WorldWideScience
1

Miniature spray-painting booth  

Science.gov (United States)

Transparent spray booth provides method for quality painting and repair of surfaces in clean room or other specialized environments. Overspray and virtually all contaminating vapor and odor can be eliminated. Touch-up painting is achieved with spray gun.

Fee, K. W.

1970-01-01

2

PAINT SPRAY BOOTH MODIFICATIONS FOR RECIRCULATION VENTILATION  

Science.gov (United States)

The control of emissions from spray painting operations has historically been cost prohibitive, due to the high exhaust flow rates coupled with low volatile organic compound (VOC) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) Concentrations. Past studies, conducted by the U.S. EPA and U.S. ...

3

PAINT SPRAY BOOTH DESIGN USING RECIRCULATION/PARTITIONING VENTILATION  

Science.gov (United States)

Many spray painting facility operators have been attempting to reduce the discharge of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from paint spray booths to the atmosphere. Some have been able to convert to lower VOC containing paints and coatings such as powder coating, waterborne coatin...

4

Behaviour of painted mirrors during exposure tests to salt spray  

Science.gov (United States)

The multilayer structure of commercially made mirrors can be subject to degradation under normal conditions, leading to alterations of the mirror's reflective properties. A protective coat of paint, containing an anticorrosive compound, is applied to the copper surface to reduce the oxidation of the thin metallic films. The objective of this study is to analyse the behaviour of the multilayer stack during salt spray tests (neutral salt spray and CASS-test). We followed the morphological and chemical evolution of the interfacial area (glass-silver-copper-paint) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron probe for micro analysis (EPMA). Studies of the surface of the coatings were performed with attenuated total reflexion infrared spectroscopy (IRTF-ATR) and SEM-EPMA. The observations revealed that a glass-silver decohesion occurs starting at the edges of the material during the tests. The EPMA analyses of the exposed edges of the mirrors indicated first that concentration of the anticorrosive pigment of the paint (lead-based compound) decreased, especially at the copper-paint interface, and second that the copper in the paint may diffuse to the surface of the coating. Finally, IRTF-ATR spectroscopy and SEM-EPMA analyses of surfaces showed that the CASS-test leads to an acid attack of some pigments and extenders of the paint (particularly CaCO 3) and leads to chemical modifications of the binder. These phenomena result in an increase in the porosity and a weakening of the paint film. The results obtained with these surface analytical technics will allow us to propose some degradation mechanisms of painted mirrors during salt spray tests.

Schütz, E.; Berger, F.; Barillon, R.; Audebert, P.; Chambaudet, A.

1997-11-01

5

STRATIFICATION OF PARTICULATE AND VOC POLLUTANTS IN PAINT SPRAY BOOTHS  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper discusses flow management as part of a joint EPA/U.S. Air Force program on emissions from paint spray booths. he goal of the program is to identify and develop efficienct and economical emissions control concepts for this source. low management is one potential solution...

6

Solvent vapor exposures in booth spray painting and spray glueing, and associated operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Time-weighted average exposures for all solvents present at detectable levels were obtained for eighty-nine solvent-using workers and thirty-six control-group (unexposed) workers in seven plants of three companies applying paints and glues, primarily by spraying. Over twenty solvents were quantified if detected. Concentrations of specific solvents and cumulative fractions of TLVs were measured for various job types. All spray painting and most spray glueing was conducted in operating spray booths. Only low to moderate exposures were observed, with one TWA exceeding the cumulative TLV and three additional TWAs exceeding 50 percent of the cumulative TLV. It may be concluded that solvent TWA exposures in spraying of paints and glues are often well-controlled by common spray booths, and further, that other solvent-use operations including light-duty solvent wiping and manual paint mixing do not frequently produce high exposures (relative to TLV levels) in the presence of ordinary general room ventilation. PMID:6507277

Whitehead, L W; Ball, G L; Fine, L J; Langolf, G D

1984-11-01

7

On the fluid mechanics of electrochemical coating and spray painting  

OpenAIRE

Finite-volume methods have been used for modeling of fluidflows involved in forced convection electrochemical coating androtating spray painting systems. Electrodeposition on a singlecircular cylinder under forced convection for Reynolds numbers10 and 200 was simulated. Comparisons with earlier numericaland theoretical results are presented and it is shown that theunsteady wake that appears for Reynolds numbers greater than 50affects the mass transfer from the surface of the cylinder onlyin a...

Olivas, Pedro

2001-01-01

8

High-solids paint overspray aerosols in a spray painting booth: particle size analysis and scrubber efficiency  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Particle size distributions of high-solids acrylic-enamel paint overspray aerosols were determined isokinetically in a typical downdraft spray painting booth in which a 7-stage cascade impactor was used. Three different industrial paint atomizers were used, and the paint aerosols were characterized before and after a paint both scrubber. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of a metallic basecoat and an acrylic clearcoat paint aerosol from air-atomized spray guns ranged from 4-12 ..mu..m and was dependent on atomization pressure. When the paint booth was operated under controlled conditions simulating those in a plant, the collection efficiency of paint overspray aerosols by a paint scrubber was found to be size dependent and decreased sharply for particles smaller than 2 ..mu..m to as low as 64% for clearcoat paint particles of 0.6 ..mu..m. Improvement in the overall particulate removal efficiency can be achieved by optimizing the spray painting operations so as to produce the least amount of fine overspray paint aerosols less than 2 ..mu..m. Maintaining a higher static pressure drop across the paint both scrubber also will improve scrubber performance.

Chan, T.L.; D' arcy, J.B.; Schreck, R.M.

1986-07-01

9

STRATIFICATION OF PARTICULATE AND VOC POLLUTANTS IN HORIZONTAL FLOW PAINT SPRAY BOOTHS  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper discusses stratification of particulate and volatile organic compound (VOC) pollutants in horizontal flow paint spray booths, as part of a joint U. S. Air Force/EPA research and development program on emissions from paint spray booths. The test program discussed in this...

10

Examination of spray paints by the use of reflection technique of microinfrared spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Identification of spray paint coats on various surfaces (usually plaster) is often a subject matter of forensic examination. The layer of paint, which creates an inscription, smudge or a drawing, is thin and difficult to be separated from the base. Model examinations have been carried out aiming at the evaluation of the usefulness of the reflection technique of microinfrared spectrometry in the identification of paints. About 20 spray paints, available on the Polish market,—white and black—were placed on the surface in the form of metal, glass, foil, fabric and a wall made of brick, plaster board and mineral plaster. It was found out that, obtaining a reflectance spectrum suitable for identification of the type of paint depends on the thickness of the paint coat and on the type of the base. It was observed that, the smoother and less absorptive the base is the less is its influence deforming the reflection spectrum of paint.

Zieba-Palus, Janina

2005-06-01

11

Size distribution of chromate paint aerosol generated in a bench-scale spray booth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spray painters are potentially exposed to aerosols containing hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] via inhalation of chromate-based paint sprays. Evaluating the particle size distribution of a paint spray aerosol, and the variables that may affect this distribution, is necessary to determine the site and degree of respiratory deposition and the damage that may result from inhaled Cr(VI)-containing paint particles. This study examined the effect of spray gun atomization pressure, aerosol generation source and aerosol aging on the size distribution of chromate-based paint overspray aerosols generated in a bench-scale paint spray booth. The study also determined the effect of particle bounce inside a Marple personal cascade impactor on measured size distributions of paint spray aerosols. Marple personal cascade impactors with a modified inlet were used for sample collection. The data indicated that paint particle bounce did not occur inside the cascade impactors sufficiently to affect size distribution when using uncoated stainless steel or PVC substrate sampling media. A decrease in paint aerosol mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) from 8.2 to 7.0 mum was observed as gun atomization pressure increased from 6 to 10 psi. Overspray aerosols were sampled at two locations in the spray booth. A downstream sampling position simulated the exposure of a worker standing between the painted surface and exhaust, a situation encountered in booths with multiple workers. The measured mean MMAD was 7.2 mum. The distance between the painted surface and sampler was varied to sample oversprays of varying ages between 2.8 and 7.7 s. Age was not a significant factor for determining MMAD. Overspray was sampled at a 90 degrees position to simulate a worker standing in front of the surface being painted with air flowing to the worker's side, a common situation in field applications. The resulting overspray MMAD averaged 5.9 mum. Direct-spray aerosols were sampled at ages from 5.3 to 11.7 s. Overspray and direct-spray results indicated that most of the change in aerosol size distribution occurred between the time the paint aerosol impacted the painted surface and the time the overspray became 2.8 s old. The overall mean MMAD of overspray in the study was 6.4 mum and may have been underestimated due to sampling efficiency biases. If inhaled by a worker, the overspray aerosols evaluated in this study would mostly deposit in the head airways region of the respiratory tract. Paint overspray aerosols contained Cr primarily in the Cr(VI) state. PMID:15596421

Sabty-Daily, Rania A; Hinds, William C; Froines, John R

2005-01-01

12

USERS GUIDE FOR THE CONVERSION OF NAVY PAINT SPRAY BOOTH PARTICULATE EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEMS FROM WET TO DRY OPERATION  

Science.gov (United States)

The report is a guide or convrting U.S. Navy paint spray booth particulate emission control systems from wet to dry operation. The use of water curtains for air pollution control of paint spray booths is considered a major source of water and solid waste pol-lution from industria...

13

New off line method of evaluating paint parciles emissions from spray booths. Booth toryo mist jokyoritsu no shikenho  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Volatile organic compounds and the mist of paint particles emitted from painting spray booths for automobiles are important as environmental problems. In this report a new method of off-line measurement on removal rate paint particle mist is presented. Off-line data of paint particle mist with the current test method correspond with actual in-line data for solid color booths, but do not correspond with those for metallic color booths. Application methods and conditions for metallic paint have changed since the current test method was established. A new off-line test method was designed especially for metallic color booths and developed based on as analysis of relation between various spray painting conditions and paint emission mist. It was confirmed that the removal rates of paint emission mist obtained with the new test method show good correspondence with actual in-line test results. 1 ref., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Ito, J. (Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)); Omori, H. (Trinity Industrial Corp., Aichi (Japan))

1991-11-01

14

Assessment of dermal exposure during airless spray painting using a quantitative visualisation technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

The range of dermal exposure to non-volatile compounds during spray painting was studied in a semi-experimental study involving three enterprises and 12 painters. A fluorescent tracer was added to the paint and deposition of the tracer on clothing and uncovered parts of the skin was assessed using video imaging and processing techniques. A container (volume 36 m(3)) was sprayed with a colourless laquer (varnish) containing 66.7 mg/l fluorescent whitening agent. All painters sprayed the outside of the container. Nine painters repeated the painting a second time and five also sprayed the inside of the container. The painters wore white Tyvek coveralls, but no gloves. Duration of spraying the outside ranged from 4 to 21 min with a mean of 10 min and the amount of paint sprayed ranged from 3.0 to 12.8 l (mean 6.6 l). The mass of tracer deposited on the coverall ranged from 2.2 to 471 microg (90th percentile 256 microg), whereas, mass deposited on skin (i.e. the hands, wrists, and face) ranged from 0.01 to 52 microg tracer (90th percentile 20 microg). The quantity of tracer on the coverall was three times higher after spraying the inside of the container compared to spraying the outside, whereas the quantity on the skin was similar in both cases. On average 10% of the surface area of the coverall and skin was exposed during spraying the outside. Exposures, expressed in units of mass per area exposed were slightly higher for skin compared to coverall. In this study, deposited mass of tracer was correlated with an alternative exposure metric, i.e. surface area exposed multiplied by the duration of exposure, which has been proposed as a surrogate for uptake. Using a quantitative fluorescent tracer technique, it could be demonstrated that body parts which showed the lowest mass of tracer had the highest exposure as mass per surface area. Compared to other techniques which only determine mass, the ability to identify and quantify the actual surface area exposed is a clear advantage of the quantitative fluorescent tracer technique. PMID:11042257

Brouwer, D H; Lansink, C M; Cherrie, J W; van Hemmen, J J

2000-10-01

15

EVALUATION OF A PAINT SPRAY BOOTH UTILIZING AIR RECIRCULATION  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of the recirculating air spray booth process at the Deere and Company facility in Davenport, Iowa. The effort involved a field measurement program and subsequent analysis of flow rates and emission data from the spra...

16

Dermal exposure to dry powder spray paints using PXRF and the method of Dirichlet tesselations.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes workplace dermal exposure measurements that were carried out by the Health and Safety Laboratory as part of the EU RISKOFDERM project to measure dust contamination. Exposure to dry powder spray paints was measured at five sites on 12 subjects. Twenty-two samples were obtained, of which eight contained triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC) and 14 did not. All subjects wore Tyvek whole body oversuits and some wore sampling gloves. These were either analysed in their entirety to extract the TGIC or surface scanned over representative areas using a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (PXRF) to detect barium or titanium in the fillers of the paints. The method of Dirichlet tessellation was used to map the scans and the technique was developed further for these studies to extend measurements to gloves and to take limits of detection into consideration. The PXRF allowed dusts to be measured in situ that would otherwise be difficult to extract from the material and analyse by other means. The geometric mean surface loading rate of the 22 oversuits was 43 micro g/cm/(2)/h (GSD = 6.0) and of the 23 pairs of sampling gloves was 970 micro g/cm(2)/h (GSD = 8.6). Exposure patterns could be attributed to the arrangements of the subjects, spray booths and the workpieces. Similar exposures were found for TGIC and titanium fillers in factories with similar methods of ventilation. PMID:15059802

Roff, Martin; Bagon, David A; Chambers, Helen; Dilworth, E Martin; Warren, Nicholas

2004-04-01

17

Survey on batch-to-batch variation in spray paints: a collaborative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study represents the most extensive analysis of batch-to-batch variations in spray paint samples to date. The survey was performed as a collaborative project of the ENFSI (European Network of Forensic Science Institutes) Paint and Glass Working Group (EPG) and involved 11 laboratories. Several studies have already shown that paint samples of similar color but from different manufacturers can usually be differentiated using an appropriate analytical sequence. The discrimination of paints from the same manufacturer and color (batch-to-batch variations) is of great interest and these data are seldom found in the literature. This survey concerns the analysis of batches from different color groups (white, papaya (special shade of orange), red and black) with a wide range of analytical techniques and leads to the following conclusions. Colored batch samples are more likely to be differentiated since their pigment composition is more complex (pigment mixtures, added pigments) and therefore subject to variations. These variations may occur during the paint production but may also occur when checking the paint shade in quality control processes. For these samples, techniques aimed at color/pigment(s) characterization (optical microscopy, microspectrophotometry (MSP), Raman spectroscopy) provide better discrimination than techniques aimed at the organic (binder) or inorganic composition (fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) or elemental analysis (SEM - scanning electron microscopy and XRF - X-ray fluorescence)). White samples contain mainly titanium dioxide as a pigment and the main differentiation is based on the binder composition (CH stretches) detected either by FTIR or Raman. The inorganic composition (elemental analysis) also provides some discrimination. Black samples contain mainly carbon black as a pigment and are problematic with most of the spectroscopic techniques. In this case, pyrolysis-GC/MS represents the best technique to detect differences. Globally, Py-GC/MS may show a high potential of discrimination on all samples but the results are highly dependent on the specific instrumental conditions used. Finally, the discrimination of samples when data was interpreted visually as compared to statistically using principal component analysis (PCA) yielded very similar results. PCA increases sensitivity and could perform better on specific samples, but one first has to ensure that all non-informative variation (baseline deviation) is eliminated by applying correct pre-treatments. Statistical treatments can be used on a large data set and, when combined with an expert's opinion, will provide more objective criteria for decision making. PMID:23683912

Muehlethaler, Cyril; Massonnet, Geneviève; Deviterne, Marie; Bradley, Maureen; Herrero, Ana; de Lezana, Itxaso Diaz; Lauper, Sandrine; Dubois, Damien; Geyer-Lippmann, Jochen; Ketterer, Sonja; Milet, Stéphane; Bertrand, Magali; Langer, Wolfgang; Plage, Bernd; Gorzawski, Gabriele; Lamothe, Véronique; Marsh, Louissa; Turunen, Raija

2013-06-10

18

Exposure to Airborne Particles and Volatile Organic Compounds from Polyurethane Molding, Spray Painting, Lacquering, and Gluing in a Workshop  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the health risk related to occupational air pollution exposure, we assessed concentrations and identified sources of particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs in a handcraft workshop producing fishing lures. The work processes in the site included polyurethane molding, spray painting, lacquering, and gluing. We measured total VOC (TVOC concentrations and particle size distributions at three locations representing the various phases of the manufacturing and assembly process. The mean working-hour TVOC concentrations in three locations studied were 41, 37, and 24 ppm according to photo-ionization detector measurements. The mean working-hour particle number concentration varied between locations from 3000 to 36,000 cm?3. Analysis of temporal and spatial variations of TVOC concentrations revealed that there were at least four substantial VOC sources: spray gluing, mold-release agent spraying, continuous evaporation from various lacquer and paint containers, and either spray painting or lacquering (probably both. The mold-release agent spray was indirectly also a major source of ultrafine particles. The workers’ exposure can be reduced by improving the local exhaust ventilation at the known sources and by increasing the ventilation rate in the area with the continuous source.

Bjarke Mølgaard

2015-04-01

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DEMONSTRATION OF SPLIT-FLOW VENTILATION AND RECIRCULATION AS FLOW-REDUCTION METHODS IN AN AIR FORCE PAINT SPRAY BOOTH - VOLUME II. APPENDICES D-J  

Science.gov (United States)

During a series of painting operations in a horizontal-flow paint spray booth at Travis AFB, CA, baseline concentrations of four classes of toxic airborne pollutants were measured at 24 locations across a plane immediately forward of the exhaust filters, in the exhaust duct, and ...

20

Spray-painted binder-free SnSe electrodes for high-performance energy-storage devices.  

Science.gov (United States)

SnSe nanocrystal electrodes on three-dimensional (3D) carbon fabric and Au-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) wafer have been prepared by a simple spray-painting process and were further investigated as binder-free active-electrodes for Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and flexible stacked all-solid-state supercapacitors. The as-painted SnSe nanocrystals/carbon fabric electrodes exhibit an outstanding capacity of 676 mAh g(-1) after 80 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g(-1) and a considerable high-rate capability in lithium storage because of the excellent ion transport from the electrolyte to the active materials and the efficient charge transport between current collector and electrode materials. The binder-free electrodes also provide a larger electrochemical active surface compared with electrodes containing binders, which leads to the enhanced capacities of energy-storage devices. A flexible stacked all-solid-state supercapacitor based on the SnSe nanocrystals on Au-coated PET wafers shows high capacitance reversibility with little performance degradation at different current densities after 2200 charge-discharge cycles and even when bent. This allows for many potential applications in facile, cost-effective, spray-paintable, and flexible energy-storage devices. The results indicate that the fabrication of binder-free electrodes by a spray painting process is an interesting direction for the preparation of high-performance energy-storage devices. PMID:24339208

Wang, Xianfu; Liu, Bin; Xiang, Qingyi; Wang, Qiufan; Hou, Xiaojuan; Chen, Di; Shen, Guozhen

2014-01-01

21

Estimating personal exposures based on mass balance material usage rates: validation of a ventilation model in a spray paint booth.  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this research was to evaluate an estimating model (box model) with direct measurements of contaminants in an industrial spray painting operation. The research involved a dilution ventilation efficiency experiment that was devised to estimate the effective ventilation rate, sampling for organic compounds (xylene, ethyl benzene, methyl ethyl ketone, and methyl isobutyl ketone) in a paint booth, and simultaneously measuring the mass usage of these compounds during painting operations in order to compare measured with predicted concentrations. The results of the dilution ventilation experiment indicated that channeling of air was occurring due to a high ventilation rate in the painting area. The results of the mass balance usage and air sampling comparisons indicated that predicted concentrations were within the 95% upper/lower confidence interval about the geometric mean in 14 out of 16 area samples taken within the paint booth (87.5%). Correlation analysis between predicted concentrations and area, personal, and exhaust stack concentrations were strongest with exhaust (r = 0.923). Correlations with personal concentrations were not as strong (r = 0.828), and the area concentrations were even less strong (0.757). In conclusion, the box model does appear to be a useful additional tool for estimating worker exposures. However, the characteristics of any particular ventilation system must be understood before modeling is conducted. PMID:15204860

Taylor, Jon R; O'Shaughnessy, Patrick T; Reynolds, Stephen J

2004-04-01

22

Users guide for the conversion of Navy paint-spray-booth particulate emission-control systems from wet to dry operation. Final report, January-September 1989  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report is a guide for converting U.S. Navy paint-spray-booth particulate emission control systems from wet to dry operation. The use of water curtains for air-pollution-control of paint-spray booths is considered a major source of water and solid-waste pollution from industrial painting operations. It is possible, however, to eliminate this water-pollution problem and significantly reduce the solid-waste load by converting the booth to utilize a dry-filter pollution-control system. The conversion, however, requires extensive planning prior to actual facility modification. The report describes requirements to facilitate the planning and preparation for conversion of typical spray booths. Although the report addresses modifications of Navy spray booths, the basic engineering requirements discussed apply also to other Department of Defense installations and to commercial industrial facilities.

Ayer, J.; Tate, D.

1990-03-01

23

An innovative sustainable process for VOCs recovery from spray paint booths  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air emissions from surface coating operations result from the evaporation of the organic solvents in the coatings and consist primarily of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These VOC emissions can occur in a number of places along the production line: during atomization and application of the coating, during initial air drying of the part after it leaves the spray paint booth, and, eventually, in the bake oven. The aim of this paper is to present an innovative and sustainable process based on VOC absorption. An absorption tower is fed on the top by oil, which efficiently absorbs at low temperature the VOCs contained by the off-gas that enters the tower at its bottom. The mass ratio between oil and gas is approximately 1, so that a tray configuration results more efficiently than an alternative packed column. Saturated oil from the column is then stripped at high temperature in a vacuum system that condenses VOCs at a temperature slightly below the ambient temperature. Stripped oil is then recycled to the absorption tower. Special utilities are foreseen to reduce the water content in the gas and for energy recovery all over the plant. An industrial site located in Italy works at 14,000 Nm3/h off-gas absorbed with slightly more than 10 m3/h of oil. VOCs content in the off-gas ranges daily from 1200 to 2500 ppm; an average efficiency of approx. 90% recovery is presently obtained. A further reduction to an expected value of about 95-98% will be achixpected value of about 95-98% will be achieved in the next months

24

An innovative sustainable process for VOCs recovery from spray paint booths  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air emissions from surface coating operations result from the evaporation of the organic solvents in the coatings and consist primarily of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These VOC emissions can occur in a number of places along the production line: during atomization and application of the coating, during initial air drying of the part after it leaves the spray paint booth, and, eventually, in the bake oven. The aim of this paper is to present an innovative and sustainable process based on VOC absorption. An absorption tower is fed on the top by oil, which efficiently absorbs at low temperature the VOCs contained by the off-gas that enters the tower at its bottom. The mass ratio between oil and gas is approximately 1, so that a tray configuration results more efficiently than an alternative packed column. Saturated oil from the column is then stripped at high temperature in a vacuum system that condenses VOCs at a temperature slightly below the ambient temperature. Stripped oil is then recycled to the absorption tower. Special utilities are foreseen to reduce the water content in the gas and for energy recovery all over the plant. An industrial site located in Italy works at 14,000 Nm{sup 3}/h off-gas absorbed with slightly more than 10 m{sup 3}/h of oil. VOCs content in the off-gas ranges daily from 1200 to 2500 ppm; an average efficiency of approx. 90% recovery is presently obtained. A further reduction to an expected value of about 95-98% will be achieved in the next months.

Pierucci, Sauro; Del Rosso, Renato; Bombardi, Danilo; Concu, Antonello; Lugli, Giuseppe

2005-06-01

25

Evaluation of a paint spray booth utilizing air recirculation. Final report June 1982-December 1983  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of the recirculating air spray booth process at the Deere and Company facility in Davenport, Iowa. The effort involved a field measurement program and subsequent analysis of flow rates and emission data from the spray booth to define the degree of enhancement of the emissions stream and permit more efficient and economical control of spray booth emissions. Energy conservation became a matter of concern for industrial operators during the late 1970s when energy costs began to climb rapidly. Deere and Company engineers noted

Norton, L.E.; Bryan, R.J.; Becvar, D.P.

1984-08-01

26

Isocyanate exposure and respiratory health effects in the spray painting industry  

OpenAIRE

In this thesis exposure-response relationships between isocyanate exposure and respiratory health end-points and specific sensitization in spray painters were investigated. Isocyanates, a group of compounds characterized by reactive N=C=O groups, are among the most frequently identified causes of occupational asthma in industrialized countries. Isocyanates are used as polymerizing agents in polyurethane products, such as kits, glues, lacquers and insulation materials. Spray painters comprise ...

Pronk, A.

2007-01-01

27

Discrimination and classification of FTIR spectra of red, blue and green spray paints using a multivariate statistical approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of multivariate techniques was investigated in a forensic paint analysis context. The data set consisted of the infrared spectra of 74 spray paint cans, corresponding to three colors code, respectively red, green and blue. Two aspects of the forensic procedure are studied, respectively, the discrimination of paints coming from a market study through exploratory techniques, and the source prediction of unknown samples in database using classifiers. The exploratory discrimination capabilities of principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clusters analysis (HCA) were compared to a visual comparison of the spectra. Iterative PCA was found to be the most adapted solution for exploratory analysis of the samples. Very few differences were found compared to a visual comparison of the samples and the statistical foundations behind the method ensure that no errors are due to a misclassification of the samples. Market studies and joint PCA also represent a significant gain of time. Following that, classification and prediction of future samples were evaluated by means of supervised techniques of classification such as linear/quadratic discriminant analysis (LDA/QDA), support vector machines (SVM), soft independent modeling of classes analogies (SIMCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). SIMCA was the preferred method, as it provided the smallest false negative rates together with a correct classification rate of about 95%. From an investigative point-of-view the presence of false positives was considered acceptable, as it is preferable to have a longer list of possible sources but have confidence that the true source belongs to it. PMID:25255193

Muehlethaler, Cyril; Massonnet, Geneviève; Esseiva, Pierre

2014-11-01

28

DEMONSTRATION OF SPLIT-FLOW VENTILATION AND RECIR CULATION AS FLOW-REDUCTION METHODS IN AN AIR FORCE PAINT SPRAY BOOTH - VOLUME I. MAIN REPORT, APPENDICES A-C  

Science.gov (United States)

During a series of painting operations in a horizontal-flow paint spray booth at Travis AFB, CA, baseline concentrations of four classes of toxic airborne pollutants were measured at 24 locations across a plane immediately forward of the exhaust filters, in the exhaust duct, and ...

29

29 CFR 1917.153 - Spray painting (See also § 1917.2, definition of Hazardous cargo, materials, substance, or...  

Science.gov (United States)

...flammable or combustible liquids to the spraying booth...shall be made of metal and be both bonded...flammable or combustible liquids into spraying areas...flammable or combustible liquids are supplied to...shall have a relief valve discharging either...materials. (4) Metal parts of spray...

2010-07-01

30

Demonstration of split-flow ventilation and recirculation as flow-reduction methods in an Air Force paint spray booth. Final technical report, February 1991-October 1992  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During a series of painting operations in a horizontal-flow paint spray booth at Travis AFB, CA, baseline concentrations of four classes of toxic airborne pollutants were measured at 24 locations across a plane immediately forward of the exhaust filters, in the exhaust duct, and inside and outside the respirator in the painter`s breathing zone (BZ). The resulting data were analyzed and used to design a modified ventilation system that (1) separates a portion of the exhaust exiting the lower portion of the booth, which contains a concentration of toxic pollutants greater than the average at the exhaust plane (split-flow); and (2) provides an option to return the flow from the upper portion of the exhaust to the intake plenum for mixing with fresh air and recirculation through the booth (recirculation). After critical review by cognizant Air Force offices and an experimental demonstration showing that a flame ionization detector monitoring the air entering the booth is able to detect excursions above the equivalent exposure limit for the solvents in the paint, the exhaust duct was reconfigured for split-flow and recirculating ventilation. A volunteer painter was briefed on the increased risk of exposure during recirculation, and on the purposes and possible benefits of this study. He then signed an informed consent form before participating in the recirculation tests. A series of tests generally equivalent to the baseline series was conducted during split-flow and recirculating ventilation, and three tests were performed during only split-flow ventilation.

Hughes, S.; Ayer, J.; Sutay, R.

1994-07-01

31

Using a flame ionization detector (FID) to continuously measure toxic organic vapors in a paint spray booth. Rept. for Jul 91-Jan 92  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper reports the demonstration of linear and similar responses of a Ratfisch RS-55CA flame ionization detector (FID) to a solvent mixture identical to the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the coating and catalyst (NSN 8010-01-336-3036) and to the calibrating gas (propane) used in field calibrations of the FID. Sensitivity and linearity have been shown to extend from 715 to 45 mg/cu m, which brackets the calculated short-term exposure limit (STEL) and lower action thresholds. Monitoring is maintained constantly and, under field conditions, equilibration occurs rapidly (analysis and output transpire in milliseconds). As a trigger for fail-safe conversion from recirculation mode to a straight-through paint spray booth configuration, the FID may confidently be expected to initiate a corrective response before a transient elevation of VOC concentrations overexposes area personnel.

Whitfield, J.K.; Howe, G.B.; Pate, B.A.; Wander, J.D.

1992-01-01

32

Process Waste Assessment - Paint Shop  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate hazardous wastes generated in the Paint Shop, Building 913, Room 130. Special attention is given to waste streams generated by the spray painting process because it requires a number of steps for preparing, priming, and painting an object. Also, the spray paint booth covers the largest area in R-130. The largest and most costly waste stream to dispose of is open-quote Paint Shop wasteclose quotes -- a combination of paint cans, rags, sticks, filters, and paper containers. These items are compacted in 55-gallon drums and disposed of as solid hazardous waste. Recommendations are made for minimizing waste in the Paint Shop. Paint Shop personnel are very aware of the need to minimize hazardous wastes and are continuously looking for opportunities to do so

33

Feasibility study of respiratory questionnaire and peak flow recordings in autobody shop workers exposed to isocyanate-containing spray paint: observations and limitations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diisocyanates, highly reactive monomers which cross-link polyurethane, are the most widely recognized causes of occupational asthma. Many exposed workers are end-users, including autobody spray painters who form a large population at risk. Neither the factors which determine incidence rate nor strategies for control have been adequately studied in this setting. We have conducted a cross-sectional survey of 23 (about one in five) autobody shops in the New Haven area to determine the feasibility of clinical epidemiological studies in this population. Among 102 workers, there was a high rate of airway symptoms consistent with occupational asthma (19.6%). Symptoms were most prevalent among those with the greatest opportunity for exposure (dedicated spray painters) and least among office workers; part-time painters had intermediate rates. Atopy was not associated with risk while smoking seemed to correlate with symptoms. Regular use of air-supplied respirators appeared to be associated with lower risk among workers who painted part- or full-time. We were unable to validate the questionnaire responses with peak expiratory flow record data attempted on a 1/3 sample of the workers. Despite intensive training and effort, subject compliance was limited. Among those who provided adequate data (24 of 38), only two demonstrated unequivocal evidence of labile airways; two others demonstrated lesser changes consistent with an occupational effect on flow rates. There was no clear association between these findings and either questionnaire responses or exposure classification. Overall, the survey suggests that there is a high prevalence of airway symptoms among workers in autobody shops, at least in part due to work-related asthma. However, there is need for both methodological and substantive research in this setting to document rates of occupational asthma and to develop a scientific basis for its effective control. PMID:8695771

Cullen, M R; Redlich, C A; Beckett, W S; Weltmann, B; Sparer, J; Jackson, G; Ruff, T; Rubinstein, E; Holden, W

1996-06-01

34

Solar-absorber-selective paint research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research and development on thickness-sensitive and thickness-insensitive solar paints are discussed. The thickness-sensitive paints include reverse roll coated, gravure printed, and spray coated paints. The coating methods and optical properties of the thickness-sensitive paints are discussed. The thickness-insensitive solar paints include a low emittance flake such as aluminium-flake, and pigment. Durability tests are discussed, including accelerated weathering and humidity durability tests, for the thickness-sensitive coatings. (LEW)

Moore, S.W.

1982-01-01

35

Anodized aluminium pressure sensitive paint: effect of paint application technique  

OpenAIRE

The porous surface of the Anodized Aluminium Pressure Sensitive Paint (AA-PSP) is what differentiates it from conventional sol–gel based PSPs, leading to a faster response time of the paint. The objective of the current study is to examine the effect of the paint application technique, i.e., whether the AA substrate is dipped or sprayed, on the pressure and temperature sensitivity. A more practical procedure for preparing the AA samples is also presented. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) ...

Zare-behtash, H.; Yang, L.; Gongora-orozco, N.; Kontis, K.; Jones, A.

2012-01-01

36

Design and evaluation of a solid sampler for the monitoring of airborne 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and its prepolymers in two-component spray painting.  

Science.gov (United States)

An active, solvent-free solid sampler was developed for the collection of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) aerosol and prepolymers. The sampler was made of a filter impregnated with 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine contained in a filter holder. Interferences with HDI were observed when a set of cellulose acetate filters and a polystyrene filter holder were used; a glass fiber filter and polypropylene filter cassette gave better results. The applicability of the sampling and analytical procedure was validated with a test chamber, constructed for the dynamic generation of HDI aerosol and prepolymers in commercial two-component spray paints (Desmodur N75) used in car refinishing. The particle size distribution, temporal stability, and spatial uniformity of the simulated aerosol were established in order to test the sampler. The monitoring of aerosol concentrations was conducted with the solid sampler paired to the reference impinger technique (impinger flasks contained 10 mL of 0.5 mg/mL 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine in toluene) under a controlled atmosphere in the test chamber. Analyses of derivatized HDI and prepolymers were carried out by using high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet detection. The correlation between the solvent-free and the impinger techniques appeared fairly good (Y = 0.979X-0.161; R = 0.978), when the tests were conducted in the range of 0.1 to 10 times the threshold limit value (TLV) for HDI monomer and up to 60 micrograms/m3 (3 U.K. TLVs) for total -N=C=O groups. PMID:1642167

Huynh, C K; Vu-Duc, T; Savolainen, H

1992-03-01

37

Demonstration of split-flow ventilation and recirculation as flow-reduction methods in an Air Force paint spray booth. Volume 1. Final report, 15 February 1991-9 January 1992  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During a series of painting operations in a horizontal-flow paint spray booth at Travis AFB, CA, baseline concentrations of four classes of toxic airborne pollutants were measured at 24 locations across a plane immediately forward of the exhaust filters, in the exhaust duct, and inside and outside the respirator in the painter`s breathing zone (BZ). The resulting data were analyzed and used to design a modified ventilation system that (1) separates a portion of the exhaust exiting the lower portion of the booth, which contains a concentration of toxic pollutants greater than the average at the exhaust plane (split-flow); and (2) provides an option to return the flow from the upper portion of the exhaust to the intake plenum for mixing with fresh air and recirculation through the booth (recirculation). After critical review by cognizant Air Force offices, and an experimental demonstration showing that a flame ionization detector monitoring the air entering the booth is able to detect excursions above the equivalent exposure limit for the solvents in the paint the exhaust duct was reconfigured for split-flow and recirculating ventilation.

Hughes, S.; Ayer, J.; Sutay, R.

1994-07-27

38

Demonstration of split-flow ventilation and recirculation as flow-reduction methods in an Air Force paint spray booth. Final report, 15 February 1991-9 October 1992  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During a series of painting operations in a horizontal-flow paint spray booth at Travis AFB, CA, baseline concentrations of four classes of toxic airborne pollutants were measured at 24 locations across a plane immediately forward of the exhaust filters, in the exhaust duct, and inside and outside the respirator in the painter`s breathing zone (BZ). The resulting data were analyzed and used to design a modified ventilation system that (1) separates a portion of the exhaust exiting the lower portion of the booth, which contains a concentration of toxic pollutants greater than the average at the exhaust plane (split-flow); and (2) provides an option to return the flow from the upper portion of the exhaust to the intake plenum for mixing with fresh air and recirculation through the booth (recirculation). After critical review by cognizant Air Force offices and an experimental demonstration showing that a flame ionization detector monitoring the air entering the booth is able to detect excursions above the equivalent exposure limit for the solvents in the paint, the exhaust duct was reconfigured for split-flow and recirculating ventilation. A volunteer painter was briefed on the increased risk of exposure during recirculation, and on the purposes and possible benefits of this study. He then signed an informed consent form before participating in the recirculation tests. A series of tests generally equivalent to the baseline series was conducted during split-flow and recirculating ventilation, and three tests were performed during only split-flow ventilation.

Hughes, S.; Ayer, J.; Sutay, R.

1994-07-27

39

Demonstration of split-flow ventilation and recirculation as flow-reduction methods in an Air Force paint spray booth. Volume 2. Final report, 15 February 1991-9 January 1992  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During a series of painting operations in a horizontal-flow paint spray booth at Travis AFB, CA, baseline concentrations of four classes of toxic airborne pollutants were measured at 24 locations across a plane immediately forward of the exhaust filters, in the exhaust duct, and inside and outside the respirator in the painter`s breathing zone (BZ). The resulting data were analyzed and used to design a modified ventilation system that (1) separates a portion of the exhaust exiting the lower portion of the booth, which contains a concentration of toxic pollutants greater than the average at the exhaust plane (split-flow); and (2) provides an option to return the flow from the upper portion of the exhaust to the intake plenum for mixing with fresh air and recirculation through the booth (recirculation). After critical review by cognizant Air Force offices, and an experimental demonstration showing that a flame ionization detector monitoring the air entering the booth is able to detect excursions above the equivalent exposure limit for the solvents in the paint, the exhaust duct was reconfigured for split-flow and recirculating ventilation.

Hughes, S.; Ayer, J.; Sutay, R.

1994-07-27

40

COST EFFECTIVE VOC EMISSION CONTROL STARTEGIES FOR MILITARY, AEROSPACE,AND INDUSTRIAL PAINT SPRAY BOOTH OPERATIONS: COMBINING IMPROVED VENTILATION SYSTEMS WITH INNOVATIVE, LOW COST EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper describes a full-scale demonstration program in which several paint booths were modified for recirculation ventilation; the booth exhaust streams are vented to an innovative volatile organic compound (VOC) emission control system having extremely low operating costs. ...

41

Portable Spray Booth  

Science.gov (United States)

Portable spray booth provides for controlled application of coating materials with high solvent contents. Includes contoured shroud and carbon filter bed limiting concentration of fumes in vicinity. Designed to substitute spraying for brush application of solvent-based adhesive prior to installing rubber waterproof seals over joints between segments of solid-fuel rocket motor. With minor adjustments and modifications, used to apply other solvent-based adhesives, paints, and like.

Hansen, Timothy D.; Bardwell, Micheal J.

1996-01-01

42

Light Painting  

Science.gov (United States)

Light painting is a creative activity that involves creating striking images and illusions using a camera, a light source, and a little practice. Light paintings may be literal representations or impressionistic, color-filled images. When the camera shutter is open (and the room is dark) the film or digital sensor acts like a blank canvas onto which learners "paint" with a flashlight.

Exploratorium

2012-06-26

43

Marble Painting  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity (located on pages 12-13 of PDF), learners visually investigate force and motion through art. Learners review the definitions of force and motion by reading from the book "Move It" by Adrienne Mason. Then learners make paintings by rolling marbles in boxes with dabs of paint inside. Learners can use the paintings as covers of science journals.

Chicago Children's Museum

2012-06-26

44

Recirculating sprayer for fiber-filled paints  

Science.gov (United States)

Recirculating paint sprayer applies spray of coarse filler in highly volatile solvent. Sprayer was developed for applying insulation material containing epxoy resin, glass fibers, and inert fillers suspended in chlorinated solvents. Sprayer resists abrasive action of fiberglass filler and chemical activity of solvent. Pump and position ensure more uniform pressure at spray gun without backpressure regulator, which tended to clog in old sprayer.

Major, R. K.

1980-01-01

45

Thermal Spray Coatings for Coastal Infrastructure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several protection strategies for coastal infrastructure using thermal-spray technology are presented from research at the Albany Research Center. Thermal-sprayed zinc coatings for anodes in impressed current cathodic protection systems are used to extend the service lives of reinforced concrete bridges along the Oregon coast. Thermal-sprayed Ti is examined as an alternative to the consumable zinc anode. Sealed thermal-sprayed Al is examined as an alternative coating to zinc dust filled polyurethane paint for steel structures.

Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, BernardS. Jr.; Cramer, S.D.; Bullard, S.J.

1997-11-01

46

Monster Paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author describes a unit on monsters wherein students were charged with painting an imaginary character and, in so doing, demonstrated mastery of expression, organization of space, control of paint media, and application of the elements of art. Students discovered how color and line could be used to convey expression. The media…

Huggler, Silvia

2010-01-01

47

Ultraviolet-radiation-curable paints  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In product finishing lines, ultraviolet radiation curing of paints on prefabricated structures could be more energy efficient than curing by natural gas fired ovens, and could eliminate solvent emission. Diffuse ultraviolet light can cure paints on three dimensional metal parts. In the uv curing process, the spectral output of radiation sources must complement the absorption spectra of pigments and photoactive agents. Photosensitive compounds, such as thioxanthones, can photoinitiate unsaturated resins, such as acrylated polyurethanes, by a free radical mechanism. Newly developed cationic photoinitiators, such as sulfonium or iodonium salts (the so-called onium salts) of complex metal halide anions, can be used in polymerization of epoxy paints by ultraviolet light radiation. One-coat enamels, topcoats, and primers have been developed which can be photoinitiated to produce hard, adherent films. This process has been tested in a laboratory scale unit by spray coating these materials on three-dimensional objects and passing them through a tunnel containing uv lamps.

Grosset, A M; Su, W F.A.; Vanderglas, E

1981-09-30

48

Glass composition development for stabilization of lead based paints  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exposure to lead can lead to adverse health affects including permanent damage to the central nervous system. Common means of exposure to lead are from ingestion of lead paint chips or breathing of dust from deteriorating painted surfaces. The U.S. Army has over 101 million square feet of buildings dating to World War II or earlier. Many of these structures were built before the 1978 ban on lead based paints. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers CERL is developing technologies to remove and stabilize lead containing organic coatings. Promising results have been achieved using a patented flame spray process that utilizes a glass frit to stabilize the hazardous constituents. When the glass frit is sprayed onto the paint containing substrate, differences in thermal expansion coefficients between the frit and the paint results in spalling of the paint from the substrate surface. The removed fragments are then collected and remelted to stabilize the hazardous constituents and allow for disposal as non-hazardous waste. Similar successful results using a patented process involving microwave technology for paint removal have also been achieved. In this process, the painted surface is coated with a microwave coupling compound that when exposed to microwave energy results in the spalling of the hazardous paint from the surface. The fragments can again be accumulated and remelted for stabilization and disposal.

Marra, J.C.

1996-10-01

49

ENVIORNMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: ANEST IWATA CORPORATION LPH400-LV HVLP SPRAY GUN  

Science.gov (United States)

This Enviornmental Technology Verification reports on the characteristics of a paint spray gun. The research showed that the spray gun provided absolute and relative increases in transfer efficiency over the base line and provided a reduction in the use of paint....

50

Reduce air, reduce compliance cost new patented spray booth technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A New Paint Spray Booth System that dramatically reduces air volumes normally required for capturing and controlling paint overspray that contains either Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) or Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP), or both. In turn, a substantial reduction in capital equipment expenditures for air abatement systems and air make-up heaters as well as related annual operating expenses is realized.

McGinnis, F. [JBI, Inc., Osseo, WI (United States)

1997-12-31

51

Boron Nitride Nanotube Films Grown From Boron Ink Painting  

OpenAIRE

The growth of nanotube films on various substrates and surfaces is vital for applications in nanoscale functional devices. We report a simple and versatile boron (B) ink painting method that enables high-density boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) films with any desired pattern to be grown on, and firmly attached to, different surfaces. In the method, special B ink is first painted, sprayed or inkjet printed at desired location with required pattern, and then the ink layer is anne...

Li, Lu Hua; Chen, Ying; Glushenkov, Alexey M.

2010-01-01

52

Water-Based Pressure-Sensitive Paints  

Science.gov (United States)

Water-based pressure-sensitive paints (PSPs) have been invented as alternatives to conventional organic-solvent-based pressure-sensitive paints, which are used primarily for indicating distributions of air pressure on wind-tunnel models. Typically, PSPs are sprayed onto aerodynamic models after they have been mounted in wind tunnels. When conventional organic-solvent-based PSPs are used, this practice creates a problem of removing toxic fumes from inside the wind tunnels. The use of water-based PSPs eliminates this problem. The waterbased PSPs offer high performance as pressure indicators, plus all the advantages of common water-based paints (low toxicity, low concentrations of volatile organic compounds, and easy cleanup by use of water).

Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Watkins, A. Neal; Oglesby, Donald M.; Ingram, JoAnne L.

2006-01-01

53

CORROSION RESISTANCE OF WATER-THINNABLE PAINT SYSTEMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anticorrosion protection on the basis of water-thinnable paint systems belongs among one of ecological ways of protection of metal parts. The aim of the experiment was to test corrosion resistance of water-thinnable systems Eternal antikor speciál V9503 and Colorlak aquarex V2115 in the salt spray environment according to the norm ?SN ISO 9227. Ductility of used paint systems in complience with the norm ?SN EN ISO 1520 will be also tested, it is a test according to Erichsen. At the end of the experiment measurement, the corrosion speed depending on paint coating thickness was analyzed.

Ji?í Votava

2013-12-01

54

A trade-off study on outsource or in-house painting process  

OpenAIRE

A trade-off study was conducted to make the best decision regarding the make-or-buy of the sandblasting and spray painting of parts, using the AHP, a cost analysis and risk analysis. A consistency study was performed. A painting Quality Control Plan (QCP) was developed.

Du Plessis, L.

2011-01-01

55

Spray booth with energy saving and fire protection systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention teaches an improved exhaust system to be used with a paint spray booth and having a continuously operating power exhaust fan. The exhaust system has a damper that is opened when spraying actively is taking place in the spray booth and that is closed when there is no spraying actively taking place in the spray booth. A control switch is mounted in any of several locations to determine when the spray gun is in use or is not in use. Thus, the control switch is actuated when the spray gun is hung up thus indicating a nonuse condition of the spray system; whereupon use of the spray gun lifts the gun from the hook to indicate spraying activity. A motor drives the damper to the opened position; and a spring biases the damper to the closed position. A timer is also used to delay the closing of the damper until between twenty and possibly two hundred seconds have lapsed after spraying activity has terminated. This purges the spray booth while yet allows for automatic damper control under normal spraying sequences of use and nonuse. A fire sensing switch is used to deenergize the damper motor to allow the damper to be closed in the event of a fire.

Napadow, S.C.

1980-09-23

56

Genetic paint: A search for salient paintings  

OpenAIRE

The contribution of this paper is a novel non-photorealistic rendering (NPR) algorithm for rendering real images in an impasto painterly style. We argue that ?gurative artworks are salience maps, and develop a novel painting algorithm that uses a genetic algorithm (GA) to search the space of possible paintings for a given image, so approaching an \\optimal" artwork in which salient detail is conserved and non-salient detail is attenuated. We demonstrate the results of our technique on ...

Collomosse, Jp; Hall, Pm; Rothlauf, F.; Branke, J.; Cagnoni, S.; Corne, Dw; Drechsler, R.; Jin, Y.; Machado, P.; Marchiori, E.; Romero, J.; Smith, Gd; Squillero, G.

2005-01-01

57

Automatic Wall Painting Robot  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Primary Aim Of The Project Is To Design, Develop And Implement Automatic Wall Painting Robot Which Helps To Achieve Low Cost Painting Equipment. Despite The Advances In Robotics And Its Wide Spreading Applications, Interior Wall Painting Has Shared Little In Research Activities. The Painting Chemicals Can Cause Hazards To The Human Painters Such As Eye And Respiratory System Problems. Also The Nature Of Painting Procedure That Requires Repeated Work And Hand Rising Makes It Boring, Time And Effort Consuming. When Construction Workers And Robots Are Properly Integrated In Building Tasks, The Whole Construction Process Can Be Better Managed And Savings In Human Labour And Timing Are Obtained As A Consequence. In Addition, It Would Offer The Opportunity To Reduce Or Eliminate Human Exposure To Difficult And Hazardous Environments, Which Would Solve Most Of The Problems Connected With Safety When Many Activities Occur At The Same Time. These Factors Motivate The Development Of An Automated Robotic Painting System.

P.KEERTHANAA, K.JEEVITHA, V.NAVINA, G.INDIRA, S.JAYAMANI

2013-07-01

58

The influence of paint dispersion parameters on the spectral selectivity of black-pigmented coatings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The optical properties of variously prepared black-pigmented solar absorbing paints were calculated in terms of their effective absorption and scattering abilities. The phenomenological two-parameter Kubelka-Munk effective medium theory was applied. Paints with the same composition were prepared for different degrees of pigment dispersion and characterized by the average size of pigment agglomerates present in the pigment/vehicle system. Prepared paints were applied to aluminium foil in two ways, by coil coating and by spraying. The size of coarse pigment particles and the paint application technique influence the spectral selectivity and thus determine the final performance of spectrally selective surfaces. (author)

Gunde, M.K.; Orel, Z.C. [National Institute of Chemistry, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Hutchins, M.G. [Oxford Brookes University, Oxford (United Kingdom). School of Engineering

2003-10-31

59

Ocean Spray  

Science.gov (United States)

Ocean spray consists of small water droplets ejected from the ocean surface following surface breaking wave events. These drops get transported in the marine atmospheric boundary layer, in which they exchange momentum and heat with the atmosphere. Small spray droplets are transported over large distances and can remain in the atmosphere for several days, where they will scatter radiation; evaporate entirely, leaving behind sea salt; participate in the aerosol chemical cycle; and act as cloud condensation nuclei. Large droplets remain close to the ocean surface and affect the air-sea fluxes of momentum and enthalpy, thereby enhancing the intensity of tropical cyclones. This review summarizes recent progress and the emerging consensus about the number flux and implications of small sea spray droplets. I also summarize shortcomings in our understanding of the impact of large spray droplets on the meteorology of storm systems.

Veron, Fabrice

2015-01-01

60

Roller Ball Painting  

Science.gov (United States)

This is an activity in which learners explore the effects of gravity, motion and momentum while creating art. By rolling a golf ball in paint, placing construction paper in a tray, tilting the tray and moving the golf ball around, learners will experience and experiment with color, motion and gravity. Raising or lowering any side of the tray creates an inclined plane affecting the speed of the ball. Learners can see the effect of friction (the paint) and how it slows the ball; the more paint, the slower the rolling. The final painting creates a visual representation of their exploration.

OMSI

2004-01-01

61

Oil-based paint poisoning  

Science.gov (United States)

Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

62

Numerical and experimental study of spray coating using air-assisted high pressure atomizers  

OpenAIRE

Spray coating proccsses are characterized by their relatively large paint wastage and high energy consumption, especially in car industry. The unavoidable overspray, caused by poor transfer efficiency, has to be removed quickly from the paint booth, in order to preserve the painting quality on the subject surface. The therefore needed conditioned air stream results in intensive energy requirement for the disposal of the overspray. Against the background of increasing demands on energy-efficie...

Ye, Qiaoyan; Shen, Bo; Tiedje, Oliver; Domnick, Joachim

2012-01-01

63

Mobile zone, spray booth ventilation system. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This concept endeavors to reduce the volume of air (to be treated) from spray paint booths, thereby increasing efficiency and improving air pollution abatement (VOC emissions especially). Most of the ventilation air is recycled through the booth to maintain laminar flow; the machinery is located on the supply side of the booth rather than on the exhaust side. 60 to 95% reduction in spray booth exhaust rate should result. Although engineering and production prototypes have been made, demand is low.

1994-04-26

64

Revisiting Pollock's Drip Paintings  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the contentions that Jackson Pollock's drip paintings are fractals produced by the artist's Levy distributed motion and that fractal analysis may be used to authenticate works of uncertain provenance[1-5]. We find that the paintings exhibit fractal characteristics over too small a range to be usefully considered as fractal; their limited fractal characteristics are easily generated without Levy motion, both by freehand drawing and gaussian random motion. Several problems must therefore be addressed before fractal analysis can be used to authenticate paintings.

Jones-Smith, Katherine

2009-01-01

65

Comets in Bushman Paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

About ten years ago I was asked to give a talk on African astronomical folklore and spent many hours reading up on the subject. My queries eventually led me to Bert Woodhouse, a member of the archaeological society and well-known recorder of Bushman paintings. He has published seven books on Bushman paintings and has a collection of over 30 000 slides covering all aspects of the subject. One section of his collection is labeled "comets" and he kindly made copies of these slides for me to use in that talk. This paper highlights those slides and discusses the objects depicted in the paintings.

Fraser, B.

2007-07-01

66

Paintings and museum artefacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter discusses the use of radiography to examine cultural artifacts, including everything from painting to mummies, for dating, authenticity, and history. Numerous historical photographs are included. 12 refs

67

Cancer mortality among workers exposed to zinc chromate paints.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the carcinogenicity of chromium compounds among user industries, the proportionate mortality experience of spray painters exposed to zinc chromate primer paints and electroplaters exposed to chromic acid in the aircraft maintenance industry was examined. Compared to the mortality patterns of U.S. white males, no excess of cancer was found in the 48 deaths among electroplaters. Analysis of the 202 deaths among spray painters revealed a significant excess of cancer, primarily of the respiratory tract. The relative increase of respiratory cancer showed a positive gradient with the length of estimated exposure time, and was confined to painters whose interval from first employment to death was at least 20 years. The findings consistent with occupational exposure to chromium compounds, previously shown to be carcinogenic in manufacturing processes, but the effect of other paint constituents, tobacco smoking, or methodologic limitations could not be discounted. PMID:7354410

Dalager, N A; Mason, T J; Fraumeni, J F; Hoover, R; Payne, W W

1980-01-01

68

Characterization and Optimization of Polymer-Ceramic Pressure-Sensitive Paint by Controlling Polymer Content  

OpenAIRE

A pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) with fast response characteristics that can be sprayed on a test article is studied. This PSP consists of a polymer for spraying and a porous particle for providing the fast response. We controlled the polymer content (%) from 10 to 90% to study its effects on PSP characteristics: the signal level, pressure sensitivity, temperature dependency, and time response. The signal level and temperature dependency shows a peak in the polymer content around 50 to 70%. T...

Hitoshi Ishikawa; Takuma Kakisako; Hirotaka Sakaue

2011-01-01

69

Throne Room Paintings, Dublin Castle  

OpenAIRE

Donatella Biagi Maino lists a total of 268 oil paintings and frescoes among Gandolfi's oeuvre. [Gaetano Gandolphi, Turin, 1995] The present painting is part of a series acquired for Dublin Castle in 1839.

Gandolfi, Gaetano

1999-01-01

70

Patterned Still-Life Paintings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes an art project used with fifth-grade students in which they created still-life paintings while also studying the artwork of Henri Matisse. Explains that the students explore three paintings by Matisse throughout the process of creating their paintings. (CMK)

Newman, Sue

2003-01-01

71

Judgement of abstract paintings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In two experiments the judgement of twenty one abstract paintings was investigated. In Experiment 1, subjects were asked to make similarity judgements of 210 pairs of paintings on a 7 step bipolar scale (similar-dissimilar. The Multi-dimensional scaling (MDS method was used for data analysis. The distribution of paintings within MDS 2-D space suggested two grouping criteria: colorfullness (e.g. from Klee to Kline and geometrization (e.g. from Vasarely to Kandinsky. In Experiment 2, subjects were asked to judge the same paintings on three factors of the instrument SDF 9 (Markovi? et al., 2002b: Evaluation, Arousal and Regularity. The purpose of this experiment was to specify the subjective criteria on which the (dissimilarity judgements were based. In the regression analysis the three factors of SDF 9 were defined as predictors, whereas the x and y coordinates of MDS 2-D space were defined as dependent variables. The results have shown that the dimension x was reducible to the Evaluation factor, and dimension y is reducible to the Regularity factor.

Dakulovi? Sandra

2006-01-01

72

Cultural Collage Paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author describes a cultural collage painting project. Three things served as the impetus for this project: (1) a desire for students to explore the theme of "culture"; (2) an appreciation for the photo-montaged, layered images one sees in print media; and (3) noticing that projects from core subject areas hanging on the walls…

Coy, Mary

2011-01-01

73

Tie Dye Painting  

Science.gov (United States)

This is an activity exploring color and color mixing. Learners use an eyedropper to place dots of thinned tempera paint onto a super-absorbent paper towel, noting how the colors spread out from the center. Use this activity to introduce early learners to primary and secondary colors. Discussion questions are included.

OMSI

2004-01-01

74

Paint a Fresco  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity on page 7 of the PDF, learners experiment with the interesting designs that can be made by painting on plaster. Learners discover the chemistry behind fresco, an art technique made famous by Michelangelo. Note: Don't pour wet plaster down the sink as it could harden in the pipes.

American Chemical Society

2001-01-01

75

Superconducting pastes and paints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High-temperature superconducting pastes and paints have been developed using YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-x/ (x ? 0.1) as the superconducting phase and mineral oil as the dispersing medium. The superconducting oxide concentrations in the pastes reached at least 94 wt.% or 70 vol.%. The critical temperature and critical current density was not affected by the paste proceeding. The paint was formed from superconducting powder particles reduced to about 1 ?m in size by air jet milling and it was used to form superconducting films (about 25 ?m thick) with a (001) preferred orientation of the YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-x/ phase. The paint was also used to fill the surface pores of a superconductor substrate. Superconducting composites of enhanced hardness were formed by adding reinforcing particles such as silica and mullite to the paste during paste fabrication. For example, the addition of 0.2 wt.% silica increased the Knoop hardness by 54%. Nickel-chromium containing 80 st.% Ni was found to be a compatible substrate for the pastes or paints

76

Painting for public perception  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the work of a wildlife artist, Lucas Seaward, in eliciting public opinion on the oilsands industry. He is in the process of creating 20 or more paintings using oil on canvas, not the Chagall or van Gogh sort of oil, but bitumen extracted near Fort McMurray. The paintings are designed for an exhibition to travel across Canada. His aim is to spread awareness that the oilsands industry is working hard towards sustainability and the protection of wildlife. Apart from being evil-smelling, bitumen is stiff, it does not dry quickly, and it wears out paint brushes really fast. Similarly to producers who add a diluent for proper flow, Seaward also found an additive that allowed smooth flow so that he could paint the bitumen in thin layers that dried properly and also was able to produce gradations of color. The idea is to educate the general public out of his personal experience of Fort McMurray and the oilsands industry.

Collison, M.

2011-12-15

77

Smart as paint:  

OpenAIRE

In the basement of the Chemistry Building, a new method has been developed to measure the ageing process of coats of paint. The method is extremely sensitive, says Professor Stephen Picken of the department of NanoStructured Materials. The doctoral research conducted by Massimiliano Giacomelli Penon (Max) appears to offer a fresh approach to an old problem..

Wassink, J.

2007-01-01

78

Stylized Silk Painting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents an art activity inspired by a workshop "Surrounded by Silk" given by Susan Skvoe in which the students create silk paintings. Explains that the students first sketch their floral design on paper, trace the design on the silk's surface, and apply liquid dye for color. Provides an easier activity for younger students. (CMK)

Skophammer, Karen

1998-01-01

79

M-52 spray booth qualification test  

Science.gov (United States)

The procedures, performance, and results obtained from the M-52 spray booth qualification test are documented. The test was conducted at Thiokol Corporation, Space Operations, M-52 Inert Parts Preparation facility. The purpose of this testing sequence was to ensure the spray booth would produce flight qualified hardware. The testing sequence was conducted in two series. The first series was conducted under CTP-0142, Revision 1. The second series was conducted in accordance with CTP-0142, Revision 2. The test sequence started with CTP-0142, Revision 1. The series consisted of the contamination removal test and the performance test. The contamination removal test was used to assess the Teflon level in the spray booth. The performance test consisted of painting and Chemloking a forward dome inside the spray booth per flight procedures. During the performance test, two sets of witness panels (case/insulation and steel/epoxy/steel) were prepared and pull tested. The CTP-0142, Revision 2, series of testing consisted of re-testing the steel/epoxy/steel witness panels. The pull tests analysis indicates the results of the tensile tests were comparable to the systems tunnel witness panel database. The exposed panel set and the control panel set average tensile values were above the 1-basis lower limits established on the systems tunnel witness panel database. It is recommended that the M-52 spray booth be qualified for producing flight hardware.

1990-01-01

80

Art Analysis Paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

Choose a painting for your art analysis. Open the paintings from the The Art Institute of Chicago? and look at them. Choose one for your art analysis. 1. View of Cotopaxi, 1857 by Frederic Edwin Church 2. Mrs. Noah Smith and Family attributed to Ezra Ames Click "view enlargement" 3. The Fountain, Villa Torlonia by John Singer Sargent 4. For Sunday s Dinner by William Michael Harnett Click "view enlargement" 5. Interior of St. Mark s Venice by David Dalhoff Neal Click "view enlargement" 6. Mrs. Daniel Hubbard (Mary Greene) by John Singleton Copley 7. Villa Barberini by George Inness Click "view enlargement" 8. Battle of Bunker Hill by Benjamin West 9. Croquet Scene, by Winslow Homer 10. Still Life - Strawberries, Nuts, c., by Raphaelle Peale Click "view enlargement" Source: The ...

Mrs. Christensen

2009-08-31

81

Paint removal principles  

Science.gov (United States)

An attempt is made to group the various processes of paint removal into families. The classifications are distinguished by chemical, mechanical, and thermal phenomena. For each of these phenomena, it is possible to identify the main mechanisms brought into play in material removal leading to paint stripping. The chemical strippers used are methylene chloride, phenolic compounds, and activated acids or activated bases free from phenols, chromates or methylene chloride. However, the methylene chloride and phenolic compounds are being replaced by a new generation of chemical strippers which are less active and their solvent power is lower. To improve the chemical kinetics, 'active' elements are introduced into the composition of these products. Mechanical stripping includes technologies using mechanical phenomena based on erosion, achieved by friction or blasting particles. Thermal stripping, the last classification, makes use of electronics and automation.

Malavallon, Olivier

1995-04-01

82

Hokusai: Mad About Painting  

Science.gov (United States)

The Smithsonian's Freer Gallery presents this Web interactive on the life and work of the Japanese painter and printmaker, Katsushika Hokusai (1760â??1849), the creator of the woodblock print "The Great Wave", one of the most recognized images in the world. The Flash interactive consists of four main sections on Hokusai's art: Brush & Block, Color, Composition, and Subject, plus an introductory, biographical section. In the Subject section see a long handscroll with a wide range of subjects from a pampered house cat, fish, foxes, and a man and boy looking at a waterfall; a 27 page manga, orIllustrated book; and a painting of a fisherman made when Hokusai was in his late eighties. In the Brush & Block section, compare painted and printed images of Mount Fuji, plants, and shellfish, to see Hokusai's expert use of both techniques.

2006-01-01

83

Antifouling paint biocides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume describes the state-of-the-art advances regarding antifouling paint biocides and provides thorough evaluation of research and information on major topics such as occurrence and levels, environmental fate, analytical techniques and methods for the monitoring and control, environmental modeling, ecotoxicological effects and risk assessment placing emphasis on the knowledge acquired over the last 10 years. The contamination of the aquatic environment by antifouling compounds has been a topic of increasing importance during the last few years. The major classes of antifouling active biocides are discussed including the old-fashioned organotin compounds, the modern organic booster biocides and the promising naturally occurring antifoulant products. Therefore, the reader will get a balanced view of this developing field. Chapters were written by leading experts in their field who critically surveyed all the major areas of progress. This volume is an important resource and can constitute a good grounding in the field of antifouling paint biocides. (orig.)

Konstantinou, I.K. (ed.) [Ioannina Univ., Agrinio (Greece). Dept. of Environmental and Natural Resources Management

2006-07-01

84

Optical fuel spray measurements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Diesel fuel sprays, including fuel/air mixing and the physics of two-phase jet formation, are discussed in the thesis. The fuel/air mixing strongly affects emissions formation in spray combustion processes where the local combustion conditions dictate the emission formation. This study comprises optical measurements both in pressurized spray test rigs and in a running engine.The studied fuel injection was arranged with a common rail injection system and the injectors were operated with a solenoid-based injection valve. Both marine and heavy-duty diesel engine injectors were used in the study. Optical fuel spray measurements were carried out with a laser-based double-framing camera system. This kind of equipments is usually used for flow field measurements with Particle Image Velocimetry technique (PIV) as well as for backlight imaging. Fundamental fuel spray properties and spray formation were studied in spray test rigs. These measurements involved studies of mixing, atomization, and the flow field. Test rig measurements were used to study the effect of individual injection parameters and component designs. Measurements of the fuel spray flow field, spray penetration, spray tip velocity, spray angle, spray structure, droplet accumulation, and droplet size estimates are shown. Measurement campaign in a running optically accessible large-bore medium-speed engine was also carried out. The results from engine tests were compared with equivalent test rig measurements, as well as computational results, to evaluate the level of understanding of sprays. It was shown that transient spray has an acceleration and a deceleration phase. Successive flow field measurements (PIV) in optically dense diesel spray resulted in local and average velocity data of diesel sprays. Processing fuel spray generates a flow field to surrounding gas and entrainment of surrounding gas into fuel jet was also seen at the sides of the spray. Laser sheet imaging revealed the inner structure of diesel spray and accumulation of droplets. Also shockwave formation was recorded when supersonic fuel jet exits the nozzle orifice. These results were used to evaluate spray formation and the structure was compared with simulated fuel sprays. Novel information, more refined and focused results, and better understanding of the nature of atomization and sprays was gathered. It was shown that new methods enable more precise understanding of transient two-phase sprays to be gained. (orig.)

Hillamo, H.

2011-07-01

85

Triamcinolone Nasal Spray  

Science.gov (United States)

Triamcinolone nasal spray is used to relieve sneezing, runny, stuffy, or itchy nose and itchy, watery eyes caused by hay fever or other allergies. Triamcinolone nasal spray should not be used to treat ...

86

Wire-Arc-Sprayed Aluminum Protects Steel Against Corrosion  

Science.gov (United States)

Aluminum coatings wire-arc sprayed onto steel substrates found effective in protecting substrates against corrosion. Coatings also satisfy stringent requirements for adhesion and flexibility, both at room temperature and at temperatures as low as liquid hydrogen. Developed as alternatives to corrosion-inhibiting primers and paints required by law to be phased out because they contain and emit such toxic substances as chromium and volatile organic compounds.

Zimmerman, Frank R.; Poorman, Richard; Sanders, Heather L.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.; Bonds, James W., Jr.; Daniel, Ronald L., Jr.

1995-01-01

87

Characterization of sprays  

Science.gov (United States)

It is pointed out that most practical power generation and propulsion systems involve the burning of different types of fuel sprays, taking into account aircraft propulsion, industrial furnaces, boilers, gas turbines, and diesel engines. There has been a lack of data which can serve as a basis for spray model development and validation. A major aim of the present investigation is to fill this gap. Experimental apparatus and techniques for studying the characteristics of fuel sprays are discussed, taking into account two-dimensional still photography, cinematography, holography, a laser diffraction particle sizer, and a laser anemometer. The considered instruments were used in a number of experiments, taking into account three different types of fuel spray. Attention is given to liquid fuel sprays, high pressure pulsed diesel sprays, and coal-water slurry sprays.

Chigier, N.; Mao, C.-P.

88

The use of isocyanate paints in auto refinishing--a survey of isocyanate exposures and related work practices in South Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of 45 crash repair workshops where two-pack polyurethane spray paints are used has been carried out. Painters were interviewed using a combined health-work practice questionnaire. Monitoring for airborne isocyanate was undertaken in 14 spray shops. Health data from the questionnaire were compared with corresponding data for control groups of mechanics and industrial spray painters, not exposed to isocyanates. Compared with the other two groups, the isocyanate spray painters generally reported more respiratory and skin problems. Airborne isocyanate concentrations associated with various operations were monitored with both impinger and paper tape methods. A direct comparison of the two methods is presented. PMID:2604319

Pisaniello, D L; Muriale, L

1989-01-01

89

Experimental evaluation of insecticidal paints against Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, under natural climatic conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Triatoma infestans is the main vector of Chagas disease in the Gran Chaco region of South America. The traditional spraying technique used for the application of pyrethroid insecticides has shown low efficiency in the elimination of the vector species populations occupying peridomestic structures of rural houses in the endemic area of Argentina. As part of studies looking for better alternatives, we evaluated the residual effect of insecticidal paints on the mortality of fourth instar nymphs of T. infestans. Results The study was based on an experimental design that included two groups treated with an organophosphate (Inesfly 5A IGR™ and a pyrethroid (Inesfly 5A IGR NG™ formulations of the paint, that were applied on wood, cement blocks and adobe bricks under natural climatic conditions. A third group was an untreated control. Both paint formulations showed very long residual activity, producing mortality of 84% and 98% (pyrethroid and organophosphate formulations, respectively after 12 months of the paint application. After eight months, nymphs exposed during 6 hours to the painted surfaces with the pyrethroid and organophosphate formulations showed 81.33% and 100% mortality, respectively. Conclusion The organophosphate- and pyrethroid-based insecticidal paints showed a very long residual activity on the mortality of fourth instar nymphs of T infestans, compared with the traditional spraying technique used for the application of pyrethroid insecticides in peridomestic structures of rural houses in the endemic region for Chagas disease in the Gran Chaco of Argentina. The application of the paints by trained personnel of the vector control programmes could be considered as an alternative control tool in areas where the traditional methods have failed or showed low efficacy.

Gorla David E

2009-07-01

90

Painting recognition from wearable cameras  

OpenAIRE

Are smart glasses the new high-tech device that will guide you through a museum? In this report, we describe a system that runs "on device" on Google Glass and retrieves the painting you're looking at among a set of paintings in a database. We perform an experimental comparison of the accuracy and speed of different feature detectors and descriptors on a realistic dataset of paintings from Musée du Louvre. Based on this analysis we design an algorithm for fast and accurate image matching usi...

Dalens, The?ophile; Sivic, Josef; Laptev, Ivan; Campedel, Marine

2014-01-01

91

Bringing Art to Life through Living Paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author relates how she and other art teachers developed a "living painting" lesson, an art lesson that incorporates art history and painting. The lesson was developed also in part to help new student-teachers plan a memorable lesson. With the living painting lesson, students will have to choose and recreate famous paintings…

Stillwagon, Joanne

2005-01-01

92

Probing a Spray Using Frequency-Analyzed Light Scattering  

Science.gov (United States)

Frequency-analyzed laser-light scattering (FALLS) is a relatively simple technique that can be used to measure principal characteristics of a sheet of sprayed liquid as it breaks up into ligaments and then the ligaments break up into droplets. In particular, through frequency analysis of laser light scattered from a spray, it is possible to determine whether the laser-illuminated portion of the spray is in the intact-sheet region, the ligament region, or the droplet region. By logical extension, it is possible to determine the intact length from the location of the laser beam at the transition between the intact-sheet and ligament regions and to determine a breakup frequency from the results of the frequency analysis. Hence, FALLS could likely be useful both as a means of performing research on sprays in general and as a means of diagnostic sensing in diverse applications in which liquid fuels are sprayed. Sprays are also used for drying and to deposit paints and other coating materials.

Eskridge, Richard; Lee, Michael H.; Rhys, Noah O.

2008-01-01

93

Reactive plasma spraying  

OpenAIRE

Reactive Plasma Spraying (RPS) with a hydrocarbon gas has been studied as a method to improve the mechanical properties of a commercially available 80: 20 nickel-chromium alloy, and subsequently as a method to reduce the oxygen content of sprayed MCrAlY coatings. A conventional d. c. plasma torch has been modified by attaching a conical graphite tube (reactor) onto the end of the gun. The powder is then sprayed through the reactor with injected reactive hydrocarbon gas. The ...

Al-sabouni, Omar

1999-01-01

94

Moon's Long History: Impact Paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, pairs of learners model how scientists use craters to determine the ages of lunar surfaces. One partner keeps time while the other creates a painting for the other to interpret. Cotton balls coated in different colors of paint are thrown at paper to simulate asteroids striking the lunar surface over time. Learners take turns in the time-keeping/painting roles to decipher a mystery: In what order did the "impacts" occur? Which painting has more "impacts"? They learn that scientists can estimate the age of a lunar surface by counting its craters--much like counting candles on a birthday cake! This activity station is part of a sequence of stations that can be set up to help learners trace the Moon's 4.5-billion-year history from "infancy" to the imagined future. Learners tie together major events in the Moon's geologic history as a series of comic panels in their Marvel Moon comic books.

Lunar and Planetary Institute

2010-01-01

95

New biocides for antifouling paints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The antifouling paints are used for protecting the hulls of the boasts from the undesirable accumulation of micro-organisms, plants, and animals on artificial surfaces (marine biological fouling). These paints constitute a potential risk for the marine environment, because of the presence in their formulation, among the other potentially toxic components, of organic compounds acting as biocide. The environmental problems associated with the use of the organotin compounds as biocides in the antifouling paints, have lead to the international ban of these compounds. In the article the new antifouling paints coming up the national and international market are shortly introduced and discussed, with particular attention respect to the new organic compounds used as biocides. In Italy quite a few marine monitoring campaigns have been carried out for organotin compounds, on the contrary there is a lack of data regarding the presence of other biocides

96

Joan Miro: Painting and Anti-Painting, 1927-1937  

Science.gov (United States)

The Metropolitan Museum of Art's online exhibition: Joan Miro: Painting and Anti-Painting 1927-1937 is a great-looking website. Miro's work can be viewed in several different ways. Click on "Chronology" at the bottom of the page, and you'll see a timeline with paintings, collages, assemblages from the exhibit, as well as ones not in the exhibit. Roll over a work and you'll get the title, click on the work and you'll get a description of it, and be able to zoom in on the image of the work. With the high quality close-up you can see the brush strokes on the canvas. By clicking on "Series," at the bottom of the page, you can see his works divided up by series, and by rolling over the works you can see the series titles, such as "Paintings Based on Collages", "Constructions and Objects", and "Small Paintings on Masonite and Copper". Visitors shouldn't miss looking at the collages, and the paintings based on them, side-by-side in "Paintings Based on Collages". Another approach to categorizing Miro's works is by "Relative Size." Laid out much like a timeline, but neither in date order or ascending (or descending) size, the visitor can click on each work to read its description. Finally, at the bottom left of the page, you'll find "Filter", where you can choose within Methods, Supports, Mediums, and Materials, the filters you want for the content of the site. For instance, you can choose to see only "collages", done on "masonite" using "tempera" and "printed paper". After you choose the filters, click again on "Series", "Chronology", "Relative Size", or "Index", and see only those works that fit the criteria of the filters you selected.

97

Skin painting studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to estimate eventual risks to human health as a consequence of incidental and prolonged skin contact, it is necessary to obtain some information on the potential of coal-derived liquids to elicit skin cancer. In addition, it also must be established whether prolonged dermal exposure will produce signs of toxicity not only on the skin but to internal organs. During the past 2 years, they completed a life-long skin painting study with mice designed to answer some of these questions. The following materials were tested: Raw H-coal blend, containing 5700 ppm N; H-coal blend after low hydrotreatment (2650 ppm N); H-coal blend after high hydrotreatment (0.2 ppm N); H-coal home heating oil, a devolatilized version of the high-hydrotreatment H-coal blend; and an H-coal reformed naphtha. Two petroleum-derived references samples were used: Petroleum No. 2 fuel oil and high catalytically cracked naphtha. Benzo(a)pyrene was used as reference substance. Experimental animals were male and female C3H mice

98

Romanesque mural painting in Catalonia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Romanesque mural painting in Catalonia which was saved from despoilment and dispersion in 1919, when the Junta de Museus (Board of Museums of Barcelona embarked upon a major campaign of purchase and removal, is a unique heritage of universal value. Even though the mural paintings from the Romanesque cathedrals or the great abbeys like Ripoll no longer survive, what has been conserved is quite notable both stylistically and iconographically. The surviving frescoes were mainly inspired by the art of early Christian Rome and that of the Gregorian reform, yet also by Byzantine sources and by Lombard and Germanic styles and prototypes, all translated into highly original programmes of images. The most emblematic works are conserved at the Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya (MNAC, such as the apse from Sant Climent de Taüll, a capolavoro of European Romanesque painting, and the apses from Sant Pere de la Seu d’Urgell and Santa Maria d’Àneu, both boasting outstanding quality, along with the paintings from Sant Joan in Boí, Sant Quirze de Pedret, Sorpe and el Burgal. Together with the frescoes at the Museu Diocesà i Comarcal de Solsona, the Museu Episcopal de Vic, the Museu d’Art de Girona and the Museu Diocesà d’Urgell, along with the numerous murals and remains of paintings conserved in situ, many of them discovered in recent years, they enable us to envisage the scope of this Catalan Romanesque art. Of these discoveries, perhaps the most noteworthy are the paintings from Sant Vicenç d’Estamariu, as well as the new images on the triumphant arches of Sant Climent de Taüll. This article summarises the most important part of this mural painting heritage as well as the most recent literature on the subject.

Montserrat Pagès

2013-06-01

99

Spray measurement technology: a review  

Science.gov (United States)

Sprays are among the most intellectually challenging and practically important topics in fluid mechanics. This paper reviews needs, milestones, challenges, and a broad array of techniques for spray measurement. In addition, tabular summaries provide cross-referenced entry points to the vast literature by organizing over 300 citations according to key spray phenomena, physical parameters and measurement techniques for each of the principal spray regions (nozzle internal flow, near-field spray-formation region, far-field developed spray, and spray-wall interaction). The article closes with perspectives on some current issues in spray research, including the cost and complexity of apparatus for spray physics and spray engineering, the need for simultaneous diagnostic measurements under application-relevant conditions, and the effective comparison of spray measurements and numerical simulations.

Fansler, Todd D.; Parrish, Scott E.

2015-01-01

100

Chromosome painting in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chromosome painting, that is visualisation of chromosome segments or whole chromosomes based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome-specific DNA probes is widely used for chromosome studies in mammals, birds, reptiles and insects. Attempts to establish chromosome painting in euploid plants have failed so far. Here, we report on chromosome painting in Arabidopsis thaliana (n = 5, 125 Mb C(-1)). Pools of contiguous 113-139 BAC clones spanning 2.6 and 13.3 Mb of the short and the long arm of chromosome 4 (17.5 Mb) were used to paint this entire chromosome during mitotic and meiotic divisions as well as in interphase nuclei. The possibility of identifying any particular chromosome region on pachytene chromosomes and within interphase nuclei using selected BACs is demonstrated by differential labelling. This approach allows us, for the first time, to paint an entire autosome of an euploid plant to study chromosome rearrangements, homologue association, interphase chromosome territories, as well as to identify homeologous chromosomes of related species. PMID:11851915

Lysak, M A; Fransz, P F; Ali, H B; Schubert, I

2001-12-01

101

Painting : Discursive Battlefield and Intermedial Laboratory  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The ongoing struggle of painting – leading to recurrent announcements of its ‘demise’ and subsequently of its ‘return’ – serves as point of departure for an examination of ‘expanded painting’. The article suggests that contemporary painting is not only a field of incessant disciplinary and discursive battles over the essentially self-reflective question of “What is painting?” Over the last decades it has also become an intermedial laboratory in which artists experiment with developing a connective aesthetic in the interface between painting and other media. Accordingly, it is has become a commonly held opinion that painting has transformed itself into an expanded field and thus renewed itself – again. The article argues that in recent decades a remarkable number of painters have explored the possibility of developing painting by redefining what ‘space’ is in relation to painting. Much energy has been put into expanding painting physically by exploring painting’s relations to objects, space, place, and ‘the everyday’. The text focuses on works of art that are conceived as an installation based on the medium of painting, including works by Slovak artists Dorota Sadovská and Daniel Fischer. Its discussion of the ways in which the transformation of painting into installation affects the relationship between the work and its contexts eventually leads to a consideration of how Slovak art is positioned in relation to the Western artworld understood as a system of centres and peripheries. Text in English (pp. 66-83) and Slovak (pp. 44-65).

Petersen, Anne Ring

2012-01-01

102

Thermal Arc Spray Overview  

Science.gov (United States)

Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati

2013-06-01

103

Thermal Arc Spray Overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

104

Drip Paintings and Fractal Analysis  

CERN Document Server

It has been claimed [1-6] that fractal analysis can be applied to unambiguously characterize works of art such as the drip paintings of Jackson Pollock. This academic issue has become of more general interest following the recent discovery of a cache of disputed Pollock paintings. We definitively demonstrate here, by analyzing paintings by Pollock and others, that fractal criteria provide no information about artistic authenticity. This work has also led to two new results in fractal analysis of more general scientific significance. First, the composite of two fractals is not generally scale invariant and exhibits complex multifractal scaling in the small distance asymptotic limit. Second the statistics of box-counting and related staircases provide a new way to characterize geometry and distinguish fractals from Euclidean objects.

Jones-Smith, Katherine; Krauss, Lawrence M

2007-01-01

105

Electrical charging characteristics of the hetero layer film for reducing water-borne paint contamination in electrostatic rotary atomizers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The electrostatic rotary atomizer is the most efficient of all liquid spray painting methods. Its use minimizes the waste of paint and reduces emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Water-borne painting processes which use water-soluble paint also reduce VOC emissions, but the atomizer body is easily contaminated by the paint mists. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) considered the causes of water-borne paint contamination and presented the experimental results of a contamination proof system in which the atomizer is surrounded by the repelling film that is charged and repels the incoming paint droplets. Among the key factors for repelling film were electrical properties, such as low capacitance and high insulation to keep high surface potential. Charging uniformity was found to be among the most important characteristic to avoid contamination. The pulse electro-acoustic (PEA) method was used to check these features using space charge measurements inside the repelling film. It was concluded that hetero layer films have more uniform charging characteristics than single layer films.

Yamada, Y.; Imanishi, T.; Yoshida, O.; Mizuno, A. [ABB Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

2010-07-01

106

Restoring a Masterwork - Anatomy of Painting  

Science.gov (United States)

You might think that a painting has only one surface to worry about, but typically it has six. This web site describes each painting layer and suggests why a conservator needs to pay attention to all of them.

Upper Midwest Conservation Association (UMCA)

107

ATMOSPHERIC ACID DEPOSITION DAMAGE TO PAINTS  

Science.gov (United States)

Available data from laboratory and field studies of damage to paints by erosion have been analyzed to develop an atmospheric acid deposition damage function for exterior house paints containing calcium carbonate or silicate extenders. Regression analysis coefficients associated w...

108

EVALUATION OF LOW-VOC LATEX PAINTS  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper gives results of an evaluation of four commercially available low-VOC (volatile organic compound) latex paints as substitutes for conventional latex paints by assessing both their emission characteristics and their performance as coatings. Bulk analysis indicated that ...

109

Miniature Paintings: Small Size, Big Impact!  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes a miniature painting project that allows students to research a master painter and then replicate the work on a smaller scale. This lesson focuses on the students' ability to learn to identify style, subject matter, themes, and content in painting through the study of historical paintings, and the application of various…

Hicks, Bill

2011-01-01

110

Nicotine Nasal Spray  

Science.gov (United States)

... time. Do not sniff, swallow, or inhale while spraying. If your nose runs, gently sniff to keep ... Esgic Plus, Fioricet, NoDoz, Norgesic, others); cough and cold medications; imipramine (Tofranil); insulin; isoproterenol (Isuprel); oxazepam (Serax); ...

111

Thermal spray shape deposition  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a new spray-forming process based on thermal spray shape deposition. Shape deposition processes build 3D shapes by incremental material buildup of thin, planar cross-sectional layers. These processes do not require preformed mandrels and can directly build 3D structures of arbitrary geometric complexity. The basis for the thermal spray approach is to spray each layer using a disposable mask that has the shape of the current cross section. Masks can be produced from paper rolls, for example, with a CO2 laser. In addition to applications for rapid prototyping, this approach makes possible the fabrication of composite structures and integrated electronic/mechanical assemblies that are not feasible with conventional manufacturing technologies.

Weiss, L. E.; Prinz, F. B.; Adams, D. A.; Siewiorek, D. P.

1992-09-01

112

Dynamics of flare sprays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During solar cycle No. 20 new insight into the flare-spray phenomenon has been attained due to several innovations in solar optical-observing techniques (higher spatial resolution cinema-photography, tunable pass-band filters, multi-slit spectroscopy and extended angular field coronographs). From combined analysis of 13 well-observed sprays which occured between 1969-1974 we conclude that (i) the spray material originates from a preexisting active region filament which undergoes increased absorption some tens of minutes prior to the abrupt chromospheric brightening at the 'flare-start', and (ii) the spray material is confined within a steadily expanding, loop-shaped (presumably magnetically controlled) envelope with part of the material draining back down along one or both legs of the loop. (orig.)

113

Triboelectric spray ionization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Triboelectric spray ionization (TESI) is a variation of electrospray ionization (ESI) using common instrumental components, including gas flow, solvent flow rate and heat, the only difference being the use of a high-voltage power supply for ESI or a static charge for TESI. The ionization of solvent or analyte is due to the electrostatic potential difference formed between the spray electrode and counter electrode. The ion source contains a pneumatic spray operated over a range of flow rates (0.15-1.5 µl/min) and gas pressures (0-100). This new design contains a standalone spray assembly and an optional metal mesh in front of the spray. There are several parameters that affect the performance during ionization of molecules including the flow rate of solvent, gas pressure, temperature, solvent acidity, distance and potential difference between emitter and counter electrode. A variable electrostatic potential can be applied for higher ionization efficiency. The new ionization method was successfully applied to solutions of various proteins under different conditions. The same charge-state distributions compared to other ESI techniques are observed for all the protein samples. The unique feature of TESI is very efficient spraying by using a natural electrostatic potential even at the potential that a human body can produce. This provides very gentle ionization efficiency of peptides and proteins in different solvents. PMID:23378087

Özdemir, Abdil; Lin, Jung-Lee; Gillig, Kent J; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

2013-02-01

114

Discovering Sand and Sand Paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity blends social studies and art with math and science. First, students will explore the visible characteristics of sand, and then they will make Navajo-style sand paintings with paper, glue, and colored sand. In the process, they will hone the

John Eichinger

2009-05-30

115

Basking Behavior of Painted Turtles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines the basking postures of captive eastern painted turtles exposed to two different sources of illumination (white floor lamps and infrared heat lamps) and three types of substrates (sphagnum, rock, wood) and discusses possible ecological and evolutionary significance of these behaviors. (Author/JN)

Zipko, Stephen J.

1982-01-01

116

Controlling Color in Oil Painting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explains how a veil control method allows secondary students to use oil paints in the classroom without difficulties of control, manageability, and clean up. Outlines how to prepare and apply oil glazes. Maintains that this method enhances students' studio skills and helps them appreciate the works of the great masters. (KM)

Amorino, Joseph

1990-01-01

117

Understanding factors that influence protective glove use among automotive spray painters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dermal contact with isocyanate-based coatings may lead to systemic respiratory sensitization. The most common isocyanates found in sprayed automotive coatings are monomeric and oligomeric 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI). Most spray painters use thin (4-5 mil) latex gloves that are not effective at preventing dermal exposures when spraying isocyanate paints. Personal interviews with collision repair industry personnel and focus groups with spray painters were held to characterize risk awareness, to examine perceptions and challenges concerning protective glove use and selection, and to generate ideas for protective glove use interventions. The most popular gloves among spray painters were thin (4-5 mil) and thick (14 mil) latex. We found that medium to thick (6-8 mil) nitrile were not always perceived as comfortable and were expected to be more expensive than thin (4-5 mil) latex gloves. Of concern is the user's difficulty in distinguishing between nitrile and latex gloves; latex gloves are now sold in different colors including blue, which has traditionally been associated with nitrile gloves. Even though spray painters were familiar with the health hazards related to working with isocyanate paints, most were not always aware that dermal exposure to isocyanates could contribute to the development of occupational asthma. There is a need for more research to identify dermal materials that are protective against sprayed automotive coatings. Automotive spray painters and their employers need to be educated in the selection and use of protective gloves, specifically on attributes such as glove material, color, and thickness. PMID:24215135

Ceballos, Diana; Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Glazer, Patricia; Murphy-Robinson, Helen; Yost, Michael

2014-01-01

118

Development of spray coated cathodes for RITS-6.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents work conducted in FY13 to conduct a feasibility study on thermal spray coated cathodes to be used in the RITS-6 accelerator in an attempt to improve surface uniformity and repeatability. Currently, the cathodes are coated with colloidal silver by means of painting by hand. It is believed that improving the cathode coating process could simplify experimental setup and improve flash x-ray radiographic performance. This report documents the experimental setup and summarizes the results of our feasibility study. Lastly, it describes the path forward and potential challenges that must be overcome in order to improve the process for creating uniform and repeatable silver coatings for cathodes.

