WorldWideScience

Sample records for spray painting

  1. PAINT SPRAY BOOTH MODIFICATIONS FOR RECIRCULATION VENTILATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The control of emissions from spray painting operations has historically been cost prohibitive, due to the high exhaust flow rates coupled with low volatile organic compound (VOC) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) Concentrations. Past studies, conducted by the U.S. EPA and U.S. ...

  2. PAINT SPRAY BOOTH DESIGN USING RECIRCULATION/PARTITIONING VENTILATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many spray painting facility operators have been attempting to reduce the discharge of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from paint spray booths to the atmosphere. Some have been able to convert to lower VOC containing paints and coatings such as powder coating, waterborne coatin...

  3. On the fluid mechanics of electrochemical coating and spray painting

    OpenAIRE

    Olivas, Pedro

    2001-01-01

    Finite-volume methods have been used for modeling of fluidflows involved in forced convection electrochemical coating androtating spray painting systems. Electrodeposition on a singlecircular cylinder under forced convection for Reynolds numbers10 and 200 was simulated. Comparisons with earlier numericaland theoretical results are presented and it is shown that theunsteady wake that appears for Reynolds numbers greater than 50affects the mass transfer from the surface of the cylinder onlyin a...

  4. Respiratory morbidity in spray paint workers in an automobile sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitri P Siddanagoudra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational asthma (OA is a major cause of respiratory morbidity and the most common cause of non-acute lung disease in the industrialized world. The incidence of OA in developed country is increasing, while in developing countries is still unknown. Automobile industry is a place where workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and toxic substances. In automobile industry work floor assembly lines chassis move continuously and pass by "Robot Painter" that spray them and workers assemble the chassis. The paint that is used contains isocyanate (low-molecular-weight compound which is most common agent responsible for OA. Objective: The present study is undertaken to assess respiratory morbidity of paint workers in terms of obstructive and restrictive lung pattern and to study relationship between duration of exposure and respiratory morbidity. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 70 car spray paint workers, who are working for 1-6 years in an automobile industry. A pre-structured questionnaire was used to record the clinical, sociodemographic profile, and clinical examination. Pulmonary function parameters were recorded by a computerized spirometer-Medspiror during their working hours. An independent t test and a correlation test were applied. Results: Sixty-one workers had normal lung functions. The nine isocyanate-exposed workers showed a significant reduction in FEV 1 /FVC (P < 0.05 suggestive of obstructive lung pattern. There is a strong correlation between duration of exposure and pulmonary functions (P value = 0.002. Conclusion: Decreased pulmonary function tests (PFT in spray painters were related to duration of exposure to isocyanate.

  5. USERS GUIDE FOR THE CONVERSION OF NAVY PAINT SPRAY BOOTH PARTICULATE EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEMS FROM WET TO DRY OPERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report is a guide or convrting U.S. Navy paint spray booth particulate emission control systems from wet to dry operation. The use of water curtains for air pollution control of paint spray booths is considered a major source of water and solid waste pol-lution from industria...

  6. New off line method of evaluating paint parciles emissions from spray booths. Booth toryo mist jokyoritsu no shikenho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, J. (Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)); Omori, H. (Trinity Industrial Corp., Aichi (Japan))

    1991-11-01

    Volatile organic compounds and the mist of paint particles emitted from painting spray booths for automobiles are important as environmental problems. In this report a new method of off-line measurement on removal rate paint particle mist is presented. Off-line data of paint particle mist with the current test method correspond with actual in-line data for solid color booths, but do not correspond with those for metallic color booths. Application methods and conditions for metallic paint have changed since the current test method was established. A new off-line test method was designed especially for metallic color booths and developed based on as analysis of relation between various spray painting conditions and paint emission mist. It was confirmed that the removal rates of paint emission mist obtained with the new test method show good correspondence with actual in-line test results. 1 ref., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. EVALUATION OF A PAINT SPRAY BOOTH UTILIZING AIR RECIRCULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of the recirculating air spray booth process at the Deere and Company facility in Davenport, Iowa. The effort involved a field measurement program and subsequent analysis of flow rates and emission data from the spra...

  8. Surface Modeling of Workpiece and Tool Trajectory Planning for Spray Painting Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yang; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Automated tool trajectory planning for spray-painting robots is still a challenging problem, especially for a large free-form surface. A grid approximation of a free-form surface is adopted in CAD modeling in this paper. A free-form surface model is approximated by a set of flat patches. We describe here an efficient and flexible tool trajectory optimization scheme using T-Bézier curves calculated in a new way from trigonometrical bases. The distance between the spray gun and the free-form su...

  9. Surface modeling of workpiece and tool trajectory planning for spray painting robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yang; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Automated tool trajectory planning for spray-painting robots is still a challenging problem, especially for a large free-form surface. A grid approximation of a free-form surface is adopted in CAD modeling in this paper. A free-form surface model is approximated by a set of flat patches. We describe here an efficient and flexible tool trajectory optimization scheme using T-Bézier curves calculated in a new way from trigonometrical bases. The distance between the spray gun and the free-form surface along the normal vector is varied. Automotive body parts, which are large free-form surfaces, are used to test the scheme. The experimental results show that the trajectory planning algorithm achieves satisfactory performance. This algorithm can also be extended to other applications. PMID:25993663

  10. EVALUATION OF INNOVATIVE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND AND HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR U.S. AIR FORCE PAINT SPRAY BOOTHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report gives results of an evaluation of carbon paper adsorption catalytic incineration (CPACI) and fluidized-bed catalytic incineration (FBCI) as control technologies to reduce volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from paint spray booths.

  11. DEMONSTRATION OF SPLIT-FLOW VENTILATION AND RECIRCULATION AS FLOW-REDUCTION METHODS IN AN AIR FORCE PAINT SPRAY BOOTH - VOLUME II. APPENDICES D-J

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a series of painting operations in a horizontal-flow paint spray booth at Travis AFB, CA, baseline concentrations of four classes of toxic airborne pollutants were measured at 24 locations across a plane immediately forward of the exhaust filters, in the exhaust duct, and ...

  12. An innovative sustainable process for VOCs recovery from spray paint booths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air emissions from surface coating operations result from the evaporation of the organic solvents in the coatings and consist primarily of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These VOC emissions can occur in a number of places along the production line: during atomization and application of the coating, during initial air drying of the part after it leaves the spray paint booth, and, eventually, in the bake oven. The aim of this paper is to present an innovative and sustainable process based on VOC absorption. An absorption tower is fed on the top by oil, which efficiently absorbs at low temperature the VOCs contained by the off-gas that enters the tower at its bottom. The mass ratio between oil and gas is approximately 1, so that a tray configuration results more efficiently than an alternative packed column. Saturated oil from the column is then stripped at high temperature in a vacuum system that condenses VOCs at a temperature slightly below the ambient temperature. Stripped oil is then recycled to the absorption tower. Special utilities are foreseen to reduce the water content in the gas and for energy recovery all over the plant. An industrial site located in Italy works at 14,000 Nm3/h off-gas absorbed with slightly more than 10 m3/h of oil. VOCs content in the off-gas ranges daily from 1200 to 2500 ppm; an average efficiency of approx. 90% recovery is presently obtained. A further reduction to an expected value of about 95-98% will be achieved in the next months

  13. DEMONSTRATION OF A PAINT SPRAY BOOTH EMISSION CONTROL STRATEGY USING RECIRCULATION/PARTITIONING & UV/OZONE POLLUTION EMISSION CONTROL - VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes in detail the source testing, construction, and data reduction/analysis activities that comprise the three phases of a technology demonstration program. Phase I consisted of a detailed baseline evaluation of several paint spray booths operated at the Barstow,...

  14. 29 CFR 1917.153 - Spray painting (See also § 1917.2, definition of Hazardous cargo, materials, substance, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ducts. (2) Any discarded filter shall be removed from the work area or placed in water. (3) Filters... ignition. (4) Filters shall be noncombustible or of an approved type. The same filter shall not be used... and mist. (6) Mechanical ventilation shall be in operation during spraying operations and long...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.35 - Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Only non-sparking paint buckets, spray guns and tools shall be used. Metal parts...Coveralls or other outer clothing shall be of cotton. Rubber, rather than plastic, gloves...transferred from one to another. (12) Spray guns, paint pots, and metallic parts of...

  16. Improved Orifice Plate for Spray Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, W.

    1986-01-01

    Erratic spray pattern of commercial spray gun changed to repeatable one by simple redesign of two parts. In modified spray gun orifice plate and polytetrafluoroethylene bushing redesigned to assure centering and alignment with nozzle. Such improvement useful in many industrial applications requiring repeatable spray patterns. Might include spraying of foam insulation, paint, other protective coatings, detergents, abrasives, adhesives, process chemicals, or fuels. Unmodified spray gun produces erratic spray because lateral misalignment between orifice plate and nozzle.

  17. COST EFFECTIVE VOC EMISSION CONTROL STARTEGIES FOR MILITARY, AEROSPACE,AND INDUSTRIAL PAINT SPRAY BOOTH OPERATIONS: COMBINING IMPROVED VENTILATION SYSTEMS WITH INNOVATIVE, LOW COST EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes a full-scale demonstration program in which several paint booths were modified for recirculation ventilation; the booth exhaust streams are vented to an innovative volatile organic compound (VOC) emission control system having extremely low operating costs. ...

  18. Ultraviolet-radiation-curable paints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosset, A M; Su, W F.A.; Vanderglas, E

    1981-09-30

    In product finishing lines, ultraviolet radiation curing of paints on prefabricated structures could be more energy efficient than curing by natural gas fired ovens, and could eliminate solvent emission. Diffuse ultraviolet light can cure paints on three dimensional metal parts. In the uv curing process, the spectral output of radiation sources must complement the absorption spectra of pigments and photoactive agents. Photosensitive compounds, such as thioxanthones, can photoinitiate unsaturated resins, such as acrylated polyurethanes, by a free radical mechanism. Newly developed cationic photoinitiators, such as sulfonium or iodonium salts (the so-called onium salts) of complex metal halide anions, can be used in polymerization of epoxy paints by ultraviolet light radiation. One-coat enamels, topcoats, and primers have been developed which can be photoinitiated to produce hard, adherent films. This process has been tested in a laboratory scale unit by spray coating these materials on three-dimensional objects and passing them through a tunnel containing uv lamps.

  19. Perspective Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Joni

    2002-01-01

    One fourth grade class studied Van Gogh by investigating his art and life on the computer, painting still lifes, then learning to draw in perspective, creating colorful images of their own bedrooms using Van Gogh's bedroom as a model. Students extended their learning by examining relevant literature and completing timelines, biographical reports,…

  20. Sprayed coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, H. D.

    1980-03-01

    Thermal spraying is shown to be an efficient means for the protection of surface areas against elevated temperature, wear, corrosion, hot gas corrosion, and erosion in structural aircraft components. Particularly in jet engines, numerous parts are coated by flame, detonation, or plasma spraying techniques. The applied methods of flame, detonation, and plasma spraying are explained, as well as electric arc spraying. Possibilities for spray coatings which meet aircraft service requirements are discussed, as well as methods for quality control, especially nondestructive test methods. In particular, coating characteristics and properties obtained by different spray methods are described, and special attention is paid to low pressure plasma spraying.

  1. ENVIORNMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: ANEST IWATA CORPORATION LPH400-LV HVLP SPRAY GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Enviornmental Technology Verification reports on the characteristics of a paint spray gun. The research showed that the spray gun provided absolute and relative increases in transfer efficiency over the base line and provided a reduction in the use of paint.

  2. Nitroglycerin Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitroglycerin spray is used to treat episodes of angina (chest pain) in people who have coronary artery disease (narrowing ... vessels that supply blood to the heart). The spray may also be used just before activities that ...

  3. Water-Based Pressure-Sensitive Paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Watkins, A. Neal; Oglesby, Donald M.; Ingram, JoAnne L.

    2006-01-01

    Water-based pressure-sensitive paints (PSPs) have been invented as alternatives to conventional organic-solvent-based pressure-sensitive paints, which are used primarily for indicating distributions of air pressure on wind-tunnel models. Typically, PSPs are sprayed onto aerodynamic models after they have been mounted in wind tunnels. When conventional organic-solvent-based PSPs are used, this practice creates a problem of removing toxic fumes from inside the wind tunnels. The use of water-based PSPs eliminates this problem. The waterbased PSPs offer high performance as pressure indicators, plus all the advantages of common water-based paints (low toxicity, low concentrations of volatile organic compounds, and easy cleanup by use of water).

  4. The application and processing of paints hardened by electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam hardening is a process for changing liquid surface coatings of different thicknesses by irradiation with electrons of high energy into solid, hard, elastic films. In contrast to the UV process, one can harden pigmented paints with electron beams. An electron accelerator, which remits free electrons is used as the energy source for starting the chemical reaction in the coating material. In order to irradiate flat parts, which were coated with liquid paint by rolling, pouring or spraying, equally with electrons, one must produce an 'electron curtain', similar to that in a paint pouring machine. (orig./PW)

  5. A trade-off study on outsource or in-house painting process

    OpenAIRE

    L. du Plessis

    2011-01-01

    A trade-off study was conducted to make the best decision regarding the make-or-buy of the sandblasting and spray painting of parts, using the AHP, a cost analysis and risk analysis. A consistency study was performed. A painting Quality Control Plan (QCP) was developed.

  6. MEASUREMENTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND PARTICLES DURING APPLICATION OF LATEX PAINT WITH AN AIRLESS SPRAYER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses experiments, conducted at EPA's Indoor Air Quality Research House, to measure airborne concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particles during and following the spray-application of latex wall paint. (NOTE: Paint may be applied indoors by a v...

  7. Oxymetazoline Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrin® Nasal Spray ... Anefrin® Nasal Spray ... Dristan® Nasal Spray ... Mucinex® Nasal Spray ... Nostrilla® Nasal Spray ... Vicks Sinex® Nasal Spray ... Zicam® Nasal Spray ... Oxymetazoline nasal spray is used to relieve nasal discomfort caused by colds, allergies, and hay fever. It is also used to ...

  8. The structure of paintings

    CERN Document Server

    Leyton, Michael

    2007-01-01

    First systematic approach to the analysis of the structure of paintingsApplication, to paintings, of a system of rules that have proven of value to computer-aided designApplication, to paintings, of a new history-based approach to geometry that shows the ability to explain and unify the artistic and scientific disciplines

  9. Automatic Wall Painting Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.KEERTHANAA, K.JEEVITHA, V.NAVINA, G.INDIRA, S.JAYAMANI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Primary Aim Of The Project Is To Design, Develop And Implement Automatic Wall Painting Robot Which Helps To Achieve Low Cost Painting Equipment. Despite The Advances In Robotics And Its Wide Spreading Applications, Interior Wall Painting Has Shared Little In Research Activities. The Painting Chemicals Can Cause Hazards To The Human Painters Such As Eye And Respiratory System Problems. Also The Nature Of Painting Procedure That Requires Repeated Work And Hand Rising Makes It Boring, Time And Effort Consuming. When Construction Workers And Robots Are Properly Integrated In Building Tasks, The Whole Construction Process Can Be Better Managed And Savings In Human Labour And Timing Are Obtained As A Consequence. In Addition, It Would Offer The Opportunity To Reduce Or Eliminate Human Exposure To Difficult And Hazardous Environments, Which Would Solve Most Of The Problems Connected With Safety When Many Activities Occur At The Same Time. These Factors Motivate The Development Of An Automated Robotic Painting System.

  10. EVALUATION OF SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE SOLVENT IN SPRAY COATING APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation, part of the Pollution Prevention Clean Technology Demonstration (CTD) Program, addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues of spray paint application using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2). Anion Carbide has developed this technology and...

  11. Lined canvas paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup Andersen, Cecil

    2013-01-01

    This work evaluates the lining history of the Danish Golden Age collection of canvas paintings from the nineteenths century at SMK, The National Gallery of Denmark, and seeks to understand the moisture sensitivity of the paintings before and after lining. This is done by chemical analysis and tensile testing samples from the tacking edges as well as lined mock-up samples. The ability of the different lining techniques to support canvas paintings is evaluated in terms of their initial stretching ...

  12. Azelastine Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astelin® Nasal Spray ... Astepro® Nasal Spray ... Azelastine comes as a nasal spray. Azelastine usually is sprayed in each nostril two times a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask ...

  13. Archi-Paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhin, Paula

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art unit called "Archi-Painting" where high school students in a beginning art class learned about landscapes and some of the world's most important buildings. Explains that the students placed a well-known building into a new environment in their paintings. (CMK)

  14. Numerical and experimental study of spray coating using air-assisted high pressure atomizers

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Qiaoyan; Shen, Bo; Tiedje, Oliver; Domnick, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Spray coating proccsses are characterized by their relatively large paint wastage and high energy consumption, especially in car industry. The unavoidable overspray, caused by poor transfer efficiency, has to be removed quickly from the paint booth, in order to preserve the painting quality on the subject surface. The therefore needed conditioned air stream results in intensive energy requirement for the disposal of the overspray. Against the background of increasing demands on energy-efficie...

  15. Multiscale effect of paint pulverization orientation on appearance after painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezghani, S.; Zahouani, H.; Piezanowski, J.

    2011-08-01

    The perceived quality of a vehicle is strongly affected by paint appearance that shares major part of the outer car body panels. The painting process modifies the surface topography in a wide range of roughness and waviness scales, and consequently modifies the functionality of the surface in terms of appearance. Since painting process is a multistage process leading to stratified surfaces, a multiscale surface topography characterization approach is suited. In this paper, 2D multiscale signature of the painting process was introduced and applied to track the effect of the painting process working variable on painted surface topography in a wide range of wavelength. To this aim, experimental painting tests were performed using three painting orientation modes (horizontal, oblique and vertical) on random and deterministic metal sheet surface textures. Results show that the painting orientation mode affect only the wavelength band greater than 500 ?m and optimal painting orientation depends strongly on the texture of the initial sheet surface.

  16. Multiscale effect of paint pulverization orientation on appearance after painting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The perceived quality of a vehicle is strongly affected by paint appearance that shares major part of the outer car body panels. The painting process modifies the surface topography in a wide range of roughness and waviness scales, and consequently modifies the functionality of the surface in terms of appearance. Since painting process is a multistage process leading to stratified surfaces, a multiscale surface topography characterization approach is suited. In this paper, 2D multiscale signature of the painting process was introduced and applied to track the effect of the painting process working variable on painted surface topography in a wide range of wavelength. To this aim, experimental painting tests were performed using three painting orientation modes (horizontal, oblique and vertical) on random and deterministic metal sheet surface textures. Results show that the painting orientation mode affect only the wavelength band greater than 500 ?m and optimal painting orientation depends strongly on the texture of the initial sheet surface.

  17. Fire retardant paints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Parihar

    1954-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism involved in the flame-proofing of cellulose is explained on modern electronic concepts. Some recent developments on intumescent paint and mastic compositions with the scope of their further improvement are discussed.  

  18. A Place for Painting

    OpenAIRE

    Siqueland, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    For the past three years I have been a research fellow at The Academy of Fine Art through the Norwegian Artistic Research Programme. This text accompanies the exhibition "A Box and a Picture" and the book "A Picture and Box",which mark the end of my research project "A Place for Painting". In my work I have been interested in understanding how different geographical places influence the painting process and what this implies for the construction of place in pa...

  19. Chromosome painting in plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Schubert, I.; Fransz, P.F.; Fuchs, J.; de Jong, J. H.

    2001-01-01

    The current 'state-of-art' as to chromosome painting in plants is reviewed. We define different situations described as painting so far: i) Genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) with total genomic DNA to distinguish alien chromosomes on the basis of divergent dispersed repeats, ii) 'Chromosomal in situ suppression' (CISS) hybridisation with chromosome-derived DNA probes and blocking of interchromosomally dispersed repeats by total genomic or C0 t-1 DNA in excess, iii) exceptional cases of sing...

  20. Painting Tableau Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Derby, Moyra; Elliot, Stuart; Finch, Mark; Harland, Beth

    2013-01-01

    The central visual core of Painting Tableau Stage comprised of paintings by four contemporary artists from the United Kingdom, Moyra Derby, Stuart Elliot, Mick Finch, Beth Harland, all of whom share an interest in concepts of the tableau, a term that has received recent critical attention in the U.K. and often translated as "picture form." In addition, a small selection of scenographic artifacts and models from OSU's Jerome Lawrence and Robert E. Lee Theater Research Institute act as a visual...

  1. Artists Paint ... Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This article features the painting "View of Toledo," based on Toledo, a very old city located on a high plateau in Spain. By the time the artist El Greco painted the picture, he had lived there for 31 years. When one looks at the picture, one will see a storm approaching and will see the city as if it were lit by a flash of lightning. What main…

  2. Proposition of road marks to apply thermoplastic materials on expressways and its practical application; Yoyushiki traffic paint wo kosoku dorojo de mochiiru teian to sono jitsuyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiya, A. [Hitachi Chemical Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Imada, H.

    1996-06-20

    Heating paint marks are generally used as traffic paint on expressways. Thermoplastic paint preliminarily heated and molten in a hopper is proposed in this paper. Glass beads can be mixed in the thermoplastic paint. Since the mixed glass beads appear on the surface of road marks after the falling of sprayed glass beads, its visibility at night can be maintained for longer term compared with the heating paint marks. Traffic control during painting works is shortened due to its shorter time for drying. However, thickness of thermoplastic paint is thick and irregularity of road surface is covered, which results in the slippery surface. It is required for thermoplastic paint to make thin painting. To paint thinly, a method was adopted, in which thermoplastic materials were atomized by the rotor and projected on the road surface. Atomization was affected by the number of revolution of rotor. Thickness of 0.7 mm was achieved, which was conventionally 2.0 mm. The durability of thin thermoplastic marks increased by around ten times of paint marks with a thickness of 0.2 mm. It was considered that the durability is affected by the thickness of paint. There was no significant difference between the dynamic skid resistance coefficients on wet surface of thin thermoplastic and paint marks. The total cost of thin thermoplastic marks was less than that of paint marks due to its thin painting. 17 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. EVALUATION OF SUPERCRITICAL CO2 SPRAY TECHNOLOGY AS A COST EFFECTIVE APPROACH TO REDUCTION OF SOLVENTS IN WOOD FINISHING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues were evaluated for a spray paint application technology using supercritical carbon dioxide to replace some of the solvent in a conventional solvent-borne coatings formulation. roduct quality was evaluated by comparing product ...

  4. Nicotine Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotine nasal spray is used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine nasal spray should be used together with a smoking cessation ... counseling, or specific behavior change techniques. Nicotine nasal spray is in a class of medications called smoking ...

  5. Budesonide Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhinocort® Aqua Nasal Spray ... Budesonide comes as an aerosol nasal spray to be sprayed in the nose. Budesonide is usually used once or twice a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

  6. Landscape Painting. Rewriting Painting in the Postmedium Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal, Nissim

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Is landscape painting still relevant today? To answer this question the article examines the work of the contemporary artist Yehudit Sasportas. Sasporas offers a unique kind of written-drawn landscape painting that moves between the manual and the mechanical. The theoretical perspectives from which it is approached are taken, among others, from Plato, Heidegger and Derrida on the issue of writing. Sasportas painting, which may be characterized as "painting under erasure" or "Landscape Painting", serves as a key to understanding the status of painting as a relevant medium, not because it defines medium according to the modernist Greenbergian formula, but because it enables an understanding of painting as a field that exists in a variety of media. Painting as a field, in Sasportas's art, works and lives within various techniques and materials, even when it includes within itself a melancholic mark indicating doubt about its own relevance.

  7. Landscape Painting. Rewriting Painting in the Postmedium Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Gal, Nissim

    2011-01-01

    Is landscape painting still relevant today? To answer this question the article examines the work of the contemporary artist Yehudit Sasportas. Sasporas offers a unique kind of written-drawn landscape painting that moves between the manual and the mechanical. The theoretical perspectives from which it is approached are taken, among others, from Plato, Heidegger and Derrida on the issue of writing. Sasportas painting, which may be characterized as "painting under erasure" or "Landscape Paintin...

  8. The transdisciplinary potential of remediated painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2011-01-01

    "The Transdisciplinary Potential of Remediated Painting" Over the last decades the notion of what painting is has been considerably widened due to intermediality, i.e. crossovers between artistic media such as painting and sculpture, painting and photography, painting and installation, painting and performance etc. This paper suggests that the transformation of the discipline of painting into an expanded field has not only liberated painting from its ties to its traditional repertoire of materia...

  9. Chromate dissociation from three types of paint particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPuma, Peter T; Schilke, Richard A; Kauth, David A; Morgan, Tiffany J R

    2002-12-01

    Chromate-containing primer paints are used to inhibit corrosion on metal surfaces. Though chromate contains hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)), a human carcinogen, there is little epidemiological evidence of increased lung cancer among spray painters. One reason may be that the paint matrix hinders the release of Cr(6+) from the paint particle during the time that the particle is within the lungs. This study measures the mass of Cr(6+) released from particles originating from three types of paint particles: solvent-borne epoxy, water-borne epoxy, and polyurethane. Impingers were used to collect paint particles into water and particles were held in the water at rest for 1 and 24 h residence times. Particles were then separated from the water by centrifugation. The supernatant was tested for dissolved Cr(6+), which was compared to the total Cr(6+) (dissolved Cr(6+) plus Cr(6+) in particles). The mean fractions of Cr(6+) released into the water after 1 and 24 hours for each primer averaged: 70 and 85 (solvent epoxy), 74 and 84% (water epoxy), and 94 and 95% (polyurethane). Correlations between particle size and the fraction of Cr(6+) released indicate that smaller particles (5 microm). PMID:12473417

  10. Rabbit Repellent Paint

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Five gallons of rabbit repellent paint were sent to George Wilson to be applied on the trees of the Tewaukon tree plot. Mr. Wilson requires a 3 or 4 in. brush for...

  11. Painting Cloth with Crayons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, Rosalie L.

    1979-01-01

    Painting cloth with crayons is suggested as a challenging art project, especially for students who have difficulty with the complex tools and processes typical of more advanced textile work. Instructions are given for creating decorative banners with this technique. One of seven articles in this issue on fiber arts. (Author/SJL)

  12. Painting for public perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, M.

    2011-12-15

    This paper presents the work of a wildlife artist, Lucas Seaward, in eliciting public opinion on the oilsands industry. He is in the process of creating 20 or more paintings using oil on canvas, not the Chagall or van Gogh sort of oil, but bitumen extracted near Fort McMurray. The paintings are designed for an exhibition to travel across Canada. His aim is to spread awareness that the oilsands industry is working hard towards sustainability and the protection of wildlife. Apart from being evil-smelling, bitumen is stiff, it does not dry quickly, and it wears out paint brushes really fast. Similarly to producers who add a diluent for proper flow, Seaward also found an additive that allowed smooth flow so that he could paint the bitumen in thin layers that dried properly and also was able to produce gradations of color. The idea is to educate the general public out of his personal experience of Fort McMurray and the oilsands industry.

  13. LDRD summary report. Part 1: initiation studies of thin film explosvies used for scabbling concrete. Part 2: investigation of spray techniques for use in explosive scabbling of concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benham, R.A.; Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C.; Wackerbarth, D.E.; Brock, J.L.

    1996-11-01

    We describe a new method for the scabbling of concrete surfaces using a thin layer of explosive material sprayed onto the surfaces. We also developed a new explosive mixture that could be applied with commercial spray painting equipment. The first part of our record describes experiments that studied methods for the initiation of the sprayed explosive. We successfully initiated layers 0.36 mm thick using a commercial EBW detonator, a flying plate detonator, and by pellet impact. The second part of our report describes a survey of spray methods and tests with two commercial spray systems that we believe could be used for developing a robotic spray system.

  14. The Transdisciplinary Potential of Remediated Painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decades the notion of what painting is has been considerably widened due to intermediality, i.e. crossovers between artistic media such as painting and sculpture, painting and photography, painting and installation, painting and performance etc. This paper suggests that the transformation of the discipline of painting into an expanded field has not only liberated painting from its ties to its traditional repertoire of materials and modes of representation. It has also released a tr...

  15. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. 173.173 Section 173...paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When the § 172...paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins must be packaged as...

  16. Drip Paintings and Fractal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jones-Smith, Katherine; Mathur, Harsh(Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, 44106-7079, USA); Krauss, Lawrence M.

    2007-01-01

    It has been claimed [1-6] that fractal analysis can be applied to unambiguously characterize works of art such as the drip paintings of Jackson Pollock. This academic issue has become of more general interest following the recent discovery of a cache of disputed Pollock paintings. We definitively demonstrate here, by analyzing paintings by Pollock and others, that fractal criteria provide no information about artistic authenticity. This work has also led to two new results i...

  17. Bug spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... harmful effects from breathing in or swallowing bug spray. This is for information only and not for ... Nile virus. Other less effective forms of bug sprays contain pyrethrins. Pyrethrins are a pesticide created from ...

  18. Remotely controlled spray gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, William C. (inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A remotely controlled spray gun is described in which a nozzle and orifice plate are held in precise axial alignment by an alignment member, which in turn is held in alignment with the general outlet of the spray gun by insert. By this arrangement, the precise repeatability of spray patterns is insured.

  19. Ciclesonide Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciclesonide nasal spray is used to treat the symptoms of seasonal (occurs only at certain times of the year), and perennial ( ... Ciclesonide comes as a solution (liquid) to spray in the nose. It is usually sprayed in each nostril once daily. Use ciclesonide at around the same time every day. Follow the ...

  20. Fentanyl Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentanyl nasal spray is used to treat breakthrough pain (sudden episodes of pain that occur despite round the clock treatment with ... Fentanyl nasal spray comes as a solution (liquid) to spray in the nose. It is used as needed to treat breakthrough ...

  1. Olopatadine Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olopatadine nasal spray is used to relieve sneezing and a stuffy, runny or itchy nose caused by allergic rhinitis (hay fever). ... Olopatadine comes as a liquid to spray in the nose. Olopatadine nasal spray ... twice daily. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, ...

  2. LOVE AESTHETICS AND PAINTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZUhal ARDA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Talking about love, while we are talking about a culture and world view means. People love for the people, the passion that inhabited the earth of mankind, the "love" for the first time since love always makes life meaningful emotions has been replaced in the front row between. Throughout history, many artists, scientist, philosopher, and polymath has committed about love are in the works. Poetry, music, theatre, dance, painting, sculpture, each with its own specific language, an art form they are given immortal works about love. Sense of friendship and love of antiquity, Medieval spiritual journeys, when more stunning and dramatic to modern times, trends, human love, to the concept of gaining various dimensions of divine love. Understanding by seeing through these exchanges pictures-meaning maybe the concept of "love" will shed light on the changing values, too. When you do this, both from the east and from the west, giving examples to do a comparison over the years has diversified, changing the concept of "love" art of painting will be an indication that reflected how.

  3. Characterization of sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigier, N.; Mao, C.-P.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that most practical power generation and propulsion systems involve the burning of different types of fuel sprays, taking into account aircraft propulsion, industrial furnaces, boilers, gas turbines, and diesel engines. There has been a lack of data which can serve as a basis for spray model development and validation. A major aim of the present investigation is to fill this gap. Experimental apparatus and techniques for studying the characteristics of fuel sprays are discussed, taking into account two-dimensional still photography, cinematography, holography, a laser diffraction particle sizer, and a laser anemometer. The considered instruments were used in a number of experiments, taking into account three different types of fuel spray. Attention is given to liquid fuel sprays, high pressure pulsed diesel sprays, and coal-water slurry sprays.

  4. The Transdisciplinary Potential of Remediated Painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decades the notion of what painting is has been considerably widened due to intermediality, i.e. crossovers between artistic media such as painting and sculpture, painting and photography, painting and installation, painting and performance etc. This paper suggests that the transformation of the discipline of painting into an expanded field has not only liberated painting from its ties to its traditional repertoire of materials and modes of representation. It has also released a tremendous potential for image making that takes painting as a point of departure but moves beyond the limitations of dialogic intermedia into the field of transdisciplinary aesthetics. In support of my argument, I turn to the concept of remediation as it was first applied in new media theory by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin. The ambition is to develop an apprehension of painting not as an artistic artifact or 'medium-specific' practice, but as a critical remediating process - painting as remediated painting. establishes its own separate space of cultural meaning. Secondly, it defines painting as active, performative and migrant. It suggests that today painting is active as a cultural force, not just as fine art. In order to substantiate these claims, the paper analyses works by some contemporary Northern European artists. What could be gained from this reconceptualisation of the expanded field of painting? Firstly, it introduces an apprehension of painting that starts from the transdisciplinary potential of painting instead of its historical disciplinarity and the attendant assumption that, as a discipline, painting functions independently and

  5. Probing a Spray Using Frequency-Analyzed Light Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskridge, Richard; Lee, Michael H.; Rhys, Noah O.

    2008-01-01

    Frequency-analyzed laser-light scattering (FALLS) is a relatively simple technique that can be used to measure principal characteristics of a sheet of sprayed liquid as it breaks up into ligaments and then the ligaments break up into droplets. In particular, through frequency analysis of laser light scattered from a spray, it is possible to determine whether the laser-illuminated portion of the spray is in the intact-sheet region, the ligament region, or the droplet region. By logical extension, it is possible to determine the intact length from the location of the laser beam at the transition between the intact-sheet and ligament regions and to determine a breakup frequency from the results of the frequency analysis. Hence, FALLS could likely be useful both as a means of performing research on sprays in general and as a means of diagnostic sensing in diverse applications in which liquid fuels are sprayed. Sprays are also used for drying and to deposit paints and other coating materials.

  6. Bringing Art to Life through Living Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwagon, Joanne

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how she and other art teachers developed a "living painting" lesson, an art lesson that incorporates art history and painting. The lesson was developed also in part to help new student-teachers plan a memorable lesson. With the living painting lesson, students will have to choose and recreate famous paintings

  7. Solidification in spray forming

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, PS

    2007-01-01

    Solidification in spray forming takes place in two distinct steps: typically half of the alloy latent heat is removed rapidly from the droplet spray created by gas atomization; the droplets are then constituted into a billet at deposition where the remaining liquid fraction solidifies relatively slowly. However, within the droplet spray, individual droplets have different thermal and solidification histories and depositing droplets may be solid, mushy, or liquid. Despite many studies of solid...

  8. Bear Spray Safety Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, C.D.; Kuzniar, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    A bear spray safety program for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was officially initiated by the Firearms Safety Committee to address accident prevention and to promote personnel training in bear spray and its transportation, storage, and use for defense against wild animals. Used as part of a system including firearms, or used alone for those who choose not to carry a firearm, bear spray is recognized as an effective tool that can prevent injury in a wild animal attack.

  9. Dihydroergotamine Injection and Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migranal® Nasal Spray ... inject subcutaneously (under the skin) and as a spray to be used in the nose. It is ... that you know how to use the nasal spray or administer the injection correctly. After that, you ...

  10. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil based - poisoning ... as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional poisoning if swallowed in large amounts. ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ...

  11. Studying Landforms through Landscape Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, William H.

    1981-01-01

    Using three specific works of art, the author demonstrates how a study of selected landscape paintings can be integrated into units on landforms in secondary school earth science and general science courses. (Author/SJL)

  12. Microclimate boxes for panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century. The increased number of travelling exhibitions in recent years has heightened the need to protect paintings during circulation (Thomson 1961; Mecklenburg 1991). The use and design of microclimate boxes have...

  13. The Conservation of Panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Until the early 17th century almost all portable paintings were created on wood supports, including masterpieces by famous painters, ranging from Giotto to Dürer to Rembrandt. The structural conservation of these paintings requires specific knowledge and skills as the supports are susceptible to damage caused by unstable environmental conditions. Unfortunately, past structural interventions often caused significant damage due to insufficient knowledge of the behaviour of the wood panels, glue an...

  14. Action painting and children drawing

    OpenAIRE

    Cvirn, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of my thesis is to understand the creative process of action painting in children’s drawings. Theoretical part investigates the development of abstract expressionism. It describes “Dripping art’’ of Jackson Pollock, one of the leading representatives of action painting. I explored the recent upgrades of Pollock’s performative by younger artists. At the same time I explored the developmental stages of children's artistic expressions. In the second part I’m presenting my works....

  15. Romanesque mural painting in Catalonia

    OpenAIRE

    Montserrat Pagès

    2013-01-01

    The Romanesque mural painting in Catalonia which was saved from despoilment and dispersion in 1919, when the Junta de Museus (Board of Museums) of Barcelona embarked upon a major campaign of purchase and removal, is a unique heritage of universal value. Even though the mural paintings from the Romanesque cathedrals or the great abbeys like Ripoll no longer survive, what has been conserved is quite notable both stylistically and iconographically. The surviving frescoes were mainly inspired by ...

  16. Fentanyl Sublingual Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentanyl sublingual spray is used to treat breakthrough pain (sudden episodes of pain that occur despite round the clock treatment with ... Fentanyl comes as a solution (liquid) to spray sublingually ( under the ... breakthrough pain, but not more often than directed by your doctor. Follow ...

  17. Cold spray nozzle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Jeffrey D. (Stuart, FL); Sanders, Stuart A. (Palm Beach Gardens, FL)

    2009-06-09

    A nozzle for use in a cold spray technique is described. The nozzle has a passageway for spraying a powder material, the passageway having a converging section and a diverging section, and at least the diverging section being formed from polybenzimidazole. In one embodiment of the nozzle, the converging section is also formed from polybenzimidazole.

  18. SPRAY ATOMIZATION MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop protection product labels are now being written with spray droplet spectra classification terms that have specific definitions. Some of these terms are the same as previously used for generic descriptions such as fine or coarse sprays, but these terms used on new product labels have very speci...

  19. Reactor core spraying device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To elimenate the variations of water spraying amount and spraying range to respective fuel assemblies even if the flying distance of the spray water is varied by coinciding in a direction for altering the spray water flying distance with the circumferential direction of the upper plenum. Constitution: Two spargers are annularly mounted along the inner wall surface of an upper plenum, and two types of nozzles having difference direction are mounted at every other positions. At this time one nozzle is so mounted as to spray water mainly to the center of the reactor core as inclined at an angle theta in a horizontal plane with respect to the center of the plenum and the other nozzle is so mounted as to spray similarly the water to the periphery of the reactor core mainly as inclined at theta'. In this manner, even if the pressure in the plenum is varied, the spray water scattering range is merely moved in circumferential direction. Therefore, if can obtain substantially uniform spray amount as a whole. (Sekiya, K.)

  20. A new method for thermal spraying of Zn-Al coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorlach, I.A., E-mail: igor.gorlach@nmmu.ac.z [Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth, 6031 (South Africa)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the development of the thermal spraying system built on the principles of the high velocity air flame (HVAF) process. HVAF sprayed coatings showed considerably higher bond strength than coatings obtained by the conventional methods, indicating the advantage of this method in areas where the adhesion strength is critically important. The highly dense structure of the coating obtained with HVAF eliminates a need for a top paint coat, which is typically applied on metal sprayed coatings to extend service life. The thermal sprayed coatings were characterized by the standard techniques, such as light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, salt spray and bond strength tests. The results show that thermal sprayed coatings have a dense structure, low presence of oxides and high resistance to corrosion. High spray rate and good coating quality make the HVAF thermal spray method a viable alternative to the conventional thermal spraying technologies, such as Wire Flame and Twin-Wire Arc.

  1. A new method for thermal spraying of Zn-Al coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the development of the thermal spraying system built on the principles of the high velocity air flame (HVAF) process. HVAF sprayed coatings showed considerably higher bond strength than coatings obtained by the conventional methods, indicating the advantage of this method in areas where the adhesion strength is critically important. The highly dense structure of the coating obtained with HVAF eliminates a need for a top paint coat, which is typically applied on metal sprayed coatings to extend service life. The thermal sprayed coatings were characterized by the standard techniques, such as light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, salt spray and bond strength tests. The results show that thermal sprayed coatings have a dense structure, low presence of oxides and high resistance to corrosion. High spray rate and good coating quality make the HVAF thermal spray method a viable alternative to the conventional thermal spraying technologies, such as Wire Flame and Twin-Wire Arc.

  2. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  3. Romanesque mural painting in Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Pagès

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Romanesque mural painting in Catalonia which was saved from despoilment and dispersion in 1919, when the Junta de Museus (Board of Museums of Barcelona embarked upon a major campaign of purchase and removal, is a unique heritage of universal value. Even though the mural paintings from the Romanesque cathedrals or the great abbeys like Ripoll no longer survive, what has been conserved is quite notable both stylistically and iconographically. The surviving frescoes were mainly inspired by the art of early Christian Rome and that of the Gregorian reform, yet also by Byzantine sources and by Lombard and Germanic styles and prototypes, all translated into highly original programmes of images. The most emblematic works are conserved at the Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya (MNAC, such as the apse from Sant Climent de Taüll, a capolavoro of European Romanesque painting, and the apses from Sant Pere de la Seu d’Urgell and Santa Maria d’Àneu, both boasting outstanding quality, along with the paintings from Sant Joan in Boí, Sant Quirze de Pedret, Sorpe and el Burgal. Together with the frescoes at the Museu Diocesà i Comarcal de Solsona, the Museu Episcopal de Vic, the Museu d’Art de Girona and the Museu Diocesà d’Urgell, along with the numerous murals and remains of paintings conserved in situ, many of them discovered in recent years, they enable us to envisage the scope of this Catalan Romanesque art. Of these discoveries, perhaps the most noteworthy are the paintings from Sant Vicenç d’Estamariu, as well as the new images on the triumphant arches of Sant Climent de Taüll. This article summarises the most important part of this mural painting heritage as well as the most recent literature on the subject.

  4. The transdisciplinary potential of remediated painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2011-01-01

    "The Transdisciplinary Potential of Remediated Painting" Over the last decades the notion of what painting is has been considerably widened due to intermediality, i.e. crossovers between artistic media such as painting and sculpture, painting and photography, painting and installation, painting and performance etc. This paper suggests that the transformation of the discipline of painting into an expanded field has not only liberated painting from its ties to its traditional repertoire of materials and modes of representation. It has also released a tremendous potential for image making that takes painting as a point of departure but moves beyond the limitations of dialogic intermedia into the field of transdisciplinary aesthetics. In support of my argument, I turn to the concept of remediation as it was first applied in new media theory by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin. The ambition is to develop an apprehension of painting not as an artistic artifact or 'medium-specific' practice, but as a critical remediating process - painting as remediated painting. What could be gained from this reconceptualisation of the expanded field of painting? Firstly, it introduces an apprehension of painting that starts from the transdisciplinary potential of painting instead of its historical disciplinarity and the attendant assumption that, as a discipline, painting functions independently and establishes its own separate space of cultural meaning. Secondly, it defines painting as active, performative and migrant. It suggests that today painting is active as a cultural force, not just as fine art. In order to substantiate these claims, the paper analyses works by some contemporary Northern European artists.

