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1

Miniature spray-painting booth  

Science.gov (United States)

Transparent spray booth provides method for quality painting and repair of surfaces in clean room or other specialized environments. Overspray and virtually all contaminating vapor and odor can be eliminated. Touch-up painting is achieved with spray gun.

Fee, K. W.

1970-01-01

2

On the Physics of Airless Spray Painting  

Science.gov (United States)

Stroboscopic and laser-sheet flow visualization has revealed that an industrial airless spray painting unit deposits paint through a series of more-or-less-known fluid-dynamic phenomena. First there is the pressure atomization of the non-Newtonian paint. Since airless spray nozzles are designed to produce a broad fan-like spray, this is observed to occur by liquid sheet breakup. Next the droplets entrain the surrounding air, forming a turbulent two-phase stream. Upon impacting the surface being painted, the co-flowing airstream becomes a radial wall jet. The largest paint droplets cross the mean wall-jet streamlines and deposit upon the surface, while the smallest droplets are carried away by the wall jet, thus becoming "overspray." Overspray is a serious environmental problem; by understanding its origin one may pursue a scientific approach to its reduction. Further, although the idea behind airless spray painting is to reduce the co-flowing airstream compared to traditional compressed-air atomization, this approach appears to be only partially successful in practice. (Research supported by the Penn State/US Navy Applied Research Lab.)

Settles, G. S.; Miller, J. D.

1996-11-01

3

Evaluation of VOC emission measurement methods for paint spray booths.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interest in regulations to control solvent emissions from automotive painting systems is increasing, especially in ozone nonattainment areas. Therefore, an accurate measurement method for VOC emissions from paint spray booths used in the automotive industry is needed to ascertain the efficiency of the spray booth capture and the total emissions. This paper presents the results of a laboratory study evaluating potential VOC sampling and analytical methods used in estimating paint spray booth emissions, and discusses these results relative to other published data. Eight test methods were selected for evaluation. The accuracy of each sampling and analytical method was determined using test atmospheres of known concentration and composition that closely matched the actual exhaust air from paint spray booths. The solvent mixture to generate the test atmospheres contained a large proportion of polar, oxygenated hydrocarbons such as ketones and alcohols. A series of identical tests was performed for each sampling/analytical method with each test atmosphere to assess the precision of the methods. The study identified significant differences among the test methods in terms of accuracy, precision, cost, and complexity. PMID:15658160

Eklund, B M; Nelson, T P

1995-03-01

4

Airborne isocyanates in polyurethane spray painting: determination and respirator efficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentrations of airborne isocyanates were measured during spray painting with two-component polyurethane paint. The isocyanate component - hexamethylene-diisocyanate (HDI) and its prepolymer of the biuret type - were determined by high performance liquid chromatography after derivatization to stable urea derivatives with N-4-nitrobenzyl-N-n-propylamine. Samples were collected on reagent impregnated glassfiber filters, and the derivatives were eluted with the chromatographic eluent. An impregnation technique is reported; it facilitates the chromatographic separation and the subsequent quantitative determination. Recovery studies from filters were performed in the range of 0.05 to 30 micrograms for the HDI monomer, and 0.5 to 100 micrograms for the HDI oligomer on the same filter. Average recoveries of the monomer and the oligomer were 97 +/- 2% (standard deviation) and 92 +/- 4%, respectively. The concentrations of the isocyanate components, measured during spray painting, were very high. For example, the level of the monomer frequently exceeded the hygienic limit value of 0.07 mg/m, set by the National Board of Labour Protection in Finland. As the concentrations of the HDI oligomer were at least one order of magnitude higher, appreciable exposure to isocyanate occurred if the respiratory protection was inadequate. The filter sampling technique made it possible to measure concentrations inside respirators. PMID:6702605

Rosenberg, C; Tuomi, T

1984-02-01

5

Discriminating red spray paints by optical microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Red spray paints from different European suppliers were characterised to determine the discriminating power of a sequence of analysing techniques. A total of 51 red spray paints were analysed with the help of three techniques: (1) optical microscopy, (2) Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and (3) X-ray fluorescence. Infrared spectra were classified according to binder type, filler and pigment composition and a searchable spectral library was created. Due to the difference in the elemental composition of spray paints, a further discrimination was possible. The microscopic analysis was not taken into consideration for classification purposes. The structure of the substrate under a paint coating strongly affects the surface characteristics of this spray paint. Together with the spectral library, a database of information of spray paints was build. PMID:15013166

Govaert, Filip; Bernard, Magali

2004-02-10

6

[Respiratory symptoms after the use of a painting primer product spray].  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of waterproofing spray has been associated with the development of respiratory symptoms, but the pathogenetic mechanisms are unclear. We describe a case of acute respiratory disease with impaired diffusion developed after the use of a painting primer product spray (stain stop). Further investigation in aerosol-toxicology is needed. PMID:18822236

Ebbehøj, Niels E; Bang, John

2008-09-22

7

DEVELOPMENT OF PROPOSED STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR SPRAY PAINTING TRANSFER EFFICIENCY. VOLUME 2. VERIFICATION PROGRAM  

Science.gov (United States)

The two-volume report gives results of a program to develop and verify a standardized spray-painting transfer-efficiency test method. Both review of the literature and laboratory research were conducted. Transfer efficiency measurement methods presently used by industry were eval...

8

DEVELOPMENT OF PROPOSED STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR SPRAY PAINTING TRANSFER EFFICIENCY. VOLUME 1. LABORATORY DEVELOPMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

The two-volume report gives results of a program to develop and verify a standardized spray-painting transfer-efficiency test method. Both review of the literature and laboratory research were conducted. Transfer efficiency measurement methods presently used by industry were eval...

9

DEMONSTRATION OF A PAINT SPRAY BOOTH EMISSION CONTROL STRATEGY USING RECIRCULATION/PARTITIONING AND UV/OZONE POLLUTANT EMISSION CONTROL. VOLUME 2. APPENDICES A-E  

Science.gov (United States)

The report describes in detail the source testing, construction, and data reduction/analysis activities that comprise the three phases of a technology demonstration program. Phase I consisted of a detailed baseline evaluation of several paint spray booths operated at the Barstow ...

10

DEMONSTRATION OF A PAINT SPRAY BOOTH EMISSION CONTROL STRATEGY USING RECIRCULATION/PARTITIONING AND UV/OZONE POLLUTANT EMISSION CONTROL. VOLUME 1  

Science.gov (United States)

The report describes in detail the source testing, construction, and data reduction/analysis activities that comprise the three phases of a technology demonstration program. Phase I consisted of a detailed baseline evaluation of several paint spray booths operated at the Barstow ...

11

Sunny Day Painting  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners explore properties of water and watch evaporation happen by "painting" with water in the sun. On a sunny day, learners use a variety of painting tools (brushes, rollers, spray bottles, etc.) to "paint" water on sidewalks, buildings, fences, etc. outside. Learners observe how the water moves and evaporates from the surfaces.

Museum, Kohl C.

2012-01-01

12

Evaluation of high pressure water blast with rotating spray bar for removing paint and rubber deposits from airport runways, and review of runway slipperiness problems created by rubber contamination  

Science.gov (United States)

A high pressure water blast with rotating spray bar treatment for removing paint and rubber deposits from airport runways is studied. The results of the evaluation suggest that the treatment is very effective in removing above surface paint and rubber deposits to the point that pavement skid resistance is restored to trafficked but uncontaminated runway surface skid resistance levels. Aircraft operating problems created by runway slipperiness are reviewed along with an assessment of the contributions that pavement surface treatments, surface weathering, traffic polishing, and rubber deposits make in creating or alleviating runway slipperiness. The results suggest that conventional surface treatments for both portland cement and asphaltic concrete runways are extremely vulnerable to rubber deposit accretions which can produce runway slipperiness conditions for aircraft operations as or more slippery than many snow and ice-covered runway conditions. Pavement grooving surface treatments are shown to be the least vulnerable to rubber deposits accretion and traffic polishing of the surface treatments examined.

Horne, W. B.; Griswold, G. D.

1975-01-01

13

Improved Orifice Plate for Spray Gun  

Science.gov (United States)

Erratic spray pattern of commercial spray gun changed to repeatable one by simple redesign of two parts. In modified spray gun orifice plate and polytetrafluoroethylene bushing redesigned to assure centering and alignment with nozzle. Such improvement useful in many industrial applications requiring repeatable spray patterns. Might include spraying of foam insulation, paint, other protective coatings, detergents, abrasives, adhesives, process chemicals, or fuels. Unmodified spray gun produces erratic spray because lateral misalignment between orifice plate and nozzle.

Cunningham, W.

1986-01-01

14

Paint Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Lewis Research Center (LEW) has assisted The Cleveland Museum of Art (CMA) in analyzing the museum's paintings. Because of the many layers of paint that are often involved, this is a complex process. The cross-section of a paint chip must be scanned with a microscope to determine whether a paint layer is original or a restoration. The paint samples, however, are rarely flat enough for high magnification viewing and are frequently scratched. LEW devised an automated method that produces intact, flat, polished paint cross-sections. A sophisticated microprocessor-controlled grinding and polishing machine was manually employed in preparation of exotic samples for aerospace research was a readily adaptable technique. It produced perfectly flat samples with clearly defined layers. The process has been used successfully on a number of paintings, and LEW and CMA are considering additional applications.

1994-01-01

15

Monster Paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author describes a unit on monsters wherein students were charged with painting an imaginary character and, in so doing, demonstrated mastery of expression, organization of space, control of paint media, and application of the elements of art. Students discovered how color and line could be used to convey expression. The media…

Huggler, Silvia

2010-01-01

16

Ultraviolet-radiation-curable paints  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In product finishing lines, ultraviolet radiation curing of paints on prefabricated structures could be more energy efficient than curing by natural gas fired ovens, and could eliminate solvent emission. Diffuse ultraviolet light can cure paints on three dimensional metal parts. In the uv curing process, the spectral output of radiation sources must complement the absorption spectra of pigments and photoactive agents. Photosensitive compounds, such as thioxanthones, can photoinitiate unsaturated resins, such as acrylated polyurethanes, by a free radical mechanism. Newly developed cationic photoinitiators, such as sulfonium or iodonium salts (the so-called onium salts) of complex metal halide anions, can be used in polymerization of epoxy paints by ultraviolet light radiation. One-coat enamels, topcoats, and primers have been developed which can be photoinitiated to produce hard, adherent films. This process has been tested in a laboratory scale unit by spray coating these materials on three-dimensional objects and passing them through a tunnel containing uv lamps.

Grosset, A M; Su, W F.A.; Vanderglas, E

1981-09-30

17

Thermal Spray Coatings for Coastal Infrastructure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several protection strategies for coastal infrastructure using thermal-spray technology are presented from research at the Albany Research Center. Thermal-sprayed zinc coatings for anodes in impressed current cathodic protection systems are used to extend the service lives of reinforced concrete bridges along the Oregon coast. Thermal-sprayed Ti is examined as an alternative to the consumable zinc anode. Sealed thermal-sprayed Al is examined as an alternative coating to zinc dust filled polyurethane paint for steel structures.

Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, BernardS. Jr.; Cramer, S.D.; Bullard, S.J.