Simpson, Sean; Leckbee, Joshua J.; Miller, Stephen Samuel

2013-09-01

119

Texton-based analysis of paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

The visual examination of paintings is traditionally performed by skilled art historians using their eyes. Recent advances in intelligent systems may support art historians in determining the authenticity or date of creation of paintings. In this paper, we propose a technique for the examination of brushstroke structure that views the wildly overlapping brushstrokes as texture. The analysis of the painting texture is performed with the help of a texton codebook, i.e., a codebook of small prototypical textural patches. The texton codebook can be learned from a collection of paintings. Our textural analysis technique represents paintings in terms of histograms that measure the frequency by which the textons in the codebook occur in the painting (so-called texton histograms). We present experiments that show the validity and effectiveness of our technique for textural analysis on a collection of digitized high-resolution reproductions of paintings by Van Gogh and his contemporaries. As texton histograms cannot be easily be interpreted by art experts, the paper proposes to approaches to visualize the results on the textural analysis. The first approach visualizes the similarities between the histogram representations of paintings by employing a recently proposed dimensionality reduction technique, called t-SNE. We show that t-SNE reveals a clear separation of paintings created by Van Gogh and those created by other painters. In addition, the period of creation is faithfully reflected in the t-SNE visualizations. The second approach visualizes the similarities and differences between paintings by highlighting regions in a painting in which the textural structure of the painting is unusual. We illustrate the validity of this approach by means of an experiment in which we highlight regions in a painting by Monet that are not very "Van Gogh-like". Taken together, we believe the tools developed in this study are well capable of assisting for art historians in support of their study of paintings.

van der Maaten, Laurens J. P.; Postma, Eric O.

2010-08-01

120

Pre-treatment for painting of hot-dip galvanized steel sheets; Yoyu aen mekki koban no toso mae shori  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Described herein are pretreatment for painting hot-dip galvanized steel sheets, compositions of the pre-treatment and the mechanisms involved in adherence of a chromate film. The film prepared by the pre-treatment keeps the paint film (of organic or inorganic material) adherent to the base material (of metal), and the base metal resistant to corrosion. Shot blasting is adopted for post-coating, where a shaped steel plate is coated. In pre-coating, a paint is sprayed over steel sheets and baked at a speed of at least 10tons/h in a continuous painting line. A representative pre-coating line has 3 treatment sections of degreasing, surface conditioning and chromate treatment, each of the first two being followed by water-washing and the last one by drying. In the reactive chromate treatment, Zn is dissolved in chromic acid to form trivalent hydrated chromium oxide which is considered to improve adherence of the chromate film to the paint film through the hydrogen bonding with the paint. 19 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Fukumoto, H. [Nisshin Steel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

1998-09-30

121

Paint or color? Bursa example  

Science.gov (United States)

While traditional/vernacular color scheme of a city in historical regions should be protected, changes in life style reflect on cityscapes in all ways, in which the role of new materials, paints, etc. cannot be denied. Lack of architectural and urban design studies in this field added to existing countless opportunities of new technology, with the strong desire to trying those by building owners, users and contractors have caused a chaotic situation in the use of color in cities; Bursa with its historical colorful background is no exception. All these form a trial and error phase, with painted or materials applied on surfaces without a sensitive touch to transform them to color. This must be taken in mind that color with its inherent power can bind past, present and future of the city and create an urban sense of place.

Habib, Susan; Cetinturk, Nihal

2002-06-01

122

Microclimate boxes for panel paintings  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century. The increased number of travelling exhibitions in recent years has heightened the need to protect paintings during circulation (Thomson 1961; Mecklenburg 1991). The use and design of microclimate boxes have been evolving since 1892. These boxes may be divided into three broad groups: those using an active buffer material to stabilize the internal RH, a more recent box containing no added buffer material, and, in recent times, boxes with an altered gas content. Another concern is the appearance (aesthetics) of the box.

Wadum, JØrgen

1998-01-01

123

CHITOSAN-COPPER PAINT TYPES AS ANTIFOULING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A prototype of antifouling paints was prepared with a QS-Cu (I-Fe (II complex as a possible replacement for traditional antifouling paints, which contain a large concentration of copper, fnding them in an order of 10 - 30 % depending on the brand, and if it is water or solvent based. A Qs-Cu complex was prepared, with a solution at 3% with acetic acid, and then Fe2O3 was added to the solution. FT IR analysis was carried out, as well as analysis of the TGA at the Qs and the complex with Qs-Cu, and with the solution, three different paints were prepared. Those that varied volumen of diethylene glycol added to them. The analysis of the paints was carried out, once the paint was pervaded in a network of polyamide, through SEM with EDX and TEM, which was purchased with the commercial paints, water based and solvent based. One of the objectives is to be able to compare the coverage of the network with the commercial paint, and that of the complex QS-Cu. The results showed that the best paint obtained was paint #2, found to be similar to that pervaded with water based paint.

MARCIA HEUSER

2009-12-01

124

Color signatures in Amorsolo paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the results of a two-year project aimed at capturing quantifiable color signatures of oil paintings of Fernando Amorsolo, the Philippine's first National Artists. Color signatures are found by comparing CIE xy measurements of skin color in portraits and ground, sky and foliage in landscapes. The results are compared with results of visual examination and art historical data as well as works done by Amorsolo's contemporaries and mentors.

Soriano, Maricor N.; Palomero, Cherry May; Cruz, Larry; Yambao, Clod Marlan Krister; Dado, Julie Mae; Salvador-Campaner, Janice May

2010-02-01

125

Core spray systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To enable effective vapor condensation for a reactor core upon emergency by connecting a cooling water source and an emergency core cooling system. Constitution: This system is in a stand-by state during normal operation of a reactor. Upon reactor accident such as pipe line failures in the primary system, a valve is opened by an accident signal. Then, a pump takes-in the cold water in a cold water tank upon starting of a core spray and sprays it through a sparger above the core. The capacity of the cold tank can afford about 2 - 3 min's operation. Thereafter, pool water in a pressure suppression chamber is sprayed from above the core. The switching for the flow channels can be made automatically by a level meter in the cold tank. (Seki, T.)

126

Sprayed concrete linings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sprayed concrete, or shotcrete, was invented in the 1920s for preserving dinosaur skeletons and was used underground initially in coalmines for the preservation and fine proofing of timber supports. Its use as a support lining in rock tunnelling was developed in the 1950s and 60s. The article surveys equipment available from major manufacturers and suppliers of concrete spraying equipment (Aliva, Cifa, GIA, Industri, Ingersoll Rand, etc.), specialist cement and additive manufacturers (Castle, Cement, Moria Carbotech). manufacturers of lattice girders and fibre reinforcement, and manufacturers of instrumentation for tunnel linings. 5 tabs., 9 photos.

Hindle, D.

1999-12-01

127

Reducing spray booth VOCs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reducing spray booth overspray, volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions and solid waste can be achieved in every installation--from the simplest one-gun booth to the high-production multigun booth. The changes may be as basic as getting the present system under control or changing to another process. Conventional, airless and electrostatic application methods have been available to the finishing market for over 25 years. Each method has advantages and disadvantages. As VOC restrictions began to close in on the coatings industry, the need to improve spray equipment capability increased. The principal objective was to increase transfer efficiency to decrease VOCs.

Adams, J.

1990-03-01

128

Sprayed Coating Renews Butyl Rubber  

Science.gov (United States)

Damaged butyl rubber products are renewed by spray technique originally developed for protective suits worn by NASA workers. A commercial two-part adhesive is mixed with Freon-113 (or equivalent) trichlorotrifluoroethane to obtain optimum viscosity for spraying. Mix is applied with an external-air-mix spray gun.

Martin, R. B.

1982-01-01

129

Antifungal efficiency assessment of the TiO2 coating on façade paints.  

Science.gov (United States)

The work studies the photocatalytic activity and the antifungal efficiency of the TiO2/Zn-Al coatings placed on the target commercial façade paints. The photocatalytic active nanocomposite based on TiO2 and Zn-Al-layered double hydroxides (ZnAl-LDHs) was synthesized by a wet impregnation technique with 3 % w/w TiO2. The freshly prepared suspension was applied by spray technique on the surfaces of the white façade paints. The goal of the work was to develop a method that quickly quantifies the antifungal activity of the commercial façade paints with and without biocidal components covered with a photocatalytic coating. The essence of the proposed method is the monitoring of the fungal growth (artificial ageing conditions) and the quantification of its development (UV-A 0.13 mWcm(-2)) on the façade paint surfaces. A special fungus nutrient (potato dextrose agar (PDA)) was inoculated with the spores of the Aspergillus niger ATCC 6275, and the test samples (façade paints with and without photocatalytic coating) were placed on the inoculated nutrient in the petri dishes. The images of the fungal growth on the samples of the facade paints, during a period of 5 days, were imported into Matlab R2012a where they were converted to binary images (BW), based on the adequate threshold. The percentage of the surface coverage was calculated by applying the specifically written program code which determines the ratio of the black and white pixels. The black pixels correspond to the surface covered with hyphae and mycelia of the fungus. PMID:24875311

Vu?eti?, Snežana B; Rudi?, Ognjen Lj; Markov, Siniša L; Bera, Oskar J; Vidakovi?, Ana M; Skapin, Andrijana S Sever; Ranogajec, Jonjaua G

2014-10-01

130

Texton-based analysis of paintings:  

OpenAIRE

The visual examination of paintings is traditionally performed by skilled art historians using their eyes. Recent advances in intelligent systems may support art historians in determining the authenticity or date of creation of paintings. In this paper, we propose a technique for the examination of brushstroke structure that views the wildly overlapping brushstrokes as texture. The analysis of the painting texture is performed with the help of a texton codebook, i.e., a codebook of small prot...

Maaten, L. J. P.; Postma, E. O.

2010-01-01

131

Digital Color Restoration of Old Paintings  

OpenAIRE

Many old paintings suffer from the effects of certain  physicochemical phenomena, that can seriously degrade  their overall visual appearance. Cleaning methods, that  utilize chemical treatment substances, can not always  be used, due to possible deterioration of the painting  surface or reduction of the painting artistic value.  Digital image processing techniques can be utilized for the  purpose of restoring the o...

Pappas, M.; Pitas, I.

2010-01-01

132

The magnetic imaging of oil paintings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We propose a new technique for authentication of oil paintings, using a scanning SQUID technique to measure its magnetic field. The paintings are pre-magnetized in an homogeneous field of 100 G. It was observed that the response depends on the ferromagnetic properties of each paint independent of its colour. This shows that a magnetic image could be used as a magnetic signature for authentication purposes. (rapid communication)

133

The magnetic imaging of oil paintings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We propose a new technique for authentication of oil paintings, using a scanning SQUID technique to measure its magnetic field. The paintings are pre-magnetized in an homogeneous field of 100 G. It was observed that the response depends on the ferromagnetic properties of each paint independent of its colour. This shows that a magnetic image could be used as a magnetic signature for authentication purposes. (rapid communication)

Ribeiro, P Costa [Department of Physics, PUC-Rio, R. Marques de Sao Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barros, H Lins de [CBPF, R. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Portinari, J C [Projeto Portinari, PUC-Rio, R. Marques de Sao Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wolff, C S [Department of Physics, PUC-Rio, R. Marques de Sao Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kafensztok, S M [Department of Physics, PUC-Rio, R. Marques de Sao Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, H R [Department of Physics, PUC-Rio, R. Marques de Sao Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Acosta-Avalos, D [IP and D-UNIVAP, Av. Shihima Hifumi 2911, 12244-000 Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Symko, O G [Department of Physics, University of Utah, 84112 UT (United States); Bruno, A C [Department of Physics, PUC-Rio, R. Marques de Sao Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2004-06-01

134

A mathematical model for drying paint layers  

OpenAIRE

Many industrial processes involve the coating of substrates with thin layers of paint. This paper is concerned with modelling the variations in layer thickness which may occur as a paint layer dries. Firstly, a systematic derivation is provided of a model based on classical lubrication theory for a drying paint layer consisting of a non-volatile resin and a volatile solvent. The effects of variable surface tension, viscosity, solvent diffusivity and solvent evaporation rate are all included i...

Howison, Sd; Moriarty, Ja; Ockendon, Jr; Terrill, El; Wilson, Sk

1997-01-01

135

Sodium spray fires  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fundamental research on sodium spray fires is in progress at the Cadarache Nuclear Safety Department (DSN) to develop a computer code capable of predicting the thermodynamic effects of such fires on the containment. This paper discusses three types of phenomena which require further examination in order to obtain more realistic temperature and pressure results. (author)

136

Ciclesonide Nasal Spray  

Science.gov (United States)

... to free the nasal applicator. Wash the dust cap and applicator with warm water. Dry and replace the applicator and press down and release the pump one time or until you see a fine spray. Replace the dust cap. Do not use pins or other sharp objects ...

137

Controlled droplet spray generator  

Science.gov (United States)

Spray generator produces streams of uniform-size droplets issuing at uniform rate by applying an oscillatory disturbance to free liquid jets. Jets of varying diameters can be grouped together and oscillated as a group to produce simultaneous streams of uniform-size droplets.

Nicholls, J. A.

1970-01-01

138

Nuclear analytical study of rock paintings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An exfoliated fragment of a rock painting from Lesotho was analyzed by differentiated backscatter spectrometry to obtain the paint thickness, which ranged from about 2 to 6.5 ?m, and its empirical formula for stopping power calculations. Elemental composition was determined by PIXE. Fe-rich paint spots were red in color and Ca-rich ones, pinkish. Because of the chemical mobility of calcium, this paint component should become the focus to which conservation techniques should be directed. (author) 12 refs.; 4 figs

139

Retrospective dosimetry using chromosome painting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chromosome aberration frequency measured in peripheral lymphocytes of persons exposed to ionizing radiation has been used since 1960s for dose assessment. Suspected overexposure is usually evaluated by the frequency of dicentrics and centric rings using an appropriate in vitro calibration curve. However, these chromosome aberrations are unstable with time after exposure and dose reconstruction may encounter uncertainties when the time between the exposure and the analysis is considerable or even unknown. It appears that translocations persist with time after exposure and may be used as an indication of acute past overexposures. Moreover, they appear to accumulate the cytogenetical information, which correlates with the dose received under fractionated, chronic or even occupational exposure conditions. Translocations may be detected using G-banding, which allows to score the total amount of radiation induced translocations but it is a time consuming method, or by Chromosome Painting, a method base on the Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) technique, painting only some chromosome pairs with specific whole chromosome probes and then extrapolating the observed translocation frequencies to the full genome. The latter method allows a faster aberration scoring than G-banding and appears to be the most promissory tool for biodosimetry, particularly when it is necessary to assess low doses and consequently to score a large number of metaphases, e.g. radiation workers exposed within dose limits. As with the unstable chromosome aberration, it is necessary an in vitro calibration curve based on the frequency of stable chromosome aberrations to assess doses. Our laboratory performed calibration curves for Co{sup 60} {gamma}-rays based on the frequencies of unstable (dicentrics and centric rings detected by conventional Giemsa staining) and stable chromosome aberrations (translocations and inversions, detected by G-banding). In order to minimize the interlaboratory variability, we have performed our own dose response relationship, based on the frequency of stable chromosome aberrations detected by Chromosome Painting for Co{sup 60} {gamma}-rays, with doses ranging from 0 Gy to 3 Gy delivered at a 0.4 Gy/min dose rate and painting chromosomes 1, 2 and 4, which represent 22% of the genome. We have scored reciprocal and non-reciprocal translocations, excess of painted acentrics, insertions, dicentrics and centric rings. After extrapolating the obtained frequencies to the full genome, the corresponding data set agree well with our previous results of dicentrics and centric rings and reciprocal and non reciprocal translocations, obtained using the same in vitro irradiation protocol. In order to collect information about the stability and the cumulative behavior of stable chromosome aberrations, we have retrospectively evaluated, using the Chromosome Painting calibration curve, a nuclear power plant worker sample with doses ranging from 500 mSv to 800 mSv. As a whole, the observed frequencies do not differ significantly from the expected frequencies obtained applying the calibration curve {alpha} coefficient. Some workers of this samples were previously evaluated using G-banding in 1995 and the present results agree well with the expected frequencies due to the accumulated during the last four years. (author)

Nasazzi, N.B.; Giorgio, M.D.; Taja, M.R. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (Argentina)

2000-05-01

140

Retrospective dosimetry using chromosome painting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chromosome aberration frequency measured in peripheral lymphocytes of persons exposed to ionizing radiation has been used since 1960s for dose assessment. Suspected overexposure is usually evaluated by the frequency of dicentrics and centric rings using an appropriate in vitro calibration curve. However, these chromosome aberrations are unstable with time after exposure and dose reconstruction may encounter uncertainties when the time between the exposure and the analysis is considerable or even unknown. It appears that translocations persist with time after exposure and may be used as an indication of acute past overexposures. Moreover, they appear to accumulate the cytogenetical information, which correlates with the dose received under fractionated, chronic or even occupational exposure conditions. Translocations may be detected using G-banding, which allows to score the total amount of radiation induced translocations but it is a time consuming method, or by Chromosome Painting, a method base on the Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) technique, painting only some chromosome pairs with specific whole chromosome probes and then extrapolating the observed translocation frequencies to the full genome. The latter method allows a faster aberration scoring than G-banding and appears to be the most promissory tool for biodosimetry, particularly when it is necessary to assess low doses and consequently to score a large number of metaphases, e.g. radiation workers exr of metaphases, e.g. radiation workers exposed within dose limits. As with the unstable chromosome aberration, it is necessary an in vitro calibration curve based on the frequency of stable chromosome aberrations to assess doses. Our laboratory performed calibration curves for Co60 ?-rays based on the frequencies of unstable (dicentrics and centric rings detected by conventional Giemsa staining) and stable chromosome aberrations (translocations and inversions, detected by G-banding). In order to minimize the interlaboratory variability, we have performed our own dose response relationship, based on the frequency of stable chromosome aberrations detected by Chromosome Painting for Co60 ?-rays, with doses ranging from 0 Gy to 3 Gy delivered at a 0.4 Gy/min dose rate and painting chromosomes 1, 2 and 4, which represent 22% of the genome. We have scored reciprocal and non-reciprocal translocations, excess of painted acentrics, insertions, dicentrics and centric rings. After extrapolating the obtained frequencies to the full genome, the corresponding data set agree well with our previous results of dicentrics and centric rings and reciprocal and non reciprocal translocations, obtained using the same in vitro irradiation protocol. In order to collect information about the stability and the cumulative behavior of stable chromosome aberrations, we have retrospectively evaluated, using the Chromosome Painting calibration curve, a nuclear power plant worker sample with doses ranging from 500 mSv to 800 mSv. As a whole, the observed frequencies do not differ significantly from the expected frequencies obtained applying the calibration curve ? coefficient. Some workers of this samples were previously evaluated using G-banding in 1995 and the present results agree well with the expected frequencies due to the accumulated during the last four years. (author)

141

76 FR 17379 - National Tree-Marking Paint Committee Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...Forest Service National Tree-Marking Paint Committee Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service...SUMMARY: The National Tree-Marking Paint Committee will meet in Missoula, Montana...handling and use of tree-marking paint by personnel of the Forest...

2011-03-29

142

46 CFR 108.147 - Certain paints prohibited.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-10-01 false Certain paints prohibited. 108.147 Section...Protection § 108.147 Certain paints prohibited. No nitrocellulose...flammable or noxious fume-producing paint or lacquer may be used on a...

2010-10-01

143

75 FR 17897 - National Tree-Marking Paint Committee Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...Forest Service National Tree-Marking Paint Committee Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service...SUMMARY: The National Tree-marking Paint Committee will meet in Colorado Springs...handling and use of tree-marking paint by personnel of the Forest...

2010-04-08

144

75 FR 21347 - Natural Bristle Paint Brushes From China  

Science.gov (United States)

...Third Review)] Natural Bristle Paint Brushes From China AGENCY: United...antidumping duty order on natural bristle paint brushes from China...antidumping duty order on natural bristle paint brushes from China would be...

2010-04-23

145

77 FR 20612 - National Tree-Marking Paint Committee Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...Forest Service National Tree-Marking Paint Committee Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service...SUMMARY: The National Tree-Marking Paint Committee will meet in Flagstaff...handling and use of tree-marking paint by personnel of the Forest...

2012-04-05

146

75 FR 18237 - Natural Bristle Paint Brushes From China  

Science.gov (United States)

...Third Review)] Natural Bristle Paint Brushes From China AGENCY: United...antidumping duty order on natural bristle paint brushes from China...antidumping duty order on natural bristle paint brushes from China would be...

2010-04-09

147

29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915...Preservation § 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. ...handling and application of chemical paint and preservative removers and...

2010-07-01

148

Auroras: Paintings in the Sky  

Science.gov (United States)

Mish Denlinger of San Francisco's Exploratorium created Auroras: Paintings in the Sky, a Web exhibit devoted to this beautiful celestial phenomenon. Visitors are introduced to how auroras are created, what they look from Earth and space, and where they can be found. Spectacular images of auroras accompany the text. A Self-Guided Tour allows browsing at the user's pace and a Teacher's Page features specific curriculum suggestions for K-12 teachers. Links to other aurora Websites and related resources round out the site.

Denlinger, Mish.

149

Selective paint coatings for coloured solar absorbers: Polyurethane thickness insensitive spectrally selective (TISS) paints (Part II)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Red, green and blue paints were prepared for use as thickness insensitive spectrally selective (TISS) paint coatings for solar facade absorbers. The paints were composed of a polyurethane resin binder in which various pigments were incorporated in such a way that they formed stable paint dispersions, satisfying stability criteria for facade coatings. A low emittance of the paints was achieved by using low-emittance aluminium flake pigments combined with iron oxide (red coloured paints). Black pigment was added to adjust solar absorptance. Blue and green paints were made by the addition of coloured aluminium flake pigment and the solar absorptance was also adjusted by the addition of black pigment. Efficiency for photo-thermal conversion of solar radiation was assessed by evaluation of the corresponding performance criteria, which enabled the selection of paints whose performance criteria values were higher than 0 (spectrally non-selective black coating). The results confirmed that blue and green paints and to minor extent red ones, combined selectivity with colour. The morphology of the paints was assessed, revealing that the colours originated from the deposition of finely dispersed colour and/or black pigment on the surface of the aluminium flakes during paint preparation. (author)

Orel, B.; Spreizer, H.; Surca Vuk, A.; Fir, M. [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Merlini, D.; Vodlan, M. [Color d.d., Cesta komandanta Staneta 4, SI-1230 Medvode (Slovenia); Koehl, M. [Fraunhofer-Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany)

2007-01-23

150

Roosters Rule: A Painted Paper Collage  

Science.gov (United States)

On perusing American collage artist Eric Carle's book, "Rooster's Off to See the World," at an annual school book fair, the author, mesmerized by the carnival of colors and collage on each page, thought "What a wonderful visual aid for a combination painting and collage unit." Her first-graders were involved in a painting unit, and knowing their…

Brady, Susan

2011-01-01

151

Detecting Corrosion Under Paint and Insulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Corrosion is a major concern at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida due to the proximity of the center to the Atlantic Ocean and to salt water lagoons. High humidity, salt fogs, and ocean breezes, provide an ideal environment in which painted steel structures become corroded. Maintenance of painted steel structures is a never-ending process.

Bastin, Gary L.

2011-01-01

152

How to Paint Swirl a Guitar  

Science.gov (United States)

This PDF document provides a guide for a classroom demonstration on how to paint swirl a guitar. Materials required include a plastic storage container, borax, oil paint and a guitar body. This lesson plan includes photographs of the process and a step by step walk through of how to complete the demonstration.

153

EMISSION RATES OF MERCURY FROM LATEX PAINTS  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper gives results of tests of latex paints containing organic mercury additives in small environmental test chambers to determine the emission rates of mercury. Five paints were evaluated: two contained phenyl mercuric acetate (PMA); and the other three, different additives...

154

Lead content in household paints in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lead and its compounds are used in paints not only to impart colour but also to make it durable, corrosion resistant and to improve drying. Adverse health impacts of lead especially on children have led countries to restrict or ban its use in paints. While U.S. and other developed countries instituted measures to limit the use of lead in paints, some developing countries including India have failed to regulate their lead content. The present study was undertaken to determine the levels of lead in new latex (water-based) and enamel paints (oil-based) intended for residential use in India. A total of 69 paint samples (38 latex and 31 enamel samples) from six of the most popular brands were analysed for lead concentrations. While all latex paint samples contained low levels of lead, (i.e., well below 600 ppm as regulated by United States' Consumer Products Safety Commission) the enamel paint samples of all but one brand contained significant concentrations of lead, ranging up to 140,000 ppm. In fact 84% of the enamel paints tested exceeded 600 ppm whereas only 38 % of all samples (including latex and enamel types) exceeded this regulatory level

155

Numerical modelling of fuel sprays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The way the fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber is one of the most important parameters for the power output and the generation of emissions in the combustion of liquid fuels. The interaction between the turbulent gas flow field and the liquid fuel droplets, the vaporisation of them and the mixing of the gaseous fuel with the ambient air that are vital parameters in the combustion process. The use of numerical calculations is an important tool to better understand these complex interacting phenomena. This thesis reports on the numerical modelling of fuel sprays in non-reacting cases using an own developed spray module. The spray module uses the stochastic parcel method to represent the spray. The module was made in such manner that it could by coupled with different gas flow solver. Results obtained from four different gas flow solvers are presented in the thesis, including the use of two different kinds of turbulence models. In the first part the spray module is coupled with a k-{eta} based 2-D cylindrical gas flow solver. A thorough sensitivity analysis was performed on the spray and gas flow solver parameters, such as grid size dependence and sensitivity to initial values of k-{eta}. The results of the spray module were also compared to results from other spray codes, e.g. the well known KIVA code. In the second part of this thesis the spray was injected into a turbulent and fully developed crossflow studied. The spray module was attached to a LES (Large Eddy Simulation) based flow solvers enabling the study of the complex structures and time dependent phenomena involved in spray in crossflows. It was found that the spray performs an oscillatory motion and that the Strouhal number in the wake was about 0.1. Different spray breakup models were evaluated by comparing with experimental results 66 refs, 56 figs

Bergstroem, C.

1999-06-01

156

Flame spraying of polymers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Statistical design-of-experiment studies of the thermal spraying of polymer powders are presented. Studies of the subsonic combustion (i.e., Flame) process were conducted in order to determine the quality and economics of polyester and urethane coatings. Thermally sprayed polymer coatings are of interest to several industries for anticorrosion applications, including the chemical, automotive, and aircraft industries. In this study, the coating design has been optimized for a site-specific application using Taguchi-type fractional-factorial experiments. Optimized coating designs are presented for the two powder systems. A substantial range of thermal processing conditions and their effect on the resultant polymer coatings is presented. The coatings were characterized by optical metallography, hardness testing, tensile testing, and compositional analysis. Characterization of the coatings yielded the thickness, bond strength, Knoop microhardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and porosity. Confirmation testing was accomplished to verify the coating designs

157

Structural Color Painting by Rubbing Particle Powder  

Science.gov (United States)

Structural colors originate from purely physical structures. Scientists have been inspired to mimic the structures found in nature, the realization of these structures still presents a great challenge. We have recently introduced unidirectional rubbing of a dry particle powder on a rubbery surface as a quick, highly reproducible means to fabricate a single crystal monolayer assembly of particles over an unlimited area. This study extends the particle-rubbing process to a novel fine-art painting, structural color painting (SCP). SCP is based on structural coloring with varying iridescence according to the crystal orientation, as controlled by the rubbing direction. This painting technique can be applied on curved surfaces, which enriches the objects to be painted and helps the painter mimic the structures found in nature. It also allows for quick fabrication of complicated particle-assembly patterns, which enables replication of paintings. PMID:25661669

Park, ChooJin; Koh, Kunsuk; Jeong, Unyong

2015-01-01

158

Structural Color Painting by Rubbing Particle Powder  

Science.gov (United States)

Structural colors originate from purely physical structures. Scientists have been inspired to mimic the structures found in nature, the realization of these structures still presents a great challenge. We have recently introduced unidirectional rubbing of a dry particle powder on a rubbery surface as a quick, highly reproducible means to fabricate a single crystal monolayer assembly of particles over an unlimited area. This study extends the particle-rubbing process to a novel fine-art painting, structural color painting (SCP). SCP is based on structural coloring with varying iridescence according to the crystal orientation, as controlled by the rubbing direction. This painting technique can be applied on curved surfaces, which enriches the objects to be painted and helps the painter mimic the structures found in nature. It also allows for quick fabrication of complicated particle-assembly patterns, which enables replication of paintings.

Park, Choojin; Koh, Kunsuk; Jeong, Unyong

2015-02-01

159

Establishment of Meaning of Ink Wash Painting in Modern Times: Evolution of Chinese Ink Wash Painting as a Formal Language of Oriental Figure Painting  

OpenAIRE

As an ancient oriental type of figure painting, Chinese ink wash painting’s development and evolution is the most prominent part that most reflects the characteristics of contemporary era in Chinese artistic exploration in the 20th century. Present Chinese ink wash figure painting has already become one of the forms of creation among Chinese painting mainstream and the reform spirit it reflects has special aesthetic meaning to Chinese contemporary art in the multicultural background. This p...

Li, Xiaoguang

2014-01-01

160

Kelvin spray ionization.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel self-powered dual spray ionization source has been developed for applications in mass spectrometry. This new source does not use any power supply and produces both positive and negative ions simultaneously. The idea behind this ionization source comes from the Kelvin water dropper. The source employs one or two syringes, two pneumatic sprays operated over a range of flow rates (0.15-15 ?L min(-1)) and gas pressures (0-150 psi), and two double layered metal screens for ion formation. A variable electrostatic potential from 0 to 4 kV can be produced depending on solvent and gas flow rates that allow gentle ionization of compounds. There are several parameters that affect the performance during ionization of molecules including the flow rate of solvent, gas pressure, solvent acidity, position of spray and metal screens with respect to each other and distance between metal screens and the counter electrode. This ionization method has been successfully applied to solutions of peptides, proteins and non-covalent complexes. In comparison with ESI, the charge number of the most populated state is lower than that from ESI. It indicates that this is a softer ionization technique and it produces more protein ions with folded structures. The unique features of Kelvin spray ionization (KeSI) are that the method is self-powered and ionization occurs at very low potentials by providing very low internal energy to the ions. This advantage can be used for the ionization of very fragile molecules and investigation of non-covalent interactions. PMID:24080942

Özdemir, Abdil; Lin, Jung-Lee; Gillig, Kent J; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

2013-11-21

161

Radiolysis of spray solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The factors were studied affecting thiosulfate radiolysis in the so-called spray solution for nuclear power plant containments. The reaction mechanism of primary radiolytic reactions leading to thiosulfate decomposition was studied using pulse radiolysis. Also measured was hydrazine loss in the irradiation of the bubbling solution intended for the capture of volatile chemical forms of radioiodine. Pulse radiolysis was used to study the kinetics of hydrazine reaction with elemental iodine. (author)

162

Tissue Paper Spray Art  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners observe color mixing and absorbency using colored tissue paper and spray bottles. Learners create collages out of colored tissue paper shapes and then lightly mist the tissue paper with water. When the learners remove the colored tissue, a colorful print appears. Use this activity to illustrate how materials absorb water as well as how colors can mix to form new colors.

Kohl Children's Museum

2012-01-01

163

Spray boom for selectively spraying a herbicidal composition onto dicots  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There is provided a method and spray boom for discriminating cereal crop (monocot) and weeds (dicots). The spray boom includes means for digitally recording an image of a selected area to be treated by a nozzle on the spray boom, whereby a plant material is identified based on a segmentation procedure; and means for detecting the edges and estimating the angles of the edges of the leaves so as to discriminate between dicots and monocots; and means for activating one or more of the spray nozzles in response to detected dicots so as to selectively apply the herbicidal composition onto the sensed area containing the dicots.

Stigaard Laursen, Morten SDU,

164

Structure of evaporating diesel sprays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance of compression ignition engine is known to be spray characteristics related. Precise experimental information on fuel sprays is of utmost importance to model the fuel spray formation and its development in the engine combustion chamber. The previous experimental work of the present author on non-evaporating sprays produced by using a FIAT single-hole orifice type nozzle and a distribution type commercial fuel injection pump forms the basis to derive correlations for penetration rates, break up times and lengths of diesel sprays. The results are compared with the existing published work and the agreement is found ideal. The correlations derived can be useful to do CFD modeling of sprays under variable conditions of injector nozzle hole diameter, fuel injection pressure, combustion chamber pressure and temperature or air density. (author)

165

Degradation of insecticides used for indoor spraying in malaria control and possible solutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The insecticide dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT is widely used in indoor residual spraying (IRS for malaria control owing to its longer residual efficacy in the field compared to other World Health Organization (WHO alternatives. Suitable stabilization to render these alternative insecticides longer lasting could provide a less controversial and more acceptable and effective alternative insecticide formulations than DDT. Methods This study sought to investigate the reasons behind the often reported longer lasting behaviour of DDT by exposing all the WHO approved insecticides to high temperature, high humidity and ultra-violet light. Interactions between the insecticides and some mineral powders in the presence of an aqueous medium were also tested. Simple insecticidal paints were made using slurries of these mineral powders whilst some insecticides were dispersed into a conventional acrylic paint binder. These formulations were then spray painted on neat and manure coated mud plaques, representative of the material typically used in rural mud houses, at twice the upper limit of the WHO recommended dosage range. DDT was applied directly onto mud plaques at four times the WHO recommended concentration and on manure plaques at twice WHO recommended concentration. All plaques were subjected to accelerated ageing conditions of 40°C and a relative humidity of 90%. Results The pyrethroids insecticides outperformed the carbamates and DDT in the accelerated ageing tests. Thus UV exposure, high temperature oxidation and high humidity per se were ruled out as the main causes of failure of the alternative insecticides. Gas chromatography (GC spectrograms showed that phosphogypsum stabilised the insecticides the most against alkaline degradation (i.e., hydrolysis. Bioassay testing showed that the period of efficacy of some of these formulations was comparable to that of DDT when sprayed on mud surfaces or cattle manure coated surfaces. Conclusions Bioassay experiments indicated that incorporating insecticides into a conventional paint binder or adsorbing them onto phosphogypsum can provide for extended effective life spans that compare favourably with DDT's performance under accelerated ageing conditions. Best results were obtained with propoxur in standard acrylic emulsion paint. Similarly, insecticides adsorbed on phosphogypsum and sprayed on cattle manure coated surfaces provided superior lifespans compared with DDT sprayed directly on a similar surface.

Massinga Pedro

2011-10-01

166

Vacuum Plasma Spraying Replaces Electrodeposition  

Science.gov (United States)

Vacuum plasma spraying used to fabricate large parts with complicated contours and inner structures, without uninspectable welds. Reduces time, and expense of fabrication. Wall of combustion chamber built up inside of outer nickel-alloy jacket by plasma spraying. Particles of metal sprayed partially melted in plasma gun and thrown at supersonic speed toward deposition surface. Vacuum plasma-spray produces stronger bond between the grooves and covering layer completing channels and wall of combustion chamber. In tests, bond withstood pressure of 20 kpsi, three times allowable limit by old method.

Holmes, Richard R.; Power, Chris; Burns, David H.; Daniel, Ron; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

1992-01-01

167

Increased persistence of antifouling paint biocides when associated with paint particles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Release of biocides associated with paint particles into marinas may increase their persistence in the environment. - Current regulatory risk assessment procedures only assess the impact of antifouling paint biocides that are released through leaching from a painted surface. Hull cleaning activities can lead to particles of antifouling paint containing biocides to enter the environment. Comparative pseudo-first order anaerobic degradation rate constants and half-lives were determined for a selection of common antifouling paint booster biocides, their degradation products, and associated with paint particles. Anaerobic half-lives of <0.5 days were calculated for chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, and SeaNine 211, between 1 and 3 days for DCPMU and DCPU, between 14 and 35 days for diuron and CPDU, and over 226 days for GS26575 and Irgarol 1051. Increased persistence was observed when the compounds were introduced to sediments associated with antifouling paint particles. When present as antifouling paint particles, an increased half-life of 9.9 days for SeaNine 211 and 1.4 days was calculated for dichlofluanid, no significant degradation was observed for diuron. It is suspected that this is due to much of the biocide being initially bound within the matrix of the paint particle that is slowly released through dissolution processes into the sediment pore water prior to degradation. The release of booster biocides associated with paint particles into marinas has the potential to lead to their accumulation unless activities such as hull cleaning are strictly regulated.

Thomas, K.V.; McHugh, M.; Hilton, M.; Waldock, M

2003-05-01

168

National Gallery: 30 Highlight Paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

Where to start with a collection like that held by the National Gallery? It's a truly daunting challenge, but fortunately the curators there have done some of the hard work already. This remarkable offering brings together 30 of their finest works, including Vermeer's "A Young Woman standing at a Virginal," Titian's "Bacchus and Ariadne," and Van Gogh's "Sunflowers." Visitors can click on each image to get in close to each item and read the brief essay accompanies each work. Also, each item has an Essentials area which features key facts about the work and an artist biography. The In Depth area of each site includes a technical bulletin and information from the National Gallery's. Finally, visitors can buy prints of their favorite paintings or look into purchasing licensing rights.

169

Denotative and connotative meanings of paintings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study the relationships between judgments of paintings denotative and connotative meanings was investigated. Denotative domain was defined as motif (represented object, e.g. portrait, landscape etc. and message (information carried by paintings, e.g. celebration of patriotism. Connotative domain was defined as subjective experience, i.e. affective or metaphoric impression produced by painting (e.g. feeling of pleasure, impression of dynamics, and so on. In preliminary study the list of 39 motifs was specified empirically. The four dimensions of pictorial message were taken from the previous study (Markovi?, 2006: Subjectivism, Ideology, Decoration and Constructivism vs. Realism. The four dimensions of paintings subjective experience were taken from the previous study as well (Radonji? and Markovi?, 2005: Regularity, Attraction, Arousal and Relaxation. In Experiment 1 subjects were asked to associate 39 motifs with 18 paintings. In Experiment 2 subjects were asked to judge 24 paintings on four dimensions of pictorial message. Results form Experiment 1 have shown that dimensions of paintings subjective experience were significantly correlated with only five motifs (e.g. everyday life was negatively correlated with Arousal, battle was negatively correlated with Relaxation, and so on. Results from Experiment 2 have shown that Subjectivism and Constructivism are negatively correlated with Regularity, and positively correlated with Arousal. Decoration is negatively correlated with Arousal and positively with Attraction and Relaxation.

Vasi? Sandra

2007-01-01

170

Control of spray spot shape in cold spray technology. Part 2. Spraying process  

Science.gov (United States)

The present paper studies high-velocity heterogeneous flows produced with nozzle designs unconventional for cold spray; the process of coating deposition was studied under these conditions. The possibility of using unconventional gas dynamic tools (swirling of main flow, nozzles with permeable profiles and with slots in the supersonic part of nozzle) for control of particle distribution in the supersonic jet is investigated: this might be useful for obtaining a proper shape of the spray spot. These experiments offered a method of gas-dynamic design for the spray spot shape, which extends the possibilities of cold spray technique.

Zaikovskii, V. N.; Klinkov, S. V.; Kosarev, V. F.; Melamed, B. M.; Trubacheev, G. V.

2014-04-01

171

Kolmogorov scaling in impassioned van Gogh paintings  

CERN Document Server

We show that some impassioned van Gogh paintings display scaling properties similar to the observed in turbulent fluids, suggesting that these paintings reflect the fingerprint of turbulence with such a realism that is even consistent with the way that a mathematical model characterizes this phenomenon. Specifically, we show that the probability distribution function (PDF) of luminance fluctuations of points (pixels) separated by a distance R is consistent with the Kolmogorov scaling theory in turbulent fluids. We also show that the most turbulent paintings of van Gogh coincide with periods of prolonged psychotic agitation of this artist.

Aragon, J L; Bai, M; Torres, M; Maini, P K; Naumis, Gerardo G.

2006-01-01

172

Measurement of tritium in dial painting industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tritium in the form of polystyrene is used coated on zinc sulphide as the active component for the manufacture of self-luminous paint. To study the radiological implication of airborne tritium in the luminous paint industry air monitoring study was conducted by cold strip method and Andersen method. Airborne particulate in different locations in luminous paint (LP) building and background areas were observed to be associated with activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 1.8 to 5.0 um. Dose to soft tissue and lungs and effective whole body dose were evaluated. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs., 2 ills

173

Olmec cave paintings: discovery from guerrero, Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cave in Guerrero, Mexico, investigated in 1968, contained previously unreported Olmec paintings. These paintings, some of the oldest known in Mesoamerica, are stylistically similar to Olmec art from the site of LaVenta, on Mexico's Gulf Coast, but contain several important glyphic motifs never previously known to have existed at this time level. The iconography of the paintings confirms several important hypotheses concerning basic concepts of Olmec religion; the cave itself was probably a shrine to water and fertility. Several pre-Hispanic textile fragments found in the cave are probably from a later culture period. PMID:17800370

Grove, D C

1969-04-25

174

Fresh Paint: Brueghel Revisited by Anne Simpson  

OpenAIRE

Anne Simpson’s “Seven Paintings by Brueghel” is a crown of sonnets, a specific way of exploring the possibilities of the sonnet as a fixed form. Rather than dwelling on the noble history of this technical exploit, though, we are to observe the relation between Simpson’s text and the paintings by Brueghel she draws ideas from. We intend to examine in detail how Simpson paints her own images over Brueghel’s, while never losing sight of the Flemish painter’s stark imagery. Also impor...

Barraga?o, Fernando Pedro Cleto Rodrigues

2011-01-01

175

Set Up of an Automated Multi-Colour System for Interior Wall Painting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is shared that construction projects are getting bigger and more complex, hence also the productivity of the construction industry must be improved, while preserving its labour from hazardous job sites. Such requirements can be accomplished by the adoption of robotized products, which, however, need to be quickly developed and marketed. In this paper, first the issue of a new miniature laboratory for developing lightweight and well-coordinated robotized systems is pursued, then a novel robot device for high quality multi-colour interior wall painting carried by a robot arm is developed and successfully tested. Thanks to the new 1:6 scaled down laboratory and its six degree of freedom robot arm on an hexapod for horizontal moves, we tested the opportunity to introduce also in the building sector miniature robots that can change the ergonomics standardly adopted by construction workers. It is analyzed how and why switching from full size to miniature robots is convenient in construction. In addition, a new system adding further features to robotized painting has been conceived. Our new multi-colour spraying end-tool was developed and fixed on the robot arm, in order to be able to reproduce coloured artworks. Finally, a methodology to reproduce colours from digital format of artworks is presented, showing how accurate and efficient is this new robotized spraying device.

Berardo Naticchia

2008-11-01

176

Pseudoconvex and Disprisoning Homogeneous Sprays  

CERN Document Server

The pseudoconvex and disprisoning conditions for geodesics of linear connections are extended to the solution curves of general homogeneous sprays. The main result is that pseudoconvexity and disprisonment are jointly stable in the fine topology on the space of all homogeneous sprays of any degree of homogeneity.

Riego, L D

1994-01-01

177

Spray rolling aluminum alloy strip  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spray rolling combines spray forming with twin-roll casting to process metal flat products. It consists of atomizing molten metal with a high velocity inert gas, cooling the resultant droplets in flight and directing the spray between mill rolls. In-flight convection heat transfer from atomized droplets teams with conductive cooling at the rolls to rapidly remove the alloy's latent heat. Hot deformation of the semi-solid material in the rolls results in fully consolidated, rapidly solidified product. While similar in some ways to twin-roll casting, spray rolling has the advantage of being able to process alloys with broad freezing ranges at high production rates. This paper describes the process and summarizes microstructure and tensile properties of spray-rolled 2124 and 7050 aluminum alloy strips. A Lagrangian/Eulerian poly-dispersed spray flight and deposition model is described that provides some insight into the development of the spray rolling process. This spray model follows droplets during flight toward the rolls, through impact and spreading, and includes oxide film formation and breakup when relevant

178

Characterization of Sodium Spray Aerosols  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The consequences of pool and spray fires require evaluation in the safety analysis of liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors. Sodium spray fires are characterized by high temperature and pressure, produced during the rapid combustion of sodium in air. Following the initial energy release, some fraction of the reaction products are available as aerosols which follow the normal laws of agglomeration, growth, settling, and plating. An experimental study is underway at Atomics International to study the characteristics of high concentration sprays of liquid sodium in reduced oxygen atmospheres and in air. The experiments are conducted in a 31.5 ft3 (2 ft diam. by 10 ft high) vessel, certified for a pressure of 100 lb/in2 (gauge). The spray injection apparatus consists of a heated sodium supply pot and a spray nozzle through which liquid sodium is driven by nitrogen pressure. Spray rate and droplet size can be varied by the injection velocity (nozzle size, nitrogen pressure, and sodium temperature). Aerosols produced in 0, 4, and 10 vol. % oxygen environments have been studied. The concentration and particle size distribution of the material remaining in the air after the spray injection and reaction period are measured. Fallout rates are found to be proportional to the concentration of aerosol which remains airborne following the spray period. (author)

179

Difference in brain activations during appreciating paintings and photographic analogs  

OpenAIRE

Several studies have investigated neural correlates of aesthetic appreciation for paintings but to date the findings have been heterogeneous. This heterogeneity may be attributed to previous studies’ measurement of aesthetic appreciation of not only the beauty of paintings but also the beauty of motifs of the paintings. In order to better elucidate the beauty of paintings, it seems necessary to compare aesthetic appreciation of paintings and photographic analogues which included correspondi...

