evaluated solvent used to clean paint manufacture equipment for its utility in production of subsequent batches of solvent-borne paint. Reusing wash solvent would reduce the amount of solvent disposed of as waste. The evaluation of this wash-solvent recovery technology was conducted by Battelle Memorial Institute for the Pollution Prevention Research Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The evaluation was conducted with the cooperation and assistance of Vanex Color, Inc. The product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention, and economic impacts of this technology change, as it has been implemented by Vanex, were examined. Two batches of a solvent-borne alkyd house paint were prepared at Vanex--one batch made with 100%-new solvent and the other with 30%-wash solvent--and sampled for laboratory analysis at Battelle.

Parsons, A.B.; Heater, K.J.; Olfenbuttel, R.F.

1994-04-01

165

The actinobacterial colonization of Etruscan paintings.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paintings from Tomba della Scimmia, in Tuscany, are representative of the heavy bacterial colonization experienced in most Etruscan necropolises. The tomb remained open until the late 70's when it was closed because of severe deterioration of the walls, ceiling and paintings after decades of visits. The deterioration is the result of environmental changes and impacts suffered since its discovery in 1846. We show scanning electron microscopy and molecular studies that reveal the extent and nature of the biodeterioration. Actinobacteria, mainly Nocardia and Pseudonocardia colonize and grow on the tomb walls and this process is linked to the availability of organic matter, phyllosilicates (e.g. clay minerals) and iron oxides. Nocardia is found metabolically active in the paintings. The data confirm the specialization of the genera Nocardia and Pseudonocardia in the colonization of subterranean niches. PMID:23486535

Diaz-Herraiz, Marta; Jurado, Valme; Cuezva, Soledad; Laiz, Leonila; Pallecchi, Pasquino; Tiano, Piero; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

2013-01-01

166

The actinobacterial colonization of Etruscan paintings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The paintings from Tomba della Scimmia, in Tuscany, are representative of the heavy bacterial colonization experienced in most Etruscan necropolises. The tomb remained open until the late 70's when it was closed because of severe deterioration of the walls, ceiling and paintings after decades of visits. The deterioration is the result of environmental changes and impacts suffered since its discovery in 1846. We show scanning electron microscopy and molecular studies that reveal the extent and nature of the biodeterioration. Actinobacteria, mainly Nocardia and Pseudonocardia colonize and grow on the tomb walls and this process is linked to the availability of organic matter, phyllosilicates (e.g. clay minerals) and iron oxides. Nocardia is found metabolically active in the paintings. The data confirm the specialization of the genera Nocardia and Pseudonocardia in the colonization of subterranean niches.

Diaz-Herraiz M; Jurado V; Cuezva S; Laiz L; Pallecchi P; Tiano P; Sanchez-Moral S; Saiz-Jimenez C

2013-01-01

167

SPRAY HYDROGEL WOUND DRESSINGS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A wound dressing is provided that is formed in situ on the wound by spray application of a composition including a composition that gels in situ to form a hydrogel. The composition preferably includes macromers having water soluble regions and crosslinkable regions. Compositions for making a hydrogel wound dressing are also provided.

HOLLAND Troy; CHAOUK Hassan; ASFAW Bruktawit T.; GOODRICH Stephen; HUNTER Adrian; FRANCIS Vimala

168

Spray hydrogel wound dressings  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A wound dressing is provided that is formed in situ on the wound by spray application of a composition including a composition that gels in situ to form a hydrogel. The composition preferably includes macromers having water soluble regions and crosslinkable regions. Compositions for making a hydrogel wound dressing are also provided.

HOLLAND TROY; CHAOUK HASSAN; ASFAW BRUKTAWIT; GOODRICH STEPHEN; HUNTER ADRIAN; FRANCIS VIMALA

169

CONCHAS-SPRAY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CONCHAS-SPRAY solves the equations of transient, multicomponent, chemically reactive fluid dynamics, together with those for the dynamics of an evaporating liquid spray. The program was developed with applications to internal combustion engines in mind. The formulation is spatially two-dimensional, and encompasses both planar and axisymmetric geometries. In the latter case, the flow is permitted to swirl about the axis of symmetry. CONCHAS-SPRAY is a time-marching, finite-difference program that uses a partially implicit numerical scheme. Spatial differences are formed with respect to a generalized two-dimensional mesh of arbitrary quadrilaterals whose corner locations are specified functions of time. This feature allows a Lagrangian, Eulerian, or mixed description, and is particularly useful for representing curved or moving boundary surfaces. Arbitrary numbers of species and chemical reactions are allowed. The latter are subdivided into kinetic and equilibrium reactions, which are treated by different algorithms. A turbulent law-of-the-wall boundary layer option is provided. CONCHAS-SPRAY calls a number of LANL system subroutines to display graphic or numerical information on microfiche. These routines are not included, but are described in the reference report. Several routines called from LINPACK and SLATEC1.0 are included.

Cloutman, L.D.; Dukowicz, J.K.; Ramshaw, J.D.; Amsden, A.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1982-05-01

170

Borneol contained spray  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides a borneol contained spray wherein the medicinal solution contains 0.01-20 wt% of borneo camphor, 5-40 wt% of ethanol, natural or synthesized neutral fatty oil, asarum oil, sandalwood oil, galange oil, long pepper oil and other pharmacological active components.

YAN SIPING ZHOU

171

Sodium spray fires  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Fundamental research on sodium spray fires is in progress at the Cadarache Nuclear Safety Department (DSN) to develop a computer code capable of predicting the thermodynamic effects of such fires on the containment. This paper discusses three types of phenomena which require further examination in order to obtain more realistic temperature and pressure results. (author)

1979-01-01

172

Spray ozone disinfector  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a spray ozone disinfector. A mother liquor inlet of an anode water storage tank of an ozonizer is connected with a mother liquor outlet of a circulation water tank an ozone water outlet of the anode water storage tank is connected with the inlet of an anode circulating pump the outlet of the anode circulating pump is divided into two channels, wherein one is connected with an ozone water inlet of a spraying injector, and the other is connected with an ozone backwater inlet of the circulation water tank a mother liquor inlet of a cathode water storage tank is connected with the outlet of a cathode circulating pump the inlet of the cathode circulating pump is connected with a mother liquor outlet of a water storage tank a hydrogen outlet of the cathode water storage tank is connected with a first backwater inlet of the water storage tank the air inlet of the spraying injector is connected with the outlet of an air compressor through an air filter and a hydrogen discharge outlet is formed on the water storage tank. The utility model adopts water splitting by electrolysis to prepare ozone water, and utilizes compressed air to spray the ozone water, so that ozone mist for disinfection is formed and has the advantages of high purity and good disinfection effect.

JIANPING YU; GUOJUN XU; WEI YAN

173

Degradation of insecticides used for indoor spraying in malaria control and possible solutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The insecticide dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) is widely used in indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria control owing to its longer residual efficacy in the field compared to other World Health Organization (WHO) alternatives. Suitable stabilization to render these alternative insecticides longer lasting could provide a less controversial and more acceptable and effective alternative insecticide formulations than DDT. Methods This study sought to investigate the reasons behind the often reported longer lasting behaviour of DDT by exposing all the WHO approved insecticides to high temperature, high humidity and ultra-violet light. Interactions between the insecticides and some mineral powders in the presence of an aqueous medium were also tested. Simple insecticidal paints were made using slurries of these mineral powders whilst some insecticides were dispersed into a conventional acrylic paint binder. These formulations were then spray painted on neat and manure coated mud plaques, representative of the material typically used in rural mud houses, at twice the upper limit of the WHO recommended dosage range. DDT was applied directly onto mud plaques at four times the WHO recommended concentration and on manure plaques at twice WHO recommended concentration. All plaques were subjected to accelerated ageing conditions of 40°C and a relative humidity of 90%. Results The pyrethroids insecticides outperformed the carbamates and DDT in the accelerated ageing tests. Thus UV exposure, high temperature oxidation and high humidity per se were ruled out as the main causes of failure of the alternative insecticides. Gas chromatography (GC) spectrograms showed that phosphogypsum stabilised the insecticides the most against alkaline degradation (i.e., hydrolysis). Bioassay testing showed that the period of efficacy of some of these formulations was comparable to that of DDT when sprayed on mud surfaces or cattle manure coated surfaces. Conclusions Bioassay experiments indicated that incorporating insecticides into a conventional paint binder or adsorbing them onto phosphogypsum can provide for extended effective life spans that compare favourably with DDT's performance under accelerated ageing conditions. Best results were obtained with propoxur in standard acrylic emulsion paint. Similarly, insecticides adsorbed on phosphogypsum and sprayed on cattle manure coated surfaces provided superior lifespans compared with DDT sprayed directly on a similar surface.

Sibanda Mthokozisi M; Focke Walter W; Labuschagne Frederick JWJ; Moyo Lumbidzani; Nhlapo Nontete S; Maity Arjun; Muiambo Herminio; Massinga Pedro; Crowther Nico AS; Coetzee Maureen; Brindley Gordon WA

2011-01-01

174

Biological Treatment of T-38 Paint Stripping Wastes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The waste resulting from paint stripping T-38 aircraft can cause stream pollution problems if not properly treated. To determine the feasibility of biological treatment of this waste, the paint stripping waste from Vance Air Force Base, Oklahoma, was test...

J. A. Mueller J. M. Heinemann

1967-01-01

175

Surface Painted Taxiway Markings at Seattle-Tacoma International Airport.  

Science.gov (United States)

A prototype system of surface painted taxiway markings was evaluated at Seattle-Tacoma International Airport (SEATAC). The purpose of this evaluation was to determine the usefulness, from the pilot's and controller's viewpoint, of the surface painted mark...

K. W. Bagot T. H. Paprocki

1991-01-01

176

Can I Use Paint and Household Chemicals While Pregnant?  

Science.gov (United States)

... Media Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Can I Use Paint and Household Chemicals While Pregnant? KidsHealth > Parents > Q&A > Pregnancy and Infants > Can I Use Paint and Household Chemicals While Pregnant? Print A A ...

177

Lead concentrations and labeling of new paint in cameroon.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In spite of the availability of substitutes for lead compounds used in paints, manufacturers continue to produce these paints for decorative and industrial applications. We report here on the concentration of lead in new paint sold in Cameroon and provide a summary of labeling practices on paints available in the country, based on a market survey. Investigators visited 76 retail and wholesale paint suppliers in Cameroon to collect information from paint product labels and to collect samples of paints to analyze for lead content. Only 8.5% of paints had labels identifying any of the ingredients, and none of the lead paints included any warning language. Based on a convenience sample (weighted to include multiple colors from the most common brands), 61 mostly enamel paints were purchased from retail outlets and analyzed for lead content (median: 2150 ppm; range: <21-500,000 ppm). Sixty-six percent of the new paint samples had concentrations exceeding the U.S. standard of 90 ppm total lead. All but one of the samples with lead concentrations greater than 90 ppm were also greater than 600 ppm. The largest manufacturer in the country-Seigneurie, a subsidiary of the U.S.-based company PPG-had significant lead concentrations in 9 out of 22 (41%) paints tested. There is an immediate need to adopt mandatory standards to limit the lead content of paint manufactured, imported, and sold in the country. To promote safer paint products we recommend the development of a third-party certification program for paints without added lead. These recommendations are consistent with the objectives of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lead Paint established under the auspices of the United Nations to address this problem on a global scale.

Gottesfeld P; Kuepouo G; Tetsopgang S; Durand K

2013-01-01

178

DIP-IT: Digital Infrared Painting on an Interactive Table  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we report on our work to develop a novel input technique for a digital paint system. Using a brush with infrared (IR) light emitting fibers, we were able to create a natural paint interface on an interactive table. This IR-brush adds two important properties to our paint environment: h...

VANDOREN, Peter; VAN LAERHOVEN, Tom; CLAESEN, Luc; TAELMAN, Johannes; DI FIORE, Fabian; VAN REETH, Frank; FLERACKERS, Eddy

179

78 FR 20295 - National Tree-Marking Paint Committee Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...Forest Service National Tree-Marking Paint Committee Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service...SUMMARY: The National Tree-Marking Paint Committee will meet in Awendaw, SC on...the handling and use of tree-marking paint by personnel of the Forest Service...

2013-04-04

180

Elemental composition of paint cross sections by nuclear microprobe analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Physico-chemical characterization of pigments used in artistic painting give precious indications on age of paintings and sometimes on geographical origin of ores. After recalling the principle of protons microprobe, first results obtained by microanalysis of painting cross sections for non destructive microanalysis of impurities in white lead are given

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

To develop a test for stability in service of the semiconducting slot paint and grading paint on generator stator bars  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The deterioration of the anticorona systems applied to the stator windings of high voltage motors and generators has been recognized as a problem for many years. The anticorona systems applied to high voltage coils consist of two paints with different resistance characteristics. The modes of failure of the paints are usually characterized by a breakdown of the junction between the slot (stator iron) paint and the grading paint and/or a deterioration of the slot paint on the slot portion of the coil. The breakdown of the slot paint can lead to severe electrical and mechanical erosion of the coil insulation which can lead to coil failure. The deterioration of either paint can produce large amounts of ozone inside a machine, which can rapidly deteriorate organic materials, oxidize many unprotected metal surfaces, and is a health hazard. Paint samples from various manufacturers were analyzed and subjected to several ageing tests. As a result, a test procedure useful to manufacturers and users was developed to assess the relative stability of paints. Tests demonstrated the ability of the paints to conduct high current densities, withstand temperatures above 100{degree}C and withstand high concentrations of ozone and ultraviolet radiation. Some paints are attacked by common cleaning solvents, mandating good housekeeping around machines that contain stator bars with certain semiconducting paints. It was found that paint deterioration in service is related to the surface condition of the coil paint prior to paint application, and the compatability of the paint with the substrate. The application technique is important to ensure uniform coverage. 22 refs., 15 figs., 18 tabs.

Huber, R.

1985-06-01

182

Report on Scientific Basis for Paint Stripping: Mechanism of Methylene Chloride Based Paint Removers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical paint strippers that include methylene chloride and phenol have been extensively used to remove coatings from metallic substrates. These strippers are inexpensive and remove polymeric organic coatings quickly and easily from a variety of metallic...

C. N. Young C. R. Clayton J. H. Wynne J. P. Yesinowski K. E. Watson

2011-01-01

183

Interim Report on Scientific Basis for Paint Stripping: Mechanism of Methylene Chloride Based Paint Removers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical paint stripper that include methylene chloride and phenol have been extensively used to remove polymer coatings from metallic substrates. These strippers are inexpensive and remove polymeric organic coatings quickly and easily from a variety of m...

C. N. Young C. R. Clayton J. H. Wynne J. P. Yesinowski K. E. Watson

2010-01-01

184

Personnel Exposure to Airborne Isocyanates and Solvents During Shipboard Painting With 2-Pack Polyurethane Paints.  

Science.gov (United States)

Shipboard and laboratory trials were conducted to determine personnel exposure to airborne solvents and isocyanates during the application, by roller and brush, of 2-pack polyurethane paints. Airborne concentrations in the breathing zones of the operators...

G. DeNola J. Kibby P. J. Hanhela W. Mazurek

2008-01-01

185

Color alteration of the paint used for iris painting in ocular prostheses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to assess color alteration of the paints used for iris painting in artificial eyes. Five disks of heat cured acrylic resin were confectioned by microwave energy for each paint analyzed, in a total of 40 specimens. Each specimen consisted of a colorless acrylic resin disk and another of equal size, of scleral white colored acrylic resin, with the painting interposed between the two disks. The specimens were submitted to an accelerated aging pr (more) ocess in a chamber under ultraviolet radiation for 1,008 hours. To assess color variation, a reflective spectrophotometer was used. The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and the Tukey test (p

Fernandes, Aline Úrsula Rocha; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Batista, Marcos Antônio Jacó; Santos, Daniela Micheline dos

2009-12-01

186

Spectral and colorimetric characterisation of painted surfaces: a scanning device for the imaging analysis of paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last few years multispectral imaging has entered the field of painting diagnostics and conservation because of its effectiveness and safety. It provides spectral and colorimetric characterization of the whole paint layer, suitable to document the conservation state of the artwork and useful in the study for the identification of pigments. Here we present a high-resolution scanning system for 32-band multispectral imaging of paintings in the 380÷800 nm spectral region. This system is based on a fast spectrometer for contact-less single-point measures mounted on two orthogonal XY translation stages. It can scan an area of 1 m2 with a spatial resolution of 4 dots/mm and a spectral resolution of 10 nm. Spectral reflection factor and tristimulus value measurements were carried out on coloured ceramic tiles and the results were compared with the corresponding certified values. Multispectral analysis was performed on a few ancient paintings and spectrophotometric results are shown.

Carcagni, Pierluigi; Della Patria, Andrea; Fontana, Raffaella; Greco, Marinella; Mastroianni, Maria; Materazzi, Marzia; Pampaloni, Enrico; Pezzati, Luca; Piccolo, Roberta

2005-08-01

187

Piezoelectric paint: characterization for further applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Piezoelectric paint is a very attractive piezoelectric composite in many fields, such as non-destructive testing, or structural health monitoring. However, there are still many obstacles which restrict the real application of it. One of the main problems is that piezoelectric paint lacks a standard fabrication procedure, thus characterization is needed before use. The work presented here explores the characterization of piezoelectric paint. It starts with fabrication of samples with certain piezoelectric powder weight percentages. The microstructures of the samples are investigated by a scanning electron microscope; the results indicate that the fabrication method can produce high quality samples. This is followed by measurements of Young’s modulus and sensitivity. The piezoelectric charge constant d31 is then deduced from the experimental data; the results agree well with a published result, which validates the effectiveness of the fabrication and characterization method. The characterized piezoelectric paint can expand its applications into different fields and therefore becomes a more promising and competitive smart material.

Yang, C.; Fritzen, C.-P.

2012-04-01

188

Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents progress made on a technique for 14C dating pictographs. A low-temperature oxygen plasma is used coupled with high-vacuum technologies to selectively remove C-containing material in the paints without contamination from inorganic carbon from rock substrates or accretions

1995-01-01

189

Simulations of color development in tinted paints  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Monte Carlo simulations have been used to investigate how several thermodynamic and kinetic factors affect the distribution of pigments, when a water-based pigment dispersion is added to a solvent-borne paint. Our model contains three types of lattice particles: water, pigment and organic solvent, w...

Stuiver, A.; Barkema, G.T.

190

Protective paints for pyrolysis production equipment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Preventing corrosion of metal, concrete, and other surfaces of equipment used under conditions where various liquid and gas media are present, with high and low temperatures, and with the action of the atmosphere can be done with the correct selection of paints and coating systems. To select protective coatings chemically resistant to dissolved and settling resins, liquid and acidic water at a temperature of 20 +/- 5/sup 0/C and relative humidity of 70-75%, experiments were conducted on various sorts of paint, the makeup of which is presented. Evaluation of their chemical resistance was conducted for a determined adhesive strength by the lattice notch method, and the elasticity of the coating by the ShG-1 flexibility scale and visually. Paints were applied to the surface of samples which has been previously subjected to metal grit blasting, processing with emery paper, and degreasing with white spirits. The samples were brush painted in even layers in both the horizontal and vertical directions, or they were dipped. The coatings were tested with constant action of an aggressive medium (fully immersed, with immersion of the samples to 1/2 their height for 23 days and with immersion at intervals for two hours).

Mikhalyuk, G.F.; Zotova, L.M.; Batrakova, V.M.

1985-01-01

191

Paintings in Atlantic Megalithic Art: Barnenez  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of technique is usually considered in European megalithic art as an indicator of the level of culture sophistication attained by a particular community. Traditionally, it was considered that only the Iberian Peninsula is home to painted dolmens. The analysis of chamber H of the Barnenez tumu...

Bueno Ramírez, Primitiva; de Balbín Behrmann, Rodrigo; Laporte, Luc; Gouezin, Philippe; Barroso Bermejo, Rosa

192

The Fountain Paint Pot Online Tour  

Science.gov (United States)

This Yellowstone National Park website offers an online tour of the Fountain Paint Pots. Prominent geysers, fumaroles, and hot springs are highlighted with photos and information concerning their eruption patterns and relation to other geothermal features. Similar tours of the Old Faithful area, the Norris Geyser Basin, the Mammoth Hot Springs, and the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone are also available online.

Park, Yellowstone N.

193

Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents progress made on a technique for {sup 14}C dating pictographs. A low-temperature oxygen plasma is used coupled with high-vacuum technologies to selectively remove C-containing material in the paints without contamination from inorganic carbon from rock substrates or accretions.

Ilger, W.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M.W. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Southon, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1995-06-20

194

Multispectral imaging of paintings by optical scanning  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last few years, there has been a growing interest on multi-spectral imaging as non-destructive technique for painting diagnostics. Providing spectral and colorimetric characterization of the whole paint layer, such a technique is suitable to document the conservation state of an artwork. In this work we present a scanning system for multi-spectral imaging of paintings in the 380 800 nm spectral region, specifically developed to overcome most of the problems related to traditional detection systems based on CCD or Vidicon camera. The device is composed of a spectrometer for contact-less single-point spectral measurements, moved by two orthogonally mounted translation stages. It scans an area of 1 m2 with 16 dots/mm2 spatial resolution and 10 nm spectral resolution. Spectral reflection factor and tristimulus value measurements were carried out on coloured ceramic tiles and the results were compared to the corresponding certified values. We also present the first application to an ancient painting.

Carcagnì, P.; Della Patria, A.; Fontana, R.; Greco, M.; Mastroianni, M.; Materazzi, M.; Pampaloni, E.; Pezzati, L.

2007-03-01

195

Painting, Poetry and Pots of Basil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Argues that how and why a particular range of texts are selected, read, and taught determines the extent to which they contribute to a pupil's development. Shows how the teaching of John Keats's "Isabella or the Pot of Basil" and paintings by William Holman Hunt and John Everett Millais meet the challenges of the new Order for English. (TB)

Hodges, Gabrielle Cliff

1995-01-01

196

Paintings - high-energy protons detect pigments and paint-layers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High-energy PIXE was used to identify pigment composition, sequencing and the thickness of paint-layers. Before applying the technique to valuable masterpieces, mock-ups were examined in a collaboration with the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. The results of high-energy PIXE were compared to conventional cross-section analysis. In addition, the non-destructiveness of the technique was investigated thoroughly. After this preparative work, two ancient paintings have been examined and the results are presented in this paper.

2004-01-01

197

76 FR 56136 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and Pre-Renovation Education Activities in...  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-R04-OPPT-2010-0789; FRL-9457-7] Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and Pre- Renovation Education Activities in Target Housing and...administer and enforce requirements for a renovation, repair and painting program in...

2011-09-12

198

76 FR 27044 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and Pre-Renovation Education Activities in...  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-R10-OPPT-2011-0378; FRL-9303-6 ] Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and Pre- Renovation Education Activities in Target Housing and...administer and enforce requirements for a renovation, repair and painting program in...

2011-05-10

199

75 FR 13127 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied...  

Science.gov (United States)

...FRL-9128-4] Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities in...administer and enforce requirements for a renovation, repair and painting program in accordance...general, to entities offering Lead Safe Renovation courses, and to firms and...

2010-03-18

200

76 FR 12106 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied...  

Science.gov (United States)

...FRL-9275-5] Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities in...administer and enforce requirements for a renovation, repair and painting program in accordance...general, to entities offering Lead Safe Renovation courses, and to firms and...

2011-03-04

 
 
 
 
201

75 FR 6383 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and Pre-Renovation Education Activities in...  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-R05-RCRA-2009-1018; FRL-9110-3] Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and Pre- Renovation Education Activities in Target Housing and...administer and enforce requirements for a renovation, repair and painting program in...

2010-02-09

202

75 FR 39524 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and Pre-Renovation Education Activities in...  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-R10-OPPT-2010-0549; FRL-9173-8] Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and Pre- Renovation Education Activities in Target Housing and...administer and enforce requirements for a renovation, repair and painting program in...

2010-07-09

203

Numerical modelling of fuel sprays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The way the fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber is one of the most important parameters for the power output and the generation of emissions in the combustion of liquid fuels. The interaction between the turbulent gas flow field and the liquid fuel droplets, the vaporisation of them and the mixing of the gaseous fuel with the ambient air that are vital parameters in the combustion process. The use of numerical calculations is an important tool to better understand these complex interacting phenomena. This thesis reports on the numerical modelling of fuel sprays in non-reacting cases using an own developed spray module. The spray module uses the stochastic parcel method to represent the spray. The module was made in such manner that it could by coupled with different gas flow solver. Results obtained from four different gas flow solvers are presented in the thesis, including the use of two different kinds of turbulence models. In the first part the spray module is coupled with a k-{eta} based 2-D cylindrical gas flow solver. A thorough sensitivity analysis was performed on the spray and gas flow solver parameters, such as grid size dependence and sensitivity to initial values of k-{eta}. The results of the spray module were also compared to results from other spray codes, e.g. the well known KIVA code. In the second part of this thesis the spray was injected into a turbulent and fully developed crossflow studied. The spray module was attached to a LES (Large Eddy Simulation) based flow solvers enabling the study of the complex structures and time dependent phenomena involved in spray in crossflows. It was found that the spray performs an oscillatory motion and that the Strouhal number in the wake was about 0.1. Different spray breakup models were evaluated by comparing with experimental results 66 refs, 56 figs

Bergstroem, C.

1999-06-01

204

Flame spraying of polymers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Statistical design-of-experiment studies of the thermal spraying of polymer powders are presented. Studies of the subsonic combustion (i.e., Flame) process were conducted in order to determine the quality and economics of polyester and urethane coatings. Thermally sprayed polymer coatings are of interest to several industries for anticorrosion applications, including the chemical, automotive, and aircraft industries. In this study, the coating design has been optimized for a site-specific application using Taguchi-type fractional-factorial experiments. Optimized coating designs are presented for the two powder systems. A substantial range of thermal processing conditions and their effect on the resultant polymer coatings is presented. The coatings were characterized by optical metallography, hardness testing, tensile testing, and compositional analysis. Characterization of the coatings yielded the thickness, bond strength, Knoop microhardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and porosity. Confirmation testing was accomplished to verify the coating designs

1997-01-01

205

Spectral selectivity of black and green painted surfaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Black, green and mixed paints were prepared from organically modified siloxane resin. The solar absorptance (a{sub s}) of prepared black paint/metal coatings was 0.90 with corresponding thermal emittance (e{sub T}) 0.20, whereas green paint coatings did not reach satisfactory solar absorptance (a{sub s}<0.8O). To improve the absorptance of the green coating, the black paint was admixed into the green paint. Optical properties of the prepared coatings were determined by the help of Kubelka-Munk formalism.