1997-11-01

18

Glass composition development for stabilization of lead based paints  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exposure to lead can lead to adverse health affects including permanent damage to the central nervous system. Common means of exposure to lead are from ingestion of lead paint chips or breathing of dust from deteriorating painted surfaces. The U.S. Army has over 101 million square feet of buildings dating to World War II or earlier. Many of these structures were built before the 1978 ban on lead based paints. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers CERL is developing technologies to remove and stabilize lead containing organic coatings. Promising results have been achieved using a patented flame spray process that utilizes a glass frit to stabilize the hazardous constituents. When the glass frit is sprayed onto the paint containing substrate, differences in thermal expansion coefficients between the frit and the paint results in spalling of the paint from the substrate surface. The removed fragments are then collected and remelted to stabilize the hazardous constituents and allow for disposal as non-hazardous waste. Similar successful results using a patented process involving microwave technology for paint removal have also been achieved. In this process, the painted surface is coated with a microwave coupling compound that when exposed to microwave energy results in the spalling of the hazardous paint from the surface. The fragments can again be accumulated and remelted for stabilization and disposal.

Marra, J.C.

1996-10-01

19

Removable camouflage paints  

Science.gov (United States)

All military objects must have basic camouflage that is usually achieved by painting. Patterned camouflage painting hides the object and blends its shape and characteristic features in with its surroundings. Basic camouflage can be complemented by using temporary camouflage such as removable camouflage paints. These paints can be used in seasons and environments where the basic pattern is not appropriate. A research project was begun at the Defence Forces Technical Research Centre (DFTRC) in 1994 in order to formulate an environmentally friendly, removable camouflage paint for military use. The paint should be easily removable when they are applied to previously painted military equipment. However, it should also be resistant to drizzle. The paint should have optical properties similar to those of its surroundings. The surface of the coatings should also be matt to avoid any conspicuous reflection. Finally, it should be possible to apply removable camouflage paints in the field using any painting method. During the project environmentally friendly and non-toxic removable paints were successfully formulated. The colors of removable paints are compromises of average operating environments. The project included numerous laboratory tests in addition to natural and accelerated weathering tests. Several field tests have been carried out. According to the tests, the removable paints are well resistant to drizzle, sufficiently resistant to abrasion, and they can be washed off with water.

Salonen, Pasi S.; Niinimaki-Heikkila, Tiina; Hallenberg, Ilkka

2001-09-01

20

The application and processing of paints hardened by electron beams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron beam hardening is a process for changing liquid surface coatings of different thicknesses by irradiation with electrons of high energy into solid, hard, elastic films. In contrast to the UV process, one can harden pigmented paints with electron beams. An electron accelerator, which remits free electrons is used as the energy source for starting the chemical reaction in the coating material. In order to irradiate flat parts, which were coated with liquid paint by rolling, pouring or spraying, equally with electrons, one must produce an 'electron curtain', similar to that in a paint pouring machine. (orig./PW)

 
 
 
 
21

CORROSION RESISTANCE OF WATER-THINNABLE PAINT SYSTEMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anticorrosion protection on the basis of water-thinnable paint systems belongs among one of ecological ways of protection of metal parts. The aim of the experiment was to test corrosion resistance of water-thinnable systems Eternal antikor speciál V9503 and Colorlak aquarex V2115 in the salt spray environment according to the norm ?SN ISO 9227. Ductility of used paint systems in complience with the norm ?SN EN ISO 1520 will be also tested, it is a test according to Erichsen. At the end of the experiment measurement, the corrosion speed depending on paint coating thickness was analyzed.

Ji?í Votava

2013-12-01

22

Heap spray exploitation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

? ??????????? ???? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????? ???????? heap spray exploitation ?? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? Windows. ??????? ?? ?????????? ??? heap memory segment ??? ???? ??????? ?????? ???, ?? ????? ??? ????????? heap spray ?????????. ?????? ??????? ???????? ??? ???...

????????????, ???????? ?.

2012-01-01

23

Automatic Wall Painting Robot  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Primary Aim Of The Project Is To Design, Develop And Implement Automatic Wall Painting Robot Which Helps To Achieve Low Cost Painting Equipment. Despite The Advances In Robotics And Its Wide Spreading Applications, Interior Wall Painting Has Shared Little In Research Activities. The Painting Chemicals Can Cause Hazards To The Human Painters Such As Eye And Respiratory System Problems. Also The Nature Of Painting Procedure That Requires Repeated Work And Hand Rising Makes It Boring, Time And Effort Consuming. When Construction Workers And Robots Are Properly Integrated In Building Tasks, The Whole Construction Process Can Be Better Managed And Savings In Human Labour And Timing Are Obtained As A Consequence. In Addition, It Would Offer The Opportunity To Reduce Or Eliminate Human Exposure To Difficult And Hazardous Environments, Which Would Solve Most Of The Problems Connected With Safety When Many Activities Occur At The Same Time. These Factors Motivate The Development Of An Automated Robotic Painting System.

P.KEERTHANAA, K.JEEVITHA, V.NAVINA, G.INDIRA, S.JAYAMANI

2013-07-01

24

Roller Ball Painting  

Science.gov (United States)

This is an activity in which learners explore the effects of gravity, motion and momentum while creating art. By rolling a golf ball in paint, placing construction paper in a tray, tilting the tray and moving the golf ball around, learners will experience and experiment with color, motion and gravity. Raising or lowering any side of the tray creates an inclined plane affecting the speed of the ball. Learners can see the effect of friction (the paint) and how it slows the ball; the more paint, the slower the rolling. The final painting creates a visual representation of their exploration.

Omsi

2004-01-01

25

This Old House: Painting  

Science.gov (United States)

This Old House has put together a well-organized set of articles regarding interior painting. On the site you will find guides to help you do something as straightforward as painting a room or something more difficult - choosing the right colors for rooms. Also available on the website is a multimedia section that contains videos ranging from repairing peeling paint to stripping stubborn wallpaper as well as photo galleries of interior projects. Finally, if you still can't find an answer to your question, there is a community painting forum where you can ask questions and get answers from seasoned pros and novice home painters alike.

2006-11-03

26

Oil-based paint poisoning  

Science.gov (United States)

Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

27

Painting for protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite the use of special alloys, paint is still the most economical and practical method of protecting steel. Chlorinated rubber resin based paint systems are shown to be satisfactory in areas requiring decontamination as well as for outside exposed areas of nuclear power plants. (author)

28

Coatings for rubber bonding and paint adhesion  

Science.gov (United States)

Conversion coatings form an important base for the adhesion of paint to metal substrates and for the bonding of rubber to metal parts. Four types of conversion coatings were assessed as base treatments for the bonding of rubber to steel and for the corrosion protection of metal substrates under paint: amorphous iron phosphate, heavy zinc phosphate, and three types of modified zinc phosphates that utilized one or more metal cations in addition to zinc. When applied, these conversion coatings formed a thin film over the metal substrate that was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and chemical methods. The performance of the coatings was assessed using physical methods such as dry adhesion, conical mandrel, impact, and stress adhesion for the rubber-bonded parts, and by corrosion resistance methods such as humidity, salt spray, and cyclic corrosion. Coating characterization and performance were correlated.

Boulos, M. S.; Petschel, M.

1997-08-01

29

Revisiting Pollock's Drip Paintings  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the contentions that Jackson Pollock's drip paintings are fractals produced by the artist's Levy distributed motion and that fractal analysis may be used to authenticate works of uncertain provenance[1-5]. We find that the paintings exhibit fractal characteristics over too small a range to be usefully considered as fractal; their limited fractal characteristics are easily generated without Levy motion, both by freehand drawing and gaussian random motion. Several problems must therefore be addressed before fractal analysis can be used to authenticate paintings.

Jones-Smith, Katherine

2009-01-01

30

Painting a Picture with Air  

Science.gov (United States)

Create a painting by blowing air out of a straw. Push liquid acrylic paint around on some watercolor paper by aiming short bursts of air onto the paint puddle. See what happens when you use different colors, and add thicker or more watery paint. Then, scan or take a digital picture of your artwork and post it to the Air Blown Gallery.

Minnesota, Science M.

1995-01-01

31

THE SKY IN PAINTING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The beginning of the final thesis titled »The sky in painting« reveals some data regarding to the physical characteristics of the sky and formation of clouds after the classification. The following data represent artistic expression and explain the way how artists imagined the sky, included it as a base of message holder, which is expressed in the paintings´ composition. Development and inclusion of the sky various ways of artits´ viewpoints, regarding to different period, are represente...

Gregoric?, Aleksander

2012-01-01

32

CORROSION RESISTANCE OF WATER-THINNABLE PAINT SYSTEMS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anticorrosion protection on the basis of water-thinnable paint systems belongs among one of ecological ways of protection of metal parts. The aim of the experiment was to test corrosion resistance of water-thinnable systems Eternal antikor speciál V9503 and Colorlak aquarex V2115 in the salt spray environment according to the norm ?SN ISO 9227. Ductility of used paint systems in complience with the norm ?SN EN ISO 1520 will be also tested, it is a test according to Erichsen. At the end of ...

Ji?í Votava

2013-01-01

33

Transport of a solvent mixture across two glove materials when applied in a paint matrix.  

Science.gov (United States)

The transport of mixed paint solvents through natural rubber latex (4 mil) and nitrile rubber (5 mil) gloves was evaluated after spray application of the paint formulation directly on the glove surface. Glove materials and thicknesses were those selected by the majority of spray painters in the local automobile repair industry. A flat panel containing glove specimens mounted in multiple permeation cells permitted evaporation of solvents from the applied paint and incorporated a solid sorbent receiving medium for measuring glove membrane transport. The panel was sprayed in a paint booth to simulate use conditions. Charcoal cloth under the glove adsorbed transported solvents, which were quantified by gas chromatography. For each solvent component, results were expressed as mass transported through the glove relative to the mass applied, per unit area, during 30 min after spray application. The paint formulation contained ketones, acetates, and aromatics. Natural rubber latex allowed 6-10 times the transport of solvents relative to nitrile rubber for all eight solvent components: methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, styrene, ethyl benzene, xylene isomers, and 2-heptanone. m-Xylene showed the largest difference in transport between the two glove materials. This solvent also had the highest transport for each material. The results indicate that nitrile rubber gloves offer somewhat greater chemical resistance to all eight solvents studied compared with natural rubber latex gloves, regardless of the chemical properties of the individual solvent components. However, it must be emphasized that neither of the glove materials, in the thicknesses used in this study, provide adequate protection when exposed by direct spray painting. Simulation of realistic spray conditions may offer a source of useful information on the performance of chemical protective gloves because it accounts for solvent evaporation and the effect of paint polymerization after application on glove transport. PMID:22434453

Tran, Jackelin Q; Ceballos, Diana M; Dills, Russell L; Yost, Michael G; Morgan, Michael S

2012-07-01

34

Landscape Painting. Rewriting Painting in the Postmedium Condition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Is landscape painting still relevant today? To answer this question the article examines the work of the contemporary artist Yehudit Sasportas. Sasporas offers a unique kind of written-drawn landscape painting that moves between the manual and the mechanical. The theoretical perspectives from which it is approached are taken, among others, from Plato, Heidegger and Derrida on the issue of writing. Sasportas painting, which may be characterized as "painting under erasure" or "Landscape Painting", serves as a key to understanding the status of painting as a relevant medium, not because it defines medium according to the modernist Greenbergian formula, but because it enables an understanding of painting as a field that exists in a variety of media. Painting as a field, in Sasportas's art, works and lives within various techniques and materials, even when it includes within itself a melancholic mark indicating doubt about its own relevance.