Takeshi Terao; Takanori Kochiyama

2014-01-01

180

Nanoindentation and the micromechanics of Van Gogh oil paints  

OpenAIRE

Understanding the mechanical properties of ancient paintings is a major issue for conservation and restoration. One strategy is to measure the mechanical properties of reconstructed paints: however the aging process is poorly known, so it is also desirable to measure mechanical properties directly on ancient paint samples. Using nanoindentation, we have characterized submillimetric samples recovered from restoration of two Van Gogh paintings and compared the results with reconstructed paint s...

Salvant, Johanna; Barthel, Etienne; Menu, Michel

2011-01-01

181

Radioiodine recovery by spray systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Physicochemical aspects of iodine removal by means of spraying systems under conditions of disrupting a reactor cooling circuit are discussed. On the base of the experimental data the spraying efficiency has been estimated. The estimation of iodine conduct in the Nord nuclear power plant pressurizing system was carried out by the folloving preconditions: spraying flow - boron-containing water, 800 t/h; spraying flow is sufficient for pressure decrease; the coefficient of liquid - gas distribution H = 100 (single liberation of iodine from a coolant); iodine in a gaseous phase is in an elementary and inorganic form. According to the estimation half washout of elementary and inorganically coupled iodine is about 4 min. Approximate estimation of reagent addition effeciency, as sodium hydroxide and hydrazine to a sprayed solution, permit to expect at the Nord 1, P nuclear power plant the iodine half-washout of order from 0.5 to 1 min

182

Arthritis in Flemish paintings (1400-1700).  

Science.gov (United States)

A close examination of the hands of people depicted in paintings of the Flemish school showed that in five paintings there were figures with hand lesions resembling those of rhematoid arthritis. Although none of the deformities or swellings are indisputable examples of rheumatoid arthritis, they do at least suggest that the painters must have been confronted with rheumatoid-like lesions in their models. In two other paintings there were signs of rheumatic fever and of temporal arteritis. No arthritic lesions were found in the works of painters of the Italian Renaissance, probably because they are less detailed. The finding of rheumatoid deformities in the Flemish paintings does, however, question the general belief that rheumatoid arthritis is a condition that has arisen relatively recently. Images FIGS 1-2 FIG 3 FIG 4 FIG 5 FIG 6 FIG 7 PMID:324568

Dequeker, J

1977-01-01

183

Practice of using the multiple painting method  

CERN Document Server

A technique for the preparation of homogeneous minor-actinide layers by the multiple-painting method is described in detail. The advantages of the method used, as well as characteristics of the layers, are discussed.

Drapchinsky, L V; Soloviev, S M

1999-01-01

184

Electrochemical assessment of magnetite anti corrosive paints  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the purpose of deepening in the understanding of the mechanisms of protection of anticorrosive pigments based on iron oxides, this work has been carried out on the production of pure magnetite, and copper and chromium doped magnetite, which were evaluated by different characterization techniques. The paints were prepared with a solvent less epoxy resin maintaining the Pigment volume Content near the Practical Critical value (CPVC), established for each pigment. The paints were applied on polished steel and monitored with electrochemical techniques at total immersion conditions. Permeability and impedance measurements of free films were also done. Impedance data were simulated with the Boukamp software. Results show that the paints pigmented with doped magnetite present better behaviour than a paint prepared with commercial hematite. (Author) 8 refs.

Escobar, D. M.; Arroyave, C.; Jaramillo, F.; Mattos, O. R.; Margarit, I. c.; Calderon, J.

2003-07-01

185

Darkness and depth in early Renaissance painting  

Science.gov (United States)

Contrast has always been appreciated as a significant factor in image quality, but it is less widely recognized that it is a key factor in the representation of depth, solidity and three-dimensionality in images in general, and in paintings in particular. This aspect of contrast was a key factor in the introduction of oil paint as a painting medium at the beginning of the fifteenth century, as a practical means of contrast enhancement. However, recent conservatorship efforts have established that the first oil paintings were not, as commonly supposed, by van Eyck in Flanders in the 1430s, but by Masolino da Panicale in Italy in the 1420s. These developments led to the use of chiaroscuro technique in various forms, all of which are techniques for enhanced shadowing.

Tyler, Christopher

2010-02-01

186

Paint Test for Centifugal Pump Cavitation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The cavitation phenomenon in centrifugal pumps is occurred when the static pressure within the pumps decreases below the boiling pressure of the fluid. This can cause severe damages or failures of the pumps such as the impeller wear or the pump degradation. Many researches to resolve the problem have been performed. Gluich carried out wear prediction based on the Cooper's empirical relation on a cavity length. Grist suggested paint test as a useful tool to measure the cavity length. In the present study, a fluid test system is made, which can create cavitation artificially. A series of visualization tests for cavitation erosion using various paints are made. By comparing the paint test results and the Cooper's correlation, the effectiveness of the paint test for the cavity length estimation is noted.

Kang, Tae Seok; Lee, Do Hwan [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Min Ho; Jung, Rae Hyuk [M and D Corp., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2009-10-15

187

Modal Analysis of Pressure Sensitive Paint Data  

OpenAIRE

In this work, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) was used to separate coherent structures from noise in pressure sensitive paint (PSP) data acquired by high-speed photography on the side of a square cylinder in a natural periodically fluctuating flow.

Pastuhoff, Markus; Yorita, Daisuke; Tillmark, Nils; Alfredsson, P. Henrik; Asai, Keisuke

2012-01-01

188

The evaluation of GOES black paint materials  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to study the contamination effect of black paint materials on the GOES instrument performance. The GOES spacecraft materials were originally selected for their low outgassing properties. Samples of the materials were tested according to the ASTM E-595 test method to fulfill the total mass loss and collected volatile condensable materials criteria for traditional spacecraft material selection. Due to the instrument design, the cavity will experience high temperatures during operation greater than the specified temperature in the ASTM test. As a result of this high cavity temperature, normally stable paint materials on the painted surface may severely outgas even though they have passed the ASTM test. Further enhancement of the contaminant remaining on the mirror by UV irradiation is also a great consideration. This concern prompted an investigation into the outgassing characteristics of the black paints at the predicted operating temperatures.

Chen, Philip T.; Kauder, Lonny R.; Triolo, Jack J.

1992-01-01

189

Identification of bacterial cells by chromosomal painting.  

OpenAIRE

Chromosomal painting is a technique for the microscopic localization of genetic material. It has been applied at the subcellular level to identify regions of eukaryotic chromosomes. Here we describe the development of bacterial chromosomal painting (BCP), a related technology for the identification of bacterial cells. Purified genomic DNAs from six bacterial strains were labeled by nick translation with the fluorochrome Fluor-X, Cy3, or Cy5. The average size of the labeled fragments was ca. 5...

Lanoil, B. D.; Giovannoni, S. J.

1997-01-01

190

The actinobacterial colonization of Etruscan paintings  

OpenAIRE

The paintings from Tomba della Scimmia, in Tuscany, are representative of the heavy bacterial colonization experienced in most Etruscan necropolises. The tomb remained open until the late 70?s when it was closed because of severe deterioration of the walls, ceiling and paintings after decades of visits. The deterioration is the result of environmental changes and impacts suffered since its discovery in 1846. We show scanning electron microscopy and molecular studies that reveal the extent a...

Marta Diaz-Herraiz; Valme Jurado; Soledad Cuezva; Leonila Laiz; Pasquino Pallecchi; Piero Tiano; Sergio Sanchez-Moral; Cesareo Saiz-Jimenez

2013-01-01

191

‘Afro-Ghanaian influences in Ghanaian paintings’  

OpenAIRE

Easel painting is a foreign art form whose materials and techniques were introduced by the Europeans into the Gold Coast, now Ghana, in the first decades of the twentieth century during the period of European modern art. Since its introduction as an academic discipline, concepts identified as Ghanaian have been incorporated into it. Hence there is the need for scholarly debate on this subject to define a framework for a discourse on the histories and receptions of Ghanaian painting. This arti...

Kwame Amoah Labi

2013-01-01

192

A quantitative approach to painting styles  

Science.gov (United States)

This research extends a method previously applied to music and philosophy (Vilson Vieira et al., 2012), representing the evolution of art as a time-series where relations like dialectics are measured quantitatively. For that, a corpus of paintings of 12 well-known artists from baroque and modern art is analyzed. A set of 99 features is extracted and the features which most contributed to the classification of painters are selected. The projection space obtained provides the basis to the analysis of measurements. These quantitative measures underlie revealing observations about the evolution of painting styles, specially when compared with other humanity fields already analyzed: while music evolved along a master-apprentice tradition (high dialectics) and philosophy by opposition, painting presents another pattern: constant increasing skewness, low opposition between members of the same movement and opposition peaks in the transition between movements. Differences between baroque and modern movements are also observed in the projected "painting space": while baroque paintings are presented as an overlapped cluster, the modern paintings present minor overlapping and are disposed more widely in the projection than the baroque counterparts. This finding suggests that baroque painters shared aesthetics while modern painters tend to "break rules" and develop their own style.

Vieira, Vilson; Fabbri, Renato; Sbrissa, David; da Fontoura Costa, Luciano; Travieso, Gonzalo

2015-01-01

193

Radiation curing of commercial paint samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation curable coatings which include inks, varnishes, adhesives and paints, are reactive mixtures. They contain oligomers, monomers, pigments, initiators and additives. On being irradiated, these substances polymerize to form a three dimensional thermoset polymer film. The film properties are dependent on the paint formulation and the radiation used for curing. The aim of these experiments was to explore the radiation curability of commercially available paints and to apply the results to E-Beam curing of such paints using the 750 keV D.C. accelerator. The energy requirement will be ?0.4 MeV. For our preliminary experiments an oil paint generally used for indoor and outdoor applications and a nitrocellulose based automotive paint were chosen. The E Beam has been substituted by gamma radiation from a 60Co source in these studies. Though the primary interaction with matter is different, the major interaction with matter for both is Compton scattering. Another major distinction to take into account in applying these results to E beam curing is the dose rate. The gamma radiator used delivers dose rates up to a maximum of ?5 kGy/h. The electron accelerator planned to use can deliver doses orders of magnitude higher. This will reduce the irradiation time for a dose of 100 kGy from ?20 hours to ?0.5 seconds for E beam

194

Best lighting for visual appreciation of artistic paintings--experiments with real paintings and real illumination.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a previous study based on monitor simulations of artistic paintings, it was found that the average correlated color temperature (CCT) of daylight preferred by a large set of observers to illuminate paintings was around 5100 K. The goal of the present study was to test if this result holds in real viewing conditions, i.e., with real paintings and real light sources. The same 11 paintings were tested in real conditions illuminated by a spectrally tunable light source and with accurate monitor simulations. To ensure uniform illumination across the paintings, only a central part of the paintings was visible to the observers. It was found that the average CCT preferred for real and monitor viewing conditions were very similar, 5500 and 5700 K, respectively. The somewhat larger CCT obtained with monitor viewing in relation to the former study was only observed in some paintings and was attributed to the smaller viewing area. These results confirm that CCT for best appreciation of paintings is higher than normally used in museums, and the viewing conditions, real or simulated, have only a minor effect. PMID:24695172

Nascimento, Sérgio Miguel Cardoso; Masuda, Osamu

2014-04-01

195

Increased persistence of antifouling paint biocides when associated with paint particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Release of biocides associated with paint particles into marinas may increase their persistence in the environment. - Current regulatory risk assessment procedures only assess the impact of antifouling paint biocides that are released through leaching from a painted surface. Hull cleaning activities can lead to particles of antifouling paint containing biocides to enter the environment. Comparative pseudo-first order anaerobic degradation rate constants and half-lives were determined for a selection of common antifouling paint booster biocides, their degradation products, and associated with paint particles. Anaerobic half-lives of <0.5 days were calculated for chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, and SeaNine 211, between 1 and 3 days for DCPMU and DCPU, between 14 and 35 days for diuron and CPDU, and over 226 days for GS26575 and Irgarol 1051. Increased persistence was observed when the compounds were introduced to sediments associated with antifouling paint particles. When present as antifouling paint particles, an increased half-life of 9.9 days for SeaNine 211 and 1.4 days was calculated for dichlofluanid, no significant degradation was observed for diuron. It is suspected that this is due to much of the biocide being initially bound within the matrix of the paint particle that is slowly released through dissolution processes into the sediment pore water prior to degradation. The release of booster biocides associated with paint particles into marinas has the potential particles into marinas has the potential to lead to their accumulation unless activities such as hull cleaning are strictly regulated

196

Suspension and solution plasma spraying  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Suspension and solution plasma spraying makes it possible to achieve coatings with fine microstructural features and is becoming a common route in laboratories to elaborate coatings a few tenths to a few hundreds of micrometres thick. This paper presents the recent developments in direct current plasma spraying of suspensions or solutions. It begins with a short description of the main plasma torches used for liquid feedstock spraying as well as the techniques used to experimentally observe droplets and particles in the plasma jet and characterize the void network of nanostructured plasma-sprayed coatings. The paper then turns to the momentum and heat transfers between fine particles and the plasma jet and the interactions between the plasma jet and a liquid in the form of a jet or drops. It concludes by linking some characteristic features of coating microstructures with the liquid processing in the plasma jet. (paper)

197

Evaluation of paintings: Effects of lectures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of lectures about the Renaissance and abstract art on ratings of paintings from these two periods in art history. The study included two sessions. In the first, 72 naive participants rated the representational and abstract paintings. In the second session participants were divided into three groups: one received a lecture on Renaissance art, one attended a lecture on abstract art, and one group attended no lecture. Afterwards, the three groups rated a new, parallel set of paintings. Three first-order factors were extracted: Aesthetic experience, Relaxation tone, and Arousal. However, the higher order General Aesthetic Experience factor explained a much higher amount of variance than the first-order factors, indicating its strong and generalized influence on naïve participants’ experience with artworks. After the lecture on abstract art the participants rated paintings, especially abstract, as more aesthetically pleasing than the participants who attended the lecture on Renaissance art or the group without a lecture. Proposed explanation for this is that the naïve observers` ratings of abstract paintings are more susceptible to the influence of style-related information. When rating abstract artwork naïve observers may be significantly influenced by additional information gathered outside of the artwork.

Stojilovi? Ivan Z.

2014-01-01

198

Training Facilitates Object Recognition in Cubist Paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

To the naïve observer, cubist paintings contain geometrical forms in which familiar objects are hardly recognizable, even in the presence of a meaningful title. We used fMRI to test whether a short training session about Cubism would facilitate object recognition in paintings by Picasso, Braque and Gris. Subjects, who had no formal art education, were presented with titled or untitled cubist paintings and scrambled images, and performed object recognition tasks. Relative to the control group, trained subjects recognized more objects in the paintings, their response latencies were significantly shorter, and they showed enhanced activation in the parahippocampal cortex, with a parametric increase in the amplitude of the fMRI signal as a function of the number of recognized objects. Moreover, trained subjects were slower to report not recognizing any familiar objects in the paintings and these longer response latencies were correlated with activation in a fronto-parietal network. These findings suggest that trained subjects adopted a visual search strategy and used contextual associations to perform the tasks. Our study supports the proactive brain framework, according to which the brain uses associations to generate predictions. PMID:20224810

Wiesmann, Martin; Ishai, Alumit

2009-01-01

199

Laser cleaning treatment of burnt paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

Three samples taken from two paintings partly burned by fire are investigated for cleaning with lasers. The paintings belong to the collection of the National Gallery of Athens and were made by the great Greek artist Konstantinos Parthenis. To remove the damaged surface and achieve an acceptable restoration result, the optimum combination of fluence and wavelength are sought. Seven different wavelengths with a set of fluences where used, i.e., the five harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser (1064, 532, 355, 266, and 213 nm), a TEA 10.6 ?m CO2 and a free running laser Er:YAG 2.94 ?m. Characterization was performed prior and after the cleaning process by optical and electron microscopy and analysis (SEM/BSE EDS), as well as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The results of this work indicate that the wavelength in the visible spectrum (532 nm) with fluences between 0.1-0.4J/cm2 show the optimum cleaning. The optical microscopy observation shows that with these laser parameters the burnt layer was preferentially removed, exposing the original colors that Parthenis had used in these paintings. Electron microscopy imaging and chemical analysis revealed that the original texture and materials of these samples are preserved after irradiation. Since the damage varies along the surface of the painting, more experiments should be performed in order to find and optimize the full cleaning and characterization process for the homogeneous cleaning of the whole surface of the painting.

Antonopoulou-Athera, N.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Doulgerides, M.; Evangelatos, Ch.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Terlixi, A.

2015-01-01

200

Painting with polygons: a procedural watercolor engine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Existing natural media painting simulations have produced high-quality results, but have required powerful compute hardware and have been limited to screen resolutions. Digital artists would like to be able to use watercolor-like painting tools, but at print resolutions and on lower end hardware such as laptops or even slates. We present a procedural algorithm for generating watercolor-like dynamic paint behaviors in a lightweight manner. Our goal is not to exactly duplicate watercolor painting, but to create a range of dynamic behaviors that allow users to achieve a similar style of process and result, while at the same time having a unique character of its own. Our stroke representation is vector based, allowing for rendering at arbitrary resolutions, and our procedural pigment advection algorithm is fast enough to support painting on slate devices. We demonstrate our technique in a commercially available slate application used by professional artists. Finally, we present a detailed analysis of the different vector-rendering technologies available. PMID:23492376

DiVerdi, Stephen; Krishnaswamy, Aravind; M?ch, Radomír; Ito, Daichi

2013-05-01

201

Metallic paint appearance measurement and rendering  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Humans recognize objects visually on the basis of material composition as well as shape. To acquire a certain level of photorealism, it is necessary to analyze, how the materials scatter the incident light. The key quantity for expressing the directional optical effect of materials on the incident radiance is the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF. Our work is devoted to the BRDF measurements, in order to render the synthetic images, mostly of the metallic paints. We measured the spectral reflectance off multiple paint samples then used the measured data to fit the analytical BRDF model, in order to acquire its parameters. In this paper we describe the methodology of the image synthesis from measured data. Materials such as the metallic paints exhibit a sparkling effect caused by the metallic particles scattered within the paint volume. Our analysis of sparkling effect is based on the processing of the multiple photographs. Results of analysis and the measurements were incorporated into the rendering process of car paint

Mih´alik Andrej

2013-12-01

202

Training facilitates object recognition in cubist paintings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To the naïve observer, cubist paintings contain geometrical forms in which familiar objects are hardly recognizable, even in the presence of a meaningful title. We used fMRI to test whether a short training session about Cubism would facilitate object recognition in paintings by Picasso, Braque and Gris. Subjects, who had no formal art education, were presented with titled or untitled cubist paintings and scrambled images, and performed object recognition tasks. Relative to the control group, trained subjects recognized more objects in the paintings, their response latencies were significantly shorter, and they showed enhanced activation in the parahippocampal cortex, with a parametric increase in the amplitude of the fMRI signal as a function of the number of recognized objects. Moreover, trained subjects were slower to report not recognizing any familiar objects in the paintings and these longer response latencies were correlated with activation in a fronto-parietal network. These findings suggest that trained subjects adopted a visual search strategy and used contextual associations to perform the tasks. Our study supports the proactive brain framework, according to which the brain uses associations to generate predictions.

2010-03-01

203

Plasma spraying theory and applications  

CERN Document Server

The recent advances in plasma spraying are discussed in this book which divides into two sections - theory and application. The book presents sophisticated experimental techniques, diagnostics, theoretical models and computer simulations which not only improve the understanding and uses of the spraying process but also help to increase the reliability factor of the manufacturing components. Applications that are metallurgical, aeronautical, automobile, chemical, etc. are also shown. More importantly, applications that include silicon for solar cells, magnets and superconductors are also discus

Suryanarayanan, R

1993-01-01

204

Environmentally friendly, customised sprayed concrete  

OpenAIRE

The quality of structural shotcrete or sprayed concrete depends not only on the Same factors as conventional structural concrete, but also on other placement-related issues such as pumping or spraying. Although today's primarily prescriptive design and control tools guarantee quality to some extent, the results are uncertain and mix design procedures do not provide sound information, a priori", on mechanical properties or durabllity. Nor does this approach contribute to design or produce spra...

Ri?o, Olga

2010-01-01

205

Plasma sprayed Ce:YAG.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Düsseldorf : DVS Media GmbH, 2014, s. 593-598. ISBN 978-3-87155-574-9. - (DVS-Berichte. 302). [ITSC 2014 :Interational Thermal Spray Conference and Exposition. Barcelona (ES), 21.05.2014-23.05.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Plasma spraying * YAG * scintallator * thermal post-treatment Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass http://www.dvs-media.eu/media/pdf/inhalt_300302.pdf

Ctibor, Pavel; Pala, Zden?k; Nevrlá, Barbara; Kubát, J.

206

Plasma-sprayed zirconia coatings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Particle trajectories in the plasma jet and gas-particle heat transfer were studied. Correlation between spraying parameters and crystallographic, microstructural, and mechanical properties of zirconia-sprayed coatings were carried out on zirconia-calcia and zirconia-ytrria materials. The annealed states were studied, chiefly for zirconia-yttria. The annealing temperatures were 5500, 9000, and 14000C. The crystallographic phases were determined. The mechanical properties of the coatings (hardness, thermal expansion, Young's modulus, strength, and thermal shock resistance) were evaluated

207

Preference for and discrimination of paintings by mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

I measured preference for paintings (Renoir vs. Picasso or Kandinsky vs. Mondrian) in mice. In general mice did not display a painting preference except for two mice: one preferred Renoir to Picasso, and the other preferred Kandinsky to Mondrian. Thereafter, I examined discrimination of paintings with new mice. When exposure to paintings of one artist was associated with an injection of morphine (3.0 mg/kg), mice displayed conditioned preference for those paintings, showing discrimination of paintings by Renoir from those by Picasso, and paintings by Kandinsky from those by Mondrian after the conditioning. They also exhibited generalization of the preference to novel paintings of the artists. After conditioning with morphine for a set of paintings consisting of two artists, mice showed discrimination between two sets of paintings also from the two artists but not in association with morphine. These results suggest that mice can discriminate not only between an artist's style but also among paintings of the same artist. When mice were trained to discriminate a pair of paintings by Kandinsky and Renoir in an operant chamber equipped with a touch screen, they showed transfer of the discrimination to new pairs of the artists, but did not show transfer of discrimination of paintings by other artists, suggesting generalization. PMID:23762346

Watanabe, Shigeru

2013-01-01

208

7 CFR Exhibit H to Subpart A of... - Prohibition of Lead-Based Paints  

Science.gov (United States)

...Prohibition of Lead-Based Paints H Exhibit H to Subpart...Prohibition of Lead-Based Paints I. Purpose This...requirements of the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention...provided by this agency. Paints used on applicable...

2010-01-01

209

Establishment of Meaning of Ink Wash Painting in Modern Times: Evolution of Chinese Ink Wash Painting as a Formal Language of Oriental Figure Painting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As an ancient oriental type of figure painting, Chinese ink wash painting’s development and evolution is the most prominent part that most reflects the characteristics of contemporary era in Chinese artistic exploration in the 20th century. Present Chinese ink wash figure painting has already become one of the forms of creation among Chinese painting mainstream and the reform spirit it reflects has special aesthetic meaning to Chinese contemporary art in the multicultural background. This paper analyzes the language form transformation that Chinese ink wash figure painting has achieved by drawing on western modern artistic concepts for reference and other issues including artists’ individual and personalized representation styles; it also discusses the artistic spirit and contemporary cultural significance reflected by deconstruction of classical ink wash painting language and integration of modern works under the background of globalization.

Xiaoguang LI

2014-06-01

210

Non-destructive XRF analysis of paintings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The preservation and conservation of our cultural heritage has become one of the main concerns today all over the world. In particular there is an increasing need for non-destructive investigations, as sampling from the unique and precious objects of art and archaeology. In addition to the conventional analytical procedures, techniques utilising nuclear instruments and methods play increasing role in this field. The small, portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometers using radioisotope excitation allow in situ analysis in museums, galleries, or even on field. This paper presents illustrative applications of our XRF devices with radioisotope excitation. The detection of the presence of titanium in white spots of a painting provided scientific basis to decide that the painting in question was a fake. The difficulties caused by the simultaneous presence of Ti and Ba (a very frequent component white paints) are also discussed.

Szoekefalvi-Nagy, Z. E-mail: sznagy@rmki.kfki.hu; Demeter, I.; Kocsonya, A.; Kovacs, I

2004-11-01

211

The Actinobacterial Colonization of Etruscan Paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

The paintings from Tomba della Scimmia, in Tuscany, are representative of the heavy bacterial colonization experienced in most Etruscan necropolises. The tomb remained open until the late 70?s when it was closed because of severe deterioration of the walls, ceiling and paintings after decades of visits. The deterioration is the result of environmental changes and impacts suffered since its discovery in 1846. We show scanning electron microscopy and molecular studies that reveal the extent and nature of the biodeterioration. Actinobacteria, mainly Nocardia and Pseudonocardia colonize and grow on the tomb walls and this process is linked to the availability of organic matter, phyllosilicates (e.g. clay minerals) and iron oxides. Nocardia is found metabolically active in the paintings. The data confirm the specialization of the genera Nocardia and Pseudonocardia in the colonization of subterranean niches. PMID:23486535

Diaz-Herraiz, Marta; Jurado, Valme; Cuezva, Soledad; Laiz, Leonila; Pallecchi, Pasquino; Tiano, Piero; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

2013-01-01

212

‘Afro-Ghanaian influences in Ghanaian paintings’  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Easel painting is a foreign art form whose materials and techniques were introduced by the Europeans into the Gold Coast, now Ghana, in the first decades of the twentieth century during the period of European modern art. Since its introduction as an academic discipline, concepts identified as Ghanaian have been incorporated into it. Hence there is the need for scholarly debate on this subject to define a framework for a discourse on the histories and receptions of Ghanaian painting. This article discusses Ghanaian easel painting by examining some African and non-African voices in the discourse on modern and contemporary African art, its early teaching methods and philosophy, and their impact on modern and post-colonial painters. To what degree did early instructors succeed in their insistence on students incorporating Ghanaian aesthetics and principles in their studies, and what impact has this had on subsequent painters?

Kwame Amoah Labi

2013-12-01

213

One year of Puma Painting: site experiences  

Science.gov (United States)

The PumaPaint project is a web robot that allows users to create original artwork on the World Wide Web. The site allows control of a PUMA 760 robot equipped with four paintbrushes; jars of red, green, blue and yellow paint and white paper attached to an easel. Users must download a JavaTM interface allowing interactive control of the robot. This interface contains two windows showing live camera views of the work site and various controls for connecting and disconnecting to the robot, viewing the task status and controlling the painting task. During the first year of operation of the site, June 3rd, 1998 to June 2nd 1999, approximately 5,000 users produced 390 canvases. This paper presents summary data from one year of operation, discusses the author's experiences in operating the site and examines some of the artwork produced.

Stein, Matthew R.

1999-11-01

214

The sorption of iodine onto containment paints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Containment structures of nuclear power plants have many inner surfaces coated with nuclear grade paints. These may provide a valuable sink for radioiodine and hence may aid to minimize its release to the environment following a possible accident. The objective of this on-going work is to identify and evaluate significant parameters involved in the sorption of iodine on painted surfaces and thereby develop a kinetic model. To date two paints have been studied, an inorganic zinc primer and a vinyl paint. Experiments were performed by passing 131I2 gas in air through 0.25 inch glass tubing coated on the inner surfaces with paint. Tubing was used to produce well characterized and rapid gas phase mass transfer. The accumulation of iodine on the surface was monitored continuously using two parallel scintillation detectors coupled to a PC based multi-channel analyzer. Test parameters such as temperature, humidity, flow-rate, and iodine concentration could be adjusted independently. The zinc primer demonstrated a high affinity for iodine. The rate of adsorption was found to increase at lower temperatures and higher humidifies. The adsorption rate was directly proportional to the gas phase iodine concentration indicating a first order process. Desorption occurred at a relatively constant rate at surface coverages below 10-6 mol I2/cm2. Iodine that desorbed from these surfaces was mostly in the chemical form of elemental iodine (I2). The vinyl paint showed a much lower affinity for iodine. Steady state adsorption was found to increase with increased gas phase iodine concentrations. Humidity had no observable effect on the rate of adsorption. Desorption rates were found to increase with increased temperature and it is suggested that the desorption process is first order with respect to surface iodine loading. (author). 7 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

215

Perceptual dimensions of style in paintings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to specify the basic perceptual dimensions underlying the judgments of the physical features which define the style in paintings (e.g. salient form, colorful surface, oval contours etc.. The other aim of the study is to correlate these dimensions with the subjective (affective dimensions of the experience of paintings. In the preliminary study a set of 25 pairs of elementary perceptual descriptors were empirically specified, and a set of 25 bipolar scales were made (e.g. uncolored-multicolored. In the experiment 30 subjects judged 24 paintings (paintings were taken from the study of Radonji? and Markovi?, 2004 on 25 scales. Factor analysis revealed the four factors: form (scales: precise, neat, salient form etc., color (color contrast, lightness contrast, vivid colors, space (voluminosity, depth and oval contours and complexity (multicolored, ornate, detailed. Obtained factors reflected the nature of the phenomenological and neural segregation of form, color, depth processing, and partially of complexity processing (e.g. spatial frequency processing within both the form and color subsystem. The aim of the next step of analysis was to specify the correlations between two groups of judgments: (a mean judgments of 24 paintings on perceptual factors and (b mean judgments of the same set of 24 paintings on subjective (affective experience factors, i.e. regularity, attraction, arousal and relaxation (judgments taken from Radonji? and Markovi?, 2005. The following significant correlations were obtained: regularity-form, regularity-space, attraction-form and arousal-complexity (negative correlation. The reasons for the unexpected negative correlation between arousal and complexity should be specified in further studies.

Markovi? Slobodan

2007-01-01

216

Analysis of fresco paintings by X-ray fluorescence method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An XRF technique was used for the analysis of fresco paintings. The analysis of paintings makes it possible to examine pigmented materials. An application of the method is used to illustrate the technique.

Cechak, T. E-mail: cechak@br.fjfi.cvut.cz; Gerndt, J.; Musilek, L.; Kopecka, I

2001-06-01

217

BICARBONATE OF SODA BLASTING TECHNOLOGY FOR AIRCRAFT WHEEL PAINTING  

Science.gov (United States)

This evaluation addressed product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention and economics in replacing chemical solvent strippers with a bicarbonate of soda blasting technology for removal of paint from aircraft wheels. The evaluation was conducted in the Paint Stripping Sho...

218

75 FR 39706 - Natural Bristle Paint Brushes From China  

Science.gov (United States)

...Investigation No. 731-TA-244 (Third Review)] Natural Bristle Paint Brushes From China AGENCY: United States International...concerning the antidumping duty order on natural bristle paint brushes from China (75 FR 21347, April 23, 2010)....

2010-07-12

219

CHITOSAN-COPPER PAINT TYPES AS ANTIFOULING  

OpenAIRE

A prototype of antifouling paints was prepared with a QS-Cu (I)-Fe (II) complex as a possible replacement for traditional antifouling paints, which contain a large concentration of copper, fnding them in an order of 10 - 30 % depending on the brand, and if it is water or solvent based. A Qs-Cu complex was prepared, with a solution at 3% with acetic acid, and then Fe2O3 was added to the solution. FT IR analysis was carried out, as well as analysis of the TGA at the Qs and the complex with Qs-C...

MARCIA HEUSER; CLAUDIA RIVERA; CHRISTIAN NUÑEZ; GALO CÁRDENAS

2009-01-01

220

Health Hazards of Solvents Exposure among Workers in Paint Industry  

OpenAIRE

Background: Paints and coatings include paints, varnishes, lacquers, stains, printing inks and more. A wide variety of volatile solvents are used in paint and coating manufacturing including aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones and consist of more than 30% of most of paints. At low or moderate concentrations, the organic solvents may cause transient symptoms such as euphoria, headache and dizziness. At high concentrations, anaesthesia and disturbances ...

Aida Abd El Hamid Hassan; Safaa Abd El Moez Elnagar; Ihab Mohammadi El Tayeb; Sara Abd El Halim Bolbol

2013-01-01

221

Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings: Influence of Spraying Power on Microstructure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings are used on metallic implants to enhance the bonding between the implant and bone in human body. The coating process was implemented at different spraying power for each spraying condition. The coatings formed from a rapid solidification of molten and partly molten particles that impact on the surface of substrate at high velocity and high temperature. The study was concentrated on different spraying power that is between 23 to 31 kW. The effect of different power on the coatings microstructure was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and phase composition was evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The coatings surface morphology showed distribution of molten, partially melted particles and some micro-cracks. The produced coatings were found to be porous as observed from the cross-sectional morphology. The coatings XRD results indicated the presence of crystalline phase of HA and each of the patterns was similar to the initial powder. Regardless of different spraying power, all the coatings were having similar XRD patterns.

222

Application of OCT to examination of easel paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

We present results of applying low coherence interferometry to gallery paintings. Infrared low coherence interferometry is capable of non-destructive examination of paintings in 3D, which shows not only the structure of the varnish layer but also the paint layers.

Liang, Haida; Cucu, Rada; Dobre, George M.; Jackson, David A.; Pedro, Justin; Pannell, Christopher; Saunders, David; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

2004-06-01

223

The Generalization of Creativity "Training" in Easel Painting to Blockbuilding.  

Science.gov (United States)

The generalization of "trained" creativity in easel painting to untrained creativity in blockbuilding was examined in two preschool boys. Verbal reinforcement of every different form painted in a picture increased both the number of different forms per picture and new forms (those appearing for the first time in the total output of paintings). The…

Goetz, Elizabeth M.; And Others

224

24 CFR 35.135 - Use of paint containing lead.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Use of paint containing lead. 35.135 Section 35.135 Housing...Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and...

2010-04-01

225

Painting on the World Wide Web: the PumaPaint project  

Science.gov (United States)

The PumaPaint project is a web robot that allows users to create original artwork on the WWW. The site allows control of a PUMA 760 robot equipped with four paintbrushes, jars of red, green, blue and yellow paint and white paper attached to a vertical easel. Users must download a Java interface allowing interactive control of the robot. This interface contains two windows showing live camera views of the work site and various controls for connecting and disconnecting to the robot, viewing the task status and controlling the painting task. Approximately fifteen hundred unique hosts have downloaded the interface in the first four months of twenty-four hour a day operation beginning June 3, 1998. This paper describes the background of the PumaPaint project, a presentation of hardware and software detail and a discussion of the author's experiences in managing the site over the first four months of operation.

Stein, Matthew R.

1998-12-01

226

THERMAL SPRAY REMOVAL OF LEAD-CONTAINING PAINT ON STEEL STRUCTURES  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past, red lead primer has been used on many steel structures to control corrosion. Commonly used structures in the Department of Defense (DoD) include bridges, aircraft hangars, water storage tanks, metal buildings, fire hydrants, and structural steel. When the lead-based ...

227

Influence of Nozzle geometry on spray shape, particle size, spray velocity and Air entrainment of high pressure Diesel spray  

OpenAIRE

Air/fuel mixing process in the combustion chamber of Diesel engines plays an important role on the combustion efficiency. This mixing depends on the particle size distribution in the spray, on the local velocity of fuel droplets in the spray and on the air entrainment. Nozzle geometry as well as nozzle internal flow conditions influence many of these spray properties. An experimental study of the influence of the nozzle geometry on these properties has been conducted. The spray structure and ...

Hespel, Camille; Blaisot, Jean-bernard; Margot, Xandra; Patouna, S.; Cessou, Armelle; Lecordier, Bertrand

2010-01-01

228

Combe d'Arc Cave Paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

France's Ministry of Culture has placed four high-resolution pictures of last month's newly-discovered Combe d'Arc cave paintings on-line. They are truly exquisite and this may be the only place where you can catch a peek at them.

229

Lead Paint Test Kits Workshop: Summary Report  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) designed and conducted the Lead Paint Test Kits Workshop on October 19 and 20, 2006, at the Environmental Protection Agency's Research Triangle Park, NC campus. The workshop was conducted as...

230

Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents progress made on a technique for {sup 14}C dating pictographs. A low-temperature oxygen plasma is used coupled with high-vacuum technologies to selectively remove C-containing material in the paints without contamination from inorganic carbon from rock substrates or accretions.

Ilger, W.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M.W. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Southon, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1995-06-20

231

"The Ancient Master Painted like Me"  

Science.gov (United States)

By following their wonderful ideas or critical exploration, three eighth graders learned how to do traditional Chinese painting, which is taught by copying old masters' work from the Ming Dynasty in the 17th century. The standard manual, which most learners have been using for these three hundred years, is the "Mustard Seed Garden Manual of…

Chiu, Son-Mey

2009-01-01

232

Piezoelectric paint: characterization for further applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Piezoelectric paint is a very attractive piezoelectric composite in many fields, such as non-destructive testing, or structural health monitoring. However, there are still many obstacles which restrict the real application of it. One of the main problems is that piezoelectric paint lacks a standard fabrication procedure, thus characterization is needed before use. The work presented here explores the characterization of piezoelectric paint. It starts with fabrication of samples with certain piezoelectric powder weight percentages. The microstructures of the samples are investigated by a scanning electron microscope; the results indicate that the fabrication method can produce high quality samples. This is followed by measurements of Young’s modulus and sensitivity. The piezoelectric charge constant d31 is then deduced from the experimental data; the results agree well with a published result, which validates the effectiveness of the fabrication and characterization method. The characterized piezoelectric paint can expand its applications into different fields and therefore becomes a more promising and competitive smart material.

Yang, C.; Fritzen, C.-P.

2012-04-01

233

Painting, Poetry and Pots of Basil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Argues that how and why a particular range of texts are selected, read, and taught determines the extent to which they contribute to a pupil's development. Shows how the teaching of John Keats's "Isabella or the Pot of Basil" and paintings by William Holman Hunt and John Everett Millais meet the challenges of the new Order for English. (TB)

Hodges, Gabrielle Cliff

1995-01-01

234

Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents progress made on a technique for 14C dating pictographs. A low-temperature oxygen plasma is used coupled with high-vacuum technologies to selectively remove C-containing material in the paints without contamination from inorganic carbon from rock substrates or accretions

235

The Ancient Art of Silk Painting  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author describes a silk-painting project with a sea-creature theme for eighth-grade students. Other themes can be used such as geometric quilt designs, tropical rain forest, large flowers, Art Nouveau motifs, portraits and more. (Contains 2 resources.)

Yonker, Kim

2010-01-01

236

Soap bubbles in paintings: Art and science  

Science.gov (United States)

Soap bubbles became popular in 17th century paintings and prints primarily as a metaphor for the impermanence and fragility of life. The Dancing Couple (1663) by the Dutch painter Jan Steen is a good example which, among many other symbols, shows a young boy blowing soap bubbles. In the 18th century the French painter Jean-Simeon Chardin used soap bubbles not only as metaphor but also to express a sense of play and wonder. In his most famous painting, Soap Bubbles (1733/1734) a translucent and quavering soap bubble takes center stage. Chardin's contemporary Charles Van Loo painted his Soap Bubbles (1764) after seeing Chardin's work. In both paintings the soap bubbles have a hint of color and show two bright reflection spots. We discuss the physics involved and explain how keenly the painters have observed the interaction of light and soap bubbles. We show that the two reflection spots on the soap bubbles are images of the light source, one real and one virtual, formed by the curved surface of the bubble. The faint colors are due to thin film interference effects.

Behroozi, F.

2008-12-01

237

Peer Influences in Early Childhood Painting.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an effort to clarify some of the problems educators have in understanding children's play behavior, a half-hour-long episode of two 4-year-old girls playing with newsprint, paints, and brushes at an easel is described. The episode showed how ephemeral yet recognizable play can be. The idea of countours is used to describe play behavior in its…

Yeatman, June; Reifel, Stuart

238

Piezoelectric paint sensor for ultrasonic NDE  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper deals with a distributed acoustic emission sensing method, which is especially suitable for piezoelectric paint. Piezoelectric paint is a composite piezoelectric material that is comprised of tiny piezoelectric particles randomly dispersed within a polymer matrix phase. An overview of the distributed acoustic emission sensing method for defect monitoring is given in this paper. The use of piezoelectric materials for ultrasonic signal measurements is next discussed along with a series of ultrasonic tests performed to verify the ultrasonic sensing capability of piezoelectric paint. To examine the mechanism of the distributed acoustic emission sensing method for crack initiation detection, the results of a finite element simulation based study is presented in this paper. The finite element model used in the parametric study is calibrated with experimental data. The effect of sensor numbers included in the array has been studied using both simulation and experimental data. Based on the preliminary results of this study, piezoelectric paint sensor appears to hold a potential for use in on-line monitoring of cracks such as those caused by fatigue in metal structures although more work is still needed before successful practical application can be made.

Li, X.; Zhang, Y.

2007-04-01

239

Preparation of accelerator targets by painting  

Science.gov (United States)

From 1969 to 1978 approximately 400 fission foils, for use in fission ionization chambers, were produced at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) by painting metal substrates with multiple coats of fissionable isotopes. Areal densities as great as 2.0 mg/cm 2 were obtained with excellent adhesion. With care, the variation in uniformity of the coating can be kept to less than ± 10%. This painting technique has been successful in depositing high-purity isotopes of thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium on metal substrates made of beryllium, aluminum, copper, and nickel. Most of the foils were produced for use in high-accuracy fission cross-section measurements conducted at the LLNL 100 MeV electron linear accelerator from 1973 to 1978. The cost of this painting technique is estimated to be approximately one tenth the cost of producing foils by evaporation, electrodeposition, or sputtering techniques. In addition, the painting technique is highly efficient (>90%), thereby minimizing waste of the available fissionable material. This fact is of great importance where only small amounts of high-purity isotopes are available.

Behrens, J. W.

1982-09-01

240

G.F. Watts Parables in Paint  

OpenAIRE

The booklet explores how Watts's upbringing shaped his outlook and influenced the subjects of his religious art. It shows how his chosen style of painting gave him an expressive language for conveying his religious and spiritual ideas. The essay also includes an outline of Watts's forty-year involvement with St Paul's Cathedral.

Underwood, Hilary

2008-01-01

241

Paintings - high-energy protons detect pigments and paint-layers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High-energy PIXE was used to identify pigment composition, sequencing and the thickness of paint-layers. Before applying the technique to valuable masterpieces, mock-ups were examined in a collaboration with the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. The results of high-energy PIXE were compared to conventional cross-section analysis. In addition, the non-destructiveness of the technique was investigated thoroughly. After this preparative work, two ancient paintings have been examined and the results are presented in this paper.

Denker, A. E-mail: denker@hmi.de; Opitz-Coutureau, J

2004-01-01

242

Paintings - high-energy protons detect pigments and paint-layers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High-energy PIXE was used to identify pigment composition, sequencing and the thickness of paint-layers. Before applying the technique to valuable masterpieces, mock-ups were examined in a collaboration with the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. The results of high-energy PIXE were compared to conventional cross-section analysis. In addition, the non-destructiveness of the technique was investigated thoroughly. After this preparative work, two ancient paintings have been examined and the results are presented in this paper

243

Wood and paint layers aging and risk analysis of ancient panel painting  

OpenAIRE

Ancient wood panel paintings represent an important part of the European cultural heritage. Since long time it is known that the storing condition can degrade and damage them. Understanding of the actual state of old panel paintings and the prediction of their behaviour under various climatic conditions is essential to better conserve and restore them. Such analysis could be done by numerical modelling. However, numerical modelling can achieved good predictions only if the materials parameter...