Orel, Z.C.Z.C.; Gunde, M.K. [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2000-04-01

206

Spray boom for selectively spraying a herbicidal composition onto dicots  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There is provided a method and spray boom for discriminating cereal crop (monocot) and weeds (dicots). The spray boom includes means for digitally recording an image of a selected area to be treated by a nozzle on the spray boom, whereby a plant material is identified based on a segmentation procedure; and means for detecting the edges and estimating the angles of the edges of the leaves so as to discriminate between dicots and monocots; and means for activating one or more of the spray nozzles in response to detected dicots so as to selectively apply the herbicidal composition onto the sensed area containing the dicots.

Stigaard Laursen, Morten SDU,

207

Structure of evaporating diesel sprays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Performance of compression ignition engine is known to be spray characteristics related. Precise experimental information on fuel sprays is of utmost importance to model the fuel spray formation and its development in the engine combustion chamber. The previous experimental work of the present author on non-evaporating sprays produced by using a FIAT single-hole orifice type nozzle and a distribution type commercial fuel injection pump forms the basis to derive correlations for penetration rates, break up times and lengths of diesel sprays. The results are compared with the existing published work and the agreement is found ideal. The correlations derived can be useful to do CFD modeling of sprays under variable conditions of injector nozzle hole diameter, fuel injection pressure, combustion chamber pressure and temperature or air density. (author)

2007-01-01

208

Fundamental studies of spray combustion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our research on spray combustion involves both experiment and theory and addresses the characteristics of individual droplets and of sprays in a variety of flows: laminar and turbulent, opposed and impinging. Currently our focus concerns water and fuel sprays in two stage laminar flames, i.e., flames arising, for example from a stream of fuel and oxidizer flowing opposite to an air stream carrying a water spray. Our interest in these flames is motivated by the goals of reducing pollutant emissions and extending the range of stable spray combustion. There remains considerable research to be carried out in order to achieve these goals. Thus far our research on the characteristics of sprays in turbulent flows has been limited to nonreacting jets impinging on a plate but this work will be extended to opposed flows with and without a flame. In the following we discuss details of these studies and our plans for future work.

Li, S.C.; Libby, P.A.; Williams, F.A. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

1997-12-31

209

Non-water spraying agent  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to a spray containing no water, and said spray contains the following components of A, B and C A is acid addition salt type pharmacodynamic component B is condensate of diisopropanol amine and/or fatty acid with 14 or more than 14 carbon atoms and alkyl hydramine and C is lower alcohol. Said invented spray does not separate out salt, can not result in the blockage of sprayer device, and can ensure its long-period stable operation.

HOO IKEDA; MISAO MURATA; SHIGENAO OTSUKA

210

Marine pollution from antifouling paint particles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Antifouling paint particles (APP) are generated during the maintenance of boats and are shed from abandoned structures and grounded ships. Although they afford a highly visible, colourful reflection of contamination in the vicinity of the source, little systematic study has been undertaken regarding the distribution, composition and effects of APP in the wider marine environment. This paper reviews the state of knowledge in respect of APP, with particular emphasis on those generated by recreational boatyards. The likely biogeochemical pathways of the biocidal and non-biocidal metals in current use (mainly Cu and Zn) are addressed in light of recent research and an understanding of the more general behaviour of contaminants in marine systems. Analyses of paint fragment composites from recreational facilities in the UK reveal chemical compositions that are similar to those representing the net signal of the original formulations; significantly, dry weight concentrations of Cu and Zn of up to about 35% and 15%, respectively, are observed and, relative to ambient dusts and sediment, elevated concentrations of other trace metals, like Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Sn, occur. These metals leach more rapidly from APP than a painted surface due to the greater surface area of pigments and additives exposed to the aqueous medium. In suspension, APP are subject to greater and more rapid environmental variation (e.g. salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen) than painted hulls, while settled APP represent an important source of persistent and degradable biocides to poorly circulating environments. Through diffusion and abrasion, high concentrations of contaminants are predicted in interstitial waters that may be accumulated directly by benthic invertebrates. Animals that feed non-selectively and that are exposed to or ingest paint-contaminated sediment are able to accelerate the leaching, deposition and burial of biocides and other substances, and represent an alternative vehicle for contaminant entry into the marine foodchain. Clearly, an extensive understanding of biocide behaviour on painted surfaces is not sufficient for predictive or management purposes regarding APP. Greater caution is required by boaters and boatyards during the removal and disposal of solid wastes, and more awareness or stricter enforcement of relevant codes of practice or legislation is recommended.

Turner A

2010-02-01

211

Recent developments in the spray forming of metals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concept and principles involved in the spray forming process are presented with particular reference to operating conditions, resulting structures and properties. Some specific modes of spray forming are discussed, namely spray rolling, spray rolling of composites, spray forging, centrifugal spray deposition, spray coating and simultaneous spray peening. Technical and economic advantages of this new technology are discussed. 13 references.

Singer, A.R.E.

1985-07-01

212

Microanalysis of paint layers in polychrome sculptures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cross sections paint layers of polychromes sculpture of the 16 century, located at the City Museum of Havana and currently in the restoration process, have been analyzed by capillary based ?XRF , ?PIXE , SEM -EDX and light microscopy. Experimental parameters (geometry measurement time) of the capillary based ?XRF set up (nominal end diameter equal to 10 ?m) were optimized to achieve the resolution required for meaningful scintigraphic studies of the art and archaeological objects, Cumulative x-rays spectra for each layer were obtained in order to perform semi-quantitative analysis. The employed pigments were identified by the characteristics elements and the elemental maps precisely reproduced photographs obtained by means of light microscopy. In the case of nuclear microprobe, RBS for Stoichiometry analysis of paint layers was also performed. additional information on the organic materials was also obtained by chemical analysis. Complementary results obtained by using the analytical techniques are presented and discussed from the point of view of the restoration processes

2001-01-01

213

Spray-formed tooling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) has formed a partnership with the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a process for the rapid production of low-cost tooling based on spray forming technology developed at the INEL. Phase 1 of the program will involve bench-scale system development, materials characterization, and process optimization. In Phase 2, prototype systems will be de signed, constructed, evaluated, and optimized. Process control and other issues that influence commercialization will be addressed during this phase of the project. Technology transfer to USCAR, or a tooling vendor selected by USCAR, will be accomplished during Phase 3. The approach INEL is using to produce tooling, such as plastic injection molds and stamping dies, combines rapid solidification processing and net-shape materials processing into a single step. A bulk liquid metal is pressure-fed into a de Laval spray nozzle transporting a high velocity, high temperature inert gas. The gas jet disintegrates the metal into fine droplets and deposits them onto a tool pattern made from materials such as plastic, wax, clay, ceramics, and metals. The approach is compatible with solid freeform fabrication techniques such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, and laminated object manufacturing. Heat is extracted rapidly, in-flight, by convection as the spray jet entrains cool inert gas to produce undercooled and semi-solid droplets. At the pattern, the droplets weld together while replicating the shape and surface features of the pattern. Tool formation is rapid; deposition rates in excess of 1 ton/h have been demonstrated for bench-scale nozzles.

McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

1994-12-31

214

Filiform corrosion formation on painted aluminium extrusions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The filiform corrosion susceptibility of extruded, chromated and coated AA 6060/6063 alloys has been investigated. It is shown that, provided sufficient metal is removed before chromating, these alloys will exhibit high filiform corrosion resistance. In those cases where extensive filiform corrosion attack is observed during corrosion testing it is shown to be due to a reactive surface region, formed during the thermo-mechanical processing of the alloy and remaining after chemical pretreatment for painting. (orig.)

Nordlien, J.H. [SINTEF Materials Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Corrosion and Surface Technology; Defrancq, J. [Lab. for Strength of Materials and Welding Technology, Univ. of Gent (Belgium); Zuest, W. [Algroup Alusuisse, Technology Center, Neuhausen (Switzerland); Benmalek, M. [Pechiney, Centre de Recherches de Voreppe, Voreppe (France); Stuckart, R. [Hydro Aluminium Extrusion, Lausanne (Switzerland)

2000-07-01

215

Desmopressin Acetate (marketed as DDAVP Nasal Spray ...  

Science.gov (United States)

... Desmopressin Acetate (marketed as DDAVP Nasal Spray, DDAVP Rhinal Tube, DDAVP, DDVP, Minirin, and Stimate Nasal Spray). ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders

216

Rock Creek Tower Painting Project : Environmental Assessment.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) built a 500-kV line across Rock Creek, a Class I trout stream about 20 miles east of Missoula, MT. Two 190-foot towers rise on either side of the Rock Creek valley, and the line between is suspended 600 feet over the valley floor. The crossing poses a hazard to passing airplanes and disrupts the natural landscape. The area where the line crosses Rock Creek is prized for its scenic beauty. In response to public demand that BPA protect the visual beauty of this area, BPA painted the towers gray to blend them best in with their natural surroundings. The issue now is to decide between either two gray towers or two orange-and-white towers. The underlying need is to resolve the conflict of pilot safety against scenic intrusion. The proposed action is to paint the gray tower aeronautical orange and white. Alternatives are to paint the orange-and-white tower back to its original gray; or leave the dilemma unresolved (the ''no-action'' alternative). 9 refs., 3 figs.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1988-10-01

217

Paintings in Atlantic Megalithic Art: Barnenez  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of technique is usually considered in European megalithic art as an indicator of the level of culture sophistication attained by a particular community. Traditionally, it was considered that only the Iberian Peninsula is home to painted dolmens. The analysis of chamber H of the Barnenez tumulus together with some information scattered over the continent, prove that painting was part of the graphic programs in the most archetypal Atlantic sites, such as Brittany. A highly rewarding panorama appears for European megalithic art with potential new readings. The most suitable method of detecting paintings and interpreting them in funerary contexts must be reviewed.La técnica ha venido estableciéndose en el arte megalítico europeo como una categoría cultural. Solo la Península Ibérica disponía de dólmenes pintados. Pero algunos datos dispersos en el resto del continente, junto con los análisis que se aportan procedentes de la cámara H del túmulo de Barnenez, certifican que la pintura formó parte de los programas gráfi cos de los más clásicos conjuntos atlánticos, como es el bretón. Se abre un panorama muy enriquecedor de nuevas lecturas para un arte megalítico europeo en el que habrá de contemplarse la metodología pertinente para la detección de pinturas y su interpretación en los discursos funerarios.

Bueno Ramírez, Primitiva; de Balbín Behrmann, Rodrigo; Laporte, Luc; Gouezin, Philippe; Barroso Bermejo, Rosa; Hernanz Gismero, Antonio; Gavira-Vallejo, José M.; Iriarte Cela, Mercedes

2012-01-01

218

INEL Spray-Forming Research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spray forming is a near-net-shape fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is deposited onto a suitably shaped substrate or mold to produce a coherent solid. The technology offers unique opportunities for simplifying mate...

K. M. Mchugh J. F. Key

1993-01-01

219

Spray drying and vaccine stabilization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Research on spray drying as a processing method to improve vaccine stabilization and to enable novel routes of vaccine delivery has produced promising results; however, the method has yet to be adopted for the manufacture of vaccine products by the pharmaceutical industry. This article reviews the status of spray-drying technology and discusses barriers and opportunities for its future application to vaccines.

McAdams D; Chen D; Kristensen D

2012-10-01

220

Dermal, inhalation, and internal exposure to 1,6-HDI and its oligomers in car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To study inhalation and dermal exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and its oligomers as well as personal protection equipment (PPE) use during task performance in conjunction with urinary hexamethylene diamine (HDA) in car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters. METHODS: Personal task based inhalation samples (n = 95) were collected from six car body repair shops and five industrial painting companies using impingers with di-n-butylamine (DBA) in toluene. In parallel, dermal exposure was assessed using nitril rubber gloves. Gloves were submerged into DBA in toluene after sampling. Analysis for HDI and its oligomers was performed by LC-MS/MS. Urine samples were collected from 55 workers (n = 291) and analysed for HDA by GC-MS. RESULTS: Inhalation exposure was strongly associated with tasks during which aerosolisation occurs. Dermal exposure occurred during tasks that involve direct handling of paint. In car body repair shops associations were found between detectable dermal exposure and glove use (odds ratio (OR) 0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.09 to 0.57) and inhalation exposure level (OR 1.34, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.84 for a 10-fold increase). HDA in urine could be demonstrated in 36% and 10% of car body repair shop workers and industrial painting company workers respectively. In car body repair shops, the frequency of detectable HDA was significantly elevated at the end of the working day (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.07 to 4.22 for 3-6 pm v 0-8 am). In both branches HDA was detected in urine of approximately 25% of the spray painters. In addition HDA was detected in urine of a large proportion of non-spray painters in car body repair shops. CONCLUSION: Although (spray) painting with lacquers containing isocyanate hardeners results in the highest external exposures to HDI and oligomers, workers that do not perform paint related tasks may also receive a considerable internal dose.

Pronk A; Yu F; Vlaanderen J; Tielemans E; Preller L; Bobeldijk I; Deddens JA; Latza U; Baur X; Heederik D

2006-09-01

 
 
 
 
221

Substrate system for spray forming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A substrate system for receiving a deposit of sprayed metal droplets including a movable outer substrate on which the sprayed metal droplets are deposited. The substrate system also includes an inner substrate disposed adjacent the outer substrate where the sprayed metal droplets are deposited on the outer substrate. The inner substrate includes zones of differing thermal conductivity to resist substrate layer porosity and to resist formation of large grains and coarse constituent particles in a bulk layer of the metal droplets which have accumulated on the outer substrate. A spray forming apparatus and associated method of spray forming a molten metal to form a metal product using the substrate system of the invention is also provided.

Chu, Men G. (Export, PA); Chernicoff, William P. (Harrisburg, PA)

2000-01-01

222

Mosquito repellent spray  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a mosquito repellent spray which comprises the following raw materials by weight portion: 2-4 portions of largespike woodnettle roots, 2-4 portions of roots of common sesbania, 4-6 portions of polyporus, 10-20 portions of artemisia leaves, 20-24 portions of Japan pagodatrees, 2-4 portions of scorpio, 4-6 portions of sapanwood, 6-10 portions of puncture vines, 2-6 portions of oak mushroom, 6-10 portions of garlic, 4-10 portions of styrax, 6-8 portions of ramulus cinnamomi, 4-6 portions of asiatic pennywort herbs, 4-6 portions of sunflower roots, 8-10 portions of polygonum hydropipers, 10-16 portions of vanilla herbs, 6-8 portions of angelica dahurica, 6-10 portions of camphor, 10-14 portions of mints, 10-14 portions of sweet osmanthus, 8-12 portions of cloves, 4-6 portions of arachniodes, 6-8 portions of common sowthistle roots and 2-4 portions of preservatives. The invention has the advantages of good effect, easy operation, low cost and small toxic and side effects. Pyrethrins are not used, and mosquitoes can not generate resistance easily. The mosquito repellent spray is carried and used conveniently without limitations of environmental conditions, has low cost and needs less producing equipment, thereby being convenient for popularization and application.

GUISONG ZHANG

223

NASAL SPRAY DEVICE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This invention relates to a nasal spray device (1) for the delivery of a pharmaceutical formulation to the nasal cavity in metered doses. The device comprises: a pressurised aerosol canister (3) including a vial (4) containing a pharmaceutical formulation comprising an active ingredient, a propellant and, optionally, a co- solvent, the aerosol canister further including a metering valve (6) having a valve stem (8) and an actuator (2) for the aerosol canister, the actuator including a stem block (11) having a receptacle into which the valve stem of metering valve of the aerosol canister is received and axially located and being displaceable relative to the vial of the aerosol canister to actuate the metering valve of the aerosol canister, a sump (15) extending below the receptacle, the stem block further defining a discharge orifice (19) for the pharmaceutical formulation and a transfer channel (13) through which a dispensed dose of the pharmaceutical formulation is able to pass from the sump to the discharge orifice. The actuator further comprises a delivery outlet (12) for the aerosol plume, the discharge orifice being arranged to direct the aerosol plume through the delivery outlet, and wherein the device is adapted to produce an aerosol plume for a dispensed dose having a spray force value no greater than 40 mN measured at a distance of 30 mm from the discharge orifice. Use of the term formulation encompasses both solution and suspension formulations.

WALSH DECLAN; ZENG XIAN-MING; LY JADE; MORALES ARMANDO

224

Cartesian Control of a Spray-Painting Robot with Redundant Degrees of Freedom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A controller for redundant manipulators with a small, fast manipulator mounted on a positioning part has been developed. The controller distributes the fast motion to the small, fast manipulator and the slow, gross motion to the positioning part. A position reference is generated on-line to the positioning part to avoid singularities and the loss of degrees of freedom. This reference is selected according to an ad hoc procedure which makes the small, fast manipulator work around the centre of its working range. In the control system, the task space position vector is augmented with the generalized coordinates of the positioning part. The resulting augmented task space vector contains a set of generalized coordinates for the manipulator. Feedback linearization and decoupling are applied in the augmented task space to obtain a model consisting of decoupled double integrators. The low and high frequency motion is distributed by controlling the double integrators associated with the end effector with a high bandwidth, while the double integrators associated with the positioning part are controlled with a low bandwidth.

Olav Egeland; Jens G. Balchen

1987-01-01

225

Perhydrolase-nanotube paint composites with sporicidal and antiviral activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AcT (perhydrolase) containing paint composites were prepared leading to broad-spectrum decontamination. AcT was immobilized onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and then incorporated into latex-based paints to form catalytic coatings. These AcT-based paint composites showed a 6-log reduction in the viability of spores of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis (Sterne) within 60 min. The paint composites also showed >4-log reduction in the titer of influenza virus (X-31) within 10 min (initially challenged with 10(7) PFU/mL). AcT-based paint composites were also tested using various perhydrolase acyl donor substrates, including propylene glycol diacetate (PGD), glyceryl triacetate, and ethyl acetate, with PGD observed to be the best among the substrates tested for generation of peracetic acid and killing of bacillus spores. The operational stability of paint composites was also studied at different relative humidities and temperatures to simulate real-life operation.

Grover N; Douaisi MP; Borkar IV; Lee L; Dinu CZ; Kane RS; Dordick JS

2013-10-01

226

Advanced equipment for painting practice; Toso seko gijutsu no shinpo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Painting work has mostly depended on skilled workers with conventional tools. Painting areas on double-hull VLCC have increased to one-and-half times greater compared with the conventional single-hull VLCC. The painting work environment has also become worse due to the complicated double hull construction and shorter work period for cost reduction. To solve these problems, IHI has developed automated painting equipment that is applicable to each hull construction process, i.e., shop-primer shop, sub-assembly shop. assembly shop and dry-docking stage, which allows sequential work instead of independent work after hull construction. IHI now uses the new painting equipment and practical system to reduce manpower and to maintain painting quality. (author)

Suzuki, H.; Imada, T. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

1999-03-01

227

[Effectiveness of a repellent paint against the spider Loxosceles laeta].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Loxoscelism is a severe reaction to the bite of the spider Loxosceles laeta. In recent years, a paint with repellent properties has been promoted in the commerce. However, there are no reports of experiments evaluating its effectiveness. AIM: To evaluate experimentally the repellent properties of a paint against Loxosceles laeta. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Males, females and nymphs of L laeta were deposited in cockpits that allow the free displacement of the spider. Half of the cockpit was covered with repellent paint. Daily observations during one week, determined how frequently the spiders occupied the space covered with repellent paint. The experiments were run in triplicate. RESULTS: No statistical differences in the occupancy of spaces covered with repellent paint or not covered with it were observed for nymphs (87% and 67%, respectively), males (72% and 77%, respectively) or females (91% and 84%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The tested paint does not have a repellent action against the spider Loxosceles laeta.

Catalán A; Araya JE; Varela H; Cortés W; Sagua H; González Cortés J

2009-02-01

228

Tests of paints in the JRR-2 modification and the paint coating methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

JRR-2 was shut down in December 1973 in order to the lower shielding plug concerning its corrosion and other aspects. The tests of paints made in choosing suitable ones for the purpose and the works of coating with paints are described. Tests were on the radiation, heat, alkali and wear resistances and the adhesiveness before and after irradiation. For corrosion, radiation, heat and alkali resistance, the following were selected; polyamide imide (polymide resin) for sleeve, amercoat (epoxy resin) for inside of shielding vessel and black varnish (tar succession) for inside of plug etc. (auth.).

1977-01-01

229

Test Production of Anti-Corrosive Paint in Laboratory Scale  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main purpose of this project is to produce the anti-corrosive paint in laboratory scale. In these experiments, local raw materials, natural resin (shellac), pine oil, turpentine and ethyl alcohol wer applied basically. Laboratory trials were undrtaken to determine the suitablity of raw materials ane their composition for anti-corrosive paint manufacture.The results obtained show that the anti-corrosive paint from experiment No.(30) is suitable for steel plate and this is also considered commercially economics.

2003-01-01

230

Study of decontamination and radiation resistance properties of Indian paints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A brief introduction to the study of contamination and radiation resistance properties of Indian paints used as coating for structural materials in the nuclear industry is given. The general composition of paints such as epoxy, vinyl, alkyd, phenolic, chlesimated rubber, etc. is given. Method of sample preparation, processing and actual evaluation of decontaminability are described. The results have been discussed in terms of decontamination factors. Some recommendations based on the performance of the paints studied are also included. (K.B.)

1976-01-01

231

Influence of adding painted recyclated on polypropylene properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available These days just because of still increasing price of oil and its products there is tendency about using recycled plastics at full blast. That´s mainly in automotive industry where is produced great amount of plastic scrap added by painted layers. This article deals with examination influence of such painted layer on mechanical and rheological polymer properties which are necessary to know because of further possible using such painted recycled.

Ji?í Habr

2012-01-01

232

Smart Surfaces: New Coatings & Paints with Radiation Detection Functionality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Paints are being developed and tested that might ultimately be able to detect radiological agents in the environment by incorporating special pigments into an organic polymeric binder that can be applied as a paint or coatings. These paints detect radioactive sources and contaminants with inorganic or organic scintillation or thermo-luminescent pigments, which are selected based upon the radiation ({alpha}, {beta}, {gamma} or n) to be detected, and are shown in Figure 1.

Farmer, J; Choi, J

2007-03-12

233

Painting of human chromosome 8 in fifteen minutes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The technique of chromosome-in-situ suppression (CISS)-hybridization (chromosome painting) has now been well established. However, all standard protocols so far require long renaturation times (typically 12 hours and more). Here, we describe a new, extremely fast protocol for chromosome painting using a commercially available, directly fluorescence labelled probe for chromosome 8. The hybridization conditions used omit separate preannealing procedures and denaturing chemical agents. The renaturation time required for chromosome painting was reduced to 15 minutes. In addition, most washing steps were eliminated. As a consequence, the entire painting procedure was feasible in less than half an hour.

Durm M; Hausmann M; Aldinger K; Ludwig H; Cremer C

1996-05-01

234

Painting of human chromosome 8 in fifteen minutes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The technique of chromosome-in-situ suppression (CISS)-hybridization (chromosome painting) has now been well established. However, all standard protocols so far require long renaturation times (typically 12 hours and more). Here, we describe a new, extremely fast protocol for chromosome painting using a commercially available, directly fluorescence labelled probe for chromosome 8. The hybridization conditions used omit separate preannealing procedures and denaturing chemical agents. The renaturation time required for chromosome painting was reduced to 15 minutes. In addition, most washing steps were eliminated. As a consequence, the entire painting procedure was feasible in less than half an hour. PMID:8663904

Durm, M; Hausmann, M; Aldinger, K; Ludwig, H; Cremer, C

235

The certification of a new paint reference material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of paint as a coating for toys intended for sale on the European market is controlled by a European Standard (EN 71-3: 1994 - European Commission to produce a new paint reference material which can be used to validate the test methods given in the European Standard. The migration of elements from painted panels and comminuted paint produced by the Laboratory of the Government Chemist, (U.K.) was studied. Several methods were used in this certification exercise and this work reports the results of neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine the migration of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Se and Sb into a simulated stomach environment. Replicate extracts obtained from paint samples gave a precision of within 10% for most elements by both analytical techniques for the paint panels and for the comminuted paint sample. This preliminary study has shown that the standard method can provide reproducible results for each of the paint materials studied and indicates that the study should be continued to produce a fully certified paint reference material. (author)

1998-01-01

236

NASAL SPRAY DEVICE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A nasal spray device for the delivery of a pharmaceutical formulation to the nasal cavity in metered doses. The device includes: a pressurised aerosol canister including a vial containing a pharmaceutical formulation including an active ingredient, a propellant and, optionally, a co-solvent, the aerosol canister further including a metering valve having a valve stem and an actuator for the aerosol canister, the actuator including a stem block having a receptacle into which the valve stem of metering valve of the aerosol canister is received and axially located and being displaceable relative to the vial of the aerosol canister to actuate the metering valve of the aerosol canister, a sump extending below the receptacle, the stem block further defining a discharge orifice for the pharmaceutical formulation and a transfer channel through which a dispensed dose of the pharmaceutical formulation is able to pass from the sump to the discharge orifice.

ZENG XIAN-MING; WALSH DECLAN; LY JADE CHING-YING; MORALES ARMANDO

237

75 FR 38959 - Lead; Clearance and Clearance Testing Requirements for the Renovation, Repair, and Painting...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Clearance Testing Requirements for the Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program; Reopening...concerning several revisions to the 2008 Lead Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program (RRP...proposed several revisions to the 2008 Lead Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program...

2010-07-07

238

77 FR 76996 - Lead; Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program for Public and Commercial Buildings; Request for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...FRL-9373-7] RIN 2070-AJ56 Lead; Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program for...rulemaking (2010 ANPRM) concerning renovation, repair, and painting activities on...affected by this action if you perform renovations, repairs, or painting activities...