Gal, Nissim

2011-02-01

35

Paint decontamination kinetics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decontamination kinetics of a high-gloss polyurethane paint have been investigated using a novel flow cell experiment where the sample was counted in situ during decontamination. The 134Cs, 137Cs, and 90Y decontaminations follow a rate law that can be predicted theoretically for contaminant ion desorption from weakly heterogeneous random surface adsorption sites. Paint surfaces show the same decontamination kinetics after damage by abrasion or ultraviolet irradiation prior to contamination. The systems investigated exhibit Freundlich adsorption isotherm behavior during contamination; this is also characteristic of weakly heterogeneous random surfaces and is very commonly observed in ion adsorption studies at low concentrations

36

Paint by Numbers Revived!  

Science.gov (United States)

Remember paint by numbers? This revived trend was a perfect solution to teaching geometric shapes to the author's first-grade students. Geometric shapes are identified and used in early elementary art classrooms, but this lesson gives students a deeper understanding of shape, encourages problem-solving, and makes a strong correlation between math…

Hahn, Nic

2012-01-01

37

Judgement of abstract paintings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In two experiments the judgement of twenty one abstract paintings was investigated. In Experiment 1, subjects were asked to make similarity judgements of 210 pairs of paintings on a 7 step bipolar scale (similar-dissimilar. The Multi-dimensional scaling (MDS method was used for data analysis. The distribution of paintings within MDS 2-D space suggested two grouping criteria: colorfullness (e.g. from Klee to Kline and geometrization (e.g. from Vasarely to Kandinsky. In Experiment 2, subjects were asked to judge the same paintings on three factors of the instrument SDF 9 (Markovi? et al., 2002b: Evaluation, Arousal and Regularity. The purpose of this experiment was to specify the subjective criteria on which the (dissimilarity judgements were based. In the regression analysis the three factors of SDF 9 were defined as predictors, whereas the x and y coordinates of MDS 2-D space were defined as dependent variables. The results have shown that the dimension x was reducible to the Evaluation factor, and dimension y is reducible to the Regularity factor.

Dakulovi? Sandra

2006-01-01

38

Spray characterization and droplet interactions study using particle dynamic analyzer  

Science.gov (United States)

Nozzles are utilized in atomizing liquids in many industrial and domestic applications. Examples include domestic and industrial heating units (furnaces and boilers), internal combustion engines, agricultural spraying, spray painting, etc. To improve atomizer design, it is necessary to obtain spray characteristics which include the simultaneous droplet size and velocity information. Also droplet interactions in the dense spray region affect the characteristics. Interacting spray configurations are also encountered in many industrial applications and lead to direct interactions among the droplets. The Particle Dynamic Analyzer which utilizes a combination of Laser Doppler Anemometry and Phase Doppler Interferometry to simultaneously measure droplet velocity and diameter was used to study (1) the spray characteristics of Delavan nozzles and (2) the interaction between two sprays. The results of the tests are discussed in this paper.

Yurteri, C. U.; Kadambi, Jaikrishnan R.; Arik, Engin B.

1993-08-01

39

Painting With Natural Dyes  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity is part of an integrated elementary unit called "Painted Tipis." The unit is best taught in the fall in conjunction with the September celebration "American Indian Heritage Week." It integrates lessons on literature through legends and myths, language (Blackfeet), and mathematics through structural components of the tipi. The activity introduces the students to the art of dyeing as used in ancestral tipi paintings. Historical cultural ties are an integral part of the Native American students learning and this unit provides those connections. The purpose of this lesson is to provide elementary students with the opportunity to explore, identify and locate area plants. The inquiry cooperative learning component of this lesson will be to determine the color (dye) producing possibilities of the plant. Students will also plan and carry out an experiment to produce the dyestuff of the plant as well as create possible mordants, which is a chemical or metallic compound that will "fasten" the color to the fabric.

Barbara Arrowtop (Heart Butte School)

1999-07-01

40

Hokusai: Mad About Painting  

Science.gov (United States)

The Smithsonian's Freer Gallery presents this Web interactive on the life and work of the Japanese painter and printmaker, Katsushika Hokusai (1760âÂÂ1849), the creator of the woodblock print "The Great Wave", one of the most recognized images in the world. The Flash interactive consists of four main sections on Hokusai's art: Brush & Block, Color, Composition, and Subject, plus an introductory, biographical section. In the Subject section see a long handscroll with a wide range of subjects from a pampered house cat, fish, foxes, and a man and boy looking at a waterfall; a 27 page manga, orIllustrated book; and a painting of a fisherman made when Hokusai was in his late eighties. In the Brush & Block section, compare painted and printed images of Mount Fuji, plants, and shellfish, to see Hokusai's expert use of both techniques.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

29 CFR 1910.107 - Spray finishing using flammable and combustible materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

...only in a suitable mixing room or in a spraying area...pressure in excess of the design working pressure of accessories...automatic sprinkler system in rooms containing spray finishing...areas and paint storage rooms. (h) Fixed electrostatic...insulators shall be kept clean and dry. (6)...

2010-07-01

42

EVALUATION OF SUPERCRITICAL CO2 SPRAY TECHNOLOGY AS A COST EFFECTIVE APPROACH TO REDUCTION OF SOLVENTS IN WOOD FINISHING  

Science.gov (United States)

Product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues were evaluated for a spray paint application technology using supercritical carbon dioxide to replace some of the solvent in a conventional solvent-borne coatings formulation. roduct quality was evaluated by comparing product ...

43

Water-based intumescent paint  

Science.gov (United States)

Article discusses fire-resistant water-based paints made by adding intumescing agents to fluorocarbon coatings. Since these paints are water-based, they do not pollute atmosphere as they dry and can be used in closed-loop air-recirculation system in spacecraft and submarines.

Sauers, D. G.; Nannelli, P.

1979-01-01

44

The Transdisciplinary Potential of Remediated Painting  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Over the last decades the notion of what painting is has been considerably widened due to intermediality, i.e. crossovers between artistic media such as painting and sculpture, painting and photography, painting and installation, painting and performance etc. This paper suggests that the transformation of the discipline of painting into an expanded field has not only liberated painting from its ties to its traditional repertoire of materials and modes of representation. It has also released a tremendous potential for image making that takes painting as a point of departure but moves beyond the limitations of dialogic intermedia into the field of transdisciplinary aesthetics. In support of my argument, I turn to the concept of remediation as it was first applied in new media theory by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin. The ambition is to develop an apprehension of painting not as an artistic artifact or 'medium-specific' practice, but as a critical remediating process - painting as remediated painting. establishes its own separate space of cultural meaning. Secondly, it defines painting as active, performative and migrant. It suggests that today painting is active as a cultural force, not just as fine art. In order to substantiate these claims, the paper analyses works by some contemporary Northern European artists. What could be gained from this reconceptualisation of the expanded field of painting? Firstly, it introduces an apprehension of painting that starts from the transdisciplinary potential of painting instead of its historical disciplinarity and the attendant assumption that, as a discipline, painting functions independently and

Petersen, Anne Ring

2010-01-01

45

Alkyd paint for scientific and medical illustration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the past decade, alkyd paint was introduced as one of the leading contenders for a new color painting medium. The paint has been proven to be durable and to blend as easily as oil. Because of the ideal drying time for easy blending and because of its durability and versatility, alkyd paint is an excellent choice for medical and biological illustrators. PMID:3360768

Hodge, G P

1988-01-01

46

New biocides for antifouling paints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The antifouling paints are used for protecting the hulls of the boasts from the undesirable accumulation of micro-organisms, plants, and animals on artificial surfaces (marine biological fouling). These paints constitute a potential risk for the marine environment, because of the presence in their formulation, among the other potentially toxic components, of organic compounds acting as biocide. The environmental problems associated with the use of the organotin compounds as biocides in the antifouling paints, have lead to the international ban of these compounds. In the article the new antifouling paints coming up the national and international market are shortly introduced and discussed, with particular attention respect to the new organic compounds used as biocides. In Italy quite a few marine monitoring campaigns have been carried out for organotin compounds, on the contrary there is a lack of data regarding the presence of other biocides

47

Nicotine Nasal Spray  

Science.gov (United States)

Nicotine nasal spray is used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine nasal spray should be used together with a smoking cessation ... counseling, or specific behavior change techniques. Nicotine nasal spray is in a class of medications called smoking ...

48

Budesonide Nasal Spray  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhinocort® Aqua Nasal Spray ... Budesonide comes as an aerosol nasal spray to be sprayed in the nose. Budesonide is usually used once or twice a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

49

Skin painting studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to estimate eventual risks to human health as a consequence of incidental and prolonged skin contact, it is necessary to obtain some information on the potential of coal-derived liquids to elicit skin cancer. In addition, it also must be established whether prolonged dermal exposure will produce signs of toxicity not only on the skin but to internal organs. During the past 2 years, they completed a life-long skin painting study with mice designed to answer some of these questions. The following materials were tested: Raw H-coal blend, containing 5700 ppm N; H-coal blend after low hydrotreatment (2650 ppm N); H-coal blend after high hydrotreatment (0.2 ppm N); H-coal home heating oil, a devolatilized version of the high-hydrotreatment H-coal blend; and an H-coal reformed naphtha. Two petroleum-derived references samples were used: Petroleum No. 2 fuel oil and high catalytically cracked naphtha. Benzo(a)pyrene was used as reference substance. Experimental animals were male and female C3H mice

50

The transdisciplinary potential of remediated painting  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

"The Transdisciplinary Potential of Remediated Painting" Over the last decades the notion of what painting is has been considerably widened due to intermediality, i.e. crossovers between artistic media such as painting and sculpture, painting and photography, painting and installation, painting and performance etc. This paper suggests that the transformation of the discipline of painting into an expanded field has not only liberated painting from its ties to its traditional repertoire of materials and modes of representation. It has also released a tremendous potential for image making that takes painting as a point of departure but moves beyond the limitations of dialogic intermedia into the field of transdisciplinary aesthetics. In support of my argument, I turn to the concept of remediation as it was first applied in new media theory by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin. The ambition is to develop an apprehension of painting not as an artistic artifact or 'medium-specific' practice, but as a critical remediating process - painting as remediated painting. What could be gained from this reconceptualisation of the expanded field of painting? Firstly, it introduces an apprehension of painting that starts from the transdisciplinary potential of painting instead of its historical disciplinarity and the attendant assumption that, as a discipline, painting functions independently and establishes its own separate space of cultural meaning. Secondly, it defines painting as active, performative and migrant. It suggests that today painting is active as a cultural force, not just as fine art. In order to substantiate these claims, the paper analyses works by some contemporary Northern European artists.

Petersen, Anne Ring

2011-01-01

51

Fluticasone Nasal Spray  

Science.gov (United States)

Flonase® Nasal Spray ... Fluticasone nasal spray is used to treat the symptoms of seasonal (occurs only at certain times of year), and perennial (occurs ... Fluticasone comes as a liquid to spray in the nose. It is usually sprayed in each nostril once daily or twice daily in the morning and evening. It is ...