  5. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  6. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati

    2013-06-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  7. Painting : Discursive Battlefield and Intermedial Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing struggle of painting – leading to recurrent announcements of its ‘demise’ and subsequently of its ‘return’ – serves as point of departure for an examination of ‘expanded painting’. The article suggests that contemporary painting is not only a field of incessant disciplinary and discursive battles over the essentially self-reflective question of “What is painting?” Over the last decades it has also become an intermedial laboratory in which artists experiment with developing a connective aesthetic in the interface between painting and other media. Accordingly, it is has become a commonly held opinion that painting has transformed itself into an expanded field and thus renewed itself – again. The article argues that in recent decades a remarkable number of painters have explored the possibility of developing painting by redefining what ‘space’ is in relation to painting. Much energy has been put into expanding painting physically by exploring painting’s relations to objects, space, place, and ‘the everyday’. The text focuses on works of art that are conceived as an installation based on the medium of painting, including works by Slovak artists Dorota Sadovská and Daniel Fischer. Its discussion of the ways in which the transformation of painting into installation affects the relationship between the work and its contexts eventually leads to a consideration of how Slovak art is positioned in relation to the Western artworld understood as a system of centres and peripheries. Text in English (pp. 66-83) and Slovak (pp. 44-65).

  8. Electrical charging characteristics of the hetero layer film for reducing water-borne paint contamination in electrostatic rotary atomizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Y.; Imanishi, T.; Yoshida, O.; Mizuno, A. [ABB Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    The electrostatic rotary atomizer is the most efficient of all liquid spray painting methods. Its use minimizes the waste of paint and reduces emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Water-borne painting processes which use water-soluble paint also reduce VOC emissions, but the atomizer body is easily contaminated by the paint mists. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) considered the causes of water-borne paint contamination and presented the experimental results of a contamination proof system in which the atomizer is surrounded by the repelling film that is charged and repels the incoming paint droplets. Among the key factors for repelling film were electrical properties, such as low capacitance and high insulation to keep high surface potential. Charging uniformity was found to be among the most important characteristic to avoid contamination. The pulse electro-acoustic (PEA) method was used to check these features using space charge measurements inside the repelling film. It was concluded that hetero layer films have more uniform charging characteristics than single layer films.

  9. Pressure and temperature sensitive paints

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Tianshu

    2006-01-01

    Luminescent molecule sensors, called pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) and temperature-sensitive paint (TSP), measure factors essential for understanding the aerodynamic performance and heat transfer characteristics of flight vehicles. They provide a powerful tool for experimental aerodynamicists to obtain a deeper understanding of the rich physical phenomena in complex flows around a flight vehicle. This book helps the reader to understand the physics and chemistry and the capabilities of PSP and TSP. It provides an overview of the wide scope of applications and explains the system requirements

  10. EVALUATION OF LOW-VOC LATEX PAINTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of four commercially available low-VOC (volatile organic compound) latex paints as substitutes for conventional latex paints by assessing both their emission characteristics and their performance as coatings. Bulk analysis indicated that ...

  11. After History: The Paintings of David Bierk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2001-01-01

    Features the artist David Bierk, who uses three subject areas in his paintings: (1) landscapes; (2) still lifes; and (3) "history paintings." Explains that Bierk abstracts and adapts these subjects to create personal tributes to artworks by famous artists. (CMK)

  12. Dynamics of flare sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During solar cycle No. 20 new insight into the flare-spray phenomenon has been attained due to several innovations in solar optical-observing techniques (higher spatial resolution cinema-photography, tunable pass-band filters, multi-slit spectroscopy and extended angular field coronographs). From combined analysis of 13 well-observed sprays which occured between 1969-1974 we conclude that (i) the spray material originates from a preexisting active region filament which undergoes increased absorption some tens of minutes prior to the abrupt chromospheric brightening at the 'flare-start', and (ii) the spray material is confined within a steadily expanding, loop-shaped (presumably magnetically controlled) envelope with part of the material draining back down along one or both legs of the loop. (orig.)

  13. Containment spray system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object: To provide a water-circulation spray system attached to a container in order to be actuated at the time of failure of a light-water nuclear reactor, which can remove iodine from the container effectively and under the stabilized operation for a long period of time without need of mixing chemical matter to spraying water. Structure: On the downstream of a residual heat exchanger mounted in the spray system there is provided a purifier as the means for removing iodine from a part of circulating water. This purifier is disposed in bypass which is formed by opening the valve, and water passed through the bypass is returned to the spray system. (Kamimura, M.)

  14. 2001 spray program prospectus

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes weed control on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge in 2001. A total of 2,152 acres were sprayed. Pesticide application report records are...

  15. EMISSIONS OF ODOROUS ALDEHYDES FROM ALKYD PAINT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldehyde emissions are widely held responsible for the acrid after-odor of drying alkyd-based paint films. The aldehyde emissions from three different alkyd paints were measured in small environmental chambers. It was found that, for each alkyd paint applied, more than 2 mg of ...

  16. Household hazardous waste : composition of paint waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas HØjlund

    2007-01-01

    'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc.) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when incinerated. Allowing household paint waste to be collected with ordinary household waste is expected to reduce the cost of handling household hazardous waste, since paint waste in Denmark comprises the major fraction of household hazardous waste.

  17. Miniature Paintings: Small Size, Big Impact!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Bill

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a miniature painting project that allows students to research a master painter and then replicate the work on a smaller scale. This lesson focuses on the students' ability to learn to identify style, subject matter, themes, and content in painting through the study of historical paintings, and the application of various…

  18. Mural Painting as Inclusive Art Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kong

    2010-01-01

    Traditional art education, like other academic disciplines, emphasizes competitiveness and individualism. Through a mural painting curriculum, learners participate in mural art and history appreciation, are active in mural theme or content construction, and engage in hands-on mural design and painting processes. When mural paintings are produced…

  19. Stop and Paint the Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Shelley

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art lesson where students used watercolors to paint a flower bouquet arranged in a vase. Explains that the students viewed examples of flower bouquets by artists such as Vincent van Gogh and Odilon Redon. Discusses, in detail, the process of creating the artworks. (CMK)

  20. Paint the World with Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, David

    2010-01-01

    Two classrooms on opposite sides of the world happened to be working on a very similar project at the same time. In both Shanghai, China, and Palm Springs, California, students were learning how to turn their flashlights and other light-emitting objects into paintbrushes. Light painting is a form of long-exposure photography in which the shutter…

  1. Desalination of painted brick vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Klenz

    1999-01-01

    The subject of the thesis is salt and moisture movement that causes damage to wall paintings on church vaults. The deterioration was studied in the churches of Fanefjord, Kirkerup and Brarup. A desalination method was tested om location. The salt and moisture transfer was examined in detail in laboratory set-ups, and a model for the salt and moisture movement was proposed.

  2. Perspective: Landscape Drawing and Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstadter, Judith

    1972-01-01

    Author suggests teaching the principles of perspective outdoors where pupils can sketch neighboring trees, houses and streets. These sessions can be followed by painting lessons in which the use of color to gain perspective is then emphasized. Author includes useful hints and questions to evaluate students' grasp of subject. (PD)

  3. Conservation problems with paintings containing fluorescent layers of paint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie De Winter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available L’artiste moderne cherche continuellement de nouvelles techniques. Des nouveaux matériaux tels que l’éponge, le polyester, le sable, etc. sont devenus courants. Ces développements amènent de nouveaux problèmes dans le domaine de la conservation (préventive des matériaux en question. Chaque matériau doit être analysé individuellement afin de préserver  le mieux possible l’intention de l’artiste à long terme. La présente recherche concerne des matériaux très récents: les pigments et les couleurs fluorescentes. Ces derniers n’ont fait leur apparition qu’au vingtième siècle. Pour cette raison les données concernant leur dégradation et leur conservation sont peu nombreuses. La majorité des tableaux fluorescents sont conçus pour être montrés sous éclairage UV. En cas de dommage, si l’œuvre a besoin d’être retouchée, ceci pose un grand problème esthétique. La retouche devient visible sous les lampes UV. La première partie de la recherche concerne la composition des différentes sortes de pigments et de peintures. Par la suite, les différentes causes de dégradation- lumière UV, chaleur, etc.- sont analysées en détail. Pour conclure, un possible remède est proposé.In modern art we can see that artists are breaking with traditional techniques. New materials like sponge, polyester, sand, etc. are being used. This causes a lot of new problems in the (preventive conservation of works containing these materials. Every material needs to be researched individually so the exact intention of the artist can be preserved for a (relatively long period. My research is about very recent materials: fluorescent pigments and paints. These only started to be used by artists from the 60’s. That's why there is not much information about their aging and ways to (preventively conserve them. A lot of fluorescent paintings are meant to be shown under UV-light. If a fluorescent painting has damage and needs to be retouched there is a big esthetical problem. The retouched damage is visible under UV-light. The title of this thesis is born out of this last problem: Conservation problems with paintings containing fluorescent layers of paint. The first topic of research for this thesis concerns the composition of these different sorts of paint and pigments. Afterwards, the causes of damage resulting from UV-light –and other factors- were thoroughly analyzed. Finally, a possible remedy is being proposed.

  4. Measurements in liquid fuel sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigier, N.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for studying the events directly preceding combustion in the liquid fuel sprays are being used to provide information as a function of space and time on droplet size, shape, number density, position, angle of flight and velocity. Spray chambers were designed and constructed for: (1) air-assist liquid fuel research sprays; (2) high pressure and temperature chamber for pulsed diesel fuel sprays; and (3) coal-water slurry sprays. Recent results utilizing photography, cinematography, and calibration of the Malvern particle sizer are reported. Systems for simultaneous measurement of velocity and particle size distributions using laser Doppler anemometry interferometry and the application of holography in liquid fuel sprays are being calibrated.

  5. Understanding factors that influence protective glove use among automotive spray painters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Diana; Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Glazer, Patricia; Murphy-Robinson, Helen; Yost, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Dermal contact with isocyanate-based coatings may lead to systemic respiratory sensitization. The most common isocyanates found in sprayed automotive coatings are monomeric and oligomeric 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI). Most spray painters use thin (4-5 mil) latex gloves that are not effective at preventing dermal exposures when spraying isocyanate paints. Personal interviews with collision repair industry personnel and focus groups with spray painters were held to characterize risk awareness, to examine perceptions and challenges concerning protective glove use and selection, and to generate ideas for protective glove use interventions. The most popular gloves among spray painters were thin (4-5 mil) and thick (14 mil) latex. We found that medium to thick (6-8 mil) nitrile were not always perceived as comfortable and were expected to be more expensive than thin (4-5 mil) latex gloves. Of concern is the user's difficulty in distinguishing between nitrile and latex gloves; latex gloves are now sold in different colors including blue, which has traditionally been associated with nitrile gloves. Even though spray painters were familiar with the health hazards related to working with isocyanate paints, most were not always aware that dermal exposure to isocyanates could contribute to the development of occupational asthma. There is a need for more research to identify dermal materials that are protective against sprayed automotive coatings. Automotive spray painters and their employers need to be educated in the selection and use of protective gloves, specifically on attributes such as glove material, color, and thickness. PMID:24215135

  6. Development of spray coated cathodes for RITS-6.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Sean; Leckbee, Joshua J.; Miller, Stephen Samuel

    2013-09-01

    This report documents work conducted in FY13 to conduct a feasibility study on thermal spray coated cathodes to be used in the RITS-6 accelerator in an attempt to improve surface uniformity and repeatability. Currently, the cathodes are coated with colloidal silver by means of painting by hand. It is believed that improving the cathode coating process could simplify experimental setup and improve flash x-ray radiographic performance. This report documents the experimental setup and summarizes the results of our feasibility study. Lastly, it describes the path forward and potential challenges that must be overcome in order to improve the process for creating uniform and repeatable silver coatings for cathodes.

  7. Texton-based analysis of paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Maaten, Laurens J. P.; Postma, Eric O.

    2010-08-01

    The visual examination of paintings is traditionally performed by skilled art historians using their eyes. Recent advances in intelligent systems may support art historians in determining the authenticity or date of creation of paintings. In this paper, we propose a technique for the examination of brushstroke structure that views the wildly overlapping brushstrokes as texture. The analysis of the painting texture is performed with the help of a texton codebook, i.e., a codebook of small prototypical textural patches. The texton codebook can be learned from a collection of paintings. Our textural analysis technique represents paintings in terms of histograms that measure the frequency by which the textons in the codebook occur in the painting (so-called texton histograms). We present experiments that show the validity and effectiveness of our technique for textural analysis on a collection of digitized high-resolution reproductions of paintings by Van Gogh and his contemporaries. As texton histograms cannot be easily be interpreted by art experts, the paper proposes to approaches to visualize the results on the textural analysis. The first approach visualizes the similarities between the histogram representations of paintings by employing a recently proposed dimensionality reduction technique, called t-SNE. We show that t-SNE reveals a clear separation of paintings created by Van Gogh and those created by other painters. In addition, the period of creation is faithfully reflected in the t-SNE visualizations. The second approach visualizes the similarities and differences between paintings by highlighting regions in a painting in which the textural structure of the painting is unusual. We illustrate the validity of this approach by means of an experiment in which we highlight regions in a painting by Monet that are not very "Van Gogh-like". Taken together, we believe the tools developed in this study are well capable of assisting for art historians in support of their study of paintings.

  8. Thermal spray processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, H.; Berndt, C. C.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal spray processing has been used for a number of years to cost-effecticely apply TBC's for a wide range of heat engine applications. In particular, bond coats are applied by plasma spray and HVOF techniques and partially-stabilized zirconia top coats are applied by plasma spray methods. Thermal spray involves melting and rapid transport of the molten particles to the substrate, where high-rate solidification and coating build-up occur. It is the very nature of this melt processing that leads to the unique layered microstructure, as well as the apparent imperfections, so readily identified with thermal spray. Modeling the process, process-induced residual stresses, and thermal conductivity will be discussed in light of a new understanding of porosity and its anisotropy. Microcracking can be understood using new approaches, allowing a fuller view of the processing-performance connection. Detailed electron microscopic, novel neutron diffraction and fracture analysis of the deposits can lead to a better understanding of how overall microstructure can be controlled to influence critical properties of the deposited TBC system.

  9. Droplets and sprays

    CERN Document Server

    Sazhin, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    Providing a clear and systematic description of droplets and spray dynamic models, this book maximises reader insight into the underlying physics of the processes involved, outlines the development of new physical and mathematical models, and broadens understanding of interactions between the complex physical processes which take place in sprays. Complementing approaches based on the direct application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), Droplets and Sprays treats both theoretical and practical aspects of internal combustion engine process such as the direct injection of liquid fuel, subcritical heating and evaporation. Includes case studies that illustrate the approaches relevance to automotive applications,  it is also anticipated that the described models can find use in other areas such as in medicine and environmental science.

  10. JIT Spraying and Mitigations

    CERN Document Server

    Bania, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    With the discovery of new exploit techniques, novel protection mechanisms are needed as well. Mitigations like DEP (Data Execution Prevention) or ASLR (Address Space Layout Randomization) created a significantly more difficult environment for exploitation. Attackers, however, have recently researched new exploitation methods which are capable of bypassing the operating systemâ??s memory mitigations. One of the newest and most popular exploitation techniques to bypass both of the aforementioned security protections is JIT memory spraying, introduced by Dion Blazakis. In this article we will present a short overview of the JIT spraying technique and also novel mitigation methods against this innovative class of attacks. An anti-JIT spraying library was created as part of our shellcode execution prevention system.

  11. Core spray systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To enable effective vapor condensation for a reactor core upon emergency by connecting a cooling water source and an emergency core cooling system. Constitution: This system is in a stand-by state during normal operation of a reactor. Upon reactor accident such as pipe line failures in the primary system, a valve is opened by an accident signal. Then, a pump takes-in the cold water in a cold water tank upon starting of a core spray and sprays it through a sparger above the core. The capacity of the cold tank can afford about 2 - 3 min's operation. Thereafter, pool water in a pressure suppression chamber is sprayed from above the core. The switching for the flow channels can be made automatically by a level meter in the cold tank. (Seki, T.)

  12. Microclimate boxes for panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, JØrgen

    1998-01-01

    The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century. The increased number of travelling exhibitions in recent years has heightened the need to protect paintings during circulation (Thomson 1961; Mecklenburg 1991). The use and design of microclimate boxes have been evolving since 1892. These boxes may be divided into three broad groups: those using an active buffer material to stabilize the internal RH, a more recent box containing no added buffer material, and, in recent times, boxes with an altered gas content. Another concern is the appearance (aesthetics) of the box.

  13. Automation of painted slate inspection

    OpenAIRE

    Carew, Tim

    2002-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the problem of how to detect visual defects on painted slates using an automated visual inspection system. The vision system that has been developed consists of two major components. The first component addresses issues such as the mechanical implementation and interfacing the inspection system with the optical and sensing equipment whereas the second component involves the development of an image processing algorithm able to identify the visual defects present o...

  14. Color signatures in Amorsolo paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Maricor N.; Palomero, Cherry May; Cruz, Larry; Yambao, Clod Marlan Krister; Dado, Julie Mae; Salvador-Campaner, Janice May

    2010-02-01

    We present the results of a two-year project aimed at capturing quantifiable color signatures of oil paintings of Fernando Amorsolo, the Philippine's first National Artists. Color signatures are found by comparing CIE xy measurements of skin color in portraits and ground, sky and foliage in landscapes. The results are compared with results of visual examination and art historical data as well as works done by Amorsolo's contemporaries and mentors.

  15. Cultural landscape and slovenian painting

    OpenAIRE

    Jakomin, Jernej

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the thesis work was to show the relationship between painting and slovenian cultural landscape and present a plan teaching art workshops on the topic. The work consists of two parts. The theoretical part shows the starting point for the presentation of the concept of cultural landscape. It presents the formation of terms of cultural landscape, its importance, the type of cultural landscape and its components. The work is focused on the development of landscape design in Sloveni...

  16. Spray-on tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cindy J

    2005-01-01

    The modern formulation of dihydroxyacetone (DHA), the only sunless tanning solution approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), is combined with bronzers and moisturizers to deliver a cosmetically acceptable skin color and a natural-looking tan without ultraviolet (UV) exposure. Spray-on tanning products, which deliver this formulation evenly to achieve a full body tan, may be applied in a tanning booth, airbrushed on by a technician, or sprayed on at home, and they appear to offer a generally safe alternative for patients who seek a suntanned appearance. PMID:19338841

  17. Sprayed concrete linings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-12-01

    Sprayed concrete, or shotcrete, was invented in the 1920s for preserving dinosaur skeletons and was used underground initially in coalmines for the preservation and fine proofing of timber supports. Its use as a support lining in rock tunnelling was developed in the 1950s and 60s. The article surveys equipment available from major manufacturers and suppliers of concrete spraying equipment (Aliva, Cifa, GIA, Industri, Ingersoll Rand, etc.), specialist cement and additive manufacturers (Castle, Cement, Moria Carbotech). manufacturers of lattice girders and fibre reinforcement, and manufacturers of instrumentation for tunnel linings. 5 tabs., 9 photos.

  18. SPRAY code user's report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SPRAY computer code has been developed to model the effects of postulated sodium spray release from LMFBR piping within containment chambers. The calculation method utilizes gas convection, heat transfer and droplet combustion theory to calculate the pressure and temperature effects within the enclosure. The applicable range is 0-21 mol percent oxygen and .02-.30 inch droplets with or without humidity. Droplet motion and large sodium surface area combine to produce rapid heat release and pressure rise within the enclosed volume

  19. CHITOSAN-COPPER PAINT TYPES AS ANTIFOULING

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MARCIA, HEUSER; CLAUDIA, RIVERA; CHRISTIAN, NUÑEZ; GALO, CÁRDENAS.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A prototype of antifouling paints was prepared with a QS-Cu (I)-Fe (II) complex as a possible replacement for traditional antifouling paints, which contain a large concentration of copper, fnding them in an order of 10 - 30 % depending on the brand, and if it is water or solvent based. A Qs-Cu compl [...] ex was prepared, with a solution at 3% with acetic acid, and then Fe2O3 was added to the solution. FT IR analysis was carried out, as well as analysis of the TGA at the Qs and the complex with Qs-Cu, and with the solution, three different paints were prepared. Those that varied volumen of diethylene glycol added to them. The analysis of the paints was carried out, once the paint was pervaded in a network of polyamide, through SEM with EDX and TEM, which was purchased with the commercial paints, water based and solvent based. One of the objectives is to be able to compare the coverage of the network with the commercial paint, and that of the complex QS-Cu. The results showed that the best paint obtained was paint #2, found to be similar to that pervaded with water based paint.

  20. CHITOSAN-COPPER PAINT TYPES AS ANTIFOULING

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MARCIA, HEUSER; GALO, CÁRDENAS.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A prototype of antifouling paints was prepared with a Qs-Cu (I)-Fe (II) complex as a possible replacement for traditional antifouling net paints, which contain a large concentration of copper, finding them in an order of 10-30 % depending on the company, and either in water or solvent based. A Qs-Cu [...] complex was prepared, with a solution at 3% with acetic acid, and then Fe2O3 was added to the solution. FT IR analysis was carried out, as well as analysis of the TGA at the Qs and the complex with Qs-Cu, and with the solution, three different paints were prepared. Those that varied volume of diethylene glycol added to them. The analysis of the paints was carried out, once the paint was pervaded in a network of polyamide, through SEM with EDX and TEM, which was purchased with the commercial paints, water based and solvent based. One of the objectives is to be able to compare the coverage of the network with the commercial paint, and that of the complex Qs-Cu. The results showed that the best paint obtained was paint #2, found to be similar to that pervaded with water based paint.

  1. Ejecta production mechanisms on painted surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariteau, Muriel; Mandeville, Jean-Claude; Schäfer, Frank

    2001-10-01

    Painted surfaces are frequently used on space vehicles, whether on satellites or on rocket bodies. A bibliographic research allows us to evaluate the painted surfaces in orbit at about 63000 m2. The observation of impacts on painted surfaces of the LDEF satellite shows that the total ejected mass is large. However, no description of hypervelocity impact tests on painted surfaces has been found in the literature. An ejecta model has been previously developed at ONERA/DESP. This model is applicable for hypervelocity impacts on homogeneous ductile targets, homogeneous brittle targets and solar cells. The objective of this work is to extend this model to the case of painted surfaces. Consequently, impact pictures on painted surfaces of LDEF were analysed and some laboratory impact tests were performed at the Ernst-Mach-Institut, in Freiburg, under an ESA contract.

  2. Butorphanol Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... down after you use the medication. Do not drive a car or operate machinery for at least one hour after using butorphanol nasal spray.After one hour has passed, do not drive until you are sure that you are not ...

  3. Evaporation and combustion of sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faeth, G. M.

    1983-01-01

    A description is provided of recent spray evaporation and combustion models, taking into account turbulent two- and three-dimensional spray processes found in furnaces, gas turbine combustors, and internal combustion engines. Within the class of spray models of interest, two major categories are distinguished, including locally homogeneous flow (LHF) models and separated flow (SF) models. SF models are of the greatest practical importance, but LHF models have distinct advantages in some cases. Attention is also given to recent progress on modeling interactions between drops and the flow in both dilute and dense sprays, involving sprays having low and high liquid volume fractions, respectively.

  4. Training Facilitates Object Recognition in Cubist Paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Wiesmann, Martin; Ishai, Alumit

    2010-01-01

    To the naïve observer, cubist paintings contain geometrical forms in which familiar objects are hardly recognizable, even in the presence of a meaningful title. We used fMRI to test whether a short training session about Cubism would facilitate object recognition in paintings by Picasso, Braque and Gris. Subjects, who had no formal art education, were presented with titled or untitled cubist paintings and scrambled images, and performed object recognition tasks. Relative to the control group,...

  5. Training facilitates object recognition in cubist paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Wiesmann, M; Ishai, A

    2010-01-01

    To the naïve observer, cubist paintings contain geometrical forms in which familiar objects are hardly recognizable, even in the presence of a meaningful title. We used fMRI to test whether a short training session about Cubism would facilitate object recognition in paintings by Picasso, Braque and Gris. Subjects, who had no formal art education, were presented with titled or untitled cubist paintings and scrambled images, and performed object recognition tasks. Relative to the control group,...

  6. RHEOLOGICAL STUDIES OF CONDUCTING ACRYLIC PAINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziceli Cardozo Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the conducting acrylic paint were development by the addition of conducting filler, carbon black, in the mechanical proceed by the higher mixing condition, 10000 rpm for 5 minutes. The conducting paint were analyzed in a rotational viscosimeter at different condition of shear rate and temperature. The carbon black changes significantly the rheological paint behavior, the high amount of carbon black showed lower activation energy at 200 S-1 which is good for the application in the roll.

  7. Texton-based analysis of paintings:

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Maaten, L.J.P.; Postma, E. O.

    2010-01-01

    The visual examination of paintings is traditionally performed by skilled art historians using their eyes. Recent advances in intelligent systems may support art historians in determining the authenticity or date of creation of paintings. In this paper, we propose a technique for the examination of brushstroke structure that views the wildly overlapping brushstrokes as texture. The analysis of the painting texture is performed with the help of a texton codebook, i.e., a codebook of small prot...

  8. Antifungal efficiency assessment of the TiO2 coating on façade paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu?eti?, Snežana B; Rudi?, Ognjen Lj; Markov, Siniša L; Bera, Oskar J; Vidakovi?, Ana M; Skapin, Andrijana S Sever; Ranogajec, Jonjaua G

    2014-10-01

    The work studies the photocatalytic activity and the antifungal efficiency of the TiO2/Zn-Al coatings placed on the target commercial façade paints. The photocatalytic active nanocomposite based on TiO2 and Zn-Al-layered double hydroxides (ZnAl-LDHs) was synthesized by a wet impregnation technique with 3 % w/w TiO2. The freshly prepared suspension was applied by spray technique on the surfaces of the white façade paints. The goal of the work was to develop a method that quickly quantifies the antifungal activity of the commercial façade paints with and without biocidal components covered with a photocatalytic coating. The essence of the proposed method is the monitoring of the fungal growth (artificial ageing conditions) and the quantification of its development (UV-A 0.13 mWcm(-2)) on the façade paint surfaces. A special fungus nutrient (potato dextrose agar (PDA)) was inoculated with the spores of the Aspergillus niger ATCC 6275, and the test samples (façade paints with and without photocatalytic coating) were placed on the inoculated nutrient in the petri dishes. The images of the fungal growth on the samples of the facade paints, during a period of 5 days, were imported into Matlab R2012a where they were converted to binary images (BW), based on the adequate threshold. The percentage of the surface coverage was calculated by applying the specifically written program code which determines the ratio of the black and white pixels. The black pixels correspond to the surface covered with hyphae and mycelia of the fungus. PMID:24875311

  9. Multiple metal contamination from house paints: consequences of power sanding and paint scraping in New Orleans.

    OpenAIRE

    Mielke, H W; Powell, E T; Shah, A.; Gonzales, C R; Mielke, P W

    2001-01-01

    Power sanding exterior paint is a common practice during repainting of old houses in New Orleans, Louisiana, that triggers lead poisoning and releases more than Pb. In this study we quantified the Pb, zinc, cadmium, manganese, nickel, copper, cobalt, chromium, and vanadium in exterior paint samples collected from New Orleans homes (n = 31). We used interior dust wipes to compare two exterior house-painting projects. House 1 was measured in response to the plight of a family after a paint cont...

  10. Three generations of inorganic phosphates in solvent and water-borne paints: A synergism case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blustein, G.; Deyá, M. C.; Romagnoli, R.; Amo, B. del

    2005-12-01

    This research work is intended to compare the anti-corrosive properties of three generations of inorganic phosphate pigments in solvent-based paints and in water-borne ones, both of the epoxy type. The anti-corrosive properties of phosphate pigments were assessed by means of electrochemical techniques (corrosion potential measurements, polarisation tests, etc.), employing a steel electrode dipped into pigments suspensions. The behaviour of these pigments in anti-corrosive paints, formulated with different binders, have been studied by accelerated (salt spray cabinet and humidity chamber) and electrochemical tests (corrosion potential and ionic resistance measurements). Accelerated and electrochemical tests allowed to differentiate the anti-corrosive performance of the three phosphates studied in this research. These test are also able to detect and characterise possible synergism between the water-borne resin and the pigments.

  11. Laser ablation of paint in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear dismantling faces the challenge of paint removal on large surfaces of painted walls. The conventional methods for paint stripping on concrete walls are mainly based on mechanical grinder and lead to an important volume of aerosols and wastes. Laser ablation has been evaluated as a promising method for paint removal with a number of advantages. The method reduces considerably the waste volume as the removal of paint is selective. The ablated matter can be collected by aerosol aspiration/filtration. The automation of the process can provide a higher capacity of paint removal. Laser ablation of paint was under our extensive studies. Laser ablation with different nanosecond repetition rate lasers was comparatively studied to understand the ablation mechanisms, and to obtain the highest efficiency of paint removal. The investigations were made with three Q-Switched Nd:YAG lasers (? = 532 nm and ? = 1.064 ?m). The different pulse durations (5 ns and 100 ns) demonstrated the different ablation regimes. Ablation with long pulses (100 ns) provided the best removal efficiency while the short ones (5 ns) decreased the ablation threshold fluence. It was demonstrated that the pulse repetition rate increasing in the 20 Hz - 10 kHz range induced heat accumulation in the paint. It resulted in ablation efficiency increase with a large decrease in the ablation threshold fluence. Laser ablation in the 0 - 10 J / cm2 fluence range was investigated. Various paints were under investigation to obtain the maximum efficiency of paint removal for each specific experimental case. The ejected matter recording with a high speed imaging system allows to analyse the laser-matter interaction. (authors)

  12. Numerical modelling of fuel sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, C.

    1999-06-01

    The way the fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber is one of the most important parameters for the power output and the generation of emissions in the combustion of liquid fuels. The interaction between the turbulent gas flow field and the liquid fuel droplets, the vaporisation of them and the mixing of the gaseous fuel with the ambient air that are vital parameters in the combustion process. The use of numerical calculations is an important tool to better understand these complex interacting phenomena. This thesis reports on the numerical modelling of fuel sprays in non-reacting cases using an own developed spray module. The spray module uses the stochastic parcel method to represent the spray. The module was made in such manner that it could by coupled with different gas flow solver. Results obtained from four different gas flow solvers are presented in the thesis, including the use of two different kinds of turbulence models. In the first part the spray module is coupled with a k-{eta} based 2-D cylindrical gas flow solver. A thorough sensitivity analysis was performed on the spray and gas flow solver parameters, such as grid size dependence and sensitivity to initial values of k-{eta}. The results of the spray module were also compared to results from other spray codes, e.g. the well known KIVA code. In the second part of this thesis the spray was injected into a turbulent and fully developed crossflow studied. The spray module was attached to a LES (Large Eddy Simulation) based flow solvers enabling the study of the complex structures and time dependent phenomena involved in spray in crossflows. It was found that the spray performs an oscillatory motion and that the Strouhal number in the wake was about 0.1. Different spray breakup models were evaluated by comparing with experimental results 66 refs, 56 figs

  13. Flame spraying of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical design-of-experiment studies of the thermal spraying of polymer powders are presented. Studies of the subsonic combustion (i.e., Flame) process were conducted in order to determine the quality and economics of polyester and urethane coatings. Thermally sprayed polymer coatings are of interest to several industries for anticorrosion applications, including the chemical, automotive, and aircraft industries. In this study, the coating design has been optimized for a site-specific application using Taguchi-type fractional-factorial experiments. Optimized coating designs are presented for the two powder systems. A substantial range of thermal processing conditions and their effect on the resultant polymer coatings is presented. The coatings were characterized by optical metallography, hardness testing, tensile testing, and compositional analysis. Characterization of the coatings yielded the thickness, bond strength, Knoop microhardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and porosity. Confirmation testing was accomplished to verify the coating designs

  14. Characterization and Optimization of Polymer-Ceramic Pressure-Sensitive Paint by Controlling Polymer Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Ishikawa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A pressure-sensitive paint (PSP with fast response characteristics that can be sprayed on a test article is studied. This PSP consists of a polymer for spraying and a porous particle for providing the fast response. We controlled the polymer content (% from 10 to 90% to study its effects on PSP characteristics: the signal level, pressure sensitivity, temperature dependency, and time response. The signal level and temperature dependency shows a peak in the polymer content around 50 to 70%. The pressure sensitivity was fairly constant in the range between 0.8 and 0.9 %/kPa. The time response is improved by lowering the polymer content. The variation of the time response is shown to be on the order of milliseconds to ten seconds. A weight coefficient is introduced to optimize the resultant PSPs. By setting the weight coefficient, we can optimize the PSP for sensing purposes.

  15. Lead content in household paints in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead and its compounds are used in paints not only to impart colour but also to make it durable, corrosion resistant and to improve drying. Adverse health impacts of lead especially on children have led countries to restrict or ban its use in paints. While U.S. and other developed countries instituted measures to limit the use of lead in paints, some developing countries including India have failed to regulate their lead content. The present study was undertaken to determine the levels of lead in new latex (water-based) and enamel paints (oil-based) intended for residential use in India. A total of 69 paint samples (38 latex and 31 enamel samples) from six of the most popular brands were analysed for lead concentrations. While all latex paint samples contained low levels of lead, (i.e., well below 600 ppm as regulated by United States' Consumer Products Safety Commission) the enamel paint samples of all but one brand contained significant concentrations of lead, ranging up to 140,000 ppm. In fact 84% of the enamel paints tested exceeded 600 ppm whereas only 38 % of all samples (including latex and enamel types) exceeded this regulatory level

  16. THz reflectometric imaging of medieval wall paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz time-domain reflectometry has been applied to the investigation of a medieval Danish wall painting. The technique has been able to detect the presence of carbonblack layer on the surface of the wall painting and a buried insertion characterized by high reflectivity values has been found in depth of the lime-based historical plaster.

  17. EMISSION RATES OF MERCURY FROM LATEX PAINTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of tests of latex paints containing organic mercury additives in small environmental test chambers to determine the emission rates of mercury. Five paints were evaluated: two contained phenyl mercuric acetate (PMA); and the other three, different additives...

  18. Painting with Clay Van Gogh Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Discusses Vincent Van Gogh's painting "Starry Night" and describes a lesson where fifth- and sixth-grade students created their own version of the artwork. Explains that the students utilized four colors of Permoplast clay, using their hands and fingers as brushes and blending tools and the clay as paint. (CMK)

  19. The Sign System in Chinese Landscape Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Cliff G.

    2003-01-01

    Paintings emerge from a culture field and must be interpreted in relation to the net of culture. A given culture will be implicated by the sign system used by the painter. Everyone agrees that in Chinese landscape paintings, the most important cultural bond is to ancient Chinese Taoism, and to a lesser degree, to Confucianism. Obviously, then, the…

  20. Spray boom for selectively spraying a herbicidal composition onto dicots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    There is provided a method and spray boom for discriminating cereal crop (monocot) and weeds (dicots). The spray boom includes means for digitally recording an image of a selected area to be treated by a nozzle on the spray boom, whereby a plant material is identified based on a segmentation procedure; and means for detecting the edges and estimating the angles of the edges of the leaves so as to discriminate between dicots and monocots; and means for activating one or more of the spray nozzles ...

  1. Structural color painting by rubbing particle powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, ChooJin; Koh, Kunsuk; Jeong, Unyong

    2015-01-01

    Structural colors originate from purely physical structures. Scientists have been inspired to mimic the structures found in nature, the realization of these structures still presents a great challenge. We have recently introduced unidirectional rubbing of a dry particle powder on a rubbery surface as a quick, highly reproducible means to fabricate a single crystal monolayer assembly of particles over an unlimited area. This study extends the particle-rubbing process to a novel fine-art painting, structural color painting (SCP). SCP is based on structural coloring with varying iridescence according to the crystal orientation, as controlled by the rubbing direction. This painting technique can be applied on curved surfaces, which enriches the objects to be painted and helps the painter mimic the structures found in nature. It also allows for quick fabrication of complicated particle-assembly patterns, which enables replication of paintings. PMID:25661669

  2. Effects of gamma radiation on paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The systems and components involved in reactor operation are subject to degradation and aging effects. These effects must be evaluated for accelerated aging of plant components. Generally, the organic materials used in nuclear field such as wire insulation, paints, adhesives, sealants are affected by gamma radiation. The radiation effects on paints were studied at INR - Pitesti and APPVRI - Bucuresti. This paper presents the change of the characteristics of two types of powder paints deposited in electrostatic field on metallic surface, gamma irradiated at 110 kGy and 200 kGy. After irradiation the paints have very good support adherence, high elasticity and impact resistance. They also resist to the action of the acids and the bases used for decontamination. The tests on the paints demonstrated that they can be of successfully used in nuclear field. (authors)

  3. Rheological effects in roll coating of paints

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F., Varela López; M., Rosen.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available the aim of this work is the study of the problems that arise during roll coating application of paints on steel sheets. We put in evidence the particular effects due to the non-Newtonian properties of these fluids. At speeds above a certain critical value, the flow of paint through the applicator su [...] ffers a hydrodynamical instability called ribbing, which generates a patterned interface on the film applied. Threshold of instability as well as waveform of the pattern is function of rheological properties of paints as well as surface tension. Thixotropy of paints as well as shear-thinning behaviour has been determined for several industrial paints used in the steel industry, and correlated with levelling performance after application.

  4. Structural Color Painting by Rubbing Particle Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Choojin; Koh, Kunsuk; Jeong, Unyong

    2015-02-01

    Structural colors originate from purely physical structures. Scientists have been inspired to mimic the structures found in nature, the realization of these structures still presents a great challenge. We have recently introduced unidirectional rubbing of a dry particle powder on a rubbery surface as a quick, highly reproducible means to fabricate a single crystal monolayer assembly of particles over an unlimited area. This study extends the particle-rubbing process to a novel fine-art painting, structural color painting (SCP). SCP is based on structural coloring with varying iridescence according to the crystal orientation, as controlled by the rubbing direction. This painting technique can be applied on curved surfaces, which enriches the objects to be painted and helps the painter mimic the structures found in nature. It also allows for quick fabrication of complicated particle-assembly patterns, which enables replication of paintings.

  5. Fundamental studies of spray combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S.C.; Libby, P.A.; Williams, F.A. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Our research on spray combustion involves both experiment and theory and addresses the characteristics of individual droplets and of sprays in a variety of flows: laminar and turbulent, opposed and impinging. Currently our focus concerns water and fuel sprays in two stage laminar flames, i.e., flames arising, for example from a stream of fuel and oxidizer flowing opposite to an air stream carrying a water spray. Our interest in these flames is motivated by the goals of reducing pollutant emissions and extending the range of stable spray combustion. There remains considerable research to be carried out in order to achieve these goals. Thus far our research on the characteristics of sprays in turbulent flows has been limited to nonreacting jets impinging on a plate but this work will be extended to opposed flows with and without a flame. In the following we discuss details of these studies and our plans for future work.

  6. Heterogeneous Reactivity of NO2 with Photocatalytic Paints: A Possible Source of Nitrous Acid (HONO) in the Indoor Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligorovski, S.; Bartolomei, V.; Gandolfo, A.; Gomez Alvarez, E.; Kleffmann, J.; Wortham, H.

    2014-12-01

    There is an increasing concern about the indoor air environment, where we spend most of our time. Common methods of improving indoor air quality include controlling pollution sources, increasing ventilation rates or using air purifiers. Photocatalytic remediation technology was suggested as a new possibility to eliminate indoor air pollutants instead of just diluting or disposing them. In the present study, heterogeneous reactions of NO2 were studied on photocatalytic paints containing different size and quantity of TiO2. The heterogeneous reactions were conducted in a photo reactor under simulated atmospheric conditions. The flat pyrex rectangular plates covered with the paint were inserted into the reactor. These plates have been sprayed with the photocatalytic paints at our industrial partner's (ALLIOS) facilities using a high precision procedure that allowed the application of a thin layer of a given thickness of the paint. This allows a homogeneous coverage of the surface with the paint and an accurate determination of the exact amount of paint exposed to gaseous NO2. We demonstrate that the indoor photocatalytic paints which contain TiO2 can substantially reduce the concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2). We show that the efficiency of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) removal increase with the quantity of TiO2 in the range 0 - 7 %. The geometric uptake coefficients increase from 5 · 10-6 to 1.6 · 10-5 under light irradiation of the paints. On the other hand, during the reactions of NO2 with this paint (7 % of TiO2) nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous acid (HONO) are formed. Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important harmful indoor pollutant and its photolysis leads to the formation of highly reactive OH radicals (Gomez Alvarez et al., 2013). Maximum conversion efficiencies of NO2to HONO and NO of 15 % and 33 % were observed at 30 % RH, respectively. Thus, the quantity of TiO2 embedded in the paint is an important parameter regarding the nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) remediation, but may also influence formation of harmful by-products such as HONO, which should be considered for future optimization of photocatalytic paints aimed for indoor applications. Reference: Gómez Alvarez E., Amedro D., Afif C., Gligorovski S., Schoemacker C., Fittschen C., Doussin J.F., Wortham H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A, 110(33), 13294-13299, 2013.

  7. Establishment of Meaning of Ink Wash Painting in Modern Times: Evolution of Chinese Ink Wash Painting as a Formal Language of Oriental Figure Painting

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaoguang

    2014-01-01

    As an ancient oriental type of figure painting, Chinese ink wash painting’s development and evolution is the most prominent part that most reflects the characteristics of contemporary era in Chinese artistic exploration in the 20th century. Present Chinese ink wash figure painting has already become one of the forms of creation among Chinese painting mainstream and the reform spirit it reflects has special aesthetic meaning to Chinese contemporary art in the multicultural background. This pap...