2012-12-31

239

78 FR 27906 - Lead; Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program for Public and Commercial Buildings; Notice of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...FRL-9385-6] RIN 2070-AJ56 Lead; Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program for...proposed rulemaking (ANPRM) concerning renovation, repair, and painting activities in...this action if you manage or perform renovations, repairs, or painting activities...

2013-05-13

240

Combustion of liquid paint wastes in fluidized bed boiler as element of waste management system in the paint factory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper the solution to waste problems in the paint industry is presented by describing their combustion in a fluidized bed boiler as a part of the waste management system in the paint factory. Based on the Cleaner Production idea and concept of integration of design process with a future exploitation of equipment, some modifications of the waste management scheme in the factory are discussed to reduce the quantity of toxic wastes. To verify this concept combustion tests of paint production wastes and cocombustion of paint wastes with coal in an adopted industrial boiler were done. Results of these tests are presented in the paper.

Soko, W.A.; Biaecka, B. [Central Mining Inst., Katowice (Poland). National Center for Implementation of Cleaner Production

1998-12-31

 
 
 
 
241

Constrained Response Surface Optimisation and Taguchi Methods for Precisely Atomising Spraying Process  

Science.gov (United States)

This research presents a development of a design of experiment technique for quality improvement in automotive manufacturing industrial. The quality of interest is the colour shade, one of the key feature and exterior appearance for the vehicles. With low percentage of first time quality, the manufacturer has spent a lot of cost for repaired works as well as the longer production time. To permanently dissolve such problem, the precisely spraying condition should be optimized. Therefore, this work will apply the full factorial design, the multiple regression, the constrained response surface optimization methods or CRSOM, and Taguchi's method to investigate the significant factors and to determine the optimum factor level in order to improve the quality of paint shop. Firstly, 2? full factorial was employed to study the effect of five factors including the paint flow rate at robot setting, the paint levelling agent, the paint pigment, the additive slow solvent, and non volatile solid at spraying of atomizing spraying machine. The response values of colour shade at 15 and 45 degrees were measured using spectrophotometer. Then the regression models of colour shade at both degrees were developed from the significant factors affecting each response. Consequently, both regression models were placed into the form of linear programming to maximize the colour shade subjected to 3 main factors including the pigment, the additive solvent and the flow rate. Finally, Taguchi's method was applied to determine the proper level of key variable factors to achieve the mean value target of colour shade. The factor of non volatile solid was found to be one more additional factor at this stage. Consequently, the proper level of all factors from both experiment design methods were used to set a confirmation experiment. It was found that the colour shades, both visual at 15 and 45 angel of measurement degrees of spectrophotometer, were nearly closed to the target and the defective at quality gate was also reduced from 0.35 WDPV to 0.10 WDPV. This reveals that the objective of this research is met and this procedure can be used as quality improvement guidance for paint shop of automotive vehicle.

Luangpaiboon, P.; Suwankham, Y.; Homrossukon, S.

2010-10-01

242

Detailed fuel spray analysis techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fuel spray analyses which are a necessary input to the analytical modeling of the complex mixing and combustion processes which occur in advanced combustor systems are discussed. It is anticipated that by controlling fuel air reaction conditions, combustor temperatures can be better controlled, leading to improved combustion system durability. The capability to measure liquid droplet size, velocity, and number density throughout a fuel spray and to utilize this measurement technique in laboratory benchmark experiments was demonstrated. The experiment to characterize fuel sprays is described. The experiments and data are useful for application to and validation of turbulent flow modeling to improve the design systems of future advanced technology engines.

Mularz, E.J.; Bosque, M.A.

1984-01-01

243

Spray dryer capacity stretched 50%  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article describes plant equipment modifications which has resulted in a 50% increase in spray drying capacity. The installation of a new atomizer and screening system in NL Chemicals' Newberry Springs plant which produces natural clays for use as rheological additives in industrial coatings, cosmetics and other products, resulted in a 50% increase in spray drying capacity. Energy consumption per pound of product was reduced by 7%, and product quality improved. This was achieved in less than three months at an investment of less than 10% of what an additional spray dryer would have cost.

Paraskevas, J.

1983-01-01

244

Brush up your painting skills - Realistic brush design for interactive painting applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most present-day interactive paint applications lack the means of adequately capturing a user's gestures and translating them into realistic and predictable strokes, despite the importance of such a mechanism. We present a novel brush design that adopts constrained energy optimization to deform the ...

VAN LAERHOVEN, Tom; VAN REETH, Frank

245

Immunodetection of proteins in ancient paint media.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Diagnostic immunology is a powerful tool, widely used in clinical and biochemical laboratories for detecting molecules. In recent years, the technique has been adapted to materials sciences as a result of the extensive advances achieved in immunology. Today, many companies supply custom antibodies as well as new high-performance bioprobes for virtually any use. The idea of using immunodetection in the field of conservation science is not new. This analytical methodology is, in fact, particularly attractive for investigating biopolymers in painting materials; it is highly sensitive and selective with respect to the biological source of the target molecules. Among biopolymers, proteins have been widely used in the past as painting binders, adhesives, and additives in coating layers. An accurate assessment of these materials is necessary to obtain deeper insights into an artist's technique as well as to design proper restoration and conservation methods. In spite of the diagnostic potential offered by immunodetection-based techniques, some analytical drawbacks had, until recently, limited their use in routine applications in conservation science. In this Account, we highlight the most important results achieved in our research on the development of analytical methodologies based on the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immuno-fluorescence microscopy (IFM) techniques for the highly sensitive and specific identification of proteins in artistic and archeological materials. ELISA and IFM offer two alternative analytical routes to this final goal: ELISA provides a fast, cost-effective, quantitative analysis of microsamples put in solution, whereas IFM combines the immunodetection of the targeted molecules with the characterization of their spatial distribution. The latter approach is of great value in the stratigraphic investigation of paintings. We discuss the limits and strengths of these methodologies in the context of the complex matrixes usually found in the investigated materials and the prolonged aging that they have undergone. Immunology is a relatively new technique in conservation science, providing a rich new field for innovation. We see two areas that are particularly ripe for future contributions. The commercial manufacture of antibodies specifically tailored for use in cultural heritage studies holds enormous potential. Moreover, the need for further refinement of detection systems in immuno-fluorescence techniques, especially the suppression of the autofluorescence background in painting materials, offers an abundance of opportunities for researchers. Immunology is a relatively new technique in conservation science, providing a rich new field for innovation.

Cartechini L; Vagnini M; Palmieri M; Pitzurra L; Mello T; Mazurek J; Chiari G

2010-06-01

246

Mechanism of paint removing by organic solvents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mechanism of paint removing has been studied by comparing the stripping efficiency of a given solvent with its ability to swell the film. The most effective solvents have a Hildebrand{close_quote}s parameter, {delta}{sub H}, ranging from 10.5 to 12 and a Dimroth parameter, ET{sub (30)}, ranging from 0.25 to 0.4. The synergy observed with the mixtures DMSO/non polar solvent is explained by a dissociation of the DMSO clusters into individual molecules which diffuse more easily. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Del Nero, V.; Siat, C.; Marti, M.J.; Aubry, J.M. [Laboratoire de Chimie de Formulation, ENSCL, 59652 Villeneuve d`Ascq Cedex (France); Lallier, J.P. [C.A.L., Elf-Atochem, 92300 Levallois-Perret (France); Dupuy, N.; Huvenne, J.P. [LASIR, U.S.Y.L., 59650 Villeneuve d`Ascq. (France)

1996-01-01

247

Idea Bank: The Paint Chip Lab  

Science.gov (United States)

Early on in the study of physical science, students must grasp concepts associated with the periodic table. A perfect way to introduce periodicity and periodic groups is by using paint chip color samples. The color progression (red-orange-yellow-green-blue-purple) resembles the periodic properties on the table, and the color shade (light to dark) resembles the trends within the groups. This inquiry-based, hands-on lesson is sure to help students learn about one of the key concepts of basic chemistry.

Wallingford, Lisa

2006-07-01

248

Spray powder-coating system  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A spray powder-coating system comprising at least one flow throttle (8, 34) in a compressed-air line of an injector (2). An electronic control unit (50) non-linearly controls the throttle as a function of setpoints.

HAAS GERALD

249

Fundamental studies of spray combustion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our research on laminar and turbulent flows involving sprays without and with flames is reviewed. The advantages of studying counterflowing and impinging streams and examples of our efforts in each are discussed.

Li, S.C.; Libby, P.A.; Williams, F.A. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

1994-12-31

250

Photonic Paint Developed with Metallic Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work details the design and simulation of an inconspicuous photonic paint that can be applied onto an object for anticounterfeit and tag, track, and locate (TTL) applications. The paint consists of three-dimensional metallic tilted woodpile photonic crystals embedded into a visible and infrared...

Po Sun; John D. Williams

251

Paint and varnish coatings for protection of oil field equipment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results are presented from experiments to produce paint and varnish coatings. As the film-former, a synthetic resin is used which was attained by the radiation method. The obtained varnish, enamel and paint are recommended for protecting oil field equipment.

Melikzade, M.M.; Yakubov, K.M.

1981-01-01

252

Fire-Retardant Paint Systems for Nuclear Submarine Interiors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Navy needs a fire-retardant paint for submarine interiors that will release little or no toxic materials into the atmosphere during and after application. The paint should possess good leveling properties so that an attractive surface free of brush ma...

T. R. Walton

1969-01-01

253

Rock painting, S03223, Groblersdal, Mpumalanga, South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The image reproduced here is a fine-line rock painting in the hunter-gatherer or 'San' style. The slender yellow human figure is painted on top of earlier red animal and human figures. This superpositioning is not accidental nor is it vandalism. Rather, San artists believed they were adding to the s...

Woodhouse, Herbert Charles, 1919-2011

254

Discrimination of paint emission using an electronic nose  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several paints of two types were chosen to assess an air quality monitoring tool based on an electronic nose. We are trying to improve the discrimination capability of the system by means of pattern recognition techniques. The electronic nose we use is based on conducting polymer sensors. The paint ...

Ramalho, Olivier; Regoui, Chaouki; Kirchner, Séverine

255

SUBSTRATE EFFECTS ON VOC EMISSIONS FROM A LATEX PAINT  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of two substrates -- a stainless steel plate and a gypsum board -- on the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from a latex paint were evaluated by environmental chamber tests. It was found that the amount of VOCs emitted from the painted stainless steel was 2 to...

256

Dissolution of organic solvents from painted surfaces into water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presence of volatile iodine in containment buildings is one of the major safety concerns in the potential event of nuclear reactor accidents. Organic impurities in containment water, originating from various painted structural surfaces and organic materials, could have a significant impact on iodine volatility following an accident. To determine the source and magnitude of organic impurities and their effects on time-dependent iodine volatility, the dissolution for organic constituents from paints used in reactor buildings has been studied under postulated accident conditions. The studies of the organic dissolution from carbon steel coupons coated with zinc-primed vinyl, epoxy-primed polyurethane or epoxy paints over the temperature range 25-90 deg C are reported. Relatively large activation energies were measured for the release of the principal organic compounds from painted surfaces, suggesting it is the release of the solvents from the paint matrix rather than their diffusion through the solution that is the rate determining step for the dissolution mechanism. The similarities in the values of activation energies for the dissolution of different organic compounds from the paints suggest the release rate is independent of the nature of the painted surface or the type of organic being released from the surface. These two observations indicate that it may be possible to write a generalized rate expression for the release of organic compounds from painted surfaces in containment following an accident. The possible implications of these results for predicting iodine volatility in containment are also discussed. (author)

2000-01-01

257

Digital Image Processing in Painting Restoration and Archiving  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Digital image processing and analysis can be an important tool for the restoration of works of art. This paper presents three applications of image processing in this field: a method for digital crack restoration of paintings, a technique for color restoration of old paintings and a method for mosai...

Nikolaidis, N.; Pitas, I.

258

Work tasks, chemical exposure and respiratory health in construction painting.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is insufficient knowledge about the role of house painting tasks and chemical exposure in the respiratory health of construction workers. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted of 1,000 Finnish male construction painters and 1,000 carpenters (response rates 60.6% and 60.4%, respectively). Multivariate logistic regression models were adjusted for age, smoking, and atopy. RESULTS: Outdoor painting, more than indoor painting, was associated with asthma-like respiratory symptoms [odds ratios (OR) 2.7-6.5], rhinitis symptoms [OR 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-5.2], asthma (OR 4.7, 95% CI: 1.4-16.1), and chronic bronchitis (OR 2.9, 95% CI: 1.0-8.4) when compared to carpentry work. Risk factors for respiratory symptoms and chronic bronchitis were the use of epoxy/urethane paints, putties, and plasters and the use of glues or traditional paints. Water-based paints were not a common cause of symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Special attention should be paid to work methods and personal protection, not only in outdoor painting, but also in all filling, plastering, and sanding tasks. The shift from epoxy/urethane and other solvent-based paints to water-based products should be further encouraged.

Kaukiainen A; Martikainen R; Riala R; Reijula K; Tammilehto L

2008-01-01

259

Fore-Edge Paintings at the Lilly Library  

Science.gov (United States)

Indiana University's Lilly Library has a wonderful online exhibit of the always beautiful fore-edge paintings. The fore-edge paintings in the exhibition are the "vanishing" type, which means they are only visible when the book is fanned open. The exhibit also limits its works to those "vanishing" fore-edge paintings from the late 18th century to the 20th century which began in the shop of Edwards of Halifax, a bookbinder. The menu on the left hand side of the website divides the works up into several different types, such as "Highest Quality", "Individual Artists", "The Picturesque", and "Vertical Paintings". Within "The Picturesque" category, are such subcategories of "Castles", "Cities", "Water Scenes", and "Foreign Scenes". In the "Vertical Paintings" category are three paintings, the first of which is not a "vanishing" type of fore-edge painting at all. Visitors should not miss the second painting, not only because it is lovely, but also because it is a Chinese scene from the 1500s, which is radically different from the other European inspired works.

260

Spray drying and vaccine stabilization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on spray drying as a processing method to improve vaccine stabilization and to enable novel routes of vaccine delivery has produced promising results; however, the method has yet to be adopted for the manufacture of vaccine products by the pharmaceutical industry. This article reviews the status of spray-drying technology and discusses barriers and opportunities for its future application to vaccines. PMID:23176654

McAdams, David; Chen, Dexiang; Kristensen, Debra

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
261

Characterization of chemical agent transport in paints.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A combination of vacuum-based vapor emission measurements with a mass transport model was employed to determine the interaction of chemical warfare agents with various materials, including transport parameters of agents in paints. Accurate determination of mass transport parameters enables the simulation of the chemical agent distribution in a material for decontaminant performance modeling. The evaluation was performed with the chemical warfare agents bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide (distilled mustard, known as the chemical warfare blister agent HD) and O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX), an organophosphate nerve agent, deposited on to two different types of polyurethane paint coatings. The results demonstrated alignment between the experimentally measured vapor emission flux and the predicted vapor flux. Mass transport modeling demonstrated rapid transport of VX into the coatings; VX penetrated through the aliphatic polyurethane-based coating (100?m) within approximately 107min. By comparison, while HD was more soluble in the coatings, the penetration depth in the coatings was approximately 2× lower than VX. Applications of mass transport parameters include the ability to predict agent uptake, and subsequent long-term vapor emission or contact transfer where the agent could present exposure risks. Additionally, these parameters and model enable the ability to perform decontamination modeling to predict how decontaminants remove agent from these materials.

Willis MP; Gordon W; Lalain T; Mantooth B

2013-09-01

262

Application of infrared and Raman spectroscopy in paint trace examination.  

Science.gov (United States)

Raman spectroscopy has proved to be a promising technique in forensic examinations, where optical microscopy, micro-infrared spectroscopy, and microspectrophotometry in the visible and UV range are used for identification and differentiation between paint traces. Often no organic pigments are detected using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, because their content in a trace is usually undetectable. Application of a micro-Raman spectrometer equipped with several excitation lasers helps forensic experts in paint analysis enabling identification of main pigments. Three cases concerning comparative examination of car paint are discussed in detail. The comparison of Raman spectra of paint chips found on clothing of a victim or smears found on body of a damaged car to these of paint chips originated from the suspected car enabled us to identify the car involved in the accident. When no comparative material is available, the method can be useful in establishing the color and make of the car. PMID:23865525

Zi?ba-Palus, Janina; Trzci?ska, Beata M

2013-07-18

263

Service-Learning General Chemistry: Lead Paint Analyses  

Science.gov (United States)

Houses painted with lead-based paints are ubiquitous in the United States because the houses and the paint have not worn out two decades after federal regulations prohibited inclusion of lead in paint. Remodeling older homes thus poses a health threat for infants and small children living in those homes. In a service-learning general chemistry class, students disseminate information about this health threat in an older neighborhood. At some of the homes they collect paint samples that they analyze for lead both qualitatively and quantitatively. This service-learning experience generates enthusiasm for general chemistry through the process of working on a "real" problem. Sample collection familiarizes the students with the concept of "representative" sampling. The sample preparation for atomic absorption spectroscopic (AAS) analysis enhances their laboratory skills. The focus of this paper is on the mechanics of integrating this particular service project into the first-term of the normal general chemistry course.

Kesner, Laya; Eyring, Edward M.

1999-07-01

264

A new momenclature for structural aberrations detected by chromosome painting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The advent of chromosome painting has brought the realization that structural aberrations can be far more complex than previously imagined. Different laboratories have devised their own nomenclature systems to deal with this complexity, with the result that the terminology has become inconsistent and confusing. Recently, an international group of cytogeneticists experienced with chromosome painting convened to address this issue. The result is a systematic nomenclature capable of describing chromosome aberrations occurring between painted and unpainted chromosomes, as well as aberrations involving only painted chromosomes. The nomenclature is flexible enough to describe accurately even the most extensively rearranged chromosomes. As a consequence of this flexibility, the scheme upon which the nomenclature is based differs substantially from other systems of aberration classification. We call this system the Protocol for Aberration Identification and Nomenclature Terminology (PAINT).

Tucker, J.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States); Morgan, W.F. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Awa, A.A. [RERF, Hiroshima (Japan); Bauchinger, M. [Institut fur Strahlenbiologie, Obershleissheim (Germany); Blakey, D. [Health and Welfare, Ontario (Canada); Cornforth, N.N. [Univ. of Texas Med. Branch, Galveston, TX (United States); Littlefield, L.G. [Oak Ridge Institute Science and Education, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Natarajan, A.T. [State Univ., Leiden (Netherlands); Shasserre, C. [Imagenetics, Inc., Naperville, IL (United States)

1994-12-31

265

Application of infrared and Raman spectroscopy in paint trace examination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Raman spectroscopy has proved to be a promising technique in forensic examinations, where optical microscopy, micro-infrared spectroscopy, and microspectrophotometry in the visible and UV range are used for identification and differentiation between paint traces. Often no organic pigments are detected using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, because their content in a trace is usually undetectable. Application of a micro-Raman spectrometer equipped with several excitation lasers helps forensic experts in paint analysis enabling identification of main pigments. Three cases concerning comparative examination of car paint are discussed in detail. The comparison of Raman spectra of paint chips found on clothing of a victim or smears found on body of a damaged car to these of paint chips originated from the suspected car enabled us to identify the car involved in the accident. When no comparative material is available, the method can be useful in establishing the color and make of the car.

Zi?ba-Palus J; Trzci?ska BM

2013-09-01

266

Preparation of Perfluorinated Surfactant Activates for Antifouling Paints  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antifouling paints are the most reliable way to prevent biofouling of submerged surfaces. The high toxicity of organotin paints, prompted us to look for ideas to develop paints that do not present environmental risks. In this work, we prepare a painting by a modification of acrylic acid monomer containing a free carboxyl group. The biocide that is selected is the perfluorinated chain with eight carbons. Chemical modifications of the resins are made through a radical reaction. The magnitudes of changes are monitored by proton nuclear magnetic resonance NMR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and the light scattering (LS) at a fixed angle 90?. The glass transition temperature of the surfactant is obtained by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The antifouling properties of the paint are followed by exposure of panels to the marine environment by visual observation.

A. Bacha; R. Méghabar

2012-01-01

267

Rapid new methods for paint collection and lead extraction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chronic exposure of children to lead can result in permanent physiological impairment. In adults, it can cause irritability, poor muscle coordination, and nerve damage to the sense organs and nerves controlling the body. Surfaces coated with lead-containing paints are potential sources of exposure to lead. In April 2008, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized new requirements that would reduce exposure to lead hazards created by renovation, repair, and painting activities, which disturb lead-based paint. On-site, inexpensive identification of lead-based paint is required. Two steps have been taken to meet this challenge. First, this paper presents a new, highly efficient method for paint collection that is based on the use of a modified wood drill bit. Second, this paper presents a novel, one-step approach for quantitatively grinding and extracting lead from paint samples for subsequent lead determination. This latter method is based on the use of a high-revolutions per minute rotor with stator to break up the paint into approximately 50 micron-size particles. Nitric acid (25%, v/v) is used to extract the lead in <3 minutes. Recoveries are consistently >95% for real-world paints, National Institute of Standards and Technology's standard reference materials, and audit samples from the American Industrial Hygiene Association's Environmental Lead Proficiency Analytical Testing Program. This quantitative extraction procedure, when paired with quantitative paint sample collection and lead determination, may enable the development of a lead paint test kit that will meet the specifications of the final EPA rule.

Gutknecht WF; Harper SL; Winstead W; Sorrell K; Binstock DA; Salmons CA; Haas C; McCombs M; Studabaker W; Wall CV; Moore C

2009-01-01

268

CAPSTONE REPORT ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF A STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR VOC EMISSIONS FROM INTERIOR LATEX PAINT AND ALKYD PAINTS  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives details of a small-chamber test method developed by the EPA for characterizing volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from interior latex and alkyd paints. Current knowledge about VOC, including hazardous air pollutant, emissions from interior paints generated...

269

CHARACTERIZATION OF LOW-VOC LATEX PAINTS: VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND CONTENT, VOC AND ALDEHYDE EMISSIONS, AND PAINT PERFORMANCE  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of laboratory tests to evaluate commercially available latex paints advertised as "low-odor," "low-VOC (volatile organic compound)," or "no-VOC." Measurements were performed to quantify the total content of VOCs in the paints...

270

Spray Lakes reclamation project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When the level of the Spray Lakes (Alberta) reservoir was lowered by four metres, 208 ha of shoreline was exposed offering little to no wildlife benefit and only limited recreation potential. A reclamation plan for 128 ha of shoreline was therefore developed. A wild life-palatable, self-sustaining vegetation cover was established. Approximately 90 ha was scarified, and/or had tree stumps removed prior to seeding, while approximately 40 ha was seeded and fertilized only. The remaining 80 ha of shoreline was not revegetated due to limited access; these areas will be allowed to re-establish naturally from the forested edge. The species were selected based on their adaptation to alkaline soils, drought tolerance, persistence in a stand and rooting characteristics, as well as palatability to wildlife. Alfalfa, white clover and fall rye were seeded. In general, all areas of the reclamation plan are successfully revegetated. Areas which were recontoured are stable and non-eroding. Success was most significant in areas which had been scarified, then seeded and trackpacked. Areas that were seeded and fertilized only were less well established at the end of the first year, but showed improvement in the second and third years. The area will be monitored to ensure the reclaimed vegetation is self-sustaining.

Zacaruk, M.R. [TransAlta Utilities Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

1996-12-31

271

Sprays in containment: Final results of the SARNET spray benchmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Modelling of nuclear reactor containment sprays is assessed through codes benchmarking. ? This benchmark is proposed in the frame of the European network of excellence, SARNET. ? Spray thermodynamics as well as gas entrainment and atmosphere mixing is studied here. ? Four types of experiments are proposed on the TOSQAN and MISTRA facilities. ? The code level of validation of is encouraging for the use of spray modelling for risk analysis. - Abstract: The influence of containment sprays on atmosphere behaviour, a sub-task of the Work Package WP12-2 CAM (Containment Atmosphere Mixing), has been investigated through benchmark exercises based on TOSQAN (IRSN) and MISTRA (CEA) experiments. These tests are being simulated with lumped-parameter (LP) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. Both atmosphere depressurization and mixing are being studied in two phases: a 'thermalhydraulic part', which deals with depressurization by sprays (TOSQAN 101 and MISTRA MASPn), and a 'dynamic part', dealing with light gas stratification break-up by spray (TOSQAN 113 and MISTRA MARC2b). In the thermalhydraulic part of the benchmark, participants have found the appropriate modelling to obtain good global results in terms of experimental pressure and mean gas temperature, for both TOSQAN and MISTRA tests. It can thus be considered that code users have a good knowledge of their spray modelling parameters. On a local level, for the TOSQAN test, single droplet behaviour is found to be well estimated by some calculations, but the global modelling of multiple droplets, i.e. of the spray, specifically for the spray dilution, is questionable in some CFD calculations. It can lead to some discrepancies localized in the spray region and can thus have a high impact on the global results, since most of the heat and mass transfers occur inside this region. In the MISTRA tests, wall condensation mass flow rates and local temperatures were used for code-experiment comparison and show that improvement of the local modelling, including initial conditions determination, is needed. In this dynamic part, a general result, in both tests, is that calculations do not recover the same kinetics of the mixing. Furthermore, concerning global mixing, LP contributions seem not suitable here. For the TOSQAN benchmark, the one-phase CFD calculations recover partially the phenomena involved during the mixing, whereas the two-phase flow CFD contributions generally recover the phenomena. Moreover, one important result is also that none of the contributions finds the exact amount of helium remaining in the dome above the spray nozzle in the TOSQAN 113. Discrepancies are rather high (above 5%vol of helium). Results are thus encouraging, but the level of validation should be improved. The same kind of conclusions can be drawn for the MISTRA MARC2B tests. As a conclusion of this SARNET spray benchmark, the level of validation obtained here is encouraging for the use of spray modelling for risk analysis. However, some more detailed investigations are needed to improve model parameters and decrease the uncertainty for containment applications as well as to increase the predictability of the phenomena within the containment analyses. Further activities are well encouraged on this topic, such as numerical benchmarks on analytical separate-effect experiments.