Froidevaux, Julien

2012-01-01

244

Plasma spraying process of disperse carbides for spraying and facing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A possibility to metallize carbides in plasma of impulsing capacitor discharge is considered. Powders granulation occurs during plasma spraying process, ceramic core being completely capped. X-ray phase and chemical analyses of coatings did not show considerable changes of carbon content in carbides before and after plasma processing. This distinguishes the process of carbides metallization in impulsing plasma from the similar processing in arc and high-frequency plasma generator. Use of powder composites produced in the impulsing capacitor discharge, for plasma spraying and laser facing permits 2-3 times increasing wear resistance of the surface layer as against the coatings produced from mechanical powders mixtures

245

Direct identification of various copper phthalocyanine pigments in automotive paints and paint smears by laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Direct identification of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and chlorinated CuPcs in paints for discrimination between blue automobile paints by means of laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) in the absence of a matrix is reported. The models consisted of eight commercially available CuPc pigments applied to a piece of plain white coating paper. The relationship between the peak intensity at m/z 575 of the CuPc, the number of pulsed laser shots, and laser power was compared to optimize laser abrasion. LDMS analysis of the model paints demonstrated that all characteristic components of the CuPc pigments in the paint films were in good agreement with those in the powder pigments. Further, the chlorinated CuPcs in the paint films could be distinguished. A quantity of 42 blue paint films, representing the paints used for painting Japanese domestic trucks, was examined by LDMS analysis. Results indicate that the paints can be classified into four categories based on the chlorinated CuPc components of the paints. Therefore, LDMS spectra of CuPc pigments would be useful for the identification of paints in forensic investigations. Herein, we report the successful identification of the CuPcs in a paint smear on the frame of a bicycle damaged in a hit-and-run accident, using the LDMS spectra. PMID:18279247

Mukai, Tadashi; Nakazumi, Hiroyuki; Kawabata, Shin-ichirou; Kusatani, Masaru; Nakai, Seita; Honda, Sadao

2008-01-01

246

21 CFR 524.2482 - Triamcinolone spray.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Triamcinolone spray. 524.2482 Section 524...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.2482 Triamcinolone spray. (a) Specifications ...solution contains 0.15 milligrams triamcinolone acetonide. (b) Sponsor ....

2010-04-01

247

Evaluation of Water Resistance and Diffusion Properties of Paint Materials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A simple method is presented for evaluating the water-proofness quality of paints on lining materials. The method is based on measuring the integral capillarity in dependence on time, and then comparing this value to the value determined for the basic lining material. Measurements of the effective water vapor permeability then provide information on the risk of condensation which may increase after applying the paint. A practical application of the method is performed with four Karlocolor paints on glass concrete substrates. All the Karlocolor paints are found to be very effective materials for driven rain protection. The diffusion properties of all the paints are found to be excellent.

J. Drchalová

2001-01-01

248

Cold gas dynamic spraying of titanium coatings  

OpenAIRE

Cold gas dynamic spraying, CGDS, is a relatively new technique used to deposit materials onto the surface of a substrate. It differs to the majority of other thermal spray techniques as the substrate and particles are not exposed to high temperatures during the spraying process. This makes CGDS particularly advantageous for spraying materials such as titanium which react at high temperature. The aim of this project was to investigate the potential use of titanium coatings by CGDS as a surface...

Price, Timothy Simon

2008-01-01

249

Diesel spray characterization; Dieselmoottorin polttoainesuihkujen ominaisuudet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fuel injection of diesel engines will be studied using large-scale models of fuel injectors. The advantage of large-scale models is that the measurement of large-scale diesel sprays will be easier than the measurement of actual sprays. The objective is to study the break-up mechanism of diesel sprays and to measure drop size distributions in the inner part of the spray. The results will be used in the development of diesel engines and diesel fuels. (orig.)

Pitkaenen, J.; Turunen, R.; Paloposki, T.; Rantanen, P.; Virolainen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Internal Combustion Engine Lab.

1997-10-01

250

Spray casting project final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step

251

Spray casting project final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step.

Churnetski, S.R.; Thompson, J.E.

1996-08-01

252

On the Dependence of Spray Momentum Flux in Spray Penetration: Momentum Flux Packets Penetration Model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Momentum flux is a very important parameter for predicting the mixing potential of injection processes. Important factors such as spray penetration, spray cone angle, and air entrainment depend largely on spray momentum. In this article, a model is obtained which is able to predict the spray tip penetration using as an input the spray momentum flux signal. The model is based on the division of the momentum flux signal into momentum packets (fuel parcels) sequentially injected, and the tracking of them along the spray. These packets follow a theoretical equation which relates the penetration with the ambient density, momentum, spray cone angle and time. In order to validate the method, measures of momentum flux (impingement force) and macroscopic spray visualization in high density conditions have been performed on several mono-orifice nozzles. High agreement has been obtained between spray penetration prediction from momentum flux measurements and real spray penetration from macroscopic visualization

253

Feedback enhanced plasma spray tool  

Science.gov (United States)

An improved automatic feedback control scheme enhances plasma spraying of powdered material through reduction of process variability and providing better ability to engineer coating structure. The present inventors discovered that controlling centroid position of the spatial distribution along with other output parameters, such as particle temperature, particle velocity, and molten mass flux rate, vastly increases control over the sprayed coating structure, including vertical and horizontal cracks, voids, and porosity. It also allows improved control over graded layers or compositionally varying layers of material, reduces variations, including variation in coating thickness, and allows increasing deposition rate. Various measurement and system control schemes are provided.

Gevelber, Michael Alan; Wroblewski, Donald Edward; Fincke, James Russell; Swank, William David; Haggard, Delon C.; Bewley, Randy Lee

2005-11-22

254

Research on Development of the Song Genre Paintings & Artists  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to that many historical documents of China recording the life of emperors and people from upper class in ancient times with limited ones recording that of people from middle and lower classes, genre paintings have played as the important materials for the research on the ancient societies. This paper begins with the analysis on the concept and development progress of the genre paintings; and analyzes on the three types of painting producers by the combination of the surviving genre paintings and relative documents. The analysis on those painting producers will be helpful for the understanding of paintings’ contents and implied meanings, acting as one of the indispensable steps for the study of the Song genre paintings

Rong Tan

2014-06-01

255

Tailoring the Spray Conditions for Suspension Plasma Spraying  

Science.gov (United States)

The plasma spray process using suspensions as liquid feedstock allows the deposition of finely structured coatings with improved properties compared to that of coatings deposited by the conventional plasma spray techniques. The evaporation of the solvent, acceleration, heating, and melting of the fine solid particles within the plasma jet take place in a shorter time, as the substrate is located closer to the plasma torch when a mono-cathode mono-anode plasma torch is used, while the liquid material processing globally consumes more energy than a powder material. Therefore, achieving a coating with the expected properties requires a broad understanding of the process. In this study, a large range of plasma spray conditions have been used to achieve yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings by suspension plasma spraying. The properties of the plasma jet (velocity, enthalpy, and stability) as well as those of droplets (trajectories, number, and size) and particles (velocity) were measured and correlated to the coating microstructure. The operating conditions necessary for obtaining disk-shape splats and achieving homogeneous coatings are described including the plasma jet properties and substrate parameters.

Joulia, A.; Duarte, W.; Goutier, S.; Vardelle, M.; Vardelle, A.; Rossignol, S.

2015-01-01

256

Determining Effective Spraying Periods to Control Malaria via Indoor Residual Spraying in Sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

Indoor residual spraying—spraying insecticide inside houses to kill mosquitoes—is an important method for controlling malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa. We propose a mathematical model for both regular and non-fixed spraying, using impulsive differential equations. First, we determine the stability properties of the nonimpulsive system. Next, we derive minimal effective spraying intervals and the degree of spraying effectiveness required to control mosquitoes wh...

Smith, Robert J.; Hove-musekwa, Senelani D.

2008-01-01

257

Silicone-based thickness insensitive spectrally selective (TISS) paints as selective paint coatings for coloured solar absorbers (Part I)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study was to make paints having a variety of colours and whose spectral selectivity would be independent of the thickness of the deposited layer of paint (thickness insensitive spectrally selective (TISS) paint coatings). TISS paint coatings combine the advantages of paints (longevity and chemical resistance achieved by a high thickness of the applied layer, variety of colours and simple application) with spectral selectivity. Low emittance is attained by the addition of bare aluminium, coloured aluminium flake pigments or copper flake pigments, while other inorganic pigments impart various colours to the paints. Pigments were dispersed in silicone resin binder imparting the TISS paint coatings high-temperature tolerance, excellent adhesion, uv resistance, flexibility and weather-durability, which make them suitable coatings for coloured glazed or unglazed solar absorbers. (author)

Orel, B.; Spreizer, H.; Slemenik Perse, L.; Fir, M.; Surca Vuk, A. [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Merlini, D.; Vodlan, M. [Color d.d., Cesta komandanta Staneta 4, SI-1230 Medvode (Slovenia); Koehl, M. [Fraunhofer-Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany)

2007-01-23

258

Spray pyrolysis of CZTS nanoplatelets.  

Science.gov (United States)

We demonstrate that copper-zinc-tin-sulphide nanoplatelets can be directly grown onto a molybdenum-coated substrate using spray pyrolysis starting from a mixture of metal thiocarbamates precursors. The structure and phase purity of the nanoplatelets is discussed in detail. PMID:25119262

Exarhos, S; Bozhilov, K N; Mangolini, L

2014-10-01

259

Spray solidification of nuclear waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spray calciner is a relatively simple machine. Operation is simple and is easily automated. Startup and shutdown can be performed in less than an hour. A wide variety of waste compositions and concentrations can be calcined under easily maintainable conditions. Spray calcination of high-level and mixed high- and intermediate-level liquid wastes has been demonstrated. Waste concentrations of from near infinite dilution to less than 225 liters per tonne of fuel are calcinable. Wastes have been calcined containing over 2M sodium. Feed concentration, composition, and flowrate can vary rapidly by over a factor of two without requiring operator action. Wastes containing mainly sodium cations can be spray calcined by addition of finely divided silica to the feedstock. A remotely replaceable atomizing nozzle has been developed for use in plant-scale equipment. Calciner capacity of over 75 l/h has been demonstrated in pilot-scale equipment. Sintered stainless steel filters are effective in deentraining over 99.9 percent of the solids that result from calcining the feedstock. The volume of recycle required from the effluent treatment system is very small. Vibrator action maintains the calcine holdup in the calciner at less than 1 kg. Successful remote operation and maintenance of a heated-wall spray calciner have been demonstrated while processing high-level waste. Radionuclide volatilization was acceptably low

260

Water-Based Pressure Sensitive Paint  

Science.gov (United States)

Preparation and performance of a water-based pressure sensitive paint (PSP) is described. A water emulsion of an oxygen permeable polymer and a platinum porphyrin type luminescent compound were dispersed in a water matrix to produce a PSP that performs well without the use of volatile, toxic solvents. The primary advantages of this PSP are reduced contamination of wind tunnels in which it is used, lower health risk to its users, and easier cleanup and disposal. This also represents a cost reduction by eliminating the need for elaborate ventilation and user protection during application. The water-based PSP described has all the characteristics associated with water-based paints (low toxicity, very low volatile organic chemicals, and easy water cleanup) but also has high performance as a global pressure sensor for PSP measurements in wind tunnels. The use of a water-based PSP virtually eliminates the toxic fumes associated with the application of PSPs to a model in wind tunnels.

Oglesby, Donald M.; Ingram, JoAnne L.; Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Watkins, A. Neal; Leighty, Bradley D.

2004-01-01

261

Pressure-Sensitive Paint: Effect of Substrate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are numerous ways in which pressure-sensitive paint can be applied to a surface. The choice of substrate and application method can greatly affect the results obtained. The current study examines the different methods of applying pressure-sensitive paint to a surface. One polymer-based and two porous substrates (anodized aluminum and thin-layer chromatography plates are investigated and compared for luminescent output, pressure sensitivity, temperature sensitivity and photodegradation. Two luminophores [tris-Bathophenanthroline Ruthenium(II Perchlorate and Platinum-tetrakis (pentafluorophenyl Porphyrin] will also be compared in all three of the substrates. The results show the applicability of the different substrates and luminophores to different testing environments.

Konstantinos Kontis

2011-12-01

262

Vinyl replaces paint; Vinyl erstatter maling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The need for maintenance on ships, drilling rigs and offshore production appliances can be considerably reduced by using vinyl rather than paint. Maintenance cost for corrosion protection can be reduced by 50 - 70 per cent for areas coated by vinyl film depending on where it is used. The principle advantage of vinyl is its tightness. It is also very environmentally friendly. Unlike paint, vinyl does not produce poisonous gases when it is glued onto the surfaces. As an example, a wall that was coated with vinyl film on Norsk Hydro's Brage platform has so far been free of visible damage or proven corrosion for five years. Such a wall is expected to last at least 12 years before a new coat is needed.

Steensen, Anders J.

2004-07-01

263

'Dose-painting': Myth or reality?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Dose-painting' radiotherapy allows for a heterogeneous delivery of radiation within the tumour volume by targeting radioresistant areas defined by functional imaging. Within gross tumour volume, it is possible to define one or more target volumes based on biology (biological target volume [BTV]) and to apply a strategy of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) that will deliver a higher dose to these regions. In this review of the literature, we will highlight the biological elements responsible for radioresistance, and how to image them, then we will detail the radiotherapy techniques necessary for this approach, before presenting clinical results in various situations (head and neck tumours, prostate, brain tumours, etc.). Despite many difficulties that make dose-painting IMRT unusable in routine nowadays, biology-guided radiation therapy represents one of the major pathways of development of radiotherapy in the coming years. (authors)

264

["Dose-painting": myth or reality?].  

Science.gov (United States)

"Dose-painting" radiotherapy allows for a heterogeneous delivery of radiation within the tumour volume by targeting radioresistant areas defined by functional imaging. Within gross tumour volume, it is possible to define one or more target volumes based on biology (biological target volume [BTV]) and to apply a strategy of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) that will deliver a higher dose to these regions. In this review of the literature, we will highlight the biological elements responsible for radioresistance, and how to image them, then we will detail the radiotherapy techniques necessary for this approach, before presenting clinical results in various situations (head and neck tumours, prostate, brain tumours, etc.). Despite many difficulties that make dose-painting IMRT unusable in routine nowadays, biology-guided radiation therapy represents one of the major pathways of development of radiotherapy in the coming years. PMID:20729116

Supiot, S; Lisbona, A; Paris, F; Azria, D; Fenoglietto, P

2010-10-01

265

Nanoindentation and the micromechanics of Van Gogh oil paints  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the mechanical properties of ancient paintings is a major issue for conservation and restoration. One strategy is to measure the mechanical properties of reconstructed paints: however, the aging process is poorly known, so it is also desirable to measure mechanical properties directly on ancient paint samples. Using nanoindentation, we have characterized submillimetric samples recovered from restoration of two Van Gogh paintings and compared the results with reconstructed paint samples. We demonstrate that the reduced modulus and hardness of historical paints can be measured at a very local scale, even differentiating between each paint layer. Our reconstructed paint samples exhibit elastic moduli comparable to values of the literature, but the values measured on the two 19th century paint samples are found to be significantly larger. Similarly, the compositional dependence of the elastic modulus is consistent with literature results for our reconstructed samples while our preliminary results for ancient samples do not readily fall into the same pattern. These results all point out to a significant impact of long term aging, in a manner which is difficult to predict in our present state of understanding. They demonstrate that nanoindentation is a very adequate tool to improve our knowledge of art paint mechanics and aging.

Salvant, Johanna; Barthel, Etienne; Menu, Michel

2011-08-01

266

Difference in brain activations during appreciating paintings and photographic analogues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several studies have investigated neural correlates of aesthetic appreciation for paintings but to date the findings have been heterogeneous. This heterogeneity may be attributed to previous studies’ measurement of aesthetic appreciation of not only the beauty of paintings but also the beauty of motifs of the paintings. In order to better elucidate the beauty of paintings, it seems necessary to compare aesthetic appreciation of paintings and photographic analogues which included corresponding real images. We prepared for famous painters’ pictures and their photographic analogues which were set up to resemble each painting in order to investigate the hypothesis that there exist specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings. Forty-four subjects participated in functional magnetic resonance study which required comparisons of aesthetic appreciation of paintings of still life and landscape versus photographic analogues including corresponding real images of still life and landscape. Bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus were activated in the comparison of aesthetic appreciation of paintings versus photographic analogues. In conclusion, the present findings suggest a possibility of the existence of specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings and that bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus may be involved.

Takeshi Terao

2014-07-01

267

A new chemical model for the removal of iodine vapour from a reactor containment by aqueous sprays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes methods for the calculation of the removal rate of I2 vapour by aqueous sprays from a large volume such as a reactor containment. The kinetic methods used involve the latest information on the reaction of dissolved iodine with water which causes the I2 molecules to be quickly transformed into virtually involatile products. This hydrolysis increases the effective waterside mass transfer coefficient of I2, and depends on the I2 concentration, the acidity of the water and the temperature. Comparisons of calculated removal rates with a range of suitable experimental data show that for agreement with observation the hydrolysis product HOI, hypoiodous acid, must be considered effectively involatile. When the water is alkaline (pH 9) the overall mass transfer coefficient for I2 can be put equal to that for the gas side. Acidic sprays can cause a major uptake of iodine by painted walls. In summary: A new spray removal calculational method has been developed which agrees reasonably with experiment over a wide range of [I2(g)]0 values (7 x 10-10 to 1.2 x 10-5 M), water pH values 5 to 14, flow rates (.007 to 10 dm s-1 ) and vessel sizes (5.3 to 595 m3 ). Calculations and experiments show alkaline water to be greatly superior to acidic water in I2 removal. Acid sprays may cause reasonably high removal rates by moving I22 gas to painted walls. The calculations have taken no account of iodine sinks or sources. In some reactor faults a likely I2 source is irradiated aerosol containing I- (aq). Our INSPECT code is being upgraded to include the spray removal method described here as well as such sources. (authors)

268

Postural tremor induced by paint sniffing  

OpenAIRE

Volatile substance abuse is the intentional inhalation of volatile solvents, aerosols, gases or nitrates for the purpose of intoxication. This practice is more common among young people, due, in part, to the low cost and ready availability of these inhalants. In this report, we present the case of a 22-year-old male with a seven-year history of chronic paint sniffing. The patient presented with vigorous postural and kinetic tremor in both hands. A neurological examination revealed a bilateral...

Gautschi Oliver; Cadosch Dieter; Zellweger Rene

2007-01-01

269

Validity of Bartram's Painted Vulture (Aves: Cathartidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

William Bartram described the Painted Vulture (Vultur sacra) as a new species in his 1791 book on travels in Florida and other southeastern states. However, no specimen of this bird survives, and it has not been reported by any subsequent ornithologist. Bartram's detailed description is not presently endorsed by the American Ornithologists' Union and has been widely regarded as a myth, a misdescribed King Vulture Sarcoramphus papa (Linnaeus), a misdescribed Northern Caracara Caracara cheriway (Jacquin), or a garbled mixture of species. In fact, his description bears almost no resemblance to a Northern Caracara, but it does match the King Vulture in all important respects except tail color (which is uniform dark brown in all ages and sexes of King Vultures but was white with a dark brown or black tip in Bartram's description). Most 20th century ornithologists commenting on Bartram's bird have been reluctant to accept his description because of the tail-color discrepancy. Only McAtee (1942) concluded that his description could be fully accurate as written, indicating a bird closely related to, but different from, a typical King Vulture. Paralleling Bartram's description is an apparently independent account and painting of a vulture of uncertain geographic origin by Eleazar Albin (1734). Details of Albin's description, including tail color, are very similar to those of Bartram's description. The only discrepancies are minor differences in color of softparts and tail that seem explicable as intraspecific variation. Available evidence suggests that Bartram knew nothing of Albin's description, and if so, Albin's bird provides quite persuasive support for the validity of Bartram's bird. Equally important, none of the arguments offered historically against the validity of the Painted Vulture is persuasive when examined closely. Together, these and other factors make a strong case for acceptance of Bartram's Painted Vulture as a historic resident of northern Florida and likely other adjacent regions. PMID:24698902

Snyder, Noel F R; Fry, Joel T

2013-01-01

270

Electrochemical assessment of magnetite anticorrosive paints  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the purpose of deepening in the understanding of the mechanisms of protection of anticorrosive pigments based on iron oxides, this work has been carried out on the production of pure magnetite, and copper and chromium doped magnetite, which were evaluated by different characterization techniques. The paints were prepared with a solvent less epoxy resin maintaining the Pigment Volume Content near the Practical Critical value (CPVC, established for each pigment. The paints were applied on polished steel and monitored with electrochemical techniques at total immersion conditions. Permeability and impedance measurements of free films were also done. Impedance data were simulated with the Boukamp software. Results show that the paints pigmented with doped magnetite present better behavior than a paint prepared with commercial hematite.

Con el propósito de profundizar en el entendimiento de los mecanismos de protección de los pigmentos anticorrosivos a base de óxidos de hierro, se sintetizaron y caracterizaron magnetitas puras y dopadas con cobre y cromo, con las cuales se prepararon pinturas anticorrosivas que fueron evaluadas en ensayos acelerados de campo y laboratorio. Las pinturas fueron especialmente preparadas con una resina libre de solvente manteniendo la Concentración Pigmentaria en Volumen cercana al valor Crítico (CPVC, establecida para cada pigmento. Las pinturas fueron aplicadas sobre acero pulido y evaluadas con técnicas electroquímicas en condiciones de inmersión total. Para complementar el estudio se realizaron medidas de permeabilidad e impedancia sobre las películas libres. Los datos de impedancia se simularon con el programa Boukamp. Los resultados muestran que las pinturas pigmentadas con magnetitas dopadas presentan mejor comportamiento que las preparadas con hematita comercial.

Escobar, D. M.

2003-12-01

271

Solar Paint: From Synthesis to Printing  

OpenAIRE

Water-based polymer nanoparticle dispersions (solar paint) offer the prospect of addressing two of the main challenges associated with printing large area organic photovoltaic devices; namely, how to control the nanoscale architecture of the active layer and eliminate the need for hazardous organic solvents during device fabrication. In this paper, we review progress in the field of nanoparticulate organic photovoltaic (NPOPV) devices and future prospects for large-scale manufacturing of sola...

Xiaojing Zhou; Warwick Belcher; Paul Dastoor

2014-01-01

272

A Quantitative Approach to Painting Styles  

OpenAIRE

This research extends a method previously applied to music and philosophy,representing the evolution of art as a time-series where relations like dialectics are measured quantitatively. For that, a corpus of paintings of 12 well-known artists from baroque and modern art is analyzed. A set of 93 features is extracted and the features which most contributed to the classification of painters are selected. The projection space obtained provides the basis to the analysis of measu...

Vieira, Vilson; Fabbri, Renato; Sbrissa, David; Costa, Luciano Da Fontoura; Travieso, Gonzalo

2013-01-01

273

Solar Paint: From Synthesis to Printing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water-based polymer nanoparticle dispersions (solar paint offer the prospect of addressing two of the main challenges associated with printing large area organic photovoltaic devices; namely, how to control the nanoscale architecture of the active layer and eliminate the need for hazardous organic solvents during device fabrication. In this paper, we review progress in the field of nanoparticulate organic photovoltaic (NPOPV devices and future prospects for large-scale manufacturing of solar cells based on this technology.

Xiaojing Zhou

2014-11-01

274

Paintings in Atlantic Megalithic Art: Barnenez  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of technique is usually considered in European megalithic art as an indicator of the level of culture sophistication attained by a particular community. Traditionally, it was considered that only the Iberian Peninsula is home to painted dolmens. The analysis of chamber H of the Barnenez tumulus together with some information scattered over the continent, prove that painting was part of the graphic programs in the most archetypal Atlantic sites, such as Brittany. A highly rewarding panorama appears for European megalithic art with potential new readings. The most suitable method of detecting paintings and interpreting them in funerary contexts must be reviewed.

La técnica ha venido estableciéndose en el arte megalítico europeo como una categoría cultural. Solo la Península Ibérica disponía de dólmenes pintados. Pero algunos datos dispersos en el resto del continente, junto con los análisis que se aportan procedentes de la cámara H del túmulo de Barnenez, certifican que la pintura formó parte de los programas gráfi cos de los más clásicos conjuntos atlánticos, como es el bretón. Se abre un panorama muy enriquecedor de nuevas lecturas para un arte megalítico europeo en el que habrá de contemplarse la metodología pertinente para la detección de pinturas y su interpretación en los discursos funerarios.

Bueno Ramírez, Primitiva

2012-06-01

275

Recycling of paint-contaminated grit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact on the environment of using paint-contaminated grit (PCG) as a partial or full replacement for sand in Portland cement mortar and asphalt concrete mixtures was investigated. The grit waste material originated from abrasive blasting of offshore steel structures. There is a major environmental concern regarding the safe disposal of the spent blasting abrasives that contain paint chips or paint particles and other debris removed from the surface of the steel structures. This work investigated the potential reuse of PCG in Portland cement concrete (PCC) and hot mix asphalt concrete. Several studies were conducted to establish the integrity of the materials containing the recycled grit. These included the chemical and physical characterization of natural sand and PCG, the assay of leaches associated with the grit material for hazardous metal contaminants, such as Cr, Cd and Pb, and the assessment of the mechanical properties of the PCG-substituted mortars by applying special tests (such as Marshall stability and determination of the flow properties) to the PCG-substituted asphalt concrete mixtures. The overall results demonstrated that the potential reuse of PCG in PCC and asphalt concrete mixtures would not pose any environmental threat and could produce several benefits, such as reduced disposal costs, protection of water sources from improper disposal practices and reduced costs in the production of natural aggregates and asphalt cement. PMID:11523444

Taha, R; al-Alawi, D; al-Nabhani, M; Pillay, A E; al-Hamdi, A

2001-08-01

276

Test Production of Anti-Corrosive Paint in Laboratory Scale  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main purpose of this project is to produce the anti-corrosive paint in laboratory scale. In these experiments, local raw materials, natural resin (shellac), pine oil, turpentine and ethyl alcohol wer applied basically. Laboratory trials were undrtaken to determine the suitablity of raw materials ane their composition for anti-corrosive paint manufacture.The results obtained show that the anti-corrosive paint from experiment No.(30) is suitable for steel plate and this is also considered commercially economics

277

Rock paintings of mammals at Central, Bahia, Brazil  

OpenAIRE

Rock paintings of mammals have been studied in five of the 243 localities contained within the 270,000 km² Archeological Region of Central, Bahia. From features of external morphology, it was possible to recognize 11 mammals represented in the paintings: for five, to attribute the species; another five, the genera; and, for one, merely the family. This study aims to underline the importance of prehistoric man's contribution, by way of these rock paintings, to our knowledge of the mammals dep...

Beltra?o, Maria Da Conceic?a?o M. C.; Martha Locks

1993-01-01

278

Research on Development of the Song Genre Paintings & Artists  

OpenAIRE

Due to that many historical documents of China recording the life of emperors and people from upper class in ancient times with limited ones recording that of people from middle and lower classes, genre paintings have played as the important materials for the research on the ancient societies. This paper begins with the analysis on the concept and development progress of the genre paintings; and analyzes on the three types of painting producers by the combination of the surviving genre painti...

Rong Tan

2014-01-01

279

Smart Surfaces: New Coatings & Paints with Radiation Detection Functionality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Paints are being developed and tested that might ultimately be able to detect radiological agents in the environment by incorporating special pigments into an organic polymeric binder that can be applied as a paint or coatings. These paints detect radioactive sources and contaminants with inorganic or organic scintillation or thermo-luminescent pigments, which are selected based upon the radiation ({alpha}, {beta}, {gamma} or n) to be detected, and are shown in Figure 1.

Farmer, J; Choi, J

2007-03-12

280

Digital Image Processing in Painting Restoration and Archiving  

OpenAIRE

Digital image processing and analysis can be an important tool for the restoration of works of art. This paper presents three applications of image processing in this field: a method for digital crack restoration of paintings, a technique for color restoration of old paintings and a method for mosaicing of partial images of works of art painted on curved surfaces. A digital archiving system for works of arts is also described.

Nikolaidis, N.; Pitas, I.

2010-01-01

281

TeraHertz imaging of hidden paint layers on canvas:  

OpenAIRE

We show terahertz reflection images of hidden paint layers in a painting on canvas and compare the results with X-ray Radiography and Infrared Reflectography. Our terahertz measurements show strong reflections from both the canvas/paint interface and from the raw umber/lead white interface, indicating sufficient refractive-index contrast. Our results show that X-rays cannot be used to image through the lead white pigment which effectively blocks the X-rays. Although Infrared Reflectography is...

Adam, A. J. L.; Planken, P. C. M.; Meloni, S.; Dik, J.

2009-01-01

282

Study of decontamination and radiation resistance properties of Indian paints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief introduction to the study of contamination and radiation resistance properties of Indian paints used as coating for structural materials in the nuclear industry is given. The general composition of paints such as epoxy, vinyl, alkyd, phenolic, chlesimated rubber, etc. is given. Method of sample preparation, processing and actual evaluation of decontaminability are described. The results have been discussed in terms of decontamination factors. Some recommendations based on the performance of the paints studied are also included. (K.B.)

283

Digital cleaning and "dirt" layer visualization of an oil painting.  

Science.gov (United States)

We demonstrate a new digital cleaning technique which uses a neural network that is trained to learn the transformation from dirty to clean segments of a painting image. The inputs and outputs of the network are pixels belonging to dirty and clean segments found in Fernando Amorsolo's Malacañang by the River. After digital cleaning we visualize the painting's discoloration by assuming it to be a transmission filter superimposed on the clean painting. Using an RGB color-to-spectrum transformation to obtain the point-per-point spectra of the clean and dirty painting images, we calculate this "dirt" filter and render it for the whole image. PMID:21997109

Palomero, Cherry May T; Soriano, Maricor N

2011-10-10

284

Experimental results of large-scale sodium spray fires  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In oxygen containing atmospheres, sodium spraying through pipe ruptures will lead immediately to a sodium spray fire. Sodium spray fires cause a pressure and temperature rise and a strong aerosol release. An extensive series of sodium spray fires has been studied in the FAUNA-facility and should provide a data base for validating sodium spray fire models and computer codes. (author)

285

Spray calcination of nuclear wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spray calciner is a relatively simple machine; operation is simple and is easily automated. Startup and shutdown can be performed in less than an hour. A wide variety of waste compositions and concentrations can be calcined under easily maintainable conditions. Spray calcination of all commercial fuel reprocessor high-level liquid wastes and mixed high and intermediate-level wastes have been demonstrated. Wastes have been calcined containing over 2M sodium. Thus waste generated during plant startup and shutdown can be blended with normal waste and calcined. Spray calcination of ILLW has also been demonstrated. A remotely replaceable atomizing nozzle has been developed for use in plant scale equipment. The 6 mm (0.25 inch) orifice and ceramic tip offer freedom from plugging and erosion thus nozzle replacement should be required only after several months operation. Calciner capacity of over 75 l/h (20 gal/h) has been demonstrated in pilot scale equipment. Sintered stainless steel filters are effective in deentraining over 99.9 percent of the solids that result from calcining the feedstock. Since such a small amount of radionuclides escape the calciner the volume of recycle required from the effluent treatment system is very small. The noncondensable off-gas volume is also low, less than 0.5 m3/min (15 scfm) for a liquid feedrate of 75 l/hr (20 gal/hr). Calcine holdup in the calciner is less than 1 kg, thus the liquid feedrate is directly relatable to calcuid feedrate is directly relatable to calcine flowrate. The calcine produced is very fine and reactive. Successful remote operation and maintenance of a heated wall spray calciner has been demonstrated while processing actual high-level waste. During these operations radionuclide volatilization from the calciner was acceptably low. 8 figures

286

Uniform-droplet spray forming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The uniform-droplet process is a new method of liquid-metal atomization that results in single droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on to substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructure. The mono-sized powder-production capability of the uniform-droplet process also has the potential of permitting engineered powder blends to produce components of controlled porosity. Metal and alloy powders are commercially produced by at least three different methods: gas atomization, water atomization, and rotating disk. All three methods produce powders of a broad range in size with a very small yield of fine powders with single-sized droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructures. The economical analysis has shown the process to have the potential of reducing capital cost by 50% and operating cost by 37.5% when applied to powder making. For the spray-forming process, a 25% savings is expected in both the capital and operating costs. The project is jointly carried out at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Tuffs University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Preliminary interactions with both finished parts and powder producers have shown a strong interest in the uniform-droplet process. Systematic studies are being conducted to optimize the process parameters, understand the solidification of droplets and spray deposits, and develop a uniform-droplet-system (UDS) apparatus appropriate for processing engineering alloys.

Blue, C.A.; Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Chun, Jung-Hoon [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ando, T. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

1997-04-01

287

Respiratory Symptoms, Sensitization, and Exposure–Response Relationships in Spray Painters Exposed to Isocyanates  

Science.gov (United States)

Rationale: Associations between oligomeric isocyanate exposure, sensitization, and respiratory disease have received little attention, despite the extensive use of isocyanate oligomers. Objectives: To investigate exposure–response relationships of respiratory symptoms and sensitization in a large population occupationally exposed to isocyanate oligomers during spray painting. Methods: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and sensitization was assessed in 581 workers in the spray-painting industry. Personal exposure was estimated by combining personal task-based inhalatory exposure measurements and time activity information. Specific IgE and IgG to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) were assessed in serum by ImmunoCAP assay and enzyme immunoassays using vapor and liquid phase HDI–human serum albumin (HDI–HSA) and HSA conjugates prepared with oligomeric HDI. Measurements and Main Results: Respiratory symptoms were more prevalent in exposed workers than among comparison office workers. Log–linear exposure–response associations were found for asthmalike symptoms, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease–like symptoms, and work-related chest tightness (prevalence ratios for an interquartile range increase in exposure of 1.2, 1.3 and 2.0, respectively; P ? 0.05). The prevalence of specific IgE sensitization was low (up to 4.2% in spray painters). Nevertheless, IgE to N100 (oligomeric HDI)–HSA was associated with exposure and work-related chest tightness. The prevalence of specific IgG was higher (2–50.4%) and strongly associated with exposure. Conclusions: The results provide evidence of exposure–response relationships for both work-related and non–work-related respiratory symptoms and specific sensitization in a population exposed to oligomers of HDI. Specific IgE was found in only a minority of symptomatic individuals. Specific IgG seems to be merely an indicator of exposure. PMID:17656675

Pronk, Anjoeka; Preller, Liesbeth; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Jonkers, Irene C. L.; Lammers, Jan-Willem; Wouters, Inge M.; Doekes, Gert; Wisnewski, Adam V.; Heederik, Dick

2007-01-01

288

Coanda-assisted Spray Manipulation  

Science.gov (United States)

An overview of research on a flow control technique called Coanda-assisted Spray Manipulation (CSM) is presented. CSM uses a high-momentum control jet under the influence of the Coanda effect to vector a high volume-flow jet or spray. Actuators provide the capability of moving the location of applied control flow making rotary or arbitrary motion of the vectored flow possible. The presented work includes a fundamental isothermal study on the effects of rotation speed and Reynolds number on a vectored jet using a belt-driven CSM actuator. Three-component velocity data were acquired for three Reynolds numbers and three rotation speeds using timed resolved high-speed stereo Particle Image Velocimetry. A second CSM system with 16 pneumatically-driven control ports has been retrofitted to a flame spray gun. This combination provides the capability to rapidly alter the direction of applied metal powders. High speed video of this process will also be presented. Finally, a fundamental study on the pneumatic system's response to minor losses and connection lines of varying lengths is presented.

Mabey, Katie; Smith, Barton; Archibald, Reid; West, Brian

2009-11-01

289

Painting Death with the Colors of Life: Funerary Wall Painting in South Italy (IV-II BCE)  

OpenAIRE

This dissertation examines the cultural, political, and artistic role of polychrome wall painting from funerary contexts in South Italy during the critical period that spans the crisis of Greek hegemony and the consolidation of Roman power. Numerous painted tombs were built between the late fifth and the early second centuries BCE for local as well as Greek elite groups across Southern Italy. I investigate the ways in which the wall paintings, with their colors, iconographies, and technical f...

D Angelo, Tiziana

2013-01-01

290

Vacuum characteristics of sprayed metal films  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The need to reduce particles in semiconductor equipment and data storage equipment is in high demand. In recent years, barrier and glue layers on shields have been used to reduce particles generated in physical vapor deposition equipment. For this purpose, spray coatings are applied to shields. Although the sprayed metal films are exposed to vacuum in a vacuum chamber, their vacuum characteristics have seldom been investigated. The conventional spray coatings are usually done under atmospheric conditions. In order to obtain a layer that has a better vacuum characteristic, spray coating in a chamber filled with an inert gas was developed. Outgassing characteristics of sprayed aluminum films and titanium films were investigated by using the conductance modulation method. A sprayed metal film produced in an inert gas system showed a lower outgassing rate than that produced in an atmospheric condition

291

Investigating shoulder muscle loading and exerted forces during wall painting tasks: influence of gender, work height and paint tool design.  

Science.gov (United States)

The task of wall painting produces considerable risk to the workers, both male and female, primarily in the development of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders. Insufficient information is currently available regarding the potential benefits of using different paint roller designs or the possible adverse effects of painting at different work heights. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender, work height, and paint tool design on shoulder muscle activity and exerted forces during wall painting. Ten young adults, five male and five female, were recruited to perform simulated wall painting at three different work heights with three different paint roller designs while upper extremity muscle activity and horizontal push force were recorded. Results demonstrated that for female participants, significantly greater total average (p = 0.007) and integrated (p = 0.047) muscle activity was present while using the conventional and curly flex paint roller designs compared to the proposed design in which the load was distributed between both hands. Additionally, for both genders, the high working height imposed greater muscular demands compared to middle and low heights. These findings suggest that, if possible, avoid painting at extreme heights (low or high) and that for female painters, consider a roller that requires the use of two hands; this will reduce fatigue onset and subsequently mitigate potential musculoskeletal shoulder injury risks. PMID:24636728

Rosati, Patricia M; Chopp, Jaclyn N; Dickerson, Clark R

2014-07-01

292

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section 965.701 ...PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The requirements of the...

2010-04-01

293

19 CFR 10.52 - Painted, colored or stained glass windows for religious institutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Painted, colored or stained glass windows for religious institutions. 10...Painted, colored or stained glass windows for religious institutions. When painted, colored, or stained glass windows or parts thereof, are...

2010-04-01

294

24 CFR 35.1015 - Visual assessment, paint stabilization, and maintenance.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Visual assessment, paint stabilization, and maintenance...and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL... § 35.1015 Visual assessment, paint stabilization, and...

2010-04-01

295

24 CFR 35.935 - Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities. 35.935...and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL... § 35.935 Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities....

2010-04-01

296

24 CFR 35.825 - Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance and reevaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance and reevaluation. 35...and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL... § 35.825 Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance and reevaluation....

2010-04-01

297

24 CFR 35.1220 - Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities. 35.1220...and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL... § 35.1220 Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities....

2010-04-01

298

24 CFR 965.215 - Lead-based paint liability insurance coverage.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint liability insurance coverage. 965...Coverage § 965.215 Lead-based paint liability insurance coverage. ...hazards associated with lead-based paint activities that the PHA...

2010-04-01

299

A critical investigation into the spray-drying of hydroxyapatite powder for thermal spray applications  

OpenAIRE

This work examines the investigation of the spray drying process of Hydroxyapatite powder (HA) used as a thermal spray deposit in the application of orthopaedic femoral implants. In this research, the Niro- Minor™ mixed spray dryer was used for both modelling and experimental studies. The process parameters investigated included HA slurry viscosity, temperature, and air flowrate. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modelling and validation of the spray drying of HA powder was performed. An an...

Murtaza, Qasim

2006-01-01

300

Plasma sprayed ceria-containing interlayer  

Science.gov (United States)

A plasma sprayed ceria-containing interlayer is provided. The interlayer has particular application in connection with a solid oxide fuel cell used within a power generation system. The fuel cell advantageously comprises an air electrode, a plasma sprayed interlayer disposed on at least a portion of the air electrode, a plasma sprayed electrolyte disposed on at least a portion of the interlayer, and a fuel electrode applied on at least a portion of the electrolyte.

Schmidt, Douglas S.; Folser, George R.

2006-01-10

301

New painting on Mochovce cooling towers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New protective painting on the south cooling towers is included in the maintenance and modernization project. Slovenske elektrarne have modernized not only concrete surface of the civil structure, but also internal technology of the cooling tower and its cooing efficiency is increased without increasing consumption of the cooling water. The project will continue this and following year on towers of the units No. 1 and 2 at the Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant. Similar works have been already performed on the cooling towers on units 3 and 4 at the Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant and Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant units 3 and 4. (author)

302

Nanorestore® for the consolidation of wall paintings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cet article présente les résultats d’un projet de recherches sur l’effet de l’application du produit Nanorestore®, dispersion de nanoparticules de chaux dans l’alcool isopropylique, pour la consolidation des peintures murales ; il évalue l’influence des conditions environnementales externes (UR et présence des sels en particulier sur le processus de carbonatation.This paper presents the results of an investigation project on the use of Nanorestore®, a dispersion of nanolime in isopropyl alcohol, used for the consolidation of wall paintings. The influence of environmental conditions outside the wall (high humidity environments and high presence of hygroscopic salts on carbonation process was considered.

Sara Di Gregorio

2010-11-01

303

Golden Section and the Art of Painting  

OpenAIRE

A statistical study on 565 works of art of different great painters was done and it was calculated the ratio of the 2 sides of a paintings. Assuming that all the painters under discussion enter in a statistics with equal weights it is shown that the average value obtained for the ratio of the sides is 1.34. This value, determined experimentally is significantly different from the value of the Golden Section F=1.618, which is a theoretical ratio, obtained from an abstract, ma...

Olariu, Agata

1999-01-01

304

The perils of paint-balling  

OpenAIRE

While paint-balling a 15-year-old boy was shot on the front of his face guard causing him to hyperextend his neck. Over the next few days he developed neck stiffness and a large painful swelling over his upper left sternocleidomastoid muscle. CT confirmed this to be a haematoma abscess and at operation it was found to originate from the parapharyngeal vessels, extending from the skull base and tracking inferiorly along the carotid sheath, compressing (and partially thrombosing) the internal j...

Mckay-davies, I.; Tweedie, D.; Pitkin, L.

2011-01-01

305

A new chemical model for the removal of iodine vapour from a reactor containment by aqueous sprays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes methods for the calculation of the removal rate of I2 vapour by aqueous sprays from a large volume such as a reactor containment. The kinetic methods used involve the latest information on the reaction of dissolved iodine with water which causes the I2 molecules to be quickly transformed into virtually involatile products. This hydrolysis increases the effective waterside mass transfer coefficient of I2, and depends on the I2 concentration, the acidity of the water and the temperature. Comparisons of calculated removal rates with a range of suitable experimental data show that for agreement with observation the hydrolysis product HOI, hypoiodous acid, must be considered effectively involatile. When the water is alkaline (pH 9) the overall mass transfer coefficient for I2 can be put equal to that for the gas side. Acidic sprays can cause a major uptake of iodine by painted walls. (author)

306

PAINTINGS IN TEACHING THE DISCIPLINE OF "GENETIC MONITORING"  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article deals with the use of paintings as illustrative and analytical material in the course of "Genetic monitoring", like sections of "Human Genetics", "Epigenetics". Using the paintings of great artists as the visual material in the learning process performs several tasks: analytical, informational and resourcefu

Tsatsenko L. V.

2014-12-01

307

Fore-Edge Paintings at the Lilly Library  

Science.gov (United States)

Indiana University's Lilly Library has a wonderful online exhibit of the always beautiful fore-edge paintings. The fore-edge paintings in the exhibition are the "vanishing" type, which means they are only visible when the book is fanned open. The exhibit also limits its works to those "vanishing" fore-edge paintings from the late 18th century to the 20th century which began in the shop of Edwards of Halifax, a bookbinder. The menu on the left hand side of the website divides the works up into several different types, such as "Highest Quality", "Individual Artists", "The Picturesque", and "Vertical Paintings". Within "The Picturesque" category, are such subcategories of "Castles", "Cities", "Water Scenes", and "Foreign Scenes". In the "Vertical Paintings" category are three paintings, the first of which is not a "vanishing" type of fore-edge painting at all. Visitors should not miss the second painting, not only because it is lovely, but also because it is a Chinese scene from the 1500s, which is radically different from the other European inspired works.