  8. Closed loop spray cooling apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alger, D. L.; Schwab, W. B.; Furman, E. R. (inventors)

    1979-01-01

    A closed loop apparatus for jet spraying coolant against the back of a radiation target is described. The coolant is circulated through a closed loop with a bubble of inert gas being maintained around the spray. Mesh material is disposed between the bubble and the surface of the liquid coolant which is below the bubble at a predetermined level. In a second arrangement no inert gas is used, the bubble consists of vapor produced when the coolant is sprayed against the target.

  9. Degradation of insecticides used for indoor spraying in malaria control and possible solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massinga Pedro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The insecticide dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT is widely used in indoor residual spraying (IRS for malaria control owing to its longer residual efficacy in the field compared to other World Health Organization (WHO alternatives. Suitable stabilization to render these alternative insecticides longer lasting could provide a less controversial and more acceptable and effective alternative insecticide formulations than DDT. Methods This study sought to investigate the reasons behind the often reported longer lasting behaviour of DDT by exposing all the WHO approved insecticides to high temperature, high humidity and ultra-violet light. Interactions between the insecticides and some mineral powders in the presence of an aqueous medium were also tested. Simple insecticidal paints were made using slurries of these mineral powders whilst some insecticides were dispersed into a conventional acrylic paint binder. These formulations were then spray painted on neat and manure coated mud plaques, representative of the material typically used in rural mud houses, at twice the upper limit of the WHO recommended dosage range. DDT was applied directly onto mud plaques at four times the WHO recommended concentration and on manure plaques at twice WHO recommended concentration. All plaques were subjected to accelerated ageing conditions of 40°C and a relative humidity of 90%. Results The pyrethroids insecticides outperformed the carbamates and DDT in the accelerated ageing tests. Thus UV exposure, high temperature oxidation and high humidity per se were ruled out as the main causes of failure of the alternative insecticides. Gas chromatography (GC spectrograms showed that phosphogypsum stabilised the insecticides the most against alkaline degradation (i.e., hydrolysis. Bioassay testing showed that the period of efficacy of some of these formulations was comparable to that of DDT when sprayed on mud surfaces or cattle manure coated surfaces. Conclusions Bioassay experiments indicated that incorporating insecticides into a conventional paint binder or adsorbing them onto phosphogypsum can provide for extended effective life spans that compare favourably with DDT's performance under accelerated ageing conditions. Best results were obtained with propoxur in standard acrylic emulsion paint. Similarly, insecticides adsorbed on phosphogypsum and sprayed on cattle manure coated surfaces provided superior lifespans compared with DDT sprayed directly on a similar surface.

  10. Denotative and connotative meanings of paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasi? Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the relationships between judgments of paintings denotative and connotative meanings was investigated. Denotative domain was defined as motif (represented object, e.g. portrait, landscape etc. and message (information carried by paintings, e.g. celebration of patriotism. Connotative domain was defined as subjective experience, i.e. affective or metaphoric impression produced by painting (e.g. feeling of pleasure, impression of dynamics, and so on. In preliminary study the list of 39 motifs was specified empirically. The four dimensions of pictorial message were taken from the previous study (Markovi?, 2006: Subjectivism, Ideology, Decoration and Constructivism vs. Realism. The four dimensions of paintings subjective experience were taken from the previous study as well (Radonji? and Markovi?, 2005: Regularity, Attraction, Arousal and Relaxation. In Experiment 1 subjects were asked to associate 39 motifs with 18 paintings. In Experiment 2 subjects were asked to judge 24 paintings on four dimensions of pictorial message. Results form Experiment 1 have shown that dimensions of paintings subjective experience were significantly correlated with only five motifs (e.g. everyday life was negatively correlated with Arousal, battle was negatively correlated with Relaxation, and so on. Results from Experiment 2 have shown that Subjectivism and Constructivism are negatively correlated with Regularity, and positively correlated with Arousal. Decoration is negatively correlated with Arousal and positively with Attraction and Relaxation.

  11. Measurement of tritium in dial painting industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium in the form of polystyrene is used coated on zinc sulphide as the active component for the manufacture of self-luminous paint. To study the radiological implication of airborne tritium in the luminous paint industry air monitoring study was conducted by cold strip method and Andersen method. Airborne particulate in different locations in luminous paint (LP) building and background areas were observed to be associated with activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 1.8 to 5.0 um. Dose to soft tissue and lungs and effective whole body dose were evaluated. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs., 2 ills

  12. Kolmogorov scaling in impassioned van Gogh paintings

    CERN Document Server

    Aragon, J L; Bai, M; Torres, M; Maini, P K; Naumis, Gerardo G.

    2006-01-01

    We show that some impassioned van Gogh paintings display scaling properties similar to the observed in turbulent fluids, suggesting that these paintings reflect the fingerprint of turbulence with such a realism that is even consistent with the way that a mathematical model characterizes this phenomenon. Specifically, we show that the probability distribution function (PDF) of luminance fluctuations of points (pixels) separated by a distance R is consistent with the Kolmogorov scaling theory in turbulent fluids. We also show that the most turbulent paintings of van Gogh coincide with periods of prolonged psychotic agitation of this artist.

  13. Incite Their Interest with a Collaborative Painting Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Jo

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a collaborative painting project that allows first- through third-grade students to work with partners to create a four-inch square of a group painting and learn the basics of mixing paints to produce lights and darks, and tints and shades. One by one, the students worked on the painting in their free time. The author kept a…

  14. 24 CFR 35.135 - Use of paint containing lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of paint containing lead. 35...-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.135 Use of paint containing lead. (a) New use prohibition. The use of paint containing more than 0.06 percent dry weight of lead on...

  15. Secagem por spray: uma revisão

    OpenAIRE

    Arlan Caldas Pereira Silveira; Ítalo Tuler Perrone; Paulo Henrique Rodrigues Júnior; Antônio Fernandes de Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo foi apresentar os princípios da secagem por spray e os mais recentes resultados de pesquisas na área de leite e derivados. Visando abranger este assunto, o artigo foi dividido em seis partes: introdução, princípios da secagem por spray, atomização, secagem em estágios, resultados de pesquisas e conclusão.

  16. Color alteration of the paint used for iris painting in ocular prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Úrsula Rocha Fernandes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess color alteration of the paints used for iris painting in artificial eyes. Five disks of heat cured acrylic resin were confectioned by microwave energy for each paint analyzed, in a total of 40 specimens. Each specimen consisted of a colorless acrylic resin disk and another of equal size, of scleral white colored acrylic resin, with the painting interposed between the two disks. The specimens were submitted to an accelerated aging process in a chamber under ultraviolet radiation for 1,008 hours. To assess color variation, a reflective spectrophotometer was used. The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and the Tukey test (p < 0.05. All the paints underwent chromatic alteration. The oil paint presented the highest resistance to accelerated aging.

  17. Paint, lacquer, and varnish remover poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint remover poisoning ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ... should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to ...

  18. Modal Analysis of Pressure Sensitive Paint Data

    OpenAIRE

    Pastuhoff, Markus; Yorita, Daisuke; Tillmark, Nils; Alfredsson, P. Henrik; Asai, Keisuke

    2012-01-01

    In this work, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) was used to separate coherent structures from noise in pressure sensitive paint (PSP) data acquired by high-speed photography on the side of a square cylinder in a natural periodically fluctuating flow.

  19. Finite Element Modeling of Vibrations in Canvas Paintings:

    OpenAIRE

    Chiriboga Arroyo, P.G.

    2013-01-01

    Preventing vibration damage from occurring to valuable and sensitive canvas paintings is of main concern for museums and art conservation institutions. This concern has grown in recent years due to the increasing demand of paintings for exhibitions worldwide and the concomitant need for their handling and transport. The vibration of the canvas can produce progressive delamination of cracked paint in aged paintings which may cause paint loss after repetitive vibration exposure. In the cultural...

  20. Nanoindentation and the micromechanics of Van Gogh oil paints

    OpenAIRE

    Salvant, Johanna; Barthel, Etienne; Menu, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the mechanical properties of ancient paintings is a major issue for conservation and restoration. One strategy is to measure the mechanical properties of reconstructed paints: however the aging process is poorly known, so it is also desirable to measure mechanical properties directly on ancient paint samples. Using nanoindentation, we have characterized submillimetric samples recovered from restoration of two Van Gogh paintings and compared the results with reconstructed paint s...

  1. Preference for and Discrimination of Paintings by Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    I measured preference for paintings (Renoir vs. Picasso or Kandinsky vs. Mondrian) in mice. In general mice did not display a painting preference except for two mice: one preferred Renoir to Picasso, and the other preferred Kandinsky to Mondrian. Thereafter, I examined discrimination of paintings with new mice. When exposure to paintings of one artist was associated with an injection of morphine (3.0 mg/kg), mice displayed conditioned preference for those paintings, showing discrimination of ...

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA IN LATEX PAINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas, J.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacteria are prokaryote organisms with a high capacity to colonize many types of habits. This research was developed with the object to identify extremophiles bacteria presents in latex paint. The bacteria were cultivated in culture mediums TSA, Blood Agar, Mc Conkey and finally the biochemical proof API-NF® for bacteria's isolation and identification, respectively. Characterization showed bacterial profile of Pasteurella sp. Hypothesis that could be found extremophiles bacteria in latex paint were demonstrated.

  3. ‘Afro-Ghanaian influences in Ghanaian paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Kwame Amoah Labi

    2013-01-01

    Easel painting is a foreign art form whose materials and techniques were introduced by the Europeans into the Gold Coast, now Ghana, in the first decades of the twentieth century during the period of European modern art. Since its introduction as an academic discipline, concepts identified as Ghanaian have been incorporated into it. Hence there is the need for scholarly debate on this subject to define a framework for a discourse on the histories and receptions of Ghanaian painting. This arti...

  4. Digital Embodiment in Contemporary Abstract Painting

    OpenAIRE

    Stubbs, Michael

    2003-01-01

    This thesis re-investigates Clement Greenberg’s discredited abstract expressionist claim that painting should seek its own purity through the acknowledgment of its material. I argue that Greenberg’s physical, bodily determination of painting (but not its purity) is re-located as a criticality in contemporary practice because of the changes brought about by the simulacrum and the digital. By utilizing the particularities of ‘painterly’ issues such as materiality, depth and opticality into th...

  5. Cleaning of Easel Paintings: An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of laser cleaning to paintings is relatively recent despite its use on stone-based materials for over 30 years. The cleaning of paintings is of high importance, because it is the least reversible invasive intervention, as well as the most usual of all conservation treatments. Paintings are multilayer system of heterogeneous nature, often very sensitive and inherent difficult to clean. Being a noncontact method, laser cleaning has advantages compared to alternative techniques. Over the last decade, there have been important research studies and advances. However, they are far from sufficient to study the effects on painting materials and to establish the best parameters for each material under investigation. This paper presents a historical overview of the application of laser technology to the cleaning of paintings giving special emphasis on the research of the last decade. An overview of the current research into the interaction between the radiation and the different painting materials (varnish, pigments, and medium) is also given. The pigment's mechanisms of discoloration and the presence of media as a variable factor in the discoloration of pigments are discussed.

  6. A quantitative approach to painting styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Vilson; Fabbri, Renato; Sbrissa, David; da Fontoura Costa, Luciano; Travieso, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    This research extends a method previously applied to music and philosophy (Vilson Vieira et al., 2012), representing the evolution of art as a time-series where relations like dialectics are measured quantitatively. For that, a corpus of paintings of 12 well-known artists from baroque and modern art is analyzed. A set of 99 features is extracted and the features which most contributed to the classification of painters are selected. The projection space obtained provides the basis to the analysis of measurements. These quantitative measures underlie revealing observations about the evolution of painting styles, specially when compared with other humanity fields already analyzed: while music evolved along a master-apprentice tradition (high dialectics) and philosophy by opposition, painting presents another pattern: constant increasing skewness, low opposition between members of the same movement and opposition peaks in the transition between movements. Differences between baroque and modern movements are also observed in the projected "painting space": while baroque paintings are presented as an overlapped cluster, the modern paintings present minor overlapping and are disposed more widely in the projection than the baroque counterparts. This finding suggests that baroque painters shared aesthetics while modern painters tend to "break rules" and develop their own style.

  7. Development of painting technology using plasma surface technology for automobile parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major areas in organic coatings for corrosion protection of automobile parts is the surface treatment of polyolefin (Polypropylene (RX-2000)) bumper substrates. In order to develop the painting technology, in this work, we directly tried to paint on the plastic bumper substrates without both wet washing process with VOC solvents and phosphate primer spray process. Microwave (MW) plasma treatment represents an efficient, clean and economic alternative to activate polymeric surfaces. O2 plasma treatment at room temperature within 300 s in the power range of 300-1000 W were used to elevate hydrophilic property of the polyolefin surfaces, resulting in distinctive change of wettability and adhesion between painting layer and polymeric bumper substrates. The treated surfaces have been analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Wettability and adhesion properties were elevated by the measurement of the contact angle, adhesion test, impact test, cold resistant impact test and water resistant impact test. We confirmed that the O2 plasma treatment was a very reliable method for the synthesis of polyolefin substrates with high wettability and adhesion performance

  8. Occupational Asthma and Contact Dermatitis in a Spray Painter after Introduction of an Aziridine Cross-Linker.

    OpenAIRE

    Leffler, C T; Milton, Donald Kirby

    1999-01-01

    A 23-year-old spray painter developed contact dermatitis and respiratory difficulty characterized by small airways obstruction shortly after the polyfunctional aziridine cross-linker CX-100 began to be used in his workplace as a paint activator. The symptoms resolved after he was removed from the workplace and was treated with inhaled and topical steroids. Painters may have an increased risk of asthma due to exposure to a variety of agents, such as isocyanates, alkyd resins, and chromates. Th...

  9. Developing a dispersant spraying capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    In developing a national dispersant spraying capability, the Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) has undertaken a modification program to enable the conventional offshore spraying gear to be mounted on almost any vessel of convenience. Smaller, more versatile inshore spraying vessels and pumps have been designed and built. With the popularization of concentrated dispersants, the inshore pumping equipment can be used aboard hovercraft for special application situations. A program of acquiring mobile dispersant storage tanks has been undertaken with auxiliary equipment that will facilitate the shipment of dispersants in bulk by air freight. Work also has commenced on extending the dispersant application program to include the CCG fleet of helicopters.

  10. Modifications Of A Commercial Spray Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter B.

    1993-01-01

    Commercial spray gun modified to increase spray rate and make sprayed coats more nearly uniform. Consists of gun head and pneumatic actuator. Actuator opens valves for two chemical components, called "A" and "B," that react to produce foam. Components flow through orifices, into mixing chamber in head. Mixture then flows through control orifice to spray tip. New spray tip tapered to reduce area available for accumulation of foam and makes tip easier to clean.

  11. Modelling The Dynamic Distribution Of Spray Deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Lebeau, Frédéric

    2004-01-01

    A mathematical model to estimate the spray distribution of phytopharmaceutical deposits under a spray boom is proposed. It focuses on the need to take account of the dynamic effects of the forward movement of the boom. These are related both to the horizontal and vertical boom movement and to the influence of aerodynamic factors on the nozzle spray distribution. The distribution of the spray deposits is computed by multiplying the nozzle spray pattern by the time needed to m...

  12. Spray nozzle for fire control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavergos, Panayiotis G.

    1990-09-01

    The design of a spray nozzle for fire control is described. It produces a spray of gas and liquid having an oval transverse cross section and it comprises a mixing chamber with an oval transverse cross section adapted to induce a toroidal mixing pattern in pressurized gas and liquid introduced to the mixing chamber through a plurality of inlets. In a preferred embodiment the mixing chamber is toroidal. The spray nozzle produces an oval spray pattern for more efficient wetting of narrow passages and is suitable for fire control systems in vehicles or other confined spaces. Vehicles to which this invention may be applied include trains, armoured vehicles, ships, hovercraft, submarines, oil rigs, and most preferably, aircraft.

  13. Environmentally friendly, customised sprayed concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Río, Olga

    2010-01-01

    The quality of structural shotcrete or sprayed concrete depends not only on the Same factors as conventional structural concrete, but also on other placement-related issues such as pumping or spraying. Although today's primarily prescriptive design and control tools guarantee quality to some extent, the results are uncertain and mix design procedures do not provide sound information, a priori", on mechanical properties or durabllity. Nor does this approach contribute to design or produce spra...

  14. Plasma spraying theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Suryanarayanan, R

    1993-01-01

    The recent advances in plasma spraying are discussed in this book which divides into two sections - theory and application. The book presents sophisticated experimental techniques, diagnostics, theoretical models and computer simulations which not only improve the understanding and uses of the spraying process but also help to increase the reliability factor of the manufacturing components. Applications that are metallurgical, aeronautical, automobile, chemical, etc. are also shown. More importantly, applications that include silicon for solar cells, magnets and superconductors are also discus

  15. Plasma sprayed Ce:YAG.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Pala, Zden?k; Nevrlá, Barbara; Kubát, J.

    Düsseldorf : DVS Media GmbH, 2014, s. 593-598. ISBN 978-3-87155-574-9. - (DVS-Berichte. 302). [ITSC 2014 :Interational Thermal Spray Conference and Exposition. Barcelona (ES), 21.05.2014-23.05.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Plasma spraying * YAG * scintallator * thermal post-treatment Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass http://www.dvs-media.eu/media/pdf/inhalt_300302.pdf

  16. Metallic paint appearance measurement and rendering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mih´alik Andrej

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans recognize objects visually on the basis of material composition as well as shape. To acquire a certain level of photorealism, it is necessary to analyze, how the materials scatter the incident light. The key quantity for expressing the directional optical effect of materials on the incident radiance is the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF. Our work is devoted to the BRDF measurements, in order to render the synthetic images, mostly of the metallic paints. We measured the spectral reflectance off multiple paint samples then used the measured data to fit the analytical BRDF model, in order to acquire its parameters. In this paper we describe the methodology of the image synthesis from measured data. Materials such as the metallic paints exhibit a sparkling effect caused by the metallic particles scattered within the paint volume. Our analysis of sparkling effect is based on the processing of the multiple photographs. Results of analysis and the measurements were incorporated into the rendering process of car paint

  17. Preference for and discrimination of paintings by mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    I measured preference for paintings (Renoir vs. Picasso or Kandinsky vs. Mondrian) in mice. In general mice did not display a painting preference except for two mice: one preferred Renoir to Picasso, and the other preferred Kandinsky to Mondrian. Thereafter, I examined discrimination of paintings with new mice. When exposure to paintings of one artist was associated with an injection of morphine (3.0 mg/kg), mice displayed conditioned preference for those paintings, showing discrimination of paintings by Renoir from those by Picasso, and paintings by Kandinsky from those by Mondrian after the conditioning. They also exhibited generalization of the preference to novel paintings of the artists. After conditioning with morphine for a set of paintings consisting of two artists, mice showed discrimination between two sets of paintings also from the two artists but not in association with morphine. These results suggest that mice can discriminate not only between an artist's style but also among paintings of the same artist. When mice were trained to discriminate a pair of paintings by Kandinsky and Renoir in an operant chamber equipped with a touch screen, they showed transfer of the discrimination to new pairs of the artists, but did not show transfer of discrimination of paintings by other artists, suggesting generalization. PMID:23762346

  18. ‘Afro-Ghanaian influences in Ghanaian paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwame Amoah Labi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Easel painting is a foreign art form whose materials and techniques were introduced by the Europeans into the Gold Coast, now Ghana, in the first decades of the twentieth century during the period of European modern art. Since its introduction as an academic discipline, concepts identified as Ghanaian have been incorporated into it. Hence there is the need for scholarly debate on this subject to define a framework for a discourse on the histories and receptions of Ghanaian painting. This article discusses Ghanaian easel painting by examining some African and non-African voices in the discourse on modern and contemporary African art, its early teaching methods and philosophy, and their impact on modern and post-colonial painters. To what degree did early instructors succeed in their insistence on students incorporating Ghanaian aesthetics and principles in their studies, and what impact has this had on subsequent painters?

  19. Visual comparison testing of automotive paint simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gary; Fan, Hua-Tzu; Seubert, Christopher; Evey, Curtis; Meseth, Jan; Schnackenberg, Ryan

    2015-03-01

    An experiment was performed to determine whether typical industrial automotive color paint comparisons made using real physical samples could also be carried out using a digital simulation displayed on a calibrated color television monitor. A special light booth, designed to facilitate evaluation of the car paint color with reflectance angle, was employed in both the real and virtual color comparisons. Paint samples were measured using a multi-angle spectrophotometer and were simulated using a commercially available software package. Subjects performed the test quicker using the computer graphic simulation, and results indicate that there is only a small difference between the decisions made using the light booth and the computer monitor. This outcome demonstrates the potential of employing simulations to replace some of the time consuming work with real physical samples that still characterizes material appearance work in industry.

  20. The sorption of iodine onto containment paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Containment structures of nuclear power plants have many inner surfaces coated with nuclear grade paints. These may provide a valuable sink for radioiodine and hence may aid to minimize its release to the environment following a possible accident. The objective of this on-going work is to identify and evaluate significant parameters involved in the sorption of iodine on painted surfaces and thereby develop a kinetic model. To date two paints have been studied, an inorganic zinc primer and a vinyl paint. Experiments were performed by passing 131I2 gas in air through 0.25 inch glass tubing coated on the inner surfaces with paint. Tubing was used to produce well characterized and rapid gas phase mass transfer. The accumulation of iodine on the surface was monitored continuously using two parallel scintillation detectors coupled to a PC based multi-channel analyzer. Test parameters such as temperature, humidity, flow-rate, and iodine concentration could be adjusted independently. The zinc primer demonstrated a high affinity for iodine. The rate of adsorption was found to increase at lower temperatures and higher humidifies. The adsorption rate was directly proportional to the gas phase iodine concentration indicating a first order process. Desorption occurred at a relatively constant rate at surface coverages below 10-6 mol I2/cm2. Iodine that desorbed from these surfaces was mostly in the chemical form of elemental iodine (I2). The vinyl paint showed a much lower affinity for iodine. Steady state adsorption was found to increase with increased gas phase iodine concentrations. Humidity had no observable effect on the rate of adsorption. Desorption rates were found to increase with increased temperature and it is suggested that the desorption process is first order with respect to surface iodine loading. (author). 7 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  1. Slurry spray distribution within a simulated laboratory scale spray dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was found that the distribution of liquid striking the sides of a simulated room temperature spray dryer was not significantly altered by the choice of nozles, nor by a variation in nozzle operating conditions. Instead, it was found to be a function of the spray dryer's configuration. A cocurrent flow of air down the drying cylinder, not possible with PNL's closed top, favorably altered the spray distribution by both decreasing the amount of liquid striking the interior of the cylinder from 72 to 26% of the feed supplied, and by shifting the zone of maximum impact from 1.0 to 1.7 feet from the nozzle. These findings led to the redesign of the laboratory scale spray dryer to be tested at the Savannah River Plant. The diameter of the drying chamber was increased from 5 to 8 inches, and a cocurrent flow of air was established with a closed recycle. Finally, this investigation suggested a drying scheme which offers all the advantages of spray drying without many of its limitations

  2. 29 CFR 1915.34 - Mechanical paint removers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Employees engaged in the removal of paints, preservatives...tools used for the removal of paints, preservatives...mechanical exhaust ventilation sufficient to keep the dust concentration to...part. (b) Flame removal. (1)...

  3. Can I Use Paint and Household Chemicals While Pregnant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What to Know Pregnant? What to Expect Can I Use Paint and Household Chemicals While Pregnant? KidsHealth > Parents > Q&As > Pregnancy & Infants > Can I Use Paint and Household Chemicals While Pregnant? Print ...

  4. Comparison of the performance between a spray gun and a spray boom in ornamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foqué, D; Nuyttens, D

    2011-01-01

    Flemish greenhouse growers predominantly use handheld spray guns and spray lances for their crop protection purposes although these techniques are known for their heavy workload and their high operator exposure risks. Moreover, when these techniques are compared with spray boom equipment, they are often found to be less effective. On the other hand, handheld spraying techniques are less expensive and more flexible to use. Additionally, many Flemish growers are convinced that a high spray volume and spray pressure is needed to assure a good plant protection. The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare the spray deposition, penetration and uniformity between a manually pulled horizontal spray boom and a spray gun under controlled laboratory conditions. In total, six different spray application techniques were evaluated. In general, the total deposition results were comparable between the spray boom and the spray gun applications but the boom applications resulted in a more uniform spray distribution over the crop. On a plant level, the spray distribution was not uniform for the different techniques with highest deposits on the upper side of the top leaves. Using spray guns at a higher spray pressure did not improve spray penetration and deposition on the bottom side of the leaves. From the different nozzle types, the XR 80 03 gave the best results. Plant density clearly affected crop penetration and deposition on the bottom side of the leaves. PMID:22702197

  5. 21 CFR 740.12 - Feminine deodorant sprays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Feminine deodorant sprays. 740.12 Section 740...Statements § 740.12 Feminine deodorant sprays. (a) For the purpose of this section, the term “feminine deodorant spray” means any spray...

  6. Combinations of titanium dioxide and fillers in paints

    OpenAIRE

    Lähteenmäki, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Titanium dioxide is a predominant white pigment, which is used as a raw material of paint. Titanium dioxide pigments are produced with both sulphate and chloride processes. In paints, the main function of titanium dioxide is to contribute to the paint film properties, like opacity and whiteness. Because titanium dioxide is a fairly valuable pigment, attempts have been made to replace it with a filler which costs less. Fillers of paint are for instance barium sulphate, kaolin, silicates and ca...

  7. Health Hazards of Solvents Exposure among Workers in Paint Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Aida Abd El Hamid Hassan; Safaa Abd El Moez Elnagar; Ihab Mohammadi El Tayeb; Sara Abd El Halim Bolbol

    2013-01-01

    Background: Paints and coatings include paints, varnishes, lacquers, stains, printing inks and more. A wide variety of volatile solvents are used in paint and coating manufacturing including aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones and consist of more than 30% of most of paints. At low or moderate concentrations, the organic solvents may cause transient symptoms such as euphoria, headache and dizziness. At high concentrations, anaesthesia and disturbances ...

  8. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anatasia [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Baker, Richard [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using "L" clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and "picture framing" the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  9. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, A.; Baker, R.; Prahl, D.

    2014-03-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using 'L' clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and 'picture framing' the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  10. THERMAL SPRAY REMOVAL OF LEAD-CONTAINING PAINT ON STEEL STRUCTURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past, red lead primer has been used on many steel structures to control corrosion. Commonly used structures in the Department of Defense (DoD) include bridges, aircraft hangars, water storage tanks, metal buildings, fire hydrants, and structural steel. When the lead-based ...

  11. Influence of Nozzle geometry on spray shape, particle size, spray velocity and Air entrainment of high pressure Diesel spray

    OpenAIRE

    Hespel, Camille; Blaisot, Jean-Bernard; Margot, Xandra; Patouna, S.; Cessou, Armelle; Lecordier, Bertrand

    2010-01-01

    Air/fuel mixing process in the combustion chamber of Diesel engines plays an important role on the combustion efficiency. This mixing depends on the particle size distribution in the spray, on the local velocity of fuel droplets in the spray and on the air entrainment. Nozzle geometry as well as nozzle internal flow conditions influence many of these spray properties. An experimental study of the influence of the nozzle geometry on these properties has been conducted. The spray structure and ...

  12. Color alteration of the paint used for iris painting in ocular prostheses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline Úrsula Rocha, Fernandes; Marcelo Coelho, Goiato; Marcos Antônio Jacó, Batista; Daniela Micheline dos, Santos.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess color alteration of the paints used for iris painting in artificial eyes. Five disks of heat cured acrylic resin were confectioned by microwave energy for each paint analyzed, in a total of 40 specimens. Each specimen consisted of a colorless acrylic resin dis [...] k and another of equal size, of scleral white colored acrylic resin, with the painting interposed between the two disks. The specimens were submitted to an accelerated aging process in a chamber under ultraviolet radiation for 1,008 hours. To assess color variation, a reflective spectrophotometer was used. The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and the Tukey test (p

  13. Soap bubbles in paintings: Art and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozi, F.

    2008-12-01

    Soap bubbles became popular in 17th century paintings and prints primarily as a metaphor for the impermanence and fragility of life. The Dancing Couple (1663) by the Dutch painter Jan Steen is a good example which, among many other symbols, shows a young boy blowing soap bubbles. In the 18th century the French painter Jean-Simeon Chardin used soap bubbles not only as metaphor but also to express a sense of play and wonder. In his most famous painting, Soap Bubbles (1733/1734) a translucent and quavering soap bubble takes center stage. Chardin's contemporary Charles Van Loo painted his Soap Bubbles (1764) after seeing Chardin's work. In both paintings the soap bubbles have a hint of color and show two bright reflection spots. We discuss the physics involved and explain how keenly the painters have observed the interaction of light and soap bubbles. We show that the two reflection spots on the soap bubbles are images of the light source, one real and one virtual, formed by the curved surface of the bubble. The faint colors are due to thin film interference effects.

  14. "The Ancient Master Painted like Me"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Son-Mey

    2009-01-01

    By following their wonderful ideas or critical exploration, three eighth graders learned how to do traditional Chinese painting, which is taught by copying old masters' work from the Ming Dynasty in the 17th century. The standard manual, which most learners have been using for these three hundred years, is the "Mustard Seed Garden Manual of…

  15. EIA paints bleak picture for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Information Administration paints a bleak picture of the nuclear power industry, both in the U.S. and worldwide, in a recent report. At best, EIA said, worldwide nuclear capacity will climb no faster than 1.5 percent annually through 2010, rising from 329.2 gigawatts at year-end 1992 to between 351 GW and 427 GW

  16. Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents progress made on a technique for 14C dating pictographs. A low-temperature oxygen plasma is used coupled with high-vacuum technologies to selectively remove C-containing material in the paints without contamination from inorganic carbon from rock substrates or accretions

  17. Piezoelectric paint: characterization for further applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piezoelectric paint is a very attractive piezoelectric composite in many fields, such as non-destructive testing, or structural health monitoring. However, there are still many obstacles which restrict the real application of it. One of the main problems is that piezoelectric paint lacks a standard fabrication procedure, thus characterization is needed before use. The work presented here explores the characterization of piezoelectric paint. It starts with fabrication of samples with certain piezoelectric powder weight percentages. The microstructures of the samples are investigated by a scanning electron microscope; the results indicate that the fabrication method can produce high quality samples. This is followed by measurements of Young’s modulus and sensitivity. The piezoelectric charge constant d31 is then deduced from the experimental data; the results agree well with a published result, which validates the effectiveness of the fabrication and characterization method. The characterized piezoelectric paint can expand its applications into different fields and therefore becomes a more promising and competitive smart material. (paper)

  18. G.F. Watts Parables in Paint

    OpenAIRE

    Underwood, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    The booklet explores how Watts's upbringing shaped his outlook and influenced the subjects of his religious art. It shows how his chosen style of painting gave him an expressive language for conveying his religious and spiritual ideas. The essay also includes an outline of Watts's forty-year involvement with St Paul's Cathedral.

  19. The Ancient Art of Silk Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonker, Kim

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a silk-painting project with a sea-creature theme for eighth-grade students. Other themes can be used such as geometric quilt designs, tropical rain forest, large flowers, Art Nouveau motifs, portraits and more. (Contains 2 resources.)

  20. Rendering Visible: Painting and Sexuate Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I examine Luce Irigaray's aesthetic of sexual difference, which she develops by extrapolating from Paul Klee's idea that the role of painting is to render the non-visible rather than represent the visible. This idea is the premise of her analyses of phenomenology and psychoanalysis and their respective contributions to understanding…

  1. Landscape Painting: Artists Who Love the Land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Linda; Casey, Douglas, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Through the study of several works of art by Albert Bierstadt, George Catlin, Winslow Homer, and Thomas Moran, this resource explores the way that people felt about their growing nation during the period of westward expansion until the end of the 19th century. It introduces students to basic principles of landscape painting and has students…

  2. Sprays system of modern spray ponds for thermal power plants and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design peculiarities of recently developed high-efficiency spray systems, intended for spray ponds at TEP and NPPs, are considered. Basic hydrodynamic characteristics of modern national circulation water spray systems are presented. Method for calculating optimal geometrical parameters of centrifugal nozzles relative to assigned thermal efficiency of spray pond is proposed. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  3. Self Cleaning Paint: Introduction of Photocatalytic Particles into a Paint System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Sverrir Grimur

    2012-01-01

    The current industrial PhD work was aimed at synthesising a photocatalytic composite material which could be used to give organic wood paint films self-cleaning and anti-microbial properties. The current PhD work was done in collaboration between Dyrup A/S and Technical University of Denmark. The paint industry constantly faces updated restriction on toxic chemicals as for instance biocides which has prompted the search for alternative strategies for increasing the durability of their products. ...

  4. Diesel and biodiesel fuel spray simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Pogorevc, Primož; Kegl, Breda; Škerget, Leopold

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the investigation of the influential parameters of a mathematical spray breakup model using different fuels. Beside injection system measurements, fuel physical properties and injection process characteristics were measured, because they are necessary for the spray simulation input. For validation purposes, spray was injected into motionless air at atmospheric pressure and room temperature and filmed with a high-speed camera. Spray macrocharacteristics have been determin...

  5. Diesel spray characterization; Dieselmoottorin polttoainesuihkujen ominaisuudet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkaenen, J.; Turunen, R.; Paloposki, T.; Rantanen, P.; Virolainen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Internal Combustion Engine Lab.

    1997-10-01

    Fuel injection of diesel engines will be studied using large-scale models of fuel injectors. The advantage of large-scale models is that the measurement of large-scale diesel sprays will be easier than the measurement of actual sprays. The objective is to study the break-up mechanism of diesel sprays and to measure drop size distributions in the inner part of the spray. The results will be used in the development of diesel engines and diesel fuels. (orig.)

  6. Hollow Cone Spray Characterization and Integral Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Bollweg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The thesis presents a computationally efficient spray model for hollow cone sprays suitable for engine system simulation of direct injecting gasoline internal combustion engines. The model describes the transient evolution of the spray as a two-phase jet. Spatial gradients are resolved along the main injection direction. Momentum exchange, droplet heat-up, and fuel evaporation are accounted for. Diffusive transport of momentum, energy, and fuel species mass between the dense spray zone an...

  7. Cold gas dynamic spraying of titanium coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Timothy Simon

    2008-01-01

    Cold gas dynamic spraying, CGDS, is a relatively new technique used to deposit materials onto the surface of a substrate. It differs to the majority of other thermal spray techniques as the substrate and particles are not exposed to high temperatures during the spraying process. This makes CGDS particularly advantageous for spraying materials such as titanium which react at high temperature. The aim of this project was to investigate the potential use of titanium coatings by CGDS as a surface...

  8. Spray casting project final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churnetski, S.R.; Thompson, J.E.

    1996-08-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step.

  9. Spray casting project final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step

  10. Influence of the spray velocity on arc-sprayed coating structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, H.-D.; Nassenstein, K.

    1999-09-01

    Thermal spray processes such as plasma spraying and HVOF have gained markets due to a steady process of development of materials and equipment. One disadvantage of thermal spray processes is that costs must be competitive compared to techniques such as PTA and electroplating. In order to reduce costs, the more economical spray processes like conventional wire flame spraying, as well as arc spraying, are becoming more popular. There are modern arc spray gun designs on the market that meet the requirements of modern coating properties, for example aviation overhaul applications as well as the processing of cored wires. Nevertheless, the physical basis of arc spraying is well known. The aim of the present investigation is to show how the influence of spray velocity (not particle velocity) affects coating structure with respect to arc spray parameters.

  11. Feedback enhanced plasma spray tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevelber, Michael Alan; Wroblewski, Donald Edward; Fincke, James Russell; Swank, William David; Haggard, Delon C.; Bewley, Randy Lee

    2005-11-22

    An improved automatic feedback control scheme enhances plasma spraying of powdered material through reduction of process variability and providing better ability to engineer coating structure. The present inventors discovered that controlling centroid position of the spatial distribution along with other output parameters, such as particle temperature, particle velocity, and molten mass flux rate, vastly increases control over the sprayed coating structure, including vertical and horizontal cracks, voids, and porosity. It also allows improved control over graded layers or compositionally varying layers of material, reduces variations, including variation in coating thickness, and allows increasing deposition rate. Various measurement and system control schemes are provided.

  12. 21 CFR 524.2482 - Triamcinolone spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Triamcinolone spray. 524.2482 Section 524.2482... Triamcinolone spray. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 0.15 milligrams triamcinolone...) Amount. Apply sufficient pump sprays to uniformly and thoroughly wet the affected areas while...

  13. Lead concentrations and labeling of new paint in cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesfeld, P; Kuepouo, G; Tetsopgang, S; Durand, K

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the availability of substitutes for lead compounds used in paints, manufacturers continue to produce these paints for decorative and industrial applications. We report here on the concentration of lead in new paint sold in Cameroon and provide a summary of labeling practices on paints available in the country, based on a market survey. Investigators visited 76 retail and wholesale paint suppliers in Cameroon to collect information from paint product labels and to collect samples of paints to analyze for lead content. Only 8.5% of paints had labels identifying any of the ingredients, and none of the lead paints included any warning language. Based on a convenience sample (weighted to include multiple colors from the most common brands), 61 mostly enamel paints were purchased from retail outlets and analyzed for lead content (median: 2150 ppm; range: Global Alliance to Eliminate Lead Paint established under the auspices of the United Nations to address this problem on a global scale. PMID:23472856

  14. Influence of Cold-Sprayed, Warm-Sprayed, and Plasma-Sprayed Layers Deposition on Fatigue Properties of Steel Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizek, J.; Matejkova, M.; Dlouhy, I.; Siska, F.; Kay, C. M.; Karthikeyan, J.; Kuroda, S.; Kovarik, O.; Siegl, J.; Loke, K.; Khor, Khiam Aik

    2015-06-01

    Titanium powder was deposited onto steel specimens using four thermal spray technologies: plasma spray, low-pressure cold spray, portable cold spray, and warm spray. The specimens were then subjected to strain-controlled cyclic bending test in a dedicated in-house built device. The crack propagation was monitored by observing the changes in the resonance frequency of the samples. For each series, the number of cycles corresponding to a pre-defined specimen cross-section damage was used as a performance indicator. It was found that the grit-blasting procedure did not alter the fatigue properties of the steel specimens (1% increase as compared to as-received set), while the deposition of coatings via all four thermal spray technologies significantly increased the measured fatigue lives. The three high-velocity technologies led to an increase of relative lives to 234% (low-pressure cold spray), 210% (portable cold spray), and 355% (warm spray) and the deposition using plasma spray led to an increase of relative lives to 303%. The observed increase of high-velocity technologies (cold and warm spray) could be attributed to a combination of homogeneous fatigue-resistant coatings and induction of peening stresses into the substrates via the impingement of the high-kinetic energy particles. Given the intrinsic character of the plasma jet (low-velocity impact of semi/molten particles) and the mostly ceramic character of the coating (oxides, nitrides), a hypothesis based on non-linear coatings behavior is provided in the paper.

  15. Marine pollution from antifouling paint particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    Antifouling paint particles (APP) are generated during the maintenance of boats and are shed from abandoned structures and grounded ships. Although they afford a highly visible, colourful reflection of contamination in the vicinity of the source, little systematic study has been undertaken regarding the distribution, composition and effects of APP in the wider marine environment. This paper reviews the state of knowledge in respect of APP, with particular emphasis on those generated by recreational boatyards. The likely biogeochemical pathways of the biocidal and non-biocidal metals in current use (mainly Cu and Zn) are addressed in light of recent research and an understanding of the more general behaviour of contaminants in marine systems. Analyses of paint fragment composites from recreational facilities in the UK reveal chemical compositions that are similar to those representing the net signal of the original formulations; significantly, dry weight concentrations of Cu and Zn of up to about 35% and 15%, respectively, are observed and, relative to ambient dusts and sediment, elevated concentrations of other trace metals, like Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Sn, occur. These metals leach more rapidly from APP than a painted surface due to the greater surface area of pigments and additives exposed to the aqueous medium. In suspension, APP are subject to greater and more rapid environmental variation (e.g. salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen) than painted hulls, while settled APP represent an important source of persistent and degradable biocides to poorly circulating environments. Through diffusion and abrasion, high concentrations of contaminants are predicted in interstitial waters that may be accumulated directly by benthic invertebrates. Animals that feed non-selectively and that are exposed to or ingest paint-contaminated sediment are able to accelerate the leaching, deposition and burial of biocides and other substances, and represent an alternative vehicle for contaminant entry into the marine foodchain. Clearly, an extensive understanding of biocide behaviour on painted surfaces is not sufficient for predictive or management purposes regarding APP. Greater caution is required by boaters and boatyards during the removal and disposal of solid wastes, and more awareness or stricter enforcement of relevant codes of practice or legislation is recommended. PMID:20060546

  16. Spray pyrolysis of CZTS nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exarhos, S; Bozhilov, K N; Mangolini, L

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate that copper-zinc-tin-sulphide nanoplatelets can be directly grown onto a molybdenum-coated substrate using spray pyrolysis starting from a mixture of metal thiocarbamates precursors. The structure and phase purity of the nanoplatelets is discussed in detail. PMID:25119262

  17. Spray solidification of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spray calciner is a relatively simple machine. Operation is simple and is easily automated. Startup and shutdown can be performed in less than an hour. A wide variety of waste compositions and concentrations can be calcined under easily maintainable conditions. Spray calcination of high-level and mixed high- and intermediate-level liquid wastes has been demonstrated. Waste concentrations of from near infinite dilution to less than 225 liters per tonne of fuel are calcinable. Wastes have been calcined containing over 2M sodium. Feed concentration, composition, and flowrate can vary rapidly by over a factor of two without requiring operator action. Wastes containing mainly sodium cations can be spray calcined by addition of finely divided silica to the feedstock. A remotely replaceable atomizing nozzle has been developed for use in plant-scale equipment. Calciner capacity of over 75 l/h has been demonstrated in pilot-scale equipment. Sintered stainless steel filters are effective in deentraining over 99.9 percent of the solids that result from calcining the feedstock. The volume of recycle required from the effluent treatment system is very small. Vibrator action maintains the calcine holdup in the calciner at less than 1 kg. Successful remote operation and maintenance of a heated-wall spray calciner have been demonstrated while processing high-level waste. Radionuclide volatilization was acceptably low

  18. Active performance enhancement of spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of synthetic (zero-net-mass-flux) jets on a water spray and on its cooling performance in the non-boiling regime was experimentally investigated. Particle Image Velocimetry and Shadowgraphy were used to evaluate the global and detailed spray characteristics, respectively, under several modes of flow control. Temperature measurements were performed to assess the effects of spray control on the heat transfer. Heat transfer improvements were achieved with flow control, compared to the baseline case, where the mode of control, together with spray properties and the distance between the spray and the hot surface play an important role in cooling enhancement

  19. Spray tube in nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A first spray header and a second spray header are held on a support protruded from an inner wall of a nuclear reactor container. The first spray header and the second spray header are disposed in vertically adjacent with each other. A spray nozzle is disposed to each of the spray headers for spraying cooling water. The spray nozzles are disposed each at such a jetting angle that water is dispersed over the surface of the reactor pressure vessel and the entire region of the inner space of the reactor container. Since a plurality of spray headers are disposed in adjacent with each other and they are concentrated in a predetermined narrow region, the structure can be simplified, and the region at the periphery of the spray header where the installation of equipments is inhibited can be reduced. Accordingly, installation of equipments is facilitated. In addition, spray headers can easily be added and extended in existent or under construction nuclear power plants. (I.N.)