2011-01-01

272

The perils of paint-balling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

While paint-balling a 15-year-old boy was shot on the front of his face guard causing him to hyperextend his neck. Over the next few days he developed neck stiffness and a large painful swelling over his upper left sternocleidomastoid muscle. CT confirmed this to be a haematoma abscess and at operation it was found to originate from the parapharyngeal vessels, extending from the skull base and tracking inferiorly along the carotid sheath, compressing (and partially thrombosing) the internal jugular vein (IJV). After surgical decompression, double-dose low molecular weight heparin and antibiotics, the patient made an uneventful recovery, including recanalisation of his IJV. Delayed cervical haematoma can result in neck space infection and potential airway compromise. Early CT scanning optimises timely intervention, consisting of airway protection, broad-spectrum antibiotics and surgical drainage.

McKay-Davies I; Tweedie D; Pitkin L

2011-01-01

273

The perils of paint-balling.  

Science.gov (United States)

While paint-balling a 15-year-old boy was shot on the front of his face guard causing him to hyperextend his neck. Over the next few days he developed neck stiffness and a large painful swelling over his upper left sternocleidomastoid muscle. CT confirmed this to be a haematoma abscess and at operation it was found to originate from the parapharyngeal vessels, extending from the skull base and tracking inferiorly along the carotid sheath, compressing (and partially thrombosing) the internal jugular vein (IJV). After surgical decompression, double-dose low molecular weight heparin and antibiotics, the patient made an uneventful recovery, including recanalisation of his IJV. Delayed cervical haematoma can result in neck space infection and potential airway compromise. Early CT scanning optimises timely intervention, consisting of airway protection, broad-spectrum antibiotics and surgical drainage. PMID:22707547

McKay-Davies, I; Tweedie, D; Pitkin, L

2011-02-23

274

Postural tremor induced by paint sniffing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Volatile substance abuse is the intentional inhalation of volatile solvents, aerosols, gases or nitrates for the purpose of intoxication. This practice is more common among young people, due, in part, to the low cost and ready availability of these inhalants. In this report, we present the case of a 22-year-old male with a seven-year history of chronic paint sniffing. The patient presented with vigorous postural and kinetic tremor in both hands. A neurological examination revealed a bilateral, non-fatiguing geotropic positional nystagmus and a mild ataxia together with dysdiadochokinesis. He also had a mild chronic encephalopathy. Following treatment with clonazepam, the tremors subsided, but were not completely controlled.

Gautschi Oliver; Cadosch Dieter; Zellweger Rene

2007-01-01

275

Contact allergy to aziridine paint hardener.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A painter experienced an extensive dermatitis when exposed to a paint primer (undercoating) used to protect wood siding. The primer was an acrylic emulsion with a polyfunctional aziridine added as a self-curing cross-linker or hardener. The polyfunctional aziridine cross-linker was made by reacting propyleneimine with a polyfunctional acrylate, trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA). Our patient reacted to the cross-linker and also reacted to TMPTA, which is present in excess in the cross-linker. He also cross-reacted to pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA). Both TMPTA and PETA can be used in the production of aziridine hardeners and both are well known as sensitizers in radiation-dried acrylic printing inks and coatings.

Cofield BG; Storrs FJ; Strawn CB

1985-03-01

276

Contact allergy to aziridine paint hardener.  

Science.gov (United States)

A painter experienced an extensive dermatitis when exposed to a paint primer (undercoating) used to protect wood siding. The primer was an acrylic emulsion with a polyfunctional aziridine added as a self-curing cross-linker or hardener. The polyfunctional aziridine cross-linker was made by reacting propyleneimine with a polyfunctional acrylate, trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA). Our patient reacted to the cross-linker and also reacted to TMPTA, which is present in excess in the cross-linker. He also cross-reacted to pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA). Both TMPTA and PETA can be used in the production of aziridine hardeners and both are well known as sensitizers in radiation-dried acrylic printing inks and coatings. PMID:3156563

Cofield, B G; Storrs, F J; Strawn, C B

1985-03-01

277

Radiation-polymerisable paint and its applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A paint polymerisable under the effect of a radiation is presented. The main components, excluding non-polymerisable solvent, pigment, initiator and particle charge, are as follows: about 90 to 10 parts of a saturated thermoplastic vinyl polymer of average molecular mass around 2000 to 250,000, prepared from monofunctional vinyl monomers to the extent of at least 85% by weight; about 10 to 90 parts of vinyl monomer solvent for the polymer, up to 90% by weight of the solvent consisting of monovinyl monomers and the remainder being chosen amongst divinyl, trivinyl, tetravinyl monomers and their mixtures. The average molecular weight of the thermoplastic vinyl polymer has between 5000 and 50,000

1974-08-31

278

Postural tremor induced by paint sniffing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Volatile substance abuse is the intentional inhalation of volatile solvents, aerosols, gases or nitrates for the purpose of intoxication. This practice is more common among young people, due, in part, to the low cost and ready availability of these inhalants. In this report, we present the case of a 22-year-old male with a seven-year history of chronic paint sniffing. The patient presented with vigorous postural and kinetic tremor in both hands. A neurological examination revealed a bilateral, non-fatiguing geotropic positional nystagmus and a mild ataxia together with dysdiadochokinesis. He also had a mild chronic encephalopathy. Following treatment with clonazepam, the tremors subsided, but were not completely controlled.

Gautschi OP; Cadosch D; Zellweger R

2007-10-01

279

Spraying device of agricultural spraying machine with variable fogdrop diameter  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a spraying device of an agricultural spraying machine with variable fogdrop diameter, comprising an atomizing disk 2 driven by a motor 3, a fan blade 5 driven by a motor 4, an electromagnetic valve 7, a control circuit 1, a liquid medicine inlet pipeline 6 and a shell. The spraying device is characterized in that pesticide liquid medicine in the liquid medicine inlet pipeline 6 flows to the atomizing disk 2 driven by the motor 3 through the electromagnetic valve 7 for atomizing, and the atomized fogdrops are driven by wind power of the fan blade 5 driven by the motor 4 to be sprayed to crops. In the spraying device, the rotate speed of the atomizing disk and the motor driving the fan blade as well as the time for connecting or disconnecting the electromagnetic valve 7 are controlled by the control circuit 1, wherein the higher the rotate speed of the motor 3 is, the smaller the diameter of the fogdrop atomized by the atomizing disk 2 is the higher the rotate speed of the motor 4 is, the larger the air volume of the fan blade 5 is. The diameter of the fogdrop atomized by the atomizing disk 2 can be changed between 10 microns and 90 microns, and the air volume of the fan blade 5 also has a change range the fan blade can be replaced by a high-pressure air pump 9, a vent pipe 10, an electromagnetic valve 11 and an air nozzle 12 a single-chip microcomputer, a RS485 and a host computer communication interface are arranged in the control circuit 1 and a single spraying device can be conveniently controlled by the host computer.

LUSHOU SHAO; QUAN LIU; KEJIAN DING; LIANGCUN QIAN; JING ZHOU; DELIN WU; CHENGMAO CAO; WEIJUN XU; BING LI; LIYI ZHU; YANYAN CHEN; JIANHUI ZHU; HAIJUAN LIU; CHUAN WANG

280

Powder-based skin spray  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The application relates to a spray for skin-hygiene and/or cosmetic purposes based on a spray powder, comprising: an essentially sealed pressurized container provided with means for the controlled delivery of the spray powder from the container; a spray powder that comprises at least one compound that is suitable for skin-hygiene and/or cosmetic purposes, the particle size of said compound being such that at least 10% by weight of the particles is larger than 10 µm; at least one propellant gas chosen from the class comprising the hydrofluoroalkane compounds; and, optionally, further carriers and/or additives for skin sprays known per se. The compound that is suitable for skin-hygiene and/or cosmetic purposes is preferably chosen from the class comprising the imidazole compounds and/or allylamine compounds, in particular from miconazole, econazole or salts thereof that are acceptable for skin-hygiene and/or cosmetic purposes. The propellant gas is preferably chosen from the class comprising the HFA propellant gases, in particular HFA 134a, HFA 152a and HFA 123a.

Vandamme Patricia Liliane; Coremans Gerrit Alfons

 
 
 
 
281

Immunotoxicity and pulmonary toxicity induced by paints in Egyptian painters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Associations between painting, sensitization, and respiratory disease have received little attention, despite the extensive use of paint and paint removal products. The objectives of this study were to investigate the possible immunotoxicity and pulmonary toxicity induced by paints in Egyptian painter workers. This study was carried out on 60 adult males. Subjects were designated as controls (n = 30 healthy persons) or paint-exposed workers (n = 30). The controls and workers were then divided into four equal groups (15 individuals/group): Group I, Control group-never smoked; Group II, Smoker controls; Groups III, paint-exposed non-smoking workers; and Group IV, paint-exposed smoker workers. A complete physical examination, chest radiograph, and pulmonary function test (PFT) were performed with each subject. Serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) E and interleukin (IL)-4, -6, and -10, WBC sub-set counts, total numbers of WBC, and leukocyte differentials were also assessed. The pulmonary toxicity due to the paint exposures appeared in the form of allergic manifestations in the respiratory tract, significant reductions in FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio and PEF parameters, and a reticular pattern in both lung fields. Immunotoxicity was evidenced by increases in total leukocyte levels, total lymphocytes, CD8(+) T-lymphocytes, B (CD19(+))-lymphocytes, NK (CD3(+)CD16(+)CD56(+)) cells, and eosinophils, as well as a significant decrease in CD4+ T-lymphocyte; there were also significant elevations in serum IgE, IL-4, and IL-6, and a significant reduction in IL-10, levels in these hosts. Based on these results, we assert that repeated paint exposure is associated with pulmonary and immune system toxicities that may lead to an augmentation of allergic diseases.

El-Gharabawy RM; El-Maddah EI; Oreby MM; Salem HS; Ramadan MO

2013-07-01

282

Plasma spraying process of disperse carbides for spraying and facing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A possibility to metallize carbides in plasma of impulsing capacitor discharge is considered. Powders granulation occurs during plasma spraying process, ceramic core being completely capped. X-ray phase and chemical analyses of coatings did not show considerable changes of carbon content in carbides before and after plasma processing. This distinguishes the process of carbides metallization in impulsing plasma from the similar processing in arc and high-frequency plasma generator. Use of powder composites produced in the impulsing capacitor discharge, for plasma spraying and laser facing permits 2-3 times increasing wear resistance of the surface layer as against the coatings produced from mechanical powders mixtures.

1989-01-01

283

Photonic Paint Developed with Metallic Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work details the design and simulation of an inconspicuous photonic paint that can be applied onto an object for anticounterfeit and tag, track, and locate (TTL) applications. The paint consists of three-dimensional metallic tilted woodpile photonic crystals embedded into a visible and infrared transparent polymer film, which can be applied to almost any surface. The tilted woodpile photonic crystals are designed with a specific pass band detectable at nearly all incident angles of light. When painted onto a surface, these crystals provide a unique reflective infra-red optical signature that can be easily observed and recorded to verify the location or contents of a package.

Po Sun; John D. Williams

2012-01-01

284

Two coats of paint are not adequate on offshore installations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When in the late 1990s paint manufacturers introduced their ''combination products'', they were confident that the pre-qualification tests had demonstrated that these products satisfied the Norsok requirements. It has been shown, however, that in some cases there is no direct relation between the good test results and the protection capability for offshore-exposed painted surfaces. The old maxim that several thin coats of paint offer better protection than a few thick ones are reflected by the fact that Statoil no longer accepts two-coat systems

2002-01-01

285

Method for simulating paint mixing on computer monitors  

Science.gov (United States)

Computer programs like Adobe Photoshop can generate a mixture of two 'computer' colors by using the Gradient control. However, the resulting colors diverge from the equivalent paint mixtures in both hue and value. This study examines why programs like Photoshop are unable to simulate paint or pigment mixtures, and offers a solution using Photoshops existing tools. The article discusses how a library of colors, simulating paint mixtures, is created from 13 artists' colors. The mixtures can be imported into Photoshop as a color swatch palette of 1248 colors and as 78 continuous or stepped gradient files, all accessed in a new software package, Chromafile.

Carabott, Ferdinand; Lewis, Garth; Piehl, Simon

2002-06-01

286

Eye injuries during training exercises with paint balls.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of paint balls, increasingly popular for war games and survival games, has recently been introduced for certain military training exercises. We treated two soldiers who had severe permanent ocular damage after being hit by these balls. Both removed their goggles after their vision was obscured with paint from a hit on these protective lenses. They were then hit for a second time, resulting in the eye injury. Based on these cases and on a literature review, we conclude that protective eye gear should be mandatory when paint pellets are used. It is essential that service members participating in such exercises be instructed not to remove their protective goggles under any circumstances.

Zwaan J; Bybee L; Casey P

1996-12-01

287

Rock paintings of mammals at Central, Bahia, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rock paintings of mammals have been studied in five of the 243 localities contained within the 270,000 km² Archeological Region of Central, Bahia. From features of external morphology, it was possible to recognize 11 mammals represented in the paintings: for five, to attribute the species; another five, the genera; and, for one, merely the family. This study aims to underline the importance of prehistoric man's contribution, by way of these rock paintings, to our knowledge of the mammals depicted, both taxonomically and in terms of their distribution within the bounds of the Project in the State of Bahia.

Maria da Conceição de M.C. Beltrão; Martha Locks

1993-01-01

288

Fatalities due to dichloromethane in paint strippers: a continuing problem.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Exposure to dichloromethane (DCM or methylene chloride - CH? Cl? ) in paint strippers continues to be an avoidable source of morbidity and mortality. DCM has been under regulatory scrutiny by occupational and consumer product agencies since the identification of its carcinogenicity in the mid-1980s. METHODS: We investigated two independent workplace incidents that resulted in three cases of DCM intoxication from paint stripper use. RESULTS: Each incident investigated resulted in a fatality. A third worker suffered obtundation requiring hospitalization and intubation. CONCLUSIONS: The continued occurrence of fatalities and other serious injuries due to DCM-containing paint strippers in the United States calls for a re-evaluation of existing regulatory strategies.

Macisaac J; Harrison R; Krishnaswami J; McNary J; Suchard J; Boysen-Osborn M; Cierpich H; Styles L; Shusterman D

2013-08-01

289

Spray casting project final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step.

1996-01-01

290

Spray casting project final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step.

Churnetski, S.R.; Thompson, J.E.

1996-08-01

291

Trichloroacetic acid application versus spray monopolar diathermy for treating benign cervical lesions: a randomized controlled clinical trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare efficacy, tolerability, and safety of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) painting versus monopolar spray coagulation of the cervix for treating persistent benign cervical lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled trial was done in a tertiary care referral facility and university hospital. A total of 246 cases with objective evidence of benign cervical lesions were divided into 2 groups according to the line of management. Group A was composed of 126 cases subjected to spray monopolar coagulation, whereas group B was composed of 120 cases subjected to TCA application. Cervical smearing and colposcopy with or without cervical biopsy were performed to exclude underlying malignant lesions. Trichloroacetic acid painting or spray monopolar coagulation of the benign cervical lesion(s) was also performed. Follow-up was performed to assess relief of symptoms and cervical morphology for 1 month. Main outcome measures include success of management tool, relief of symptoms, and normal cervical morphology after 1 month of therapy. RESULTS: A statistically significant cure rate of cervical lesions after treatment in both groups without significant difference between both groups was reported. Failure rate was reported more in group B than group A mainly owing to hypertrophied ectopy and cervical polyp. Patient in group A reported low satisfaction (26.9%) and poor tolerability rate (44.5%) as compared with patients in group B, who reported high satisfaction (77.5%) and good tolerability rate (77.5%), this difference was statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Both topical application of 70% TCA and monopolar spray coagulation offer considerable efficacy, acceptable success rates, and minimal complications. Spray coagulation is significantly superior in terms of less persistent or incompletely healed lesions. Nevertheless, topical application of 70% TCA has the advantages of simplicity, higher patient tolerability, and safety, which can be widely used by gynecologists who have limited experience with surgical procedures. It is highly recommended if the cervical lesion is ectopy or nonspecific cervicitis but not hypertrophic lesion such as hypertrophic ectopy or polyp.

Darwish AM; Zahran KM

2013-07-01

292

A new chemical model for the removal of iodine vapour from a reactor containment by aqueous sprays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes methods for the calculation of the removal rate of I2 vapour by aqueous sprays from a large volume such as a reactor containment. The kinetic methods used involve the latest information on the reaction of dissolved iodine with water which causes the I2 molecules to be quickly transformed into virtually involatile products. This hydrolysis increases the effective waterside mass transfer coefficient of I2, and depends on the I2 concentration, the acidity of the water and the temperature. Comparisons of calculated removal rates with a range of suitable experimental data show that for agreement with observation the hydrolysis product HOI, hypoiodous acid, must be considered effectively involatile. When the water is alkaline (pH 9) the overall mass transfer coefficient for I2 can be put equal to that for the gas side. Acidic sprays can cause a major uptake of iodine by painted walls. In summary: A new spray removal calculational method has been developed which agrees reasonably with experiment over a wide range of [I2(g)]0 values (7 x 10-10 to 1.2 x 10-5 M), water pH values 5 to 14, flow rates (.007 to 10 dm s-1 ) and vessel sizes (5.3 to 595 m3 ). Calculations and experiments show alkaline water to be greatly superior to acidic water in I2 removal. Acid sprays may cause reasonably high removal rates by moving I2 gas to painted walls. The calculations have taken no account of iodine sinks or sources. In some reactor faults a likely I2 source is irradiated aerosol containing I- (aq). Our INSPECT code is being upgraded to include the spray removal method described here as well as such sources. (authors)

1992-01-01

293

Slot spray cooler of great capacity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The information concerning the design of slot spray cooler of great capacity is presented. The essence of their design is the refusal from traditional slot devices used for liquid spraying. In the given case the spraying is carried out through special slot orifices made up on the surface of distributing pipelines. This permits to decrease the metal capacity and cost of spray cooler, to facilitate its servicing and also to increase the effectiveness of water cooling.

1990-06-02

294

Diesel spray characterization; Dieselmoottorin polttoainesuihkujen ominaisuudet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fuel injection of diesel engines will be studied using large-scale models of fuel injectors. The advantage of large-scale models is that the measurement of large-scale diesel sprays will be easier than the measurement of actual sprays. The objective is to study the break-up mechanism of diesel sprays and to measure drop size distributions in the inner part of the spray. The results will be used in the development of diesel engines and diesel fuels. (orig.)

Pitkaenen, J.; Turunen, R.; Paloposki, T.; Rantanen, P.; Virolainen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Internal Combustion Engine Lab.

1997-10-01

295

On the Dependence of Spray Momentum Flux in Spray Penetration: Momentum Flux Packets Penetration Model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Momentum flux is a very important parameter for predicting the mixing potential of injection processes. Important factors such as spray penetration, spray cone angle, and air entrainment depend largely on spray momentum. In this article, a model is obtained which is able to predict the spray tip penetration using as an input the spray momentum flux signal. The model is based on the division of the momentum flux signal into momentum packets (fuel parcels) sequentially injected, and the tracking of them along the spray. These packets follow a theoretical equation which relates the penetration with the ambient density, momentum, spray cone angle and time. In order to validate the method, measures of momentum flux (impingement force) and macroscopic spray visualization in high density conditions have been performed on several mono-orifice nozzles. High agreement has been obtained between spray penetration prediction from momentum flux measurements and real spray penetration from macroscopic visualization

2007-01-01

296

CONCHAS-SPRAY. Reactive Flows With Fuel Sprays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CONCHAS-SPRAY solves the equations of transient, multicomponent, chemically reactive fluid dynamics, together with those for the dynamics of an evaporating liquid spray. The program was developed with applications to internal combustion engines in mind. The formulation is spatially two-dimensional, and encompasses both planar and axisymmetric geometries. In the latter case, the flow is permitted to swirl about the axis of symmetry. CONCHAS-SPRAY is a time-marching, finite-difference program that uses a partially implicit numerical scheme. Spatial differences are formed with respect to a generalized two-dimensional mesh of arbitrary quadrilaterals whose corner locations are specified functions of time. This feature allows a Lagrangian, Eulerian, or mixed description, and is particularly useful for representing curved or moving boundary surfaces. Arbitrary numbers of species and chemical reactions are allowed. The latter are subdivided into kinetic and equilibrium reactions, which are treated by different algorithms. A turbulent law-of-the-wall boundary layer option is provided. CONCHAS-SPRAY calls a number of LANL system subroutines to display graphic or numerical information on microfiche. These routines are not included, but are described in the reference report. Several routines called from LINPACK and SLATEC1.0 are included.

Cloutman, L.D.; Dukowicz, J.K.; Ramshaw, J.D.; Amsden, A.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1982-05-01

297

CONCHAS-SPRAY, Reactive Flows with Fuel Sprays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Description of program or function: CONCHAS-SPRAY solves the equations of transient, multicomponent, chemically reactive fluid dynamics, together with those for the dynamics of an evaporating liquid spray. The program was developed with applications to internal combustion engines in mind. The formulation is spatially two-dimensional, and encompasses both planar and axisymmetric geometries. In the latter case, the flow is permitted to swirl about the axis of symmetry. CONCHAS-SPRAY is a time-marching, finite- difference program that uses a partially implicit numerical scheme. Spatial differences are formed with respect to a generalized two- dimensional mesh of arbitrary quadrilaterals whose corner locations are specified functions of time. This feature allows a Lagrangian, Eulerian, or mixed description, and is particularly useful for representing curved or moving boundary surfaces. Arbitrary numbers of species and chemical reactions are allowed. The latter are subdivided into kinetic and equilibrium reactions, which are treated by different algorithms. A turbulent law-of-the-wall boundary layer option is provided. CONCHAS-SPRAY calls a number of LANL system subroutines to display graphic or numerical information on microfiche. These routines are not included, but are described in the reference report. Several routines called from LINPACK and SLATEC1.0 are included

2001-01-01

298

Spiritual Space Making in Persian Painting (Geometry, Proportion and Composition)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Concept of space and its use is the basic and main topic in imagery arts works which takes shape proportion with artist view, because Persian painting space is imagination and subjective space thus passes place and time limits of material world and goes around spiritual space imagination called as archetype space, and in it depth feeling is due to surfaces adjustment with each other, although they have differences but their common point is proportion and move due to special geometrical system on shapes, by placing painting motifs in a shape under title geometry of shapes and then its spread a set of regularity and proportion with geometrical forms is created like circle and its divisions in a painting which constitutes composition base of Persian painting works.

Mehrdad Ahmad Amiraghaei

2012-01-01

299

Opportunities application of cleaner production practices in paint industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are releases of volatile organic compounds VOC from paint manufacturing process steps and from cleaning operations in El Mohandas Paint Factory. These emission can cause health, safety and productivity problems in the work area. Hence cleaner production application is necessary in this case. Some of the manufacturing processes and equipment used to accomplish these manufacturing are analyzed and generate cleaner production opportunities, implement some of cleaner production solutions of VOC emission control by some of the methods used by paint facilities in reducing emissions. It was found that there is no control available for emissions factors in paints manufacturing process, so that VOC emission based on raw material consumption rather than calculation emission from processes or equipment by alternative method. (Author)

2010-01-01

300

Sample Collection, Analysis, and Respirator Use With Isocyanate Paints.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report was written in response to questions from field operations which indicated problems with regard to the health effects and respiratory protection required for isocyanate paints. Personnel sample results were not in keeping with observed levels ...

B. J. Poitrast D. Carpenter

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Paints binding materials hardenable by ionizing radiations and their applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention concerns a paint binding material, which can be hardened by ionising radiation, made from a dispersion of material, which is unsaturated as regards ethylene, in a vinyl monomer, and its use for the manufacture of pigmented or coloured paints. In order to improve the properties of the hardened paints (elasticity, resistance to wear) a reaction product consisting of rubber particles (0.04-1?m) and a compound unsaturated as regards ethylene with reactive epoxy, hydroxy or carboxy-groups is used, which is joined to the rubber particles by ester or urethane-bonds. The detailed process is explained by 68 examples. The paints adhere particularly well to metal sheets. (UWI)

1976-01-01

302

N-halamine copolymers for use in antimicrobial paints.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A series of copolymers containing units of a novel hydantoinylacrylamide and the sodium salt of 2-(acrylamido)-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid have been synthesized. The homopolymer of the hydantoinylacrylamide compound was insoluble in water, while the copolymers with the sulfonic acid sodium salt were water-dispersible/soluble, with the solution becoming completely transparent when the feed ratio for the copolymer contained 7 parts of the hydantoin moiety to 3 parts of the sodium sulfonate moiety. The polymers were added into a commercial water-based latex paint, and upon drying, the painted surfaces treated with the water-miscible copolymers were rendered antimicrobial following chlorination with dilute household bleach. The chlorinated homopolymer failed to provide an antimicrobial property for the paint because of its tendency to isolate into aggregates in the paint, while the completely miscible copolymers were capable of 6-log inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli O157:H7 within 5 min of contact time.

Kocer HB; Cerkez I; Worley SD; Broughton RM; Huang TS

2011-08-01

303

Modelling Organic Iodide release from Painted Containment Surfaces under Severe Accident Conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential radiological impact of iodine in case of a postulated severe accident makes iodine volatility become one of the most important concerns in these scenarios. Both inorganic (I{sub 2}) and organic (OrgI) volatile iodine species can be formed within the containment. Some of the PHEBUS-FP experiments indicated that in the long run in containment gaseous iodine concentration might be dominated by OrgI (Girault et al., 2006). Relevance of OrgI lies in the extraordinary volatility of some of these compounds (greater even than that of I{sub 2}) and the fact that containment safeguards systems, such as sprays, have been shown not to be effective as effective removing OrgI as they are with I{sub 2}. Therefore, in case of a postulated severe accident if a steady OrgI concentration was achieved at any time within containment, it would behave like an iodine reservoir from which iodine might leak to the environment. There are a few potential sources of these compounds (Clement et al., 2007): in-bulk sump and in-atmosphere reactions, and iodine interactions with painted surfaces contacting either the containment sump or the gas atmosphere. In the recent years two international experimental projects have investigated the origin of OrgI: the International Source Term Project (ISTP) through the EPICUR experimental campaign (Guilbert et al., 2008) and the Behavior of Iodine Project, framed under the OECD auspices (NEA, 2010). In particular, the OECD-BIP project has been exploring the potential OrgI source of painted surfaces contacting the containment atmosphere and more than 20 bench scale experiments have been conducted. A second phase of the project is foreseen to be launched in the near future (OECD-BIP2).