52

Drip Paintings and Fractal Analysis  

CERN Document Server

It has been claimed [1-6] that fractal analysis can be applied to unambiguously characterize works of art such as the drip paintings of Jackson Pollock. This academic issue has become of more general interest following the recent discovery of a cache of disputed Pollock paintings. We definitively demonstrate here, by analyzing paintings by Pollock and others, that fractal criteria provide no information about artistic authenticity. This work has also led to two new results in fractal analysis of more general scientific significance. First, the composite of two fractals is not generally scale invariant and exhibits complex multifractal scaling in the small distance asymptotic limit. Second the statistics of box-counting and related staircases provide a new way to characterize geometry and distinguish fractals from Euclidean objects.

Jones-Smith, Katherine; Krauss, Lawrence M

2007-01-01

53

5.NF Painting a Wall  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Nicolas is helping to paint a wall at a park near his house as part of a community service project. He had painted half of the wall yellow when the par...

54

5.NF Painting a room  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Kulani is painting his room. He needs $\\frac13$ of a gallon to paint the whole room. What fraction of a gallon will he need for each of his 4 walls if ...

55

Development of Al-containing zinc-rich paints for corrosion resistance  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of Al addition on the corrosion performance of zinc-rich paints (ZRP) was investigated. Both electrochemical measurement and salt spray test were employed to evaluate the corrosion performance of ZRP with or without Al addition. The Al content as percentage of the total metallic components in the ZRP, investigated in this study, varied from 0 to 75 wt.%. The experimental results showed that protective nature of ZRP altered from cathodic protection to barrier former as the Al content was increased beyond 20 wt.%. The results from salt spray tests also revealed that the corrosion products were modified with the presence of aluminum oxide in the Al-containing ZRP. The amount of zinc white on the painted steel decreased as the Al content in the ZRP increased. The protectiveness, in terms of the time of red rust formation and cathodic protection, was reduced as the Al content was higher than 20 wt.%.

Chen, Wen-Ben; Chen, Peter; Chen, H. Y.; Wu, Jack; Tsai, Wen-Ta

2002-02-01

56

Electrochemical behavior and protective property of Al-containing zinc-rich paints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of Al addition on the corrosion performance of zinc-rich paints (ZRP) was investigated. Both electrochemical measurement and salt spray test were employed to evaluate the corrosion performance of ZRP with or without Al addition. The Al content as percentage of the total metallic components in the ZRP, investigated in this study, varied from 0 to 75wt%. The experimental results showed that protective nature of ZRP altered from cathodic protection to barrier former as the Al content was increased beyond 20wt%. The results from salt spray tests also revealed that the corrosion products were modified with the presence of aluminum oxide in the Al-containing ZRP. The amount of zinc white on the painted steel decreased as the Al content in the ZRP increased. The protectiveness, in terms of the time of red rust formation and cathodic protection, was reduced as the Al content was higher than 20wt%

57

Restoring a Masterwork - Anatomy of Painting  

Science.gov (United States)

You might think that a painting has only one surface to worry about, but typically it has six. This web site describes each painting layer and suggests why a conservator needs to pay attention to all of them.

Upper Midwest Conservation Association (UMCA)

58

Solvent exposure and related work practices amongst apprentice spray painters in automotive body repair workshops.  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a multidisciplinary study into the health effects of solvents, workplace assessments and airborne solvent vapour monitoring was conducted in 46 spray painting workshops in the Sydney metropolitan area. Breathing-zone samples were taken from 50 apprentices and 14 experienced spray painters. An interview schedule was developed to obtain information about the use of acrylic or two-pack paint systems, the use of engineering controls, the use of personal protective equipment and the availability of material safety data sheets. Contaminants typical of the chemical products used in this industry were encountered (aromatic hydrocarbons, C5-C7 aliphatic hydrocarbons, ketones, esters). The results of airborne solvent monitoring indicate a total solvent exposure in the range 1-99% of a combined Worksafe Australia exposure standard, with a mean of 19%. Solvent exposure was highest when spraying acrylic paint in the open workshop and lowest when spraying two pack paint in a spray booth. Much the same personal protective equipment was available in all workshops, but wide variation in its use was observed. Material safety data sheets were not observed in any of the workshops. PMID:1444066

Winder, C; Turner, P J

1992-08-01

59

Paint the World with Light  

Science.gov (United States)

Two classrooms on opposite sides of the world happened to be working on a very similar project at the same time. In both Shanghai, China, and Palm Springs, California, students were learning how to turn their flashlights and other light-emitting objects into paintbrushes. Light painting is a form of long-exposure photography in which the shutter…

Gran, David

2010-01-01

60

Discovering Sand and Sand Paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity blends social studies and art with math and science. First, students will explore the visible characteristics of sand, and then they will make Navajo-style sand paintings with paper, glue, and colored sand. In the process, they will hone the

Eichinger, John

2009-05-30

 
 
 
 
61

Chicanos Paint Their Way Back.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Tucson (Arizona) and El Paso (Texas), Chicano mural painters and art educators have begun community programs to engage alienated Chicano and Yaqui youth in painting murals that defuse gang conflicts, celebrate Mexican culture and history, and provide training in marketable skills. (SV)

Treguer, Annick

1999-01-01

62

EMISSIONS OF ODOROUS ALDEHYDES FROM ALKYD PAINT  

Science.gov (United States)

Aldehyde emissions are widely held responsible for the acrid after-odor of drying alkyd-based paint films. The aldehyde emissions from three different alkyd paints were measured in small environmental chambers. It was found that, for each alkyd paint applied, more than 2 mg of ...

63

Household hazardous waste : composition of paint waste  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc.) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when incinerated. Allowing household paint waste to be collected with ordinary household waste is expected to reduce the cost of handling household hazardous waste, since paint waste in Denmark comprises the major fraction of household hazardous waste.

Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas HØjlund

2007-01-01

64

Conservation problems with paintings containing fluorescent layers of paint  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L’artiste moderne cherche continuellement de nouvelles techniques. Des nouveaux matériaux tels que l’éponge, le polyester, le sable, etc. sont devenus courants. Ces développements amènent de nouveaux problèmes dans le domaine de la conservation (préventive des matériaux en question. Chaque matériau doit être analysé individuellement afin de préserver  le mieux possible l’intention de l’artiste à long terme. La présente recherche concerne des matériaux très récents: les pigments et les couleurs fluorescentes. Ces derniers n’ont fait leur apparition qu’au vingtième siècle. Pour cette raison les données concernant leur dégradation et leur conservation sont peu nombreuses. La majorité des tableaux fluorescents sont conçus pour être montrés sous éclairage UV. En cas de dommage, si l’œuvre a besoin d’être retouchée, ceci pose un grand problème esthétique. La retouche devient visible sous les lampes UV. La première partie de la recherche concerne la composition des différentes sortes de pigments et de peintures. Par la suite, les différentes causes de dégradation- lumière UV, chaleur, etc.- sont analysées en détail. Pour conclure, un possible remède est proposé.In modern art we can see that artists are breaking with traditional techniques. New materials like sponge, polyester, sand, etc. are being used. This causes a lot of new problems in the (preventive conservation of works containing these materials. Every material needs to be researched individually so the exact intention of the artist can be preserved for a (relatively long period. My research is about very recent materials: fluorescent pigments and paints. These only started to be used by artists from the 60’s. That's why there is not much information about their aging and ways to (preventively conserve them. A lot of fluorescent paintings are meant to be shown under UV-light. If a fluorescent painting has damage and needs to be retouched there is a big esthetical problem. The retouched damage is visible under UV-light. The title of this thesis is born out of this last problem: Conservation problems with paintings containing fluorescent layers of paint. The first topic of research for this thesis concerns the composition of these different sorts of paint and pigments. Afterwards, the causes of damage resulting from UV-light –and other factors- were thoroughly analyzed. Finally, a possible remedy is being proposed.

Stefanie De Winter

2010-11-01

65

Optical fuel spray measurements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Diesel fuel sprays, including fuel/air mixing and the physics of two-phase jet formation, are discussed in the thesis. The fuel/air mixing strongly affects emissions formation in spray combustion processes where the local combustion conditions dictate the emission formation. This study comprises optical measurements both in pressurized spray test rigs and in a running engine.The studied fuel injection was arranged with a common rail injection system and the injectors were operated with a solenoid-based injection valve. Both marine and heavy-duty diesel engine injectors were used in the study. Optical fuel spray measurements were carried out with a laser-based double-framing camera system. This kind of equipments is usually used for flow field measurements with Particle Image Velocimetry technique (PIV) as well as for backlight imaging. Fundamental fuel spray properties and spray formation were studied in spray test rigs. These measurements involved studies of mixing, atomization, and the flow field. Test rig measurements were used to study the effect of individual injection parameters and component designs. Measurements of the fuel spray flow field, spray penetration, spray tip velocity, spray angle, spray structure, droplet accumulation, and droplet size estimates are shown. Measurement campaign in a running optically accessible large-bore medium-speed engine was also carried out. The results from engine tests were compared with equivalent test rig measurements, as well as computational results, to evaluate the level of understanding of sprays. It was shown that transient spray has an acceleration and a deceleration phase. Successive flow field measurements (PIV) in optically dense diesel spray resulted in local and average velocity data of diesel sprays. Processing fuel spray generates a flow field to surrounding gas and entrainment of surrounding gas into fuel jet was also seen at the sides of the spray. Laser sheet imaging revealed the inner structure of diesel spray and accumulation of droplets. Also shockwave formation was recorded when supersonic fuel jet exits the nozzle orifice. These results were used to evaluate spray formation and the structure was compared with simulated fuel sprays. Novel information, more refined and focused results, and better understanding of the nature of atomization and sprays was gathered. It was shown that new methods enable more precise understanding of transient two-phase sprays to be gained. (orig.)

Hillamo, H.

2011-07-01

66

Electrical charging characteristics of the hetero layer film for reducing water-borne paint contamination in electrostatic rotary atomizers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The electrostatic rotary atomizer is the most efficient of all liquid spray painting methods. Its use minimizes the waste of paint and reduces emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Water-borne painting processes which use water-soluble paint also reduce VOC emissions, but the atomizer body is easily contaminated by the paint mists. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) considered the causes of water-borne paint contamination and presented the experimental results of a contamination proof system in which the atomizer is surrounded by the repelling film that is charged and repels the incoming paint droplets. Among the key factors for repelling film were electrical properties, such as low capacitance and high insulation to keep high surface potential. Charging uniformity was found to be among the most important characteristic to avoid contamination. The pulse electro-acoustic (PEA) method was used to check these features using space charge measurements inside the repelling film. It was concluded that hetero layer films have more uniform charging characteristics than single layer films.

Yamada, Y.; Imanishi, T.; Yoshida, O.; Mizuno, A. [ABB Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

2010-07-01

67

Paint or color? Bursa example  

Science.gov (United States)

While traditional/vernacular color scheme of a city in historical regions should be protected, changes in life style reflect on cityscapes in all ways, in which the role of new materials, paints, etc. cannot be denied. Lack of architectural and urban design studies in this field added to existing countless opportunities of new technology, with the strong desire to trying those by building owners, users and contractors have caused a chaotic situation in the use of color in cities; Bursa with its historical colorful background is no exception. All these form a trial and error phase, with painted or materials applied on surfaces without a sensitive touch to transform them to color. This must be taken in mind that color with its inherent power can bind past, present and future of the city and create an urban sense of place.