308

Dissolution of organic solvents from painted surfaces into water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The presence of volatile iodine in containment buildings is one of the major safety concerns in the potential event of nuclear reactor accidents. Organic impurities in containment water, originating from various painted structural surfaces and organic materials, could have a significant impact on iodine volatility following an accident. To determine the source and magnitude of organic impurities and their effects on time-dependent iodine volatility, the dissolution for organic constituents from paints used in reactor buildings has been studied under postulated accident conditions. The studies of the organic dissolution from carbon steel coupons coated with zinc-primed vinyl, epoxy-primed polyurethane or epoxy paints over the temperature range 25-90 deg C are reported. Relatively large activation energies were measured for the release of the principal organic compounds from painted surfaces, suggesting it is the release of the solvents from the paint matrix rather than their diffusion through the solution that is the rate determining step for the dissolution mechanism. The similarities in the values of activation energies for the dissolution of different organic compounds from the paints suggest the release rate is independent of the nature of the painted surface or the type of organic being released from the surface. These two observations indicate that it may be possible to write a generalized rate expression for the release of organic compounds from painted surfaces in containment following an accident. The possible implications of these results for predicting iodine volatility in containment are also discussed. (author)

Wren, J.C. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Jobe, D.J. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Sanipelli, G.G.; Ball, J.M

2000-07-01

309

Dissolution of organic solvents from painted surfaces into water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presence of volatile iodine in containment buildings is one of the major safety concerns in the potential event of nuclear reactor accidents. Organic impurities in containment water, originating from various painted structural surfaces and organic materials, could have a significant impact on iodine volatility following an accident. To determine the source and magnitude of organic impurities and their effects on time-dependent iodine volatility, the dissolution for organic constituents from paints used in reactor buildings has been studied under postulated accident conditions. The studies of the organic dissolution from carbon steel coupons coated with zinc-primed vinyl, epoxy-primed polyurethane or epoxy paints over the temperature range 25-90 deg C are reported. Relatively large activation energies were measured for the release of the principal organic compounds from painted surfaces, suggesting it is the release of the solvents from the paint matrix rather than their diffusion through the solution that is the rate determining step for the dissolution mechanism. The similarities in the values of activation energies for the dissolution of different organic compounds from the paints suggest the release rate is independent of the nature of the painted surface or the type of organic being released from the surface. These two observations indicate that it may be possible to write a generalized rate expression for the release of organic compounds from painted surfaces in containment following an accident. The possible implications of these results for predicting iodine volatility in containment are also discussed. (author)

310

LEAD-BASED PAINT HAZARD-MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES: FINAL REPORT  

Science.gov (United States)

Lead-based paints (LEP) and primers have been used in the past by the Department of Defense (DoD) to protect steel structures from corrosion. DoD owns about 200 million sq ft of steel structures with lead-based paint (such as bridges, aircraft hangars, water tanks, etc.). The DoD...

311

Historical evolution of oil painting media: A rheological study  

Science.gov (United States)

Rheology is the science of flow, which is a phenomenon found in every painting operation, such as decorative paintings or protective coatings. In this article, the principles of rheology as applied to paintings and coatings are recalled in a first part and the rheological criteria required in the paint industry presented. Indeed, different flow behaviours leads to different finishes. The same procedure and techniques as in industry can be employed to explain some evolutions in oil painting aspects over the centuries. The first recipes for oil painting indicate the use of treated oil, resins and spirits. This article deals with the evolution of the composition of these systems as media for oil painting, according to rheological clues. During the Renaissance period, the media used were Newtonian or slightly shear thinning and allowed one a perfect levelling. Then techniques changed, paints became more opaque with less addition of oil/resin media, and brushstrokes appeared visible. Some preparations containing lead, oil and mastic resin, whose flow behaviour is closed to those required in industry, may have appeared during the 17th century and are still used and sold today. To cite this article: L. de Viguerie et al., C. R. Physique 10 (2009).

de Viguerie, Laurence; Ducouret, Guylaine; Lequeux, François; Moutard-Martin, Thierry; Walter, Philippe

2009-09-01

312

Flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) for synthesis of nanoparticles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bismuth oxide is used as additive in paints and in cataphoresis, and as substitute for lead oxide in glass or porcelain. The presence of a small amount of Bi2O3 in calcined ZnO ceramics promotes non-linear current voltage characteristics that are used in varistor production. Also tin oxide based gas sensors for carbon monoxide, exhibit improved sensitivity and selectivity when doped with Bi2O3. Furthermore, the total oxidation of isobutene is enhanced on bismuth containing tin oxide catalysts. Bismuth oxide itself serves also as catalyst for conversion of propylene to 1,5 hexadiene and can be regenerated when supported on ?-Al2O3. In electrolyte, varistor, sensor and catalyst applications high purity and small Bi2O3 particles with controlled morphology are required. Especially in catalysts the available surface area (below 17 m2/g) of Bi2O3 limits applications at the moment. Typically, Bi2O3 is prepared by oxidation of bismuth metal at 750-800 deg C or by thermal decomposition of carbonates or by addition of alkali-metal hydroxides to a bismuth salt solution. High temperature synthesis of Bi2O3 from precursor gases was proposed by Liu and Kleinschmit using the established Aerosil route of reacting chloride precursors in a hydrogen / air (or oxygen) flame, but the volatility of the starting materials posesolatility of the starting materials poses the most severe limitation. Suzuki et al. prepared spherical bismuth oxide particles of about 26 nm in diameter by the ICP-method. Spraying an aqueous bismuth nitrate solution into a hot wall reactor resulted in Bi2O3 particles of about 100 nm in diameter. Here, synthesis of bismuth oxide nanoparticles is investigated by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) as flame technology is used for manufacture of oxide commodities and as such FSP has high potential for manufacture of oxide nanoparticles. The FSP process, in particular, has the ability to synthesize metal oxides and mixed metal oxides of high purity at high production rates and under controlled conditions. Here bismuth nitrate is used as raw material since it is widely used in wet chemical processing of bismuth oxide and it is one of the cheapest precursors available. However, in conventional spray pyrolysis this precursor has resulted in hollow particles. Therefore special emphasis is placed on the control of morphology and primary particle size of the product bismuth oxide nanoparticles

313

Biological dosimetry by interphase chromosome painting  

Science.gov (United States)

Both fluorescence in situ hybridization of metaphase spreads with whole-chromosome probes and premature chromosome condensation in interphase nuclei have been used in the past to estimate the radiation dose to lymphocytes. We combined these techniques to evaluate the feasibility of using painted interphase chromosomes for biodosimetry. Human peripheral lymphocytes were exposed to gamma rays and fused to mitotic Chinese hamster cells either immediately after irradiation or after 8 h incubation at 37 degrees C. Interphase or metaphase human chromosomes were hybridized with a composite probe specific for human chromosomes 3 and 4. The dose-response curve for fragment induction immediately after irradiation was linear; these results reflected breakage frequency in the total genome in terms of DNA content per chromosome. At 8 h after irradiation, the dose-response curve for chromosome interchanges, the prevalent aberration in interphase chromosomes, was linear-quadratic and similar to that observed for metaphase chromosomes. These results suggest that painting prematurely condensed chromosomes can be useful for biological dosimetry when blood samples are available shortly after the exposure, or when interphase cells are to be scored instead of mitotic cells.

Durante, M.; George, K.; Yang, T. C.

1996-01-01

314

Characterization of chemical agent transport in paints.  

Science.gov (United States)

A combination of vacuum-based vapor emission measurements with a mass transport model was employed to determine the interaction of chemical warfare agents with various materials, including transport parameters of agents in paints. Accurate determination of mass transport parameters enables the simulation of the chemical agent distribution in a material for decontaminant performance modeling. The evaluation was performed with the chemical warfare agents bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide (distilled mustard, known as the chemical warfare blister agent HD) and O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX), an organophosphate nerve agent, deposited on to two different types of polyurethane paint coatings. The results demonstrated alignment between the experimentally measured vapor emission flux and the predicted vapor flux. Mass transport modeling demonstrated rapid transport of VX into the coatings; VX penetrated through the aliphatic polyurethane-based coating (100 ?m) within approximately 107 min. By comparison, while HD was more soluble in the coatings, the penetration depth in the coatings was approximately 2× lower than VX. Applications of mass transport parameters include the ability to predict agent uptake, and subsequent long-term vapor emission or contact transfer where the agent could present exposure risks. Additionally, these parameters and model enable the ability to perform decontamination modeling to predict how decontaminants remove agent from these materials. PMID:23872337

Willis, Matthew P; Gordon, Wesley; Lalain, Teri; Mantooth, Brent

2013-09-15

315

Antifouling biocides in discarded marine paint particles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antifouling paint fragments collected from marinas and leisure boat maintenance facilities and in the vicinity of abandoned boats have been chemically characterised. High concentrations of Cu (23-380mgg(-1)) and Zn (14-160mgg(-1)) in the samples (n=14) are consistent with the use of these metals in the principal biocidal and non-biocidal pigments in contemporary antifouling formulations. Up to about 2% and 7% of the respective metals were solvent-extractable, suggesting that organo-forms of Cu and Zn (e.g. pyrithiones) were also present. Of the organic biocides, dichlofluanid was present in most samples and at concentrations up to about 20mgg(-1). Chlorothalonil and Irgarol 1051(R) were only detected in one and four cases, respectively, and Sea Nine 211(R) was not detected in any sample. Results are discussed in terms of UK legislation regarding biocide usage and the likely effects and fate of discarded paint particles in coastal environments where boats are repaired or moored. PMID:20381093

Parks, Rachel; Donnier-Marechal, Marion; Frickers, Patricia E; Turner, Andrew; Readman, James W

2010-08-01

316

The "style scheme" grounds perception of paintings.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the formation of style scheme (identification of the style that characterizes an artist) presenting 100 participants aesthetic visual stimuli. Participants were Spanish university students who volunteered: 72 women, 28 men of mean age 22.8 yr. Among those 50 were enrolled in History of Art and 50 students in Psychology. Stimuli belonged to different categories--High Art (pictures of well-known artists, like Van Gogh)/Popular Art (decorative pictures like Christmas postcards) and Representational (pictures with explicit meaning content, like a landscape)/Abstract (pictures without explicit meaning content, like Pollock's colored stains). Analysis using Signal Detection Theory techniques focused on how participants discriminate representational and abstract pictures. With High Art stimuli, participants can better discriminate representational paintings than abstract ones. However, the difference in discrimination between representational and abstract pictures diminishes among participants studying History of Art. It seems that prior education in art favors forming style schemes and to some extent enables the participant to detect the "meaning" in High Art abstract paintings. PMID:12365279

Cela-Conde, Camilo J; Marty, Gisèle; Munar, Enric; Nadal, Marcos; Burges, Lucrecia

2002-08-01

317

Computer Analysis of Paintings Raises Questions  

Science.gov (United States)

UO study questions paintingsâ?? authenticityhttp://www.oregonlive.com/news/oregonian/index.ssf?/base/news/1139455529308930.xml&coll=7Fractals and art: In the hands of a masterhttp://www.nature.com/news/2006/060206/full/439648a.htmlJackson Pollockhttp://www.nga.gov/feature/pollock/pollockhome.htmlRichard Taylor: Further Information [pdf]http://materialscience.uoregon.edu/taylor/art/info.htmlUnpopular Front: American Art and the Cold Warhttp://www.newyorker.com/critics/content/articles/051017crat_atlargeRobert Hughes, the venerable art critic for Time magazine, stated in 1982 â??It is impossible to make a forgery of Jackson Pollockâ??s workâ?. It is certainly true that the physicality of his paintings, along with Pollockâ??s famed â??pourâ? technique was forward-looking for its time. Given this information, it is not surprising that previously unknown works by Pollock that materialize draw close scrutiny from art historians, and increasingly, scientists. This week, the New York Times reported that Professor Richard Taylor of the University of Oregon had utilized fractal geometry to examine 14 of Pollockâ??s painting to help determine, and perhaps put into question, the authenticity of a cache of paintings found in 2003 in Wainscott, New York. This cache of paintings was discovered by Alex Matter, whose parents were friends with Pollock. Currently, Matter is planning a large exhibition of these newly discovered works, and this growing controversy has been closely followed among those in the art world. Dr. Taylor has remarked that his examination of the works has revealed â??significant differencesâ? between the patterns of these newer works and those of known Pollock works. He also mentioned that â??Thatâ??s either due to one person who is extremely varied, or itâ??s due to a number of different artists.â?The first link will take visitors to a piece from this Thursdayâ??s New York Times, which discusses the recent computer analysis of the paintings. The second link will whisk visitors away to a fine article by The Oregonianâ??s Richard L. Hill that discusses Dr. Taylorâ??s findings and the rising tide of controversy surrounding these works. The third link will lead users to an intriguing piece from the magazine, Nature, which explores the science behind Dr. Taylorâ??s investigations and Pollockâ??s idiosyncratic style and manner. The fourth link leads to a National Gallery of Art web exhibition on Pollock and his work that begins with a rather intense photograph of Pollock holding a cigarette to his forehead. The fifth link leads to Dr. Taylorâ??s homepage at the University of Oregon, where users may read some of his compelling articles and other writings on his analyses of Pollockâ??s work through the use of fractal geometry. The sixth and final link leads to a piece by Louis Menand, writing in The New Yorker on the subject of American art and its function and ideology during the Cold War.

2006-01-01

318

Spray forming lead strip. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A cooperative research project was conducted between the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Johnson Controls, Inc. (JCI) to adapt the INEL spray forming process to produce near-net-shape lead alloy strip. The emphasis of the work was to spray form lead strip samples at INEL, using a variety of spray conditions, for characterization at JCI. An existing glove box apparatus was modified at INEL to spray form lead. The main spray forming components were housed inside the glove box. They included a spray nozzle, tundish (crucible), substrate assembly, gas heater and furnaces to heat the nozzle and tundish. To spray form metal strip, liquid metal was pressure-fed at a controlled rate through a series of circular orifices that span the width of the nozzle. There the metal contacted high velocity, high temperature inert gas (nitrogen) which atomized the molten material into fine droplets, entrained the droplets in a directed flow, and deposited them onto glass plates that were swept through the spray plume to form strip samples. In-flight convection cooling of the droplets followed by conduction and convection cooling at the substrate resulted in rapid solidification of the deposit. During operation, the inside of the glove box was purged with an inert gas to limit the effects of in-flight oxidation of the particles and spray-formed strips, as well as to protect personnel from exposure to airborne lead particulate. Remote controls were used to start/stop the spray and control the speed and position of the substrate. In addition, substrate samples were loaded into the substrate translator manually using the gloved side ports of the box. In this way, the glove box remained closed during a series of spray trials, and was opened only when loading the crucible with a lead charge or when removing lead strip samples for shipment to JCI.

McHugh, K.

1996-04-10

319

Automotive Painting Technology A Monozukuri-Hitozukuri Perspective  

CERN Document Server

This book offers unique and valuable contributions to the field. It offers breadth and inclusiveness. Most existing works on automotive painting cover only a single aspect of this complex topic, such as the chemistry of paint or paint booth technology. Monozukuri and Hitozukuri are Japanese terms that can be translated as “making things” and “developing people” but their implications in Japanese are richer and more complex than this minimal translation would indicate. The Monozukuri-Hitozukuri perspective is drawn from essential principles on which the Toyota approach to problem-solving and continuous improvement is based. From this perspective, neither painting technology R&D nor painting technology use in manufacturing can be done successfully without integrating technological and human concerns involved with making and learning in the broadest sense, as the hyphen is meant to indicate. The editors provide case studies and examples -- drawn from Mr. Toda’s 33 years of experience with automotiv...

Salazar, Abraham; Saito, Kozo

2013-01-01

320

Preparation of Perfluorinated Surfactant Activates for Antifouling Paints  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antifouling paints are the most reliable way to prevent biofouling of submerged surfaces. The high toxicity of organotin paints, prompted us to look for ideas to develop paints that do not present environmental risks. In this work, we prepare a painting by a modification of acrylic acid monomer containing a free carboxyl group. The biocide that is selected is the perfluorinated chain with eight carbons. Chemical modifications of the resins are made through a radical reaction. The magnitudes of changes are monitored by proton nuclear magnetic resonance NMR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC and the light scattering (LS at a fixed angle 90?. The glass transition temperature of the surfactant is obtained by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The antifouling properties of the paint are followed by exposure of panels to the marine environment by visual observation.

A. Bacha

2012-10-01

321

Evaluation of iodine-benzoflavone and ruthenium tetroxide spray reagents for the detection of latent fingermarks at the crime scene.  

Science.gov (United States)

The performance of two spray reagents, iodine-benzoflavone and ruthenium tetroxide (RTX), was evaluated and compared with the conventional technique currently used at the crime scene, that is, powdering. Neither the spray techniques nor powdering were shown to be suitable for all surfaces and ages of marks tested. On some surfaces such as glass and treated wood, powdering was still the superior technique, whereas the spray techniques produced better development on wallpaper, vinyl, and brick. Sequencing work showed that RTX was incompatible with powdering and cyanoacrylate (with a rhodamine 6G stain). Iodine-benzoflavone can be used successfully either before or after powdering in a sequence; however, it was incompatible with cyanoacrylate. Two non-CFC formulations of iodine-benzoflavone using HFC4310mee and HFE7100 solvents were tested and shown not to be as effective as the original Arklone (CFC-113) formulation; however, the HFC4310mee solvent is recommended as the most suitable replacement solvent. Due to the expense of the commercial RTX spray, attempts at formulating a more cost-effective version were also carried out. A formulation was developed that gave comparable development to the commercial version but at a much cheaper cost, and with a shelf life of up to two months. Recommendations are presented for which techniques are suitable for different surfaces and ages of marks. Powdering was shown to be the best technique on all ages of marks tested on treated wood, glass, and also on marks aged three days and older on paint. Iodine-benzoflavone was the best technique on wallpaper, vinyl, brick, and raw wood. RTX was the best detection technique for fresh marks and marks aged up to one day on wallpaper and paint. PMID:15317184

Flynn, Katherine; Maynard, Philip; du Pasquier, Eric; Lennard, Chris; Stoilovic, Milutin; Roux, Claude

2004-07-01

322

Spraying angle and spray polydispersity in modeling of the aerodynamic characteristics of FGD towers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A model predicting aerodynamic characteristics of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber with polydispersed spray is developed on the basis of two-dimensional, nonstationary droplet motion. The model predicts pressure drop caused by the spray, the concentration of the dispersed phase, and its residence time in the system. A comparison of the results with those obtained from models assuming either monodispersed spray or solution carried out for polydispersed spray and vertical droplet motion is performed. The effects of spray polydispersity and two-dimensional droplet motion are discussed and explained.

Michalski, J.A. [Polish Academy of Science, Warsaw (Poland). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

2002-12-01

323

Modification of optoelectronic properties of sprayed CZTS thin films through spray rate variation  

Science.gov (United States)

Effect of spray rate on structural, optical and electrical properties of spray pyrolysed Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films was investigated. We deposited films by varying spray rate from 2 ml/min to 10 ml/min in steps of 2 ml/min. For very low and high spray rates presence of secondary phases could be observed while for the films prepared at a spray rate of 6 ml/min were devoid of secondary phases. As spray rate increases band gap decreased. Samples prepared at 6 ml/min had optimum band gap of 1.5 eV. All the samples were observed to be p-type. Resistivity values increased steadily up to 6 ml/min and then slightly decreased. From the present work, CZTS films prepared at a spray rate of 6 ml/min is found to be ideal for absorber layer in solar cell.

Rajeshmon, V. G.; Kartha, C. Sudha; Vijayakumar, K. P.

2014-04-01

324

PROPELLER WASH EFFECTS ON SPRAY DRIFT  

Science.gov (United States)

For aerial spray application, there is some question if off-target drift (both near and far) is influenced by which boom is spraying and the direction of propeller wash rotation. This information may be useful when switching off one boom close to a field boundary. The effect of alternate boom switch...

325

Spray Deflector For Water-Jet Machining  

Science.gov (United States)

Disk on water-jet-machining nozzle protects nozzle and parts behind it from erosion by deflected spray. Consists of stainless-steel backing with neoprene facing deflecting spray so it does not reach nut or other vital parts of water-jet apparatus.

Cawthon, Michael A.

1989-01-01

326

Accepted practices of thermal spray technology  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the fourth and final article in a series of articles dealing with the metallographic preparation and evaluation of thermal spray coatings. Previous articles have covered variables and best practices for the sectioning, mounting, and coarse grinding of coated components. In this article, the relationship between fine grinding and polishing practices, consumables, and resultant plasma spray coating structure are discussed.

Sobota, Lori

2006-06-01

327

Spray drying of liquid radioactive wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full scale performance tests of a Koch spray dryer were conducted on simulated liquid radioactive waste streams. The liquid feeds simulated the solutions that result from radwaste incineration of DAW an ion exchange resins, as well as evaporator bottoms. The integration of the spray dryer into a complete system is discussed

328

Study of the painting methods of mural paintings in ancient tombs of Goguryeo using scanning electron microscope.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disputes on the painting methods of Goguryeo murals can mainly be categorized into whether the murals adapted eastern secco or western fresco; however, the murals have their own unique methods as well. There are different viewpoints among experts on interpreting the painting methods. This study involved the creation of research samples to discover the painting methods under dispute and may help discover the methods based on scanning electron microscopy energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) studies. Goguryeo murals introduced pseudo-fresco rather than buon fresco methods. Unlike fresco techniques in the West, Goguryeo painters mixed traditional soft binders and adapted typical secco painting techniques for paintings, borders, and corrections after drying. The disputed issues may be resolved by these techniques, and samples may be produced based on the analyzed data. Therefore, many questions can finally be answered through SEM-EDX elemental mapping. PMID:23920197

Han, Kyeongsoon; Lee, Sangjin; Lee, Hwasoo

2013-08-01

329

Corneal abrasions associated with pepper spray exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pepper spray containing oleoresin capsicum is used by law enforcement and the public as a form of nonlethal deterrent. Stimulated by the identification of a case of a corneal abrasion associated with pepper spray exposure, a descriptive retrospective review of a physician-maintained log of patients presenting to a jail ward emergency area over a 3-year period was performed. The objective was to give some quantification to the frequency with which an emergency physician could expect to see corneal abrasions associated with pepper spray exposure. Of 100 cases of pepper spray exposure identified, seven patients had sustained corneal abrasions. We conclude that corneal abrasions are not rare events when patients are exposed to pepper spray and that fluorescein staining and slit lamp or Wood's lamp examination should be performed on all exposed patients in whom corneal abrasions cannot be excluded on clinical grounds. PMID:10830682

Brown, L; Takeuchi, D; Challoner, K

2000-05-01

330

EVALUATION AND QUALITY CONTROL OF NASAL SPRAY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nasal drug delivery has now been recognized as a very promising route for delivery of therapeutic compounds including biopharmaceuticals. This route is also advisable for drugs undergoing extensive first pass effect. The present article highlights the evaluation parameters of nasal spray, suspension, and solutions. While formulating the nasal drug delivery formulations various parameters are to be consider such as Appearance, Color, and Clarity, Identification, Drug content (Assay, Impurities and Degradation Products, Preservative(s and Stabilizing Excipient(s Assay, Pump Delivery, Spray content uniformity, Spray Content Uniformity (SCU through Container Life, Spray Pattern and Plume Geometry, Droplet Size Distribution, Particle size distribution (suspension,  Microscopic Evaluation (Suspensions, Foreign Particulates,  Microbial limit,  Preservative Effectiveness, Net Content and Weight Loss (Stability, Leachables (Stability, PH, Osmolality.   Key words: Nasal spray, Evaluation, Quality control, Drug delivery system.

Ramesh Shankarrao Kalkotwar

2012-07-01

331

Time-based ensemble scattering measurements in fuel sprays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that knowledge of droplet size in sprays is important for spray combustion, pesticide and herbicide spraying, spray cooling, fire sprinklers, and many other industrial applications. The importance of measuring and evaluating time-varying information in sprays can be critical to the performance of these spray systems. For example, gas turbine and rocket motor stability is dependent on suppression of combustor frequencies which alter the atomization characteristics of the spray. High-speed movies of the atomization process have shown that steady sprays are not uniform in time but can contain clusters of droplets. Droplet clustering may have significant ramifications in combustion applications for soot production. Another time-dependent phenomenon observed in airblast-atomized sprays is a rapid change is spray angle known as fluttering. To study such phenomena, an ensemble light scattering technique was used to obtain time-resolved information on droplet mean size and number density in sprays where similar temporal features have been observed

332

'Dose-painting': Myth or reality?; 'Dose-painting': mythe ou realite?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

'Dose-painting' radiotherapy allows for a heterogeneous delivery of radiation within the tumour volume by targeting radioresistant areas defined by functional imaging. Within gross tumour volume, it is possible to define one or more target volumes based on biology (biological target volume [BTV]) and to apply a strategy of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) that will deliver a higher dose to these regions. In this review of the literature, we will highlight the biological elements responsible for radioresistance, and how to image them, then we will detail the radiotherapy techniques necessary for this approach, before presenting clinical results in various situations (head and neck tumours, prostate, brain tumours, etc.). Despite many difficulties that make dose-painting IMRT unusable in routine nowadays, biology-guided radiation therapy represents one of the major pathways of development of radiotherapy in the coming years. (authors)

Supiot, S.; Paris, F. [Service de radiotherapie, centre Rene-Gauducheau, 44 - Nantes-St-Herblain (France); Centre de recherche sur le cancer Nantes-Angers (CRCNA), institut de recherche therapeutique, universite de Nantes, 44 - Nantes (France); Inserm UMR 892, 44 - Nantes (France); Lisbona, A. [Centre de recherche sur le cancer Nantes-Angers (CRCNA), institut de recherche therapeutique, universite de Nantes, 44 - Nantes (France); Inserm UMR 892, 44 - Nantes (France); Service de radiophysique, centre Rene-Gauducheau, 44 - Nantes-St-Herblain (France); Azria, D. [Service de radiotherapie, centre Val d' Aurelle Paul-Lamarque, 34 - Montpellier (France); Fenoglietto, P. [Service de radiophysique, centre Val d' Aurelle Paul-Lamarque, 34 - Montpellier (France)

2010-10-15

333

Toluene removal by oxidation reaction in spray wet scrubber: experimental, modeling and optimization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Toluene, an important volatile organic compound (VOC, is used in many kinds of industries, such as painting, printing, coating, and petrochemical industries. The emission of toluene causes serious air pollution, odor problem, flammability problem and affects human health. This paper proposes the removal of toluene from waste air using a spray wet scrubber combining the absorption and oxidation reaction. Aqueous sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl solution was used as the scrubbing liquid in the system. NaOCl, the strongest oxidative agent, presents an effective toluene removal. As the scrubbed toluene is reacted, recirculation of the scrubbing liquid could be operated with a constant removal efficiency throughout the operting time. The investigated variables affecting the removal efficiency were air flow rate, inlet toluene concentration, NaOCl concentration, scrubbing liquid flow rate and size of spray nozzle. Influence of the scrubbing parameters was experimentally studied to develop a mathematical model of the toluene removal efficiency. The removal model reveals that the increase of scrubbing liquid flow rate, toluene concentration, and NaOCl concentration together with the decrease of air flow rate and size of spray nozzle can increase the toluene removal efficiency. Optimization problem with an objective function and constraints was set to provide the maximum toluene removal efficiency and solved by Matlab optimization toolbox. The optimization constraints were formed from the mathematical model and process limitation. The solution of the optimization was an air flow rate of 100 m3/h, toluene concentration of 1500 ppm, NaOCl concentration of 0.02 mol/l, NaOCl solution feed rate of 0.8 m3/h, and spray nozzle size of 0.5 mm. Solution of the optimization gave the highest toluene removal efficiency of 91.7%.

Roumporn Nikom

2006-11-01

334

Multiplexed 3D Cellular Super-Resolution Imaging with DNA-PAINT and Exchange-PAINT  

OpenAIRE

While super-resolution fluorescence microscopy is a powerful tool for biological research, obtaining multiplexed images for a large number of distinct target species remains challenging. Here we use the transient binding of short fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides (DNA-PAINT, point accumulation for imaging in nanoscale topography) for simple and easy-to-implement multiplexed 3D super-resolution imaging inside fixed cells and achieve sub-10 nm spatial resolution in vitro using synthetic DN...

Jungmann, R.; Avendano, M. S.; Woehrstein, J. B.; Dai, M.; Shih, W. M.; Yin, P.

2014-01-01

335

Paint compositions for indicating irradiation dose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paint compositions for indicating irradiation dose are prepared from chlorine-combined polyester, 5 to 30 percent by weight of a reductive discoloring substance or a mixture of said substances, and/or 0.005 to 2.0 percent by weight of a reducing dyestuff or a mixture of said dyestuffs, in which said chlorine-combined polyester is obtained by a chlorinated dibasic acid or its anhydride as an acid component or a part of an acid component selected from a group consisting of 3-chlorophthalic acid, 4-chlorophthalic acid, dichlorinated phthalic acid, tetrachlorophthalic acid, 1,4,5,6,7,7-hexachlorobicyclo-(2,2,1)-5-heptene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, 4-chloro-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboxylic acid and the anhydrides corresponding to said acids. (auth)

336

A radiation polymerizable paint and applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention relates to a radiation polymerizable paint which to the exclusion of any non-polymerizable solvent, pigment initiator or particulate filler essentially comprises a binder solution: from about 90 to 10 parts of a saturated vinylic thermoplastic polymer (prepared from at least 85% by weight monofunctional vinylic monomers), from about 10 to 90 parts of monofunctional vinylic solvents for the vinylic polymer (at least 10% and, preferably, at least 30% by weight of the solvent monomers being selected from the group comprising divinylic monomers, trivinylic monomers, tetravinylic monomers and mixtures) and from about 0.05 to 1.0 part, for a total amount of 100 parts of thermoplastic vinylic polymer and of solvent vinylic monomers, of a phosphoric acid mono- or di-ester with one or several vinyl unsaturated sites. That high quality coating composition adheres remarkably to a variety of supports, in particular metals, including metals deposited in the vapor phase

337

'Amarna blue' painted on ancient Egyptian pottery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Amarna blue' pigments (18 Dynasty, c. 1400 BC) painted on pottery fragments were investigated using the PIXE, XRF and XRD methods in laboratories and also using a portable type of X-ray spectrometer at the sites of excavation. On the blue-colored part enrichment of Na, Al, S, Cl, Ca, Mn, Co, Ni and Zn was found using X-ray spectroscopy, and CaSO4, NaCl and Co(M)Al2O4, M denoting Mn, Fe, Ni and Zn, were found by the help of X-ray diffraction. This means that Amarna blue is a mixture of CaSO4 and Co(M)Al2O4, at least in part

338

``Amarna blue'' painted on ancient Egyptian pottery  

Science.gov (United States)

"Amarna blue" pigments (18 Dynasty, c. 1400 BC) painted on pottery fragments were investigated using the PIXE, XRF and XRD methods in laboratories and also using a portable type of X-ray spectrometer at the sites of excavation. On the blue-colored part enrichment of Na, Al, S, Cl, Ca, Mn, Co, Ni and Zn was found using X-ray spectroscopy, and CaSO 4, NaCl and Co(M)Al 2O 4, M denoting Mn, Fe, Ni and Zn, were found by the help of X-ray diffraction. This means that Amarna blue is a mixture of CaSO 4 and Co(M)Al 2O 4, at least in part.

Uda, M.; Nakamura, M.; Yoshimura, S.; Kondo, J.; Saito, M.; Shirai, Y.; Hasegawa, S.; Baba, Y.; Ikeda, K.; Ban, Y.; Matsuo, A.; Tamada, M.; Sunaga, H.; Oshio, H.; Yamashita, D.; Nakajima, Y.; Utaka, T.

2002-04-01

339

Laser cleaning of steel for paint removal  

Science.gov (United States)

Paint removal is an important part of steel processing for marine and offshore engineering. For centuries, a blasting techniques have been widely used for this surface preparation purpose. But conventional blasting always has intrinsic problems, such as noise, explosion risk, contaminant particles, vibration, and dust. In addition, processing wastes often cause environmental problems. In recent years, laser cleaning has attracted much research effort for its significant advantages, such as precise treatment, and high selectivity and flexibility in comparison with conventional cleaning techniques. In the present study, we use this environmentally friendly technique to overcome the problems of conventional blasting. Processed samples are examined with optical microscopes and other surface characterization tools. Experimental results show that laser cleaning can be a good alternative candidate to conventional blasting.

Chen, G. X.; Kwee, T. J.; Tan, K. P.; Choo, Y. S.; Hong, M. H.

2010-11-01

340

Photonic Paint Developed with Metallic Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work details the design and simulation of an inconspicuous photonic paint that can be applied onto an object for anticounterfeit and tag, track, and locate (TTL applications. The paint consists of three-dimensional metallic tilted woodpile photonic crystals embedded into a visible and infrared transparent polymer film, which can be applied to almost any surface. The tilted woodpile photonic crystals are designed with a specific pass band detectable at nearly all incident angles of light. When painted onto a surface, these crystals provide a unique reflective infra-red optical signature that can be easily observed and recorded to verify the location or contents of a package.

John D. Williams

2012-07-01

341

Rock paintings of mammals at Central, Bahia, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rock paintings of mammals have been studied in five of the 243 localities contained within the 270,000 km² Archeological Region of Central, Bahia. From features of external morphology, it was possible to recognize 11 mammals represented in the paintings: for five, to attribute the species; another five, the genera; and, for one, merely the family. This study aims to underline the importance of prehistoric man's contribution, by way of these rock paintings, to our knowledge of the mammals depicted, both taxonomically and in terms of their distribution within the bounds of the Project in the State of Bahia.

Maria da Conceição de M.C. Beltrão

1993-01-01

342

Rock paintings of mammals at Central, Bahia, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Rock paintings of mammals have been studied in five of the 243 localities contained within the 270,000 km² Archeological Region of Central, Bahia. From features of external morphology, it was possible to recognize 11 mammals represented in the paintings: for five, to attribute the species; another f [...] ive, the genera; and, for one, merely the family. This study aims to underline the importance of prehistoric man's contribution, by way of these rock paintings, to our knowledge of the mammals depicted, both taxonomically and in terms of their distribution within the bounds of the Project in the State of Bahia.

Maria da Conceição de M.C., Beltrão; Martha, Locks.

343

PMT signal increase using a wavelength shifting paint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report a 1.65 times increase of the PMT signal and a simple procedure of application of a new wavelength shifting (WLS) paint for PMTs with non-UV transparent windows. Samples of four different WLS paints, made from hydro- carbon polymers and organic fluors, were tested on a 5-inch PMT (ET 9390KB) using Cherenkov radiation produced in fused silica disks by 106Ru electrons on a table-top setup. The best performing paint was employed on two different types of 5-inch PMTs (ET 9390KB and XP4572B), installed in atmospheric pressure CO2 gas Cherenkov detectors, and tested using GeV electrons.

Allada, K; Hurlbut, Ch; Ou, L; Schmookler, B; Shahinyan, A; Wojtsekhowski, B

2015-05-01

344

Studies on some Indian paints for radiochemical plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The choice of paints in areas subjected to contamination and radiation in nuclear installation need special attention. The types of generic coatings are examined with reference to these requirements. Among those examined, certain types of epoxy paints are found to be attractive for these applications. Samples of epoxy paints obtained from some Indian manufacturers are tested for their suitability. Decontaminability and radiation resistance properties are also evaluated with special reference to radiochemical plants. Important specifications for such applications are listed. This report summarizes the results of these studies. (author)

345

Trends in the automotive paint industry for corrosion protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since many years ED-paints are protecting car bodies against corrosion. Currently the automotive paint industry is faced with increasing demands of higher levels of corrosion protection and also requests to comply with new environmental regulations and economical pressures. Some key factors that contributed significantly towards the improvement of corrosion protection systems are: - New generations of lead free ED-paints; - Weldable organic thin film for corrosion protection, especially in box cavities and flange areas. The goal of this paper is to show how the various elements of the 'anti-corrosion package' interact. (authors)

Blandin, Nathalie; Brunat, William [PPG Industries France, 3 Z.A.E. Les Dix Muids, B.P. 89, F-59583 Marly (France); Neuhaus, Ralf [PPG Industries Lacke GmbH, Stackenbergstrasse 34, D-42329 Wuppertal (Germany); Sibille, Ettore [PPG Industries Italia, Via Serra11, I-15028 Quattordio (Italy)

2004-07-01

346

Study of multilayers by PIXE technique. Application to paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article we propose the application of a new algorithm to determine the concentration profile of colour pigments in painting. This is performed by PIXE technique at different proton energies. The algorithm is based on the singular value decomposition of the matrix obtained by discretization of the integral equation for the concentration profile. To check this method, many paint multilayers of acrylic colours were prepared. First results obtained from different experiments at the AGLAE accelerator in the Palais du Louvre at Paris are presented: the nature and the thickness of each colour layer were determined with a good agreement. The analysis of easel paintings is in progress.

Brissaud, Ivan; Lagarde, Gérard; Midy, Pierre

1996-08-01

347

Method for warning of radiological and chemical agents using detection paints on a vehicle surface  

Science.gov (United States)

A paint that warns of radiological or chemical substances comprising a paint operatively connected to the surface, an indicator material carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances, and a thermo-activation material carried by the paint. In one embodiment, a method of warning of radiological or chemical substances comprising the steps of painting a surface with an indicator material, and monitoring the surface for indications of the radiological or chemical substances. In another embodiment, a paint is operatively connected to a vehicle and an indicator material is carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances.

Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA); Brunk, James L. (Martinez, CA); Day, S. Daniel (Danville, CA)

2012-03-27

348

Aerial vehicle with paint for detection of radiological and chemical warfare agents  

Science.gov (United States)

A paint that warns of radiological or chemical substances comprising a paint operatively connected to the surface, an indicator material carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances, and a thermo-activation material carried by the paint. In one embodiment, a method of warning of radiological or chemical substances comprising the steps of painting a surface with an indicator material, and monitoring the surface for indications of the radiological or chemical substances. In another embodiment, a paint is operatively connected to a vehicle and an indicator material is carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances.

Farmer, Joseph C.; Brunk, James L.; Day, S. Daniel

2013-04-02

349

On the modeling of fuel sprays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report concerns on the modelling of fuel sprays in a non-combustible case using an own developed fuel spray code module. The spray code is made as an independent module to simplify the use of different gas flow solvers together with the spray module. This enables the possibility to use different turbulence models. In the report two turbulence models has been used, the standard k-{epsilon} and the LES (Large Eddy Simulation) model. The report presents results obtained from a sensitivity study of both numerical and physical parameters on an evaporating spray under diesel like conditions (light duty diesel engine) with the spray code module attached to a cylindrical gas phase flow solver. The results from the sensitivity analysis showed that these effects were not so pronounced as has been reported. It was suggested that this was due to the `easy` nature of the investigated case, where the flow field could be sufficiently resolved without violating the droplet void fraction criteria and break-up, collision and combustion that may increase the grid spacing sensitivity were not modelled. An investigation was performed to valuate the feasibility of using LES as turbulence model. Calculations of the initial phase of a developing jet were made and it was found that in the initial phase of the spray and the flow structure were similar to that of a spatially developing jet flow, which is in agreement with experimental observations. Results from LES calculations on a developing spray jet was also compared with k-{epsilon} based ones. This result showed that the spray-LES approach captured the transition from a laminar to a turbulent flow field with an increase in turbulent kinetic energy k along the injection direction 45 refs, 37 figs, 2 tabs

Bergstroem, Christer

1997-12-01

350

Large-scale sodium spray fire code validation (SOFICOV) test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A large-scale, sodium, spray fire code validation test was performed in the HEDL 850-m3 Containment System Test Facility (CSTF) as part of the Sodium Spray Fire Code Validation (SOFICOV) program. Six hundred fifty eight kilograms of sodium spray was sprayed in an air atmosphere for a period of 2400 s. The sodium spray droplet sizes and spray pattern distribution were estimated. The containment atmosphere temperature and pressure response, containment wall temperature response and sodium reaction rate with oxygen were measured. These results are compared to post-test predictions using SPRAY and NACOM computer codes

351

Reactor Containment Spray Technology Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design basis accident in water moderated power reactors is a loss-of-coolant accident in which water sprays are generally employed to control the containment pressure transient by condensing the released steam-air mixture. Additives to the spray have been proposed as a way to increase their usefulness by enhancing the removal of various forms of radioiodine from the containment atmosphere. A program to investigate the gas-liquid systems involved is co-ordinated by ORNL for the US Atomic Energy Commission. A basic part of the program is the search for various chemical additives that will increase the spray affinity for molecular iodine and methyl iodide. A method for evaluating additives was developed that measures equilibrium distribution coefficients for iodine between air and aqueous solutions. Additives selected are used in single drop-wind tunnel experiments where the circulating gas contains iodine or CH3I. Mass transfer coefficients and transient distribution coefficients have been determined as a function of relative humidity, temperature, drop size, and solution pH and concentration. Tests have shown that surfactants and organic amines increase the solution ability to getter CH3l. Results from single drop tests help in planning spray experiments in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant, a large (?38 m3) facility, where accident conditions are closely simulated. Iodine and CH3I removal rates have been determined for a emoval rates have been determined for a number of solutions, including 1 wt% Na2S2O3 + 3000 ppm B + 0.153 M NaOH and 3000 ppm B + 0.153 M NaOH. The additive has very little effect in removal of I2 with half-lives of less than 1 mm typical for any aqueous solution. These same solutions remove CH3I with a half-life of one hour. Analytical models for the removal processes have been developed. Consideration is also being given to corrosion, thermal and radiation stability of the solutions. Radiation studies have indicated the loss of I2 equivalence, change in pH, solids formation, and H2 generation for accident doses. The 1 wt% Na2S2O3 + 3000 ppm B + 0.153 M NaOH produces 2.6 x 10-1cm3/ml of H2 at a dose of 4 x 107R with a gas-to-liquid ratio of 25. Dose rate has no effect on the H2 production under the same conditions, while the addition of 1 wt% [NO3] reduced the H2 production by a factor of 2. The study of H2 generation has been expanded due to the relatively large amounts produced. (author)

352

Laser Doppler velocimeter aerial spray measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

An experimental research program for measuring the location, spatial extent, and relative concentration of airborne spray clouds generated by agricultural aircraft is described. The measurements were conducted with a ground-based laser Doppler velocimeter. The remote sensing instrumentation, experimental tests, and the results of the flight tests are discussed. The cross section of the aerial spray cloud and the observed location, extent, and relative concentration of the airborne particulates are presented. It is feasible to use a mobile laser Doppler velocimeter to track and monitor the transport and dispersion of aerial spray generated by an agricultural aircraft.

Zalay, A. D.; Eberle, W. R.; Howle, R. E.; Shrider, K. R.

1978-01-01

353

Thermal conductivity of plasma-sprayed molybdenum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thermal conductivity of plasma-sprayed molybdenum was measured in the temperature range between 1,300 and 2,300 K. There is a distinct dependence of the values of thermal conductivity on the preceding annealing temperature. If the annealing temperature is increased, the values rise by evaporation of the oxide impurities (caused by the manufacturing process). The sample structure is changed, too. The laminated constitution characteristic of untreated samples turns to a grained structure. No dependence on the spray parameters used in manufacturing (grain size, spraying distance) was found. (orig.)

354

REACH exposure assessment of anticorrosive paint products--determination of exposure from application and service life to the aquatic environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The European Community Regulation on the registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals (REACH) introduced exposure scenarios describing safe use quantitatively, and enhancing the importance of scientific based exposure assessments. This paper presents methods to determine exposure from the airless spray application of anti-corrosive paint and leaching of painted articles submerged in seawater, to establish whether it is possible to test these exposures in a reproducible and feasible way. The paper also presents results from using the methods in order to assess how well the default values recommended under REACH coincide with the tested values and corresponding values available in literature. The methods used were feasible under laboratory conditions. The reproducibility of the application study was shown to be good and all analyses of the leaching showed concentrations below detection limit. More replicates will be required to validate the reproducibility of the growth inhibition tests. Measured values for the present overspray scenario were between, and the leaching values below, values from REACH guidelines and emission scenario documents. Further development of the methods is recommended. PMID:21964505

Gade, Anne Lill; Heiaas, Harald; Thomas, Kevin; Hylland, Ketil

2011-12-01

355

SPRAY APPLICATIONS TO TOMATO PLANTS IN GREENHOUSES. PART 2: EFFECT OF SPRAY LANCE TYPE  

OpenAIRE

The present paper reports the results of some spray application trials carried out in a greenhouse with full developed tomato plants to assess foliar deposition, ground losses, and dermal operator exposure when using handheld high pressure spray lances and when walking backwards during treatments. Two spray lance types (conventional with one nozzle and Yamaho C-6 with two steel nozzles, each with two orifices) and two working pressures (10 and 20 bar) were taken into consideration. An experim...