Herranz, L. E.; Rodriguez, M.

2010-07-01

304

Modelling Organic Iodide release from Painted Containment Surfaces under Severe Accident Conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The potential radiological impact of iodine in case of a postulated severe accident makes iodine volatility become one of the most important concerns in these scenarios. Both inorganic (I2) and organic OrgI volatile iodine species can be formed within the containment. Some of the PHEBUS-FP experiments indicated that in the long run in containment gaseous iodine concentration might be dominated by OrgI (Girault et al., 2006). Relevance of OrgI lies in the extraordinary volatility of some of these compounds (greater even than that of I2) and the fact that containment safeguards systems, such as sprays, have been shown not to be effective as effective removing OrgI as they are with I2. Therefore, in case of a postulated severe accident if a steady OrgI concentration was achieved at any time within containment, it would behave like an iodine reservoir from which iodine might leak to the environment. There are a few potential sources of these compounds (Clement et al., 2007): in-bulk sump and in-atmosphere reactions, and iodine interactions with painted surfaces contacting either the containment sump or the gas atmosphere. In the recent years two international experimental projects have investigated the origin of OrgI: the International Source Term Project (ISTP) through the EPICUR experimental campaign (Guilbert et al., 2008) and the Behavior of Iodine Project, framed under the OECD auspices (NEA, 2010). In particular, the OECD-BIP project has been exploring the potential OrgI source of painted surfaces contacting the containment atmosphere and more than 20 bench scale experiments have been conducted. A second phase of the project is foreseen to be launched in the near future (OECD-BIP2).

2010-01-01

305

Pediatric diseases in Juan Carreno de Miranda's paintings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pediatric obesity has become a widespread problem of health in developed countries. Overweight in the pediatric population obeys to a variety of causes. A few of Carreño de Miranda's paintings show pathological conditions occurring in children of his epoch. We briefly illustrate the significance of Carreño's paintings that portray some of these diseases. Two of his best-known works constitute an artistic representation of childhood obesity.

Martínez-Lage JF; Pérez-Espejo MA; Galarza M

2012-02-01

306

Numerical analysis of laser paint removal from various substrates  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerical simulation results obtained in investigating laser paint removal from different metal substrates, mainly aluminum and aluminum alloys, are presented. The main purpose of the developed simulation model is to define the laser installation specifications required for an operation that does not affect the substrate on which the paint is deposited. This is an important laser application in aeronautical industry. The developed simulation model considers transverse laser beam intensity distribution and, consequently, the temperature distribution in the processed mechanical component.

Savastru, Dan; Savastru, Roxana; Lancranjan, Ion; Miclos, Sorin; Opran, Constantin

2013-06-01

307

Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia due to titanium nanoparticles in paint.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present a case of a 58-year-old man who experienced Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia after a 3-month exposure to polyester powder paint. Mineralogical analysis by transmission electron microscopy of a pulmonary sample and the polyester powder paint he was exposed to showed the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in both. We suggest that exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles should be added to the etiology of Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia.

Cheng TH; Ko FC; Chang JL; Wu KA

2012-02-01

308

Wall painting in the Roman empire: colour, design and technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Roman wall paintings are frequently admired by visitors to such famous sites as Pompeii and Herculaneum, and traces of them also survive in the remains of many towns and villas throughout the lands of the former empire, but the technological skill of the Roman painters is less widely appreciated. Here the sources of the pigments used and the methods the painters employed to plaster and paint the walls are described.

Elizabeth Pye

2000-01-01

309

Characterization of paint layers and stained glasses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to the higher magnification with respect to traditional optical microscopes, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been extensively applied in recent years to the investigation of elemental composition of many different types of artistic objects. The back-scattered and secondary electrons produced when the SEM electron beam hits the sample can be detected and converted in electronic signals which give rise to images of the scanned area. These images can be recorded in digital format and stored on a computer for subsequent processing. Moreover, in addition to the back-scattered and secondary electrons, the impact of the electron beam on the sample produces a X-ray spectrum, which can be further processed and analysed using an X-ray spectrometer coupled to the SEM. Therefore, it is possible to yield the chemical composition of the sample, analogously to the X-ray fluorescence analysis. Moreover, the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can be applied to the characterization of paint layers, making ultra-thin sections in which the paint and ground layers are preserved intact. In comparison with usual SEM measurements, the TEM technique is more precise, because of the higher spatial resolution in both the microanalysis and diffraction modes, of the order of 10-20 nm. This precision allows unique identification of each component in the layer and determination of the crystallographic structure, thus characterizing even the smallest particles of each pigment and pointing out minor components. It is then possible to establish whether a pigment is natural, manufactured, its origin as well as approximate datations. In this work, we describe the research activities performed in the laboratory recently established at the ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technology, Energy and Environment) Applied Physics Division, where dedicated SEM and TEM are connected by a suitable imaging system to a powerful computing system for image acquisition and processing. Use has been made of the so available instruments, of both the hardware and developed software, to investigate some frescoes and stained glasses of XIV-XV centuries in the Basilica of St.Petronio in Bologna, in order to study the manufacturing techniques as well as to determine whether repairs have been carried out or substitutions made of damaged parts in the past times. (author)

2000-01-01

310

Treatment studies of paint stripping waste from plastic media blasting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Blasting with plastic media is used to strip paint and decontaminate surfaces. For disposal the plastic media is pulverized into a plastic dust. About 10 wt % of the waste from plastic media blasting is pulverized paint, which makes the waste a characteristically hazardous waste because of the presence of barium, cadmium, chromium and lead in the paint pigments. Four separate treatments of this hazardous waste were studied: (1) density separation to remove the paint, (2) self-encapsulation of the mix of plastic and paint dust into plastic pellets, (3) solidification/stabilization (S/S) into cementitious waste forms, and (4) low-temperature ashing to destroy the large mass of nonhazardous polymer. Two types of plast blasting wastes were studied: a urea formaldehyde thermoset polymer and an acrylic thermoplastic polymer (polymethylmethacrylate). Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) extraction concentrations for the treated and untreated wastes are listed. Density separation failed to adequately separate the paint with an aqueous carbonate solution. Self-encapsulation reduced the waste volume by about 50%, but did not meet TCLP criteria. Cementitious solidification gave the lowest TCLP concentrations, but increased the waste volume by about 50%. Low-temperature ashing at 600 C resulted in a mass decrease of 93 to 98% for the wastes; the metals remaining in the ash could be stabilized with cementitious solidification and still result in a volume decrease of 75 to 95 volume percent.

Spence, R.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-12-31

311

Perhydrolase-nanotube paint composites with sporicidal and antiviral activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

AcT (perhydrolase) containing paint composites were prepared leading to broad-spectrum decontamination. AcT was immobilized onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and then incorporated into latex-based paints to form catalytic coatings. These AcT-based paint composites showed a 6-log reduction in the viability of spores of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis (Sterne) within 60 min. The paint composites also showed >4-log reduction in the titer of influenza virus (X-31) within 10 min (initially challenged with 10(7) PFU/mL). AcT-based paint composites were also tested using various perhydrolase acyl donor substrates, including propylene glycol diacetate (PGD), glyceryl triacetate, and ethyl acetate, with PGD observed to be the best among the substrates tested for generation of peracetic acid and killing of bacillus spores. The operational stability of paint composites was also studied at different relative humidities and temperatures to simulate real-life operation. PMID:23188457

Grover, Navdeep; Douaisi, Marc P; Borkar, Indrakant V; Lee, Lillian; Dinu, Cerasela Zoica; Kane, Ravi S; Dordick, Jonathan S

2012-11-28

312

Stable isotope analysis of white paints and likelihood ratios.  

Science.gov (United States)

Architectural paints are commonly found as trace evidence at scenes of crime. Currently the most widely used technique for the analysis of architectural paints is Fourier Transformed Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR). There are, however, limitations to the forensic analysis of white paints, and the ability to discriminate between samples. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) has been investigated as a potential tool for the analysis of architectural white paints, where no preparation of samples prior to analysis is required. When stable isotope profiles (SIPs) are compared, there appears to be no relationship between paints from the same manufacturer, or between paints of the same type. Unlike existing techniques, IRMS does not differentiate resin samples solely on the basis of modifier or oil-type, but exploits additional factors linked to samples such as geo-location where oils added to alkyd formulations were grown. In combination with the use of likelihood ratios, IRMS shows potential, with a false positive rate of 2.6% from a total of 1275 comparisons. PMID:19606590

Farmer, N; Meier-Augenstein, W; Lucy, D

2009-06-01

313

Stable isotope analysis of white paints and likelihood ratios.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Architectural paints are commonly found as trace evidence at scenes of crime. Currently the most widely used technique for the analysis of architectural paints is Fourier Transformed Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR). There are, however, limitations to the forensic analysis of white paints, and the ability to discriminate between samples. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) has been investigated as a potential tool for the analysis of architectural white paints, where no preparation of samples prior to analysis is required. When stable isotope profiles (SIPs) are compared, there appears to be no relationship between paints from the same manufacturer, or between paints of the same type. Unlike existing techniques, IRMS does not differentiate resin samples solely on the basis of modifier or oil-type, but exploits additional factors linked to samples such as geo-location where oils added to alkyd formulations were grown. In combination with the use of likelihood ratios, IRMS shows potential, with a false positive rate of 2.6% from a total of 1275 comparisons.

Farmer N; Meier-Augenstein W; Lucy D

2009-06-01

314

Radiocarbon determinations for Chillagoe rock paintings: small sample AMS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Indirect dating methods have been applied to the rock paintings of Chillagoe, north Queensland, revealing patterns of superimposition, depictions of items of known antiquity, the use of fragile paints such as mud, and in-situ pigment stratigraphies (David 1994). These patterns suggest that the Chillagoe rock paintings are relatively young, likely less than 3000 years old. A change in the geographical distribution of rock painting styles suggests a regionalization of the styles starting around 3000 years BP. Such regionalization implies that major cultural changes accompanied the changes in rock painting styles. This model of temporal change is now being investigated through a collaboration between the University of Queensland, ANSTO and the Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University to directly analyze radiocarbon in the charcoal pigments in several of the Chillagoe rock paintings. Samples collected from fourteen separate charcoal rock drawings at five rock shelters in the Chillagoe region were submitted to plasma chemical treatment. Though unreactive, the excited and energetic argon atoms in the plasma remove surface-absorbed CO{sub 2} through inelastic collisions. Samples yielding less than 100 micrograms carbon required special handling for AMS analysis. An isotope dilution technique utilizing {sup 14}C-free carbon was chosen. Radiocarbon analysis were also performed and the results will be presented. Paper No. 25; 2 refs., 1 tab.

Armitage, R.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M. W. [Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas (United States). Department of Chemistry; David, B. [Queensland Univ St. Lucia, QLD (Australia); Tuniz, C.; Lawson, E.; Jacobsen, G.; Hua, G. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

1997-12-31

315

Spray solidification of nuclear waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spray calciner is a relatively simple machine. Operation is simple and is easily automated. Startup and shutdown can be performed in less than an hour. A wide variety of waste compositions and concentrations can be calcined under easily maintainable conditions. Spray calcination of high-level and mixed high- and intermediate-level liquid wastes has been demonstrated. Waste concentrations of from near infinite dilution to less than 225 liters per tonne of fuel are calcinable. Wastes have been calcined containing over 2M sodium. Feed concentration, composition, and flowrate can vary rapidly by over a factor of two without requiring operator action. Wastes containing mainly sodium cations can be spray calcined by addition of finely divided silica to the feedstock. A remotely replaceable atomizing nozzle has been developed for use in plant-scale equipment. Calciner capacity of over 75 l/h has been demonstrated in pilot-scale equipment. Sintered stainless steel filters are effective in deentraining over 99.9 percent of the solids that result from calcining the feedstock. The volume of recycle required from the effluent treatment system is very small. Vibrator action maintains the calcine holdup in the calciner at less than 1 kg. Successful remote operation and maintenance of a heated-wall spray calciner have been demonstrated while processing high-level waste. Radionuclide volatilization was acceptably low

1976-01-01

316

Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Schoeniger, Luke (Pittsford, NY)

2002-01-01

317

Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Schoeniger, Luke (Pittsford, NY)

2005-11-01

318

The identification of synthetic organic pigments in modern paints and modern paintings using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A collection of more than 70 synthetic organic pigments were analysed using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS). We report on the analysis of diketo-pyrrolo-pyrrole, isoindolinone and perylene pigments which are classes not previously reported as being analysed by this technique. We also report on a number of azo pigments (2-naphthol, naphthol AS, arylide, diarylide, benzimidazolone and disazo condensation pigments) and phthalocyanine pigments, the Py-GC-MS analysis of which has not been previously reported. The members of each class were found to fragment in a consistent way and the pyrolysis products are reported. The technique was successfully applied to the analysis of paints used by the artist Francis Bacon (1909-1992), to simultaneously identify synthetic organic pigments and synthetic binding media in two samples of paint taken from Bacon's studio and micro-samples taken from three of his paintings and one painting attributed to him.

Russell J; Singer BW; Perry JJ; Bacon A

2011-05-01

319

Transfer of tritium in concrete coated with hydrophobic paints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Rates of tritium migration in porous concrete materials coated with or without hydrophobic paints for the safety of fusion reactor rooms are correlated in terms of diffusivity or linear sorption. - Abstract: An experimental study on tritium (T) transfer in porous concrete for the tertiary T safety containment is performed to investigate (i) how fast HTO penetrates through concrete walls, (ii) how well concrete walls contaminated with water-soluble T are decontaminated by a solution-in-water technique, and (iii) how well hydrophobic paint coating works as a protecting film against HTO migrating through concrete walls. The experiment is comparatively carried out using disks of cement paste which W(water)/C(cement) weight ratio is 0.6:1 with or without hydrophobic paints, and mortar disks which W/C/sand ratio is 0.6:1:2 with or without the paints. The hydrophobic paints tested in the present study are an epoxy polymer resin paint and an acrylic-silicon polymer resin one. After T exposure during specified time under a constant HTO vapor pressure in an acrylic box, the amount of water-soluble HTO on/in the disks is determined using a technique of H2O dissolution during specified time. The results obtained here are summarized as follows: (1) HTO penetration in porous concrete can be correlated in terms of the effective diffusivity. (2) Its value in porous cement without coating is 1.2 × 10?11 m2/s at 25 °C. (3) HTO penetrates only through pores in cement, and there is no path for HTO transfer in non-porous sand. (4) Rates of sorption and dissolution of HTO in disks of cement and mortar coated with the epoxy resin paint are correlated in terms of the effective diffusivity through the paint film which value is DT = 1.0 × 10?16 m2/s. The rate-determining step is diffusion through the paint. (5) The epoxy resin paint works more effectively as an anti-HTO diffusion coating. (6) Another acrylic-silicon resin paint does not work well as anti-HTO diffusion coating. This may be because the hydrophobic property of the silicon resin paint is deteriorated with elongating the contact time with H2O vapor or liquid. (7) The HTO uptake inside the epoxy paint is greater than that of the silicon one. (8) The permeation reduction factor (PRF) of HTO for the epoxy paint at steady-state is expected large, if HTO vapor only contributes to diffusion. However, when concrete surfaces coated with the epoxy paint are under wet conditions, the PRF value becomes smaller. All those results can be used to estimate the effect of HTO soaking in concrete walls in case of accidental T release in a fusion reactor room and to decontaminate wastes of tritiated concrete.

2012-01-01

320

Lead contamination of paint remediation workers' vehicles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Exposure to lead has been shown to be harmful to adults; it is a teratogen, it can damage the peripheral nervous system, and it adversely affects the reproductive system. Professional lead-based paint remediation workers are at risk of exposure to lead dust. The authors' study was conducted to determine if these remediation workers transfer lead from their work site to their vehicles and then potentially expose their families. It was hypothesized that remediation workers transported the lead from the remediation work site to the floorboards of their vehicles due to not following required protective equipment use. The laboratory's level of quantitation for lead on the wipe samples, 10 microg/ft2, was used to indicate lead contamination. This level was exceeded in 50% of the floorboards sampled. These results confirm that many vehicle floorboards used by remediation workers are contaminated with lead dust, potentially resulting in transfer of lead dust. The ultimate detrimental outcome could be the transfer of lead particles to other family members, causing the poisoning of a child or other at-risk person.

Boraiko C; Wright EM; Ralston F

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
321

Degradation of lime wood painting supports  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Degradation of wood, being a natural process, leads to destruction of wooden objects of historic and cultural value, resulting in loss of cultural heritage. Wood can survive centuries or even thousands of years, if kept in an environment, which limits microbial activity. In an unfavourable environment physical, chemical and morphological modifications of wood also take place as a result of biodegradation. It is important to know the type of degradation and how the processes influence material properties if wooden items are to be properly preserved. The objective of this study is to present new knowledge on non-invasive techniques useful to assess the preservation status of lime wood in art objects. The methods of investigation were optical and electronic microscopy, wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), and FT-IR spectroscopy. Following a deconvolution process of the diffraction patterns, crystalline index, apparent lateral crystallite size, proportion of crystallite interior chains, orientation index, mesomorphism, cellulose fraction have been determined and shown to change with increasing age of painting supports. Structural modifications were assessed by FT-IR spectrometry and 2D correlation FT-IR spectroscopy, while morphological modification were characterised using SEM. The principal hetero-elements of the lime wood samples were detected by EDX. It can be concluded that only a multi-analytical approach can provide the information needed on wood degradation processes.

Mihaela Carmen Popescu; Yusaku Sakata; Cristina Maria Popescu; Akioshi Osaka; Cornelia Vasile

2005-01-01

322

Schematic Rock Painting: the panel, social space  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The panel, which is used to support the symbols of a certain social formation, is turned into a space for the representation of this formation. It is used to incorporate or arrange or mess up the elements that circulate in a certain system. Thus, the social action is reflected in a product that is characterised by a symbolic nature. However, it is obvious that this social representation does not have an exclusive nature when dealing with the schematic rock painting. In the following pages we are going to try to analyse the relationship between the organization and configuration of this space, the panel, and the social dynamics, getting information from the different stages of its course, in series of sequences which are arranged by the coordinates of what we have called 'Social Spacial and Time'.El panel, utilizado para soportar los símbolos de una determinada formación social, es obvio que se convierte en un espacio de representación de la misma. Se aprovecha para incorporar, ordenar o desordenar los elementos que circulan en un determinado sistema. La acción social queda así reflejada en un producto de carácter simbólico. Aunque, evidentemente, esta representación social no tiene carácter exclusivo en la pintura rupestre esquemática, en las siguientes páginas intentaremos analizar cómo la organización y la configuración de este espacio, panel, tiene que ver con la propia dinámica social, informándonos sobre los diversos estadios de su recorrido, en una secuencia que se ordena bajo las coordenadas de lo que hemos denominado "espacio-tiempo social".

Martínez García, Julián

2002-01-01

323

Risk assessment of biocides in roof paint. Part 1: experimental determination and modelling of biocide leaching from roof paint.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND, AIM AND SCOPE: Many surface coatings, including roof paints, contain biocides. It is generally not known to what extent roof paint biocides leach from the paint, and consequently, what concentration the biocide may attain in a rainwater collection system. To this end the leaching of specific biocides from a variety of German roof paints was investigated and the resulting concentrations in collected rain water were estimated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A laboratory simulation was used to determine the time dependant leaching rate of the biocide from the paint into synthetic rainwater. The concentrations of biocide in the leachate were quantified using HPLC. The course of the leachate concentrations over time was fitted using a simple mathematical model. This was then used to estimate concentrations of biocides in a typical household rainwater collection system over time. RESULTS: Surprisingly, the biocides found in the paints did not always concur with the declared biocides. Concerning the modelling of runoff concentrations, it was found that--under the model assumptions--the rain intensity and cumulative raining time after application are the dominant factors influencing the concentration of the biocide. At the highest modelled rain intensity of 40 mm/hour it only takes about 2 hours to reach peak concentrations lower than 0.1 mg/L, at 0.3 mm/hour it takes about 10 hours to reach peak concentrations of 1.3, 0.9, 5.2 and 1.1 mg/L for terbutryn from Emalux paint, terbutryn from Südwest paint, carbendazim from Emalux paint, and carbendazim from MIPA paint, respectively. DISCUSSION: The results confirm that biocides leached from roof paint will be present in roof runoff. The highest estimated peak concentrations are close to the water solubility of the respective biocides. This indicates that the model assumption of a concentration independent leaching rate will tendentially lead to an overestimation of the leached concentrations under these circumstances. However, under most circumstances such as higher rain intensities, and longer time after peak concentrations have been reached, the runoff concentrations are far from the solubility limit, and therefore it is proposed that the model assumptions are tenable. CONCLUSIONS: The leaching of biocides from roof paints can be roughly assessed using a relatively simple approach. The declaration of biocidal ingredients in roof paints should be improved and information on their biocide leaching behaviour should be made available. Furthermore, the estimations should be evaluated by a field study. RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSPECTIVES: The leaching study indicated that the concentrations of selected biocides can reach significant levels, especially after low intensity rainfall. Taking into account the inherent biological activity of the substances under scrutiny, it can already be concluded that it is not advisable to use runoff water from roofs freshly painted with biocide containing roof paints. These results have been complemented by a literature search of biological effects of the investigated biocides, ecotoxicological tests with several species and a risk analysis for organisms exposed to runoff water. This will be presented in Part 2 of this contribution.

Jungnickel C; Stock F; Brandsch T; Ranke J

2008-05-01

324

Assessing performance of painted carbon and weathering steels in an industrial atmosphere  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Protective properties and electrochemical impedance characteristics of four painted steels were investigated after outdoor exposure for 6 years and laboratory-based immersion tests. Results were compared to evaluate performance of the two paint systems for different steel substrates. The silicate-type primer/epoxy-based micaceous iron oxide (MIO) paint/polyurethane topcoat system showed better performance than the epoxy-type primer/epoxy-based MIO paint/polyvinyl chloride (PVC) topcoat system. The former paint system showed better topcoat protection and more effective cathodic protection (CP) provided by the zinc-rich primer. Two forms of paint degradation, blistering and pore attack, were observed. Paint degradation was correlated with changes in paint resistance and the breakpoint frequency of impedance data. Based upon visual observation and changes in impedance characteristics, two impedance models were proposed to explain the paint degradation.

Wang, J.H.; Shih, H.C. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China); Wei, F.I. [China Steel Corp., Kaoshiung (Taiwan, Province of China)

1997-03-01

325

A new XRF method for measuring lead in paint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The traditional field testing method for lead paint is the use of x-ray fluorescence, where the K shell fluorescence x-rays of lead (at 73 and 75 MeV) are measured. Although the K shell method can suffer from substrate effects and hence low sensitivity around the action level of 1 mg/cm{sup 2} of lead, it has been the industry choice because the effects of the overlying paint matrix on the K-shell x-rays are negligible. L shell x-rays of lead, at L{sub {alpha}} = 10.5 keV and L{sub {beta}} = 12.6 keV, provide much greater sensitivity and are free of substrate effects, but corrections for the absorption of the L-shell x-rays by the overlying non-lead paint matrix must be made. Such corrections were thought to be impossible without knowledge of the composition and thickness of the overlying paint matrix. NITON has developed a new method that makes it possible to use L-shell x-rays to accurately and quickly determine the absolute concentration of lead in buried lead paint (in mg/cm{sup 2}) without knowledge of the composition or thickness of the layers overlying the lead. The invention makes use of the fact that the ratio of the mass attenuation coefficients for the L{sub {alpha}} at 10.5 keV to the L{sub {beta}} at 12.6 keV is effectively independent of the elemental composition of paint layers. The new method also gives a measure of the depth of the lead beneath the surface. Theory and confirming experimental data will be presented. The authors will describe the NITON XL, a portable XRF device which uses the invention to give the lead concentration and its depth beneath the surface of paint.

Grodzins, L.; Parsons, C.; Sackett, D.; Shefsky, S.; Tannian, B. [NITON Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)

1995-12-31

326

Cold Spray Forming of Inconel 718  

Science.gov (United States)

Inconel 718 was cold spray formed to a 6-mm thickness on an 8-cm diameter aluminum alloy tube using Sulzer Amdry 1718 powder and the Plasma Giken PCS-1000 cold spray system. The effects of spray particle velocity and post-spray heat treatment were studied. Post-spray annealing was performed from 950 to 1250 °C for 1-2 h. The resulting microstructures as well as the corresponding mechanical properties were characterized. As-sprayed coatings exhibited very low ductility. The tensile strength and ductility of the heat-treated coatings were improved to varying levels depending on the heat-treatment and spray conditions. For coatings sprayed at higher particle velocity and heat treated at 1250 °C for 1 h, an elongation of 24% was obtained. SEM micrographs showed a higher fraction of interparticle metallurgical bonds due to some sintering effect. Corresponding fracture surfaces also revealed a higher fraction of dimple features, typically associated with ductile fracture, in the annealed coatings. The results demonstrate that cold spray forming of Inconel 718 is feasible, and with appropriate heat treatment, metallurgical bonding can be increased. The ductility of the spray-formed samples was comparable to that of the bulk material.

Wong, W.; Irissou, E.; Vo, P.; Sone, M.; Bernier, F.; Legoux, J.-G.; Fukanuma, H.; Yue, S.

2013-03-01

327

Effects of sea spray geoengineering  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthropogenic climate warming is leading to consideration of options for geoengineering to offset rising carbon dioxide levels. One potential technique involves injecting artificial sea spray into the atmosphere. The sea salt particles would affect Earth's radiation budget directly, by scattering incoming solar radiation, and indirectly, by acting as cloud condensation nuclei, which could lead to whiter clouds that reflect more radiation. However, the potential effects of this method, especially the direct effects, are not fully known. Partanen et al. studied the effects of artificial sea spray using climate model simulations. They found that outside of the most heavily clouded regions the direct effect of scattering of radiation was an important part of the total effect. They also examined the effect of particle size and found that decreasing the size of injected particles could improve the efficiency of the geoengineering technique.