Habib, Susan; Cetinturk, Nihal

2002-06-01

68

Butorphanol Nasal Spray  

Science.gov (United States)

Butorphanol nasal spray is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Butorphanol is in a class of medications called opioid agonist- ... Butorphanol nasal spray comes as a solution (liquid) to spray in the nose. It is usually used as needed for pain, ...

69

Fentanyl Nasal Spray  

Science.gov (United States)

Fentanyl nasal spray is used to treat breakthrough pain (sudden episodes of pain that occur despite round the clock treatment with ... Fentanyl nasal spray comes as a solution (liquid) to spray in the nose. It is used as needed to treat breakthrough ...

70

Computer analysis of ATR-FTIR spectra of paint samples for forensic purposes  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of subtraction and normalization of IR spectra (MSN-IR) was developed and successfully applied to extract mathematically the pure paint spectrum from the spectrum of paint coat on different bases, both acquired by the Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) technique. The method consists of several stages encompassing several normalization and subtraction processes. The similarity of the spectrum obtained with the reference spectrum was estimated by means of the normalized Manhattan distance. The utility and performance of the method proposed were tested by examination of five different paints sprayed on plastic (polyester) foil and on fabric materials (cotton). It was found that the numerical algorithm applied is able - in contrast to other mathematical approaches conventionally used for the same aim - to reconstruct a pure paint IR spectrum effectively without a loss of chemical information provided. The approach allows the physical separation of a paint from a base to be avoided, hence a time and work-load of analysis to be considerably reduced. The results obtained prove that the method can be considered as a useful tool which can be applied to forensic purposes.

Szafarska, Ma?gorzata; Wo?niakiewicz, Micha?; Pilch, Mariusz; Zi?ba-Palus, Janina; Ko?cielniak, Pawe?

2009-04-01

71

CHITOSAN-COPPER PAINT TYPES AS ANTIFOULING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A prototype of antifouling paints was prepared with a QS-Cu (I-Fe (II complex as a possible replacement for traditional antifouling paints, which contain a large concentration of copper, fnding them in an order of 10 - 30 % depending on the brand, and if it is water or solvent based. A Qs-Cu complex was prepared, with a solution at 3% with acetic acid, and then Fe2O3 was added to the solution. FT IR analysis was carried out, as well as analysis of the TGA at the Qs and the complex with Qs-Cu, and with the solution, three different paints were prepared. Those that varied volumen of diethylene glycol added to them. The analysis of the paints was carried out, once the paint was pervaded in a network of polyamide, through SEM with EDX and TEM, which was purchased with the commercial paints, water based and solvent based. One of the objectives is to be able to compare the coverage of the network with the commercial paint, and that of the complex QS-Cu. The results showed that the best paint obtained was paint #2, found to be similar to that pervaded with water based paint.

MARCIA HEUSER

2009-12-01

72

CHITOSAN-COPPER PAINT TYPES AS ANTIFOULING  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english A prototype of antifouling paints was prepared with a QS-Cu (I)-Fe (II) complex as a possible replacement for traditional antifouling paints, which contain a large concentration of copper, fnding them in an order of 10 - 30 % depending on the brand, and if it is water or solvent based. A Qs-Cu compl [...] ex was prepared, with a solution at 3% with acetic acid, and then Fe2O3 was added to the solution. FT IR analysis was carried out, as well as analysis of the TGA at the Qs and the complex with Qs-Cu, and with the solution, three different paints were prepared. Those that varied volumen of diethylene glycol added to them. The analysis of the paints was carried out, once the paint was pervaded in a network of polyamide, through SEM with EDX and TEM, which was purchased with the commercial paints, water based and solvent based. One of the objectives is to be able to compare the coverage of the network with the commercial paint, and that of the complex QS-Cu. The results showed that the best paint obtained was paint #2, found to be similar to that pervaded with water based paint.

MARCIA, HEUSER; CLAUDIA, RIVERA; CHRISTIAN, NUÑEZ; GALO, CÁRDENAS.

2009-12-01

73

CHITOSAN-COPPER PAINT TYPES AS ANTIFOULING  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english A prototype of antifouling paints was prepared with a Qs-Cu (I)-Fe (II) complex as a possible replacement for traditional antifouling net paints, which contain a large concentration of copper, finding them in an order of 10-30 % depending on the company, and either in water or solvent based. A Qs-Cu [...] complex was prepared, with a solution at 3% with acetic acid, and then Fe2O3 was added to the solution. FT IR analysis was carried out, as well as analysis of the TGA at the Qs and the complex with Qs-Cu, and with the solution, three different paints were prepared. Those that varied volume of diethylene glycol added to them. The analysis of the paints was carried out, once the paint was pervaded in a network of polyamide, through SEM with EDX and TEM, which was purchased with the commercial paints, water based and solvent based. One of the objectives is to be able to compare the coverage of the network with the commercial paint, and that of the complex Qs-Cu. The results showed that the best paint obtained was paint #2, found to be similar to that pervaded with water based paint.

MARCIA, HEUSER; GALO, CÁRDENAS.

2415-24-01

74

CHITOSAN-COPPER PAINT TYPES AS ANTIFOULING  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english A prototype of antifouling paints was prepared with a Qs-Cu (I)-Fe (II) complex as a possible replacement for traditional antifouling net paints, which contain a large concentration of copper, finding them in an order of 10-30 % depending on the company, and either in water or solvent based. A Qs-Cu [...] complex was prepared, with a solution at 3% with acetic acid, and then Fe2O3 was added to the solution. FT IR analysis was carried out, as well as analysis of the TGA at the Qs and the complex with Qs-Cu, and with the solution, three different paints were prepared. Those that varied volume of diethylene glycol added to them. The analysis of the paints was carried out, once the paint was pervaded in a network of polyamide, through SEM with EDX and TEM, which was purchased with the commercial paints, water based and solvent based. One of the objectives is to be able to compare the coverage of the network with the commercial paint, and that of the complex Qs-Cu. The results showed that the best paint obtained was paint #2, found to be similar to that pervaded with water based paint.

MARCIA, HEUSER; GALO, CÁRDENAS.

75

Inhalation exposure to isocyanates of car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters.  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a large-scale epidemiological study, occupational isocyanate exposure was assessed in spray-painting environments. The aim was to assess which compounds contribute to isocyanate exposure in car body repair shops and industrial painting companies, and to identify tasks with high risk of isocyanate exposure. Mainly personal task-based samples (n = 566) were collected from 24 car body repair shops and five industrial painting companies using impingers with DBA in toluene. Samples were analysed by LC-MS for isocyanate monomers, oligomers and products of thermal degradation. From the 23 analysed compounds, 20 were detected. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a HDI, TDI and MDI factor with the thermal degradation products divided over the TDI and MDI factors. The HDI factor mainly consisted of HDI oligomers and was dominant in frequency and exposure levels in both industries. Spray painting of PU lacquers resulted in the highest exposures for the HDI factor (welding in car body repair shops (paint is the most important source and major contributor of isocyanate exposure in both industries with highest exposures during PU spraying. However, since respiratory protection is less extensively used during other tasks, lower level exposure during these other tasks may significantly contribute to the internal dose. PMID:16126758

Pronk, Anjoeka; Tielemans, Erik; Skarping, Gunnar; Bobeldijk, Ivana; VAN Hemmen, Joop; Heederik, Dick; Preller, Liesbeth

2006-01-01

76

29 CFR 1910.107 - Spray finishing using flammable and combustible materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

...or by such partition or wall as to reduce the danger...terminal is from a water-wash spray booth, the terminal...any combustible exterior wall or roof nor discharge...1968 for construction, tests, and maintenance. ...to paint containers, wash cans, and any...

2010-07-01

77

Reactor container spray system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To effectively remove heat and radioactive gases in a container of BWR type reactors and the like by providing a plurality of spray nozzles vertically to pipeways disposed horizontally on the circumference in the container. Constitution: A group of nozzles are provided vertically to pipeways disposed horizontally on the circumference at the upper portion within the container. In the container spray system having such a constitution, cooling water from the lower spray nozzles has high water head and is sprayed as far as the center of the container and the cooling water from the upper spray nozzle has a lower spray head and is sprayed to the periphery of the container. Since the nozzles are distributed both in the vertical and the circumferential directions, cooling water is scattered in a uniform distribution within the container thereby enabling effective removal for heat and radioactive gases. (Moriyama, K.)

78

Characterization of sprays  

Science.gov (United States)

It is pointed out that most practical power generation and propulsion systems involve the burning of different types of fuel sprays, taking into account aircraft propulsion, industrial furnaces, boilers, gas turbines, and diesel engines. There has been a lack of data which can serve as a basis for spray model development and validation. A major aim of the present investigation is to fill this gap. Experimental apparatus and techniques for studying the characteristics of fuel sprays are discussed, taking into account two-dimensional still photography, cinematography, holography, a laser diffraction particle sizer, and a laser anemometer. The considered instruments were used in a number of experiments, taking into account three different types of fuel spray. Attention is given to liquid fuel sprays, high pressure pulsed diesel sprays, and coal-water slurry sprays.

Chigier, N.; Mao, C.-P.

1984-01-01

79

A mathematical model for drying paint layers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many industrial processes involve the coating of substrates with thin layers of paint. This paper is concerned with modelling the variations in layer thickness which may occur as a paint layer dries. Firstly, a systematic derivation is provided of a model based on classical lubrication theory for a drying paint layer consisting of a non-volatile resin and a volatile solvent. The effects of variable surface tension, viscosity, solvent diffusivity and solvent evaporation rate are all included i...

Howison, Sd; Moriarty, Ja; Ockendon, Jr; Terrill, El; Wilson, Sk

1997-01-01

80

Probing a Spray Using Frequency-Analyzed Light Scattering  

Science.gov (United States)

Frequency-analyzed laser-light scattering (FALLS) is a relatively simple technique that can be used to measure principal characteristics of a sheet of sprayed liquid as it breaks up into ligaments and then the ligaments break up into droplets. In particular, through frequency analysis of laser light scattered from a spray, it is possible to determine whether the laser-illuminated portion of the spray is in the intact-sheet region, the ligament region, or the droplet region. By logical extension, it is possible to determine the intact length from the location of the laser beam at the transition between the intact-sheet and ligament regions and to determine a breakup frequency from the results of the frequency analysis. Hence, FALLS could likely be useful both as a means of performing research on sprays in general and as a means of diagnostic sensing in diverse applications in which liquid fuels are sprayed. Sprays are also used for drying and to deposit paints and other coating materials.