  20. Effects of post-LOCA conditions on a protective coating (paint) for the Nuclear Power Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When corrosion protection of steel cannot be achieved by galvanizing due to size, use, or other restrictions, the steel is frequently protected by the application of a suitable corrosion-inhibiting paint. A widely accepted corrosion inhibiting coating is one in which finely powdered zinc metal is dispersed in an organic polymer matrix and applied to steel as a paint. This system is often used with a non-zinc bearing topcoat for enhanced protection. We have studied the oxidation of zinc in a zinc-rich coating used in the nuclear power industry and have measured the rates of hydrogen generation from these coatings due to zinc oxidation at temperatures of up to 1750C. The results suggest that the real-time rates of hydrogen generation are considerably higher than previously believed. A second concern involves the generation of debris or solid reaction products which could cause plugging or fouling of the recirculation pumps, spray nozzles, and/or heat exchangers. Coatings are observed to fail at post-LOCA conditions which are well within the limits predicted by Design Basis Accident analysis. The failures involve cracking and/or delamination of the topcoat and production of solid corrosion products involving the zinc-rich primer. 22 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  1. Aquastrip (tm): An innovative paint removal technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmar, J.

    1993-03-01

    Environmental, safety and health issues, forced operators to search for an alternative paint removal process. High pressure water jetting and new integrated paint and stripper systems are Lufthansa's answer to this challenge. AQUASTRIP complies with the specification requirements. In order to receive approval from airframe manufacturers and authorities the process has undergone an extensive research program since 1988. An operation window was established, to enable maximum of safety during operation on metal and composite surfaces. Even though AQUASTRIP is a hybrid process and requires technological investment, it is well on the way to prove its innovative, ecological and economical character in first large scale applications under realistic conditions. Its potential has already been reflected by patents and trademarks, which were registered in conjunction with the development of AQUASTRIP and the vital interest for cooperative work on the process development and other potential utilization.

  2. 'Dose-painting': Myth or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Dose-painting' radiotherapy allows for a heterogeneous delivery of radiation within the tumour volume by targeting radioresistant areas defined by functional imaging. Within gross tumour volume, it is possible to define one or more target volumes based on biology (biological target volume [BTV]) and to apply a strategy of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) that will deliver a higher dose to these regions. In this review of the literature, we will highlight the biological elements responsible for radioresistance, and how to image them, then we will detail the radiotherapy techniques necessary for this approach, before presenting clinical results in various situations (head and neck tumours, prostate, brain tumours, etc.). Despite many difficulties that make dose-painting IMRT unusable in routine nowadays, biology-guided radiation therapy represents one of the major pathways of development of radiotherapy in the coming years. (authors)

  3. ????????????????? ???????? ??????????????? ????????? / Early Christian painting of late antique Chersoneses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ????? ?.?. / Fomin M.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ?? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ????????? ????????????????? ?????????????? ????????, ?????????? 4 ?. ?.?. ? ??? ????????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????? «???????? 1935 ?.». ?? ???????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ? ???????????? ?????? ????????????? ????? ???????. ?????????????? ??????? ???? ????????? ? ??????? ???? ? ???????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????????. ??????? ????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ? ???????? ????????????? ? ???. / At the territory of Chersoneses reserve was found monuments with early Christian monumental murals, it was dated IV century. They included murals crypts and frescoes of early “Basilica 1935”. Studying these monuments leads us to make conclusions about formation of a new worldview among citizens. The art system was brought in finished form and was had developed in the monument at Chersoneses. This paintings have a deep meaning and reflect the views about paradise.

  4. Corrosion protection by paint: cathodic disbonding

    OpenAIRE

    Bi, Huichao; Sykes, John

    2011-01-01

    This work investigated cathodic disbonding of an unpigmented phenalkamine-cured epoxy coating on mild steel, EC, exposed to 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (SAM), Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and optical microscopy have been combined to conduct this study. Several factors affecting the cathodic disbonding process: Film thickness, Cation mobility, Electrolyte concentration, Temperature, Paint composition, Polarisation and Open c...

  5. Microbial communities inhabiting caves with Palaeolithic paintings

    OpenAIRE

    González Grau, Juan Miguel; Laiz Trobajo, L.; Portillo Guisado, María del Carmen; Sáiz-Jiménez, Cesáreo

    2005-01-01

    [EN]: This study attempts to understand the microbiology of Spanish caves with Palaeolithic paintings by analysing the microbial diversity existing in the caves. A variety of methods was used to study the microbial communities. Traditional methods based on culturing microbial cells and molecular techniques based on the detection of specific RNA and DNA sequences were used. Culture-dependent methods only allow the detection of a small fraction of microorganisms able to grow on spec...

  6. Facultatively oligotrophic bacteria in Roman mural paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Laiz Trobajo, L.; Hermosín, Bernardo; Caballero, Belén; Sáiz-Jiménez, Cesáreo

    2002-01-01

    [EN]: Due to the limitation of nutrients during long periods, deteriorated monuments, and particularIy their walls, represent an interesting ecosystem where oligotrophic bacteria can be isolated. Therefore, facultatively oligotrophic bacteria, present in the deteriorated mural paintings decoratíng the Tomb of Servilia, Roman Necropolis of Carmona, 1st and 2nd century AD, were studied. The most abundant genera were Bacillus and Paenibacillus, which were also the most abundant copio...

  7. A Quantitative Approach to Painting Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Vilson; Fabbri, Renato; Sbrissa, David; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura; Travieso, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    This research extends a method previously applied to music and philosophy,representing the evolution of art as a time-series where relations like dialectics are measured quantitatively. For that, a corpus of paintings of 12 well-known artists from baroque and modern art is analyzed. A set of 93 features is extracted and the features which most contributed to the classification of painters are selected. The projection space obtained provides the basis to the analysis of measu...

  8. Exploring a Parameterized Portrait Painting Space

    OpenAIRE

    DiPaola, Steve

    2009-01-01

    We overview our interdisciplinary work building parameterized knowledge domains and their authoring tools that allow for expression systems which move through a space of painterly portraiture. With new computational systems it is possible to conceptually dance, compose and paint in higher level conceptual spaces. We are interested in building art systems that support exploring these spaces and in particular report on our software-based artistic toolkit and resulting experiments using paramete...

  9. Seeing the unseen in visionary painting

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Berg, Dirk Johannes

    2010-01-01

    In accordance with Seerveld's cartographic methodology 'visionary optics' is defined in terms of a recurrent set of connections between a certain type of pictorial representation and visual perceptions of mythical meaning. A perennial typiconic format stems from the tradition of painting historically associated with 'mythologising' thought patterns and worldviews. The cases examined to trace the development of the visionary format include examples of Bushman rock art, mural decoration from Ro...

  10. Nanoindentation and the micromechanics of Van Gogh oil paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvant, Johanna; Barthel, Etienne; Menu, Michel

    2011-08-01

    Understanding the mechanical properties of ancient paintings is a major issue for conservation and restoration. One strategy is to measure the mechanical properties of reconstructed paints: however, the aging process is poorly known, so it is also desirable to measure mechanical properties directly on ancient paint samples. Using nanoindentation, we have characterized submillimetric samples recovered from restoration of two Van Gogh paintings and compared the results with reconstructed paint samples. We demonstrate that the reduced modulus and hardness of historical paints can be measured at a very local scale, even differentiating between each paint layer. Our reconstructed paint samples exhibit elastic moduli comparable to values of the literature, but the values measured on the two 19th century paint samples are found to be significantly larger. Similarly, the compositional dependence of the elastic modulus is consistent with literature results for our reconstructed samples while our preliminary results for ancient samples do not readily fall into the same pattern. These results all point out to a significant impact of long term aging, in a manner which is difficult to predict in our present state of understanding. They demonstrate that nanoindentation is a very adequate tool to improve our knowledge of art paint mechanics and aging.

  11. Difference in brain activations during appreciating paintings and photographic analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizokami, Yoshinori; Terao, Takeshi; Hatano, Koji; Hoaki, Nobuhiko; Kohno, Kentaro; Araki, Yasuo; Kodama, Kensuke; Makino, Mayu; Izumi, Toshihiko; Shimomura, Tsuyoshi; Fujiki, Minoru; Kochiyama, Takanori

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have investigated neural correlates of aesthetic appreciation for paintings but to date the findings have been heterogeneous. This heterogeneity may be attributed to previous studies' measurement of aesthetic appreciation of not only the beauty of paintings but also the beauty of motifs of the paintings. In order to better elucidate the beauty of paintings, it seems necessary to compare aesthetic appreciation of paintings and photographic analogs which included corresponding real images. We prepared for famous painters' pictures and their photographic analogs which were set up to resemble each painting in order to investigate the hypothesis that there exist specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings. Forty-four subjects participated in functional magnetic resonance study which required comparisons of aesthetic appreciation of paintings of still life and landscape versus photographic analogs including corresponding real images of still life and landscape. Bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus were activated in the comparison of aesthetic appreciation of paintings versus photographic analogs. In conclusion, the present findings suggest a possibility of the existence of specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings and that bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus may be involved. PMID:25071508

  12. Difference in brain activations during appreciating paintings and photographic analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Terao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated neural correlates of aesthetic appreciation for paintings but to date the findings have been heterogeneous. This heterogeneity may be attributed to previous studies’ measurement of aesthetic appreciation of not only the beauty of paintings but also the beauty of motifs of the paintings. In order to better elucidate the beauty of paintings, it seems necessary to compare aesthetic appreciation of paintings and photographic analogues which included corresponding real images. We prepared for famous painters’ pictures and their photographic analogues which were set up to resemble each painting in order to investigate the hypothesis that there exist specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings. Forty-four subjects participated in functional magnetic resonance study which required comparisons of aesthetic appreciation of paintings of still life and landscape versus photographic analogues including corresponding real images of still life and landscape. Bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus were activated in the comparison of aesthetic appreciation of paintings versus photographic analogues. In conclusion, the present findings suggest a possibility of the existence of specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings and that bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus may be involved.

  13. External beam PIXE analysis of painting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preservation and conservation of mankind cultural heritage has become an important issue worldwide. Non-destructive analytical techniques are suitable, for example, to analyze precious and unique objects of art and archaeology. Among those techniques Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) has good advantage to identify elemental composition present in these kinds of objects. The Laboratorio de Analise de Materiais por Feixes Ionicos-LAMFI of the Institute of Physics of the University of Sao Paulo has been installed an external beam facility for PIXE analysis. This new setup is being used for the analysis of archaeological pottery artifacts, paintings and biological tissues (teeth and bones), which are not compatible with the high vacuum of the regular PIXE target chamber. In addition most art and archaeological objects are too large for the evacuated analysis chamber. Applications of this facility will be presented in the analysis of one painting of the beginning of the last century. The chemical elements identified in the painting were Ca, Ti, Cr, Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb and Ba. The PIXE measurements were done non-destructively and no visible damage was observed on the irradiated object. (author)

  14. External beam applications to painting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characterisation of painting materials has to overcome specific problems due to the special and precious characteristics of paintings. Sampling is hardly possible and is seldom so where it is most desirable. One has to be content with opportunities such as the presence of cracks or to limit the sampling near the edge of the frame. Nondestructive techniques must then be developed and external PIXE is one of the powerful available analytical tools; it may also be associated with complementary techniques such as X-ray fluorescence and external PIGME. Another major problem is related to the great heterogeneity of painting materials which are always a mixture of several components at the micrometric scale. The analysis has then to be complemented with other techniques (scanning electron microprobe, nuclear microbeam etc.) for a more accurate interpretation of the results given by the PIXE direct examination. Yet, the major difficulty lies in finding the way to build a real and constructive dialogue between the art historian and the physicist. (orig.)

  15. Paintings in Atlantic Megalithic Art: Barnenez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bueno Ramírez, Primitiva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of technique is usually considered in European megalithic art as an indicator of the level of culture sophistication attained by a particular community. Traditionally, it was considered that only the Iberian Peninsula is home to painted dolmens. The analysis of chamber H of the Barnenez tumulus together with some information scattered over the continent, prove that painting was part of the graphic programs in the most archetypal Atlantic sites, such as Brittany. A highly rewarding panorama appears for European megalithic art with potential new readings. The most suitable method of detecting paintings and interpreting them in funerary contexts must be reviewed.

    La técnica ha venido estableciéndose en el arte megalítico europeo como una categoría cultural. Solo la Península Ibérica disponía de dólmenes pintados. Pero algunos datos dispersos en el resto del continente, junto con los análisis que se aportan procedentes de la cámara H del túmulo de Barnenez, certifican que la pintura formó parte de los programas gráfi cos de los más clásicos conjuntos atlánticos, como es el bretón. Se abre un panorama muy enriquecedor de nuevas lecturas para un arte megalítico europeo en el que habrá de contemplarse la metodología pertinente para la detección de pinturas y su interpretación en los discursos funerarios.

  16. Insecticidal paint and fumigant canisters for Chagas' disease control: community acceptance in Honduras Pintura insecticida y botes de fumigación para el control de la enfermedad de Chagas: aceptación por la comunidad en Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Adolfo Ávila Montes; Carlos Ponce; Elisa Ponce; Mercedes Martínez Hernández; Mario Flores

    1999-01-01

    This study assessed public acceptance for two new vectorial control techniques for Chagas' disease: insecticidal paint and fumigant canisters. The study compared the two with traditional fenitrothion insecticide spraying. An experimental field study was performed in an endemic area of central Honduras from August to November 1992, a year after the initial application of the treatments. The objectives of the study were to determine the acceptability of the tools on the part of the population w...

  17. Examination of a "velasco" signature on an oil painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, Sandra Ramsey

    2006-07-01

    In September 2003, an investor bought an oil painting at auction in Denmark. The painting was signed "José Maria Velasco." The investor attempted to sell the painting in the United States, but found that he needed confirmation that this was an authentic Velasco painting. The provenance of the painting was questionable because it came to Europe from Cuba without appropriate documentation including the date of its entry into the European market. If the signature was determined to be authentic, the painting would have an approximate value of 1 million dollars. Initial research on the life and works of the artist and a literature review resulted in the preparation of an "Art Worksheet." Known signature specimens were obtained from reputable sources. A comparison of the known signatures with the questioned signature concluded the questioned signature was very probably not executed by José Maria Velasco. PMID:16882242

  18. through spray pyrolisis-nitriding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Cubillos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of zirconium oxynitride were deposited on stainless steel 316L and characterized through ultrasonic spray pyrolysis-nitriding (UPS-N. Initially, thin films of ZrO2 are deposited using ultrasonic spray pyrolysis, and later ZrO2 films were nitrided in a NH3 atmosphere. We analyzed the effect of some variables, such as substrate temperature, flow ratio, and time of the production of coatings and their influence on the structure of the films. The characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron (XPS, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Films that were grown using the UPS method exhibited a tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline structure with preferential orientation in plane (101. These films, after being nitrided in an atmosphere of anhydrous ammonia at 1023 K, go through two processes: a phase transition from tetragonal to monoclinic, and later the formation of zirconium oxynitride rhombohedral ZrOx Ny .

  19. Analysis of the spray field development on a vertical surface during water spray-quenching using a flat spray nozzle

    OpenAIRE

    Vorster, W. J. J.; Schwindt, S.A.; Schupp, J.; Korsunsky, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to conduct experimental spatially and time-resolved measurements of flow development on large heated surfaces during transient spray cooling operations and (ii) to investigate and discuss the influence of spray cooling mechanisms such as bubble formation and the flow field development of the cooling fluid and how this affects heat transfer. Quartz plates were heated to above 500 °C and then sprayed with pressurised water subcooled to 80 K. High speed images of ...

  20. Smart Surfaces: New Coatings & Paints with Radiation Detection Functionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J; Choi, J

    2007-03-12

    Paints are being developed and tested that might ultimately be able to detect radiological agents in the environment by incorporating special pigments into an organic polymeric binder that can be applied as a paint or coatings. These paints detect radioactive sources and contaminants with inorganic or organic scintillation or thermo-luminescent pigments, which are selected based upon the radiation ({alpha}, {beta}, {gamma} or n) to be detected, and are shown in Figure 1.

  1. Military themes in British painting 1815-1914

    OpenAIRE

    Hichberger, J. W. M.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis examines the treatment of the British Army and military themes, in painting, during the period 1815- 1914. All the works discussed were exhibited at the Royal Academy, which, although it underwent modifications in status, remained the nearest equivalent to a State Institution for Art in Britain. All the paintings shown there were painted with the knowledge that they were to be seen by the controllers of the Academy and the dominant classes of society. It wi...

  2. Study of decontamination and radiation resistance properties of Indian paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief introduction to the study of contamination and radiation resistance properties of Indian paints used as coating for structural materials in the nuclear industry is given. The general composition of paints such as epoxy, vinyl, alkyd, phenolic, chlesimated rubber, etc. is given. Method of sample preparation, processing and actual evaluation of decontaminability are described. The results have been discussed in terms of decontamination factors. Some recommendations based on the performance of the paints studied are also included. (K.B.)

  3. Influence of adding painted recyclated on polypropylene properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji?í Habr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available These days just because of still increasing price of oil and its products there is tendency about using recycled plastics at full blast. That´s mainly in automotive industry where is produced great amount of plastic scrap added by painted layers. This article deals with examination influence of such painted layer on mechanical and rheological polymer properties which are necessary to know because of further possible using such painted recycled.

  4. The physicochemical characterization of cave paintings of Baja California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Palaeolithic paintings of Baja California constitute an important contribution to the national, historic and cultural patrimony of Mexico. The aim of this investigation was to determine the physicochemical characteristics, the microstructure and texture of these polychrome paintings, painted on rocks encountered in the mountainous, desert/arid zones of Baja California and Baja California South. The first stage of this work was devoted to the examination and recording of the cave paintings of 'El Vallecito', a narrow fluvial valley displaying large granitic rocks emerging from the sandy soil. Tiny painting samples were collected and analyzed by SEM, EDS and FTIR techniques. The painters used four main colours: red, black, yellow and white. The paint raw materials are mineral pigments: white (kaolin, calcite, and gypsum), red (hematite), yellow (ochre, limonite), black (charcoal from burnt wood or calcined bones) and water as a diluent and/or a binder, all encountered in the painters habitat. The minerals were collected, ground and sometimes heated to change their tone. By mixing with water, a spreadable paste or a thick slurry was produced, which was applied with the fingers for lines or a piece of animal skin for figures, respectively. The 100% solids, dry paint converts into a dense, hard layer, incrusted into the grainy, rough, hollow granite rock surface. This paint might be called stone on stone, explaining its permanence for centuries enduring heat, wind and weather. A simulation of the painting technique was done at the Materials and Corrosion Laboratory, UABC by collecting mineral pigments, preparing the paint as a paste or slurry and applying it on a granitic rock. Knowing the paint composition, production and application techniques will be useful in e conservation and restoration of cave paintings and stone-built, ancient structures such as pyramids, cathedrals and monuments. (Author)

  5. Performance study of the paints for use in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of some Brazilian commercial paints under physical, chemical and radiation conditions typical of nuclear installations is studied. Resistance to gama rays in the range of 104 - 109 rad as well as the susceptibility to contamination, ease of decontamination and chemical resistance in 9 different types of paints are studied. Finally, suggestions are provided for the best choice of commercial paints according to their specific uses

  6. Computerized Comparison and Analysis of Vincent van Gogh's Painting Brushstrokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, James Z.

    2009-03-01

    With advanced digitization techniques, museums have routinely begun to assemble vast digital libraries of images of their collections. These images can be analyzed by computers to assist art historians for a number of tasks. In our work, we focus on three challenges: artist identification, dating of an art work, and finding distinguishing features among artists. Two complementary approaches were taken: (1) the analysis of the geometric statistics based on the extracted individual brushstroke, and (2) the modeling of overall brushstroke texture. These approaches aim at assisting art historians in comparing a painting or parts of a painting to a group of paintings based on multiple criteria. Statistical methods have been used to compare groups of paintings. Each painting image is divided into subimages. Individual brushstrokes are segmented automatically. Geometric features, including the curvature, the overall orientation, and the size, are computed for each brushstroke. We also compute the features representing the interactivity of the brushstrokes extracted. The statistics, including average and standard deviation, of those features are used to model certain aspects of the artist's brushstrokes. For capturing the local brushstroke texture, we first apply a wavelet transform to the image. A spatial model, the 2-D hidden Markov model, is used to model the texture features of each subimage. The methods have shown to be able to distinguish van Gogh paintings and non van Gogh paintings to a great extent. The techniques can provide clues for the dating of van Gogh paintings. A comparison of the van Gogh paintings, Monticelli's paintings, and paintings by contemporary artists provides insights on their similarities and differences. The analysis has provided numerical statistics for further studying these and other paintings.

  7. Large-Scale Quantitative Analysis of Painting Arts

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Daniel; Son, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hawoong

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have made efforts to understand the beauty of painting art in their own languages. As digital image acquisition of painting arts has made rapid progress, researchers have come to a point where it is possible to perform statistical analysis of a large-scale database of artistic paints to make a bridge between art and science. Using digital image processing techniques, we investigate three quantitative measures of images – the usage of individual colors, the variety of colors, and th...

  8. Digital Image Processing in Painting Restoration and Archiving

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaidis, N.; Pitas, I

    2010-01-01

    Digital image processing and analysis can be an important tool for the restoration of works of art. This paper presents three applications of image processing in this field: a method for digital crack restoration of paintings, a technique for color restoration of old paintings and a method for mosaicing of partial images of works of art painted on curved surfaces. A digital archiving system for works of arts is also described.

  9. Logic Analysis of Painting Modeling Rules and Avoiding Narrative Viewing

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Zhu; Jie Shao

    2009-01-01

    Painting modeling rules are constructed based on objective representing with material substances as the main body and the construction methods and orders are mostly limited to narrative viewing and expression, which, obviously, is not the best method. Logistic thinking in virtue of modeling art could gender a more “painting-like” cognitive order. The modeling elements extracted from dots, lines and planes lead us to the door for painting context and by way of personalized organiza...

  10. The Monetary Appreciation of Paintings: From Realism to Magritte

    OpenAIRE

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Houte, T. van

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates how investments in painted arts compare to those in stocks in terms of risk return trade off using Sharpe and Treynor ratios and Markowitz efficient frontiers. A large database was analysed consisting of more than 10500 auction prices of Belgian painted art over the period 1970-1997. Hedonic art returns are influenced by auction location and auction house, current of art, painters’ reputation, medium, signature and painting size. Surrealism and luminism were the most p...

  11. Research on Development of the Song Genre Paintings & Artists

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Tan

    2014-01-01

    Due to that many historical documents of China recording the life of emperors and people from upper class in ancient times with limited ones recording that of people from middle and lower classes, genre paintings have played as the important materials for the research on the ancient societies. This paper begins with the analysis on the concept and development progress of the genre paintings; and analyzes on the three types of painting producers by the combination of the surviving genre painti...

  12. Uniform-droplet spray forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, C.A.; Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Chun, Jung-Hoon [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ando, T. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The uniform-droplet process is a new method of liquid-metal atomization that results in single droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on to substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructure. The mono-sized powder-production capability of the uniform-droplet process also has the potential of permitting engineered powder blends to produce components of controlled porosity. Metal and alloy powders are commercially produced by at least three different methods: gas atomization, water atomization, and rotating disk. All three methods produce powders of a broad range in size with a very small yield of fine powders with single-sized droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructures. The economical analysis has shown the process to have the potential of reducing capital cost by 50% and operating cost by 37.5% when applied to powder making. For the spray-forming process, a 25% savings is expected in both the capital and operating costs. The project is jointly carried out at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Tuffs University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Preliminary interactions with both finished parts and powder producers have shown a strong interest in the uniform-droplet process. Systematic studies are being conducted to optimize the process parameters, understand the solidification of droplets and spray deposits, and develop a uniform-droplet-system (UDS) apparatus appropriate for processing engineering alloys.

  13. Trompe l'oeil painting for the scientific illustrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, G P

    2000-01-01

    Trompe l'oeil is a French term meaning fool-the-eye. When this concept is applied to the art of painting, the painted objects must look as convincingly real as do the actual objects. With the scientific illustrator having a background of rendering concepts which are realistic and accurate, he or she should have no trouble moving into the trompe l'oeil fine art field. The author lists the necessary aspects of why a trompe l'oeil painting is different from a realistic scientific illustration, a still life, or a landscape painting. PMID:11105282

  14. The certification of a new paint reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of paint as a coating for toys intended for sale on the European market is controlled by a European Standard (EN 71-3: 1994 - European Commission to produce a new paint reference material which can be used to validate the test methods given in the European Standard. The migration of elements from painted panels and comminuted paint produced by the Laboratory of the Government Chemist, (U.K.) was studied. Several methods were used in this certification exercise and this work reports the results of neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine the migration of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Se and Sb into a simulated stomach environment. Replicate extracts obtained from paint samples gave a precision of within 10% for most elements by both analytical techniques for the paint panels and for the comminuted paint sample. This preliminary study has shown that the standard method can provide reproducible results for each of the paint materials studied and indicates that the study should be continued to produce a fully certified paint reference material. (author)

  15. Evaluation of the Effect of Spray Distance on Fracture Toughness of Thermally Sprayed Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Salmanzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of thermally sprayed coatings on metallic parts has been widely accepted as a solution to improve their mechanical and tribological properties. Thermally sprayed coatings are considered due to mechanical, metallurgical, tribological and magnetic properties. These properties are modified by selecting proper spray conditions. In this study the effect of spray distance on the fracture toughness of HVOF thermally sprayed have been investigated. Attention is focused on the measurement of fracture toughness for a WC-12Co HVOF sprayed coating on an AISI 1045 steel substrate in different spray distances. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction was used to evaluation the morphology, microstructure and the phases of particle and coating. The results show that, the fracture toughness increases continuously by increasing the spray distance to 380 mm.

  16. Outline of pressurizer spray line thermal stratification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressurizer spray system of the PWR receives a large number of transient cycles when the main spray valve opens and closes, during normal operations (heat up and cool down operation etc.). The spray line is one of the most severe locations from the viewpoint of fatigue. On the other hand, it has been known in recent years that thermal stratification phenomena occur following the main spray valve's closure, according to the field temperature data measured by thermocouples on the outer surface of the spray line during plant operation. The effect of these thermal stratification phenomena on fatigue damage has been proved not to be negligible. In this paper, the results of visual and thermal hydraulic test that simulates thermal stratification of the spray line and the results of stress and fatigue analysis are described

  17. 1994 Thermal spray industrial applications: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 7th National Thermal Spray Conference met on June 20--24, 1994, in Boston, Massachusetts. The conference was sponsored by the Thermal Spray Division of ASM International and co-sponsored by the American Welding Society, Deutscher Verband fur Schweisstechnik e.V., High Temperature Society of Japan, International Thermal Spray Association, and Japanese Thermal Spraying Society. The conference covered applications for automobiles, aerospace, petrochemicals, power generation, and biomedical needs. Materials included metals, ceramics, and composites with a broad range of process developments and diagnostics. Other sections included modeling and systems control; spray forming and reactive spraying; post treatment; process, structure and property relationships; mechanical properties; and testing, characterization and wear. One hundred and seventeen papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  18. Vacuum characteristics of sprayed metal films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to reduce particles in semiconductor equipment and data storage equipment is in high demand. In recent years, barrier and glue layers on shields have been used to reduce particles generated in physical vapor deposition equipment. For this purpose, spray coatings are applied to shields. Although the sprayed metal films are exposed to vacuum in a vacuum chamber, their vacuum characteristics have seldom been investigated. The conventional spray coatings are usually done under atmospheric conditions. In order to obtain a layer that has a better vacuum characteristic, spray coating in a chamber filled with an inert gas was developed. Outgassing characteristics of sprayed aluminum films and titanium films were investigated by using the conductance modulation method. A sprayed metal film produced in an inert gas system showed a lower outgassing rate than that produced in an atmospheric condition

  19. A critical investigation into the spray-drying of hydroxyapatite powder for thermal spray applications

    OpenAIRE

    Murtaza, Qasim

    2006-01-01

    This work examines the investigation of the spray drying process of Hydroxyapatite powder (HA) used as a thermal spray deposit in the application of orthopaedic femoral implants. In this research, the Niro- Minor™ mixed spray dryer was used for both modelling and experimental studies. The process parameters investigated included HA slurry viscosity, temperature, and air flowrate. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modelling and validation of the spray drying of HA powder was performed. An anal...

  20. Evaluation of the Eulerian-Lagrangian spray atomisation (ELSA) in spray simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyas, S; Pastor Enguídanos, José Manuel; Khuong ., Anh Dung; Mompó Laborda, Juan Manuel; RAVET, FREDERIC

    2011-01-01

    Many approaches have been used to simulate the spray structure especially in modelling fuel sprays, i.e., Eulerian, Lagrangian, Lagrangian- Eulerian, Eulerian-Eulerian and Eulerian-Lagrangian approaches. The present study uses an Eulerian-Lagrangian spray atomisation (ELSA) method which is an integrated model for capturing the whole spray evolution starting directly from injector nozzle still the end. Our goal in this study is to evaluate the ELSA model which is implementing into the commerci...

  1. Painting Death with the Colors of Life: Funerary Wall Painting in South Italy (IV-II BCE)

    OpenAIRE

    D'Angelo, Tiziana

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the cultural, political, and artistic role of polychrome wall painting from funerary contexts in South Italy during the critical period that spans the crisis of Greek hegemony and the consolidation of Roman power. Numerous painted tombs were built between the late fifth and the early second centuries BCE for local as well as Greek elite groups across Southern Italy. I investigate the ways in which the wall paintings, with their colors, iconographies, and technical f...

  2. Plasma sprayed ceria-containing interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Douglas S.; Folser, George R.

    2006-01-10

    A plasma sprayed ceria-containing interlayer is provided. The interlayer has particular application in connection with a solid oxide fuel cell used within a power generation system. The fuel cell advantageously comprises an air electrode, a plasma sprayed interlayer disposed on at least a portion of the air electrode, a plasma sprayed electrolyte disposed on at least a portion of the interlayer, and a fuel electrode applied on at least a portion of the electrolyte.

  3. Spray controller for horizontal boom movements compensation

    OpenAIRE

    El Bahir, Loussain; Lebeau, Frédéric; Destain, Marie-France; Kinnaert; Hanus, Raymond

    2002-01-01

    Longitudinal spray distribution is mainly affected by the horizontal speed variations of the nozzles. Manufacturers classically try to reduce unwanted nozzles movements using horizontal boom suspension but these methods show performance and price limitations. The purpose of this paper is to propose a spray controller aiming to compensate the effect of the horizontal boom movements on the spray distribution besides the effect of tractor speed variations. The controller is based on ...

  4. Properties of plasma sprayed boron carbide coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from the determination of spray efficiency for B4C powder, the porosities, hardness, thermal expansion and Young's moduli were established for coating materials. Major attention was given to a spraying pressure range of up to 2 bar, and the APS range was also included. The influence on scale adherence of varying and adjusting the temperature of the substrate during spraying was investigated. Finally, initial measurements of the coating stresses were performed in comparison to the corresponding model calculations

  5. SPRAY FORMING OF ALUMINUM-COPPER ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, P.; KIm, W.; Cantor, B.

    1991-01-01

    The thermal conditions on the top surface of an Al-4wt.%Cu alloy billet during spray forming have been monitored using an infrared thermal imaging camera. The thermal history of the billet top surface on the axis of the spray plume has been correlated with through-thickness measurements of equiaxed grain size, porosity and segregation. Transmission electron microscopy shows that a high dislocation density in the as-sprayed billet may be relieved by subsequent heat treatment, which also causes...

  6. Thermal characterization of intumescent fire retardant paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, L.; Bozzoli, F.; Bochicchio, G.; Tessadri, B.; Rainieri, S.; Pagliarini, G.

    2014-11-01

    Intumescent coatings are now the dominant passive fire protection materials used in industrial and commercial buildings. The coatings, which usually are composed of inorganic components contained in a polymer matrix, are inert at low temperatures and at higher temperatures, they expand and degrade to provide a charred layer of low conductivity materials. The charred layer, which acts as thermal barrier, will prevent heat transfer to underlying substrate. The thermal properties of intumescent paints are often unknown and difficult to be estimated since they vary significantly during the expansion process; for this reason the fire resistance validation of a commercial coatings is based on expensive, large-scale methods where each commercial coating-beam configuration has to be tested one by one. Adopting, instead, approaches based on a thermal modelling of the intumescent paint coating could provide an helpful tool to make easier the test procedure and to support the design of fire resistant structures as well. The present investigation is focused on the assessment of a methodology intended to the restoration of the equivalent thermal conductivity of the intumescent layer produced under the action of a cone calorimetric apparatus. The estimation procedure is based on the inverse heat conduction problem approach, where the temperature values measured at some locations inside the layer during the expansion process are used as input known data. The results point out that the equivalent thermal conductivity reached by the intumescent material at the end of the expansion process significantly depends on the temperature while the initial thickness of the paint does not seem to have much effect.

  7. Electronic Paint: Understanding Children's Representation through Their Interactions with Digital Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, John; Seow, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates very young children's use of a stylus-driven, electronic painting and drawing on the tablet PC. The authors compare their development in the use of this device with their use of other mark-making media, including those which derive from pencil and paper technologies and also with mouse-driven electronic paintbox programs.…

  8. Evolution and Prospect of Thermal Spraying Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YIN Zhi-Jian, , WANG Shu-Bao, FU-Wei,TAN Xin-Hai, TAO Shun-Yan, DING Chuan-Xian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, current state development and process evolution ofthermal spray technology during last century (1910―2010) were reviewed. An "three―step evolution trend" (heat energy dominance, kineticenergy dominance, innovative idea and composite performance dominance) wasadvanced in order to get comprehensive understanding on this technology and dobetter in promoting its future development. Low pressure plasma spraying―thinfilm (LPPS―TF), cold spray (CS) and suspension orsolution srecursor plasma spray (SPS/SPPS) were selected among emerging novelspray processes to be briefly introduced from two aspects (process characteristics and potential applications). Comparison of spray output valueand detail contribution ratio distribution of various industry or process through world and Asia spray industry market were made to probe into what canbe improved as for China thermal spray industry in future. It was suggested that increasing plasma spray and HVOF contribution to applications, take activesteps to explore R&D of some novel spray technology like above mentioned and their possible applications especially in high―tech industrial such aselectrics, semiconductor and new energy.

  9. Indoor spray measurement of spray drift potential using a spray drift test bench : effect of drift-reducing nozzle types, spray boom height, nozzle spacing and forward speed

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Ruiz, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    In a series of indoor experiments spray drift potential was assessed when spraying over a spray drift testbench with two different driving speeds, 2m/s and 4m/s, two different spray boom heights, 30 cm and 50 cm, and two different nozzle spacing, 25 cm and 50 cm, for six different nozzle types. The nozzles types used were the standard flat fan XR as a reference nozzle and the DG, XLTD, IDN, AIXR and AIRmix as drift reducing nozzles types. A Patternator was used to check the cross distribution...

  10. Synthesis of thermal spray grade yttrium oxide powder and its application for plasma spray deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process to transform the commercially available yttrium oxide powder (M/s. IRE) into thermal spray grade powder and development of plasma spray coating of it on graphite/metallic substrate are described. Experimental results show that the synthesized powder had very good flow characteristics and could be used for plasma spray deposition efficiently

  11. Nanorestore® for the consolidation of wall paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Di Gregorio

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente les résultats d’un projet de recherches sur l’effet de l’application du produit Nanorestore®, dispersion de nanoparticules de chaux dans l’alcool isopropylique, pour la consolidation des peintures murales ; il évalue l’influence des conditions environnementales externes (UR et présence des sels en particulier sur le processus de carbonatation.This paper presents the results of an investigation project on the use of Nanorestore®, a dispersion of nanolime in isopropyl alcohol, used for the consolidation of wall paintings. The influence of environmental conditions outside the wall (high humidity environments and high presence of hygroscopic salts on carbonation process was considered.

  12. Image registration for luminescent paint applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James H.; Mclachlan, Blair G.

    1993-01-01

    The use of pressure sensitive luminescent paints is a viable technique for the measurement of surface pressure on wind tunnel models. This technique requires data reduction of images obtained under known as well as test conditions and spatial transformation of the images. A general transform which registers images to subpixel accuracy is presented and the general characteristics of transforms for image registration and their derivation are discussed. Image resection and its applications are described. The mapping of pressure data to the three dimensional model surface for small wind tunnel models to a spatial accuracy of 0.5 percent of the model length is demonstrated.

  13. Golden Section and the Art of Painting

    OpenAIRE

    Olariu, Agata

    1999-01-01

    A statistical study on 565 works of art of different great painters was done and it was calculated the ratio of the 2 sides of a paintings. Assuming that all the painters under discussion enter in a statistics with equal weights it is shown that the average value obtained for the ratio of the sides is 1.34. This value, determined experimentally is significantly different from the value of the Golden Section F=1.618, which is a theoretical ratio, obtained from an abstract, ma...

  14. Self Cleaning Paint: Introduction of Photocatalytic Particles into a Paint System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Sverrir Grimur

    2012-01-01

    The current industrial PhD work was aimed at synthesising a photocatalytic composite material which could be used to give organic wood paint films self-cleaning and anti-microbial properties. The current PhD work was done in collaboration between Dyrup A/S and Technical University of Denmark. The paint industry constantly faces updated restriction on toxic chemicals as for instance biocides which has prompted the search for alternative strategies for increasing the durability of their products. Photocatalysts are generally known to have adverse effects on organic coatings due to the highly reactive chemical species created by the photocatalytic reaction, which can damage the coating itself. The novel strategy for integrating the photocatalyst into the coating proposed in this work however offers most of the benefits of such self-cleaning coatings without the disadvantages. The thesis consists of an introduction to relevant concepts and literature followed byresults, presented as research papers, and a patent application. Four research papers are introduced as individual chapters. Chapter 4 discusses the synthesis and optimisation of anatase TiO2 coated microspheres, chapter 5 discusses the self-cleaning properties and degradation mechanisms of photocatalytic organic coatings containing TiO2 coated microspheres, chapter 6 discusses the rheological and mechanical properties of such coatings and chapter 7 discusses the durability and weather stability of photocatalytic self-cleaning coatings containing TiO2 coated microspheres. The results show that introducing a photocatalyst into an organic paint system as a coating on inert carrier particles results in durable and weather stable paint films. The paint films exhibit selfcleaning properties and are able to resist the attack of micro-organisms. The effect of the photocatalytic reaction on the organic binder is found to be minimal and the films are found to be more durable during outdoor exposure than conventional paint systems. The microspheres only influence the paint viscosity to a small degree and although the mech anical properties are generally degraded by the rigid filler the actual performance is improved by an altered mechanism for crack propagation in the films. The project was funded by Dyrup A/S and the Danish Agency for Science and Innovation.

  15. 75 FR 34097 - Natural Bristle Paint Brushes and Brush Heads From the People's Republic of China: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ...Natural Bristle Paint Brushes and Paint Brush Heads from the People's...Antidumping Duty Order: Natural Bristle Paint Brushes and Paint Brush Heads from the People's...Order''). The domestic industry submitted a letter to the...

  16. Flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) for synthesis of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bismuth oxide is used as additive in paints and in cataphoresis, and as substitute for lead oxide in glass or porcelain. The presence of a small amount of Bi2O3 in calcined ZnO ceramics promotes non-linear current voltage characteristics that are used in varistor production. Also tin oxide based gas sensors for carbon monoxide, exhibit improved sensitivity and selectivity when doped with Bi2O3. Furthermore, the total oxidation of isobutene is enhanced on bismuth containing tin oxide catalysts. Bismuth oxide itself serves also as catalyst for conversion of propylene to 1,5 hexadiene and can be regenerated when supported on ?-Al2O3. In electrolyte, varistor, sensor and catalyst applications high purity and small Bi2O3 particles with controlled morphology are required. Especially in catalysts the available surface area (below 17 m2/g) of Bi2O3 limits applications at the moment. Typically, Bi2O3 is prepared by oxidation of bismuth metal at 750-800 deg C or by thermal decomposition of carbonates or by addition of alkali-metal hydroxides to a bismuth salt solution. High temperature synthesis of Bi2O3 from precursor gases was proposed by Liu and Kleinschmit using the established Aerosil route of reacting chloride precursors in a hydrogen / air (or oxygen) flame, but the volatility of the starting materials poses the most severe limitation. Suzuki et al. prepared spherical bismuth oxide particles of about 26 nm in diameter by the ICP-method. Spraying an aqueous bismuth nitrate solution into a hot wall reactor resulted in Bi2O3 particles of about 100 nm in diameter. Here, synthesis of bismuth oxide nanoparticles is investigated by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) as flame technology is used for manufacture of oxide commodities and as such FSP has high potential for manufacture of oxide nanoparticles. The FSP process, in particular, has the ability to synthesize metal oxides and mixed metal oxides of high purity at high production rates and under controlled conditions. Here bismuth nitrate is used as raw material since it is widely used in wet chemical processing of bismuth oxide and it is one of the cheapest precursors available. However, in conventional spray pyrolysis this precursor has resulted in hollow particles. Therefore special emphasis is placed on the control of morphology and primary particle size of the product bismuth oxide nanoparticles

  17. Spray forming lead strip. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, K.

    1996-04-10

    A cooperative research project was conducted between the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Johnson Controls, Inc. (JCI) to adapt the INEL spray forming process to produce near-net-shape lead alloy strip. The emphasis of the work was to spray form lead strip samples at INEL, using a variety of spray conditions, for characterization at JCI. An existing glove box apparatus was modified at INEL to spray form lead. The main spray forming components were housed inside the glove box. They included a spray nozzle, tundish (crucible), substrate assembly, gas heater and furnaces to heat the nozzle and tundish. To spray form metal strip, liquid metal was pressure-fed at a controlled rate through a series of circular orifices that span the width of the nozzle. There the metal contacted high velocity, high temperature inert gas (nitrogen) which atomized the molten material into fine droplets, entrained the droplets in a directed flow, and deposited them onto glass plates that were swept through the spray plume to form strip samples. In-flight convection cooling of the droplets followed by conduction and convection cooling at the substrate resulted in rapid solidification of the deposit. During operation, the inside of the glove box was purged with an inert gas to limit the effects of in-flight oxidation of the particles and spray-formed strips, as well as to protect personnel from exposure to airborne lead particulate. Remote controls were used to start/stop the spray and control the speed and position of the substrate. In addition, substrate samples were loaded into the substrate translator manually using the gloved side ports of the box. In this way, the glove box remained closed during a series of spray trials, and was opened only when loading the crucible with a lead charge or when removing lead strip samples for shipment to JCI.