Balcerak, Ernie

2012-03-01

328

[Keratopathy due to a spray].  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper presents seven cases of corneo-conjunctival lesions produced by anti-aggressional spray. The corneal lesions were superficial and do not exceed in depth the Bowman membrane. Besides the ocular lesions, the patients presented irritative cough and general manifestations represented by a transient motor deficit, which produced the decrease of the defense capabilities during 15-30 minutes. The ocular lesions had a favourable evolution, excepting two cases with more severe evolution. PMID:8507613

Glavici, M; Preoteasa, D

329

[Keratopathy due to a spray  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The paper presents seven cases of corneo-conjunctival lesions produced by anti-aggressional spray. The corneal lesions were superficial and do not exceed in depth the Bowman membrane. Besides the ocular lesions, the patients presented irritative cough and general manifestations represented by a transient motor deficit, which produced the decrease of the defense capabilities during 15-30 minutes. The ocular lesions had a favourable evolution, excepting two cases with more severe evolution.

Glavici M; Preoteasa D

1993-01-01

330

Uniform-droplet spray forming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The uniform-droplet process is a new method of liquid-metal atomization that results in single droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on to substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructure. The mono-sized powder-production capability of the uniform-droplet process also has the potential of permitting engineered powder blends to produce components of controlled porosity. Metal and alloy powders are commercially produced by at least three different methods: gas atomization, water atomization, and rotating disk. All three methods produce powders of a broad range in size with a very small yield of fine powders with single-sized droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructures. The economical analysis has shown the process to have the potential of reducing capital cost by 50% and operating cost by 37.5% when applied to powder making. For the spray-forming process, a 25% savings is expected in both the capital and operating costs. The project is jointly carried out at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Tuffs University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Preliminary interactions with both finished parts and powder producers have shown a strong interest in the uniform-droplet process. Systematic studies are being conducted to optimize the process parameters, understand the solidification of droplets and spray deposits, and develop a uniform-droplet-system (UDS) apparatus appropriate for processing engineering alloys.

Blue, C.A.; Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Chun, Jung-Hoon [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ando, T. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

1997-04-01

331

Nanostructures in thermal spray coatings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The nature of the nanograins formed by high velocity oxy-fuel thermal spraying of (FeAl) milled powder has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy on cross-sectional thin foils. Equiaxed 3D nanometer crystallites are formed by recrystallization in the unmelted powder particles while 2D nanometer columnar grains are produced by rapid solidification within the fully molten splats

2003-01-01

332

Leaching of copper and zinc from spent antifouling paint particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Leaching of Cu and Zn from a composite of spent antifouling paint particles, containing about 300 mg g-1 and 110 mg g-1 of the respective metals, was studied in batch experiments. For a given set of simulated environmental conditions, release of Cu was independent of paint particle concentration due to attainment of pseudo-saturation, but Zn was less constrained by solubility effects and release increased with increasing particle concentration. Leaching of Cu increased but Zn decreased with increasing salinity, consistent with mechanisms governing the dissolution of Cu2O in the presence of chloride and Zn acrylates in the presence of seawater cations. Because of complex reaction kinetics and the presence of calcium carbonate in the paint matrix, metal leaching appeared to be greater at 4 deg. C than 19 deg. C under many conditions. These findings have important environmental and biological implications regarding the deliberate or inadvertent disposal of antifouling paint residues. - Copper and zinc are readily leached from particles of spent antifouling paint under a range of environmental conditions.

2009-01-01

333

Leaching of copper and zinc from spent antifouling paint particles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Leaching of Cu and Zn from a composite of spent antifouling paint particles, containing about 300 mg g{sup -1} and 110 mg g{sup -1} of the respective metals, was studied in batch experiments. For a given set of simulated environmental conditions, release of Cu was independent of paint particle concentration due to attainment of pseudo-saturation, but Zn was less constrained by solubility effects and release increased with increasing particle concentration. Leaching of Cu increased but Zn decreased with increasing salinity, consistent with mechanisms governing the dissolution of Cu{sub 2}O in the presence of chloride and Zn acrylates in the presence of seawater cations. Because of complex reaction kinetics and the presence of calcium carbonate in the paint matrix, metal leaching appeared to be greater at 4 deg. C than 19 deg. C under many conditions. These findings have important environmental and biological implications regarding the deliberate or inadvertent disposal of antifouling paint residues. - Copper and zinc are readily leached from particles of spent antifouling paint under a range of environmental conditions.

Singh, Nimisha [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk

2009-02-15

334

Cyclic voltammetry and RBS study of paint components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heavy metals and metalloid ions are found in environmental matrices. The most toxic are lead, cadmium and mercury. These three heavy metals have no biological function and are toxic at all concentrations. Lead is one of the most insidious heavy metals and is introduced into the environment by many different means. It persists in both urban and rural settings, being found in paint chips, pottery, crystal and pharmaceutical and nutritional products. The analysis of heavy elements such as lead in soil is of particular importance [W.T. Sturges, R.M. Harrison, Sci. Total Environ. 44 (3) (1985) 225; M.L. Lepow, L. Bruckman, M. Gillette, S. Markowitz, R. Robino, J. Kapish, Environ. Res. 10 (3) (1975) 415; A.E. Daniels, J.R. Kominsky, P.J. Clark, J. Hazard. Mater. B 87 (2001) 117; G. Hutter, D. Moshman, J. Hazard. Mater. 40 (1995) 1]. In preparing the methods for lead detection in paint, we have used Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) in order to study the type and amount of heavy metal content in paint samples collected at various sites in the historic campus at A and M University (AAMU). We will show the results of our study with emphasis on comparison of what we learned about presence of lead in paints using our ion beam methods compared with the analysis of lead in paints using cyclic voltammetry.

2007-01-01

335

New approaches for investigating paintings by ion beam techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Up to now, among the IBA techniques, only PIXE has been used for analyzing paintings. However, quantitative PIXE analysis is sometimes difficult to interpret due to the layered structure, the presence of varnish and organic binder and, in some cases, discoloration of the pigments has been observed due to the interaction of the ion beam with the compounds. In order to improve the characterization of paintings, we propose some alternative experimental procedures. First of all, backscattering spectrometry (BS) and PIXE are simultaneously combined in order to collect complementary information such as layer thickness and organic compound quantification. The simultaneous PIXE and BS experiments also have the advantage of being able to analyze the same area in one experiment. This combination, implemented with an external beam, was directly applied on paintings and on painting cross-sections for the study of Italian Renaissance masterpieces. We have obtained valuable results not only on the pigment itself but also, for the first time, on the binder to pigment proportion which is not well documented in the ancient recipes. Moreover, in order to restrain beam damages due to the ion stopping power, we propose to analyze very thin painting cross-sections by a combination of PIXE-RBS and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM).

2010-01-01

336

Example of using strippable paint for nuclear power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the prevention of salt damage to stainless steel surface or the temporary rust prevention for carbon steel welded parts, the strippable paint of synthetic rubber shows excellent performance. Based on this fact, the strippable paint was applied to actual plants, and the expected results were obtained. The strippable paint forms the coating on surfaces to protect against corrosion or mechanical damage, and at the time of using things, the coating is peeled easily. As for the kinds of strippable paint, there are organic solution type, water dispersion type, organo-sol type, aqueous solution type and so on. The strippable paint supplied by Daito Kogyo K.K. is especially excellent in the limitation of harmful substance to stainless steel, the resistance to ultraviolet deterioration, the application of thick coating and the strength of dried films. Moreover, the low temperature hardening is slight, and below 80 deg C, it withstands the use for a fairly long period. The examples of use for atomic energy equipment and other field are reported, and the matters to which attention must be paid in its use are shown.

Shimizu, Tadao (Ishikawajima Inspection and Instrumentation Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

1983-04-01

337

Quantifying potential error in painting breast excision specimens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim. When excision margins are close or involved following breast conserving surgery, many surgeons will attempt to reexcise the corresponding cavity margin. Margins are ascribed to breast specimens such that six faces are identifiable to the pathologist, a process that may be prone to error at several stages. Methods. An experimental model was designed according to stated criteria in order to answer the research question. Computer software was used to measure the surface areas of experimental surfaces to compare human-painted surfaces with experimental controls. Results. The variability of the hand-painted surfaces was considerable. Thirty percent of hand-painted surfaces were 20% larger or smaller than controls. The mean area of the last surface painted was significantly larger than controls (mean 58996 pixels versus 50096 pixels, CI 1477-16324, P = 0.014). By chance, each of the six volunteers chose to paint the deep surface last. Conclusion. This study is the first to attempt to quantify the extent of human error in marking imaginary boundaries on a breast excision model and suggests that humans do not make these judgements well, raising questions about the safety of targeting single margins at reexcision. PMID:23762569

Fysh, Thomas; Boddy, Alex; Godden, Amy

2013-05-23

338

Quantifying potential error in painting breast excision specimens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aim. When excision margins are close or involved following breast conserving surgery, many surgeons will attempt to reexcise the corresponding cavity margin. Margins are ascribed to breast specimens such that six faces are identifiable to the pathologist, a process that may be prone to error at several stages. Methods. An experimental model was designed according to stated criteria in order to answer the research question. Computer software was used to measure the surface areas of experimental surfaces to compare human-painted surfaces with experimental controls. Results. The variability of the hand-painted surfaces was considerable. Thirty percent of hand-painted surfaces were 20% larger or smaller than controls. The mean area of the last surface painted was significantly larger than controls (mean 58996 pixels versus 50096 pixels, CI 1477-16324, P = 0.014). By chance, each of the six volunteers chose to paint the deep surface last. Conclusion. This study is the first to attempt to quantify the extent of human error in marking imaginary boundaries on a breast excision model and suggests that humans do not make these judgements well, raising questions about the safety of targeting single margins at reexcision.

Fysh T; Boddy A; Godden A

2013-01-01

339

77 FR 70179 - Requirements for Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Federally Owned Residential Properties and Housing...  

Science.gov (United States)

...FR-5603-N-87] Requirements for Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Federally Owned Residential...Requirements for notification of leadbased paint hazard in federally-owned residential...Proposed: Requirements for Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Federally Owned...

2012-11-23

340

Spray nozzle for fire control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A spray nozzle for fire control produces a spray of gas and liquid having an oval transverse cross-section and comprises a mixing chamber having an oval transverse cross-section adapted to induce a toroidal mixing pattern in a pressurized gas and liquid introduced to the mixing chamber through a plurality of inlets. In a preferred embodiment, the mixing chamber is toroidal. The gas is preferably air but other gases such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide, or halogenated hydrocarbons may be used. Preferably, the liquid is water or a water solution containing, for example, fire suppressants. A firefighting method using the above nozzle is also disclosed. The apparatus and method of this invention are particularly suitable for liquid hydrocarbon fires. The relatively small amount of liquid required by the spray nozzle of the invention makes it especially useful in vehicles or the like where a limited amount of liquid is available, such as trains, ships, offshore modules, oil rigs, and aircraft. It is also useful where the use of excessive amounts of liquid should be avoided, as in underground workings, hotels, warehouses, and computer rooms. 5 figs.

Papavergos, P.G.

1990-09-15

 
 
 
 
341

Fiber Bragg grating sensor to monitor stress kinetics in drying process of commercial latex paints.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, we report a study about the application of packaged fiber Bragg gratings used as strain sensors to monitor the stress kinetics during the drying process of commercial latex paints. Three stages of drying with distinct mechanical deformation and temporal behaviors were identified for the samples, with mechanical deformation from 15 ?m to 21 ?m in the longitudinal film dimension on time intervals from 370 to 600 minutes. Drying time tests based on human sense technique described by the Brazilian Technical Standards NBR 9558 were also done. The results obtained shows that human sense technique has a limited perception of the drying process and that the optical measurement system proposed can be used to characterize correctly the dry-through stage of paint. The influence of solvent (water) addition in the drying process was also investigated. The paint was diluted with four parts paint and one part water (80% paint), and one part paint and one part water (50% paint). It was observed that the increase of the water ratio mixed into the paint decreases both the mechanical deformation magnitude and the paint dry-through time. Contraction of 5.2 ?m and 10.4 ?m were measured for concentrations of 50% and 80% of paint in the mixture, respectively. For both diluted paints the dry-through time was approximately 170 minutes less than undiluted paint. The optical technique proposed in this work can contribute to the development of new standards to specify the drying time of paint coatings.

de Lourenço I Jr; Possetti GR; Muller M; Fabris JL

2010-01-01

342

High quality ceramic coatings sprayed by high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper introduced the structure of the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun and the effects of hypersonic plasma jet on the sprayed particles. The optimised spraying process parameters for several ceramic powders such as Al2O3, Cr2O3, ZrO2, Cr3C2 and Co-WC were listed. The properties and microstructure of the sprayed ceramic coatings were investigated. Nano Al2O3-TiO2 ceramic coating sprayed by using the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying was also studied. Compared with the conventional air plasma spraying, high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying improves greatly the ceramic coatings quality but at low cost. (orig.)

2005-01-01

343

Effectiveness of containment sprays in containment management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A limited study has been performed assessing the effectiveness of containment sprays-to mitigate particular challenges which may occur during a severe accident. Certain aspects of three specific topics related to using sprays under severe accident conditions were investigated. The first was the effectiveness of sprays connected to an alternate water supple and pumping source because the actual containment spray pumps are inoperable. This situation could occur during a station blackout. The second topic concerned the adverse as well as beneficial effects of using containment sprays during severe accident scenario where the containment atmosphere contains substantial quantities of hydrogen along with steam. The third topic was the feasibility of using containment sprays to moderate the consequences of DCH

1993-01-01

344

Outline of pressurizer spray line thermal stratification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pressurizer spray system of the PWR receives a large number of transient cycles when the main spray valve opens and closes, during normal operations (heat up and cool down operation etc.). The spray line is one of the most severe locations from the viewpoint of fatigue. On the other hand, it has been known in recent years that thermal stratification phenomena occur following the main spray valve`s closure, according to the field temperature data measured by thermocouples on the outer surface of the spray line during plant operation. The effect of these thermal stratification phenomena on fatigue damage has been proved not to be negligible. In this paper, the results of visual and thermal hydraulic test that simulates thermal stratification of the spray line and the results of stress and fatigue analysis are described.

Kato, Akihiko [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe, Hyogo (Japan). Kobe Shipyard and Machinery Works; Watanabe, Yosinori [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Takasago, Hyogo (Japan). Takasago R and D Center; Fujii, Yuzo [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan)

1995-12-01

345

Thermal Spraying Coatings Assisted by Laser Treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Coatings produced by air plasma spraying (APS) are widely used to protect components against abrasive wear and corrosion. However, APS coatings contain porosities and the properties of these coatings may thereby be reduced. To improve these properties, various methods could be proposed, including post-laser irradiation [1-4]. Firstly, PROTAL process (thermal spraying assisted by laser) has been developed as a palliative technique to degreasing and grit-blasting prior to thermal spraying. Secondly, thermal spray coatings are densified and remelted using Laser treatment. In this study, a review of microstructure coatings prepared by laser-assisted air plasma spraying will be presented. Mechanical and magnetic properties will be evaluated in relation to changes in the coating microstructure and the properties of such coatings will be compared with those of as-sprayed APS coatings.

2008-09-23

346

Multiphysics modelling of the spray forming process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An integrated, multiphysics numerical model has been developed through the joint efforts of the University of Oxford (UK), University of Bremen (Germany) and Inasmet (Spain) to simulate the spray forming process. The integrated model consisted of four sub-models: (1) an atomization model simulating the fragmentation of a continuous liquid metal stream into droplet spray during gas atomization; (2) a droplet spray model simulating the droplet spray mass and enthalpy evolution in the gas flow field prior to deposition; (3) a droplet deposition model simulating droplet deposition, splashing and re-deposition behavior and the resulting preform shape and heat flow; and (4) a porosity model simulating the porosity distribution inside a spray formed ring preform. The model has been validated against experiments of the spray forming of large diameter IN718 Ni superalloy rings. The modelled preform shape, surface temperature and final porosity distribution showed good agreement with experimental measurements.

2008-03-25

347

Evaluation of paint industry effluents for irrigation purposes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effluent samples collected from a paints factory for a period of seven months were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), soluble cations and anions, nitrogen, phosphorus, and trace elements (Cd, B, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb). Compared with the natural groundwater used for washing paint wastes, the paint industry effluents were found to contain elevated concentrations of cations with the exception of Ca and moderately high concentrations of trace elements. Evaluation of the effluents was made, based on the integration of EC and both the sodium absorption ratio (SAR) and soluble sodium percent (SSP), BOD and COD values, and maximum permissible limits of heavy metals in the irrigation water. From the overall assessment, the effluents were considered suitable for use as supplement irrigation water. However, it is essential that the heavy metals in the effluents, as well as their accumulation in plants and soils, are monitored regularly. (author)

2006-01-01

348

The Planetary and Eclipse Oil Paintings of Howard Russell Butler  

Science.gov (United States)

The physics-trained artist Howard Russell Butler (1856-1934) has inspired many astronomy students through his planetary and eclipse paintings that were long displayed at the Hayden Planetarium in New York, the Fels Planetarium at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, and the Buffalo Museum of Science. We discuss not only the eclipse triptychs (1918, 1923, and 1925) at each of those institutions but also his paintings of Mars as seen from Phobos and from Deimos (with landscapes of those moons in the foreground depicted in additional oils hung at Princeton University) and the Earth from our Moon. We also describe his involvement with astronomy and his unique methodology that allowed him to surpass the effects then obtainable with photography, as well as his inclusion in a U.S. Naval Observatory eclipse expedition in 1918, as well as his auroral, solar-prominence, and 1932-eclipse paintings.

Pasachoff, Jay M.; Olson, R. M.

2013-10-01

349

Paint binders hardened by electron beams and their use  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention concerns a paint binder hardened by electron beams (0.1 - 100 Mrad/sec.) consisting of a dispersion of an ethylenic unsaturated material in at least one vinyl monomer and the use of the former in manufacturing pigmented or coloured points. In order to improve the properties of the hardened paints (elasticity, wear resistance) a reaction product is used consisting of rubber particles (0.04-1 ?m) and an ethylenic unsaturated component with a reactive epoxy, hydroxy or carboxy group which is bonded to the rubber particles by ester or urethane compounds. The detailed description of the manufacture is explained by 68 examples. The paints hold particularly well on sheet steel. (UWI)

1976-01-01

350

Sorption and desorption of tritiated water on paints  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper the sorption and desorption of tritiated water on paints, such as acryl, silicone, epoxy and fluorine types, has been studied. In dynamic adsorption and desorption experiments, tritium concentration in the chamber, in which painted metal was installed, was measured during HTO vapor charging or purging by N{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O. Slow desorption rate for acryl type was observed. Residual tritium not released by sweeping with N{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O was recovered by heating up to 800 C. Residual tritium fraction for epoxy type was found to be highest among tested. Paint membrane was used in permeation experiments of HTO vapor and liquid. Diffusivity, solubility and permeability were evaluated. Diffusivity for fluorine was largest and that for epoxy smallest.

Ono, F.; Tanaka, S.; Yamawaki, M. (Nuclear Engineering Research Lab., Univ., of Tokyo, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-11 (JP))

1992-03-01

351

Sorption and desorption of tritiated water on paints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper the sorption and desorption of tritiated water on paints, such as acryl, silicone, epoxy and fluorine types, has been studied. In dynamic adsorption and desorption experiments, tritium concentration in the chamber, in which painted metal was installed, was measured during HTO vapor charging or purging by N2 + H2O. Slow desorption rate for acryl type was observed. Residual tritium not released by sweeping with N2 + H2O was recovered by heating up to 800 C. Residual tritium fraction for epoxy type was found to be highest among tested. Paint membrane was used in permeation experiments of HTO vapor and liquid. Diffusivity, solubility and permeability were evaluated. Diffusivity for fluorine was largest and that for epoxy smallest

1991-10-04

352

A procedure for image enhancement in chromosome painting.  

Science.gov (United States)

An image enhancement procedure was developed to produce high-contrast chromosome paint images. This procedure is well suited for images where brightness-contrast enhancement is subjective. Three examples are given to show that the procedure is very efficient to remove non-specific hybridization signals from the chromosome paint image. Chromosomes of roe deer contain large amounts of centromeric heterochromatic DNA. Echidna chromosomes show specific heterochromatic DNA distributed over several chromosomes. In both cases chromosome identification was hampered by bright heterochromatic regions. The enhancement tool was fully used in cross-species chromosome painting, which is the last example. The three examples show that the procedure is very simple to use and removes background in a controlled and defined manner. PMID:16823612

Rens, W; Moderegger, K; Skelton, H; Clarke, O; Trifonov, V; Ferguson-Smith, M A

2006-07-12

353

uv radiation curable paints. Topical report on material identification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The program for the development of ultraviolet radiation curing of paints for application on preformed structures is discussed. The starting point of this program was the matching of resins, photoinitiators, and pigments which will result in coatings that can be cured by ultraviolet radiation. The initial work was the identification of reactive diluents and base resins that are sensitive to the uv curing process. The reactive monomeric diluents tested included multifunctional acrylates, monofunctional acrylates, and non-acrylic unsaturated esters. The end point will be the application of these coatings to prefabricated metal structures to demonstrate the viability of this technique in producing commercially acceptable painted products. These uv curable paints should produce films that are hard, adherent, and opaque at a nominal thickness of one mil (0.001 inch).

1981-01-13

354

From the painted programme of Saint John (Ayvali Kilise), Cssappadocia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the Church of St. John in Cappadocia, also known as Ayvali Kilise or Gulu dere 4, on the frescoes which were painted between 913 and 920, particular devotion was shown for the cult of the archangels. The two archangels Michael and Gabriel, were painted in very large dimensions, with inscriptions describing them as 'great', besides giving their names. In addition to that a unique group of two figures was presented. It depicted the monk Archippos turned toward a colossal figure of the archangel Michael, painted strictly frontally. The iconographical relationship of these two figures, unrecorded in scholarly literature, indicates that this was definitely Archippos, the custodian of the important shrine of the Archangel Michael at Chonai, which still existed in those times. This would not only be a very early, but the only preserved presentation of Archippos, other than his appearance in the well-known composition of the Miracle of the Archangel Michael at Chonai.

Gabeli? Smiljka

2009-01-01

355

Ecotoxicity of paint mixtures: comparison between measured and calculated toxicity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aims of the current study were to test the validity of the concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) calculation methods for mixture toxicity as well as the REACH guidelines for mixture exposure scenarios for paint products. Based on ecotoxicity tests of nine anticorrosive paint mixtures and the nine substances that contributed to classification of the mixtures as hazardous for the aquatic environment, neither CA nor IA was found to be appropriate calculation methods, although CA calculations were conservative for half of the mixtures tested. The REACH mixture approach, based on "lead" substances, resulted in conservative predictions for three out of five mixtures and the "lead" substance corresponded to the substance contributing the most in the CA mixture calculations for four out of six mixtures. The use of paints as a matrix for toxicity testing required adaptation of test procedures, development of sample handling and chemical analysis methods.

Gade AL; Heiaas H; Lillicrap A; Hylland K

2012-10-01

356

Siquieros accidental painting technique: a fluid mechanics point of view  

CERN Multimedia

This is an entry for the Gallery of Fluid Motion of the 65th Annual Meeting of the APS-DFD (fluid dynamics video). This video shows an analysis of the 'accidental painting' technique developed by D.A. Siqueiros, a famous Mexican muralist. We reproduced the technique that he used: pouring layers of paint of different colors on top of each other. We found that the layers mix, creating aesthetically pleasing patterns, as a result of a Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Due to the pigments used to give paints their color, they can have different densities. When poured on top of each other, if the top layer is denser than the lower one, the viscous gravity current undergoes unstable as it spread radially. We photograph the process and produced slowed-down video to visualize the process.

Zetina, Sandra

2012-01-01

357

Analysis of plant meiotic chromosomes by chromosome painting.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chromosome painting (CP) refers to visualization of large chromosome regions, entire chromosome arms, or entire chromosomes via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). For CP in plants, contigs of chromosome-specific bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) from the target species or from a closely related species (comparative chromosome painting, CCP) are typically applied as painting probes. Extended pachytene chromosomes provide the highest resolution of CP in plants. CP enables identification and tracing of particular chromosome regions and/or entire chromosomes throughout all meiotic stages as well as corresponding chromosome territories in premeiotic interphase nuclei. Meiotic pairing and structural chromosome rearrangements (typically inversions and translocations) can be identified by CP. Here, we describe step-by-step protocols of CP and CCP in plant species including chromosome preparation, BAC DNA labeling, and multicolor FISH.

Lysak MA; Mandáková T

2013-01-01

358

Mid-infrared hyperspectral imaging of painting materials  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel hyperspectral imaging system (HI90, Bruker Optics), working in the mid-infrared range and recently developed for the remote identification and mapping of hazardous compounds, has here been optimized for investigating painting surfaces. The painting Sestante 10 (1982) by Alberto Burri has been spectrally and spatially investigated with the HI90 system revealing the distribution of inorganic materials constituting the artworks. In order to validate the results obtainable by the imager for the pigment identification previous tests on laboratory models were performed. Yellow, white and blue pigments painted with different binders (namely egg, alkyd, acrylic and vinyl) were investigated by the HI90. Afterwards, the polychrome painting Sestante 10 was investigated focusing the attention on the inorganic material distribution revealing the presence of different extenders (kaolin, BaSO4, CaSO4) mixed with the various silica-based pigments present in the painting. The brightness temperature spectra collected by HI90 have also been compared to single point reflection spectra acquired by a conventional portable FTIR spectrometer (Alpha-R by Bruker Optics) highlighting the good spectral quality of the imaging system. This comparison permitted also to evaluate the spectral response and the diagnostic strengths of the spectral range available by the HI90 imaging (1300-860 cm-1), validating the reliability of the obtained chemical images. This study clearly highlights the high potential of the new hyperspectral imaging system and opens up new perspectives in the current scientific interest devoted to the application of mapping and imaging methods for the study of painting surfaces.