Eskridge, Richard; Lee, Michael H.; Rhys, Noah O.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Emergency core spray device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To attain a highly efficient spray cooling by injecting cooling water of a high unsaturation degree into the outer periphery of a reactor core to moderate the flow-restriction caused by the upgoing steam streams in the outer periphery. Constitution: Spray nozzles of spray headers are provided near the outer periphery of the reactor core, and water spray is conducted upon loss of coolant accidents from the spray headers to the entire reactor core and from the spray header with the nozzle to the fuel assembly in the outer periphery of the core. While the spray water from the spray nozzle loses its unsaturation degree in contaction and admixture with two-phase mixture consisting of steam and saturated water accumulated in the upper plenum by the flow-restriction phenomena, the spray water from the lead nozzle is difficult to mix with the two-phase mixture in the upper plenum and the extent of decrease in the unsaturation degree due to the heat exchange is low. Then, this is injected as cooling water with a high unsaturation degree into the fuel assemblies to enable highly efficient spray cooling. (Moriyama, K.)

82

6.G Painting a Barn  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Alexis needs to paint the four exterior walls of a large rectangular barn. The length of the barn is 80 feet, the width is 50 feet, and the height is 3...

83

Testing Your Home for Lead in Paint, Dust, and Soil  

Science.gov (United States)

... all surfaces coated with paint, shellac, varnish, stain, coating, or even paint covered by wallpaper. ! Selection and ... beneath the paint, such as wood, plaster, or concrete particles. The amount of this material will be ...

84

24 CFR 3280.814 - Painting of wiring.  

Science.gov (United States)

...5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Painting of wiring. 3280.814 Section 3280.814...STANDARDS Electrical Systems § 3280.814 Painting of wiring. During painting or staining of the manufactured home, it...

2010-04-01

85

33 CFR 118.140 - Painting bridge piers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Painting bridge piers. 118.140 Section...LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.140 Painting bridge piers. The District Commander may require painting the sides of bridge channel...

2010-07-01

86

Neutron activation analysis of paint smears on cloth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methods for element concentration analysis of NAA and a comparison between the paint smears on cloth and paint fragments are introduced. Reduction to absurdity and statistic calculation are used to negate the suspected paint. Calculation steps are given and illustrated

87

Solidification in spray forming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Solidification in spray forming takes place in two distinct steps: typically half of the alloy latent heat is removed rapidly from the droplet spray created by gas atomization; the droplets are then constituted into a billet at deposition where the remaining liquid fraction solidifies relatively slowly. However, within the droplet spray, individual droplets have different thermal and solidification histories and depositing droplets may be solid, mushy, or liquid. Despite many studies of solid...

Grant, Ps

2007-01-01

88

Bear Spray Safety Program  

Science.gov (United States)

A bear spray safety program for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was officially initiated by the Firearms Safety Committee to address accident prevention and to promote personnel training in bear spray and its transportation, storage, and use for defense against wild animals. Used as part of a system including firearms, or used alone for those who choose not to carry a firearm, bear spray is recognized as an effective tool that can prevent injury in a wild animal attack.

Blome, C.D.; Kuzniar, R.L.

2009-01-01

89

Core spray performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large, multiple-nozzle spray systems are installed in boiling water reactors for emergency core cooling in the unlikely event of a loss-of-coolant accident. A method has been developed to predict spray distribution performance of multiple-nozzle core spray systems operating in a steam environment. This paper describes the performance analysis method, the experimental basis and qualification of the procedure, and the confirmation of the method with the full-scale sector tests. 8 refs

90

Lead content in household paints in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lead and its compounds are used in paints not only to impart colour but also to make it durable, corrosion resistant and to improve drying. Adverse health impacts of lead especially on children have led countries to restrict or ban its use in paints. While U.S. and other developed countries instituted measures to limit the use of lead in paints, some developing countries including India have failed to regulate their lead content. The present study was undertaken to determine the levels of lead in new latex (water-based) and enamel paints (oil-based) intended for residential use in India. A total of 69 paint samples (38 latex and 31 enamel samples) from six of the most popular brands were analysed for lead concentrations. While all latex paint samples contained low levels of lead, (i.e., well below 600 ppm as regulated by United States' Consumer Products Safety Commission) the enamel paint samples of all but one brand contained significant concentrations of lead, ranging up to 140,000 ppm. In fact 84% of the enamel paints tested exceeded 600 ppm whereas only 38 % of all samples (including latex and enamel types) exceeded this regulatory level

91

Why Painting Still Matters. Fastback 473.  

Science.gov (United States)

For more than two thousand years, the painted image has been critical to the culture of the West. At the beginning of the 21st century, however, painting sits quietly in a small corner and is, for the most part, ignored. Museums increasingly devote their contemporary exhibition space to "installation art," as opposed to discrete objects such as…

Fendrich, Laurie

92

EMISSION RATES OF MERCURY FROM LATEX PAINTS  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper gives results of tests of latex paints containing organic mercury additives in small environmental test chambers to determine the emission rates of mercury. Five paints were evaluated: two contained phenyl mercuric acetate (PMA); and the other three, different additives...

93

Roosters Rule: A Painted Paper Collage  

Science.gov (United States)

On perusing American collage artist Eric Carle's book, "Rooster's Off to See the World," at an annual school book fair, the author, mesmerized by the carnival of colors and collage on each page, thought "What a wonderful visual aid for a combination painting and collage unit." Her first-graders were involved in a painting unit, and knowing their…

Brady, Susan

2011-01-01

94

Lead in new paints in Nepal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Samples from 75 paint products made by 21 domestic and foreign manufacturers were purchased from retail stores in five major cities in Nepal and tested for lead content. Information provided on product labels were noted. Samples were selected to be representative of the large number of brands and colors available in retail shops. Although a majority of the products purchased were manufactured in Nepal, paints from four additional countries were tested. Out of a total of 75 samples, 57 (76%) of the tested paints contained lead at concentrations greater than 90 ppm (ppm). Ninety-three percent of the paints that exceeded 90 ppm had levels in excess of 600 ppm. Lead concentrations in the tested paints ranged up to 200,000 ppm (20%) lead by weight and the median concentration was 5100 ppm. These results indicate that lead paint is commonly being sold for residential and other consumer applications in Nepal without any consumer warnings. Regulations are needed to specify the maximum concentration of lead allowed in paint products manufactured, imported, or distributed in the country to protect public health. Efforts must be made to get lead-containing paint products recalled from stores so that they are not used in homes, schools, and other child-occupied facilities. PMID:24742730

Gottesfeld, Perry; Pokhrel, Dhiraj; Pokhrel, Amod K

2014-07-01

95

Antifungal efficiency assessment of the TiO2 coating on façade paints.  

Science.gov (United States)

The work studies the photocatalytic activity and the antifungal efficiency of the TiO2/Zn-Al coatings placed on the target commercial façade paints. The photocatalytic active nanocomposite based on TiO2 and Zn-Al-layered double hydroxides (ZnAl-LDHs) was synthesized by a wet impregnation technique with 3 % w/w TiO2. The freshly prepared suspension was applied by spray technique on the surfaces of the white façade paints. The goal of the work was to develop a method that quickly quantifies the antifungal activity of the commercial façade paints with and without biocidal components covered with a photocatalytic coating. The essence of the proposed method is the monitoring of the fungal growth (artificial ageing conditions) and the quantification of its development (UV-A 0.13 mWcm(-2)) on the façade paint surfaces. A special fungus nutrient (potato dextrose agar (PDA)) was inoculated with the spores of the Aspergillus niger ATCC 6275, and the test samples (façade paints with and without photocatalytic coating) were placed on the inoculated nutrient in the petri dishes. The images of the fungal growth on the samples of the facade paints, during a period of 5 days, were imported into Matlab R2012a where they were converted to binary images (BW), based on the adequate threshold. The percentage of the surface coverage was calculated by applying the specifically written program code which determines the ratio of the black and white pixels. The black pixels correspond to the surface covered with hyphae and mycelia of the fungus. PMID:24875311

Vu?eti?, Snežana B; Rudi?, Ognjen Lj; Markov, Siniša L; Bera, Oskar J; Vidakovi?, Ana M; Skapin, Andrijana S Sever; Ranogajec, Jonjaua G

2014-10-01

96

Effects of gamma radiation on paints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The systems and components involved in reactor operation are subject to degradation and aging effects. These effects must be evaluated for accelerated aging of plant components. Generally, the organic materials used in nuclear field such as wire insulation, paints, adhesives, sealants are affected by gamma radiation. The radiation effects on paints were studied at INR - Pitesti and APPVRI - Bucuresti. This paper presents the change of the characteristics of two types of powder paints deposited in electrostatic field on metallic surface, gamma irradiated at 110 kGy and 200 kGy. After irradiation the paints have very good support adherence, high elasticity and impact resistance. They also resist to the action of the acids and the bases used for decontamination. The tests on the paints demonstrated that they can be of successfully used in nuclear field. (authors)

97

A new method for thermal spraying of Zn-Al coatings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the development of the thermal spraying system built on the principles of the high velocity air flame (HVAF) process. HVAF sprayed coatings showed considerably higher bond strength than coatings obtained by the conventional methods, indicating the advantage of this method in areas where the adhesion strength is critically important. The highly dense structure of the coating obtained with HVAF eliminates a need for a top paint coat, which is typically applied on metal sprayed coatings to extend service life. The thermal sprayed coatings were characterized by the standard techniques, such as light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, salt spray and bond strength tests. The results show that thermal sprayed coatings have a dense structure, low presence of oxides and high resistance to corrosion. High spray rate and good coating quality make the HVAF thermal spray method a viable alternative to the conventional thermal spraying technologies, such as Wire Flame and Twin-Wire Arc.

98

[Obesity and thinness in painting].  

Science.gov (United States)

The obesity, serious frequenty sanitary problem, cause of complications that effects to the expectation of life, with aesthetic repercussion and with an increase in the last decades. Admitted the obesity android, gynoide, central or abdominal, wide aesthetic repercussion and physiopathologic like hyperdislipemias, metabolic alterations (diabetes mellitus, etc...), arterial hypertension, column arthrosis and outlying. Ethiopathologics co-factors, sedentariness, genotypic predisposition, endocrine alterations and of the leptina secretion. Illustrative cases of obesity in the painting of those that characteristic models are exposed, from slight grades to intense affecting to both genders. The thinness counterpoint of the obesity, multicausal process, less frequent than the obesity with aesthetic and psychological repercussion. It is the formed aesthetic thinness to the diverse types physiopathologic, without forgetting the constitutional and family form and the anorexy, the serial ones to disasters, wars, famines, etc..., the mystic thinness of saints and ascetics, and the serial one to consuming processes. PMID:15997591

Schüller Pérez, Amador

2004-01-01

99

Fragmentation of drying paint layers  

Science.gov (United States)

Fragmentation of thin layers of drying granular materials on a frictional surface are studied both by experiments and computer simulations. Besides a qualitative description of the fragmentation phenomenon, the dependence of the average fragment size as a function of the layer thickness is thoroughly investigated. Experiments are done using a special nail polish, which forms characteristic crack structures during drying. In order to control the layer thickness, we diluted the nail polish in acetone and evaporated in a controlled manner different volumes of this solution on glass surfaces. During the evaporation process we managed to get an instable paint layer, which formed cracks as it dried out. In order to understand the obtained structures a previously developed spring-block model was implemented in a three-dimensional version. The experimental and simulation results proved to be in excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement. An earlier suggested scaling relation between the average fragment size and the layer thickness is reconfirmed.