  18. Augmenting painted architectures for communicating cultural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Sdegno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a research under development at the University of Trieste to analyze a painted architecture by Paolo Veronese and to present the results using AR systems (Augmented Reality Systems. The canvas was painted in 1573 and it is now at the Gallerie dell’Accademia Museum in Venice. The aim of the research was to transform a two-dimensional work of art in a three dimensional one, allowing all the visitors of a museum to enter the space of the representation and perceive it in a more direct way. After the geometrical analysis of the picture, we started the digital restitution of the perspective references and proceed to model the virtual scene using Boolean primitives and applying all the textures to render the scene in a very realistic way. The further step was to convert the model into a dynamic form with AR algorithms and associate it with spatial references to allow users to do a virtual experience of it.

  19. The "style scheme" grounds perception of paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cela-Conde, Camilo J; Marty, Gisèle; Munar, Enric; Nadal, Marcos; Burges, Lucrecia

    2002-08-01

    We studied the formation of style scheme (identification of the style that characterizes an artist) presenting 100 participants aesthetic visual stimuli. Participants were Spanish university students who volunteered: 72 women, 28 men of mean age 22.8 yr. Among those 50 were enrolled in History of Art and 50 students in Psychology. Stimuli belonged to different categories--High Art (pictures of well-known artists, like Van Gogh)/Popular Art (decorative pictures like Christmas postcards) and Representational (pictures with explicit meaning content, like a landscape)/Abstract (pictures without explicit meaning content, like Pollock's colored stains). Analysis using Signal Detection Theory techniques focused on how participants discriminate representational and abstract pictures. With High Art stimuli, participants can better discriminate representational paintings than abstract ones. However, the difference in discrimination between representational and abstract pictures diminishes among participants studying History of Art. It seems that prior education in art favors forming style schemes and to some extent enables the participant to detect the "meaning" in High Art abstract paintings. PMID:12365279

  20. Sanding dust from nanoparticle-containing paints: Physical characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing use of nanoparticles in different industrial applications has raised a new potential health risk to the workers as well as to the consumers. This study investigates the particle size distributions of sanding dust released from paints produced with and without engineered nanoparticles. Dust emissions from sanding painted plates were found to consist of five size modes; three modes under 1 ?m and two modes around 1 and 2 ?m. We observed that the sander was the only source of particles smaller than 50 nm and they dominated the number concentration spectra. Mass and surface area spectra were dominated by the 1 and 2 ?m modes. Addition of nanoparticles caused only minor changes in the geometric mean diameters of the particle modes generated during sanding of two paints doped with 17 nm TiO2 and 95 nm Carbon Black nanoparticles as compared to the size modes generated during sanding a conventional reference paint. However, the number concentrations in the different size modes varied considerably in between the two NP-doped paints and the reference paint. Therefore, from a physical point of view, there may be a difference in the exposure risk during sanding surfaces covered with nanoparticle-based paints as compared to sanding conventional paints.

  1. GUIDES TO POLLUTION PREVENTION: THE PAINT MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document reviews the operations of paint manufacturers, identifies techniques that would allow these companies to reduce their wastes, and provides a set of self-audit checklists to assist paint manufacturers in setting up a waste reduction program. his publication emphasize...

  2. Pressure-sensitive paint as a distributed optical microphone array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, James W; Sullivan, John P; Wanis, Sameh S; Komerath, Narayanan M

    2006-01-01

    Pressure-sensitive paint is presented and evaluated in this article as a quantitative technique for measurement of acoustic pressure fluctuations. This work is the culmination of advances in paint technology which enable unsteady measurements of fluctuations over 10 kHz at pressure levels as low as 125 dB. Pressure-sensitive paint may be thought of as a nano-scale array of optical microphones with a spatial resolution limited primarily by the resolution of the imaging device. Thus, pressure-sensitive paint is a powerful tool for making high-amplitude sound pressure measurements. In this work, the paint was used to record ensemble-averaged, time-resolved, quantitative measurements of two-dimensional mode shapes in an acoustic resonance cavity. A wall-mounted speaker generated nonlinear, standing acoustic waves in a rigid enclosure measuring 216 mm wide, 169 mm high, and 102 mm deep. The paint recorded the acoustic surface pressures of the (1,1,0) mode shape at approximately 1.3 kHz and a sound pressure level of 145.4 dB. Results from the paint are compared with data from a Kulite pressure transducer, and with linear acoustic theory. The paint may be used as a diagnostic technique for ultrasonic tests where high spatial resolution is essential, or in nonlinear acoustic applications such as shock tubes. PMID:16454281

  3. SUBSTRATE EFFECTS ON VOC EMISSIONS FROM A LATEX PAINT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of two substrates -- a stainless steel plate and a gypsum board -- on the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from a latex paint were evaluated by environmental chamber tests. It was found that the amount of VOCs emitted from the painted stainless steel was 2 to...

  4. Logic Analysis of Painting Modeling Rules and Avoiding Narrative Viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Shao, Jie

    2009-01-01

    Painting modeling rules are constructed based on objective representing with material substances as the main body and the construction methods and orders are mostly limited to narrative viewing and expression, which, obviously, is not the best method. Logistic thinking in virtue of modeling art could gender a more "painting-like"…

  5. Classical elements in the Serbian painting of the fourteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gligorijevi?-Maksimovi? Mirjana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the early 14th century influences of a new style emanating from Constantinople contained reminiscences of classical ideas and forms (contents of compositions, the painted landscape, the human figures, genre scenes based on everyday life, classical figures, personifications and allegorical figures. Towards the end of the century classical influences in painting began to wane.

  6. Dissolution of organic solvents from painted surfaces into water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of volatile iodine in containment buildings is one of the major safety concerns in the potential event of nuclear reactor accidents. Organic impurities in containment water, originating from various painted structural surfaces and organic materials, could have a significant impact on iodine volatility following an accident. To determine the source and magnitude of organic impurities and their effects on time-dependent iodine volatility, the dissolution for organic constituents from paints used in reactor buildings has been studied under postulated accident conditions. The studies of the organic dissolution from carbon steel coupons coated with zinc-primed vinyl, epoxy-primed polyurethane or epoxy paints over the temperature range 25-90 deg C are reported. Relatively large activation energies were measured for the release of the principal organic compounds from painted surfaces, suggesting it is the release of the solvents from the paint matrix rather than their diffusion through the solution that is the rate determining step for the dissolution mechanism. The similarities in the values of activation energies for the dissolution of different organic compounds from the paints suggest the release rate is independent of the nature of the painted surface or the type of organic being released from the surface. These two observations indicate that it may be possible to write a generalized rate expression for the release of organic compounds from painted surfaces in containment following an accident. The possible implications of these results for predicting iodine volatility in containment are also discussed. (author)

  7. Spraying of Crops with Selenium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sima, Per; Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel

    1985-01-01

    A frame experiment was carried out in 1983 to test the effect of foliar application of selenate and selenite and the effect of simultaneous addition of a micronutrient solution on the Se concentration of barley and potatoes. In general, selenate was the more effective; however, both forms of Se proved efficient in raising the Se content of the plants from deficient to desirable levels by spraying about 5 g Se/ha. More than 50 g Se/ha might cause too high levels and should be avoided.

  8. Large-Scale Quantitative Analysis of Painting Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Son, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hawoong

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have made efforts to understand the beauty of painting art in their own languages. As digital image acquisition of painting arts has made rapid progress, researchers have come to a point where it is possible to perform statistical analysis of a large-scale database of artistic paints to make a bridge between art and science. Using digital image processing techniques, we investigate three quantitative measures of images – the usage of individual colors, the variety of colors, and the roughness of the brightness. We found a difference in color usage between classical paintings and photographs, and a significantly low color variety of the medieval period. Interestingly, moreover, the increment of roughness exponent as painting techniques such as chiaroscuro and sfumato have advanced is consistent with historical circumstances. PMID:25501877

  9. Automotive Painting Technology A Monozukuri-Hitozukuri Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Salazar, Abraham; Saito, Kozo

    2013-01-01

    This book offers unique and valuable contributions to the field. It offers breadth and inclusiveness. Most existing works on automotive painting cover only a single aspect of this complex topic, such as the chemistry of paint or paint booth technology. Monozukuri and Hitozukuri are Japanese terms that can be translated as “making things” and “developing people” but their implications in Japanese are richer and more complex than this minimal translation would indicate. The Monozukuri-Hitozukuri perspective is drawn from essential principles on which the Toyota approach to problem-solving and continuous improvement is based. From this perspective, neither painting technology R&D nor painting technology use in manufacturing can be done successfully without integrating technological and human concerns involved with making and learning in the broadest sense, as the hyphen is meant to indicate. The editors provide case studies and examples -- drawn from Mr. Toda’s 33 years of experience with automotiv...

  10. Large-Scale Quantitative Analysis of Painting Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Son, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hawoong

    2014-12-01

    Scientists have made efforts to understand the beauty of painting art in their own languages. As digital image acquisition of painting arts has made rapid progress, researchers have come to a point where it is possible to perform statistical analysis of a large-scale database of artistic paints to make a bridge between art and science. Using digital image processing techniques, we investigate three quantitative measures of images - the usage of individual colors, the variety of colors, and the roughness of the brightness. We found a difference in color usage between classical paintings and photographs, and a significantly low color variety of the medieval period. Interestingly, moreover, the increment of roughness exponent as painting techniques such as chiaroscuro and sfumato have advanced is consistent with historical circumstances.

  11. Modification of optoelectronic properties of sprayed CZTS thin films through spray rate variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeshmon, V. G.; Kartha, C. Sudha; Vijayakumar, K. P.

    2014-04-01

    Effect of spray rate on structural, optical and electrical properties of spray pyrolysed Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films was investigated. We deposited films by varying spray rate from 2 ml/min to 10 ml/min in steps of 2 ml/min. For very low and high spray rates presence of secondary phases could be observed while for the films prepared at a spray rate of 6 ml/min were devoid of secondary phases. As spray rate increases band gap decreased. Samples prepared at 6 ml/min had optimum band gap of 1.5 eV. All the samples were observed to be p-type. Resistivity values increased steadily up to 6 ml/min and then slightly decreased. From the present work, CZTS films prepared at a spray rate of 6 ml/min is found to be ideal for absorber layer in solar cell.

  12. Spray Gun With Constant Mixing Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, William G.

    1987-01-01

    Conceptual mechanism mounted in handle of spray gun maintains constant ratio between volumetric flow rates in two channels leading to spray head. With mechanism, possible to keep flow ratio near 1:1 (or another desired ratio) over range of temperatures, orifice or channel sizes, or clogging conditions.

  13. Spray characteristics and spray cooling heat transfer in the non-boiling regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spray cooling is an effective method for dissipating high heat fluxes in the field of electronics thermal control. In this study, experiments were performed with distilled water as a test liquid to study the spray cooling heat transfer in non-boiling regime. A Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) was used to study the spray characteristics. The effects of spray flow rate, spray height, and inlet temperature on spray cooling heat transfer were investigated. It was found that the parameters affect heat transfer of spray cooling in non-boiling regime by the spray characteristics and working fluid thermophysical properties. Then the corresponding droplet axial velocity and Sauter mean diameter (SMD) were successfully correlated with mean absolute error of 15%, which were based upon the orifice diameter, the Weber and Reynolds numbers of the orifice flow prior to liquid breakup, dimensionless spray height and spray cross-section radius. The heat transfer in non-boiling regime was correlated with a mean absolute error of 7%, which was mainly associated with the working fluid thermophysical properties, the Weber and Reynolds numbers hitting the heating surface, dimensionless heating surface temperature and diameter. -- Highlights: ? The spray flow rate, spray height, and inlet temperature affect heat transfer of spray cooling in non-boiling regime by the spray characteristics and the working fluid thermophysical properties. ? Then the corresponding droplet axial velocity and Sauer mean diameter (SMD) were successfully correlated with mean absolute error of 15%. ? The heat transfer in non-boiling regime was correlated with a mean absolute error of 7%.

  14. Methylisothiazolinone and benzisothiazolinone are widely used in paint : a multicentre study of paints from five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Lundov, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In view of the current epidemic of contact allergy to methylisothiazolinone (MI), it is important to clarify the extent of use of MI and related isothiazolinones in paints currently available for the consumer and worker in Europe. OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the use and concentrations of MI, methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) and benzisothiazolinone (BIT) in paints on the European retail market. METHODS: Wall paints (n?=?71) were randomly purchased in retail outlets in five European countries. The paints were quantitatively analysed for their contents of MI, MCI and BIT by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: MI was found in 93.0% (n?=?66) of the paints, with concentrations ranging from 0.7 to 180.9?ppm, MCI in 23.9% (n?=?17), ranging from 0.26 to 11.4?ppm, and BIT in 95.8% (n?=?68), ranging from 0.1 to 462.5?ppm. High concentrations of MI were found in paints from all five countries. Paints purchased in Denmark and Sweden contained especially high concentrations of BIT. CONCLUSION: The use of MI across European countries is extensive. In view of the ongoing epidemic of MI contact allergy, an evaluation of the safety of MI in paints is needed.

  15. CAPSTONE REPORT ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF A STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR VOC EMISSIONS FROM INTERIOR LATEX PAINT AND ALKYD PAINTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives details of a small-chamber test method developed by the EPA for characterizing volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from interior latex and alkyd paints. Current knowledge about VOC, including hazardous air pollutant, emissions from interior paints generated...

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF LOW-VOC LATEX PAINTS: VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND CONTENT, VOC AND ALDEHYDE EMISSIONS, AND PAINT PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of laboratory tests to evaluate commercially available latex paints advertised as "low-odor," "low-VOC (volatile organic compound)," or "no-VOC." Measurements were performed to quantify the total content of VOCs in the paints...

  17. Using paint to investigate fires: an ATR-IR study of the degradation of paint samples upon heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kelly; Almond, Matthew J; Bond, John W

    2013-03-01

    Fire investigation is a challenging area for the forensic investigator. The aim of this work was to use spectral changes to paint samples to estimate the temperatures to which a paint has been heated. Five paint samples (one clay paint, two car paints, one metallic paint, and one matt emulsion) have been fully characterized by a combination of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-IR), Raman, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. The thermal decomposition of these paints has been investigated by means of ATR-IR and thermal gravimetric analysis. Clear temperature markers are observed in the ATR-IR spectra namely: loss of ?(C = O) band, >300°C; appearance of water bands on cooling, >500°C; alterations to ?(Si-O) bands due to dehydration of silicate clays, >700°C; diminution of ?(CO3 ) and ?(CO3 ) modes of CaCO3 , >950°C. We suggest the possible use of portable ATR-IR for nondestructive, in situ analysis of paints. PMID:23278849

  18. Time-based ensemble scattering measurements in fuel sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that knowledge of droplet size in sprays is important for spray combustion, pesticide and herbicide spraying, spray cooling, fire sprinklers, and many other industrial applications. The importance of measuring and evaluating time-varying information in sprays can be critical to the performance of these spray systems. For example, gas turbine and rocket motor stability is dependent on suppression of combustor frequencies which alter the atomization characteristics of the spray. High-speed movies of the atomization process have shown that steady sprays are not uniform in time but can contain clusters of droplets. Droplet clustering may have significant ramifications in combustion applications for soot production. Another time-dependent phenomenon observed in airblast-atomized sprays is a rapid change is spray angle known as fluttering. To study such phenomena, an ensemble light scattering technique was used to obtain time-resolved information on droplet mean size and number density in sprays where similar temporal features have been observed

  19. Automating Digital Holographic Spray Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinger, David; Sallam, Khaled

    2007-11-01

    The physics of the breakup of liquid jets are of interest in many disciplines. Primary breakup along the liquid jet surface and the secondary breakup in the dense spray region drive the droplets' size and velocity distributions. Experimental techniques, such as shadowgraphy and Phase Doppler Interferometry, can be inadequate due to the limited depth of field or the restriction to spherical droplets. Holographic diagnostics have been successful in probing this dense region, providing 3D size and velocity measurements. Current digital holographic reconstruction has solved most of the problems associated with chemical development of holographic plates; however, the current methods of holographic data reduction using visual focusing is time consuming and subject to human error. The objective of the present research is to automate the process of identifying, locating, and measuring liquid droplets in the dense spray region near the liquid core. Edge detection and dynamic filtering are tested on droplets in ``cluttered'' holograms in the near injector region of an aerated liquid jet in subsonic crossflow. The results include automatic identification of the droplets' locations and velocities using particle tracking techniques.

  20. 'Dose-painting': Myth or reality?; 'Dose-painting': mythe ou realite?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supiot, S.; Paris, F. [Service de radiotherapie, centre Rene-Gauducheau, 44 - Nantes-St-Herblain (France); Centre de recherche sur le cancer Nantes-Angers (CRCNA), institut de recherche therapeutique, universite de Nantes, 44 - Nantes (France); Inserm UMR 892, 44 - Nantes (France); Lisbona, A. [Centre de recherche sur le cancer Nantes-Angers (CRCNA), institut de recherche therapeutique, universite de Nantes, 44 - Nantes (France); Inserm UMR 892, 44 - Nantes (France); Service de radiophysique, centre Rene-Gauducheau, 44 - Nantes-St-Herblain (France); Azria, D. [Service de radiotherapie, centre Val d' Aurelle Paul-Lamarque, 34 - Montpellier (France); Fenoglietto, P. [Service de radiophysique, centre Val d' Aurelle Paul-Lamarque, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2010-10-15

    'Dose-painting' radiotherapy allows for a heterogeneous delivery of radiation within the tumour volume by targeting radioresistant areas defined by functional imaging. Within gross tumour volume, it is possible to define one or more target volumes based on biology (biological target volume [BTV]) and to apply a strategy of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) that will deliver a higher dose to these regions. In this review of the literature, we will highlight the biological elements responsible for radioresistance, and how to image them, then we will detail the radiotherapy techniques necessary for this approach, before presenting clinical results in various situations (head and neck tumours, prostate, brain tumours, etc.). Despite many difficulties that make dose-painting IMRT unusable in routine nowadays, biology-guided radiation therapy represents one of the major pathways of development of radiotherapy in the coming years. (authors)

  1. Toluene removal by oxidation reaction in spray wet scrubber: experimental, modeling and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roumporn Nikom

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Toluene, an important volatile organic compound (VOC, is used in many kinds of industries, such as painting, printing, coating, and petrochemical industries. The emission of toluene causes serious air pollution, odor problem, flammability problem and affects human health. This paper proposes the removal of toluene from waste air using a spray wet scrubber combining the absorption and oxidation reaction. Aqueous sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl solution was used as the scrubbing liquid in the system. NaOCl, the strongest oxidative agent, presents an effective toluene removal. As the scrubbed toluene is reacted, recirculation of the scrubbing liquid could be operated with a constant removal efficiency throughout the operting time. The investigated variables affecting the removal efficiency were air flow rate, inlet toluene concentration, NaOCl concentration, scrubbing liquid flow rate and size of spray nozzle. Influence of the scrubbing parameters was experimentally studied to develop a mathematical model of the toluene removal efficiency. The removal model reveals that the increase of scrubbing liquid flow rate, toluene concentration, and NaOCl concentration together with the decrease of air flow rate and size of spray nozzle can increase the toluene removal efficiency. Optimization problem with an objective function and constraints was set to provide the maximum toluene removal efficiency and solved by Matlab optimization toolbox. The optimization constraints were formed from the mathematical model and process limitation. The solution of the optimization was an air flow rate of 100 m3/h, toluene concentration of 1500 ppm, NaOCl concentration of 0.02 mol/l, NaOCl solution feed rate of 0.8 m3/h, and spray nozzle size of 0.5 mm. Solution of the optimization gave the highest toluene removal efficiency of 91.7%.

  2. [Optic mixing of colours in Seurat's painting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernea, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Georges Seurat is the initiator and master of the divisionism. He founds the neoimpressionism current that tries to reproduce the nature exclusively through coloured vibration. Seurat applies the colours in small touches uniformly distributed on the canvas; the colours merge if they are looked by a certain distance, through optical interference. When the spectator approaches from the picture, the special frequency decreases, the optical merging does not appear and the onlooker looks a lot of coloured spots. When the spectator moves away from the picture, the optical interference appears and the clarity of the image becomes perfectly. This current opened the way of the future's modern painting performed by Cézanne, Renoir, Van Gogh. PMID:12677811

  3. Simulations of color development in tinted paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuiver, A; Barkema, G T

    2010-04-15

    Monte Carlo simulations have been used to investigate how several thermodynamic and kinetic factors affect the distribution of pigments, when a water-based pigment dispersion is added to a solvent-borne paint. Our model contains three types of lattice particles: water, pigment and organic solvent, with short-ranged interactions. These particles move through biased diffusion, with a species-dependent mobility. Moreover, to mimic the crosslinking of the resin, the mobility of the solvent particles decreases in time. Also, the water of the pigment dispersion evaporates slowly. First, we study which conditions yield the desired equilibrium phase behavior, with homogeneously distributed pigment. Next, we study how kinetics can prevent the system to reach equilibrium. We present examples in which these kinetic processes prevent dispersion in spite of favorable equilibrium conditions, as well as examples in which a homogeneous distribution is reached against unfavorable equilibrium conditions. PMID:20129618

  4. A radiation polymerizable paint and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention relates to a radiation polymerizable paint which to the exclusion of any non-polymerizable solvent, pigment initiator or particulate filler essentially comprises a binder solution: from about 90 to 10 parts of a saturated vinylic thermoplastic polymer (prepared from at least 85% by weight monofunctional vinylic monomers), from about 10 to 90 parts of monofunctional vinylic solvents for the vinylic polymer (at least 10% and, preferably, at least 30% by weight of the solvent monomers being selected from the group comprising divinylic monomers, trivinylic monomers, tetravinylic monomers and mixtures) and from about 0.05 to 1.0 part, for a total amount of 100 parts of thermoplastic vinylic polymer and of solvent vinylic monomers, of a phosphoric acid mono- or di-ester with one or several vinyl unsaturated sites. That high quality coating composition adheres remarkably to a variety of supports, in particular metals, including metals deposited in the vapor phase

  5. Paint compositions for indicating irradiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paint compositions for indicating irradiation dose are prepared from chlorine-combined polyester, 5 to 30 percent by weight of a reductive discoloring substance or a mixture of said substances, and/or 0.005 to 2.0 percent by weight of a reducing dyestuff or a mixture of said dyestuffs, in which said chlorine-combined polyester is obtained by a chlorinated dibasic acid or its anhydride as an acid component or a part of an acid component selected from a group consisting of 3-chlorophthalic acid, 4-chlorophthalic acid, dichlorinated phthalic acid, tetrachlorophthalic acid, 1,4,5,6,7,7-hexachlorobicyclo-(2,2,1)-5-heptene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, 4-chloro-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboxylic acid and the anhydrides corresponding to said acids. (auth)

  6. The ‘Philosophical paintings’ of the Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharoula A. Petraki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article I examine Plato’s appropriation of poetic language in the Republic and argue that, despite his criticism of poetry in Books 3 and 10, poetic language is justifiably weaved into the philosophical fabric to depict the corrupt, the ugly and the base. In specific terms, Plato’s adaptation of several poetic motifs and images in the Republic becomes more meaningful if we choose to pay attention to Socrates as a quasi painter in the dialogue and interpret his philosophical images as philosophy’s response to the deceptive dramatic representations of poetry. Thus the art of painting, which is also criticised in Republic Book 10, in Plato’s hands becomes a philosophical tool which helps him investigate the relation of our mundane sense-perceptive world to the metaphysical realm of the Ideas and humans’ place in it.

  7. Radiation-polymerisable paint and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A paint polymerisable under the effect of a radiation is presented. The main components, excluding non-polymerisable solvent, pigment, initiator and particle charge, are as follows: about 90 to 10 parts of a saturated thermoplastic vinyl polymer of average molecular mass around 2000 to 250,000, prepared from monofunctional vinyl monomers to the extent of at least 85% by weight; about 10 to 90 parts of vinyl monomer solvent for the polymer, up to 90% by weight of the solvent consisting of monovinyl monomers and the remainder being chosen amongst divinyl, trivinyl, tetravinyl monomers and their mixtures. The average molecular weight of the thermoplastic vinyl polymer has between 5000 and 50,000

  8. Judgement of paintings belonging to different tendencies in the 20th century painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radonji? Ana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study Trifunovi?’ hypothesis that there are three objective lines in the development of modern art was psychologically evaluated. According to Trifunovi?, in the first line (Cézanne - cubism - neoplasticism - suprematism the geometrization of form prevails, in the second (Van Gogh - expressionism - abstract expressionism the use of color is dominant, whereas the main features of the third line (Gauguin - fauvism are symbolic use of color and reduction of perspective. Fifteen reproductions of paintings that represent the three developmental lines were used as stimuli. The subjects were asked to judge the stimuli on nine bipolar 7-step scales. These scales constitute the three factors of instrument SDF 9: Evaluation, Arousal and Regularity (3 scales x 3 factors = 9 scales. Four clusters of paintings were obtained: Abstract-expressionistic (moderate Evaluation, high Arousal and low Regularity, Figural-expressionistic (very low Evaluation, low Arousal and high Regularity, Constructivistic (moderate Evaluation, low Arousal and high Regularity and Realistic (high Evaluation, high Arousal and high Regularity. The results partially confirm Trifunovi?’ hypothesis indicating that, besides the formal features, the content (abstract vs. figural is also significant factor of subjective clustering of paintings.

  9. Reassessing the extent of the Q classification for containment paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mounting number of site-specific paint debris transport and screen clogging analyses submitted to justify substandard containment paint work have been deemed persuasive by virtue of favorable U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission safety evaluation report (SER) findings. These lay a strong foundation for a standardized approach to redefining the extent to which paint in containment needs to be considered open-quotes Q.close quotes This information justifies an initiative by licensees to roll back paint work quality commitments made at the design phase. This paper questions the validity of the basic premise that all primary containment paint can significantly compromise core and containment cooling [emergency core cooling system/engineered safeguard feature (ECCS/ESF)]. It is posited that the physical extent of painted containment surfaces for which extant material qualification and quality control (QC) structures need apply can be limited to zones relatively proximate to ECCS/ESF suction points. For other painted containment surfaces, simplified criteria should be allowed

  10. The art in science: electron microscopy and paintings conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: When examining a painting, a conservator uses many different and complementary methods of analysis to build an understanding of the materials and way the painting was constructed. Common methods of examination include x-radiography, infrared reflectography, ultraviolet fluorescence and optical microscopy of the surface of the painting. Minute samples of paint prepared as cross-sections are sometimes taken for optical examination under the microscope, and it is these that can, conveniently, be further analysed with electron microscopy to yield another level of information. Electron microscopy has a valuable role to play within the examination of paintings, be it for pigment identification alone, or at the other end of the spectrum, for informing issues around the attribution of works of art. This paper provides an overview of the use of electron microscopy in the conservation of paintings by discussing examples of work undertaken by the National Gallery of Victoria and the CSIRO. Work described includes the problem of distinguishing between restorers' original paint in a landscape by Arthur Streeton, and the examination of the ground or priming layer in a Rembrandt portrait which clarified its attribution to his studio. Copyright (2003) Australian Microbeam Analysis Society

  11. Iodine–paint interactions during nuclear reactor severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Iodine interacts with containment paint in several ways. • Some mechanistic understanding is required. • Paint aging and degradation mechanisms. • Iodine adsorption and release mechanisms. • The Severe Accident Research Network (SARNET) facilitates collaboration between members. - Abstract: To assess the radiological consequences of a severe reactor accident, it is important to be able to predict the behaviour of iodine in containment. Some interactions between iodine and containment paint (e.g., adsorption) have been well known for a long time. However, in recent years, new phenomena have been identified that can affect the gas phase iodine concentration in the longer term (e.g., the release of molecular iodine and organic iodides from irradiated painted surfaces). Several international collaborations and organizations around the world are currently addressing different aspects of this topic, including laboratory experiments and theoretical studies (ab initio) designed to improve the mechanistic understanding of the phenomena. Knowledge of the underlying mechanisms will provide explanations for behavioural differences observed between paint types, and will support the extrapolation of laboratory results to the safety analyses of nuclear reactors. The purpose of this paper is to present a selection of recent work performed by Severe Accident Research Network (SARNET) members regarding iodine–paint interactions and paint aging in order to improve the common understanding and better define what has still to be done in this area. The Severe Accident Research Network (SARNET) provides a framework within which members can share and discuss results

  12. LWR containment spray iodine removal calculation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the reactor containment vessel of LWR, there are containment sprays and air-cleaning filters to prevent the release of radioiodine from the reactor building to the atmosphere in LOCA. The computer code MIRA-PB for predicting iodine removal by containment spray is made on the basis of MIRAP/MIRAB code developed in Battelle's Columbus Laboratories. MIRA-PB considers behavior of elemental iodine, organic iodide, and iodic aerosol in natural deposition, liquid-film absorption, spray washout, filteration, and leakage to atmosphere. Information is obtained on the contributions of sprays to iodine removal under LOCA conditions which depends on partition coefficient of elemental iodine and organic iodide, pH, temperature, concentrations in gaseous and liquid phases, physical properties of spray, motion of spray droplets in the containment vessel, and mass-transfer rate from gaseous to liquid phase. Iodine removal by sprays in PWR, BWR, Battelle's CSE and JAERI-model containment is calculated by MIRA-PB under LOCA simulated condition. (auth.)

  13. Evaluation of safeguards reliability - containment spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An example of a safety system which has been evaluated in terms of quantitative reliability is the containment spray system for a typical pressurized water reactor. The system is designed to deliver, through spray nozzles, spray containing chemical additives to remove radioactivity and provide the proper pH solutions when combined with refueling water and spilled reactor coolant water after the accident. A fault tree analysis of a typical containment spray system has been performed by Westinghouse and is presented in the paper. The fault tree analysis combines the random component failures of the system in the correct logical manner to arrive at system failure. The various component failure probabilities taken in the necessary combination, result in a system failure probability which then may be judged as a characteristic of system performance. A two-fold analysis of the system is presented: the first analysis determines the probability of the containment spray system failing to spray the containment atmosphere following a LOCA; the second analysis determines the probability of the spray system being inadvertently actuated

  14. Predicting the transverse volume distribution under an agricultural spray boom

    OpenAIRE

    Leunda, P.; Debouche, Charles; Caussin, R.

    1990-01-01

    The volume distribution of spray below individual agricultural flat-fan spray nozzles was fitted to a truncated normal distribution. This expresses the parameters as a function of the spray liquid pressure, the boom height and the nozzle orifice size. This model was used to predict the transverse distribution below an agricultural spray boom.

  15. 21 CFR 524.1044f - Gentamicin and betamethasone spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin and betamethasone spray. 524.1044f... § 524.1044f Gentamicin and betamethasone spray. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of spray contains... depress the sprayer head twice. Administer two spray actuations two to four times daily for 7 days....

  16. Photonic Paint Developed with Metallic Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Williams

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This work details the design and simulation of an inconspicuous photonic paint that can be applied onto an object for anticounterfeit and tag, track, and locate (TTL applications. The paint consists of three-dimensional metallic tilted woodpile photonic crystals embedded into a visible and infrared transparent polymer film, which can be applied to almost any surface. The tilted woodpile photonic crystals are designed with a specific pass band detectable at nearly all incident angles of light. When painted onto a surface, these crystals provide a unique reflective infra-red optical signature that can be easily observed and recorded to verify the location or contents of a package.

  17. PMT signal increase using a wavelength shifting paint

    OpenAIRE

    Allada, K.; Hurlbut, Ch.; Ou, L.; Schmookler, B.; Shahinyan, A.; Wojtsekhowski, B

    2015-01-01

    We report a 1.65 times increase of the PMT signal and a simple procedure of application of a new wavelength shifting (WLS) paint for PMTs with non-UV-transparent windows. Samples of four different WLS paints, made from hydrocarbon polymers and organic fluors, were tested on a 5-inch PMT (ET 9390KB) using Cherenkov radiation produced in fused silica disks by $^{106}$Ru electrons on a `table-top' setup. The best performing paint was employed on two different types of 5-inch PM...

  18. Rock paintings of mammals at Central, Bahia, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria da Conceição de M.C., Beltrão; Martha, Locks.

    Full Text Available Rock paintings of mammals have been studied in five of the 243 localities contained within the 270,000 km² Archeological Region of Central, Bahia. From features of external morphology, it was possible to recognize 11 mammals represented in the paintings: for five, to attribute the species; another f [...] ive, the genera; and, for one, merely the family. This study aims to underline the importance of prehistoric man's contribution, by way of these rock paintings, to our knowledge of the mammals depicted, both taxonomically and in terms of their distribution within the bounds of the Project in the State of Bahia.

  19. Rock paintings of mammals at Central, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição de M.C. Beltrão

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Rock paintings of mammals have been studied in five of the 243 localities contained within the 270,000 km² Archeological Region of Central, Bahia. From features of external morphology, it was possible to recognize 11 mammals represented in the paintings: for five, to attribute the species; another five, the genera; and, for one, merely the family. This study aims to underline the importance of prehistoric man's contribution, by way of these rock paintings, to our knowledge of the mammals depicted, both taxonomically and in terms of their distribution within the bounds of the Project in the State of Bahia.

  20. Analytical studies of the Alexandrovo Thracian tomb wall paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavcheva, Z; Yancheva, D; Velcheva, E; Stamboliyska, B; Petrova, N; Petkova, V; Lalev, G; Todorov, V

    2016-01-01

    A profound study of samples obtained from Thracian tomb wall paintings at Alexandrovo, Bulgaria (dating back to the fourth century BC) were carried out by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FTIR), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The current work provides a glimpse of the ingenious construction and painting techniques used in Thracian tomb at Alexandrovo. The results suggest that beeswax was used as a paint binder and also revealed presence of various nano-materials. PMID:25701135

  1. Analytical studies of the Alexandrovo Thracian tomb wall paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavcheva, Z.; Yancheva, D.; Velcheva, E.; Stamboliyska, B.; Petrova, N.; Petkova, V.; Lalev, G.; Todorov, V.

    2016-01-01

    A profound study of samples obtained from Thracian tomb wall paintings at Alexandrovo, Bulgaria (dating back to the fourth century BC) were carried out by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FTIR), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The current work provides a glimpse of the ingenious construction and painting techniques used in Thracian tomb at Alexandrovo. The results suggest that beeswax was used as a paint binder and also revealed presence of various nano-materials.

  2. PMT signal increase using a wavelength shifting paint

    CERN Document Server

    Allada, K; Ou, L; Schmookler, B; Shahinyan, A; Wojtsekhowski, B

    2015-01-01

    We report a 1.65 times increase of the PMT signal and a simple procedure of application of a new wavelength shifting (WLS) paint for PMTs with non-UV-transparent windows. Samples of four different WLS paints, made from hydrocarbon polymers and organic fluors, were tested on a 5-inch PMT (ET 9390KB) using Cherenkov radiation produced in fused silica disks by $^{106}$Ru electrons on a `table-top' setup. The best performing paint was employed on two different types of 5-inch PMTs (ET 9390KB and XP4572B), installed in atmospheric pressure CO$_2$ gas Cherenkov detectors, and tested using GeV electrons.

  3. Reflections of consumerism in Damien Hirst’s Spot Paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Blanché, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    In what way do Damien Hirst’s artworks reflect (consumer) society? His Pharmaceutical Spot Paintings recall, Damien Hirst is often called a “brand”. Spot Paintings are one of his “product lines” and a logo at the same time. Hirst reflects this with a form of over identification (Slavoj Žižek). Since their transfer from wall to canvas in 1991 each Spot Painting hints at its status as a consumer object in positive, negative and ironic ways. They reflect belief in medicine, advertising and belie...

  4. Studies on some Indian paints for radiochemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The choice of paints in areas subjected to contamination and radiation in nuclear installation need special attention. The types of generic coatings are examined with reference to these requirements. Among those examined, certain types of epoxy paints are found to be attractive for these applications. Samples of epoxy paints obtained from some Indian manufacturers are tested for their suitability. Decontaminability and radiation resistance properties are also evaluated with special reference to radiochemical plants. Important specifications for such applications are listed. This report summarizes the results of these studies. (author)

  5. Trends in the automotive paint industry for corrosion protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blandin, Nathalie; Brunat, William [PPG Industries France, 3 Z.A.E. Les Dix Muids, B.P. 89, F-59583 Marly (France); Neuhaus, Ralf [PPG Industries Lacke GmbH, Stackenbergstrasse 34, D-42329 Wuppertal (Germany); Sibille, Ettore [PPG Industries Italia, Via Serra11, I-15028 Quattordio (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    Since many years ED-paints are protecting car bodies against corrosion. Currently the automotive paint industry is faced with increasing demands of higher levels of corrosion protection and also requests to comply with new environmental regulations and economical pressures. Some key factors that contributed significantly towards the improvement of corrosion protection systems are: - New generations of lead free ED-paints; - Weldable organic thin film for corrosion protection, especially in box cavities and flange areas. The goal of this paper is to show how the various elements of the 'anti-corrosion package' interact. (authors)

  6. PMT signal increase using a wavelength shifting paint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allada, K; Hurlbut, Ch; Ou, L; Schmookler, B; Shahinyan, A; Wojtsekhowski, B

    2015-05-01

    We report a 1.65 times increase of the PMT signal and a simple procedure of application of a new wavelength shifting (WLS) paint for PMTs with non-UV transparent windows. Samples of four different WLS paints, made from hydro- carbon polymers and organic fluors, were tested on a 5-inch PMT (ET 9390KB) using Cherenkov radiation produced in fused silica disks by 106Ru electrons on a table-top setup. The best performing paint was employed on two different types of 5-inch PMTs (ET 9390KB and XP4572B), installed in atmospheric pressure CO2 gas Cherenkov detectors, and tested using GeV electrons.

  7. On the modeling of fuel sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Christer

    1997-12-01

    This report concerns on the modelling of fuel sprays in a non-combustible case using an own developed fuel spray code module. The spray code is made as an independent module to simplify the use of different gas flow solvers together with the spray module. This enables the possibility to use different turbulence models. In the report two turbulence models has been used, the standard k-{epsilon} and the LES (Large Eddy Simulation) model. The report presents results obtained from a sensitivity study of both numerical and physical parameters on an evaporating spray under diesel like conditions (light duty diesel engine) with the spray code module attached to a cylindrical gas phase flow solver. The results from the sensitivity analysis showed that these effects were not so pronounced as has been reported. It was suggested that this was due to the `easy` nature of the investigated case, where the flow field could be sufficiently resolved without violating the droplet void fraction criteria and break-up, collision and combustion that may increase the grid spacing sensitivity were not modelled. An investigation was performed to valuate the feasibility of using LES as turbulence model. Calculations of the initial phase of a developing jet were made and it was found that in the initial phase of the spray and the flow structure were similar to that of a spatially developing jet flow, which is in agreement with experimental observations. Results from LES calculations on a developing spray jet was also compared with k-{epsilon} based ones. This result showed that the spray-LES approach captured the transition from a laminar to a turbulent flow field with an increase in turbulent kinetic energy k along the injection direction 45 refs, 37 figs, 2 tabs

  8. 40 CFR Table 22 to Subpart G of... - Paint Factors for Fixed Roof Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Paint Factors for Fixed Roof Tanks...Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage...to Subpart G of Part 63—Paint Factors for Fixed Roof Tanks Tank color Roof Shell Paint factors (Fp )Paint...

  9. 75 FR 24848 - Lead; Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program for Public and Commercial Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 745 RIN 2070-AJ56 Lead; Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program for Public and..., repair, and painting of public and commercial buildings under section 402(c)(3) of the Toxic Substances... determine whether lead-based paint hazards are created by interior renovation, repair, and painting...

  10. PROPERTIES OF PLASMA AND HVOF SPRAYED COATINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciech ?órawski; Otakar Bok?vka

    2012-01-01

    The work compares the properties of plasma and HVOF thermally sprayed coatings obtained by blending the NiCrBSi and Fe2O3 powders. The deposition was performed by means of the Plancer PN-120 and the Diamond Jet guns for plasma spraying and HVOF spraying respectively. The SEM (EDS) method was employed to study the microstructure of the produced coatings. Although the blended powders differ in particle size, shape, and distribution, it is possible to obtain composite coatings with an NiCrBSi ma...

  11. Thermal conductivity of plasma-sprayed molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal conductivity of plasma-sprayed molybdenum was measured in the temperature range between 1,300 and 2,300 K. There is a distinct dependence of the values of thermal conductivity on the preceding annealing temperature. If the annealing temperature is increased, the values rise by evaporation of the oxide impurities (caused by the manufacturing process). The sample structure is changed, too. The laminated constitution characteristic of untreated samples turns to a grained structure. No dependence on the spray parameters used in manufacturing (grain size, spraying distance) was found. (orig.)

  12. Diazinon residues in insects from sprayed tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromborg, K.L.; Beyer, W.N.; Kolbe, E.