Rosi, Francesca; Harig, Roland; Miliani, Costanza; Braun, René; Sali, Diego; Daveri, Alessia; Brunetti, Brunetto G.; Sgamellotti, Antonio

2013-05-01

359

LET-painting increases tumour control probability for hypoxic tumours  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Introduction: LET-painting was suggested as a method to overcome tumour hypoxia. In vitro experiments have demonstrated a well established relationship between the Oxygen Enhancement Ratio (OER) and linear energy transfer (LET), where OER approaches unity for high-LET values. However, high-LET radiation also increases the risk for side effects in normal tissue. LET-painting attempts to restrict high-LET radiation to compartments that are found to be hypoxic, while applying lower LET radiation to norm-oxic tissues. Methods: Carbon-12 and oxygen-16 treatment plans with four fields and with homogeneous dose in the target volume, are applied on an oropharyngeal cancer case with an identified hypoxic entity within the tumour. The target dose is optimized to achieve a tumour control probability (TCP) of 95% when assuming a fully normoxic tissue. Using the same primary particle energy fluence needed for this plan, TCP is recalculated for three cases assuming hypoxia: first, redistributing LET to match the hypoxicstructure (LET-painting). Second, plans are recalculated for varying hypoxic tumour volume in order to investigate the threshold volume where TCP can be established. Finally, a slight dose boost (5-20%) is additionally allowed in the hypoxic subvolume to assess its impact on TCP. Results: LET-painting with carbon-12 ions can only achieve tumor control for hypoxic subvolumes smaller than 0.5 cm3. Using oxygen-16 ions, tumour control can be achieved for tumours with hypoxic subvolumes of up to 1 or 2 cm3. Tumour control can be achieved for tumours with even larger hypoxic subvolumes, if a slight dose boost is allowed in combination with LET-painting. Conclusion: Our findings clearly indicate that a substantial increase in tumour control can be achieved when applying the LET-painting concept using oxygen-16 ions on hypoxic tumours, ideally with a slight dose boost.

Bassler, Niels; Toftegaard, Jakob

2013-01-01

360

LET-painting increases tumour control probability in hypoxic tumours  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Introduction: LET-painting was suggested as a method to overcome tumour hypoxia. In vitro experiments have demonstrated a well established relationship between the Oxygen Enhancement Ratio (OER) and linear energy transfer (LET), where OER approaches unity for high-LET values. However, high-LET radiation also increases the risk for side effects in normal tissue. LET-painting attempts to restrict high-LET radiation to compartments that are found to be hypoxic, while applying lower LET radiation to norm-oxic tissues. Methods: Carbon-12 and oxygen-16 treatment plans with four fields and with homogeneous dose in the target volume, are applied on an oropharyngeal cancer case with an identified hypoxic entity within the tumour. The target dose is optimized to achieve a tumour control probability (TCP) of 95% when assuming a fully normoxic tissue. Using the same primary particle energy fluence needed for this plan, TCP is recalculated for three cases assuming hypoxia: first, redistributing LET to match the hypoxicstructure (LET-painting). Second, plans are recalculated for varying hypoxic tumour volume in order to investigate the threshold volume where TCP can be established. Finally, a slight dose boost (5-20%) is additionally allowed in the hypoxic subvolume to assess its impact on TCP. Results: LET-painting with carbon-12 ions can only achieve tumor control for hypoxic subvolumes smaller than 0.5 cm3. Using oxygen-16 ions, tumour control can be achieved for tumours with hypoxic subvolumes of up to 1 or 2 cm3. Tumour control can be achieved for tumours with even larger hypoxic subvolumes, if a slight dose boost is allowed in combination with LET-painting. Conclusion: Our findings clearly indicate that a substantial increase in tumour control can be achieved when applying the LET-painting concept using oxygen-16 ions on hypoxic tumours, ideally with a slight dose boost.

Bassler, Niels; Toftegaard, Jakob

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Identification of proteins in renaissance paintings by proteomics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presented work proposes a new methodology based on proteomics techniques to identify proteins in old art paintings. The main challenging tasks of this work were (i) to find appropriate conditions for extracting proteins from the binding media without protein hydrolysis in amino acids and (ii) to develop analytical methods adapted to the small sample quantity available. Starting from microsamples of painting models (ovalbumin-based, which is the major egg white protein, and egg-based paintings), multiple extraction solutions (HCl, HCOOH, NH3, NaOH) and conditions (ultrasonic bath, mortar and pestle, grinding resin) were evaluated. The best results were obtained using a commercial kit including a synthetic resin, mortar and pestle to grind the sample in an aqueous solution acidified with trifluoroacetic acid at 1% with additional multiple steps of ultrasonic baths. The resulting supernatant was analyzed by MALDI-TOF in linear mode to verify the efficiency of the extraction solution. An enzymatic hydrolysis step was also performed for protein identification; the peptide mixture was analyzed by nanoLC/nanoESI/Q-q-TOF MS/MS with an adapted chromatographic run for the low sample quantity. Finally, the developed methodology was successfully applied to Renaissance art painting microsamples of approximately 10 microg from Benedetto Bonfigli's triptych, The Virgin and Child, St. John the Baptist, St. Sebastian (XVth century), and Niccolo di Pietro Gerini's painting, The Virgin and Child (XIVth century), identifying, for the first time and without ambiguity, the presence of whole egg proteins (egg yolk and egg white) in a painting binder. PMID:16503599

Tokarski, Caroline; Martin, Elisabeth; Rolando, Christian; Cren-Olivé, Cécile

2006-03-01

362

EXPOSURE AND EMISSION EVALUATIONS OF METHYL ETHYL KETOXIME (MEKO) IN ALKYD PAINTS  

Science.gov (United States)

Small environmental chamber tests were conducted to characterize the emissions of a toxic chemical compound -- methylethylketoxime (MEKO) -- from three different alkyd paints. It was found that MEKO emissions occurred almost immediately after each alkyd paint was applied to a pin...

363

STABLE HYDROALCOHOLIC ORAL SPRAY FORMULATIONS AND METHODS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Stable formulations of an active pharmaceutical agent suitable for oral spray administration for absorption by the oral mucosa and related methods of preparation and administration of active pharmaceutical agent formulations are provided. Preferred embodiments of the invention provide formulations comprising an active pharmaceutical agent, a solvent, a buffer, and a viscosity modifying agent, wherein when a unit dose volume of about 25 to 400 mcL of the oral spray composition is sprayed, the spray has a median particle size diameter of about 40 to about 100 microns.

BLONDINO FRANK E; MALITZ HOWARD

364

Head spray nozzle in reactor pressure vessel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a reactor pressure vessel of a BWR type reactor, a head spray nozzle is used for cooling the head of the pressure vessel and, in view of the thermal stresses, it is desirable that cooling is applied as uniformly as possible. A conventional head spray is constituted by combining full cone type nozzles. Since the sprayed water is flown down upon water spraying and the sprayed water in the vertical direction is overlapped, the flow rate distribution has a high sharpness to form a shape as having a maximum value near the center and it is difficult to obtain a uniform flow rate distribution in the circumferential direction. Then, in the present invention, flat nozzles each having a spray water cross section of laterally long shape, having less sharpness in the circumferential distribution upon spraying water to the inner wall of the pressure vessel and having a wide angle of water spray are combined, to make the flow rate distribution of spray water uniform in the inner wall of the pressure vessel. Accordingly, the pressure vessel can be cooled uniformly and thermal stresses upon cooling can be decreased. (N.H.).

1989-01-13

365

Nuclear reactor containment spray testing system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Disclosed is a method for periodic testing of a spray system in a nuclear reactor containment. The method includes injecting a gas into the spray system such that a temperature differential exists between the gas and the containment atmosphere. Scanning the gas jet discharged from the spray nozzles with infrared apparatus then provides a real-time thermal image on a monitor, such as a cathode ray tube, and detects any partially or completely blocked nozzles in the spray system. The scanning may be performed from the containment operating deck. 1 claim, 4 figures

1978-01-01

366

Evolution and Prospect of Thermal Spraying Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, current state development and process evolution ofthermal spray technology during last century (1910―2010) were reviewed. An "three―step evolution trend" (heat energy dominance, kineticenergy dominance, innovative idea and composite performance dominance) wasadvanced in order to get comprehensive understanding on this technology and dobetter in promoting its future development. Low pressure plasma spraying―thinfilm (LPPS―TF), cold spray (CS) and suspension orsolution srecursor plasma spray (SPS/SPPS) were selected among emerging novelspray processes to be briefly introduced from two aspects (process characteristics and potential applications). Comparison of spray output valueand detail contribution ratio distribution of various industry or process through world and Asia spray industry market were made to probe into what canbe improved as for China thermal spray industry in future. It was suggested that increasing plasma spray and HVOF contribution to applications, take activesteps to explore R&D of some novel spray technology like above mentioned and their possible applications especially in high―tech industrial such aselectrics, semiconductor and new energy.

YIN Zhi-Jian, , WANG Shu-Bao, FU-Wei,TAN Xin-Hai, TAO Shun-Yan, DING Chuan-Xian

2011-01-01

367

Synthesis of thermal spray grade yttrium oxide powder and its application for plasma spray deposition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process to transform the commercially available yttrium oxide powder (M/s. IRE) into thermal spray grade powder and development of plasma spray coating of it on graphite/metallic substrate are described. Experimental results show that the synthesized powder had very good flow characteristics and could be used for plasma spray deposition efficiently.

Padmanabhan, P.V.A. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)], E-mail: pvananth@barc.gov.in; Ramanathan, S. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sreekumar, K.P.; Satpute, R.U. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kutty, T.R.G. [Radio Metallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Gonal, M.R. [Materials Processing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Gantayet, L.M. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

2007-12-15

368

A critical investigation into the spray-drying of hydroxyapatite powder for thermal spray applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work examines the investigation of the spray drying process of Hydroxyapatite powder (HA) used as a thermal spray deposit in the application of orthopaedic femoral implants. In this research, the Niro- Minor™ mixed spray dryer was used for both modelling and experimental studies. The process pa...

Murtaza, Qasim

369

Iodine-paint interactions during a core fusion accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

If a core fusion accident should occur, radioactive iodine would be released from the fuel and would reach the reactor containment building, and then react with wall paintings to form organic iodine compounds, i.e. volatile compounds which are difficult to filtrate and therefore would be released in the environment. This article briefly reports investigations of the formation/destruction mechanisms of these volatile iodine compounds, notably through the Epicur program. This program focused on two prevailing phenomena: the radiolytic oxidation of iodine present in sump water, and the production of volatile organic iodides from painted surfaces where iodine adsorption occurs. Iodine behaviour is modelled by using the Astec code

2011-01-01

370

PaintShop Pro X4 for Photographers  

CERN Multimedia

Great for those new to PaintShop Pro or digital imaging in general, this book is packed with inspirational, full-color images and easy to follow, step-by-step projects that will have you producing great images in PaintShop Pro in no time! Everything you need to turn your photos into stunning works of art is right here in this Corel-reviewed guide. In this new edition, Ken covers new features including how to make the most of the newly organized workspaces, use the redesigned HDR tool, and instantly publish photos on Flickr and Facebook. Squeeze every ounce of detail out of RAW files using the

McMahon, Ken

2012-01-01

371

Measurement method of radon mitigation efficiency for interior wall paint  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To develop a effective measurement method of radon mitigation efficiency for interior wall paint. By using a local static method, the average radon flux rate of a measured material surface during the period of monitoring can be gotten. The method has been developed using organic glass to make radon cumulation chamber, lint board with a single smooth surface to make samples, PCMR-1 continuous radon monitor and GD-LI gas-through solid radon source. The same measurement conditions can be realized easily and the measurement results can be compared very well. The method can meet the need of radon mitigation efficiency measurement for interior wall paint

2001-01-01

372

Paint stripping with high power flattened Gaussian beams  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we present results on improved paint stripping performance with an intra-cavity generated Flattened Gaussian Beam (FGB). A resonator with suitable diffractive optical elements was designed in order to produce a single mode flat-top like laser beam as the output. The design was implemented in a TEA CO2 laser outputting more than 5 J per pulse in the desired mode. The FGB showed improved performance in a paint stripping application due to its uniformity of intensity, and high energy extraction from the cavity.

Forbes, Andrew; Du Preez, Neil C.; Belyi, Vladimir; Botha, Lourens R.

2009-08-01

373

Study on correlativity for paint film deterioration of steel bridge with corrosion under paint films; Kokyo no tomaku rekka to tomakuka fushoku tono sokansei ni kansuru kenkyu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, as an estimation method to determine the time to re-paint steel bridges without using the traditional visual evaluation, a system determining the time of re-painting by obtaining the objective deteriorated area through the image processing system that photographed the deteriorated conditions, and estimating the deterioration degree by comparing it with the predetermined evaluation criteria was developed. First, as the scale for estimating film deterioration, the number of rust particle groups existing on painted film surface, their sizes, the area ratio occupied by them, and the corrosion of the steel under the painted film were measured from actual bridges. The results obtained by conducting simple and multiple regression analysis of the relationship among the various measured items showed the correlativity between painted film surface and the corrosion of the steel under the painted film. It was clarified that the time to re-paint the deterioration painted film should be planned during the initial period when corrosion under painted film was still within the allowed extent, and regression formula for presuming the corrosion under painted film was proposed. 17 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

Fujiwara, H. [Japan Highway Public Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Sugano, T.

1996-04-21

374

Zero discharge organic coatings, powder paint - UV curable paint - E-coat. Volume 1. Final report, June 1993-June 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Zero Discharge Organic Coatings project developed powder paint, Ultraviolet (UV) curable paint, and electro- coating (E-coat) paint for military Applications. These technologies offer potential for high performance coatings with little or no volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions or hazardous waste generation. The ZDOC project focused on formulating non-toxic corrosion inhibitors into these coating technologies, and the applications development of powder coatings. Non-toxic replacements for traditional lead and chromate inhibitors were selected based on a previous NAWCADWAR investigation. Once incorporated, the performance of the coatings with and without inhibitors was compared. Also, the protective mechanisms of these inhibitors were studied. The applications development for powder coatings analyzed technologies to allow powder coating of non-conductive substrates and evaluated the use of IR energy to cure powder coatings. Inhibitors were successfully incorporated into electrocoatings and powder coatings, however corrosion performance results varied with coating formulation.

Leal, J.; Martin, D.R.; Spadafora, S.J.; Eng, A.T.; Stark, H.

1995-06-01

375

Influence of Nozzle geometry on spray shape, particle size, spray velocity and Air entrainment of high pressure Diesel spray  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Air/fuel mixing process in the combustion chamber of Diesel engines plays an important role on the combustion efficiency. This mixing depends on the particle size distribution in the spray, on the local velocity of fuel droplets in the spray and on the air entrainment. Nozzle geometry as well as noz...

Hespel, Camille; Blaisot, Jean-Bernard; Margot, Xandra; Patouna, S.; Cessou, Armelle; Lecordier, Bertrand

376

The prevalence of lead-based paint hazards in U.S. housing.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study we estimated the number of housing units in the United States with lead-based paint and lead-based paint hazards. We included measurements of lead in intact and deteriorated paint, interior dust, and bare soil. A nationally representative, random sample of 831 housing units was evaluat...

Jacobs, David E; Clickner, Robert P; Zhou, Joey Y; Viet, Susan M; Marker, David A; Rogers, John W; Zeldin, Darryl C

377

Formulation of an Anti-bacterial and Anti-corrosion Paint  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, formulation of a paint which can resist the rough weather condition containing the water has been proposed. This type of paint can be useful for coating metal in port, ship structure, oil vessels and in agricultural and food safety applications. Also, usage of this paint for disin...

Seyed Ali Taheri; Fatemeh S. Taheri; Mohaddeseh Namjoo

378

Technological development of paint for offshore structure. Kaiyo kozobutsu ni okeru toryo no gijutsu kaihatsu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Differently from the on-land structure, the offshore structure is exposed to so severely corrosive environment that sufficiently anti-corrosive measures are necessary to maintain it in durability. Heavy duty anti-corrosive paint was introduced in present status and trend. As a present status of heavy duty anti-corrosive paint, it comprises zinc-rich paint, mixed with high concentration zinc powder, and synthetic resin paint, such as epoxy and urethane. The final coat paint, required to be weatherworthy, comprises fluororesin paint and acrylic silicon resin paint. The anti-corrosive technology adopts different anti-corrosive methods, specified in dependence upon corrosive environment and location of respective structure. The coating work attaches importance to an assured quality of proper surface preparation and maintenance of uniformly specified film thickness. In the recent technological trend, superthick film type paint, which is heavy duty anti-corrosive paint, able to be applied to a thickness of several millimeters per one coat, is used to aim at a long-term maintenance of anti-corrosiveness and durability. While the super-weatherworthy final coat paint comprises fluororesin paint and acrylic silicon resin paint. 3 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Inoue, I.

1990-12-01

379

Measurement of the thickness of paint coat on concrete by. beta. -reflection method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The measurement of the thickness of paint coating on concrete by isotope method is discussed. The influence of pigment in paints and lacquers on the measurement results is considered. The review of pigments used in paints and lacquers is presented. Pigments atomic numbers are also given.

Sekowski, S. (Instytut Mechaniki Precyzyjnej, Warsaw (Poland))

1981-01-01

380

CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM INTERIOR ALKYD PAINT  

Science.gov (United States)

Alkyd paint continues to be used indoors for application to wood trim, cabinet surfaces, and some kitchen and bathroom walls. Paint may represent a significant source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) indoors depending on the frequency of use and amount of surface paint. The U...

 
 
 
 
381

VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM LATEX PAINT - PART 1. CHAMBER EXPERIMENTS AND SOURCE MODEL DEVELOPMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

Latex paints are widely used in residential and commercial indoor environments. The surface areas covered by the paints in these environments are relatively large. Thus, latex paints have the potential for having a major impact on indoor air quality (IAQ). A study was undertaken ...

382

Allergic contact dermatitis from 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, a paint mildewcide  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Severe allergic contact dermatitis from a paint mildewcide, 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, developed in a worker formulating latex paints within a paint manufacturing company, Guinea pig maximization testing demonstrated this to be a moderate sensitizer. Further cases of allergic contact dermatitis may be encountered as the use of this biocide increases in the market place.

Mathias, C G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

1983-01-01

383

Analysis of painted steel by a hand-held X-ray fluorescence spectrometer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Steel with a paint layer was analyzed with a hand-held X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. When the 0.5 mm thick paint layer was composed mainly of light elements, alloying elements in steel such as Fe, Cr, Ni, W, and Mo were easily detected. 0.2% Mo in steel was detectable even if the paint contained Ti or Fe as a main element. The signal intensity of each element in steel decreased exponentially when the paint thickness increased, and the degree of decrease depended on the X-ray energy. Therefore the peak intensity for non-painted steel could be calculated from the paint thickness. The paint thickness was estimated from the intensity ratio Fe K?/K? or W L?/L?. When a paint of Ti (0.07-0.49 mm thick) was used, the peak intensities of the Fe K?, Cr K?, Ni K?, and Mo K? lines for non-painted steel were estimated by using the intensity ratio Fe K?/K?, with errors of less than 30%. The content of each element in steel is estimated when the fluorescent X-rays are detectable by analysis of painted steel without removing the paint layer. On-site screening of painted steel can be performed on the basis of the alloy composition estimated by analysis with a hand-held XRF spectrometer.

2005-02-28

384

Taking the 40/40 Challenge: Sixteen Painters Working Daily to Develop a Painting Discipline  

Science.gov (United States)

As a young art teacher, this author was inspired by the advice of Faith Ringgold, who emphasized the importance of creating time during each day to create art. This advice led the author to develop a painting discipline by creating "The 40/40 Challenge" for her students in Painting I and Painting II classes. The 40/40 Challenge is a voluntary…

McComb, Camilla

2006-01-01

385

Comparison Between Sodium Nitrite and Sodium Hydroxide Spray Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this analysis is to compare the consequences of an 8 molar NaNO2 spray leak to the Tank Farm Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) evaluation of sprays of up to 19 molar (50%) NaOH. Four conditions were evaluated. These are: a spray during transfers from a one-inch pipe, a spray resulting from a truck tank Crack, a spray resulting from a truck tank rupture, and a spray in the 204-AR Waste Unloading Facility.

2001-01-01

386

Toluene removal by oxidation reaction in spray wet scrubber: experimental, modeling and optimization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Toluene, an important volatile organic compound (VOC), is used in many kinds of industries, such as painting, printing, coating, and petrochemical industries. The emission of toluene causes serious air pollution, odor problem, flammability problem and affects human health. This paper proposes the removal of toluene from waste air using a spray wet scrubber combining the absorption and oxidation reaction. Aqueous sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution was used as the scrubbing liquid in the system. NaOCl, the strongest oxidative agent, presents an effective toluene removal. As the scrubbed toluene is reacted, recirculation of the scrubbing liquid could be operated with a constant removal efficiency throughout the operting time. The investigated variables affecting the removal efficiency were air flow rate, inlet toluene concentration, NaOCl concentration, scrubbing liquid flow rate and size of spray nozzle. Influence of the scrubbing parameters was experimentally studied to develop a mathematical model of the toluene removal efficiency. The removal model reveals that the increase of scrubbing liquid flow rate, toluene concentration, and NaOCl concentration together with the decrease of air flow rate and size of spray nozzle can increase the toluene removal efficiency. Optimization problem with an objective function and constraints was set to provide the maximum toluene removal efficiency and solved by Matlab optimization toolbox. The optimization constraints were formed from the mathematical model and process limitation. The solution of the optimization was an air flow rate of 100 m3/h, toluene concentration of 1500 ppm, NaOCl concentration of 0.02 mol/l, NaOCl solution feed rate of 0.8 m3/h, and spray nozzle size of 0.5 mm. Solution of the optimization gave the highest toluene removal efficiency of 91.7%.

Juntima Chungsiriporn; Charun Bunyakan; Roumporn Nikom

2006-01-01

387

Spraying of Crops with Selenium  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A frame experiment was carried out in 1983 to test the effect of foliar application of selenate and selenite and the effect of simultaneous addition of a micronutrient solution on the Se concentration of barley and potatoes. In general, selenate was the more effective; however, both forms of Se proved efficient in raising the Se content of the plants from deficient to desirable levels by spraying about 5 g Se/ha. More than 50 g Se/ha might cause too high levels and should be avoided.

Sima, Per; Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel

1985-01-01

388

Study of a method for evaluating stone chipping resistance of vehicle paint films; Tomaku no tai chipping sei hyoka gijutsu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method to evaluate chipping of vehicle paint film (separation of paint film by impingement of kicked stones) was developed. This method relates paint film strength obtained from a multi-layer paint film evaluating device, `Saicas` with chipping phenomena. Test pieces are the painted plates composed of primer painting, medium painting, and finish painting. The relationship was sought among cutting force and speeds of Saicas, paint film strength and thickness. The findings obtained from the test may be summarized as follows: Improving the medium painting is an effective measure to reduce chipping; the shear strength of a solid paint film on the finish painting is 1.2 to 1.3 times and the bonding strength with the medium paint film is 5 to 8 times as much as those in a metallic paint film; iteration of the finish painting degrades chipping resisting performance and causes separation; its cause was inferred from the strength curves that, when the finish paint film on the second layer is baked, internal stress is imposed on the paint film on the first layer and reduces the bonding strength between the layers; and the present method was compared with the gravelometer method, a conventional evaluation method, where good correlation was recognized between the two methods. 2 refs., 10 figs.

Kaji, O.; Matsumura, S. [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

1993-10-01

389

Wood Ash Effectiveness in Cadmium Removal from Paint Industrial Effluent  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was conducted in order to present more information and evidence to authorities to make them capable of making better decisions. Survey was done in batch conditions on wastewater of Binalood paint industries using different amount of wood ash as adsorbent and in variable pH from acidic to ...

M. Malakootian; K. Yaghmaeian; M. Malakootian

390

ATTAINING THE ROOM COMFORT BY SOLAR REFLECTIVE PAINT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this research was to provide the Room comfort by means of Solar Reflective Paint (SRP) on the roof and thereby reducing the consumption of electrical energy. Solar heat diffuses through roof into the room resulting in human discomfort. Human discomfort leads to the usage of electrical energy. Valuable energy has to be conserved. Three different samples of solar reflective paint were collected and their properties were studied. The sample suitable for the research was selected. A standard roof design was selected for analysis. Using the properties of solar reflective paint and the roof design, a model was created and was analyzed by using ANSYS. The temperature of the living room was brought down considerably of about 7°C by implementing the solar reflecting paint on the roof top. Power consumption can be drastically reduced by using SRP on industries as well as residential buildings. By using SRP, the usage of Air conditioning units can be minimized thereby keeping the global warming in control.

M. Sekar; M. Sakthivel; S. Satheesh Kumar; C. Ramesh

2012-01-01

391

Pressure-Sensitive Paint Measurements of Transient Shock Phenomena  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Measurements of the global pressure field created by shock wave diffraction have been captured optically using a porous pressure-sensitive paint. The pressure field created by a diffracting shock wave shows large increases and decreases in pressure and can be reasonably accurately captured using CFD...

Mark Kenneth Quinn; Konstantinos Kontis

392

ATTAINING THE ROOM COMFORT BY SOLAR REFLECTIVE PAINT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this research was to provide the Room comfort by means of Solar Reflective Paint (SRP) on the roof and thereby reducing the consumption of electrical energy. Solar heat diffuses through roof into the room resulting in human discomfort. Human discomfort leads to the usage of electric...

M. Sekar; M. Sakthivel; S. Satheesh Kumar; C. Ramesh

393

Synthesis of Copper Pigments, Malachite and Verdigris: Making Tempera Paint  

Science.gov (United States)

Malachite and verdigris, two copper-based pigments, are synthesized in this experiment intended for use in a general chemistry laboratory. The preparation of egg tempera paint from malachite is also described. All procedures can be done with a magnetic stir plate, standard glassware present in any first-year laboratory, and household chemicals.…

Solomon, Sally D.; Rutkowsky, Susan A.; Mahon, Megan L.; Halpern, Erica M.

2011-01-01

394

Methods for Measuring Lead Concentrations in Paint Films.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent legislation required the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to establish procedures to abate lead-based paint in existing HUD-assisted housing. The legislation also required HUD to assess the accuracy, precision, reliability, an...