Giuseppe Manetto; Giuseppe Emma; Emanuele Cerruto

2009-01-01

356

Behaviour of painted aluminium in Ibero-American atmosphere  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aluminium generally presents good corrosion resistance to the atmosphere. However, unprotected aluminium and aluminium alloys weather outdoors to an ugly grey colour, which deepens to black in industrial atmospheres, and undergo superficial pitting in marine atmospheres, etc. Finishing technologies are applied for their protection and decoration in a wide range of applications. These technologies basically consist of two protection processes: anodizing and painting: the latter going from conventional solvent base paints to modern water-born, high solids and powder coatings. This paper considers the weathering performance of three paint systems: alkyl, polyurethane and polyester, after more than three years of exposure in a wide spectra of Ibero-American atmospheric conditions. The information reported includes resistance to undercutting corrosion at the scribe, filiform corrosion, fungal attack and change in the physico-chemical properties of the paint surface (loss of gloss, colour changes, chalking, etc.). (Author) 9 refs

357

Chromatic changes on the wall paintings in Sanderum Church (Denmark)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper describes observations and results of analyses undertaken to find explanations for several phenomena affecting the colours on the Gothic wall paintings in Sanderum Church (Denmark). Paintings have been exposed on four webs of the chancel vault and one web in the nave since 1882. Three additional webs have recently been uncovered, enabling a comparison of the new un-restored scenes with the previously restored scenes. A general weakening affecting all colours was observed on the newly exposed paintings due to the limewashing and uncovering process. In addition, specific deterioration phenomena affecting the black contour lines, copper pigments and red lead were examined. The study also focuses on the lack of confirmed binding medium in the colours. Scientific analyses were augmented with tests performed on dummy paintings and limewashed tiles.

Brajer, Isabelle Eve; Christensen, Mads Christian

2011-01-01

358

POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES IN THE MANUFACTURE OF PAINT AND COATINGS  

Science.gov (United States)

The paints and coatings industry is rapidly changing to meet environmental and economic pressures. ome of the changes include new coating formulations, higher performance finishes with improved properties, continued development of new technologies, and new application methods wit...

359

Tungsten/copper composite deposits produced by a cold spray  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An agglomerated tungsten/copper composite powder was both cold sprayed and plasma sprayed onto a mild steel substrate for electronic package applications. Most pores resulting from the spraying were found in the vicinity of the tungsten-rich regions of the final product. The levels of porosity varied with the amount of tungsten present. No copper oxidation was found at the cold-sprayed deposit, but relatively high copper oxidation was observed at the plasma-sprayed deposit

360

Development of improved cold spray and HVOF deposited coatings  

OpenAIRE

The overall aim of this research project was to expand the understanding of the deposition of titanium and the nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718 by spray deposition methods. The spray processes employed were cold spraying and high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying. The first part of the work was undertaken to expand the understanding of the deposition of titanium by cold spraying; the HVOF process is unsuitable for Ti because of the metal's high reactivity. The deposits were pro...

Marrocco, Tiziana

2008-01-01

361

Atomic Oxygen Removes Varnish And Lacquer From Old Paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

Dry and relatively nondestructive plasma process found effective in removing protective coats from old paintings. Process generates monatomic oxygen, which reacts with varnish, lacquer, polyurethane, acrylic, and other organic coating materials; reactions produce mostly carbon monoxide and water vapor, then simply pumped away by vacuum system in which plasma generated. Does not attack oxide-based pigments in underlying paint layers, and brush-stroke marks remain undisturbed.

Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Cales, Michael

1996-01-01

362

Discrimination of paint emission using an electronic nose  

OpenAIRE

Several paints of two types were chosen to assess an air quality monitoring tool based on an electronic nose. We are trying to improve the discrimination capability of the system by means of pattern recognition techniques. The electronic nose we use is based on conducting polymer sensors. The paint samples were acquired using an acquisition protocol that was previously defined and a data base was constituted.

Ramalho, Olivier; Regoui, Chaouki; Kirchner, Se?verine

1997-01-01

363

Beauty in abstract paintings: perceptual contrast and statistical properties  

OpenAIRE

In this study, we combined the behavioral and objective approach in the field of empirical aesthetics. First, we studied the perception of beauty by investigating shifts in evaluation on perceived beauty of abstract artworks (Experiment 1). Because the participants showed heterogeneous individual preferences for the paintings, we divided them into seven clusters for the test. The experiment revealed a clear pattern of perceptual contrast. The perceived beauty of abstract paintings increased a...

Christoph Redies

2014-01-01

364

An advanced analytical study on linseed oil paint binder  

OpenAIRE

Drying oils, and in particular linseed oil, were the most common binding media employed in painting between XVI and XIX centuries. Artists usually operated some pre-treatments on the oils to obtain binders with modified properties, such as different handling qualities or colour. Oil processing has a key role on the subsequent ageing of and degradation of linseed oil paints. In this thesis a multi-analytical approach was adopted to investigate the drying, polymerization and oxidative degra...

Selleri, Paola

2011-01-01

365

Evaluation of Water Resistance and Diffusion Properties of Paint Materials  

OpenAIRE

A simple method is presented for evaluating the water-proofness quality of paints on lining materials. The method is based on measuring the integral capillarity in dependence on time, and then comparing this value to the value determined for the basic lining material. Measurements of the effective water vapor permeability then provide information on the risk of condensation which may increase after applying the paint. A practical application of the method is performed with four Karlocolor pai...

Drchalova?, J.; Pode?bradska?, J.; Made?ra, J.; C?erny?, R.

2001-01-01

366

Photonic Paint Developed with Metallic Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals  

OpenAIRE

This work details the design and simulation of an inconspicuous photonic paint that can be applied onto an object for anticounterfeit and tag, track, and locate (TTL) applications. The paint consists of three-dimensional metallic tilted woodpile photonic crystals embedded into a visible and infrared transparent polymer film, which can be applied to almost any surface. The tilted woodpile photonic crystals are designed with a specific pass band detectable at nearly all incident angles of light...

Williams, John D.; Po Sun

2012-01-01

367

A study of paint sludge deactivation by pyrolysis reactions  

OpenAIRE

The production of large quantities of paint sludge is a serious environmental problem. This work evaluates the use of pyrolysis reaction as a process for deactivating paint sludge that generates a combustible gas phase, a solvent liquid phase and an inert solid phase. These wastes were classified into three types: water-based solvent (latex resin) and solvents based on their resins (alkyd and polyurethane). An electrically heated stainless steel batch reactor with a capacity of 579 mL and a m...

Muniz, L. A. R.; Costa, A. R.; Steffani, E.; Zattera, A. J.; Hofsetz, K.; Bossardi, K.; Valentini, L.

2003-01-01

368

ATTAINING THE ROOM COMFORT BY SOLAR REFLECTIVE PAINT  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this research was to provide the Room comfort by means of Solar Reflective Paint (SRP) on the roof and thereby reducing the consumption of electrical energy. Solar heat diffuses through roof into the room resulting in human discomfort. Human discomfort leads to the usage of electrical energy. Valuable energy has to be conserved. Three different samples of solar reflective paint were collected and their properties were studied. The sample suitable for the research was selected...

Sekar, M.; Sakthivel, M.; Satheesh Kumar, S.; Ramesh, C.

2012-01-01

369

Numerical Simulation of Bi-component Droplet Evaporation and Dispersion in Spray and Spray Drying  

OpenAIRE

Spray drying is one of the most widely used drying techniques to convert liquid feed into a dry powder. The modeling of spray flows and spray drying has been studied for many years now, to determine the characteristics of the end products, e.g. particle size, shape, density or porosity. So far, the simulation of polymer or sugar solution spray drying has not been studied because drying behavior as well as properties are unknown. Previous studies concentrated on the systems of milk, salt solut...

Gopireddy, Srikanth Reddy

2013-01-01

370

Large area impingement spray cooling from multiple normal and inclined spray nozzles  

Science.gov (United States)

An inclined spray chamber with four multiple nozzles to cool a 1 kW 6U electronic test card has been designed and tested in this study. The multiple inclined sprays can cover the same heated surface area as that with the multiple normal sprays but halve the volume of the spray chamber. The spray cooling system used R134a as a working fluid in a modified refrigeration cycle. It is observed that increasing mass flow rate and pressure drop across the nozzles improved the heat transfer coefficient with a maximum enhancement of 117 %, and reduced the maximum temperature difference at the heated surface from 13.8 to 8.4 °C in the inclined spray chamber with a heat flux of 5.25 W/cm2, while the heat transfer coefficient of the normal spray increased with a maximum enhancement of 215 % and the maximum temperature difference decreased from 10.8 to 5.4 °C under similar operating conditions. We conclude that the multiple inclined sprays could produce a higher heat transfer coefficient but with an increase in non-uniformity of the surface temperature compared with the multiple normal sprays.

Yan, Z. B.; Duan, F.; Wong, T. N.; Toh, K. C.; Choo, K. F.; Chan, P. K.; Chua, Y. S.; Lee, L. W.

2013-07-01

371

Characterization of paint layers and stained glasses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to the higher magnification with respect to traditional optical microscopes, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been extensively applied in recent years to the investigation of elemental composition of many different types of artistic objects. The back-scattered and secondary electrons produced when the SEM electron beam hits the sample can be detected and converted in electronic signals which give rise to images of the scanned area. These images can be recorded in digital format and stored on a computer for subsequent processing. Moreover, in addition to the back-scattered and secondary electrons, the impact of the electron beam on the sample produces a X-ray spectrum, which can be further processed and analysed using an X-ray spectrometer coupled to the SEM. Therefore, it is possible to yield the chemical composition of the sample, analogously to the X-ray fluorescence analysis. Moreover, the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can be applied to the characterization of paint layers, making ultra-thin sections in which the paint and ground layers are preserved intact. In comparison with usual SEM measurements, the TEM technique is more precise, because of the higher spatial resolution in both the microanalysis and diffraction modes, of the order of 10-20 nm. This precision allows unique identification of each component in the layer and determination of the crystallographic structure, thus characterizing even the smallest particles of each pigment and pe smallest particles of each pigment and pointing out minor components. It is then possible to establish whether a pigment is natural, manufactured, its origin as well as approximate datations. In this work, we describe the research activities performed in the laboratory recently established at the ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technology, Energy and Environment) Applied Physics Division, where dedicated SEM and TEM are connected by a suitable imaging system to a powerful computing system for image acquisition and processing. Use has been made of the so available instruments, of both the hardware and developed software, to investigate some frescoes and stained glasses of XIV-XV centuries in the Basilica of St.Petronio in Bologna, in order to study the manufacturing techniques as well as to determine whether repairs have been carried out or substitutions made of damaged parts in the past times. (author)

372

Radiocarbon determinations for Chillagoe rock paintings: small sample AMS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Indirect dating methods have been applied to the rock paintings of Chillagoe, north Queensland, revealing patterns of superimposition, depictions of items of known antiquity, the use of fragile paints such as mud, and in-situ pigment stratigraphies (David 1994). These patterns suggest that the Chillagoe rock paintings are relatively young, likely less than 3000 years old. A change in the geographical distribution of rock painting styles suggests a regionalization of the styles starting around 3000 years BP. Such regionalization implies that major cultural changes accompanied the changes in rock painting styles. This model of temporal change is now being investigated through a collaboration between the University of Queensland, ANSTO and the Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University to directly analyze radiocarbon in the charcoal pigments in several of the Chillagoe rock paintings. Samples collected from fourteen separate charcoal rock drawings at five rock shelters in the Chillagoe region were submitted to plasma chemical treatment. Though unreactive, the excited and energetic argon atoms in the plasma remove surface-absorbed CO{sub 2} through inelastic collisions. Samples yielding less than 100 micrograms carbon required special handling for AMS analysis. An isotope dilution technique utilizing {sup 14}C-free carbon was chosen. Radiocarbon analysis were also performed and the results will be presented. Paper No. 25; 2 refs., 1 tab.

Armitage, R.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M. W. [Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas (United States). Department of Chemistry; David, B. [Queensland Univ St. Lucia, QLD (Australia); Tuniz, C.; Lawson, E.; Jacobsen, G.; Hua, G. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

1997-12-31

373

Radiocarbon determinations for Chillagoe rock paintings: small sample AMS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indirect dating methods have been applied to the rock paintings of Chillagoe, north Queensland, revealing patterns of superimposition, depictions of items of known antiquity, the use of fragile paints such as mud, and in-situ pigment stratigraphies (David 1994). These patterns suggest that the Chillagoe rock paintings are relatively young, likely less than 3000 years old. A change in the geographical distribution of rock painting styles suggests a regionalization of the styles starting around 3000 years BP. Such regionalization implies that major cultural changes accompanied the changes in rock painting styles. This model of temporal change is now being investigated through a collaboration between the University of Queensland, ANSTO and the Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University to directly analyze radiocarbon in the charcoal pigments in several of the Chillagoe rock paintings. Samples collected from fourteen separate charcoal rock drawings at five rock shelters in the Chillagoe region were submitted to plasma chemical treatment. Though unreactive, the excited and energetic argon atoms in the plasma remove surface-absorbed CO2 through inelastic collisions. Samples yielding less than 100 micrograms carbon required special handling for AMS analysis. An isotope dilution technique utilizing 14C-free carbon was chosen. Radiocarbon analysis were also performed and the results will be presented

374

Experiencing art: the influence of expertise and painting abstraction level  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How does expertise influence the perception of representational and abstract paintings? We asked 20 experts on art history and 20 laypersons to explore and evaluate a series of paintings ranging in style from representational to abstract in five categories. We compared subjective aesthetic judgments and emotional evaluations, gaze patterns, and electrodermal reactivity between the two groups of participants. The level of abstraction affected aesthetic judgments and emotional valence ratings of the laypersons but had no effect on the opinions of the experts: the laypersons’ aesthetic and emotional ratings were highest for representational paintings and lowest for abstract paintings, whereas the opinions of the experts were independent of the abstraction level. The gaze patterns of both groups changed as the level of abstraction increased: the number of fixations and the length of the scanpaths increased while the duration of the fixations decreased. The viewing strategies—reflected in the target, location and path of the fixations—however indicated that experts and laypersons paid attention to different aspects of the paintings. The electrodermal reactivity did not vary according to the level of abstraction in either group but expertise was reflected in weaker responses, compared with laypersons, to information received about the paintings.

ElinaPihko

2011-09-01

375

Perhydrolase-nanotube paint composites with sporicidal and antiviral activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

AcT (perhydrolase) containing paint composites were prepared leading to broad-spectrum decontamination. AcT was immobilized onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and then incorporated into latex-based paints to form catalytic coatings. These AcT-based paint composites showed a 6-log reduction in the viability of spores of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis (Sterne) within 60 min. The paint composites also showed >4-log reduction in the titer of influenza virus (X-31) within 10 min (initially challenged with 10(7) PFU/mL). AcT-based paint composites were also tested using various perhydrolase acyl donor substrates, including propylene glycol diacetate (PGD), glyceryl triacetate, and ethyl acetate, with PGD observed to be the best among the substrates tested for generation of peracetic acid and killing of bacillus spores. The operational stability of paint composites was also studied at different relative humidities and temperatures to simulate real-life operation. PMID:23188457

Grover, Navdeep; Douaisi, Marc P; Borkar, Indrakant V; Lee, Lillian; Dinu, Cerasela Zoica; Kane, Ravi S; Dordick, Jonathan S

2013-10-01

376

Emission of isothiazolinones from water-based paints.  

Science.gov (United States)

The isothiazolinone preservatives methylisothiazolinone (MI), methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI), and benzisothiazolinone (BIT) are used in a wide variety of products including paint and cosmetics, and they are known to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Among painters they are one of the most common causes of contact dermatitis. Furthermore, they are all volatile, and severe reactions caused by emissions of especially MI from paint have been reported recently. In this study the concentrations of MI, BIT, and MCI in water-based paint were analyzed by LC-MS-MS, and the emissions from the paints were measured in climate chambers and in an apartment. Nineteen paints were analyzed for the content of MI, MCI, and BIT. All 19 paints contained MI, 16 contained BIT, and 4 contained MCI. In the chamber experiment emission of MI peaked within hours of application but then continued at a slow rate for more than 42 days. MCI was emitted more slowly and peaked after several days. BIT emissions were all around the limit of detection. In the apartment we were able to detect emission of MI several days after application. Long lasting evaporation and thus chronic exposure give credibility to the clinical observations that MI can be an important cause of airborne contact dermatitis among painters and consumers. PMID:24869638

Lundov, Michael D; Kolarik, Barbara; Bossi, Rossana; Gunnarsen, Lars; Johansen, Jeanne D

2014-06-17

377

Multifractal comparison of the painting techniques of adults and children  

Science.gov (United States)

Statistical analysis of art, particularly of the abstract genre, is becoming an increasingly important tool for understanding the image creation process. We present a multifractal clustering analysis of non-representational images painted by adults and children using a 'pouring' technique. The effective dimensions (D0) are measured for each, as is the associated multifractal depth ?D = D0 - DOO. It is shown that children create paintings whose dimensions D0 are less than those created by adults. The effective dimensions for adult painters tend to cluster around 1.8, while those for children assume typical values of 1.6. In a similar fashion, the multifractal depths for images painted by adults and children show statistically-significant differences in their values. Adult paintings show a relatively shallow depth (?D ~ 0.02), while children's paintings show a much greater depth (?D ~ 0.1). Given that the 'pouring' technique reflects the body motions of the artist, the results suggest that the differences in the paintings' fractal characteristics are potential indicators of artist physiology.

Mureika, J. R.; Fairbanks, M. S.; Taylor, R. P.

2010-02-01

378

Structure of Non-evaporating diesel sprays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Need is always felt of some rational experimental information on fuel spray jet formation, its development and dispersion in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. The latest study uses computational fluid dynamics for the modeling of engine flows. The original experimental work of the present author on non-evaporating sprays produced by a single-hole orifice type nozzle using a distribution type commercial fuel injection pump forms the basis to derive correlations for penetration rates, break up times and lengths of non-evaporating diesel sprays. The correlations derived can be used to do CFD modeling of sprays under variable conditions of injector nozzle hole diameter, fuel injection pressure and combustion chamber pressure. (author)

379

Spray drying of beryllium oxide powder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forming of beryllia ceramics through dry pressing requires the agglomeration of the powder through spray drying. To produce high quality fired ceramics it is necessary to disperse/grind the primary powder prior to binder addition. Size reduction of the powder is accomplished using an aqueous system in Vibro-Energy mills (VEM) charged with beryllia media to minimize contamination. Two VEM mills of different size were used to characterize the grinding operation. Details of the grinding kinetics are described within the context of the Macroscopic Population Balance Model approach. Spray drying of the ceramic slurry was accomplished with both a centrifugal atomizer and a two fluid nozzle atomizer. Two different spray dryers were used. Important operating parameters affecting the size distribution of the spray dried powder are discussed

380

Properties of Plasma and HVOF Sprayed Coatings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The work compares the properties of plasma and HVOF thermally sprayed coatings obtained by blending the NiCrBSi and Fe2O3 powders. The deposition was performed by means of the Plancer PN-120 and the Diamond Jet guns for plasma spraying and HVOF spraying respectively. The SEM (EDS method was employed to study the microstructure of the produced coatings. Although the blended powders differ in particle size, shape, and distribution, it is possible to obtain composite coatings with an NiCrBSi matrix containing iron oxides. Except for a different microstructure, plasma and HVOF coatings have a different phase composition, which was examined using the Bruker D-8 Advance diffractometer. Studies of the coatings wear and scuffing resistance showed that an optimal content of Fe2O3 is about 26 % for plasma sprayed coatings and 22.5 % for HVOF deposited coatings.

Wojciech ?órawski

2012-11-01

381

Plasma spray technology process parameters and applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current trend in the structural design philosophy is based on the use of substrate with the necessary mechanical properties and a thin coating to exhibit surface properties. Plasma spray process is a versatile surface coating technique which finds extensive application in meeting advance technologies. This report describes the plasma spray technique and its use in developing coatings for various applications. The spray system is desribed in detail including the different variables such as power input to the torch, gas flow rate, powder properties, powder injection, etc. and their interrelation in deciding the quality of the coating. A brief write-up on the various plasma spray coatings developed for different applications is also included. (author). 15 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

382

Transfer of tritium in concrete coated with hydrophobic paints  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rates of tritium migration in porous concrete materials coated with or without hydrophobic paints for the safety of fusion reactor rooms are correlated in terms of diffusivity or linear sorption. - Abstract: An experimental study on tritium (T) transfer in porous concrete for the tertiary T safety containment is performed to investigate (i) how fast HTO penetrates through concrete walls, (ii) how well concrete walls contaminated with water-soluble T are decontaminated by a solution-in-water technique, and (iii) how well hydrophobic paint coating works as a protecting film against HTO migrating through concrete walls. The experiment is comparatively carried out using disks of cement paste which W(water)/C(cement) weight ratio is 0.6:1 with or without hydrophobic paints, and mortar disks which W/C/sand ratio is 0.6:1:2 with or without the paints. The hydrophobic paints tested in the present study are an epoxy polymer resin paint and an acrylic-silicon polymer resin one. After T exposure during specified time under a constant HTO vapor pressure in an acrylic box, the amount of water-soluble HTO on/in the disks is determined using a technique of H{sub 2}O dissolution during specified time. The results obtained here are summarized as follows: (1) HTO penetration in porous concrete can be correlated in terms of the effective diffusivity. (2) Its value in porous cement without coating is 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} m{sup 2}/s at 25 Degree-Sign C. (3) HTO penetrates only through pores in cement, and there is no path for HTO transfer in non-porous sand. (4) Rates of sorption and dissolution of HTO in disks of cement and mortar coated with the epoxy resin paint are correlated in terms of the effective diffusivity through the paint film which value is D{sub T} = 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -16} m{sup 2}/s. The rate-determining step is diffusion through the paint. (5) The epoxy resin paint works more effectively as an anti-HTO diffusion coating. (6) Another acrylic-silicon resin paint does not work well as anti-HTO diffusion coating. This may be because the hydrophobic property of the silicon resin paint is deteriorated with elongating the contact time with H{sub 2}O vapor or liquid. (7) The HTO uptake inside the epoxy paint is greater than that of the silicon one. (8) The permeation reduction factor (PRF) of HTO for the epoxy paint at steady-state is expected large, if HTO vapor only contributes to diffusion. However, when concrete surfaces coated with the epoxy paint are under wet conditions, the PRF value becomes smaller. All those results can be used to estimate the effect of HTO soaking in concrete walls in case of accidental T release in a fusion reactor room and to decontaminate wastes of tritiated concrete.

Fukada, S., E-mail: sfukada@nucl.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Edao, Y.; Sato, K.; Takeishi, T.; Katayama, K. [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Kobayashi, K.; Hayashi, T.; Yamanishi, T. [Tritium Process Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hatano, Y.; Taguchi, A.; Akamaru, S. [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)

2012-01-15

383

Automatic targeting of plasma spray gun  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A means for monitoring the material portion in the flame of a plasma spray gun during spraying operations is described. A collimated detector, sensitive to certain wavelengths of light emission, is used to locate the centroid of the material with each pass of the gun. The response from the detector is then relayed to the gun controller to be used to automatically realign the gun

384

Thermal spray fundamentals from powder to part  

CERN Document Server

This book provides readers with the fundamentals necessary for the process understanding thermal spray technology. Each chapter is preceded by a summary which allows each reader to judge the importance of the information in it for any specific purpose. This book will serve as an invaluable resource as a textbook for graduate courses in this field and as an exhaustive reference for professionals involved in thermal spray technology.

Fauchais, Pierre L; Boulos, Maher

2014-01-01

385

Hazard Analysis for In Tank Spray Leaks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The River Protection Project (RPP) Authorization Basis (AB) contains controls that address spray leaks in tanks. However, there are no hazardous conditions in the Hazards Database that specifically identify in-tank spray leak scenarios. The purpose of this Hazards Evaluation is to develop hazardous conditions related to in-tank spray leaks for the Hazards Database and to provide more complete coverage of Tank Farm facilities. Currently, the in-tank spray leak is part of the ''Spray Leak in Structures or From Waste Transfer Lines'' accidents in Section 3.4.2.9 of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (CHG, 2000a). The accident analysis for the ''Spray Leak in Structure or From Waste Transfer Lines'' states the following regarding the location of a possible spray leak: Inside ventilated waste storage tanks (DSTs, DCRTs, and some SSTs). Aerosols could be generated inside a storage tank during a transfer because of a leak from the portion of the transfer pipe inside the tank. The tank ventilation system could help disperse the aerosols to the atmosphere should the vent system HEPA filters fail. This Hazards Evaluation also evaluates the controls currently assigned to the spray leak in structure accident and determines the applicability of the controls to the new hazardous conditions. This comparison reviews both the analysis in the FSAR and the controls found in the Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) (CHG, 2000h). If the new hazardous conditions do not match the analyzed accident conditions and controls, then additional analysis may be required. This document is not intended to authorize the activity or determine the adequacy of controls; it is only intended to provide information about the hazardous conditions associated with this activity. The Control decision process as defined in the AB will be used to determine the adequacy of controls and whether the proposed activity is within the AB. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis

386

Atypical Presentations of Methemoglobinemia from Benzocaine Spray  

OpenAIRE

Widely used for local anesthesia, especially prior to endoscopic procedures, benzocaine spray is one of the most common causes of iatrogenic methemoglobinemia. The authors report an atypical case of methemoglobinemia in a woman presenting with pale skin and severe hypoxemia, after a delayed repeat exposure to benzocaine spray. Early recognition and prompt management of methemoglobinemia is needed in order to lessen morbidity and mortality from this entity.

Tantisattamo, Ekamol; Suwantarat, Nuntra; Vierra, Joseph R.; Evans, Samuel J.

2011-01-01

387

Electrostatic-Spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

OpenAIRE

An electrostatic-spray ionization (ESTASI) method has been used for mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of samples deposited in or on an insulating substrate. The ionization is induced by a capacitive coupling between an electrode and the sample. In practice, a metallic electrode is placed close to but not in direct contact with the sample. Upon application of a high voltage pulse to the electrode, an electrostatic charging of the sample occurs leading to a bipolar spray pulse. When the voltage i...

Qiao, Liang; Sartor, Romain; Gasilova, Natalia; Lu, Yu; Tobolkina, Elena; Liu, Baohong; Girault, Hubert H.

2012-01-01

388

Thermal spray applications for power plant components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Power plants usually are located near water and many are in salt water environments. Corrosion occurring in these environments is a problem often solved with thermal spray coatings. The use of thermal spray aluminum and zinc in three power plants for various components is reviewed. Special emphasis is on the cooling tower at the Seabrook, New Hampshire plant. A guide to selection of the coating and process also is given

389

Prophylactic budesonide nasal spray after polypectomy  

OpenAIRE

This double blind study compared the effect of budesonide nasal spray with placebo, in the prophylaxis of nasal polyp recurrence after avulsion. 38 cases were given budesonide nasal spray and 25 placebo for 3 months after polypectomy. Follow up of 9 months revealed budesonide treated patients to have significantly lower recurrence rate as compared to the placebo. Interestingly patients with recurrent nasal polyposis benefitted much more from topical budesonide treatment as compared to ones wi...

Gulati, S. K.; Sharma, Karan; Kaur Shergill, Gurinder; Kumar, Rajeev

2001-01-01

390

Cholinesterase Activity Among Spray Workers in Iran  

OpenAIRE

In this study whole blood cholinesterase activities of the agriculture and hygiene spray workers exposed to organophosphorus and carbamate compounds from different parts of Tehran Province in Iran were determined. Lovi Bond method was used in three stages including prepare the questionnaires about spray worker body health conditions, taking their blood samples before and after working and their insight to insecticides and prepare the required solutions. Results showed that no any changes were...

Shayeghi, M.; Nasirian, H.; Nourjah, N.; Baniardelan, M.; Shayeghi, F.; Aboulhassani, M.

2009-01-01

391

Nanofiber spraying method using a supplementary electrode  

Science.gov (United States)

Using a supplementary electrode, electrospun poly(?-carprolactone) fibers were deposited on various substrates with different electrical properties. The ability to coat the substrates was independent of the surface electric resistance of the substrates. This was due to the charge reduction of the sprayed fibers, which resulted from passing through the supplementary electrode. The sprayed fibers might find applications in smart textiles, advanced coating technology, and as biomedical wound dressings.

Kim, GeunHyung; Kim, WanDoo

2006-07-01

392

Painting a Graph with Competing Random Walks  

CERN Document Server

Let $X_1, X_2$ be independent random walks on $\\Z_n^d$, $d \\geq 3$, each starting from the uniform distribution. Initially, each site of $\\Z_n^d$ is unmarked and, whenever $X_i$ visits such a site, it is set irreversibly to $i$. The mean of $|\\CA_i|$, the cardinality of the set $\\CA_i$ of sites painted by $i$ once all of $\\Z_n^d$ has been visited, is $n^d/2$ by symmetry. We prove the following conjecture due to Pemantle and Peres: for each $d \\geq 3$ there exists a constant $\\alpha_d$ such that $\\lim_{n \\to \\infty} \\var(|\\CA_i|) / h_d(n) = \\tfrac{1}{4}\\alpha_d$ where $h_3(n) = n^4$, $h_4(n) = n^4 (\\log n)$, and $h_d(n) = n^d$ for $d \\geq 5$. We will also identify $\\alpha_d$ explicitly. This is a special case of a more general theorem which gives the asymptotics of $\\var(|\\CA_i|)$ for a large class of transient, vertex transitive graphs; other examples include the hypercube and the Caley graph of the symmetric group generated by transpositions.

Miller, Jason

2010-01-01

393

Radio-frequency plasma spraying of ceramics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was aimed at developing a novel spraying process using a radio-frequency (rf) plasma. Experiments of Al2O3 and ZrO2 - 8 wt% Y2O3 spraying showed that the initial powder size was the most important parameter for depositing dense coatings. The optimum powder sizes of Al2O3 and ZrO2 - 8 wt% Y2O3 were considered to be around 100 and 80 ?m, respectively. The use of such large-size powders compared with those used by conventional dc plasma spraying made it possible to deposit adherent ceramics coatings of 150 to 300 ?m on as-rolled SS304 substrates. It was also shown that low particle velocity of about 10 m/s, which is peculiar to rf plasma spraying, was sufficient for particle deformation, though it imposed a severe limitation on the substrate position. These experimental results prove that rf plasma spraying is an effective process and a strong candidate to open new fields of spraying applications

394

External characteristics of unsteady spray atomization from a nasal spray device.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nasal route presents an enormous opportunity to exploit the highly vascularized respiratory airway for systemic drug delivery to provide more rapid onset of therapy and reduced drug degradation compared with conventional oral routes. The dynamics of atomization at low injection pressure is less known as typical spray atomization studies have focused on industrial applications such as fuel injection that are performed at much higher pressure. An experimental test station was designed in house and an alternative method to characterize the external spray is presented. This involved the use of high-speed camera to capture the temporal development of the spray as it is atomized through actuation of the spray device. An image-processing technique based on edge detection was developed to automate processing through the large number of images captured. The results showed that there are three main phases of spray development (prestable, stable, and poststable) that can be correlated by examining the spray width. A comparison with a human nasal cavity is made to put into perspective the dimensions and geometry that the spray atomization produces. This study aimed to extend the current existing set of data to contribute toward a better understanding in nasal spray drug delivery. PMID:23303644

Fung, Man Chiu; Inthavong, Kiao; Yang, William; Lappas, Petros; Tu, Jiyuan

2013-03-01

395

Influence of Spray Volume on Spray Deposition and Coverage Within Nursery Trees  

Science.gov (United States)

Information on better utilizing air blast sprayers to obtain high pesticide spray application efficiency in nursery tree production is needed. Foliar spray deposition and coverage at different heights inside crabapple tree canopies were investigated for an air blast sprayer with four different appl...

396

The Effect of Spray Distance and Scanning Step on the Coating Thickness Uniformity in Cold Spray Process  

Science.gov (United States)

In the process of cold spray applications, robot kinematic parameters represent significant influences on the coating quality. Those parameters include: spray distance, spray angle, gun relative velocity to substrate, scanning step, and cycle numbers. The combined effects which are caused by their interactions determine the coating thickness. The increasing requirements of coating productivity lead to the objectivity of analyzing the effect of robot kinematic parameters. So it becomes necessary to optimize the robot trajectory for spraying process in order to obtain a desired coating thickness. This study aims at investigating the relationship between the coating profile and the spray distance, scanning step, and introducing the basic principle of a software toolkit named thermal spray toolkit (TST) developed in our laboratory to generate the optimized robot trajectories in spray processes including thermal spray and cold spray. Experiments have been carried out to check the reliability of the simulated coating profile and the calculated coating thickness by TST.

Cai, Zhenhua; Deng, Sihao; Liao, Hanlin; Zeng, Chunnian; Montavon, Ghislain

2014-02-01

397

/ The 'Philosophical paintings' of the Republic  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el presente artículo examino la apropiación platónica del lenguaje poético en República y sostengo que, a pesar de sus críticas a la poesía en los libros 3 y 10, el lenguaje poético está correctamente entrelazado dentro del tejido filosófico para pintar lo corrupto, lo feo y lo inmoral. En términ [...] os específicos, la adaptación platónica de diversos motivos poéticos e imágenes en República se vuelve más significativa si prestamos atención a Sócrates como un quasi-pintor en el diálogo e interpretamos sus imágenes filosóficas como una respuesta de la filosofía a las engañosas representaciones dramáticas de la poesía. De este modo, el arte de la pintura que, incluso es criticado en el libro 10 de República, en manos de Platón resulta una herramienta filosófica que le permite investigar la relación de nuestro mundo senso-perceptivo ordinario con el campo metafísico de las Ideas y el lugar de lo humano en él. Abstract in english In this article I examine Plato's appropriation of poetic language in the Republic and argue that, despite his criticism of poetry in Books 3 and 10, poetic language is justifiably weaved into the philosophical fabric to depict the corrupt, the ugly and the base. In specific terms, Plato's adaptatio [...] n of several poetic motifs and images in the Republic becomes more meaningful if we choose to pay attention to Socrates as a quasi painter in the dialogue and interpret his philosophical images as philosophy's response to the deceptive dramatic representations of poetry. Thus the art of painting, which is also criticised in Republic Book 10, in Plato's hands becomes a philosophical tool which helps him investigate the relation of our mundane sense-perceptive world to the metaphysical realm of the Ideas and humans' place in it.

Zacharoula A., Petraki.

2013-12-01

398

Failure-probability driven dose painting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To demonstrate a data-driven dose-painting strategy based on the spatial distribution of recurrences in previously treated patients. The result is a quantitative way to define a dose prescription function, optimizing the predicted local control at constant treatment intensity. A dose planning study using the optimized dose prescription in 20 patients is performed.Methods: Patients treated at our center have five tumor subvolumes from the center of the tumor (PET positive volume) and out delineated. The spatial distribution of 48 failures in patients with complete clinical response after (chemo)radiation is used to derive a model for tumor control probability (TCP). The total TCP is fixed to the clinically observed 70% actuarial TCP at five years. Additionally, the authors match the distribution of failures between the five subvolumes to the observed distribution. The steepness of the dose–response is extracted from the literature and the authors assume 30% and 20% risk of subclinical involvement in the elective volumes. The result is a five-compartment dose response model matching the observed distribution of failures. The model is used to optimize the distribution of dose in individual patients, while keeping the treatment intensity constant and the maximum prescribed dose below 85 Gy.Results: The vast majority of failures occur centrally despite the small volumes of the central regions. Thus, optimizing the dose prescription yields higher doses to the central target volumes and lower doses to the elective volumes. The dose planning study shows that the modified prescription is clinically feasible. The optimized TCP is 89% (range: 82%–91%) as compared to the observed TCP of 70%.Conclusions: The observed distribution of locoregional failures was used to derive an objective, data-driven dose prescription function. The optimized dose is predicted to result in a substantial increase in local control without increasing the predicted risk of toxicity.

Vogelius, Ivan R.; Håkansson, Katrin; Due, Anne K.; Aznar, Marianne C.; Kristensen, Claus A.; Rasmussen, Jacob; Specht, Lena [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100 (Denmark); Berthelsen, Anne K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark and Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100 (Denmark); Bentzen, Søren M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark and Departments of Human Oncology and Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)

2013-08-15

399

New approaches for investigating paintings by ion beam techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Up to now, among the IBA techniques, only PIXE has been used for analyzing paintings. However, quantitative PIXE analysis is sometimes difficult to interpret due to the layered structure, the presence of varnish and organic binder and, in some cases, discoloration of the pigments has been observed due to the interaction of the ion beam with the compounds. In order to improve the characterization of paintings, we propose some alternative experimental procedures. First of all, backscattering spectrometry (BS) and PIXE are simultaneously combined in order to collect complementary information such as layer thickness and organic compound quantification. The simultaneous PIXE and BS experiments also have the advantage of being able to analyze the same area in one experiment. This combination, implemented with an external beam, was directly applied on paintings and on painting cross-sections for the study of Italian Renaissance masterpieces. We have obtained valuable results not only on the pigment itself but also, for the first time, on the binder to pigment proportion which is not well documented in the ancient recipes. Moreover, in order to restrain beam damages due to the ion stopping power, we propose to analyze very thin painting cross-sections by a combination of PIXE-RBS and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM).

Beck, L., E-mail: Lucile.beck@cea.f [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France (C2RMF), CNRS-UMR 171, Palais du Louvre - Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Viguerie, L. de; Walter, Ph.; Pichon, L. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France (C2RMF), CNRS-UMR 171, Palais du Louvre - Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Gutierrez, P.C. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Salomon, J.; Menu, M. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France (C2RMF), CNRS-UMR 171, Palais du Louvre - Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Sorieul, S. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, IN2P3, UMR 5797, Universite de Bordeaux 1, Chemin du Solarium BP120, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France)

2010-06-15

400

Cyclic voltammetry and RBS study of paint components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heavy metals and metalloid ions are found in environmental matrices. The most toxic are lead, cadmium and mercury. These three heavy metals have no biological function and are toxic at all concentrations. Lead is one of the most insidious heavy metals and is introduced into the environment by many different means. It persists in both urban and rural settings, being found in paint chips, pottery, crystal and pharmaceutical and nutritional products. The analysis of heavy elements such as lead in soil is of particular importance [W.T. Sturges, R.M. Harrison, Sci. Total Environ. 44 (3) (1985) 225; M.L. Lepow, L. Bruckman, M. Gillette, S. Markowitz, R. Robino, J. Kapish, Environ. Res. 10 (3) (1975) 415; A.E. Daniels, J.R. Kominsky, P.J. Clark, J. Hazard. Mater. B 87 (2001) 117; G. Hutter, D. Moshman, J. Hazard. Mater. 40 (1995) 1]. In preparing the methods for lead detection in paint, we have used Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) in order to study the type and amount of heavy metal content in paint samples collected at various sites in the historic campus at A and M University (AAMU). We will show the results of our study with emphasis on comparison of what we learned about presence of lead in paints using our ion beam methods compared with the analysis of lead in paints using cyclic voltammetry

401

Leaching of copper and zinc from spent antifouling paint particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Leaching of Cu and Zn from a composite of spent antifouling paint particles, containing about 300 mg g-1 and 110 mg g-1 of the respective metals, was studied in batch experiments. For a given set of simulated environmental conditions, release of Cu was independent of paint particle concentration due to attainment of pseudo-saturation, but Zn was less constrained by solubility effects and release increased with increasing particle concentration. Leaching of Cu increased but Zn decreased with increasing salinity, consistent with mechanisms governing the dissolution of Cu2O in the presence of chloride and Zn acrylates in the presence of seawater cations. Because of complex reaction kinetics and the presence of calcium carbonate in the paint matrix, metal leaching appeared to be greater at 4 deg. C than 19 deg. C under many conditions. These findings have important environmental and biological implications regarding the deliberate or inadvertent disposal of antifouling paint residues. - Copper and zinc are readily leached from particles of spent antifouling paint under a range of environmental conditions

402

A haptically enhanced painting as a tool for neurorehabilitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines a new form of interaction combining haptic and sonic exploration with static visual information from a real painting. Motivated by recent work in neurorehabilitation exploring group interactions with a robot, and by the educational and explorative value of artefacts, we investigate the feasibility of an interactive painting as a potential tool for the rehabilitation of brain injuries. The study consisted of a series of thirty-six single case studies with healthy individuals exploring a painting through haptic feedback with/without sonic interaction and assessed using a multidimensional measurement intended to evaluate the participants' subjective experience. The results showed that participants engaged with the interactive installation and executed more movements while exploring the painting in pairs. It appears that the haptic painting paradigm encourages development of analytical skills, imagination, promotes spatial skills realisation and enhances touch/hearing sensory channels. The results suggest that this approach might be of value to neurorehabilitation by exploring concepts of augmented artefact installations with technology (haptics + sound), promoting social integration and potential use in public spaces. PMID:24187285

Le, Hoang H; Loureiro, Rui C V; Dussopt, Florian; Phillips, Nicholas; Zivanovic, Aleksander; Loomes, Martin J

2013-06-01

403

Canvas Supports in Paintings by Nicolai Abildgaard: Fabrics and Formats  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An investigation of the technique and materials in paintings by the Danish artist Nicolai Abildgaard (1743 – 1809) included examination of the canvas supports in a large number of his works. Thread count and weave density were studied by automated weave-mapping computer software, designed for working with digital X-radiographs. This was also used for the comparison of weave patterns in order to establish matches between the canvases of various paintings and thereby verify that different canvases originated from the same bolt. The canvas supports in paintings executed by Abildgaard in Rome 1772-77 appeared to be typical only in some ways for Italian canvas production of the era. In comparison, the supports of his Danish paintings were found to have features in common that to a large degree were determined by practical and economic factors such as Danish eighteenth-century fiscal policy, market conditions and manufacture circumstances. This applied to the quality of the fabric, i.e. the type of fibre, thread count and tightness of weave, as well as the scale and the formats within which the majority of the paintings fall.

Filtenborg, Troels Folke

2015-01-01

404

In situ investigations of vault paintings in the Antwerp cathedral  

Science.gov (United States)

X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and Raman spectroscopy have been used to examine 15th century mediaeval and 16th century renaissance vault paintings in the Our Lady's Cathedral (Antwerp, Belgium) in view of their restoration. The use of mobile instruments made it possible to work totally non-destructively. This complementary approach yields information on the elemental (XRF) and on the molecular composition (Raman) of the pigments. For the 15th century vault painting the pigments lead-tin yellow (Pb 2SnO 4), lead white (2PbCO 3·Pb(OH) 2), vermilion (HgS), massicot (PbO) and azurite (2CuCO 3·Cu(OH) 2) could be identified. The pigments used for the 16th century vault painting could be identified as red lead (Pb 3O 4), hematite (Fe 2O 3), lead white (2PbCO 3·Pb(OH) 2) and azurite (2CuCO 3·Cu(OH) 2). For both paintings the presence of the strong Raman scatterer calcite (CaCO 3) resulted in a difficult identification of the pigments by Raman spectroscopy. The presence of gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O) on the mediaeval vault painting probably indicates that degradation took place.

Deneckere, Annelien; Schudel, Walter; Van Bos, Marina; Wouters, Helena; Bergmans, Anna; Vandenabeele, Peter; Moens, Luc

2010-02-01

405

Chromatic effects of metamers of D65 on art paintings.  

Science.gov (United States)

The visual impression of an artistic painting is influenced both by the colour and by the specific spectral structure of the rendering light source. The relationship between illuminant spectral structure and visual appearance assumes particular relevance with the advent of light sources with almost arbitrary spectral distribution, like modern LED based lighting. The aim of this work was to study, computationally, chromatic effects on paintings of illuminants with the same colour as D65 but different spectral profile. Hyperspectral data from twenty oil paintings were used in the analysis. A large collection of metamers of D65 was generated and the radiance reflected from each pixel of the paintings was estimated for each of the metamers. The number of discernible colours produced for each painting and illuminant was computed, and correlated with the spectral structure of the metamers. It was found that the number of colours generated varied considerably across the collection of metamers and that the metamers producing more colours were spectrally more structured, that is, less uniform. This result suggests that it may be beneficial to explore appropriate spectral tuning in practical illumination. PMID:20883348

Pinto, P D; Felgueiras, P E R; Linhares, J M M; Nascimento, S M C

2010-09-01

406

Leaching of copper and zinc from spent antifouling paint particles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Leaching of Cu and Zn from a composite of spent antifouling paint particles, containing about 300 mg g{sup -1} and 110 mg g{sup -1} of the respective metals, was studied in batch experiments. For a given set of simulated environmental conditions, release of Cu was independent of paint particle concentration due to attainment of pseudo-saturation, but Zn was less constrained by solubility effects and release increased with increasing particle concentration. Leaching of Cu increased but Zn decreased with increasing salinity, consistent with mechanisms governing the dissolution of Cu{sub 2}O in the presence of chloride and Zn acrylates in the presence of seawater cations. Because of complex reaction kinetics and the presence of calcium carbonate in the paint matrix, metal leaching appeared to be greater at 4 deg. C than 19 deg. C under many conditions. These findings have important environmental and biological implications regarding the deliberate or inadvertent disposal of antifouling paint residues. - Copper and zinc are readily leached from particles of spent antifouling paint under a range of environmental conditions.