    1982-01-01

    Pooled samples of tobacco hornworms collected from a field sprayed with 0.84 kg/ha of diazinon were analyzed for residues at various intervals after application. No residues of the toxic metabolite diazoxon were detected (sensitivity 0.5 ppm) in any sample. Only one sample exceeded 1.0 ppm of the parent compound and was collected 4 hours after spraying. Residues declined over time (P<0.01) and none were detected (sensitivity 0.1 ppm) 18 days after spraying. the potential hazard to birds eating these insects appeared to be minimal.

  13. Spray combustion: scales, regimes, and formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Antonio L.

    2013-11-01

    This talk will cover some recent results relevant to the modeling of spray flames. Controlling parameters and combustion regimes will be reviewed. Conditions will be identified under which analyses of laminar mixing layers can shed light on aspects of turbulent spray combustion. Conservation equations will be derived for dilute sprays, including separate equations for the gas and liquid phases. Linear combinations of the gas-phase conservation equations for the species and energy will be used to formulate the problem in terms of chemistry-free coupling functions, including the relevant mixture fraction and the total enthalpy, which are not conserved scalars, because their conservation equations include source terms associated with the vaporizing droplets. Implications for spray-flamelet modeling, associated with the multivalued spatial dependence of the mixture fraction, will be explained. Applications of the coupling-function formulation to the computation of spray flames in the limit of infinitely fast reaction rate will be discussed, including the high-order corrections needed to account for the presence of droplets on the air side of the flame. Recent work on ignition of spray flames will also be presened. This talk will cover some recent results relevant to the modeling of spray flames. Controlling parameters and combustion regimes will be reviewed. Conditions will be identified under which analyses of laminar mixing layers can shed light on aspects of turbulent spray combustion. Conservation equations will be derived for dilute sprays, including separate equations for the gas and liquid phases. Linear combinations of the gas-phase conservation equations for the species and energy will be used to formulate the problem in terms of chemistry-free coupling functions, including the relevant mixture fraction and the total enthalpy, which are not conserved scalars, because their conservation equations include source terms associated with the vaporizing droplets. Implications for spray-flamelet modeling, associated with the multivalued spatial dependence of the mixture fraction, will be explained. Applications of the coupling-function formulation to the computation of spray flames in the limit of infinitely fast reaction rate will be discussed, including the high-order corrections needed to account for the presence of droplets on the air side of the flame. Recent work on ignition of spray flames will also be presened. This work was supported by the Spanish MCINN through project CSD2010-00011.

  14. Comparative evaluation of containment spray additives: detrimental impacts of an inadvertent spray actuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the results of an engineering analysis of detrimental health and economic impacts of inadvertent operation of a containment spray system. Injection spray solutions of plain water, boric acid, boric acid with hydrazine, boric acid with sodium hydroxide, and sodium borate with sodium thiosulfate were considered. It was concluded that none of the solutions would represent an acute toxicity problem to people in the containment vessel at the time of an unwanted spray system trip. Also, corrosion to safety-related equipment was found to be negligible. The major effect of spray additive type in an inadvertent spray operation appears to be the level of effort required to recover from the incident. None of the detrimental effects brought to light in this study appear to play a determining role in the selection of spray additive type

  15. Influence of Cold-Sprayed, Warm-Sprayed, and Plasma-Sprayed Layers Deposition on Fatigue Properties of Steel Specimens.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    ?ížek, J.; Matejková, M.; Dlouhý, I.; Šiška, Filip; Kay, C.M.; Karthikeyan, J.; Kuroda, S.; Kova?ík, O.; Siegl, J.; Loke, K.; Khor, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 24, ?. 5 (2015), s. 758-768. ISSN 1059-9630 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Cold spray * Fatigue * Grit-blast Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.344, year: 2014

  16. Reduction of spray pressure leads to less emission and better deposition of spray liquid at high-volume spraying in greenhouse tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Os, E.A., van; Michielsen, J.M.G.P.; Corver, F.J.M.; Berg, J.V., van de; Bruins, M.A.; Porskamp, H.A.J.; Zande, J.C., van der

    2005-01-01

    In an experimental greenhouse, growing a tomato crop, it was investigated if a reduction in spray pressure could improve the spray result, while, simultaneously, emission to the ground could be reduced. Spray deposition on the leaves and the emission to the ground was evaluated at different spray pressures (2.5, 5, 10 and 15 bar). An Empas vertical spray mast with 6x2 Teejet XR8002VK flat fan nozzles was used to spray the tomato crop in three stages of crop growth, respectively 0.75, 2.25 and...

  17. Aerial vehicle with paint for detection of radiological and chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Brunk, James L.; Day, S. Daniel

    2013-04-02

    A paint that warns of radiological or chemical substances comprising a paint operatively connected to the surface, an indicator material carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances, and a thermo-activation material carried by the paint. In one embodiment, a method of warning of radiological or chemical substances comprising the steps of painting a surface with an indicator material, and monitoring the surface for indications of the radiological or chemical substances. In another embodiment, a paint is operatively connected to a vehicle and an indicator material is carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances.

  18. Evaluation of Convergent Spray Technology{trademark} spray process for roof coating application. Environmental technology initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarpa, J.; Creighton, B.; Hall, T.; Hamlin, K.; Howard, T.

    1998-09-01

    The overall goal of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility of Convergent Spray Technology{trademark} for the roofing industry. This was accomplished by producing an environmentally compliant coating utilizing recycled materials, a CST{trademark} spray process portable application cart, and hand-held applicator with a CST{trademark} spray process nozzle. The project culminated with application of this coating to a nine hundred sixty square foot metal for NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama.

  19. Plasma Spraying of Refractory Cermets by the Water-Stabilized Spray (WSP) System.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Brožek, Vlastimil; Chráska, Pavel; Cheong, D.-I.; Yang, S.-H.

    Las Vegas : ITSC Partner Societies, 2009 - (Marple, B.; Hyland, M.; Lau, Y.; Li, C.; Lima, R.; Montavon, G.), s. 824-829 ISBN 978-1-61503-004-0. - (ITSC). [Thermal Spray 2009: International Thermal Spray Conference. Las Vegas (US), 04.05.2009-07.05.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Plasma spraying * refractory cermets * tungsten cermets * zirconium carbide Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass www.asminternational.org

  20. Evaluation of Convergent Spray Technology(TM) Spray Process for Roof Coating Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, J.; Creighton, B.; Hall, T.; Hamlin, K.; Howard, T.

    1998-01-01

    The overall goal of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility of(CST) Convergent Spray Technology (Trademark) for the roofing industry. This was accomplished by producing an environmentally compliant coating utilization recycled materials, a CST(Trademark) spray process portable application cart, and hand-held applicator with a CST(Trademark) spray process nozzle. The project culminated with application of this coating to a nine hundred sixty square foot metal for NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama.

  1. Tungsten/copper composite deposits produced by a cold spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An agglomerated tungsten/copper composite powder was both cold sprayed and plasma sprayed onto a mild steel substrate for electronic package applications. Most pores resulting from the spraying were found in the vicinity of the tungsten-rich regions of the final product. The levels of porosity varied with the amount of tungsten present. No copper oxidation was found at the cold-sprayed deposit, but relatively high copper oxidation was observed at the plasma-sprayed deposit

  2. Development of improved cold spray and HVOF deposited coatings

    OpenAIRE

    MARROCCO, Tiziana

    2008-01-01

    The overall aim of this research project was to expand the understanding of the deposition of titanium and the nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718 by spray deposition methods. The spray processes employed were cold spraying and high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying. The first part of the work was undertaken to expand the understanding of the deposition of titanium by cold spraying; the HVOF process is unsuitable for Ti because of the metal's high reactivity. The deposits were pro...

  3. Effect of Spray Parameters on the Corrosion Behavior of HVOF Sprayed WC-Co-Cr Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sheng; Wu, Yuping; Zheng, Yugui; Wang, Bo; Gao, Wenwen; Li, Gaiye; Ying, Guobing; Lin, Jinran

    2014-04-01

    WC-10Co-4Cr cermet coatings were deposited on the substrate of AISI 1045 steel by using high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying process. The Taguchi method including the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to optimize the porosity and, in turn, the corrosion resistance of the coatings. The spray parameters evaluated in this study were spray distance, oxygen flow, and kerosene flow. The results indicated that the important sequence of spray parameters on the porosity of the coatings was spray distance > oxygen flow > kerosene flow, and the spray distance was the only significant factor. The optimum spraying condition was 300 mm for the spray distance, 1900 scfh for the oxygen flow, and 6.0 gph for the kerosene flow. The results showed the significant influence of the microstructure on the corrosion resistance of the coatings. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impendence spectroscopy (EIS) results showed that the WC-10Co-4Cr cermet coating obtained by the optimum spraying condition with the lowest porosity exhibits the best corrosion resistance and seems to be an alternative to hard chromium coating.

  4. Numerical Simulation of Bi-component Droplet Evaporation and Dispersion in Spray and Spray Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Gopireddy, Srikanth Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Spray drying is one of the most widely used drying techniques to convert liquid feed into a dry powder. The modeling of spray flows and spray drying has been studied for many years now, to determine the characteristics of the end products, e.g. particle size, shape, density or porosity. So far, the simulation of polymer or sugar solution spray drying has not been studied because drying behavior as well as properties are unknown. Previous studies concentrated on the systems of milk, salt solut...

  5. A dry ice jet system for decontamination of painted metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, decontamination of painting on metal surface by dry ice jet was carried out. The influence of jet parameters on decontamination efficiency was examined. The results showed that the painting weight loss decreased with increasing speed of jet movement. The optimized parameters were target distance of 25 mm, jet angle of 63 degree, and the pressure of 0.6 -0.7 MPa, with a filtration efficiency of over 99% and 5.8-9.0 ?m particle sizes of the aerosol. For the painted samples polluted by 137Cs and 235U, the decontamination effect is excellent. For the polluted plumbum kettles,this method is effective. Therefore, the dry ice jet is an excellent technology for painting on metal surface. (authors)

  6. Diseases of Old Age in Two Paintings by Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M. Weisz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two paintings of older men by Rembrandt (1609–1669 are examined to demonstrate that historical attitudes toward diseases of old age and the ageing person’s response to illness can be investigated in paintings. The works selected are of different genres and date from different stages of Rembrandt’s own life, one from his youth and one from his old age. Both paintings show figures who have joint pathologies typically associated with the ageing process, the first involving the subject’s foot and the second involving the subject’s hand. Despite the sometimes painful nature of these conditions, the subjects are shown accommodating their illnesses while maintaining both their intellectual and social engagement and their emotional composure. Although the seventeenth century offered older people very little effective medical treatment in comparison with what is presently available, these paintings nevertheless present a view of illness as a subsidiary rather than a dominant feature of old age.

  7. Temporary health effects from exposure to water-borne paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfvarson, U; Alexandersson, R; Dahlqvist, M; Ekholm, U; Bergström, B; Scullman, J

    1992-12-01

    Temporary health effects of exposure to experimental paints were studied. Ten painters feeling nuisance from water-borne paints and eight painters not feeling such nuisance applied eight experimental water-borne paints according to normal work routines. The effects were a decrease in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s and peak expiratory flow, an increase in urine excretion, and a decrease in urine density. A small, but statistically highly significant, increase in the mean volume of erythrocytes was observed. The effects were similar in the two groups, but the "nuisance group" reacted with a larger urine excretion and a larger increase in the mean volume of erythrocytes. The effects did not influence physical work capacity. The effects on the lungs and urinary excretion were probably not associated with the organic solvents or ammonia in the paints. Instead, they were probably due to derivatives of isothiazolinone. This assumption needs verification. PMID:1485163

  8. Behaviour of painted aluminium in Ibero-American atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminium generally presents good corrosion resistance to the atmosphere. However, unprotected aluminium and aluminium alloys weather outdoors to an ugly grey colour, which deepens to black in industrial atmospheres, and undergo superficial pitting in marine atmospheres, etc. Finishing technologies are applied for their protection and decoration in a wide range of applications. These technologies basically consist of two protection processes: anodizing and painting: the latter going from conventional solvent base paints to modern water-born, high solids and powder coatings. This paper considers the weathering performance of three paint systems: alkyl, polyurethane and polyester, after more than three years of exposure in a wide spectra of Ibero-American atmospheric conditions. The information reported includes resistance to undercutting corrosion at the scribe, filiform corrosion, fungal attack and change in the physico-chemical properties of the paint surface (loss of gloss, colour changes, chalking, etc.). (Author) 9 refs

  9. Opportunities application of cleaner production practices in paint industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are releases of volatile organic compounds VOC from paint manufacturing process steps and from cleaning operations in El Mohandas Paint Factory. These emission can cause health, safety and productivity problems in the work area. Hence cleaner production application is necessary in this case. Some of the manufacturing processes and equipment used to accomplish these manufacturing are analyzed and generate cleaner production opportunities, implement some of cleaner production solutions of VOC emission control by some of the methods used by paint facilities in reducing emissions. It was found that there is no control available for emissions factors in paints manufacturing process, so that VOC emission based on raw material consumption rather than calculation emission from processes or equipment by alternative method. (Author)

  10. Emissivity measurement of high-emissivity black paint at CENAM

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D., Cárdenas-García.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To measure the temperature of the surface of an opaque object by radiation thermometry, it is necessary to know its surface emissivity. High-emissivity black paint can be applied to the inner walls of a cavity to be used as a blackbody radiator. It can also be applied to some highly reflecting metal [...] s so that their temperature can be estimated by radiation thermometry. In this work, it is described the emissivity measurement of high-emissivity black paint that has been used for the two applications described above. The average emissivity of the measured paint in the 8 to 14 micrometers wavelength range was estimated as 0.972 ± 0.012. The results obtained may be of use for those using the paint at temperatures from 50 to 150°C.

  11. Emissivity measurement of high-emissivity black paint at CENAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cárdenas-García

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To measure the temperature of the surface of an opaque object by radiation thermometry, it is necessary to know its surface emissivity. High-emissivity black paint can be applied to the inner walls of a cavity to be used as a blackbody radiator. It can also be applied to some highly reflecting metals so that their temperature can be estimated by radiation thermometry. In this work, it is described the emissivity measurement of high-emissivity black paint that has been used for the two applications described above. The average emissivity of the measured paint in the 8 to 14 micrometers wavelength range was estimated as 0.972 ± 0.012. The results obtained may be of use for those using the paint at temperatures from 50 to 150? C.

  12. Art Expertise Reduces Influence of Visual Salience on Fixation in Viewing Abstract-Paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Koide, Naoko; Kubo, Takatomi; Nishida, Satoshi; Shibata, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Kazushi

    2015-01-01

    When viewing a painting, artists perceive more information from the painting on the basis of their experience and knowledge than art novices do. This difference can be reflected in eye scan paths during viewing of paintings. Distributions of scan paths of artists are different from those of novices even when the paintings contain no figurative object (i.e. abstract paintings). There are two possible explanations for this difference of scan paths. One is that artists have high sensitivity to h...

  13. A Review on Design & Development of Semi-Automated Colour Painting Machine.

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaval Thakar; Chetan P. Vora

    2014-01-01

    Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, colour or other medium to a surface (support base). The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush but other objects can be used. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action. However, painting is also used outside of art as a common trade among craftsmen and builders. Paintings may have for their support such surface as walls, paper, canvas, wood, glass, lacquer, clay, leaf, copper ...

  14. Warburg and Poliakoff, Movement and Style (a contribution to the contemporary study of images and paintings)

    OpenAIRE

    João Ferreira Vale

    2012-01-01

    The foundation of painting on its sources or “influences” serves to achieve its integration in a group of reference from which painting, any true painting that aims at the present, can and should take part. This work aims at an updating of the analysis these influences from the means that serve as references to the pictorial analysis and creation, the images (reproductions) and the paintings themselves, by crossing two major references of Art History and Modern Painting (...

  15. Flower Men: The Australian Canon and Flower Painting 1910-1935

    OpenAIRE

    Ann Elias

    2008-01-01

    Historical studies of Hans Heysen, George Lambert, Tom Roberts and Arthur Streeton concentrate on paintings of landscape and people. Less well known are their paintings of flowers, which take the form of still-life painting or adjuncts to figure painting, such as portraits. While these artists are famous for the masculine way they approached masculine themes, and flower painting represents a stereotypically feminine subject, I argue that by making flowers their object of study, they intended ...

  16. 21 CFR 524.2482 - Triamcinolone spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in dogs —(1) Amount . Apply sufficient pump sprays to uniformly...total). (2) Indications for use . For the control of pruritus associated with allergic dermatitis. (3)...

  17. Plasma spray technology process parameters and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current trend in the structural design philosophy is based on the use of substrate with the necessary mechanical properties and a thin coating to exhibit surface properties. Plasma spray process is a versatile surface coating technique which finds extensive application in meeting advance technologies. This report describes the plasma spray technique and its use in developing coatings for various applications. The spray system is desribed in detail including the different variables such as power input to the torch, gas flow rate, powder properties, powder injection, etc. and their interrelation in deciding the quality of the coating. A brief write-up on the various plasma spray coatings developed for different applications is also included. (author). 15 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Fuel thermal stability effects on spray characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, A. H.; Nickolaus, D.

    1987-01-01

    The propensity of a heated hydrocarbon fuel toward solids deposition within a fuel injector is investigated experimentally. Fuel is arranged to flow through the injector at constant temperature, pressure, and flow rate and the pressure drop across the nozzle is monitored to provide an indication of the amount of deposition. After deposits have formed, the nozzle is removed from the test rig and its spray performance is compared with its performance before deposition. The spray characteristics measured include mean drop size, drop-size distribution, and radial and circumferential fuel distribution. It is found that small amounts of deposition can produce severe distortion of the fuel spray pattern. More extensive deposition restores spray uniformity, but the nozzle flow rate is seriously curtailed.

  19. PROPERTIES OF PLASMA AND HVOF SPRAYED COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otakar Bok?vka

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article compares the properties of plasma and HVOF thermally sprayed coatings obtained by blending the NiCrBSi and Fe2O3 powders. The deposition was performed by means of the Plancer PN-120 and the Diamond Jet guns for plasma spraying and HVOF spraying respectively. The SEM (EDS method was employed to study the microstructure of the produced coatings. Although the blended powders differ in particle size, shape, and distribution, it is possible to obtain composite coatings with an NiCrBSi matrix containing iron oxides. Except for a different microstructure, plasma and HVOF coatings have a different phase composition, which was examined using the Bruker D-8 Advance diffractometer. Studies of the coatings wear and scuffing resistance showed that an optimal content of Fe2O3 is about 26 % for plasma sprayed coatings and 22.5 % for HVOF deposited coatings.

  20. Properties of Plasma and HVOF Sprayed Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech ?órawski

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The work compares the properties of plasma and HVOF thermally sprayed coatings obtained by blending the NiCrBSi and Fe2O3 powders. The deposition was performed by means of the Plancer PN-120 and the Diamond Jet guns for plasma spraying and HVOF spraying respectively. The SEM (EDS method was employed to study the microstructure of the produced coatings. Although the blended powders differ in particle size, shape, and distribution, it is possible to obtain composite coatings with an NiCrBSi matrix containing iron oxides. Except for a different microstructure, plasma and HVOF coatings have a different phase composition, which was examined using the Bruker D-8 Advance diffractometer. Studies of the coatings wear and scuffing resistance showed that an optimal content of Fe2O3 is about 26 % for plasma sprayed coatings and 22.5 % for HVOF deposited coatings.

  1. Water Reclamation using Spray Drying Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a new spray drying technology for the recovery and recycle of water while stabilizing the solid wastes or residues as found in advanced life support...

  2. Water Reclamation using Spray Drying Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This purpose of this project is to develop a spray drying prototype to for the recovery and recycle of water from concentrated waste water recovery system brine....

  3. Characterization of paint layers and stained glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the higher magnification with respect to traditional optical microscopes, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been extensively applied in recent years to the investigation of elemental composition of many different types of artistic objects. The back-scattered and secondary electrons produced when the SEM electron beam hits the sample can be detected and converted in electronic signals which give rise to images of the scanned area. These images can be recorded in digital format and stored on a computer for subsequent processing. Moreover, in addition to the back-scattered and secondary electrons, the impact of the electron beam on the sample produces a X-ray spectrum, which can be further processed and analysed using an X-ray spectrometer coupled to the SEM. Therefore, it is possible to yield the chemical composition of the sample, analogously to the X-ray fluorescence analysis. Moreover, the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can be applied to the characterization of paint layers, making ultra-thin sections in which the paint and ground layers are preserved intact. In comparison with usual SEM measurements, the TEM technique is more precise, because of the higher spatial resolution in both the microanalysis and diffraction modes, of the order of 10-20 nm. This precision allows unique identification of each component in the layer and determination of the crystallographic structure, thus characterizing even the smallest particles of each pigment and pointing out minor components. It is then possible to establish whether a pigment is natural, manufactured, its origin as well as approximate datations. In this work, we describe the research activities performed in the laboratory recently established at the ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technology, Energy and Environment) Applied Physics Division, where dedicated SEM and TEM are connected by a suitable imaging system to a powerful computing system for image acquisition and processing. Use has been made of the so available instruments, of both the hardware and developed software, to investigate some frescoes and stained glasses of XIV-XV centuries in the Basilica of St.Petronio in Bologna, in order to study the manufacturing techniques as well as to determine whether repairs have been carried out or substitutions made of damaged parts in the past times. (author)

  4. Experiencing art: the influence of expertise and painting abstraction level

    OpenAIRE

    ElinaPihko; AnneVirtanen; TimoTossavainen

    2011-01-01

    How does expertise influence the perception of representational and abstract paintings? We asked 20 experts on art history and 20 laypersons to explore and evaluate a series of paintings ranging in style from representational to abstract in five categories. We compared subjective aesthetic judgments and emotional evaluations, gaze patterns, and electrodermal reactivity between the two groups of participants. The level of abstraction affected aesthetic judgments and emotional valence ratings o...

  5. Experiencing Art: The Influence of Expertise and Painting Abstraction Level

    OpenAIRE

    Pihko, Elina; Virtanen, Anne; Saarinen, Veli-Matti; Pannasch, Sebastian; Hirvenkari, Lotta; Tossavainen, Timo; Haapala, Arto; Hari, Riitta

    2011-01-01

    How does expertise influence the perception of representational and abstract paintings? We asked 20 experts on art history and 20 laypersons to explore and evaluate a series of paintings ranging in style from representational to abstract in five categories. We compared subjective esthetic judgments and emotional evaluations, gaze patterns, and electrodermal reactivity between the two groups of participants. The level of abstraction affected esthetic judgments and emotional valence ratings of ...

  6. Characterisation and purification of proteic binders used in easel paintings

    OpenAIRE

    A. Branco; Fialho, A; Salvador, C; Candeias, M F; Martins, S.; M. Semedo; Karmali, A; Candeias, António; Caldeira, A. Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The easel paintings emerged in the middle ages and since then have been one of the most important art expressions. These paintings are complex systems, with a chemical compositions that change with time, depending on several factors such as the technique followed by the artist; the interaction between pigments and binders; and finally the conservation practices. However the degradation of the original materials, co-presence of different proteins, environmental contamination and precedent addi...

  7. Clay ground in paintings: from Northern to Southern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buti, David; Vila, Anna

    The use of clay grounds containing quartz was first observed in the Netherlands in artworks from Rembrandt’s workshop after 1640 [1, 2]. In addition, contemporary written sources outside the Netherlands mention this practice in Italy and Spain [2]. However, the reason for using clay as a constituent in paintings has still not been much investigated, neither with regard to the processing nor the trade of the material. Did it give a particular colour/structure in order to achieve a specific final effect of the painted surface? Was clay cheaper than chalk, calcium sulphate or earth pigments? Did it give more flexibility to the painting support? Was it connected to the tile industry? Was it a waste/reuse from the ceramic production? To better understand the role of clay ground as a material and its influence on painting techniques, a number of Danish and Italian 17th century paintings from the Statens Museum for Kunst (SMK) collection were surveyed by means of SEM-EDX analyses, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy in order to characterize the materials employed in the red ground layers. The results indicate that these Danish and Italian grounds consist mainly of clay and quartz mixed with iron-based compounds. The investigation is demonstrating how widespread the use was of clays as constituent in paintings when comparing the analytical results performed on artworks from Northern and Southern Europe. This preliminary study will lead to further research focused on the link between artistic schools of the period, the transmission of technology and knowledge of employing this type of clay grounds and, possibly, tracing the origin of the raw materials employed in the grounds. [1] K. M. Groen, ArtMatters - Netherlands Technical Studies in Art, 3, 2005, 138-154. Waanders, Zwolle. [2] K. M. Groen, "Grounds in Rembrandt´s workshop and in paintings by his contemporaries", in E. van de Wetering et al. A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings, 2011, 318-334 + 660-677. Springer, Dordrecht

  8. Canvas Supports in Paintings by Nicolai Abildgaard: Fabrics and Formats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filtenborg, Troels Folke

    2015-01-01

    An investigation of the technique and materials in paintings by the Danish artist Nicolai Abildgaard (1743 – 1809) included examination of the canvas supports in a large number of his works. Thread count and weave density were studied by automated weave-mapping computer software, designed for working with digital X-radiographs. This was also used for the comparison of weave patterns in order to establish matches between the canvases of various paintings and thereby verify that different canvases...

  9. APPLICATION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF WATERBORNE ROAD MARKING PAINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Babi?

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal road markings are one of the essential safety features of modern roadways. All of the utilised systems consist of a pigmented coating containing partially embedded retroreflective elements such as glass beads. In addition to durability and functionality of the road marking, ease of application and effect on human health and environment are primary considerations for their selection. Road marking systems can be divided into plural component materials that cure due to chemical reaction occurring at the site of application, thermoplastics that require heat for application, and paints, drying upon evaporation of the dissolving medium. The focus of this paper is on road marking paints with a special emphasis on contemporary waterborne materials. Over 100 years old solventborne technology furnishes paints that afford consistent application properties under a variety of conditions such as lower temperatures and high humidity. Their environmental and human health impact is significant and durability quite poor. Modern waterborne paints are based on acrylic resins and incorporate developed in the 1990s quick-set chemical mechanism for drying. Under favourable weather conditions, they dry faster as compared to solventborne. However, their known weakness is risk of washout in case of rain and sluggish development of washout resistance at marginal application conditions like high humidity and low temperature. Impact of waterborne paints on human health and environment is very significantly minimised as compared to other materials. Their durability is significantly higher as compared to solvent-based paints. Analysis of characteristics of waterborne road marking paints and preliminary results from their trial application in Croatia are presented herein. Based on the presented comparison with solventborne materials, after results from test application become available, intelligent decisions regarding future use of waterborne road marking paints in Croatia and other countries that have not embraced this technology shall be possible.

  10. A study of paint sludge deactivation by pyrolysis reactions

    OpenAIRE

    L.A.R. Muniz; A. R. COSTA; E. Steffani; A.J. Zattera; K. Hofsetz; K. Bossardi; Valentini, L.

    2003-01-01

    The production of large quantities of paint sludge is a serious environmental problem. This work evaluates the use of pyrolysis reaction as a process for deactivating paint sludge that generates a combustible gas phase, a solvent liquid phase and an inert solid phase. These wastes were classified into three types: water-based solvent (latex resin) and solvents based on their resins (alkyd and polyurethane). An electrically heated stainless steel batch reactor with a capacity of 579 mL and a m...

  11. The Conservation of Panel paintings : Research Agenda 2014-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Until the early 17th century almost all portable paintings were created on wood supports, including masterpieces by famous painters, ranging from Giotto to Dürer to Rembrandt. The structural conservation of these paintings requires specific knowledge and skills as the supports are susceptible to damage caused by unstable environmental conditions. Unfortunately, past structural interventions often caused significant damage due to insufficient knowledge of the behaviour of the wood panels, glue and paint layers. Over the last fifty years, the field has developed treatment strategies based on interdisciplinary collaboration and on the knowledge of specialist conservators. Most current conservation protocols rely on empirical knowledge of conservators and are not necessarily based on a scientific understanding of the nature and behaviour of wood and paint layers. In order to move the field forward, it is imperative to strengthen scientific research into the production methods, ageing and future behaviour of panel paintings, being an intricate interplay between different materials. A deeper understanding of the processes that adversely affect panel paintings over time will contribute to the improved care and conservation of these artworks. The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) and the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam brought together a group of experts from different disciplines to recommend specific areas in the field that would benefit from systematic research. The experts concluded that targeted interdisciplinary research projects are key to understanding the behaviour of panel paintings and help conservators make better informed decisions. Research into chemical and physical properties of wood, glue and paint layers should be combined with an evaluation of past and current conservation treatments. Research should also consider the history of the object, studio practice, conservation history and thoughts on long-term impact of treatments.

  12. Respiratory effects of exposure of shipyard workers to epoxy paints.

    OpenAIRE

    Rempel, D.; Jones, J.; Atterbury, M; Balmes, J

    1991-01-01

    Epoxy resin systems have been associated with occupational asthma in several case reports, but medical publications contain little on the potential adverse respiratory effects of these chemicals in exposed worker populations. To further evaluate the association of workplace exposure to epoxy paints and respiratory dysfunction, the cross workshift changes in pulmonary function and symptoms of 32 shipyard painters exposed to epoxy paints were compared with 28 shipyard painters not exposed to ep...

  13. An advanced analytical study on linseed oil paint binder

    OpenAIRE

    Selleri, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Drying oils, and in particular linseed oil, were the most common binding media employed in painting between XVI and XIX centuries. Artists usually operated some pre-treatments on the oils to obtain binders with modified properties, such as different handling qualities or colour. Oil processing has a key role on the subsequent ageing of and degradation of linseed oil paints. In this thesis a multi-analytical approach was adopted to investigate the drying, polymerization and oxidative degra...

  14. Pediatric diseases in Juan Carreño de Miranda's paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lage, Juan F; Pérez-Espejo, Miguel A; Galarza, Marcelo

    2012-02-01

    Pediatric obesity has become a widespread problem of health in developed countries. Overweight in the pediatric population obeys to a variety of causes. A few of Carreño de Miranda's paintings show pathological conditions occurring in children of his epoch. We briefly illustrate the significance of Carreño's paintings that portray some of these diseases. Two of his best-known works constitute an artistic representation of childhood obesity. PMID:22205535

  15. Laser Surface Annealing of Plasma Sprayed Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Yue Hung; Ahmed Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Laser surface annealing provides a rapid and efficient means for surface alloying and modification of ceramic materials. In this study, Alumina-13% Titania coatings were sprayed with a water-stabilized plasma spray gun. The coated surface was treated by Excimer laser having a wavelength of 248 nm and pulse duration of 24 ns. The surface structure of the treated coating was examined by field emission scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A detailed analysis of the effects o...

  16. Mechanical properties of plasma sprayed titania coatings.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Neufuss, Karel; Chráska, Pavel

    Ohio, USA : ASM International Materials Park OH 44073-0002, 2006, s9-5-11948. [International Thermal Spray Conference 2006. Seattle, WA, USA (US), 15.05.2006-18.05.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R(CZ) 1QS200430560 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : plasma spraying * titania coating * nanopowder * structure * porosity * microhardness * slurry abrasion Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass

  17. Thermal spray fundamentals from powder to part

    CERN Document Server

    Fauchais, Pierre L; Boulos, Maher

    2014-01-01

    This book provides readers with the fundamentals necessary for the process understanding thermal spray technology. Each chapter is preceded by a summary which allows each reader to judge the importance of the information in it for any specific purpose. This book will serve as an invaluable resource as a textbook for graduate courses in this field and as an exhaustive reference for professionals involved in thermal spray technology.

  18. New tools to optimise spray dryers

    OpenAIRE

    Verschueren, M (Maykel); Straatsma, J.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Akkerman, C.; Jong, P

    2007-01-01

    Spray drying is an essential unit operation for the manufacture of many products with specific powder properties. It is characterised by atomisation of a solution or suspension into droplets, followed by subsequent drying of these droplets by evaporation of water or other solvents. Spray drying is used for the manufacture of many consumer and industrial products such as instant food products, laundry detergents, pharmaceuticals, ceramics and agrochemicals. The best known example of an instant...

  19. Automatic targeting of plasma spray gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A means for monitoring the material portion in the flame of a plasma spray gun during spraying operations is described. A collimated detector, sensitive to certain wavelengths of light emission, is used to locate the centroid of the material with each pass of the gun. The response from the detector is then relayed to the gun controller to be used to automatically realign the gun

  20. External spray cooling of the Loviisa containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Loviisa nuclear power plant in Finland comprises two Russian VVER-440 reactors furnished with ice condenser containments. The authors discuss the thermal-hydraulic basis of the external spray design as part of a strategy of severe accident assessment and management. They report and comment design calculations and supporting experiments (pressurization by decay heat calculations, experiments in the HDR facility and in the Victoria facility), describe the external spray system (design basis, system description and operation)

  1. Plasma-Sprayed Coatings on Porous Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibert, C. H.

    1986-01-01

    Need for combining benefits of duplex thermal-barrier coatings with film cooling on gas-turbine vanes and blades stimulated development of improved method for plasma spraying these coatings. Method reduces blocking of holes by plasma-sprayed material and at same time reduces base-metal oxidation during coating operation. Features provide potential for increased engine efficiency and power, reduced fuel consumption, use of less costly materials or construction procedures, and extended life and durability.

  2. Radiocarbon determinations for Chillagoe rock paintings: small sample AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indirect dating methods have been applied to the rock paintings of Chillagoe, north Queensland, revealing patterns of superimposition, depictions of items of known antiquity, the use of fragile paints such as mud, and in-situ pigment stratigraphies (David 1994). These patterns suggest that the Chillagoe rock paintings are relatively young, likely less than 3000 years old. A change in the geographical distribution of rock painting styles suggests a regionalization of the styles starting around 3000 years BP. Such regionalization implies that major cultural changes accompanied the changes in rock painting styles. This model of temporal change is now being investigated through a collaboration between the University of Queensland, ANSTO and the Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University to directly analyze radiocarbon in the charcoal pigments in several of the Chillagoe rock paintings. Samples collected from fourteen separate charcoal rock drawings at five rock shelters in the Chillagoe region were submitted to plasma chemical treatment. Though unreactive, the excited and energetic argon atoms in the plasma remove surface-absorbed CO2 through inelastic collisions. Samples yielding less than 100 micrograms carbon required special handling for AMS analysis. An isotope dilution technique utilizing 14C-free carbon was chosen. Radiocarbon analysis were also performed and the results will be presented

  3. Experiencing art: the influence of expertise and painting abstraction level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Pihko

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available How does expertise influence the perception of representational and abstract paintings? We asked 20 experts on art history and 20 laypersons to explore and evaluate a series of paintings ranging in style from representational to abstract in five categories. We compared subjective aesthetic judgments and emotional evaluations, gaze patterns, and electrodermal reactivity between the two groups of participants. The level of abstraction affected aesthetic judgments and emotional valence ratings of the laypersons but had no effect on the opinions of the experts: the laypersons’ aesthetic and emotional ratings were highest for representational paintings and lowest for abstract paintings, whereas the opinions of the experts were independent of the abstraction level. The gaze patterns of both groups changed as the level of abstraction increased: the number of fixations and the length of the scanpaths increased while the duration of the fixations decreased. The viewing strategies—reflected in the target, location and path of the fixations—however indicated that experts and laypersons paid attention to different aspects of the paintings. The electrodermal reactivity did not vary according to the level of abstraction in either group but expertise was reflected in weaker responses, compared with laypersons, to information received about the paintings.

  4. Honeybees can discriminate between Monet and Picasso paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen; Moreno, Antonio M; Tangen, Jason M; Reinhard, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) have remarkable visual learning and discrimination abilities that extend beyond learning simple colours, shapes or patterns. They can discriminate landscape scenes, types of flowers, and even human faces. This suggests that in spite of their small brain, honeybees have a highly developed capacity for processing complex visual information, comparable in many respects to vertebrates. Here, we investigated whether this capacity extends to complex images that humans distinguish on the basis of artistic style: Impressionist paintings by Monet and Cubist paintings by Picasso. We show that honeybees learned to simultaneously discriminate between five different Monet and Picasso paintings, and that they do not rely on luminance, colour, or spatial frequency information for discrimination. When presented with novel paintings of the same style, the bees even demonstrated some ability to generalize. This suggests that honeybees are able to discriminate Monet paintings from Picasso ones by extracting and learning the characteristic visual information inherent in each painting style. Our study further suggests that discrimination of artistic styles is not a higher cognitive function that is unique to humans, but simply due to the capacity of animals-from insects to humans-to extract and categorize the visual characteristics of complex images. PMID:23076444

  5. Emission of Isothiazolinones from Water-Based Paints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Kolarik, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The isothiazolinone preservatives methylisothiazolinone (MI), methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI), and benzisothiazolinone (BIT) are used in a wide variety of products including paint and cosmetics, and they are known to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Among painters they are one of the most common causes of contact dermatitis. Furthermore, they are all volatile, and severe reactions caused by emissions of especially MI from paint have been reported recently. In this study the concentrations of MI, BIT, and MCI in water-based paint were analyzed by LC-MS-MS, and the emissions from the paints were measured in climate chambers and in an apartment. Nineteen paints were analyzed for the content of MI, MCI, and BIT. All 19 paints contained MI, 16 contained BIT, and 4 contained MCI. In the chamber experiment emission of MI peaked within hours of application but then continued at a slow rate for more than 42 days. MCI was emitted more slowly and peaked after several days. BIT emissions were all around the limit of detection. In the apartment we were able to detect emission of MI several days after application. Long lasting evaporation and thus chronic exposure give credibility to the clinical observations that MI can be an important cause of airborne contact dermatitis among painters and consumers.

  6. Emission of isothiazolinones from water-based paints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael D; Kolarik, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The isothiazolinone preservatives methylisothiazolinone (MI), methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI), and benzisothiazolinone (BIT) are used in a wide variety of products including paint and cosmetics, and they are known to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Among painters they are one of the most common causes of contact dermatitis. Furthermore, they are all volatile, and severe reactions caused by emissions of especially MI from paint have been reported recently. In this study the concentrations of MI, BIT, and MCI in water-based paint were analyzed by LC-MS-MS, and the emissions from the paints were measured in climate chambers and in an apartment. Nineteen paints were analyzed for the content of MI, MCI, and BIT. All 19 paints contained MI, 16 contained BIT, and 4 contained MCI. In the chamber experiment emission of MI peaked within hours of application but then continued at a slow rate for more than 42 days. MCI was emitted more slowly and peaked after several days. BIT emissions were all around the limit of detection. In the apartment we were able to detect emission of MI several days after application. Long lasting evaporation and thus chronic exposure give credibility to the clinical observations that MI can be an important cause of airborne contact dermatitis among painters and consumers.

  7. Vacuum plasma sprayed alumina-titania coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacuum plasma spraying is gaining acceptance as a source of high quality coatings for many materials on a wide range of substrates. The process produces coatings that exhibit excellent wear, corrosion resistance and high-temperature behavior. In this study, alumina-titania powder was deposited on graphite using controlled vacuum spraying to minimize the porosity of the sprayed ceramic. Experiments were conducted using a statistical, fractional factorial design parametric study. Operating parameters were varied around the typical spray parameters in a Taguchi design of experiments to display the range of plasma processing conditions and their effect on the measured coating characteristics. The Taguchi design evaluated the effect of three plasma processing variables on the measured response: current, primary gas flow and secondary gas flow. The coating qualities evaluated were thickness, porosity, surface roughness and microhardness. This paper discusses the influence of processing parameters on as-sprayed coating qualities. The best coatings were produced with a high power setting and a high ratio of secondary gas flow to the total gas flow. The paper also discusses the effect of thermal cycling on ceramic samples in an inert atmosphere (i.e. helium). Results indicated no degradation of the coating. A vacuum plasma sprayed ceramic coating was applied to graphite to demonstrate the feasibility of using the coating to protect graphite from oxidation

  8. Noise emissions in thermal spray operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, K. A.

    2002-09-01

    Acoustic noise generation is an accompanying effect produced during thermal spraying. This type of noise is found both during the preparatory stages, such as grit blasting and compressed air cleaning, and during thermal spraying. A real-time noise meter was used to measure the noise level at frequencies between 63 and 8000 Hz during the operation of powder flame, wire flame, wire arc, air plasma, and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spraying processes. Noise was reported as either an A-weighted noise spectrum or an equivalent sound pressure level. The effect of different parameters, such as secondary plasma gas type, modes of wire flame torch operation, and use of compressed air cooling were investigated. The results indicated that the turbulence of the gas departing from the torch gives rise to jet noise. High gas flows mainly contributed to the lower frequencies, whereas combustion and plasma generation contributed to the higher frequencies. Noise level was the highest (123 dB(A)) with HVOF spraying and air plasma spraying with the use of a small-diameter nozzle and hydrogen as a secondary plasma gas. All manual operators of thermal spray equipment require hearing protection. The use of different hearing protection devices is discussed and the attenuation provided by each device is reported.

  9. IN THE CONTEMPORARY TURKISH PAINTING TRADITIONAL INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol KILIÇ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the establishment of the Republic, we are witnesses to effording to form identity by Turkish painters in Turkish painting as in other areas of the arts. Turgut Zaim and Nurullah Berk are the first examples we can give. The early 1950s, intense discussions were made on the identity in the fields of art and in this context, artists have tried their first products in traditional interaction. While Turgut Zaim and Nurullah Berk's miniature interactive experiments were going on, in parallel with the influencing progress of the artists of abstract expressionist art, Calligraphy in Turkey, ornaments and decorative surface and creating an image of the carpet-rug patterns are seen in the effects. Initially, traditional interaction which was appeared as a formal has continued to be internalized in the following process and affected on creations of young artists generation after 1970 period. Traditional interaction is still going on in the individual creations of young Turkish artists at the present.