Bakos, Katinka; Dombi, András; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Néda, Zoltán

2013-11-01

100

Reactor core spraying device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To elimenate the variations of water spraying amount and spraying range to respective fuel assemblies even if the flying distance of the spray water is varied by coinciding in a direction for altering the spray water flying distance with the circumferential direction of the upper plenum. Constitution: Two spargers are annularly mounted along the inner wall surface of an upper plenum, and two types of nozzles having difference direction are mounted at every other positions. At this time one nozzle is so mounted as to spray water mainly to the center of the reactor core as inclined at an angle theta in a horizontal plane with respect to the center of the plenum and the other nozzle is so mounted as to spray similarly the water to the periphery of the reactor core mainly as inclined at theta'. In this manner, even if the pressure in the plenum is varied, the spray water scattering range is merely moved in circumferential direction. Therefore, if can obtain substantially uniform spray amount as a whole. (Sekiya, K.)

 
 
 
 
101

Fentanyl Sublingual Spray  

Science.gov (United States)

Fentanyl sublingual spray is used to treat breakthrough pain (sudden episodes of pain that occur despite round the clock treatment with ... Fentanyl comes as a solution (liquid) to spray sublingually ( under the ... breakthrough pain, but not more often than directed by your doctor. Follow ...

102

Steel corrosion protection by means of alkyd paints pigmented with calcium acid phosphate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of classic anticorrosive pigments is becoming more and more restricted by increasing environmental concerns; they are gradually being replaced by zinc phosphate and related compounds. Other anticorrosive pigments such as surface-exchanged silicas were also proposed. The object of this research is to study the anticorrosive properties of calcium acid phosphate as an inhibitive pigment, introducing a careful selection of complementary pigments in order to achieve an efficient anticorrosive protection. Several alkyd paints were prepared and evaluated through accelerated and electrochemical tests. The nature of the passive film formed was also studied. Paint containing zinc oxide and calcium carbonate (50/50) as complementary pigments showed the best performance in the salt spray test. Zinc oxide and calcium carbonate decreased film permeability and improved steel passivation. The passive film was composed of ferric oxyhydroxide, the pores of which became plugged by ferric phosphate.

Amo, B. del; Romagnoli, R.; Vetere, V.F. [CIC-CONICET, La Plata (Argentina)

1999-06-01

103

Three generations of inorganic phosphates in solvent and water-borne paints: A synergism case  

Science.gov (United States)

This research work is intended to compare the anti-corrosive properties of three generations of inorganic phosphate pigments in solvent-based paints and in water-borne ones, both of the epoxy type. The anti-corrosive properties of phosphate pigments were assessed by means of electrochemical techniques (corrosion potential measurements, polarisation tests, etc.), employing a steel electrode dipped into pigments suspensions. The behaviour of these pigments in anti-corrosive paints, formulated with different binders, have been studied by accelerated (salt spray cabinet and humidity chamber) and electrochemical tests (corrosion potential and ionic resistance measurements). Accelerated and electrochemical tests allowed to differentiate the anti-corrosive performance of the three phosphates studied in this research. These test are also able to detect and characterise possible synergism between the water-borne resin and the pigments.

Blustein, G.; Deyá, M. C.; Romagnoli, R.; Amo, B. del

2005-12-01

104

Core spray device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To provide a water spraying nozzle and a water injection nozzle in a core spray sparger thereby to accelerate recovery of the filtration water level by water spraying and to improve the safety of the reactor. Constitution: A water injection nozzle carrying out injection of a large quantity of water at a high speed is added to a water spray nozzle of an ordinary type installed in a core spray sparger. The water injection nozzle is selected to be one injecting water vigorously downwardly like a cock of a service water supply, and an injection hindering phenomenon due to evaporation of retained cooling water is removed thereby to cause water retained in the upper plenum to smoothly fall and to accelerate the recovery of water level after loss of coolant accident. As a result, the temperature rise of the core fuel part is suppressed low and the safety of the reactor is increased. (Sekiya, K.)

105

Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

2006-05-10

106

Measurement of tritium in dial painting industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tritium in the form of polystyrene is used coated on zinc sulphide as the active component for the manufacture of self-luminous paint. To study the radiological implication of airborne tritium in the luminous paint industry air monitoring study was conducted by cold strip method and Andersen method. Airborne particulate in different locations in luminous paint (LP) building and background areas were observed to be associated with activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 1.8 to 5.0 um. Dose to soft tissue and lungs and effective whole body dose were evaluated. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs., 2 ills

107

Corrosion resistance of the die casting AZ91D magnesium alloys with paint finishing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It was found that magnesium and its alloys have high potentialities for the application in automobiles, computer equipment, portable tools and so on. The main problem in the usage of magnesium and its alloys had been their corrosive characteristics, but owing to the recent progress in manufacturing impurity-free technology, the corrosion damage is being drastically reduced. This paper reports the results of salt spray tests and exposure tests on AZ91D magnesium and ADC12 aluminum alloys die cast panels with paint finishing. (orig.)

Umehara, Hiroyki [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Takaya, Matsufumi [Ciba Inst. of Technology, Tsukuba (Japan); Itoh, Tetsuzi [Japan Weathering Test Centre, Tsukuba (Japan). Choshi Exposure Lab.

1999-07-01

108

Thermal Arc Spray Overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

109

Thermal Arc Spray Overview  

Science.gov (United States)

Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati

2013-06-01

110

Reactor container spray device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To enable decrease in the heat and the concentration of radioactive iodine released from the reactor vessel into the reactor container in the spray device of BWR type reactors. Constitution: A plurality of water receiving trays are disposed below the spray nozzle in the dry well and communicated to a pressure suppression chamber by way of drain pipeways passing through a diaphragm floor. When the recycling system is ruptured and coolants in the reactor vessel and radioactive iodine in the reactor core are released into the dry well, spray water is discharged from the spray nozzle to eliminate the heat and the radioactive iodine in the dry well. In this case, the receiving trays collect the portions of spray water whose absorption power for the heat and radioactive iodine is nearly saturated and falls them into the pool water of the pressure suppression chamber. Consequently, other portions of the spray water that still possess absorption power can be jetted with no hindrance, to increase the efficiency for the removal of the heat and iodine of the spray droplets. (Horiuchi, T.)

111

Incite Their Interest with a Collaborative Painting Project  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes a collaborative painting project that allows first- through third-grade students to work with partners to create a four-inch square of a group painting and learn the basics of mixing paints to produce lights and darks, and tints and shades. One by one, the students worked on the painting in their free time. The author kept a…

Woodcock, Jo

2011-01-01

112

Characterization and optimization of polymer-ceramic pressure-sensitive paint by controlling polymer content.  

Science.gov (United States)

A pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) with fast response characteristics that can be sprayed on a test article is studied. This PSP consists of a polymer for spraying and a porous particle for providing the fast response. We controlled the polymer content (%) from 10 to 90% to study its effects on PSP characteristics: the signal level, pressure sensitivity, temperature dependency, and time response. The signal level and temperature dependency shows a peak in the polymer content around 50 to 70%. The pressure sensitivity was fairly constant in the range between 0.8 and 0.9 %/kPa. The time response is improved by lowering the polymer content. The variation of the time response is shown to be on the order of milliseconds to ten seconds. A weight coefficient is introduced to optimize the resultant PSPs. By setting the weight coefficient, we can optimize the PSP for sensing purposes. PMID:22163996

Sakaue, Hirotaka; Kakisako, Takuma; Ishikawa, Hitoshi

2011-01-01

113

Investigation of paint drying by radiotracers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14C-labelled solvents (toluene, 1-buthanol, acetone) have been used to follow the drying process of paint coats (alkyd varnish, polyurethane resin, chlorinated polyethylene, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride)

114

Modal Analysis of Pressure Sensitive Paint Data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) was used to separate coherent structures from noise in pressure sensitive paint (PSP) data acquired by high-speed photography on the side of a square cylinder in a natural periodically fluctuating flow.

Pastuhoff, Markus; Yorita, Daisuke; Tillmark, Nils; Alfredsson, P. Henrik; Asai, Keisuke

2012-01-01

115

Electrochemical assessment of magnetite anticorrosive paints  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the purpose of deepening in the understanding of the mechanisms of protection of anticorrosive pigments based on iron oxides, this work has been carried out on the production of pure magnetite, and copper and chromium doped magnetite, which were evaluated by different characterization techniques. The paints were prepared with a solvent less epoxy resin maintaining the Pigment Volume Content near the Practical Critical value (CPVC), established for each pigment. The paints were applied on...

Escobar, D. M.; Arroyave, C.; Jaramillo, F.; Mattos, O. R.; Margarit, I. C.; Caldero?n, J.

2003-01-01

116

Digital Embodiment in Contemporary Abstract Painting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis re-investigates Clement Greenberg’s discredited abstract expressionist claim that painting should seek its own purity through the acknowledgment of its material. I argue that Greenberg’s physical, bodily determination of painting (but not its purity) is re-located as a criticality in contemporary practice because of the changes brought about by the simulacrum and the digital. By utilizing the particularities of ‘painterly’ issues such as materiality, depth and opticality...

Stubbs, Michael

2003-01-01

117

A Qualitative Study of Student Responses to Body Painting  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes a study conducted studying focus groups to determine whether or not medical students found body painting anatomical structures to be an educationally beneficial learning activity. Outcomes discussed surround the following themes that emerged from the data. (1) body painting as a fun learning activity, (2) body painting promoting retention of knowledge, (3) factors contributing to the memorability of body painting, (4) removal from comfort zone, and (5) the impact of body painting on students' future clinical practice.

Gabrielle Finn (Durham University); John McLachlan (Durham University Medicine)

2009-11-16

118

Container spray device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To improve the soundness of a reactor container by conducting the operation of a spray cooling system upon loss of coolant accident in the container under specific conditions. Constitution: When high levels for the pressure and temperature in a reactor container are detected, and the flooding of the reactor core and the operation of two or more reactor injection systems are inspected, a pump for the reactor injection system is automatically switched to a pump for the container spray cooling system by these signals, whereby the container spray cooling system is operated automatically. Since the container spray cooling system can be operated as much as possible in relation with the reactor core flooding after the loss-of-coolant accident, rapid depressurization can be attained in the container to thereby decrease the leakage and improve the soundness of the container. (Kawakami, Y.)

119

Reactor core spraying device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To uniformly cool the reactor core of a BWR type reactor by increasing the bore of a sparger pipe in the vicinity of a joint connected to a spray water supply pipe larger than that of the other portion thereof and eliminating the breathing phenomenon of spray water. Constitution: The bore of a sparger pipe in the vicinity of a T-shaped joint connected through a bent pipe to a spray water supply pipe is increased larger than that of the other portion of the sparger pipe. Thus, it can alleviate the disturbance of water flow in the vicinity of the joint to eliminate the breathing phenomenon of a spray nozzle in the vicinity of the joint so as to uniformly cool the reactor core of a BWR type reactor. (Sekiya, K.)