Singh, Nimisha [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk

2009-02-15

407

Cyclic voltammetry and RBS study of paint components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heavy metals and metalloid ions are found in environmental matrices. The most toxic are lead, cadmium and mercury. These three heavy metals have no biological function and are toxic at all concentrations. Lead is one of the most insidious heavy metals and is introduced into the environment by many different means. It persists in both urban and rural settings, being found in paint chips, pottery, crystal and pharmaceutical and nutritional products. The analysis of heavy elements such as lead in soil is of particular importance [W.T. Sturges, R.M. Harrison, Sci. Total Environ. 44 (3) (1985) 225; M.L. Lepow, L. Bruckman, M. Gillette, S. Markowitz, R. Robino, J. Kapish, Environ. Res. 10 (3) (1975) 415; A.E. Daniels, J.R. Kominsky, P.J. Clark, J. Hazard. Mater. B 87 (2001) 117; G. Hutter, D. Moshman, J. Hazard. Mater. 40 (1995) 1]. In preparing the methods for lead detection in paint, we have used Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) in order to study the type and amount of heavy metal content in paint samples collected at various sites in the historic campus at A and M University (AAMU). We will show the results of our study with emphasis on comparison of what we learned about presence of lead in paints using our ion beam methods compared with the analysis of lead in paints using cyclic voltammetry.

Bowman, Lynn [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, 4900 Meridian Street, P.O. Box 1447, Normal, AL 35762 (United States); Spencer, Dirk [Plant and Soil Science Department, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL 35762-1447 (United States); Muntele, Claudiu [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, 4900 Meridian Street, P.O. Box 1447, Normal, AL 35762 (United States)]. E-mail: claudiu@cim.aamu.edu; Muntele, Iulia [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, 4900 Meridian Street, P.O. Box 1447, Normal, AL 35762 (United States); Ila, D. [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, 4900 Meridian Street, P.O. Box 1447, Normal, AL 35762 (United States)

2007-08-15

408

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ccccccc... - Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources  

Science.gov (United States)

...Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing...Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing...Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products...

2010-07-01

409

40 CFR 745.229 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and commercial...SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.229...

2010-07-01

410

40 CFR 745.230 - Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: public and commercial...  

Science.gov (United States)

...standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: public and commercial...SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.230 Work...

2010-07-01

411

77 FR 70179 - Requirements for Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Federally Owned Residential Properties and Housing...  

Science.gov (United States)

...FR-5603-N-87] Requirements for Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Federally Owned Residential...Requirements for notification of leadbased paint hazard in federally-owned residential...Proposed: Requirements for Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Federally Owned...

2012-11-23

412

Microalgal cell disruption via ultrasonic nozzle spraying.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to understand the effect of operating parameters, including ultrasound amplitude, spraying pressure, nozzle orifice diameter, and initial cell concentration on microalgal cell disruption and lipid extraction in an ultrasonic nozzle spraying system (UNSS). Two algal species including Scenedesmus dimorphus and Nannochloropsis oculata were evaluated. Experimental results demonstrated that the UNSS was effective in the disruption of microalgal cells indicated by significant changes in cell concentration and Nile red-stained lipid fluorescence density between all treatments and the control. It was found that increasing ultrasound amplitude generally enhanced cell disruption and lipid recovery although excessive input energy was not necessary for best results. The effect of spraying pressure and nozzle orifice diameter on cell disruption and lipid recovery was believed to be dependent on the competition between ultrasound-induced cavitation and spraying-generated shear forces. Optimal cell disruption was not always achieved at the highest spraying pressure or biggest nozzle orifice diameter; instead, they appeared at moderate levels depending on the algal strain and specific settings. Increasing initial algal cell concentration significantly reduced cell disruption efficiency. In all UNSS treatments, the effectiveness of cell disruption and lipid recovery was found to be dependent on the algal species treated. PMID:25369896

Wang, M; Yuan, W

2015-01-01

413

An investigation of the neural substrates of mind wandering induced by viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was conducted to investigate whether the calming effect induced by viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings would make disengagement from that mental state more difficult, as measured by performance on a cognitive control task. In Experiment 1 we examined the subjective experience of viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings vs. realistic oil landscape paintings in a behavioral study. Our results confirmed that, as predicted, traditional Chinese landscape paintings induce greater levels of relaxation and mind wandering and lower levels of object-oriented absorption and recognition, compared to realistic oil landscape paintings. In Experiment 2 we used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to explore the behavioral and neural effects of viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings on a task requiring cognitive control (i.e., the flanker task)-administered immediately following exposure to paintings. Contrary to our prediction, the behavioral data demonstrated that compared to realistic oil landscape paintings, exposure to traditional Chinese landscape paintings had no effect on performance on the flanker task. However, the neural data demonstrated an interaction effect such that there was greater activation in the inferior parietal cortex and the superior frontal gyrus on incongruent compared with congruent flanker trials when participants switched from viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings to the flanker task than when they switched from realistic oil landscape paintings. These results suggest that switching from traditional Chinese landscape paintings placed greater demands on the brain's attention and working memory networks during the flanker task than did switching from realistic oil landscape paintings. PMID:25610386

Wang, Tingting; Mo, Lei; Vartanian, Oshin; Cant, Jonathan S; Cupchik, Gerald

2014-01-01

414

An investigation of the neural substrates of mind wandering induced by viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was conducted to investigate whether the calming effect induced by viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings would make disengagement from that mental state more difficult, as measured by performance on a cognitive control task. In Experiment 1 we examined the subjective experience of viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings vs. realistic oil landscape paintings in a behavioral study. Our results confirmed that, as predicted, traditional Chinese landscape paintings induce greater levels of relaxation and mind wandering and lower levels of object-oriented absorption and recognition, compared to realistic oil landscape paintings. In Experiment 2 we used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to explore the behavioral and neural effects of viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings on a task requiring cognitive control (i.e., the flanker task)—administered immediately following exposure to paintings. Contrary to our prediction, the behavioral data demonstrated that compared to realistic oil landscape paintings, exposure to traditional Chinese landscape paintings had no effect on performance on the flanker task. However, the neural data demonstrated an interaction effect such that there was greater activation in the inferior parietal cortex and the superior frontal gyrus on incongruent compared with congruent flanker trials when participants switched from viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings to the flanker task than when they switched from realistic oil landscape paintings. These results suggest that switching from traditional Chinese landscape paintings placed greater demands on the brain’s attention and working memory networks during the flanker task than did switching from realistic oil landscape paintings. PMID:25610386

Wang, Tingting; Mo, Lei; Vartanian, Oshin; Cant, Jonathan S.; Cupchik, Gerald

2015-01-01

415

Thermal spraying of nanocrystalline materials  

Science.gov (United States)

The present research addresses the fundamental synergism between thermal spray synthesis, microstructural evolution and mechanical behavior of Ni, Inconel 718 and Fe based 316-stainless steel nanocrystalline materials. Nanocrystalline Ni powders produced by mechanical milling in liquid nitrogen were investigated under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. Significant grain growth occurred in the case of cryomilled Ni powders even when annealing at lower temperatures (equivalent to about 0.17 Tm), indicating the poor thermal stability of these powders. The activation energy for grain growth was calculated to be 146.2 kJ/mol. The values of the time exponent, n, were very close to 4.0, implying that grain growth was controlled by grain boundary diffusion mechanism. The grain growth behavior of the nanocrystalline Ni powders under non-isothermal annealing conditions showed good correspondence between the experimental results and the theoretical simulation. The grain growth behavior of the milled Inconel 718 powders and coatings, under isothermal annealing indicated that the nanocrystalline powders and coatings exhibited thermal stability against grain growth up to 1073 K (0.67Tm). The average grain sizes of methanol milled powders after annealing at 1273 K for 1 hr, cryomilled powders, HVOF coating of the methanol milled powders and HVOF coatings of the cryomilled Inconel 718 powders were 91, 84, 137 and 102 nm, respectively. In the present study, Zener pinning of nanoscale oxides of (Cr,Fe) contributed to the stability against grain growth during thermal annealing of the nanocrystalline Inconel 718 powders and coatings. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Lau, Maggy L.

416

uv radiation curable paints. Topical report on material identification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The program for the development of ultraviolet radiation curing of paints for application on preformed structures is discussed. The starting point of this program was the matching of resins, photoinitiators, and pigments which will result in coatings that can be cured by ultraviolet radiation. The initial work was the identification of reactive diluents and base resins that are sensitive to the uv curing process. The reactive monomeric diluents tested included multifunctional acrylates, monofunctional acrylates, and non-acrylic unsaturated esters. The end point will be the application of these coatings to prefabricated metal structures to demonstrate the viability of this technique in producing commercially acceptable painted products. These uv curable paints should produce films that are hard, adherent, and opaque at a nominal thickness of one mil (0.001 inch).

1981-01-13

417

Comparison of pigment content of paint samples using spectrometric methods  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the paper was to evaluate the influence of pigment concentration and its distribution in polymer binder on the possibility of colour identification and paint sample comparison. Two sets of paint samples: one containing red and another one green pigment were prepared. Each set consisted of 13 samples differing gradually in the concentration of pigment. To obtain the sets of various colour shades white paint was mixed with the appropriate pigment in the form of a concentrated suspension. After solvents evaporation the samples were examined using spectrometric methods. The resin and main filler were identified by IR method. Colour and white pigments were identified on the base of Raman spectra. Colour of samples were compared based on Vis spectrometry according to colour theory. It was found that samples are homogenous (parameter measuring colour similarity ?E < 3). The values of ?E between the neighbouring samples in the set revealed decreasing linear function and between the first and following one - a logarithmic function.

Trzci?ska, Beata; Kowalski, Rafa?; Zi?ba-Palus, Janina

2014-09-01

418

Recent discoveries of Paleolithic cave painting in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a few years, discoveries of cave paintings in France have increased considerably. Two of them were particularly impressive and are now famous worldwide. The first one is the Cosquer cave, discovered in 1991 under the sea level near Marseille. The second is the Chauvet-Pont-d'Arc cave, discovered in 1994 in Ardeche. However, other discoveries were less mediatized but provided a huge amount of informations: in 10 years, 24 new cave painting sites were described. This paper describes these recent discoveries (paintings, engravings), and a special emphasis is given to the analyses of pigments and to the radiocarbon dating of the archaeological specimens. (J.S.). 37 refs., 3 figs., 9 photos

419

Implementation of an Optical Coherence Tomography system for painting characterization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a new but well established imaging technique for medical diagnosis, which can produce two- or three-dimensional images of bio-tissues with a few ?m spatial resolution. Its potential as a non-invasive tool for art conservation of paintings and other objects has been realized recently. In this work, we report the implementation of two OCT systems applied to painting characterization. One system operates in the so-called spectral domain, with a central wavelength of 840 nm and axial resolution of 10 ?m. The second system has its central wavelength at 1280 nm, with spatial resolution of 20 ?m, and operates in the time domain. Both systems are independently controlled and have imaging software developed in-house using Lab View. Using both systems, a 15 years old acrylic portrait has been analyzed, where the paint layers, light and dark colors, and the cotton treads of the canvas could be identified. (Author)

420

Raman spectroscopic study of “The Malatesta”: A Renaissance painting?  

Science.gov (United States)

Raman spectroscopic analysis of the pigments on an Italian painting described as a 'Full Length Portrait of a Gentleman', known also as the 'Malatesta', and attributed to the Renaissance period has established that these are consistent with the historical research provenance undertaken earlier. Evidence is found for the early 19th Century addition of chrome yellow to highlighted yellow ochre areas in comparison with a similar painting executed in 1801 by Sir Thomas Lawrence of John Kemble in the role of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. The Raman data are novel in that no analytical studies have previously been made on this painting and reinforces the procedure whereby scientific analyses are accompanied by parallel historical research.

Edwards, Howell G. M.; Vandenabeele, Peter; Benoy, Timothy J.

2015-02-01

421

Raman spectroscopic study of "The Malatesta": a Renaissance painting?  

Science.gov (United States)

Raman spectroscopic analysis of the pigments on an Italian painting described as a "Full Length Portrait of a Gentleman", known also as the "Malatesta", and attributed to the Renaissance period has established that these are consistent with the historical research provenance undertaken earlier. Evidence is found for the early 19th Century addition of chrome yellow to highlighted yellow ochre areas in comparison with a similar painting executed in 1801 by Sir Thomas Lawrence of John Kemble in the role of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. The Raman data are novel in that no analytical studies have previously been made on this painting and reinforces the procedure whereby scientific analyses are accompanied by parallel historical research. PMID:25194320

Edwards, Howell G M; Vandenabeele, Peter; Benoy, Timothy J

2015-02-25

422

From the painted programme of Saint John (Ayvali Kilise, Cssappadocia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the Church of St. John in Cappadocia, also known as Ayvali Kilise or Gulu dere 4, on the frescoes which were painted between 913 and 920, particular devotion was shown for the cult of the archangels. The two archangels Michael and Gabriel, were painted in very large dimensions, with inscriptions describing them as 'great', besides giving their names. In addition to that a unique group of two figures was presented. It depicted the monk Archippos turned toward a colossal figure of the archangel Michael, painted strictly frontally. The iconographical relationship of these two figures, unrecorded in scholarly literature, indicates that this was definitely Archippos, the custodian of the important shrine of the Archangel Michael at Chonai, which still existed in those times. This would not only be a very early, but the only preserved presentation of Archippos, other than his appearance in the well-known composition of the Miracle of the Archangel Michael at Chonai.

Gabeli? Smiljka

2009-01-01

423

Paint binders hardened by electron beams and their use  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention concerns a paint binder hardened by electron beams (0.1 - 100 Mrad/sec.) consisting of a dispersion of an ethylenic unsaturated material in at least one vinyl monomer and the use of the former in manufacturing pigmented or coloured points. In order to improve the properties of the hardened paints (elasticity, wear resistance) a reaction product is used consisting of rubber particles (0.04-1 ?m) and an ethylenic unsaturated component with a reactive epoxy, hydroxy or carboxy group which is bonded to the rubber particles by ester or urethane compounds. The detailed description of the manufacture is explained by 68 examples. The paints hold particularly well on sheet steel. (UWI)

424

The Planetary and Eclipse Oil Paintings of Howard Russell Butler  

Science.gov (United States)

The physics-trained artist Howard Russell Butler (1856-1934) has inspired many astronomy students through his planetary and eclipse paintings that were long displayed at the Hayden Planetarium in New York, the Fels Planetarium at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, and the Buffalo Museum of Science. We discuss not only the eclipse triptychs (1918, 1923, and 1925) at each of those institutions but also his paintings of Mars as seen from Phobos and from Deimos (with landscapes of those moons in the foreground depicted in additional oils hung at Princeton University) and the Earth from our Moon. We also describe his involvement with astronomy and his unique methodology that allowed him to surpass the effects then obtainable with photography, as well as his inclusion in a U.S. Naval Observatory eclipse expedition in 1918, as well as his auroral, solar-prominence, and 1932-eclipse paintings.

Pasachoff, Jay M.; Olson, R. M.

2013-10-01

425

Irradiation effects on canvas oil painting: Spectroscopic observations  

Science.gov (United States)

"Winter" oil painting, by Romanian contemporary artist George Alexandrescu was used as experimental model for the substantiation of gamma radiation treatment, as the best choice to stop the biological attack of paintings. In this purpose, spectroscopic and colorimetric methods were used to analyse in situ, non-destructively and non-contact, the experimental model before and after 60Co gamma irradiation. Chemical structure and colour changes were monitored by FTIR, FT-Raman and Vis reflectance spectroscopy. Negligible Infrared spectral transformations have been observed after irradiation. Furthermore, it was found that gamma irradiation did not induce any significant colour alterations. Insignificant structural and colour changes observed, recommend the use of gamma irradiation in the disinfection of oil paintings.

Manea, Mihaela Maria; Negut, C. D.; Stanculescu, Ioana Rodica; Ponta, C. C.

2012-10-01

426

Photometric approach to surface reconstruction of artist paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose a method for surface reconstruction of artist paintings. In order to reproduce the appearance of a painting, including color, surface texture, and glossiness, it is essential to acquire the pixel-wise light reflection property and orientation of the surface and render an image under an arbitrary lighting condition. A photometric approach is used to estimate bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) and surface normals from a set of images photographed by a fixed camera with sparsely distributed point light sources. A robust and computationally less expensive nonlinear optimization algorithm is proposed that optimizes the small number of parameters to simultaneously determine all of the specular BRDF, diffuse albedo, and surface normal. The proposed method can be applied to moderately glossy surfaces without separating captured images into diffuse and specular reflections beforehand. Experiments were conducted using oil paintings with different surface glossiness. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by comparing captured and rendered images.

Hasegawa, Takayuki; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Iino, Koichi

2011-01-01

427

COUPLED ATOMIZATION AND SPRAY MODELLING IN THE SPRAY FORMING PROCESS USING OPENFOAM  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper presents a numerical model capable of simulating the atomization, break-up and in-flight spray phenomena in the spray forming process. The model is developed and implemented in the freeware code openFOAM. The focus is on studying the coupling effect of the melt break-up phenomena with the local gas and droplets flow fields. The work is based on an Eulerian-Lagrangian description, which is implemented in a full 3D representation. The gas is described by the incompressible RANS equations, whereas the movement of the droplets is modeled by a tracking approach, together with a full thermal model for droplet cooling and solidification. The model is tested and validated against results from literature and experiments. Subsequently, the model is used to simulate the complex flow fields in the spray forming process and the results are discussed. The presented model of the spray forming process is able to predict the droplet size distribution of the spray from the process conditions, by introducing submodelsfor the melt fragmentation and successive secondary break-up processes as part of the spray model. Furthermore, the competition of drop break-up and solidification is derived by describing the thermal state of the particles in the spray. Therefore, the model includes a full thermal solver for the droplets, which also takes the rapid solidification of different drop sizes into account.

Gjesing, Rasmus; Hattel, Jesper Henri

2009-01-01

428

High power plasma spraying of oxide ceramics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New developed high power plasma spray (HPPS) systems offer opportunities for generating both high thermal as well as high kinetic energy transfer to the powder particles. The operation level can be elevated up to 250 kW for continuous processing. PLCs and mass flow controls support high power processing under production conditions. The process is designed for applying large quantities even of high melt materials, such as oxide ceramics. High power plasma processing may result in enhanced coating characteristics. The work in this paper shows first conclusions for processing commercial powders such as alumina, alumina-titania, chromia and a recently developed multicomponent oxide with a HPPS system. Particle velocities were measured after optimizing spraying parameters. Coatings were evaluated by optical microscopy (microstructure and porosity), microhardness and pin-on-disc abrasive wear tests. Powder types and sizes as well as the systems configuration are considered for a general discussion of the capability and limitation in high power plasma spraying

429

Current problems in plasma spray processing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This detailed report summarizes 8 contributions from a thermal spray conference that was held in late 1991 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, Long Island, NY, USA). The subject of Plasma Spray Processing'' is presented under subject headings of Plasma-particle interactions, Deposit formation dynamics, Thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings, Mechanical properties of coatings, Feed stock materials, Porosity: An integrated approach, Manufacture of intermetallic coatings, and Synchrotron x-ray microtomographic methods for thermal spray materials. Each section is intended to present a concise statement of a specific practical and/or scientific problem, then describe current work that is being performed to investigate this area, and finally to suggest areas of research that may be fertile for future activity.

Berndt, C.C.; Brindley, W.; Goland, A.N.; Herman, H.; Houck, D.L.; Jones, K.; Miller, R.A.; Neiser, R.; Riggs, W.; Sampath, S.; Smith, M.; Spanne, P. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Thermal Spray Lab.)

1991-01-01

430

Current problems in plasma spray processing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This detailed report summarizes 8 contributions from a thermal spray conference that was held in late 1991 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, Long Island, NY, USA). The subject of ``Plasma Spray Processing`` is presented under subject headings of Plasma-particle interactions, Deposit formation dynamics, Thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings, Mechanical properties of coatings, Feed stock materials, Porosity: An integrated approach, Manufacture of intermetallic coatings, and Synchrotron x-ray microtomographic methods for thermal spray materials. Each section is intended to present a concise statement of a specific practical and/or scientific problem, then describe current work that is being performed to investigate this area, and finally to suggest areas of research that may be fertile for future activity.

Berndt, C.C.; Brindley, W.; Goland, A.N.; Herman, H.; Houck, D.L.; Jones, K.; Miller, R.A.; Neiser, R.; Riggs, W.; Sampath, S.; Smith, M.; Spanne, P. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Thermal Spray Lab.

1991-12-31

431

Protective coatings by plasma spraying : a review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, the use of plasma-sprayed protective coatings has gained increasing acceptance for prolonging the service life of critical components exposed to aggressive environments during normal operation. This paper is aimed at providing an overview of the current state-of-the art of the plasma coating technology. It includes a brief discussion of the various important aspects associated with the development of reliable protective coatings as well as their evaluation, and outlines some noteworthy advances made in the field of plasma spray materials and equipment in the past years. The various factors influencing the coating quality are identified and the wide-ranging utility of plasma-sprayed coatings is also highlighted. (author). 82 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs

432

Spray Behavior and Atomization Characteristics of Biodiesel  

Science.gov (United States)

Biodiesel has large amount of oxygen in itself, which make it very efficient in reducing exhaust emission by improving combustion inside an engine. But biodiesel has a low temperature flow problem because it has a high viscosity. In this study, the spray behavior and atomization characteristics were investigated to confirm of some effect for the combination of non-esterification biodiesel and fuel additive WDP and IPA. The process of spray was visualized through the visualization system composed of a halogen lamp and high speed camera, and atomization characteristics were investigated through LDPA. When blending WDP and IPA with biodiesel, atomization and spray characteristics were improved. Through this experimental result, SMD of blended fuel, WDP 25% and biodiesel 75%, was 33.9% reduced at distance 6cm from a nozzle tip under injection pressure 30MPa.

Choi, Seung-Hun; Oh, Young-Taig

433

Electrostatic-spray ionization mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

An electrostatic-spray ionization (ESTASI) method has been used for mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of samples deposited in or on an insulating substrate. The ionization is induced by a capacitive coupling between an electrode and the sample. In practice, a metallic electrode is placed close to but not in direct contact with the sample. Upon application of a high voltage pulse to the electrode, an electrostatic charging of the sample occurs leading to a bipolar spray pulse. When the voltage is positive, the bipolar spray pulse consists first of cations and then of anions. This method has been applied to a wide range of geometries to emit ions from samples in a silica capillary, in a disposable pipet tip, in a polymer microchannel, or from samples deposited as droplets on a polymer plate. Fractions from capillary electrophoresis were collected on a polymer plate for ESTASI MS analysis. PMID:22876737

Qiao, Liang; Sartor, Romain; Gasilova, Natalia; Lu, Yu; Tobolkina, Elena; Liu, Baohong; Girault, Hubert H

2012-09-01

434

Thermophysical properties of plasma sprayed coatings  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermophysical properties of plasma sprayed materials were determined for the following plasma sprayed materials: CaO - stabilized ZrO2, Y2O3 - stabilized ZerO2, Al2O3, HfO2 Mo, nichrome, NiAl, Mo-ZrO2, and MoAl2O3 mixtures. In all cases the thermal conductivity of the as-sprayed materials was found to be considerably lower than that of the bulk material. The flash-laser thermal diffusivity technique was used both for diffusivity determination of single-layer materials and to determine the thermal contact resistance at the interface of two-layer specimens.

Wilkes, K. E.; Lagedrost, J. F.

1973-01-01

435

Identification of proteins in renaissance paintings by proteomics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presented work proposes a new methodology based on proteomics techniques to identify proteins in old art paintings. The main challenging tasks of this work were (i) to find appropriate conditions for extracting proteins from the binding media without protein hydrolysis in amino acids and (ii) to develop analytical methods adapted to the small sample quantity available. Starting from microsamples of painting models (ovalbumin-based, which is the major egg white protein, and egg-based paintings), multiple extraction solutions (HCl, HCOOH, NH3, NaOH) and conditions (ultrasonic bath, mortar and pestle, grinding resin) were evaluated. The best results were obtained using a commercial kit including a synthetic resin, mortar and pestle to grind the sample in an aqueous solution acidified with trifluoroacetic acid at 1% with additional multiple steps of ultrasonic baths. The resulting supernatant was analyzed by MALDI-TOF in linear mode to verify the efficiency of the extraction solution. An enzymatic hydrolysis step was also performed for protein identification; the peptide mixture was analyzed by nanoLC/nanoESI/Q-q-TOF MS/MS with an adapted chromatographic run for the low sample quantity. Finally, the developed methodology was successfully applied to Renaissance art painting microsamples of approximately 10 microg from Benedetto Bonfigli's triptych, The Virgin and Child, St. John the Baptist, St. Sebastian (XVth century), and Niccolo di Pietro Gerini's painting, The Virgin and Child (XIVth century), identifying, for the first time and without ambiguity, the presence of whole egg proteins (egg yolk and egg white) in a painting binder. PMID:16503599

Tokarski, Caroline; Martin, Elisabeth; Rolando, Christian; Cren-Olivé, Cécile

2006-03-01

436

Development of PET imaging-based dose-painting prescriptions  

Science.gov (United States)

Historically, prescriptions in radiation therapy are based on physician experience drawn from the results of extensive clinical trials in order to establish standard-of-care guidelines. The doses of radiation are generally uniform across target volumes to reflect a fixed level of local neoplastic disease control of the population mean. However, inter-patient and intra-tumor variation in response to uniform doses can result in diminished tumor control and poor clinical outcome for certain patients. Recent research endeavors are emphasizing the need to individualize prescriptions by incorporating patient-specific biological markers with prognostic and predictive value. Quantitative imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) of tumor glucose metabolism, cell proliferation, and hypoxia has been suggested as a sensitive and specific technique to tailor patient prescriptions in a manner that may significantly improve clinical outcome. The concept of prescribing and delivering non-uniform dose based on molecular imaging, termed dose painting, hinges on the establishment of a dose-response relationship at the image voxel scale that optimizes a particular clinical endpoint. This doctoral thesis presented two methods of defining dose-painting prescriptions based on PET imaging: the first was a heuristic model derivation of hypoxia dose-painting prescriptions in head-and-neck cancer patients; the second was an empirical imaging surrogate endpoint derivation of prescriptions in veterinary sinonasal cancer patients. The clinical implementation of these dose painting prescriptions was investigated, which emphasized treatment planning and delivery solutions. Lastly, a summary and discussion of the future of dose painting to forge links between tumor biology and clinical outcome was presented. The compelling dose painting concept is fast becoming a clinical reality that may positively impact cancer patient lives.

Bowen, Stephen R.

437

LET-painting increases tumour control probability in hypoxic tumours  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract LET-painting was suggested as a method to overcome tumour hypoxia. In vitro experiments have demonstrated a well-established relationship between the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) and linear energy transfer (LET), where OER approaches unity for high-LET values. However, high-LET radiation also increases the risk for side effects in normal tissue. LET-painting attempts to restrict high-LET radiation to compartments that are found to be hypoxic, while applying lower LET radiation to normoxic tissues. Methods. Carbon-12 and oxygen-16 ion treatment plans with four fields and with homogeneous dose in the target volume, are applied on an oropharyngeal cancer case with an identified hypoxic entity within the tumour. The target dose is optimised to achieve a tumour control probability (TCP) of 95% when assuming a fully normoxic tissue. Using the same primary particle energy fluence needed for this plan, TCP is recalculated for three cases assuming hypoxia: first, redistributing LET to match the hypoxic structure (LET-painting). Second, plans are recalculated for varying hypoxic tumour volume in order to investigate the threshold volume where TCP can be established. Finally, a slight dose boost (5-20%) is additionally allowed in the hypoxic subvolume to assess its impact on TCP. Results. LET-painting with carbon-12 ions can only achieve tumour control for hypoxic subvolumes smaller than 0.5 cm(3). Using oxygen-16 ions, tumour control can be achieved for tumours with hypoxic subvolumes of up to 1 or 2 cm(3). Tumour control can be achieved for tumours with even larger hypoxic subvolumes, if a slight dose boost is allowed in combination with LET-painting. Conclusion. Our findings clearly indicate that a substantial increase in tumour control can be achieved when applying the LET-painting concept using oxygen-16 ions on hypoxic tumours, ideally with a slight dose boost.

Bassler, Niels; Toftegaard, Jakob

2014-01-01

438

Method for warning of radiological and chemical substances using detection paints on a vehicle surface  

Science.gov (United States)

A system for warning of corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances. The system comprises painting a surface with a paint or coating that includes an indicator material and monitoring the surface for indications of the corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances.

Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA)

2012-03-13

439

24 CFR 242.81 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 242.81 Section 242.81 ...Miscellaneous Requirements § 242.81 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. Requirements set forth in 24...

2010-04-01

440

EXPOSURE AND EMISSION EVALUATIONS OF METHYL ETHYL KETOXIME (MEKO) IN ALKYD PAINTS  

Science.gov (United States)

Small environmental chamber tests were conducted to characterize the emissions of a toxic chemical compound -- methylethylketoxime (MEKO) -- from three different alkyd paints. It was found that MEKO emissions occurred almost immediately after each alkyd paint was applied to a pin...

441

24 CFR 200.77 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 200.77 Section 200.77 ...Projects Property Requirements § 200.77 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. Requirements set forth in 24...

2010-04-01

442

Surface with two paint strips for detection and warning of chemical warfare and radiological agents  

Science.gov (United States)

A system for warning of corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances. The system comprises painting a surface with a paint or coating that includes an indicator material and monitoring the surface for indications of the corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances.

Farmer, Joseph C.

2013-04-02

443

Differential PIXE for investigating the layer structure of paintings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports an example of how the differential PIXE technique can be successfully applied to the investigation of wood or canvas paintings. The work analysed is a famous wood painting by Leonardo da Vinci, the 'Madonna dei fusi' (ex-Reford version, 1501), chosen for a pilot study in a wide international project aimed at analysing Leonardo's works of art by means of non-destructive techniques. While illustrating the results obtained concerning the identification of pigments and the discrimination of the stratigraphy of layers, the merits and limits of differential PIXE in general are pointed out.

Mando, P.A. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and INFN, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: mando@fi.infn.it; Fedi, M.E. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and INFN, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Grassi, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and INFN, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Migliori, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and INFN, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy)

2005-09-15

444

PaintShop Pro X4 for photographers  

CERN Document Server

Great for those new to PaintShop Pro or digital imaging in general, this book is packed with inspirational, full-color images and easy to follow, step-by-step projects that will have you producing great images in PaintShop Pro in no time! Everything you need to turn your photos into stunning works of art is right here in this Corel-reviewed guide. In this new edition, Ken covers new features including how to make the most of the newly organized workspaces, use the redesigned HDR tool, and instantly publish photos on Flickr and Facebook. Squeeze every ounce of detail out of RAW files using the

McMahon, Ken

2012-01-01

445

Laboratory evaluation of a new repellent camouflage face paint.  

Science.gov (United States)

A combined formulation of the U.S. Army's camouflage face paints and the new extended duration topical insect/arthropod repellent was tested on human volunteers to determine repellency and duration of protection (2-12 h) against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. Under laboratory conditions (27 degrees C and 80% RH), the face paint/repellent formulation provided > or = 95% repellency or better for up to 6 h for Ae. aegypti and 8 h for An. stephensi. An analysis of variance showed no significant differences in the repellent efficacy of the 4 camouflage colors: white, green, loam, and sand. PMID:7595441

Hoch, A L; Gupta, R K; Weyandt, T B

1995-06-01

446

Siquieros accidental painting technique: a fluid mechanics point of view  

OpenAIRE

This is an entry for the Gallery of Fluid Motion of the 65th Annual Meeting of the APS-DFD (fluid dynamics video). This video shows an analysis of the 'accidental painting' technique developed by D.A. Siqueiros, a famous Mexican muralist. We reproduced the technique that he used: pouring layers of paint of different colors on top of each other. We found that the layers mix, creating aesthetically pleasing patterns, as a result of a Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Due to the pig...

Zetina, Sandra; Zenit, Roberto

2012-01-01

447

Differential PIXE for investigating the layer structure of paintings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports an example of how the differential PIXE technique can be successfully applied to the investigation of wood or canvas paintings. The work analysed is a famous wood painting by Leonardo da Vinci, the 'Madonna dei fusi' (ex-Reford version, 1501), chosen for a pilot study in a wide international project aimed at analysing Leonardo's works of art by means of non-destructive techniques. While illustrating the results obtained concerning the identification of pigments and the discrimination of the stratigraphy of layers, the merits and limits of differential PIXE in general are pointed out

448

[The simultaneous contrast of the colors in Van Gogh paints].  

Science.gov (United States)

Vincent Van Gogh, Dutchman painter, is a forerunner but also a spokesman of the expressionism. His life was short and sad, marked by a psychic instability. In his paintings the color is subordinated of some subjective motivations. Van Gogh uses complementary colors to get a maximum intensity of the overlapped tones. The chromatic increase serves to obtain some strong emotions. In his landscapes the special distances are suggested through tonal distances. The increase of the pure tones through complementary contrast, the cancel of the imitation colors through sensation-colors, the explosive chromatic are characteristic of her painting. In his singular creation, Vincent Van Gogh created his suffering ego. PMID:12723187

Cernea, P

2002-01-01

449

Control of spray spot in cold spray technology. Part 1. Gas dynamic aspects  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a study of supersonic jets formed by approaches that are new for cold spray technique: the main flow is swirled, the nozzles with permeable profiles and with exit slots on the supersonic section are engineered. The flow swirling achieved in the nozzle prechamber retains downstream to substrate surface. The system of vortices created within the permeable nozzles changes the shock wave features of the overexpanded jet and the geometry of the bow shock wave ahead of the substrate surface. These new features of flow may affect particle motion and particlesubstrate interaction under the conditions of cold spray process; this offers tools for obtaining the necessary shape of a spray spot.

Zaikovskii, V. N.; Klinkov, S. V.; Kosarev, V. F.; Melamed, B. M.; Trubacheev, G. V.

2014-01-01

450

USING A FLAME IONIZATION DETECTOR (FID) TO CONTINUOUSLY MEASURE TOXIC ORGANIC VAPORS IN A PAINT SPRAY BOOTH  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper reports the demonstration of linear and similar responses of a Ratfisch RS-55CA flame ionization detector (FID) to a solvent mixture identical to the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the coating and catalyst (NSN 8010-01-336- 3036) and to the calibrating gas (propan...

451

Integrated characterization of cold sprayed aluminum coatings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cold spray (CS) technology is a recent development for producing dense, oxide-free metallic and cermet coatings with attributes not achievable by established atmospheric thermal spray (TS) techniques. Little or no thermal component (i.e. high temperature) is introduced in the CS process; deposit formation relies mainly on dynamic compaction as particles impact the substrate. In this paper, we discuss and evaluate the relationships between the microstructure, properties and residual stresses in CS Al coatings, combining indentation, dilatometry, resistivity measurements and neutron diffraction techniques. In addition, we provide mechanistic arguments for the evolution of such characteristics with post-deposit annealing

452

Aerodynamic characteristics of FGD spray towers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On the basis of the balance of forces acting on droplets falling down inside a co- or counter-current spray tower, a model of scrubber aerodynamic characteristics was developed. Relations between pressure drop caused by spray, droplet concentration and residence time distribution of the dispersed phase were found analytically for slurry droplet motion in the range of 400

Michalski, J.A. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

1997-02-01

453

Development of design solutions for spray ponds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principles of process design of spray cooling systems for responsible consumers of up-to-date reactor building are discussed in this paper. Development in design principles with respect to problem solving of operational reliability increase and ecological efficiency of nuclear power equipment is shown. The structural solutions of basin antifiltration shield are spoken in detail. The results of experimental physical-mathematical and climatic studies as well as comparative tests of bituminous asphalt emulsive mastic and mushy asphalt are reported. The directions of up-to-date researches on improvement of concept of spray coolers are indicated

454

Funk Metrics and R-Flat Sprays  

OpenAIRE

The well-known Funk metric F(x,y) is projectively flat with constant flag curvature K=-1/4 and the Hilbert metric H(x,y):=(F(x,y)+F(x,-y))/2 is projectively flat with constant curvature K=-1. These metrics are the special solutions to Hilbert's Fourth Problem. In this paper, we construct a non-trivial R-flat spray using the Funk metric. It is then an inverse problem in the calculus of variation to find a Finsler metric that induces the R-flat spray. We find an explicit solut...

Shen, Zhongmin

2001-01-01

455

Wear resistance of some detonation sprayed layers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the work the processes of detonation spraying of hard layers containing metal compound are analysed. We present current ideas on mechanism of metal powder acceleration and junction of sprayed layer with metal substrate. Tribological experiment is described enabling determination of friction and wear resistance characteristics of detonation deposited layers of chromium carbide and tungsten carbide. It was shown that these characteristics depend on parameters of metal powder acceleration. An effect of mutual transfer of metals transfer between frictional elements was influence of tribological properties of frictional pairs on parameters of metals transfer was proved. (author)

456

Laser Surface Annealing of Plasma Sprayed Coatings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Laser surface annealing provides a rapid and efficient means for surface alloying and modification of ceramic materials. In this study, Alumina-13% Titania coatings were sprayed with a water-stabilized plasma spray gun. The coated surface was treated by Excimer laser having a wavelength of 248 nm and pulse duration of 24 ns. The surface structure of the treated coating was examined by field emission scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction (XRD. A detailed analysis of the effects of various laser parameters including laser energy density (fluence, pulse repetition rate (PRR, and number of pulses on the morphology and the microstructure of the coatings are presented.

Yue Hung

2012-07-01

457

WWER-type NPP spray ponds screen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is to develop a protection screen of WWER-type NPP spray ponds. The screen design is to ensure reduction of the water droplets blown by the wind and, if possible, their return back to the spray ponds. The cooling capacity of the ponds is not to be changed below the design level for safety reasons. Computational fluid dynamics analysis is used to assess the influence of each design variant on the behavior of the water droplets distribution. Two variants are presented here. The one with plants is found not feasible. The second variant, with steel screen and terrain profile modification is selected for implementation. (author)

458

Conservation of a Rare Painted Ancient Egyptian Textile Object from the Egyptian Museum in Cairo  

OpenAIRE

This study describes conservation of a painted ancientEgyptian textile object from the collection of Osiris clothsin the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, Egypt. An evaluation ofthe reactivation consolidation technique to reinforcementof ancient Egyptian painted textiles was performed.Various investigation methods were carried out to identifythe fibres, paints, and other materials, which are part ofthe selected object. The condition of the object was alsoinvestigated. Newly prepared painted linen tex...

Yasin Zidan; Omar Abdel-Kareem; Nadia Lokma; Hanaa Ahmed

2008-01-01

459

Experimental research on flash boiling spray of dimethyl ether  

Science.gov (United States)

The high-speed digital imaging technique is applied to observe the developing process of flash boiling spray of dimethyl ether at low ambient pressure, and the effects of nozzle opening pressure and nozzle hole diameter on the spray shape, spray tip penetration and spray angle during the injection are investigated. The experimental results show that the time when the vortex ring structure of flash boiling spray forms and its developing process are determined by the combined action of the bubble growth and breakup in the spray and the air drag on the leading end of spray; with the enhancement of nozzle opening pressure, the spray tip penetration increases and the spray angle decreases. The influence of nozzle hole diameter on the spray tip penetration is relatively complicated, the spray tip penetration is longer with a smaller nozzle hole diameter at the early stage of injection, while the situation is just opposite at the later stage of injection. This paper establishes that the variation of spray angle is consistent with that of nozzle hole diameter.

Zhang, Peng

2014-12-01

460

Effects of nozzle spray angle on droplet size and velocity  

Science.gov (United States)

Spray applicators have many choices in selecting a spray nozzle to make an application of an agricultural product. They must balance flowrate, spray pressure, and nozzle type and setup to deliver their agrochemical in the right droplet size for their particular needs. Studies were conducted to det...

461

Allergic contact dermatitis from 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, a paint mildewcide  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Severe allergic contact dermatitis from a paint mildewcide, 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, developed in a worker formulating latex paints within a paint manufacturing company, Guinea pig maximization testing demonstrated this to be a moderate sensitizer. Further cases of allergic contact dermatitis may be encountered as the use of this biocide increases in the market place.

Mathias, C G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

1983-01-01

462

Electrospray painted article containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide and method for their manufacture  

Science.gov (United States)

A painted polymer part containing a conductive polymer composition containing at least one polymer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g, wherein the painted polymer part has been electrospray painted.

Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

463

77 FR 76996 - Lead; Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program for Public and Commercial Buildings; Request for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...these activities create lead-based paint hazards, and, for those that do...particularly those resulting from lead-based paint. Section 402(c)(3) of TSCA specifically...requires EPA to revise its Lead-based Paint Activities Regulations (Ref....

2012-12-31

464

24 CFR 35.1355 - Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance and reevaluation activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance and reevaluation activities...and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL...presence or absence of lead-based paint hazards, the current status of...

2010-04-01

465

75 FR 31317 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for Paints and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Safety Data Sheet (MSDS), which is how paints and allied products manufacturers receive...in the area source standards for Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing...pollutants (NESHAP) for area source paints and allied products manufacturing facilities...1 percent by weight, as shown in formulation data provided by the...

2010-06-03

466

Fundamento e desenho do teste randomizado PAINT Fundamento y diseño del test randomizado PAINT Rationale and design for the PAINT randomized trial  

OpenAIRE

FUNDAMENTO: Descrevemos as bases teóricas e o formato do "Estudo PAINT - Intervenção percutânea com stents com eluição de paclitaxel ou sirolimus em polímero biodegradável comparados com stents sem recobrimento no tratamento de lesões coronárias de novo". OBJETIVO: Avaliar duas novas formulações de stents com eluição de paclitaxel ou sirolimus em comparação com um stent de estrutura metálica idêntica, porém sem recobrimento polimérico ou eluição de droga. MÉTODOS: O PAI...

Lemos, Pedro A.; Bruno Moulin; Perin, Marco A.; Oliveira, Ludmilla A. R. R.; Airton Arruda, J.; Lima, Valter C.; Lima, Antonio A. G.; Caramori, Paulo R. A.; Medeiros, Cesar R.; Barbosa, Mauricio R.; Brito Jr, Fabio S.; Ribeiro, Expedito E.; Martinez, Eulo?gio E.

2009-01-01

467

Study on Spray Characteristics and Spray Droplets Dynamic Behavior of Diesel Engine Fueled by Rapeseed Oil  

OpenAIRE

Fuel-air mixing is important process in diesel combustion. It directly affects the combustion and emission of diesel engine. Biomass fuel needs great help to atomize because the fuel has high viscosity and high distillation temperature. This study investigates the atomization characteristics and droplet dynamic behaviors of diesel engine spray fueled by rapeseed oil (RO). Optical observation of RO spray was carried out using shadowgraph photography technique. Single nano-spark photography tec...

Sapit Azwan; Razali Mohd. Azahari; Hushim Mohd Faisal; Mohd Ali Mas Fawzi; Khalid Amir; Manshoor Bukhari

2014-01-01

468

‘James Cahill and the Study of Chinese Painting’  

OpenAIRE

James Cahill was a leading scholar in the field of Chinese painting studies through his influential teaching and most original and prolific writings. From a global, verbal, and visual perspective, this essay examines how significantly he has challenged and thereby enriched the extant art scholarships in China and the West, and what an enduring legacy he has left behind him in the art historiography.

Zaixin Hong

2014-01-01

469

A Curious Reality: Exploring the Paintings of Philip C. Curtis  

Science.gov (United States)

Many of the paintings of 20th-century American artist Philip C. Curtis defy clear classification. Curtis's artworks often show dreamlike and fantastical qualities and are therefore frequently pigeonholed as Surrealistic. While this classification is not completely erroneous, it fails to acknowledge some subtle differences between Curtis's artwork…

Stephens, Pamela; Walkup, Nancy

2011-01-01

470

Egyptian Symbols and Figures. Hieroglyphs [and] Scroll Paintings. [Lesson Plan].  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson introduces students to the writing, art, and religious beliefs of ancient Egypt through hieroglyphs, one of the oldest writing systems in the world, and through tomb paintings. Hieroglyphs consist of pictures of familiar objects that represent sounds and were used in ancient Egypt from about 3100 BC to 400 CE. In the first part of the…

2002