  10. Structural content in paintings: artists overregularize oriented content of paintings relative to the typical natural scene bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweinhart, April M; Essock, Edward A

    2013-01-01

    Natural scenes tend to be biased in both scale (1/f) and orientation (H > V > O; horizontal > vertical > oblique), and the human visual system has similar biases that serve to partially 'undo' (ie whiten) the resultant representation. The present approach to investigating this relationship considers content in works of art-scenes produced for processing by the human visual system. We analyzed the content of images by a method that minimizes errors inherent in some prior analysis methods. In the first experiment museum paintings were considered by comparing the amplitude spectrum of landscape paintings, natural scene photos, portrait paintings, and photos of faces. In the second experiment we obtained photos of paintings at the time they were produced by local artists and compared structural content in matched photos which contained the same scenes that the artists had painted. Results show that artists produce paintings with both the 1/f bias of scale and the horizontal-effect bias of orientation (H > V > O). More importantly, results from both experiments show that artists overregularize the structure in their works: they impose the natural-scene horizontal effect at all structural scales and in all types of subject matter even though, in the real world, the pattern of anisotropy differs considerably across spatial scale and between faces and natural scenes. It appears that artists unconsciously overregularize the oriented structure in their works to make it conform more uniformly to the 'expected' canonical ideal. PMID:24649634

  11. External characteristics of unsteady spray atomization from a nasal spray device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Man Chiu; Inthavong, Kiao; Yang, William; Lappas, Petros; Tu, Jiyuan

    2013-03-01

    The nasal route presents an enormous opportunity to exploit the highly vascularized respiratory airway for systemic drug delivery to provide more rapid onset of therapy and reduced drug degradation compared with conventional oral routes. The dynamics of atomization at low injection pressure is less known as typical spray atomization studies have focused on industrial applications such as fuel injection that are performed at much higher pressure. An experimental test station was designed in house and an alternative method to characterize the external spray is presented. This involved the use of high-speed camera to capture the temporal development of the spray as it is atomized through actuation of the spray device. An image-processing technique based on edge detection was developed to automate processing through the large number of images captured. The results showed that there are three main phases of spray development (prestable, stable, and poststable) that can be correlated by examining the spray width. A comparison with a human nasal cavity is made to put into perspective the dimensions and geometry that the spray atomization produces. This study aimed to extend the current existing set of data to contribute toward a better understanding in nasal spray drug delivery. PMID:23303644

  12. Heavy duty plasma spray gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A heavy duty plasma spray gun for extended industrial service is disclosed. The gun includes a gas distribution member made of a material having a coefficient of expansion different from that of the parts surrounding it. The gas distribution member is forcibly urged by a resilient member such as a coiled spring against a seal so as to assure the plasma gas is introduced into the gun arc in a manner only defined by the gas distribution member. The gun has liquid cooling for the nozzle (anode) and the cathode. Double seals are provided between the coolant and the arc region and a vent is provided between the seals which provides an indication when a seal has failed. Some parts of the gun are electrically isolated from others by an intermediate member which is formed as a sandwich of two rigid metal face pieces and an insulator disposed between them. The metal face pieces provide a rigid body to attach the remaining parts in proper alignment therewith

  13. Study on Spray Characteristics and Spray Droplets Dynamic Behavior of Diesel Engine Fueled by Rapeseed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapit Azwan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel-air mixing is important process in diesel combustion. It directly affects the combustion and emission of diesel engine. Biomass fuel needs great help to atomize because the fuel has high viscosity and high distillation temperature. This study investigates the atomization characteristics and droplet dynamic behaviors of diesel engine spray fueled by rapeseed oil (RO. Optical observation of RO spray was carried out using shadowgraph photography technique. Single nano-spark photography technique was used to study the characteristics of the rapeseed oil spray while dual nano-spark shadowgraph technique was used to study the spray droplet behavior. The results show that RO has very poor atomization due to the high viscosity nature of the fuel. This is in agreement with the results from spray droplet dynamic behavior studies that shows due to the high viscosity, the droplets are large in size and travel downward, with very little influence of entrainment effect due to its large kinematic energy.

  14. Characteristics of wetting temperature during spray cooling. 2nd report, results for nonuniform spray impingement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study has been done to elucidate effects of mass flux G, degree of subcooling ?Tsub, initial solid temperature Tb0 and thermal properties of test liquid and hot block on wetting temperature during spray cooling of a hot block. The heated surface was cooled nonuniformly with spray, which impinged partially on the surface. This experiment partly simulates actual spray cooling with multiple sprays. The experiments were done up to maximum mass flux of 72 kg/(m2s) with fixed subcooling of 60 K with copper and carbon steel blocks for ethanol spray. Transient transition region is categorized into two regions from history of heat flux change. The wetting temperature corresponding to the minimum heat flux point wall temperature and the quench temperature were also evaluated. The wetting temperature increases with G?Tsub beyond the surface temperature corresponding to liquid superheat limit temperature. (author)

  15. Research on spray fire technology and experiment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spray fire due to the leakage of sodium from pipe of heat exchanger nearby was analyzed to understand its cause and results. The rate of sodium leakage and the diameter of sodium droplet were developed in the piping under postulated fire scenarios. Comparing to the rate of flow and droplet diameter with water spray experiments, on the basis of the analysis of the formation for droplet spray and parameters relationships with different sizes of the hole and flow rate, sodium spray nozzle is selected to gather data of spray fires that will result in more advanced understanding of sodium spray combustion phenomena. (authors)

  16. Analysis and flamelet modelling for spray combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Yuya; Kurose, Ryoichi

    The validity of a steady-flamelet model and a flamelet/progress-variable approach for gaseous and spray combustion is investigated by a two-dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS) of gaseous and spray jet flames, and the combustion characteristics are analysed. A modified flamelet/progress-variable approach, in which total enthalpy rather than product mass fraction is chosen as a progress variable, is also examined. DNS with an Arrhenius formation, in which the chemical reaction is directly solved in the physical flow field, is performed as a reference to validate the combustion models. The results show that the diffusion flame is dominant in the gaseous diffusion jet flame, whereas diffusion and premixed flames coexist in the spray jet flame. The characteristics of the spray flame change from premixed-diffusion coexistent to diffusion-dominant downstream. Comparisons among the results from DNS with various combustion models show the modified flamelet/progress-variable approach to be superior to the other combustion models, particularly for the spray flame. Where the behaviour of the gaseous total enthalpy is strongly affected by the energy transfer (i.e. heat transfer and mass transfer) from the dispersed droplet, and this effect can be accounted for only by solving the conservation equation of the total enthalpy. However, even the DNS with the modified flamelet/progress-variable approach tends to underestimate the gaseous temperature in the central region of the spray jet flame. To increase the prediction accuracy, a combustion model for the partially premixed flame for the spray flame is necessary.

  17. Occupational exposure through spraying remedial pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrod, A N; Rimmer, D A; Robertshaw, L; Jones, T

    1998-04-01

    A total of 20 surveys at 15 sites of remedial in-situ timber and masonry treatment took place in the latter half of 1996. Two of these surveys concerned wall washes (biocides), the remainder were non-agricultural pesticides. The purpose was to measure the surface deposition and inhalation exposure of the operatives to the pesticide spray fluids used. The diluted spray fluids were found to have significantly different concentrations from those intended by the sprayer. The pesticides were applied at pressures between 320 and 1050 kPa. Deposition rates for spray fluid on coveralls covered a wide range, with more than 30 fold difference between the median and the highest results (median 209 mg/minute; range 27.4 to 6550 mg/min). Contamination of coveralls occurred in all surveys, with the pesticide getting beneath the coveralls in 95% of surveys, with a median 5% contamination beneath the overall. The averaged and normalised deposition pattern was 75% legs, 11% arms, 12% torso and 2% head. Exposure of hands to pesticide (expressed as spray fluid) beneath protective gloves occurred in 89% of surveys (median 5.78 mg/minute; range 0.23 to 358 mg/min) and contamination of socks by spray fluid in 78% of surveys (median 2.08 mg/minute; range 0.12 to 260 mg/min). Exposure by inhalation to spray fluid was measurable in 72% of surveys (median 53.5 mg/m3 TWA; range 4.33 to 1320 mg/m3; 2 data excluded). Inhalation exposure and deposition on coveralls rose markedly at spray pressures above 700 kPa (100 psi). PMID:9684556

  18. Fabrication of Oxidation-Resistant Metal Wire Network-Based Transparent Electrodes by a Spray-Roll Coating Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiruthika, S; Gupta, Ritu; Anand, Aman; Kumar, Ankush; Kulkarni, G U

    2015-12-16

    Roll and spray coating methods have been employed for the fabrication of highly oxidation resistant transparent and conducting electrodes (TCEs) by a simple solution process using crackle lithography technique. We have spray-coated a crackle paint-based precursor to produce highly interconnected crackle network on PET roll mounted on a roll coater with web speed of 0.6 m/min. Ag TCE with a transmittance of 78% and sheet resistance of ?20 ?/? was derived by spraying Ag precursor ink over the crackle template followed by lift-off and annealing under ambient conditions. The Ag wire mesh was stable toward bending and sonication tests but prone to oxidation in air. When electrolessly coated with Pd, its robustness toward harsh oxidation conditions was enhanced. A low-cost transparent electrode has also been realized by using only small amounts of Ag as seed layer and growing Cu wire mesh by electroless method. Thus, made Ag/Cu meshes are found to be highly stable for more than a year even under ambient atmosphere. PMID:26580415

  19. / The 'Philosophical paintings' of the Republic

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Zacharoula A., Petraki.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo examino la apropiación platónica del lenguaje poético en República y sostengo que, a pesar de sus críticas a la poesía en los libros 3 y 10, el lenguaje poético está correctamente entrelazado dentro del tejido filosófico para pintar lo corrupto, lo feo y lo inmoral. En términ [...] os específicos, la adaptación platónica de diversos motivos poéticos e imágenes en República se vuelve más significativa si prestamos atención a Sócrates como un quasi-pintor en el diálogo e interpretamos sus imágenes filosóficas como una respuesta de la filosofía a las engañosas representaciones dramáticas de la poesía. De este modo, el arte de la pintura que, incluso es criticado en el libro 10 de República, en manos de Platón resulta una herramienta filosófica que le permite investigar la relación de nuestro mundo senso-perceptivo ordinario con el campo metafísico de las Ideas y el lugar de lo humano en él. Abstract in english In this article I examine Plato's appropriation of poetic language in the Republic and argue that, despite his criticism of poetry in Books 3 and 10, poetic language is justifiably weaved into the philosophical fabric to depict the corrupt, the ugly and the base. In specific terms, Plato's adaptatio [...] n of several poetic motifs and images in the Republic becomes more meaningful if we choose to pay attention to Socrates as a quasi painter in the dialogue and interpret his philosophical images as philosophy's response to the deceptive dramatic representations of poetry. Thus the art of painting, which is also criticised in Republic Book 10, in Plato's hands becomes a philosophical tool which helps him investigate the relation of our mundane sense-perceptive world to the metaphysical realm of the Ideas and humans' place in it.

  20. Failure-probability driven dose painting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogelius, Ivan R.; Håkansson, Katrin; Due, Anne K.; Aznar, Marianne C.; Kristensen, Claus A.; Rasmussen, Jacob; Specht, Lena [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100 (Denmark); Berthelsen, Anne K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark and Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100 (Denmark); Bentzen, Søren M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark and Departments of Human Oncology and Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate a data-driven dose-painting strategy based on the spatial distribution of recurrences in previously treated patients. The result is a quantitative way to define a dose prescription function, optimizing the predicted local control at constant treatment intensity. A dose planning study using the optimized dose prescription in 20 patients is performed.Methods: Patients treated at our center have five tumor subvolumes from the center of the tumor (PET positive volume) and out delineated. The spatial distribution of 48 failures in patients with complete clinical response after (chemo)radiation is used to derive a model for tumor control probability (TCP). The total TCP is fixed to the clinically observed 70% actuarial TCP at five years. Additionally, the authors match the distribution of failures between the five subvolumes to the observed distribution. The steepness of the dose–response is extracted from the literature and the authors assume 30% and 20% risk of subclinical involvement in the elective volumes. The result is a five-compartment dose response model matching the observed distribution of failures. The model is used to optimize the distribution of dose in individual patients, while keeping the treatment intensity constant and the maximum prescribed dose below 85 Gy.Results: The vast majority of failures occur centrally despite the small volumes of the central regions. Thus, optimizing the dose prescription yields higher doses to the central target volumes and lower doses to the elective volumes. The dose planning study shows that the modified prescription is clinically feasible. The optimized TCP is 89% (range: 82%–91%) as compared to the observed TCP of 70%.Conclusions: The observed distribution of locoregional failures was used to derive an objective, data-driven dose prescription function. The optimized dose is predicted to result in a substantial increase in local control without increasing the predicted risk of toxicity.

  1. A Study on Cavitation Erosion and Corrosion Behavior of Al-, Zn-, Cu-, and Fe-Based Coatings Prepared by Arc Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Hong; Lee, Myeong-Hoon

    2010-12-01

    Investigation to find a suitable coating material for a rudder application has been carried out in this study. Ten different coatings were prepared by arc spraying with Al-, Zn-, Cu-, and Fe-based wire feedstock. Both the cavitation erosion and marine corrosion behavior of the arc-sprayed coatings were evaluated, and compared with the conventional anti-corrosion paint. In terms of marine corrosion resistance, aluminum coating was the best among the tested coating systems while stainless steel coating showed the highest resistance against cavitation erosion. In addition, the effects of both the Si composition in Al-based coatings and the Ni composition in Cu- and Fe- based coatings were discussed in this study.

  2. Microalgal cell disruption via ultrasonic nozzle spraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M; Yuan, W

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the effect of operating parameters, including ultrasound amplitude, spraying pressure, nozzle orifice diameter, and initial cell concentration on microalgal cell disruption and lipid extraction in an ultrasonic nozzle spraying system (UNSS). Two algal species including Scenedesmus dimorphus and Nannochloropsis oculata were evaluated. Experimental results demonstrated that the UNSS was effective in the disruption of microalgal cells indicated by significant changes in cell concentration and Nile red-stained lipid fluorescence density between all treatments and the control. It was found that increasing ultrasound amplitude generally enhanced cell disruption and lipid recovery although excessive input energy was not necessary for best results. The effect of spraying pressure and nozzle orifice diameter on cell disruption and lipid recovery was believed to be dependent on the competition between ultrasound-induced cavitation and spraying-generated shear forces. Optimal cell disruption was not always achieved at the highest spraying pressure or biggest nozzle orifice diameter; instead, they appeared at moderate levels depending on the algal strain and specific settings. Increasing initial algal cell concentration significantly reduced cell disruption efficiency. In all UNSS treatments, the effectiveness of cell disruption and lipid recovery was found to be dependent on the algal species treated. PMID:25369896

  3. Containment atmosphere response to external sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of external sprays to a containment steel shell can be an effective energy removal method and has been proposed in the passive AP-600 design. Reduction of the steel shell temperature in contact with the containment atmosphere enhances both heat and mass transfer driving forces. Large scale experimental data in this area is scarce, therefore the measurements obtained from the E series tests conducted at the German HDR facility deserve special attention. These long term tests simulated various severe accident conditions, including external spraying of the hemispherical steel shell. This investigation focuses upon the integral response of the HDR containment atmosphere during spray periods and upon methods by which lumped parameter system codes, like CONTAIN, model the underlying condensation phenomena. Increases in spray water flowrates above a minimum value were ineffective at improving containment pressure reduction since the limiting resistance for energy transfer lies in the noncondensable-vapor boundary layer at the inner condensing surface. The spray created an unstable condition by cooling the upper layers of a heated atmosphere and thus inducing global natural circulation flows in the facility and subsequently, abrupt changes in lighter-than-air noncondensable (J2/He) concentrations. Modeling results using the CONTAIN code are outlined and code limitations are delineated

  4. Containment atmosphere response to external sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.; Almenas, K. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The application of external sprays to a containment steel shell can be an effective energy removal method and has been proposed in the passive AP-600 design. Reduction of the steel shell temperature in contact with the containment atmosphere enhances both heat and mass transfer driving forces. Large scale experimental data in this area is scarce, therefore the measurements obtained from the E series tests conducted at the German HDR facility deserve special attention. These long term tests simulated various severe accident conditions, including external spraying of the hemispherical steel shell. This investigation focuses upon the integral response of the HDR containment atmosphere during spray periods and upon methods by which lumped parameter system codes, like CONTAIN, model the underlying condensation phenomena. Increases in spray water flowrates above a minimum value were ineffective at improving containment pressure reduction since the limiting resistance for energy transfer lies in the noncondensable-vapor boundary layer at the inner condensing surface. The spray created an unstable condition by cooling the upper layers of a heated atmosphere and thus inducing global natural circulation flows in the facility and subsequently, abrupt changes in lighter-than-air noncondensable (J{sub 2}/He) concentrations. Modeling results using the CONTAIN code are outlined and code limitations are delineated.

  5. New approaches for investigating paintings by ion beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, L., E-mail: Lucile.beck@cea.f [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France (C2RMF), CNRS-UMR 171, Palais du Louvre - Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Viguerie, L. de; Walter, Ph.; Pichon, L. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France (C2RMF), CNRS-UMR 171, Palais du Louvre - Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Gutierrez, P.C. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Salomon, J.; Menu, M. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France (C2RMF), CNRS-UMR 171, Palais du Louvre - Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Sorieul, S. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, IN2P3, UMR 5797, Universite de Bordeaux 1, Chemin du Solarium BP120, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France)

    2010-06-15

    Up to now, among the IBA techniques, only PIXE has been used for analyzing paintings. However, quantitative PIXE analysis is sometimes difficult to interpret due to the layered structure, the presence of varnish and organic binder and, in some cases, discoloration of the pigments has been observed due to the interaction of the ion beam with the compounds. In order to improve the characterization of paintings, we propose some alternative experimental procedures. First of all, backscattering spectrometry (BS) and PIXE are simultaneously combined in order to collect complementary information such as layer thickness and organic compound quantification. The simultaneous PIXE and BS experiments also have the advantage of being able to analyze the same area in one experiment. This combination, implemented with an external beam, was directly applied on paintings and on painting cross-sections for the study of Italian Renaissance masterpieces. We have obtained valuable results not only on the pigment itself but also, for the first time, on the binder to pigment proportion which is not well documented in the ancient recipes. Moreover, in order to restrain beam damages due to the ion stopping power, we propose to analyze very thin painting cross-sections by a combination of PIXE-RBS and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM).

  6. Paint coating characterization for thermoelastic stress analysis of metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) it is normal practice to coat metallic specimens with black paint to enhance and standardize the surface emissivity. It is assumed that the paint coating has no effect on the thermal emission from the specimen, but it is well known that the response is sensitive to paint coating thickness, particularly at higher frequencies. In this paper the effects of loading frequency and paint coating thickness on the thermoelastic response are investigated. The thermoelastic response is compared to theory, and optimum test conditions and coating characteristics are suggested. The motivation for the work is to develop a TSA-based means of residual stress assessment, where the measurement of much smaller temperature changes than those that are resolved in standard TSA is required; therefore the analysis is much more sensitive to the effects of the paint coating. However, the work presented in this paper is relevant to a wide range of TSA investigations and presents data that will be of interest to all practitioners of TSA

  7. New approaches for investigating paintings by ion beam techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up to now, among the IBA techniques, only PIXE has been used for analyzing paintings. However, quantitative PIXE analysis is sometimes difficult to interpret due to the layered structure, the presence of varnish and organic binder and, in some cases, discoloration of the pigments has been observed due to the interaction of the ion beam with the compounds. In order to improve the characterization of paintings, we propose some alternative experimental procedures. First of all, backscattering spectrometry (BS) and PIXE are simultaneously combined in order to collect complementary information such as layer thickness and organic compound quantification. The simultaneous PIXE and BS experiments also have the advantage of being able to analyze the same area in one experiment. This combination, implemented with an external beam, was directly applied on paintings and on painting cross-sections for the study of Italian Renaissance masterpieces. We have obtained valuable results not only on the pigment itself but also, for the first time, on the binder to pigment proportion which is not well documented in the ancient recipes. Moreover, in order to restrain beam damages due to the ion stopping power, we propose to analyze very thin painting cross-sections by a combination of PIXE-RBS and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM).

  8. Canvas Supports in Paintings by Nicolai Abildgaard: Fabrics and Formats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filtenborg, Troels Folke

    2015-01-01

    An investigation of the technique and materials in paintings by the Danish artist Nicolai Abildgaard (1743 – 1809) included examination of the canvas supports in a large number of his works. Thread count and weave density were studied by automated weave-mapping computer software, designed for working with digital X-radiographs. This was also used for the comparison of weave patterns in order to establish matches between the canvases of various paintings and thereby verify that different canvases originated from the same bolt. The canvas supports in paintings executed by Abildgaard in Rome 1772-77 appeared to be typical only in some ways for Italian canvas production of the era. In comparison, the supports of his Danish paintings were found to have features in common that to a large degree were determined by practical and economic factors such as Danish eighteenth-century fiscal policy, market conditions and manufacture circumstances. This applied to the quality of the fabric, i.e. the type of fibre, thread count and tightness of weave, as well as the scale and the formats within which the majority of the paintings fall.

  9. Paint coating characterization for thermoelastic stress analysis of metallic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, A. F.; Dulieu-Barton, J. M.; Quinn, S.; Burguete, R. L.

    2010-08-01

    In thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) it is normal practice to coat metallic specimens with black paint to enhance and standardize the surface emissivity. It is assumed that the paint coating has no effect on the thermal emission from the specimen, but it is well known that the response is sensitive to paint coating thickness, particularly at higher frequencies. In this paper the effects of loading frequency and paint coating thickness on the thermoelastic response are investigated. The thermoelastic response is compared to theory, and optimum test conditions and coating characteristics are suggested. The motivation for the work is to develop a TSA-based means of residual stress assessment, where the measurement of much smaller temperature changes than those that are resolved in standard TSA is required; therefore the analysis is much more sensitive to the effects of the paint coating. However, the work presented in this paper is relevant to a wide range of TSA investigations and presents data that will be of interest to all practitioners of TSA.

  10. A Telescope Inventor's Spyglass Possibly Reproduced in a Brueghel's Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaro, P.; Selvelli, P.

    2011-06-01

    Jan Brueghel the Elder depicted spyglasses belonging to the Archduke Albert VII of Habsburg in at least five paintings in the period between 1608 and 1625. Albert VII was fascinated by art and science and he obtained spyglasses directly from Lipperhey and Sacharias Janssen approximately at the time when the telescope was first shown at The Hague at the end of 1608. In the Extensive Landscape with View of the Castle of Mariemont, dated 1608-1612, the Archduke is looking at his Mariemont castle through an optical tube and this is the first time a spyglass was painted whatsoever. It is quite possible that the painting reproduces one of the first telescopes ever made. Two other Albert VII's telescopes are prominently reproduced in two Allegories of Sight painted a few years later (1617-1618). They are sophisticated instruments and their structure, in particular the shape of the eyepiece, suggests that they are composed by two convex lenses in a Keplerian optical configuration which became of common use only more than two decades later. If this is the case, these paintings are the first available record of a Keplerian telescope.

  11. Esquemas de pintura para estruturas marítimas / Paint systems for marine structures

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    T. C., Diamantino; I. N., Alves; R. P., Gonçalves; M. J. F., Marques; M. R., Costa.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas tem-se verificado um grande aumento das aplicações das ligas de alumínio nas estruturas marítimas. Os danos estruturais que se têm verificado em embarcações devem-se, em grande parte, a problemas de corrosão. Assim, as ligas de alumínio têm que ter uma protecção anticorrosiva ade [...] quada. As estruturas marítimas, nomeadamente os cascos dos navios devem ser mantidos preferencialmente livres de organismos por forma a minimizar a resistência ao atrito e consequentemente o consumo de combustível. Para tal são aplicados revestimentos anti-incrustantes para evitar a fixação destes organismos. Nos últimos anos têm-se verificado grandes desenvolvimentos de investigação, desenvolvimento e inovação (IDI) para obtenção de tintas anti-incrustantes (AI) com uma melhor eficiência anti-incrustante em total concordância com a legislação ambiental. O principal objetivo deste estudo reside na avaliação da proteção anticorrosiva e da eficiência anti-incrustant e de 3 diferentes esquemas de pintur a envolvendo tintas AI c om diferentes biocidas. Estas avaliações envolveram ensaios de envelhecimento artificial (resistência ao nevoeiro salino, à imersão em água do mar sintética e à delaminação catódica) e de exposição natural durante dois anos. Estes esquemas de pintur a foram caracterizados visualmente, em termos de espessura e em termos morfológicos e químicos por microscopia electrónica de varrimento com espectrometria de dispersão de ener gias (SEM/ EDS), por espec troscopia de infravermelho com transformada de Fourier (FTIR) e por difr acção de raios-X (XRD). Finalmente referem-se algumas das linhas de in vestigação actualmente em curso no domínio da luta c ontra a fixação dos or ganismos marinhos em estruturas marítimas. Abstract in english The increase of aluminum alloys applications registered some decades ago for marine constructions has led to a considerable number of cases of structure damages mainly due to corrosion problems. So, the use of aluminum alloys for these constructions implies a suitable anticorrosive protection. The i [...] mmersed structures like ship hulls need to be kept free from marine organisms in order to minimize drag resistance and reduce fuel consumption. Antifouling paints (AFP) are applied and developed to avoid the micro and macrofouling. A great development of AFP has been registered aiming for a better efficiency in compliance with emerging environmental legislation. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the anticorrosive behaviour and antifouling efficiency of three different paint systems that include antifouling paints with different biocides. With this purpose tests were carried out including artificial ageing (salt spray resistance, immersion resistance and cathodic disbonding) and natural exposure during two years. All this paint systems were evaluated in terms of visual assessment, thickness, and morphological and chemical characterization by Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), Fourier Transform Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Finally the actual research lines on antifouling technologies are pointed.

  12. COUPLED ATOMIZATION AND SPRAY MODELLING IN THE SPRAY FORMING PROCESS USING OPENFOAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesing, Rasmus; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a numerical model capable of simulating the atomization, break-up and in-flight spray phenomena in the spray forming process. The model is developed and implemented in the freeware code openFOAM. The focus is on studying the coupling effect of the melt break-up phenomena with the local gas and droplets flow fields. The work is based on an Eulerian-Lagrangian description, which is implemented in a full 3D representation. The gas is described by the incompressible RANS equations, whereas the movement of the droplets is modeled by a tracking approach, together with a full thermal model for droplet cooling and solidification. The model is tested and validated against results from literature and experiments. Subsequently, the model is used to simulate the complex flow fields in the spray forming process and the results are discussed. The presented model of the spray forming process is able to predict the droplet size distribution of the spray from the process conditions, by introducing submodelsfor the melt fragmentation and successive secondary break-up processes as part of the spray model. Furthermore, the competition of drop break-up and solidification is derived by describing the thermal state of the particles in the spray. Therefore, the model includes a full thermal solver for the droplets, which also takes the rapid solidification of different drop sizes into account.

  13. Recrystallization of Cold Spray-Fabricated CP Titanium Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahiri, Saden H.; Fraser, Darren; Jahedi, Mahnaz

    2009-03-01

    Cold gas dynamic spray (cold spray) is a promising rapid deposition technology in which particles deposit at supersonic velocities. The effect of isothermal annealing on recrystallization and mechanical properties of commercial purity (CP) titanium structures that were directly fabricated through cold spray deposition is studied. The optimized cold spray parameters led to a dense cold spray structure. Results show that annealing improves ductility of the cold-sprayed CP titanium structure. The mechanism for softening is the nucleation and growth of equiaxed grains, which include an ultrafine grain structure. A physical-based model for recrystallization of the cold spray CP titanium is proposed. The results show that recrystallization does not eliminate preferred orientation inherited from the cold spray material.

  14. An investigation of the neural substrates of mind wandering induced by viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tingting; Mo, Lei; Vartanian, Oshin; Cant, Jonathan S; Cupchik, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether the calming effect induced by viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings would make disengagement from that mental state more difficult, as measured by performance on a cognitive control task. In Experiment 1 we examined the subjective experience of viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings vs. realistic oil landscape paintings in a behavioral study. Our results confirmed that, as predicted, traditional Chinese landscape paintings induce greater levels of relaxation and mind wandering and lower levels of object-oriented absorption and recognition, compared to realistic oil landscape paintings. In Experiment 2 we used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to explore the behavioral and neural effects of viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings on a task requiring cognitive control (i.e., the flanker task)-administered immediately following exposure to paintings. Contrary to our prediction, the behavioral data demonstrated that compared to realistic oil landscape paintings, exposure to traditional Chinese landscape paintings had no effect on performance on the flanker task. However, the neural data demonstrated an interaction effect such that there was greater activation in the inferior parietal cortex and the superior frontal gyrus on incongruent compared with congruent flanker trials when participants switched from viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings to the flanker task than when they switched from realistic oil landscape paintings. These results suggest that switching from traditional Chinese landscape paintings placed greater demands on the brain's attention and working memory networks during the flanker task than did switching from realistic oil landscape paintings. PMID:25610386

  15. Water jet/spray measurement analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, G. G.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide analysis of data obtained under a previous contract entitled Characterization of Drop Spectra from High Volume Flow Water Jets. Measurements of drop spectra were obtained in the spray resulting from the breakup of high volume flow water jets from a variety of nozzle types. The drop spectra measurements were obtained from two drop spectrometers covering a range from 10 microns to 12 millimeters diameter. The task addressed was to select representative spectra from the individual tests and provide analyses in both numerical and graphical formats as outlined in the proposal. The intended application of these results is an evaluation of the feasibility of fog clearing by high volume water sprays. During the tests, a fog event occurred making it possible to test the concept of fog clearing. Visual range data and fog drop spectra were analyzed, with particular emphasis placed on the modification of these parameters due to the water spray.

  16. Spray Drying of Mosambi Juice in Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. V.; Verma, A.

    2014-01-01

    The studies on spray drying of mosambi juice were carried out with Laboratory spray dryer set-up (LSD-48 MINI SPRAY DRYER-JISL). Inlet and outlet air temperature and maltodextrin (drying agent) concentration was taken as variable parameters. Experiments were conducted by using 110 °C to 140 °C inlet air temperature, 60 °C to 70 °C outlet air temperature and 5-7 % maltodextrin concentration. The free flow powder of mosambi juice was obtained with 7 % maltodextrin at 140 °C inlet air temperature and 60 °C outlet air temperature. Fresh and reconstituted juices were evaluated for vitamin C, titrable acidity and sensory characteristics. The reconstituted juice was found slightly acceptable by taste panel.

  17. Fullerene monolayer formation by spray coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervenka, J; Flipse, C F J

    2010-02-10

    Many large molecular complexes are limited in thin film applications by their insufficient thermal stability, which excludes deposition via commonly used vapour phase deposition methods. Here we demonstrate an alternative way of monolayer formation of large molecules by a simple spray coating method under ambient conditions. This technique has been successfully applied on C(60) dissolved in toluene and carbon disulfide. Monolayer thick C(60) films have been formed on graphite and gold surfaces at particular deposition parameters, as confirmed by atomic force and scanning tunnelling microscopies. Structural and electronic properties of spray coated C(60) films on Au(111) have been found comparable to thermally evaporated C(60). We attribute the monolayer formation in spray coating to a crystallization process mediated by an ultrathin solution film on a sample surface. PMID:20057035

  18. Stereological analysis of thermally sprayed deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montavon, G.; Coddet, C. [LERMPS, Belfort (France); Leigh, S.H.; Sampath, S.; Herman, H.; Berndt, C.C. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Thermal spray deposits can be described by several characteristics including the porosity, the fraction of unmolten particles and the microhardness. These physical and structural characteristics are general and little quantitative information is available to fully describe the microstructure of such deposits. Stereological analysis is one of the microscopic methods which provides quantitative relationships. Hence, it allows a better understanding of correlations between spray parameters and deposit microstructure. Stereology, in the most strict sense, is able to describe a 3-D space from 2-D sections through solid bodies. The aim of this paper is to review the numerical formulations of methods that can be applied on 2-D cross-sections of thermal spray deposits. A historical perspective of several approaches is given, and two methods (i.e., DeHoff`s and Cruz-Orive`s protocols) are detailed.

  19. High velocity pulsed wire-arc spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, F. Douglas (Inventor); Massey, Dennis W. (Inventor); Kincaid, Russell W. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Wire arc spraying using repetitively pulsed, high temperature gas jets, usually referred to as plasma jets, and generated by capillary discharges, substantially increases the velocity of atomized and entrained molten droplets. The quality of coatings produced is improved by increasing the velocity with which coating particles impact the coated surface. The effectiveness of wire-arc spraying is improved by replacing the usual atomizing air stream with a rapidly pulsed high velocity plasma jet. Pulsed power provides higher coating particle velocities leading to improved coatings. 50 micron aluminum droplets with velocities of 1500 m/s are produced. Pulsed plasma jet spraying provides the means to coat the insides of pipes, tubes, and engine block cylinders with very high velocity droplet impact.

  20. Current problems in plasma spray processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndt, C.C.; Brindley, W.; Goland, A.N.; Herman, H.; Houck, D.L.; Jones, K.; Miller, R.A.; Neiser, R.; Riggs, W.; Sampath, S.; Smith, M.; Spanne, P. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Thermal Spray Lab.)

    1991-01-01

    This detailed report summarizes 8 contributions from a thermal spray conference that was held in late 1991 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, Long Island, NY, USA). The subject of Plasma Spray Processing'' is presented under subject headings of Plasma-particle interactions, Deposit formation dynamics, Thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings, Mechanical properties of coatings, Feed stock materials, Porosity: An integrated approach, Manufacture of intermetallic coatings, and Synchrotron x-ray microtomographic methods for thermal spray materials. Each section is intended to present a concise statement of a specific practical and/or scientific problem, then describe current work that is being performed to investigate this area, and finally to suggest areas of research that may be fertile for future activity.

  1. Current problems in plasma spray processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndt, C.C.; Brindley, W.; Goland, A.N.; Herman, H.; Houck, D.L.; Jones, K.; Miller, R.A.; Neiser, R.; Riggs, W.; Sampath, S.; Smith, M.; Spanne, P. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Thermal Spray Lab.

    1991-12-31

    This detailed report summarizes 8 contributions from a thermal spray conference that was held in late 1991 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, Long Island, NY, USA). The subject of ``Plasma Spray Processing`` is presented under subject headings of Plasma-particle interactions, Deposit formation dynamics, Thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings, Mechanical properties of coatings, Feed stock materials, Porosity: An integrated approach, Manufacture of intermetallic coatings, and Synchrotron x-ray microtomographic methods for thermal spray materials. Each section is intended to present a concise statement of a specific practical and/or scientific problem, then describe current work that is being performed to investigate this area, and finally to suggest areas of research that may be fertile for future activity.

  2. Design of a Microgravity Spray Cooling Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysinger, Kerri M.; Yerkes, Kirk L.; Michalak, Travis E.; Harris, Richard J.; McQuillen, John

    2004-01-01

    An analytical and experimental study was conducted for the application of spray cooling in a microgravity and high-g environment. Experiments were carried out aboard the NASA KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft, which provided the microgravity and high-g environments. In reduced gravity, surface tension flow was observed around the spray nozzle, due to unconstrained liquid in the test chamber and flow reversal at the heat source. A transient analytical model was developed to predict the temperature and the spray heat transfer coefficient within the heated region. Comparison of the experimental transient temperature variation with analytical results showed good agreement for low heat input values. The transient analysis also verified that thermal equilibrium within the heated region could be reached during the 20-25s reduced gravity portion of the flight profile.

  3. Density of Spray-Formed Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin M. McHugh; Volker Uhlenwinkel; Nils Ellendr

    2008-06-01

    Spray Forming is an advanced materials processing technology that transforms molten metal into a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a substrate. Depending on the application, the spray-formed material may be used in the as-deposited condition or it may undergo post-deposition processing. Regardless, the density of the as-deposited material is an important issue. Porosity is detrimental because it can significantly reduce strength, toughness, hardness and other properties. While it is not feasible to achieve fully-dense material in the as-deposited state, density greater than 99% of theoretical density is possible if the atomization and impact conditions are optimized. Thermal conditions at the deposit surface and droplet impact angle are key processing parameters that influence the density of the material. This paper examines the factors that contribute to porosity formation during spray forming and illustrates that very high as-deposited density is achieved by optimizing processing parameters.

  4. Contamination of aluminum and painted surfaces exposed to tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the problem of outgassing of contaminated room surfaces following a significant tritium (T) room release, painted metal strips were exposed to tritium (T/sub 2/ or HTO) and the outgassing rates measured. This was followed by exposures in a 1-m/sup 3/ chamber, whose walls were coated with the material to be studied. The results show that the differences in the contamination of, and subsequent outgassing by, several epoxy and latex paints may be significant. The greatest differences, however, were the much higher contamination following exposure to HTO compared to T/sub 2/, and the lower contamination of exposed bare aluminium foil compared to painted surfaces, for both HTO and T/sub 2/

  5. uv radiation curable paints. Topical report on material identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-13

    The program for the development of ultraviolet radiation curing of paints for application on preformed structures is discussed. The starting point of this program was the matching of resins, photoinitiators, and pigments which will result in coatings that can be cured by ultraviolet radiation. The initial work was the identification of reactive diluents and base resins that are sensitive to the uv curing process. The reactive monomeric diluents tested included multifunctional acrylates, monofunctional acrylates, and non-acrylic unsaturated esters. The end point will be the application of these coatings to prefabricated metal structures to demonstrate the viability of this technique in producing commercially acceptable painted products. These uv curable paints should produce films that are hard, adherent, and opaque at a nominal thickness of one mil (0.001 inch).

  6. Raman spectroscopic study of “The Malatesta”: A Renaissance painting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G. M.; Vandenabeele, Peter; Benoy, Timothy J.

    2015-02-01

    Raman spectroscopic analysis of the pigments on an Italian painting described as a "Full Length Portrait of a Gentleman", known also as the "Malatesta", and attributed to the Renaissance period has established that these are consistent with the historical research provenance undertaken earlier. Evidence is found for the early 19th Century addition of chrome yellow to highlighted yellow ochre areas in comparison with a similar painting executed in 1801 by Sir Thomas Lawrence of John Kemble in the role of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. The Raman data are novel in that no analytical studies have previously been made on this painting and reinforces the procedure whereby scientific analyses are accompanied by parallel historical research.

  7. Recent discoveries of Paleolithic cave painting in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a few years, discoveries of cave paintings in France have increased considerably. Two of them were particularly impressive and are now famous worldwide. The first one is the Cosquer cave, discovered in 1991 under the sea level near Marseille. The second is the Chauvet-Pont-d'Arc cave, discovered in 1994 in Ardeche. However, other discoveries were less mediatized but provided a huge amount of informations: in 10 years, 24 new cave painting sites were described. This paper describes these recent discoveries (paintings, engravings), and a special emphasis is given to the analyses of pigments and to the radiocarbon dating of the archaeological specimens. (J.S.). 37 refs., 3 figs., 9 photos

  8. Evaluation of paint industry effluents for irrigation purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effluent samples collected from a paints factory for a period of seven months were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), soluble cations and anions, nitrogen, phosphorus, and trace elements (Cd, B, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb). Compared with the natural groundwater used for washing paint wastes, the paint industry effluents were found to contain elevated concentrations of cations with the exception of Ca and moderately high concentrations of trace elements. Evaluation of the effluents was made, based on the integration of EC and both the sodium absorption ratio (SAR) and soluble sodium percent (SSP), BOD and COD values, and maximum permissible limits of heavy metals in the irrigation water. From the overall assessment, the effluents were considered suitable for use as supplement irrigation water. However, it is essential that the heavy metals in the effluents, as well as their accumulation in plants and soils, are monitored regularly. (author)

  9. Implementation of an Optical Coherence Tomography system for painting characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a new but well established imaging technique for medical diagnosis, which can produce two- or three-dimensional images of bio-tissues with a few ?m spatial resolution. Its potential as a non-invasive tool for art conservation of paintings and other objects has been realized recently. In this work, we report the implementation of two OCT systems applied to painting characterization. One system operates in the so-called spectral domain, with a central wavelength of 840 nm and axial resolution of 10 ?m. The second system has its central wavelength at 1280 nm, with spatial resolution of 20 ?m, and operates in the time domain. Both systems are independently controlled and have imaging software developed in-house using Lab View. Using both systems, a 15 years old acrylic portrait has been analyzed, where the paint layers, light and dark colors, and the cotton treads of the canvas could be identified. (Author)

  10. Effect Of Zen Regulation On The Sohrab Sepahri's Paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Maamari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, at first we tried to introduce the sects separated from Buddhism and also introduce “Maha- Yana” who were among the well known sects of the Buddhism and the introduction of “Confucius” regulation and moral principles and the “Lao-tse” and “Shinto” faiths and their place among Chinese and Japanese and their relation with ZEN sect and Zen philosophy, method of its formation and Zen conduct and initial introduction of Zenga and the effect of Zen philosophy on paintings and Calligraphy of far east. In next sections the effect of Zen philosophy on Sohrab Sepehri's paintings will be mentioned with a short introduction of Sepehri and a fast veiw into his advancement in painting and finally his recognition in east and the effect of Zen philosophy on spirit of Sohrab Seperi.

  11. Raman spectroscopic study of "The Malatesta": a Renaissance painting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G M; Vandenabeele, Peter; Benoy, Timothy J

    2015-02-25

    Raman spectroscopic analysis of the pigments on an Italian painting described as a "Full Length Portrait of a Gentleman", known also as the "Malatesta", and attributed to the Renaissance period has established that these are consistent with the historical research provenance undertaken earlier. Evidence is found for the early 19th Century addition of chrome yellow to highlighted yellow ochre areas in comparison with a similar painting executed in 1801 by Sir Thomas Lawrence of John Kemble in the role of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. The Raman data are novel in that no analytical studies have previously been made on this painting and reinforces the procedure whereby scientific analyses are accompanied by parallel historical research. PMID:25194320

  12. The Planetary and Eclipse Oil Paintings of Howard Russell Butler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Olson, R. M.

    2013-10-01

    The physics-trained artist Howard Russell Butler (1856-1934) has inspired many astronomy students through his planetary and eclipse paintings that were long displayed at the Hayden Planetarium in New York, the Fels Planetarium at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, and the Buffalo Museum of Science. We discuss not only the eclipse triptychs (1918, 1923, and 1925) at each of those institutions but also his paintings of Mars as seen from Phobos and from Deimos (with landscapes of those moons in the foreground depicted in additional oils hung at Princeton University) and the Earth from our Moon. We also describe his involvement with astronomy and his unique methodology that allowed him to surpass the effects then obtainable with photography, as well as his inclusion in a U.S. Naval Observatory eclipse expedition in 1918, as well as his auroral, solar-prominence, and 1932-eclipse paintings.

  13. Irradiation effects on canvas oil painting: Spectroscopic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, Mihaela Maria; Negut, C. D.; Stanculescu, Ioana Rodica; Ponta, C. C.