M. E. McKnight W. E. Byrd W. E. Roberts E. S. Lagergren

1989-01-01

395

Rock painting, S01392, Ficksburg, Dihlabeng District Municipality, Free State  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

rain animals/snake/animal heads, coloured black and red , This rock painting shows black and red coloured magical other-worldly things such as rain-animals, snake and animal heads that are encountered by dancers on their out-of-body vision journeys. The most important ritual of the San people is the Gr...

Woodhouse, Herbert Charles, 1919-2011

396

Rock painting, S00927, Clocolan, Dihlabeng District Municipality, Free State  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

rain animal, plum/white , Rock painting of a rain animal in plum and white colours , JPEG (52.39K) representation of a slide, image size: 450(w) x 303(h) in pixels, image quality: 72 dpi, date converted: 2007/08/03

Woodhouse, Herbert Charles, 1919-2011

397

Rock painting, S00558, Bethlehem, Dihlabeng District Municipality, Free State  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

rain animals/upside down , Rock painting of upside down rain animals - a well known death posture. This death was, for the San, both literal and metaphoric, with the latter meaning indicating a shaman's passage to the Spirit World that was believed to exist behind the rock surface. The eastern Free Sta...

Woodhouse, Herbert Charles, 1919-2011

398

Rock painting, S00501, Bethlehem, Dihlabeng District Municipality, Free State  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

rain animals, coloured red , A rock painting of a red coloured rain animal. Amongst all San groups the most important ritual is the Great Dance. In this dance, through trance, the San say that they harness a kind of spiritual power. They use this power for things such as healing, hunting, removing soci...

Woodhouse, Herbert Charles, 1919-2011

399

Emissions of odorous aldehydes from an alkyd paint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Odorous aldehyde emissions from a commonly used alkyd paint were measured and characterized. Initial formulation analysis indicated no measurable aldehydes in the liquid paint. However, small environmental chamber tests showed that, for each gram of the alkyd paint applied, more than 2 mg of aldehydes (mainly hexanal) were emitted during the curing (drying) period. The emission profiles of Aldehydes were very different from those of other volatile organic compounds such as alkanes and aromatics. Since no measurable aldehydes were found in the original point, it is suspected that the aldehydes emitted were produced by autoxidation of the unsaturated fatty acid esters in the alkyd resins. It was found that the hexanal emission rate can be simulated by a mathematical model assuming that the autoxidation process was controlled by a consecutive first-order reaction mechanism. The mathematical model was used to predict the indoor air hexanal concentrations for a typical application of the alkyd paint tested. The result indicated that the aldehyde emissions can result in prolonged (several days) exposure risk to occupants.

Chang, J.C.S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Guo, Z. [Acurex Environmental Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1998-12-31

400

Desalination of painted brick vaults : Ph.D.thesis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The subject of the thesis is salt and moisture movement that causes damage to wall paintings on church vaults. The deterioration was studied in the churches of Fanefjord, Kirkerup and Brarup. A desalination method was tested om location. The salt and moisture transfer was examined in detail in laboratory set-ups, and a model for the salt and moisture movement was proposed.

Larsen, Poul Klenz

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Body Painting as a Tool in Clinical Anatomy Teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the introduction and evaluation of a range of body painting exercises in a medical school anatomy curriculum. The article suggests practical advice on the integration of the method into a curriculum as an additional learning opportunity with traditional lab practicums and clinical teaching skills.

Dr. Paul G McMenamin (University of Western Australia Anatomy and Human Biology)

2008-08-01

402

40 CFR 745.65 - Lead-based paint hazards.  

Science.gov (United States)

...the following: (1) Any lead-based paint on a friction surface that is subject to abrasion and where the lead dust levels on the nearest horizontal surface underneath the friction surface (e.g., the window sill, or floor) are...

2009-07-01

403

Birds of a Feather... and Clay, Wire, Tissue and Paint!  

Science.gov (United States)

What began as a review lesson in clay construction quickly became a fun learning experience filled with inspiring conversations and creatively painted birds. This lesson was successful from beginning to end, with a final reward when the artwork was displayed. The author describes the process of working on this project and shares how the students…

Feiner, Lois

2011-01-01

404

Metaphor as a basic mechanism of art (painting)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article describes research on visual semantics, diff erent forms of metaphorused in rhetoric and philology (tropes: metonymy, hyperbole, litotes, oxymoron,and others), and images, which are metaphorical also. The research was carried outusing paintings. The authors state that the function of metaphor is to transformthe sense of the image from a psychological point of view.

Viktor F. Petrenko; Evgeniya A. Korotchenko

2012-01-01

405

Ink and Wash Painting for Children with Visual Impairment  

Science.gov (United States)

Five children with visual impairments received instruction in drawing, using ink and wash painting and calligraphy techniques. A special system developed by a blind Taiwanese Chinese calligrapher, Tsann-Cherng Liaw, was used to help the children orient and refine their work. Children's performance on simple drawing tasks was compared before and…

Shih, Chih-Ming; Chao, Hsin-Yi

2010-01-01

406

Tourmaline indoor air modifying agent (paint partner) and manufacture method  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a tourmaline indoor air modifying agent (paint partner), which takes tourmaline crude ore as materials to make a high-tech environment-friendly product through processing, namely an air negative ion, infrared ray releasing agent. The tourmaline crude ore is crushed, dispersed at a high speed, ground, filtered and subjected to energy activation according to the technical requirement.

KEMING GUO

407

Aesthetic experience and the emotional content of paintings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study we investigated the relationship between aesthetic experience and other emotional qualities judged in paintings. Aesthetic experience was defined as an exceptional state of mind in which a person is focused on a particular object, transcending its everyday uses and meanings and losing the awareness of surroundings and even of himself/herself. In this state a person has an exceptional emotional experience, that is a feeling of unity with the object. Our basic idea is that aesthetic experience is not reducible to pleasure or a positive hedonic tone, but a person can equally be fascinated with both pleasant and unpleasant objects. In preliminary studies we specified the stimulus set of figural and semi-figural paintings, and a set of descriptors of emotions, feelings and aesthetic experience. Participants judged the paintings on descriptors (seven-point scales). Factor analysis revealed two large factors: the bipolar factor Affective Tone (descriptors on the positive pole: lovely, charming, cheerful, etc; descriptors on the negative pole: scary, disgusting, hateful etc.) and Aesthetic Experience (descriptors: exceptional, profound, unique, etc.). Additional analyses have shown no significant correlation between the two factors. These findings confirmed our idea that aesthetic experience is independent of pleasure or affective attraction, and that it can be induced by both pleasant and unpleasant paintings.

Slobodan Markovi?

2010-01-01

408

SPRAY DROPLET COMPARISONS FOR GLYPHOSATE FORMULATIONS  

Science.gov (United States)

Preliminary studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of three glyphosate formulations on spray droplet size. A Malvern laser droplet analyzer was used to determine spray droplet size for three glyphosate formulations; Roundup Original®, UltraMax®, and WeatherMax®. Each glyphosate formulation...

409

Spray attemperators. Potential problems and solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spray attemperation is one of the most efficient and commonly used methods for controlling superheater and reheater temperature in power boilers. In this paper, results of experiences gained about spray attemperators and their potential problems are discussed and two case studies have also been presented. At the end of the paper recommendations about inspections have been made. (orig.)

Boroumandi, B. [Neka Power Generation Management Co., Shahid Salimi Power Station (Iran)

2006-07-01

410

Recent progress of spray drying in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of spray drying technique during past 10 years of China is reviewed. Main achievements in research, development and utilization of three types of atomization are described and summarized. General trend of spray drying research and development in 21st century is forecasted.

Jinxin, T.; Zonglian, W.; Lixin, H.

1999-10-01

411

An experimental study to investigate the feasibility to classify paints according to neurotoxicological risks: occupational air requirement (OAR) and indoor use of alkyd paints.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The concept of occupational air requirement (OAR), representing the quantity of air required to dilute the vapor concentration in the work environment resulting from 1 l product to a concentration below the occupational exposure limit (OEL), was considered to have potential to discriminate between paints that can and cannot be used safely. The OAR is a simple algorithm with the concentration of volatile organic compound (VOC) in the paint, a discrete evaporation factor and the neurotoxicological effects-based OEL. Conceptually, OAR categories of paints for construction and maintenance applications could be identified that can be applied manually without exceeding OELs with no appreciable room ventilation. Five painters volunteered in an exposure study aimed at testing the OAR approach in practice. Total exposure to VOC was assessed in 30 experiments during the application of 0.5 l of paint in a defined 'standard indoor paint job'. Fifteen paints were prepared, reflecting differences in solvents (percentage, volatility, toxicity) with a range of OAR levels from 43 to 819 m(3)/l. Exposure was assessed by personal air sampling (PAS). In addition, real-time air monitoring was performed. All tests were conducted at minimum ventilation rate (< or=0.33 h(-1)). PAS results were expressed as percentage of the nominal OEL and ranged from 8 to 93% for high solids and from 38 to 168% for conventional paints. In general, higher VOC contents resulted in higher exposure. High volatile paints showed a statistically significant faster increase of VOC concentration with time compared with paints containing low volatile solvents. A significant relationship between OAR value and exposure was observed (R(2) = 0.73). The experiments indicate that OAR-based classification of paints predicts and discriminates risk levels for exposure to neurotoxic paint-solvents in indoor painting fairly well.

Brouwer DH; de Pater NA; Zomer C; Lurvink MW; van Hemmen JJ

2005-07-01

412

An experimental study to investigate the feasibility to classify paints according to neurotoxicological risks: occupational air requirement (OAR) and indoor use of alkyd paints.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concept of occupational air requirement (OAR), representing the quantity of air required to dilute the vapor concentration in the work environment resulting from 1 l product to a concentration below the occupational exposure limit (OEL), was considered to have potential to discriminate between paints that can and cannot be used safely. The OAR is a simple algorithm with the concentration of volatile organic compound (VOC) in the paint, a discrete evaporation factor and the neurotoxicological effects-based OEL. Conceptually, OAR categories of paints for construction and maintenance applications could be identified that can be applied manually without exceeding OELs with no appreciable room ventilation. Five painters volunteered in an exposure study aimed at testing the OAR approach in practice. Total exposure to VOC was assessed in 30 experiments during the application of 0.5 l of paint in a defined 'standard indoor paint job'. Fifteen paints were prepared, reflecting differences in solvents (percentage, volatility, toxicity) with a range of OAR levels from 43 to 819 m(3)/l. Exposure was assessed by personal air sampling (PAS). In addition, real-time air monitoring was performed. All tests were conducted at minimum ventilation rate (< or=0.33 h(-1)). PAS results were expressed as percentage of the nominal OEL and ranged from 8 to 93% for high solids and from 38 to 168% for conventional paints. In general, higher VOC contents resulted in higher exposure. High volatile paints showed a statistically significant faster increase of VOC concentration with time compared with paints containing low volatile solvents. A significant relationship between OAR value and exposure was observed (R(2) = 0.73). The experiments indicate that OAR-based classification of paints predicts and discriminates risk levels for exposure to neurotoxic paint-solvents in indoor painting fairly well. PMID:15790614

Brouwer, Derk H; de Pater, Nettie A J; Zomer, Christian; Lurvink, Marc W M; van Hemmen, Joop J

2005-03-24

413

EVALUATION AND QUALITY CONTROL OF NASAL SPRAY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nasal drug delivery has now been recognized as a very promising route for delivery of therapeutic compounds including biopharmaceuticals. This route is also advisable for drugs undergoing extensive first pass effect. The present article highlights the evaluation parameters of nasal spray, suspension, and solutions. While formulating the nasal drug delivery formulations various parameters are to be consider such as Appearance, Color, and Clarity, Identification, Drug content (Assay), Impurities and Degradation Products, Preservative(s) and Stabilizing Excipient(s) Assay, Pump Delivery, Spray content uniformity, Spray Content Uniformity (SCU) through Container Life, Spray Pattern and Plume Geometry, Droplet Size Distribution, Particle size distribution (suspension),  Microscopic Evaluation (Suspensions), Foreign Particulates,  Microbial limit,  Preservative Effectiveness, Net Content and Weight Loss (Stability), Leachables (Stability), PH, Osmolality.   Key words: Nasal spray, Evaluation, Quality control, Drug delivery system.

Ramesh Shankarrao Kalkotwar; Vidya V Bankar Patil; Ankita Manibhai Patel; Swati D. Tathe; Swati S. Rawat

2012-01-01

414

Managing the Use of Copper-Based Antifouling Paints  

Science.gov (United States)

Copper is the biocide of choice for present-day antifouling (AF) paints. It is also a major source of copper loading in to the marine environment and, as such, might cause local copper levels to exceed water quality criteria. The present study is multifaceted and looks into the overall impact of copper-based AF paints on copper concentrations along a 64-km stretch of the Indian River Lagoon and at Port Canaveral, Florida. This preliminary study is one of the first to outline issues and present background evidence on the current status of copper and copper-based AF usage in Florida and to address the need for management. Previous measurements of copper levels in these waters show a history of copper contamination close to marinas, boatyards, and at Port Canaveral that often exceed state and federal water quality standards. Further, we estimate that the total annual copper input into the Indian River Lagoon is between 1.7 tons/year (sailboats) and 2.1 tons/year (powerboats) from boats in 14 marinas. We estimate the copper input into Port Canaveral to be about 1.4 tons/year from seven cruise ships. A brief survey of marina operators and boat owners revealed attitudes and practices associated with AF paint usage that ranged from excellent to inferior. Management recommendations are made for a proactive approach to improving AF paint selection and application, assessing the environmental status of copper, and redefining existing management practices for sustainable AF paint usage and environmental health.

Srinivasan, Mridula; Swain, Geoffrey W.

2007-03-01

415

Study of molecular iodine-epoxy paint mass transfer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The mass transfer phenomena may have a significant influence on the quantity of I2 which could be released following a severe accident of a nuclear power plant and specially the mass transfer of iodine onto containment surfaces. So, the objective of the present work was to evaluate which phase limited the adsorption process of iodine onto gaseous epoxy paint under a range of conditions which may be relevant to a severe reactor accident. In this aim, a series of experiments was conducted in which the sorption kinetics of molecular iodine, labelled with 131I, was measured by monitoring continuously the accumulation of this species on the epoxy surface. For each test condition, the initial deposition velocity was determined and the corresponding gas phase mass transfer, kg, was estimated by using the heat transfer analogy for a laminar flow passing over a flat plate. Then, the surface reaction rate, Kr, was deduced from these two values. Experiments performed indicated that iodine adsorption onto epoxy paint is highly dependent on temperature, relative humidity of the carrier gas and moisture content of the painted coupon. In dry air flow conditions, the adsorption of iodine onto paint was found to increase with temperature and to be limited by the surface reaction rate, Kr. The I2 adsorption rate was found to increase with the humidity of carrier gas and in some studied conditions, the initial deposition velocity appeared to be controlled by gas phase mass transfer rather than surface interaction. The same phenomenon has been observed with an increase of the initial water content of the painted coupon. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs

1996-01-01

416

Warburg and Poliakoff, Movement and Style (a contribution to the contemporary study of images and paintings)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The foundation of painting on its sources or “influences” serves to achieve its integration in a group of reference from which painting, any true painting that aims at the present, can and should take part. This work aims at an updating of the analysis these influences from the means that serve as references to the pictorial analysis and creation, the images (reproductions) and the paintings themselves, by crossing two major references of Art History and Modern Painting (Aby Warburg and Serge Poliakoff).

João Ferreira Vale

2012-01-01

417

Time-based ensemble scattering measurements in fuel sprays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that knowledge of droplet size in sprays is important for spray combustion, pesticide and herbicide spraying, spray cooling, fire sprinklers, and many other industrial applications. The importance of measuring and evaluating time-varying information in sprays can be critical to the performance of these spray systems. For example, gas turbine and rocket motor stability is dependent on suppression of combustor frequencies which alter the atomization characteristics of the spray. High-speed movies of the atomization process have shown that steady sprays are not uniform in time but can contain clusters of droplets. Droplet clustering may have significant ramifications in combustion applications for soot production. Another time-dependent phenomenon observed in airblast-atomized sprays is a rapid change is spray angle known as fluttering. To study such phenomena, an ensemble light scattering technique was used to obtain time-resolved information on droplet mean size and number density in sprays where similar temporal features have been observed.

1991-01-01

418

Metal stearate distributions in modern artists' oil paints: surface and cross-sectional investigation of reference paint films using conventional and synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zinc oxide is a prevalent industrial-age pigment that readily reacts with fatty acids in oil-based paints to form zinc carboxylates. Zinc stearate aggregates are associated with deterioration in late nineteenth and twentieth century paintings. The current study uses both conventional and synchrotron Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to investigate metal carboxylate composition in a range of naturally aged artists' oil paints and reference paint film draw-downs. The paints contain zinc oxide alone or in combination with lead white, titanium white, and aluminum stearate and are prepared with linseed and safflower oils. Attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-FT-IR using the conventional source identifies marked differences in carboxylate profiles between exposed and protected surfaces in a large number of samples. Synchrotron FT-IR microspectroscopy of thin paint cross-sections maps metal carboxylate distributions at high spatial resolution and resolves broad concentration gradients and micrometer-scale phase separation of carboxylate species. Aluminum stearate, a common paint additive, is found to influence the distribution of zinc carboxylates more strongly than pigment composition or oil type. The presence of aluminum stearate results in higher concentrations and more pronounced separation of saturated C16 and C18 chain zinc carboxylates in the margin of paint nearest the polyester substrate. The presence of aluminum stearate in association with zinc oxide has a clear influence on zinc carboxylate formation and distribution, with potential implications for long term stability of vulnerable paintings. PMID:23031696

Osmond, Gillian; Boon, Jaap J; Puskar, Ljiljana; Drennan, John

2012-10-01

419

Metal stearate distributions in modern artists' oil paints: surface and cross-sectional investigation of reference paint films using conventional and synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Zinc oxide is a prevalent industrial-age pigment that readily reacts with fatty acids in oil-based paints to form zinc carboxylates. Zinc stearate aggregates are associated with deterioration in late nineteenth and twentieth century paintings. The current study uses both conventional and synchrotron Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to investigate metal carboxylate composition in a range of naturally aged artists' oil paints and reference paint film draw-downs. The paints contain zinc oxide alone or in combination with lead white, titanium white, and aluminum stearate and are prepared with linseed and safflower oils. Attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-FT-IR using the conventional source identifies marked differences in carboxylate profiles between exposed and protected surfaces in a large number of samples. Synchrotron FT-IR microspectroscopy of thin paint cross-sections maps metal carboxylate distributions at high spatial resolution and resolves broad concentration gradients and micrometer-scale phase separation of carboxylate species. Aluminum stearate, a common paint additive, is found to influence the distribution of zinc carboxylates more strongly than pigment composition or oil type. The presence of aluminum stearate results in higher concentrations and more pronounced separation of saturated C16 and C18 chain zinc carboxylates in the margin of paint nearest the polyester substrate. The presence of aluminum stearate in association with zinc oxide has a clear influence on zinc carboxylate formation and distribution, with potential implications for long term stability of vulnerable paintings.

Osmond G; Boon JJ; Puskar L; Drennan J

2012-10-01

420

Development of hydrogen as leakage detecting paint. Suiso gas roei kenchi toryo no kaihatsu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports development of a functional paint having hydrogen gas detection ability that can identify speedily leaking locations of hydrogen gas for cooling interior of a thermal power generator. The paint reacts with hydrogen gas and indicates its presence by changing the color of paint film from light yellow to grey. The most suitable color former was hydrates of palladium oxide pyrolyzed of palladium chloride aqueous solution. Use of the color former in the paint was done by covering a body pigment (titanium oxide) with the color former, and mixing it into the paint resin with other mixtures, which was found effective in terms of coloring efficiency. The color former was capable of sufficiently coloring the paint with a mixing ratio into the resin paint at 28% which is less than for conventional products. As a result of practicability and physical property tests, the prototype paint had good paint film properties, by no means inferior to the conventional products. The hydrogen gas leakage detecting ability was capable of detecting as extremely small amount as 0.03 ml/sec of hydrogen gas leaking from pin holes. The paint durability was estimated to be about two years or longer both in the color developing ability and the paint film properties. 11 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs.

Iogawa, H. (The Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan))

1993-05-01

 
 
 
 
421

Flower Men: The Australian Canon and Flower Painting 1910-1935  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Historical studies of Hans Heysen, George Lambert, Tom Roberts and Arthur Streeton concentrate on paintings of landscape and people. Less well known are their paintings of flowers, which take the form of still-life painting or adjuncts to figure painting, such as portraits. While these artists are famous for the masculine way they approached masculine themes, and flower painting represents a stereotypically feminine subject, I argue that by making flowers their object of study, they intended to define and differentiate femininity from masculinity in an era of the ‘New Woman’. Sex and gender are central to the subject of flower painting and are important for discussions about the work produced by all four men, although sex is often camouflaged behind the innocence of naturalistically painted flowers.

Ann Elias

2008-01-01

422

Experimental investigation of drag reduction effect of Si-Polyurea paint  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel Silicone-Polyurea paint has been newly developed and introduced for the antifouling marine paint. This paint is featured with such advantages as the shock-proofness and the scratch-proofness. In addition, the roughness of the resulting paint film is found to be much less than the conventional SPC AF paints. Ultra fast drying ability enables the formation of very thick paint film, e. g., 500?m. The Silicone-Polyurea resin exhibits similar material behavior as that of silicone rubber in terms of hardness and elongation. This material is regarded as a potent candidate to substantiate the compliant coating for the skin friction reduction. This study aims at the assessment of the drag reducing efficiency of the silicone-polyurea paint.

2008-01-01

423

Visualization of pigment distributions in paintings using synchrotron K-edge imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

X-ray radiography plays an important role in the study of artworks and archaeological artifacts. The internal structure of objects provides information on genesis, authenticity, painting technique, material condition and conservation history. Transmission radiography, however, does not provide information on the exact elemental composition of objects and heavy metal layers can shadow or obscure the ones including lighter elements. This paper presents the first application of synchrotron-based K-edge absorption imaging applied to paintings. Using highly monochromatic radiation, K-edge imaging is used to obtain elemental distribution images over large areas. Such elemental maps visualize the distribution of an individual pigment throughout the paint stratigraphy. This provides color information on hidden paint layers, which is of great relevance to art historians and painting conservators. The main advantage is the quick data acquisition time and the sensitivity to elements throughout the entire paint stratigraphy. The examination of a test painting is shown and further instrumental developments are discussed. (orig.)

2006-01-01

424

Organic soot pigmented paint for solar panels: formulation, optical properties and industrial application  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Black paint was formulated from phenoxy resin and organic soot (5 ..mu..m) pigment (Degussa FW2). The paint is suitable for industrial application on chromated aluminium foil with thickness up to 0.5 ..mu..m (coil coating process). Thickness of a dry paint film is 4.5 ..mu..m and makes the paint/aluminium tandem spectrally selective with solar absorbance (asub(s)) = 0.92 and thermal emittance (esub(T)) 0.52. Dispersion properties of the paint were enhanced due to addition of aerosol particles (Degussa 380) into the paint. Excellent weather stability, chemical resistance and mechanical properties of the paint were achieved. Benefits of the technical process of application using coil coating technique is discussed.

Orel, B.; Orel, Z.C.; Radoczy, I.

1986-01-01

425

Experimental investigation of drag reduction effect of Si-Polyurea paint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel Silicone-Polyurea paint has been newly developed and introduced for the antifouling marine paint. This paint is featured with such advantages as the shock-proofness and the scratch-proofness. In addition, the roughness of the resulting paint film is found to be much less than the conventional SPC AF paints. Ultra fast drying ability enables the formation of very thick paint film, e. g., 500{mu}m. The Silicone-Polyurea resin exhibits similar material behavior as that of silicone rubber in terms of hardness and elongation. This material is regarded as a potent candidate to substantiate the compliant coating for the skin friction reduction. This study aims at the assessment of the drag reducing efficiency of the silicone-polyurea paint.

Lee, In Won; Jang, Ho Yun; Chun, Ho Hwan [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sang Hoon [Durachemie Company, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

2008-07-01

426

LWR containment spray iodine removal calculation code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the reactor containment vessel of LWR, there are containment sprays and air-cleaning filters to prevent the release of radioiodine from the reactor building to the atmosphere in LOCA. The computer code MIRA-PB for predicting iodine removal by containment spray is made on the basis of MIRAP/MIRAB code developed in Battelle's Columbus Laboratories. MIRA-PB considers behavior of elemental iodine, organic iodide, and iodic aerosol in natural deposition, liquid-film absorption, spray washout, filteration, and leakage to atmosphere. Information is obtained on the contributions of sprays to iodine removal under LOCA conditions which depends on partition coefficient of elemental iodine and organic iodide, pH, temperature, concentrations in gaseous and liquid phases, physical properties of spray, motion of spray droplets in the containment vessel, and mass-transfer rate from gaseous to liquid phase. Iodine removal by sprays in PWR, BWR, Battelle's CSE and JAERI-model containment is calculated by MIRA-PB under LOCA simulated condition. (auth.).

1978-01-01

427

The nano spray dryer B-90.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Spray drying is an extremely well-established technology for the production of micro-particulate powders suited for a variety of drug delivery applications. In recent years, the rise in nanomedicine has placed increased pressure on the existing systems to produce nanoparticles in good yield and with a narrow size distribution. However, the separation and collection of nanoparticles with conventional spray dryer set ups is extremely challenging due to their typical low collection efficiency for fine particles < 2 ?m. Currently, nanoparticles have to be agglomerated into larger microparticles, via a two-step approach, in order to collect them in a sizeable amount. However, this method has to contend with the issue of adequate redispersibility of the primary particles to reap the full benefits of nanosizing. AREAS COVERED: An overview on the advances in spray drying technology is provided in this review with particular emphasis on the novel Buchi® Nano Spray Dryer B-90. Readers will appreciate the limitations of conventional spray drying technology, understand the mechanisms of the Buchi® Nano Spray Dryer B-90, and also learn about the strengths and shortcomings of the system. EXPERT OPINION: The Buchi® Nano Spray Dryer B-90 offers a new, simple and alternative approach for the production of nanoparticles suited for a variety of drug delivery applications.

Heng D; Lee SH; Ng WK; Tan RB

2011-07-01