    2012-10-01

    "Winter" oil painting, by Romanian contemporary artist George Alexandrescu was used as experimental model for the substantiation of gamma radiation treatment, as the best choice to stop the biological attack of paintings. In this purpose, spectroscopic and colorimetric methods were used to analyse in situ, non-destructively and non-contact, the experimental model before and after 60Co gamma irradiation. Chemical structure and colour changes were monitored by FTIR, FT-Raman and Vis reflectance spectroscopy. Negligible Infrared spectral transformations have been observed after irradiation. Furthermore, it was found that gamma irradiation did not induce any significant colour alterations. Insignificant structural and colour changes observed, recommend the use of gamma irradiation in the disinfection of oil paintings.

  14. Arc Sprayed Steel: Microstructure in Severe Substrate Features

    OpenAIRE

    Newbery, AP; Grant, PS

    2009-01-01

    The effect of severe substrate topography on the microstructure of thermally sprayed coatings has been relatively neglected, but is critical in controlling the performance of thick electric arc sprayed steel shells for rapid tooling applications. This paper shows how the spray angle and the atomizing gas pressure control the distribution of porosity and oxide in steel sprayed in and around cylindrical holes of different diameter and depth. Droplet splashing and the secondary deposition of spl...

  15. Control of temperature profile for a spray deposition process

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, PDA; Duncan, SR; Rayment, T.; Grant, PS

    2003-01-01

    Spray forming is a novel method of rapidly manufacturing tools and dies for stamping and injection operations. The process sprays molten tool steel from a set of arc spray guns onto a ceramic former to build up a thick steel shell. The volumetric contraction that occurs as the steel cools is offset by a volumentric expansion taking place within the sprayed steel, which allows the dimensional accurate tools to be produced. To ensure that the required phase transformation takes place, the tempe...

  16. Modelling of droplet behaviour during spray forming using fluent

    OpenAIRE

    Underhill, RP; Grant, PS; Cantor, B; Bryant, DJ

    1997-01-01

    A control volume based fluid dynamics software program, FLUENT, has been used to model the 2-dimensional dynamic and thermal behaviour of Udimet 720 droplets during gas atomization and spray forming. The effect of atomizing gas pressure, spray distance and melt mass flow rate (MFR) on the equilibrated droplet spray temperature has been examined and the predictions compared with measured maximum deposit temperatures from spray forming experiments performed under the same process conditions. Th...

  17. 29 CFR 1917.153 - Spray painting (See also § 1917.2, definition of Hazardous cargo, materials, substance, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...shall not be recirculated unless it is first cleaned of any hazardous contaminants...equipped with a device to stop the prime mover when discharge pressure exceeds the system's...spontaneously ignite unless deposits of the first material are removed from the booth...

  18. LET-painting increases tumour control probability in hypoxic tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Toftegaard, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Abstract LET-painting was suggested as a method to overcome tumour hypoxia. In vitro experiments have demonstrated a well-established relationship between the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) and linear energy transfer (LET), where OER approaches unity for high-LET values. However, high-LET radiation also increases the risk for side effects in normal tissue. LET-painting attempts to restrict high-LET radiation to compartments that are found to be hypoxic, while applying lower LET radiation to normoxic tissues. Methods. Carbon-12 and oxygen-16 ion treatment plans with four fields and with homogeneous dose in the target volume, are applied on an oropharyngeal cancer case with an identified hypoxic entity within the tumour. The target dose is optimised to achieve a tumour control probability (TCP) of 95% when assuming a fully normoxic tissue. Using the same primary particle energy fluence needed for this plan, TCP is recalculated for three cases assuming hypoxia: first, redistributing LET to match the hypoxic structure (LET-painting). Second, plans are recalculated for varying hypoxic tumour volume in order to investigate the threshold volume where TCP can be established. Finally, a slight dose boost (5-20%) is additionally allowed in the hypoxic subvolume to assess its impact on TCP. Results. LET-painting with carbon-12 ions can only achieve tumour control for hypoxic subvolumes smaller than 0.5 cm(3). Using oxygen-16 ions, tumour control can be achieved for tumours with hypoxic subvolumes of up to 1 or 2 cm(3). Tumour control can be achieved for tumours with even larger hypoxic subvolumes, if a slight dose boost is allowed in combination with LET-painting. Conclusion. Our findings clearly indicate that a substantial increase in tumour control can be achieved when applying the LET-painting concept using oxygen-16 ions on hypoxic tumours, ideally with a slight dose boost.

  19. PFC Spray Decontamination on the Metal Specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute is developing the dry decontamination technologies applicable to the decontamination of the highly radioactive surfaces loosely contaminated with radioactive particles. One of the technologies is the PFC decontamination technology. Two kinds of the PFC decontamination technologies were developed. The one is the PFC ultrasonic decontamination technology which was performed in 2004. The other is the PFC spray decontamination technology which has been performed since 2005. In this study, the decontamination performance of the recently developed PFC spray decontamination equipment on the several shapes of metal specimens was presented. In addition, the results of the PFC distillation unit which uses the dry ice as a coolant were also presented

  20. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip for Transportation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin M. McHugh; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia; J.-P. Delplanque; S. B. Johnson

    2005-02-01

    Spray rolling is a novel strip casting technology in which molten aluminum alloy is atomized and deposited into the roll gap of mill rolls to produce aluminum strip. A combined experimental/modeling approach has been followed in developing this technology with active participation from industry. The feasibility of this technology has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale and it is currently being scaled-up. This paper provides an overview of the process and compares the microstructure and properties of spray-rolled 2124 aluminum alloy with commercial ingot-processed material

  1. Integrated characterization of cold sprayed aluminum coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cold spray (CS) technology is a recent development for producing dense, oxide-free metallic and cermet coatings with attributes not achievable by established atmospheric thermal spray (TS) techniques. Little or no thermal component (i.e. high temperature) is introduced in the CS process; deposit formation relies mainly on dynamic compaction as particles impact the substrate. In this paper, we discuss and evaluate the relationships between the microstructure, properties and residual stresses in CS Al coatings, combining indentation, dilatometry, resistivity measurements and neutron diffraction techniques. In addition, we provide mechanistic arguments for the evolution of such characteristics with post-deposit annealing

  2. The spray forming of Ni based superalloys

    OpenAIRE

    Underhill, Richard P.

    1995-01-01

    ?The main aim has been to investigate the effect of process parameters on the spray forming of UDIMET 720 and in particular to understand the mechanism of grain size evolution in the deposit using a combination of experimental and computer modelling techniques. Samples of two spray formed Ni superalloys, MAR-M-002 and UDIMET 720, have been re-heated into the solid/liquid region and the fully solid region just below the solidus temperature for a series of times to try and rep...

  3. Experimental research on flash boiling spray of dimethyl ether

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng

    2014-12-01

    The high-speed digital imaging technique is applied to observe the developing process of flash boiling spray of dimethyl ether at low ambient pressure, and the effects of nozzle opening pressure and nozzle hole diameter on the spray shape, spray tip penetration and spray angle during the injection are investigated. The experimental results show that the time when the vortex ring structure of flash boiling spray forms and its developing process are determined by the combined action of the bubble growth and breakup in the spray and the air drag on the leading end of spray; with the enhancement of nozzle opening pressure, the spray tip penetration increases and the spray angle decreases. The influence of nozzle hole diameter on the spray tip penetration is relatively complicated, the spray tip penetration is longer with a smaller nozzle hole diameter at the early stage of injection, while the situation is just opposite at the later stage of injection. This paper establishes that the variation of spray angle is consistent with that of nozzle hole diameter.

  4. Alignment Fixtures For Vacuum-Plasma-Spray Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodford, William H.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.; Power, Christopher A.; Daniel, Ronald L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Fixtures for alignment of vacuum-plasma-spray guns built. Each fixture designed to fit specific gun and holds small, battery-powered laser on centerline of gun. Laser beam projects small red dot where centerline intersects surface of workpiece to be sprayed. After laser beam positioned on surface of workpiece, fixture removed from gun and spraying proceeds.

  5. Differential PIXE for investigating the layer structure of paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports an example of how the differential PIXE technique can be successfully applied to the investigation of wood or canvas paintings. The work analysed is a famous wood painting by Leonardo da Vinci, the 'Madonna dei fusi' (ex-Reford version, 1501), chosen for a pilot study in a wide international project aimed at analysing Leonardo's works of art by means of non-destructive techniques. While illustrating the results obtained concerning the identification of pigments and the discrimination of the stratigraphy of layers, the merits and limits of differential PIXE in general are pointed out

  6. Diagnostic-analytical study of the painting “Gioconda with columns”

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Lorusso; Chiara Matteucci; Andrea Natali; Salvatore Andrea Apicella; Flavia Fiorillo

    2014-01-01

    The painting “Gioconda with columns” from a private collection re-proposes a work of art that is “unique” in the art world, in other words, the “Mona Lisa” by Leonardo da Vinci. The presence of the columns represents the most significant distinguishing feature when compared to the “Mona Lisa” housed in the Louvre.Consequently the question arises: “Is the painting “Gioconda with columns” attributable to the genius of Leonardo or one of his followers or is it to be considered a copy of the “Mon...

  7. PaintShop Pro x6 for photographers

    CERN Document Server

    McMahon, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Written for photographers of all levels, PaintShop Pro X6 for Photographers is packed with inspirational, full-color images and easy-to-follow step-by-step projects that will have you producing great images in PaintShop Pro in no time! Everything you need to enhance and improve your digital photography is right here in this Corel® endorsed guide.In this new edition, Ken McMahon looks at the pros and cons of the new, faster 64-bit version of the software and covers new features, including working with the Instant Effects palette, using the Smart selection brush, mapping photos, automatically ta

  8. PaintShop Pro X4 for photographers

    CERN Document Server

    McMahon, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Great for those new to PaintShop Pro or digital imaging in general, this book is packed with inspirational, full-color images and easy to follow, step-by-step projects that will have you producing great images in PaintShop Pro in no time! Everything you need to turn your photos into stunning works of art is right here in this Corel-reviewed guide. In this new edition, Ken covers new features including how to make the most of the newly organized workspaces, use the redesigned HDR tool, and instantly publish photos on Flickr and Facebook. Squeeze every ounce of detail out of RAW files using the

  9. Gerbrand Bredero wants to borrow a painting: proleptic negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, J.

    2013-01-01

    In a letter to Badens, his painting teacher, Gerbrand Bredero asks for the loan of a painting to make a copy of it. The act of writing (a letter) requires a proactive role in managing the reader’s reactions. In what at first sight may look like a simple, insignificant and most of all polite letter, it is argued that, from the viewpoint of argumentation theory, negotiation and bargaining tactics, this politeness may be considered as a carefully devised and potentially effective strategy, contr...

  10. 75 FR 31317 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for Paints and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ...Paint & Coating Manufacturing.. 325510 Area...binders into paints and other coatings, such as stains, varnishes...shellacs, and water repellant coatings for concrete and masonry...percent by weight, as shown in formulation data provided by the...

  11. Surface with two paint strips for detection and warning of chemical warfare and radiological agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2013-04-02

    A system for warning of corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances. The system comprises painting a surface with a paint or coating that includes an indicator material and monitoring the surface for indications of the corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances.

  12. A components paint facility upgrade to improve production efficiency, quality and working conditions at UCW Company

    OpenAIRE

    Masombuka, Willy Sizo

    2011-01-01

    A design of an improved facilities plan for Components Paint Shop, with appropriate and efficient material flow and handling system. The facility should optimise production efficiency throughout Components Paint Shop.

  13. Conservation of a Rare Painted Ancient Egyptian Textile Object from the Egyptian Museum in Cairo

    OpenAIRE

    Yasin Zidan; Omar Abdel-Kareem; Nadia Lokma; Hanaa Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    This study describes conservation of a painted ancientEgyptian textile object from the collection of Osiris clothsin the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, Egypt. An evaluation ofthe reactivation consolidation technique to reinforcementof ancient Egyptian painted textiles was performed.Various investigation methods were carried out to identifythe fibres, paints, and other materials, which are part ofthe selected object. The condition of the object was alsoinvestigated. Newly prepared painted linen tex...

  14. Formulation effects on the release of silica dioxide nanoparticles from paint debris to water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuin, Stefano; Massari, Andrea; Ferrari, Arlen; Golanski, Luana

    2014-04-01

    Waterborne paints with integrated nanoparticles have been recently introduced into the market as nanoparticles offer improved or novel functionalities to paints. However, the release of nanoparticles during the life cycle of nano-enhanced paint has only been studied to a very limited extent. The paint composition could determine in what quantities and forms the nanoparticles are released. In this work, paint formulations containing the same amount of silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles but differing in the pigment volume concentration (PVC) and in amount and type of binder and pigment, were studied through leaching test to investigate the influence of these parameters on release of Si from paint. The results indicate greater release of Si, about 1.7 wt.% of the SiO2 nanoparticles in the paint, for paint formulated with higher PVC value (63%), suggesting that the PVC is a crucial factor for release of SiO2 nanoparticles from paints. This hypothesis was also based on the fact that agglomerates of SiO2 nanoparticles were only found in leachates from paint with higher PVC. A paint sample with the higher amount of binder and less calcite filler exhibited a lower release of Si among the paints with a low PVC value (35%), and no SiO2 particles were detected in leachates collected from this paint. This could be due to the fact that a high portion of binder forms a suitable matrix to hold the SiO2 ENPs in paint. The paint sample in which the amount of calcite was partially substituted with TiO2 pigment did not show an important reduction on Si release. Our work suggests that paint debris containing SiO2 nanoparticles may release a limited amount of Si into the environment, and that by adjusting the properties of the binder in combination with common pigments it is possible to reduce the release of SiO2 nanoparticles. PMID:24468504

  15. An Analysis on the Influence of Line in Chinese and Western Painting on Visual Shaping Language

    OpenAIRE

    Jianqiu Sun; Chang Xiao

    2008-01-01

    The line of western painting, a rational painting element possessing the meaning of interpretation, is in pursuit of shaping and creating exact outer body shapes; the line of Chinese painting, besides delineating body shapes, stresses the spatial organization relationship of lines. The line of Chinese painting contains independent aesthetic value, “lines are for shaping” and conveys philosophy concept of eastern culture “the union of heaven and humans”. This paper helps readers to understand ...

  16. Inflammatory and genotoxic effects of sanding dust generated from nanoparticle-containing paints and lacquers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Koponen, Ismo Kalevi; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Mikkelsen, Lone Rømer; Moller, Peter; Loft, Steffen; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Wallin, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticles are increasingly used in paints and lacquers. Little is known of the toxicity of nanoparticles incorporated in complex matrices and released during different phases of the life cycle. DNA damaging activity and inflammogenicity of sanding dust sampled during standardised sanding of boards painted with paints with and without nanoparticles were determined 24 h after intratracheal instillation of a single dose of 54 mu g in mice. Dusts from nanoparticle-containing paints and lacquers ...

  17. PLASMA SPRAYING OF REFRACTORY CERMETS BY THE WATER-STABILIZED SPRAY (WSP®) SYSTEM.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Brožek, V.; Cheong, D.-I.; Chráska, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 54, ?. 3 (2009), s. 241-253. ISSN 0001-7043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Plasma spraying * cermet coatings * microhardness * zirconium carbide * tungsten Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass

  18. Measurements of tritium for radiological protection purposes in dial painting industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium is used as the active component in self-luminous paint. During dial painting process luminous paints releases tritium in air, causing air contamination. In the present paper results of a preliminary study on air monitoring and estimation of air samples in a local watch industry are given. (author). 5 refs., 2 t abs

  19. Radiation exposure to dial painters from 3H luminous paint industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium is used as the active component in self-luminous paint. The paper describes in-vitro solubilisation study of luminous paint in blood serum. Besides urine samples of luminous paint workers and air samples of two watch factories were analysed for 3H. The results of these analysis are also presented. (author). 8 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Photochemical degradation study of polyvinyl acetate paints used in artworks by Py–GC/MS

    OpenAIRE

    Shuya WEI; Pintus, Valentina; Schreiner, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    ? Thermal and photo degradation of PVAc paint samples were studied by Py–GC/MS with double-shot and single-shot techniques. ? Changes of the PVAc paint samples before and after UV ageing were revealed. ? The effects of pigments and ageing status to the degradation of PVAc paint samples were illustrated.

  1. Analysis of painted steel by a hand-held X-ray fluorescence spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steel with a paint layer was analyzed with a hand-held X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. When the 0.5 mm thick paint layer was composed mainly of light elements, alloying elements in steel such as Fe, Cr, Ni, W, and Mo were easily detected. 0.2% Mo in steel was detectable even if the paint contained Ti or Fe as a main element. The signal intensity of each element in steel decreased exponentially when the paint thickness increased, and the degree of decrease depended on the X-ray energy. Therefore the peak intensity for non-painted steel could be calculated from the paint thickness. The paint thickness was estimated from the intensity ratio Fe K?/K? or W L?/L?. When a paint of Ti (0.07-0.49 mm thick) was used, the peak intensities of the Fe K?, Cr K?, Ni K?, and Mo K? lines for non-painted steel were estimated by using the intensity ratio Fe K?/K?, with errors of less than 30%. The content of each element in steel is estimated when the fluorescent X-rays are detectable by analysis of painted steel without removing the paint layer. On-site screening of painted steel can be performed on the basis of the alloy composition estimated by analysis with a hand-held XRF spectrometer

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis from 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, a paint mildewcide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathias, C G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hamann, K

    1983-01-01

    Severe allergic contact dermatitis from a paint mildewcide, 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, developed in a worker formulating latex paints within a paint manufacturing company, Guinea pig maximization testing demonstrated this to be a moderate sensitizer. Further cases of allergic contact dermatitis may be encountered as the use of this biocide increases in the market place.

  3. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM LATEX PAINT - PART 1. CHAMBER EXPERIMENTS AND SOURCE MODEL DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latex paints are widely used in residential and commercial indoor environments. The surface areas covered by the paints in these environments are relatively large. Thus, latex paints have the potential for having a major impact on indoor air quality (IAQ). A study was undertaken ...

  4. 76 FR 47917 - Lead; Clearance and Clearance Testing Requirements for the Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ...certification applications. As pointed...commenters, paint chip sample collection...would be laying plastic or other impermeable...ground between the paint-disturbing...test to reflect innovations in the field...lead-based paint activities they...contents of the application for...

  5. Children's Liking of Landscape Paintings as a Function of Their Perceptions of Prospect, Refuge, and Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Mary Ann; Shrout, Patrick E.

    2006-01-01

    Prospect-refuge theory was used to study children's aesthetic responses to landscape paintings. Sixty-seven children between the ages of 8 and 15 years reported their liking for 28 landscape paintings and their perceptions of the degree of prospect, refuge, and hazard in those paintings. Consistent with expectations, children were able to express…

  6. Preparation and characterization of microparticles of piroxicam by spray drying and spray chilling methods

    OpenAIRE

    DIXIT, M; Kini, A.G.; P. K. Kulkarni

    2010-01-01

    Piroxicam, an anti-inflammatory drug, exhibits poor water solubility and flow properties, poor dissolution and poor wetting. Consequently, the aim of this study was to improve the dissolution of piroxicam. Microparticles containing piroxicam were produced by spray drying, using isopropyl alcohol and water in the ratio of 40:60 v/v as solvent system, and spray chilling technology by melting the drug and chilling it with a pneumatic nozzle to enhance dissolution rate. The prepared formulations ...

  7. Influence of spraying distance and postcooling on cryogen spray cooling for dermatologic laser surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Guillermo; Majaron, Boris; Viator, John A.; Basinger, Brooke; Karapetian, Emil; Svaasand, Lars O.; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2001-05-01

    Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) is used to minimize the risk of epidermal damage in various laser dermatological procedures such as treatment of port wine stain birthmarks and hair removal. However, the spray characteristics and combination of CSC and heating (laser) to obtain optimal treatments have not yet been determined. The distance between the nozzle tip and the skin surface for commercial devices was apparently chosen based on the position at which the cryogen spray reached a minimum temperature, presumably with the expectation that such a minimum would correspond to maximal heat flux. We have systematically measured spray characteristics of various nozzles, such as mean droplet diameter, velocity, temperature, and heat transfer coefficient, as a function of distance from the nozzle tip. Among other interesting correlations between these spray characteristics, it is shown that, for nozzle-to-skin distances between 20 to 80 mm, variations in the heat transfer coefficient are larger than those in the spray temperature and, therefore, maximization of the heat flux should be better dictated by the distance at which the heat transfer coefficient is maximized rather than that at which the spray temperature is minimized. Also, the influence of droplet diameter appears to be more influential on the heat transfer coefficient value than that of droplet velocity. Based on spray characteristic correlations, different ranges for positioning the nozzles are recommended, depending on the clinical application. Also, a 2D finite-difference method has been developed to study the spatial and temporal thermal variations within the skin. Our results show that it is possible to decrease significantly the epidermal damage after laser irradiation provided the heat transfer coefficient is significantly increased. The influence of post-cooling has minimal effects for the cases studied.

  8. Study on Spray Characteristics and Spray Droplets Dynamic Behavior of Diesel Engine Fueled by Rapeseed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Sapit Azwan; Razali Mohd. Azahari; Hushim Mohd Faisal; Mohd Ali Mas Fawzi; Khalid Amir; Manshoor Bukhari

    2014-01-01

    Fuel-air mixing is important process in diesel combustion. It directly affects the combustion and emission of diesel engine. Biomass fuel needs great help to atomize because the fuel has high viscosity and high distillation temperature. This study investigates the atomization characteristics and droplet dynamic behaviors of diesel engine spray fueled by rapeseed oil (RO). Optical observation of RO spray was carried out using shadowgraph photography technique. Single nano-spark photography tec...

  9. Crevice Corrosion Evaluation of Cold Sprayed Copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a HLW disposal canister is under way in KAERI using Cold Spray Coating technique. To estimate corrosion behavior of a cold sprayed copper, a crevice corrosion test was conducted at Southwest Research Institute(SWRI) in the United State. For the measurement of repassivation potential needed for crevice corrosion, three methods such as (1) ASTM G61-86 : Cyclic Potentiodynamic Polarization Measurements, (2) Potentiodynamic Polarization plus intermediate Potentiostatic Hold method, and (3) ASTM G192-08 (THE method) : Potentiodynamic- Galvanostatic-Potentiostatic Method, were introduced in this report. In the crevice corrosion test, the occurrence of corrosion at crevice area was optically determined and the repassivation potentials were checked for three kind of copper specimens in a simulated KURT underground water, using a crevice former dictated in ASTM G61-86. The applied electrochemical test techniques were cyclic polarization, potentiostatic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. As a result of crevice corrosion tests, every copper specimens including cold sprayed one did not show any corrosion figure on crevice areas. And the open-cell voltage, at which corrosion reaction initiates, was influenced by the purity of copper, but not their manufacturing method in this experiment. Therefore, it was convinced that there is no crevice corrosion for the cold sprayed copper in KURT underground environment

  10. Fullerene monolayer formation by spray coating.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    ?ervenka, Ji?í; Flipse, C.F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 21, ?. 6 (2010), 065302/1-065302/7. ISSN 0957-4484 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : monolayer * spray coating * fullerene * atomic force microscopy * scanning tunnelling microscopy * electronic structure * graphite * gold Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.644, year: 2010

  11. Underwater plasma spraying and synthesis of coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the results of experiments relating to further development of the coating processes, based on utilizing the electric arc thermal plasma jets under water. Water is supposed to be a medium providing unique conditions for plasma behavior, that can be used for new materials processing. There are several issues under investigation: the plasma jet gas dynamics under water, the heat flow from the jet into the substrate, the processes of coatings by underwater plasma spraying and chemical vapor deposition. It is found that the local pressure in the plasma jet under water is under great influence of water column pressure. It directly reduces the plasma velocity, but increases its density. The plasma flow under water should be regarded like a channel with practically total absence of the ambient medium ejection in it. The heat flow from the jet to a plasma spot on the substrate reaches 20--30% of plasma power and concentrates in a spot with 12--17 mm diameter. This allows one to fuse the coating surface layer during spraying or to process the coatings from solid, not fused particles even in the case of refractory materials spraying. The examples are presented for underwater plasma spraying of the low oxidized coatings from metallic titanium, hard thick coatings from titanium carbide, the coatings from partially stabilized zirconia with fused surface layer as well as underwater plasma chemical vapor deposition of diamond coatings

  12. Producing Quantum Dots by Spray Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banger, Kulbinder; Jin, Michael H.; Hepp, Aloysius

    2006-01-01

    An improved process for making nanocrystallites, commonly denoted quantum dots (QDs), is based on spray pyrolysis. Unlike the process used heretofore, the improved process is amenable to mass production of either passivated or non-passivated QDs, with computer control to ensure near uniformity of size.

  13. X-ray vision of fuel sprays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin

    2005-03-01

    With brilliant synchrotron X-ray sources, microsecond time-resolved synchrotron X-ray radiography and tomography have been used to elucidate the detailed three-dimensional structure and dynamics of high-pressure high-speed fuel sprays in the near-nozzle region. The measurement allows quantitative determination of the fuel distribution in the optically impenetrable region owing to the multiple scattering of visible light by small atomized fuel droplets surrounding the jet. X-radiographs of the jet-induced shock waves prove that the fuel jets become supersonic under appropriate injection conditions and that the quantitative analysis of the thermodynamic properties of the shock waves can also be derived from the most direct measurement. In other situations where extremely axial-asymmetric sprays are encountered, mass deconvolution and cross-sectional fuel distribution models can be computed based on the monochromatic and time-resolved X-radiographic images collected from various rotational orientations of the sprays. Such quantitative analysis reveals the never-before-reported characteristics and most detailed near-nozzle mass distribution of highly transient fuel sprays. PMID:15728972

  14. Microstructure of Kinetic Spray Coatings: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changhee; Kim, Jaeick

    2015-04-01

    Kinetic spray process has been applied to various industrial fields such as automotive, aviation, and defense industries due to its availability to produce high-performing coating layer. However, since the properties of kinetic-sprayed coating layer are significantly affected by the microstructures of deposit, the microstructures of the deposit should be controlled to acquire advanced coating layer and, accordingly, deep understanding of microstructural evolution must be achieved before controlling the microstructure of the coating layer. This paper gives an overview of contents related to the microstructure of kinetic-sprayed deposition. The most powerful influencing factors in microstructural evolution of kinetic-sprayed coating layer are instant generation of thermal energy and high-strain, high-strain-rate plastic deformation at the moment of particle impact. A high-density coating layer with low porosity can be produced, although some micro-cracks are occasionally induced at the interparticle boundary or at the inner region of the particles. Also, a microstructure which is distinct from the inner particle region is created in the vicinity of the particle-particle or particle-substrate interface region. However, almost no crystal phase transformation or chemical reaction is induced since the deposited particles are not heated directly by a thermal energy source.

  15. Plasma sprayed basalt/chromium oxide coatings.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ageorges, H.; Medarhri, Z.; Ctibor, Pavel; Fauchais, P.

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 11, ?. 1 (2007), s. 71-82. ISSN 1093-3611 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Chromia, basalt * plasma spraying * microstructure * phase analysis Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.268, year: 2007

  16. Mechanical Properties of Plasma Sprayed Alumina Coatings.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ková?ík, O.; Nohava, Ji?í; Siegel, J.

    2003-01-01

    Ro?. 48, ?. 2 (2003), s. 129-145. ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA106/01/0094 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma sprayed alumina coatings, fatigue test, metalography, fractography, residual stress, microhardness, Young's modulus, four-point bending Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  17. Plasma spraying of cerium-doped YAG.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Kubát, J.; Pala, Zden?k; Nevrlá, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 29, ?. 19 (2014), s. 2344-2351. ISSN 0884-2914 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP108/12/1872 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma spraying * water-stabilized plasma Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.647, year: 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2014.251

  18. Plasma Spraying of Alumina and Zirconia Nanoceramics.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chráska, Tomáš; Neufuss, Karel; Nohava, Ji?í; Dubský, Ji?í

    Brno, 2004 - (Šandera, P.), s. 85-90 ISBN 80-214-2793-0. [Nano ’04 International Conference. Brno (CZ), 13.10.2004-15.10.2004] Keywords : nanoceramics * plasma spraying * coatings * heat treatment * alumina * zirconia Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass

  19. Plasma Spraying with Water Stabilized Torch.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brad Breadsley, M.; Chráska, Pavel

    Vol. 5. Prague : Institute of Plasma Physics, 1999 - (Hrabovský, M.; Konrád, M.; Kopecký, V.), s. 2743-2745 ISBN 80-902724-5-2. - (5). [International Symposium on Plasma Chemistry/14th./. Prague (CZ), 02.08.1999-06.08.1999] Keywords : plasma spraying Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  20. Spray Forming Aluminum - Final Report (Phase II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. D. Leon

    1999-07-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy - Office of Industrial Technology (DOE) has an objective to increase energy efficient and enhance competitiveness of American metals industries. To support this objective, ALCOA Inc. entered into a cooperative program to develop spray forming technology for aluminum. This Phase II of the DOE Spray Forming Program would translate bench scale spray forming technology into a cost effective world class process for commercialization. Developments under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC07-94ID13238 occurred during two time periods due to budgetary constraints; April 1994 through September 1996 and October 1997 and December 1998. During these periods, ALCOA Inc developed a linear spray forming nozzle and specific support processes capable of scale-up for commercial production of aluminum sheet alloy products. Emphasis was given to alloys 3003 and 6111, both being commercially significant alloys used in the automotive industry. The report reviews research performed in the following areas: Nozzel Development, Fabrication, Deposition, Metal Characterization, Computer Simulation and Economics. With the formation of a Holding Company, all intellectual property developed in Phases I and II of the Project have been documented under separate cover for licensing to domestic producers.

  1. Thermal Spray Coatings for Fusion Applications — Review.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mat?jí?ek, Ji?í; Chráska, Pavel; Linke, J.

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 16, ?. 1 (2007), s. 64-83. ISSN 1059-9630 Grant ostatní: -(XE) EFDA Task DV4/04 (TW0; -(XE) EFDA Task TW5-TVM-PSW Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : beryllium * boron carbide * plasma facing components * plasma sprayed coatings * thermonuclear fusion * tungsten Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.204, year: 2007

  2. Consolidation of tungsten disilicide by plasma spraying.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brožek, Vlastimil; Ctibor, Pavel; Mat?jí?ek, Ji?í; Rohan, Pavel; Jan?a, J.

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 52, ?. 3 (2007), s. 311-320. ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA104/05/0540 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Water stabilized plasma * tungsten disilicide * plasma deposition * thermal spray coatings Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials

  3. Copper-Tungsten Composites Sprayed by HVOF.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mat?jí?ek, Ji?í; Zahálka, F.; Bensch, Jan; Chi, W.; Sedlá?ek, J.

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 17, ?. 2 (2008), s. 177-180. ISSN 1059-9630 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thermally sprayed coatings * tungsten * copper * HVOF Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.200, year: 2008 http://www.springerlink.com/content/120439/

  4. Plasma spraying enables spheroidisation of tungsten particles.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brožek, Vlastimil; Dufek, V.; Neufuss, Karel

    Praha : Process Engineering Publisher, 2002. s. 286. ISBN 80-86059-33-2. [International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering CHISA 2002 /15./. 25.08.2002-29.08.2002, Prague] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma spraying Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  5. Water spray ventilator system for continuous mining machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Steven J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Mal, Thomas (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1995-01-01

    The invention relates to a water spray ventilator system mounted on a continuous mining machine to streamline airflow and provide effective face ventilation of both respirable dust and methane in underground coal mines. This system has two side spray nozzles mounted one on each side of the mining machine and six spray nozzles disposed on a manifold mounted to the underside of the machine boom. The six spray nozzles are angularly and laterally oriented on the manifold so as to provide non-overlapping spray patterns along the length of the cutter drum.

  6. Cold gas spray (CGS): An alternative to conventional deposition technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cold spraying is a new technology to produce coatings and recharges that belongs to the field of thermal spraying. Since work temperature is relatively low (always lower than melting temperature), it is ideally for depositing temperature sensitive materials such as nano phased and amorphous materials or oxygen-sensitive materials. Material cost reduction (raw materials, gases ...), reduction of surface treatments (pre- and post-spraying), possibility of increasing the pieces life, reduction of the problems associated with material melting (oxidation, corrosion, residual tensile stress ...), maintenance of the starting microstructures, etc., have made that cold spray technique an efficient, more ecological and economically more affordable than conventional spraying and deposition techniques. (Author) 70 refs.

  7. Characterization of the full cone pressure swirl spray nozzles for the nuclear reactor containment spray system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Full cone spray pressure swirl nozzle with X-Vane is studied. • Laser illuminated imaging technique is used. • Correlations for coefficient of discharge, spray cone angle and SMD are suggested. • Droplet size and mass fraction distribution is measured. • Inviscid theory predicts the coefficient of discharge. - Abstract: The objective of the present study is to characterize a full cone pressure swirl nozzle for the Containment Spray System (CSS) of Indian Pressurized heavy Water reactors (IPHWR). The influence of Reynolds number and geometric parameters on the coefficient of discharge, spray cone angle, mass flux density distribution, droplet size distribution, Sauter mean diameter (SMD is studied for full cone pressure swirl full cone nozzles. The nozzles of orifice diameter range from 1.3 to 7.2 mm are studied. Experiments are conducted with water at room temperature as the working medium. The nozzles are operated with the pressure ranging from 1 to 8 bar. The measurements of the drop size distributions are performed with laser illuminated imaging technique. The spray cone-angle of the full cone nozzles is measured by the evaluation of images recorded with a camera using IMAGE J software. Correlations for coefficient of discharge, spray cone angle and Sauter mean diameter are suggested on the basis of the experimental results. Rosin–Rammler model and Nukiyama–Tanasawa distributions predict the mass fraction distribution reasonably well. However, the droplet size distribution is predicted by Nukiyama-Tanasawa model only

  8. Spray angle effect during spray cooling of microelectronics: Experimental measurements and comparison with inverse calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental and inverse computational study is presented of spray cooling of microelectronics with an emphasis on the spray angle effects on cooling performance. A thermal test chip provides the heated target, and is cooled by a single pressure swirl atomizer. Thermal readings were taken at the spray angles of 0-60o, at a fixed distance of 1.4 cm from the heated die surface. An inverse heat transfer computational algorithm is developed to calculate the unknown spray cooling heat fluxes using the measured temperature data inside the die. The computational scheme is a combination of the finite element method and the truncated single value decomposition with the discrepancy principle for determining the optimal truncation threshold value. Good agreement is obtained between the experimental measurements and calculated results. For this particular system, a direct estimate using temperature readings at two adjacent points would produce incorrect heat flux results and an inverse algorithm is deemed essential if an accurate heat flux is to be obtained from the measurements. It is found that a major cause for the drop-off is the reduction in spray volumetric flux delivered to the die at the greater spray angles

  9. What You Should Know about Using Paint Strippers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use appropriate protective clothing, protective eye covering, and fresh air for crossventilation even when using these types of paint strippers. ? Check the labels or the product’s MSDS sheet for the ingredient list to determine specific protective measures to be ...

  10. Documenting the light sensitivity of Spanish Levantine rock art paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Hoyo-Meléndez, J. M.; Lerma, J. L.; López-Montalvo, E.; Villaverde, V.

    2015-08-01

    A case study to evaluate the use of microfading spectrometry (MFS) for the study of colored systems found in prehistoric rock art paintings was conducted in the Cova Remígia rock-shelter, Castellón (Spain). This rock shelter is part of the rock art sites of the Mediterranean basin on the Iberian Peninsula included in UNESCO's World Heritage List. Some of the paintings belonging to this group are exposed to environmental factors including natural daylight, wind and rain, depending on the time of the day and the season of the year. Therefore, their preservation is a major concern to stakeholders and researchers responsible for protecting and studying these prehistoric paintings. The experimental work in Cova Remigia focused on measuring the reflectance curves (400-700 nm) and determining the photostability of various areas containing red and black pigments on the rock art paintings. The preliminary results indicate that MFS is a suitable technique for studying the response to light of rock/pigment systems found in rock art sites. The advantages and limitations of the technique are discussed.

  11. Schoolchildren's Use of Poetry and Paintings in Conveying Environmental Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbels, Susan; Hunter, Jo; Nunoo, Francis K. E.; Tagoe, E.; Evans, Stewart M.

    2012-01-01

    Pupils aged 12-14 from the University of Ghana Primary and Junior High School conducted studies off the coast adjacent to Accra, including a field visit to explore the effects of climate change on the country's biology, ecology and physical environment. They composed poems and made paintings about the coast and sea as means of conveying their…

  12. Experiments on an Exhaust Hood for the Paint Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Madsen, Ulla; Tveit, David J.

    1991-01-01

    There is a great variation of production machinery and pollution sources in the paint industry. This paper shows the examination of a process where wood preservation is filled into cans in a process which releases organic solvents to the surrounding air.

  13. Troubled traces: painting and displaying intercultural traumas of Aboriginality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Kamarra Shearer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Behind the pointillism of dot paintings or ‘nai?ve’ techniques, Aboriginal artists stridently critique histories of injustice, incarceration, racism, colonialism and dispossession. This personal testimony from Heather Kamarra Shearer, one of the ‘stolen generation’ of Aboriginal Australians, reflects on her life story and her present vocation in the field of legal rights and as an artist.

  14. ‘James Cahill and the Study of Chinese Painting

    OpenAIRE

    Zaixin Hong

    2014-01-01

    James Cahill was a leading scholar in the field of Chinese painting studies through his influential teaching and most original and prolific writings. From a global, verbal, and visual perspective, this essay examines how significantly he has challenged and thereby enriched the extant art scholarships in China and the West, and what an enduring legacy he has left behind him in the art historiography.

  15. A chemometric study of ageing in lead-based paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallipurath, Anuradha; Skelton, Jonathan; Bucklow, Spike; Elliott, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    The development of non-invasive analytical methods is of widespread interest to the field of conservation science, providing chemical insight into the materials used to create painted works of art, which can, for example, inform decisions about their restoration and preservation, or help discern original works from forgeries. A key undertaking in this area is to develop practical methods for identifying and understanding the chemical processes that occur in paint films under ageing. Furthermore, whereas a number of scientific studies have focussed on model systems in which natural ageing processes are simulated in a short time by irradiation under ultraviolet (UV) light, it remains to be established to what extent natural and accelerated ageing induce similar chemical changes. In this work, we employ FT-Raman spectroscopy, together with a simple spectral-deconvolution algorithm, to study in detail the spectral changes accompanying the natural and UV-accelerated ageing of lead-based paint films. We find that the two processes differ significantly, and that spectroscopic signatures, principally in the fluorescence background, can thus be used to differentiate the two modes of ageing and hence possibly to identify attempted forgeries. Our studies also suggest that paints based on proteinaceous binders are more stable to ageing than lipid-bound ones. Finally, we investigate the possibility of using our chemometric deconvolution technique, in conjunction with multivariate analysis, for the semi-automated characterisation of the degree or extent of ageing in unknown samples. PMID:26452916

  16. VOC EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR SHIP PAINTING FACILITIES: INDUSTRY CHARACTERIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has the responsibility of reducing the levels of VOC emissions from the nation's stationary and mobile sources. The project was directed at assessing the levels of VOC emissions from ship painting operations with the intent of determining ...

  17. Synthesis of Copper Pigments, Malachite and Verdigris: Making Tempera Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Sally D.; Rutkowsky, Susan A.; Mahon, Megan L.; Halpern, Erica M.

    2011-01-01

    Malachite and verdigris, two copper-based pigments, are synthesized in this experiment intended for use in a general chemistry laboratory. The preparation of egg tempera paint from malachite is also described. All procedures can be done with a magnetic stir plate, standard glassware present in any first-year laboratory, and household chemicals.…

  18. Beauty in abstract paintings: Perceptual contrast and statistical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Redies

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we combined the behavioral and objective approach in the field of empirical aesthetics. First, we studied the perception of beauty by investigating shifts in evaluation on perceived beauty of abstract artworks (Experiment 1. Because the participants showed heterogeneous individual preferences for the paintings, we divided them into seven clusters for the test. The experiment revealed a clear pattern of perceptual contrast. The perceived beauty of abstract paintings increased after exposure to paintings that were rated as less beautiful, and it decreased after exposure to paintings that were rated as more beautiful. Next, we searched for correlations of beauty ratings and perceptual contrast with statistical properties of abstract artworks (Experiment 2. The participants showed significant preferences for certain image properties. These preferences differed between the clusters of participants. Strikingly, next to color measures like hue, saturation, value and lightness, the recently described PHOG self-similarity value seems to be a predictor for aesthetic appreciation of abstract artworks. We speculate that the shift in evaluation in Experiment 1 was, at least in part, based on low-level adaptation to some of the statistical image properties analyzed in Experiment 2. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the perception of beauty in abstract artworks is altered after exposure to beautiful or non-beautiful images and correlates with particular image properties, especially color measures and self-similarity.

  19. Occupational exposure to airborne chemical substances in paintings conservators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Je?ewska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper presents the results of the quantitative study of the airborne chemical substances detected in the conservator's work environment. Material and Methods: The quantitative tests were carried out in 6 museum easel paintings conservation studios. The air test samples were taken at various stages of restoration works, such as cleaning, doubling, impregnation, varnishing, retouching, just to name a few. The chemical substances in the sampled air were measured by the GC-FID (gas chromatography with flame ionization detector test method. Results: The study results demonstrated that concentrations of airborne substances, e.g., toluene, 1,4-dioxane, turpentine and white spirit in the work environment of paintings conservators exceeded the values allowed by hygiene standards. It was found that exposure levels to the same chemical agents, released during similar activities, varied for different paintings conservation studios. It is likely that this discrepancy resulted from the indoor air exchange system for a given studio (e.g. type of ventilation and its efficiency, the size of the object under maintenance, and also from the methodology and protection used by individual employees. Conclusions: The levels of organic solvent vapors, present in the workplace air in the course of painting conservation, were found to be well above the occupational exposure limits, thus posing a threat to the worker's health. Med Pr 2014;65(1:33–41

  20. Desalination of painted brick vaults : Ph.D.thesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Klenz

    1999-01-01

    The subject of the thesis is salt and moisture movement that causes damage to wall paintings on church vaults. The deterioration was studied in the churches of Fanefjord, Kirkerup and Brarup. A desalination method was tested om location. The salt and moisture transfer was examined in detail in laboratory set-ups, and a model for the salt and moisture movement was proposed.