120

Dynamics of flare sprays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During solar cycle No. 20 new insight into the flare-spray phenomenon has been attained due to several innovations in solar optical-observing techniques (higher spatial resolution cinema-photography, tunable pass-band filters, multi-slit spectroscopy and extended angular field coronographs). From combined analysis of 13 well-observed sprays which occured between 1969-1974 we conclude that (i) the spray material originates from a preexisting active region filament which undergoes increased absorption some tens of minutes prior to the abrupt chromospheric brightening at the 'flare-start', and (ii) the spray material is confined within a steadily expanding, loop-shaped (presumably magnetically controlled) envelope with part of the material draining back down along one or both legs of the loop. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
121

Development of spray coated cathodes for RITS-6.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents work conducted in FY13 to conduct a feasibility study on thermal spray coated cathodes to be used in the RITS-6 accelerator in an attempt to improve surface uniformity and repeatability. Currently, the cathodes are coated with colloidal silver by means of painting by hand. It is believed that improving the cathode coating process could simplify experimental setup and improve flash x-ray radiographic performance. This report documents the experimental setup and summarizes the results of our feasibility study. Lastly, it describes the path forward and potential challenges that must be overcome in order to improve the process for creating uniform and repeatable silver coatings for cathodes.

Simpson, Sean; Leckbee, Joshua J.; Miller, Stephen Samuel

2013-09-01

122

Understanding factors that influence protective glove use among automotive spray painters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dermal contact with isocyanate-based coatings may lead to systemic respiratory sensitization. The most common isocyanates found in sprayed automotive coatings are monomeric and oligomeric 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI). Most spray painters use thin (4-5 mil) latex gloves that are not effective at preventing dermal exposures when spraying isocyanate paints. Personal interviews with collision repair industry personnel and focus groups with spray painters were held to characterize risk awareness, to examine perceptions and challenges concerning protective glove use and selection, and to generate ideas for protective glove use interventions. The most popular gloves among spray painters were thin (4-5 mil) and thick (14 mil) latex. We found that medium to thick (6-8 mil) nitrile were not always perceived as comfortable and were expected to be more expensive than thin (4-5 mil) latex gloves. Of concern is the user's difficulty in distinguishing between nitrile and latex gloves; latex gloves are now sold in different colors including blue, which has traditionally been associated with nitrile gloves. Even though spray painters were familiar with the health hazards related to working with isocyanate paints, most were not always aware that dermal exposure to isocyanates could contribute to the development of occupational asthma. There is a need for more research to identify dermal materials that are protective against sprayed automotive coatings. Automotive spray painters and their employers need to be educated in the selection and use of protective gloves, specifically on attributes such as glove material, color, and thickness. PMID:24215135

Ceballos, Diana; Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Glazer, Patricia; Murphy-Robinson, Helen; Yost, Michael

2014-05-01

123

Design and Application of The Painting Material Supply System of The Painting Robot for Steel Products  

Science.gov (United States)

With the increase of painting works and the decrease of skilled workers, the demand for robot painting of the large-scale steel product is rapidly increasing. But there are many technical problems in the development of the painting robot for this use. The collision between a robot and a work-piece is one of the most important problems, because the robot operates in a small space of a work-piece. Above all, the collision of the painting material supply hose with painted film on a work-piece is very serious. To avoid the hose collision, we propose an in-line type of paint supply mechanism using swivel joints. The key point in this system is the sealing performance and its durability, and we propose the piping system with compliance to strengthen the sealing performance. In this paper, the design method of this system is discussed on the basis of the analysis of the fluctuatinal elastic deformation of a O-ring in the swivel joint. We produced a prototype of the painting robot with the in-line system designed by this method. Application of this robot to the painting of ship-hull block is also discussed. Results from this application show the effectiveness of the in-line system.

Miyawaki, Kunio; Hisayasu, Azuma; Mori, Tsunehito; Miyazaki, Tatsuo; Nakashima, Yoshio

124

Aggression in painting - painting as a means of release of aggression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Painting is a primordial expression. It is not as rigidly defined, edited and criticized as verbal expression. On the other hand, society is more tolerant of painting, and subjects otherwise taboo, like sex, are not rejected. Through painting, aggression can be expressed in different ways, by using piercing and sharp forms; colors that clash; color can be put on the canvas with anger, used as a material. Aggression can also be expressed in the content of the painting, like in a story with an aggression plot. When we encourage individuals to channel their aggression in socially tolerated ways, we teach the aggressive person to release his aggression without jeopardizing his place in society and help him to accept socially approved values and attitudes. We can define this achievement as a step towards the social rehabilitation of the aggressive individuals. The paintings, 16 in all, of 8 mental patients are analyzed. PMID:801640

Parciack, R; Winnik, H Z; Shmueli, M

1975-01-01

125

Increased persistence of antifouling paint biocides when associated with paint particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Release of biocides associated with paint particles into marinas may increase their persistence in the environment. - Current regulatory risk assessment procedures only assess the impact of antifouling paint biocides that are released through leaching from a painted surface. Hull cleaning activities can lead to particles of antifouling paint containing biocides to enter the environment. Comparative pseudo-first order anaerobic degradation rate constants and half-lives were determined for a selection of common antifouling paint booster biocides, their degradation products, and associated with paint particles. Anaerobic half-lives of <0.5 days were calculated for chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, and SeaNine 211, between 1 and 3 days for DCPMU and DCPU, between 14 and 35 days for diuron and CPDU, and over 226 days for GS26575 and Irgarol 1051. Increased persistence was observed when the compounds were introduced to sediments associated with antifouling paint particles. When present as antifouling paint particles, an increased half-life of 9.9 days for SeaNine 211 and 1.4 days was calculated for dichlofluanid, no significant degradation was observed for diuron. It is suspected that this is due to much of the biocide being initially bound within the matrix of the paint particle that is slowly released through dissolution processes into the sediment pore water prior to degradation. The release of booster biocides associated with paint particles into marinas has the potential particles into marinas has the potential to lead to their accumulation unless activities such as hull cleaning are strictly regulated

126

Measurements in liquid fuel sprays  

Science.gov (United States)

Techniques for studying the events directly preceding combustion in the liquid fuel sprays are being used to provide information as a function of space and time on droplet size, shape, number density, position, angle of flight and velocity. Spray chambers were designed and constructed for: (1) air-assist liquid fuel research sprays; (2) high pressure and temperature chamber for pulsed diesel fuel sprays; and (3) coal-water slurry sprays. Recent results utilizing photography, cinematography, and calibration of the Malvern particle sizer are reported. Systems for simultaneous measurement of velocity and particle size distributions using laser Doppler anemometry interferometry and the application of holography in liquid fuel sprays are being calibrated.

Chigier, N.

1984-04-01

127

Set Up of an Automated Multi-Colour System for Interior Wall Painting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is shared that construction projects are getting bigger and more complex, hence also the productivity of the construction industry must be improved, while preserving its labour from hazardous job sites. Such requirements can be accomplished by the adoption of robotized products, which, however, need to be quickly developed and marketed. In this paper, first the issue of a new miniature laboratory for developing lightweight and well-coordinated robotized systems is pursued, then a novel robot device for high quality multi-colour interior wall painting carried by a robot arm is developed and successfully tested. Thanks to the new 1:6 scaled down laboratory and its six degree of freedom robot arm on an hexapod for horizontal moves, we tested the opportunity to introduce also in the building sector miniature robots that can change the ergonomics standardly adopted by construction workers. It is analyzed how and why switching from full size to miniature robots is convenient in construction. In addition, a new system adding further features to robotized painting has been conceived. Our new multi-colour spraying end-tool was developed and fixed on the robot arm, in order to be able to reproduce coloured artworks. Finally, a methodology to reproduce colours from digital format of artworks is presented, showing how accurate and efficient is this new robotized spraying device.

Berardo Naticchia

2008-11-01

128

Training facilitates object recognition in cubist paintings.  

Science.gov (United States)

To the naïve observer, cubist paintings contain geometrical forms in which familiar objects are hardly recognizable, even in the presence of a meaningful title. We used fMRI to test whether a short training session about Cubism would facilitate object recognition in paintings by Picasso, Braque and Gris. Subjects, who had no formal art education, were presented with titled or untitled cubist paintings and scrambled images, and performed object recognition tasks. Relative to the control group, trained subjects recognized more objects in the paintings, their response latencies were significantly shorter, and they showed enhanced activation in the parahippocampal cortex, with a parametric increase in the amplitude of the fMRI signal as a function of the number of recognized objects. Moreover, trained subjects were slower to report not recognizing any familiar objects in the paintings and these longer response latencies were correlated with activation in a fronto-parietal network. These findings suggest that trained subjects adopted a visual search strategy and used contextual associations to perform the tasks. Our study supports the proactive brain framework, according to which the brain uses associations to generate predictions. PMID:20224810

Wiesmann, Martin; Ishai, Alumit

2010-01-01

129

Training facilitates object recognition in cubist paintings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To the naïve observer, cubist paintings contain geometrical forms in which familiar objects are hardly recognizable, even in the presence of a meaningful title. We used fMRI to test whether a short training session about Cubism would facilitate object recognition in paintings by Picasso, Braque and Gris. Subjects, who had no formal art education, were presented with titled or untitled cubist paintings and scrambled images, and performed object recognition tasks. Relative to the control group, trained subjects recognized more objects in the paintings, their response latencies were significantly shorter, and they showed enhanced activation in the parahippocampal cortex, with a parametric increase in the amplitude of the fMRI signal as a function of the number of recognized objects. Moreover, trained subjects were slower to report not recognizing any familiar objects in the paintings and these longer response latencies were correlated with activation in a fronto-parietal network. These findings suggest that trained subjects adopted a visual search strategy and used contextual associations to perform the tasks. Our study supports the proactive brain framework, according to which the brain uses associations to generate predictions.

2010-03-01

130

Paint selection for coating radioactive-waste drums  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is concluded that although the white epoxy Paint Sample E is suitable for coating waste drums, the additional pretreated costs of grit blasting prior to paint application would preclude adoption of that paint system. The specified 10.0-mil coating thickness of that coating would also incur higher costs. The Vorac epoxy-phenolic base paint (buff or yellow) was the only other paint that exhibited suitable corrosion and impact resistance required for coating the waste drums. In addition, that paint does not require a grit-blasted substrate or other costly pretreatment prior to coating

131

Thermal spray processing  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermal spray processing has been used for a number of years to cost-effecticely apply TBC's for a wide range of heat engine applications. In particular, bond coats are applied by plasma spray and HVOF techniques and partially-stabilized zirconia top coats are applied by plasma spray methods. Thermal spray involves melting and rapid transport of the molten particles to the substrate, where high-rate solidification and coating build-up occur. It is the very nature of this melt processing that leads to the unique layered microstructure, as well as the apparent imperfections, so readily identified with thermal spray. Modeling the process, process-induced residual stresses, and thermal conductivity will be discussed in light of a new understanding of porosity and its anisotropy. Microcracking can be understood using new approaches, allowing a fuller view of the processing-performance connection. Detailed electron microscopic, novel neutron diffraction and fracture analysis of the deposits can lead to a better understanding of how overall microstructure can be controlled to influence critical properties of the deposited TBC system.

Herman, H.; Berndt, C. C.

1995-01-01

132

Development of painting technology using plasma surface technology for automobile parts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the major areas in organic coatings for corrosion protection of automobile parts is the surface treatment of polyolefin (Polypropylene (RX-2000)) bumper substrates. In order to develop the painting technology, in this work, we directly tried to paint on the plastic bumper substrates without both wet washing process with VOC solvents and phosphate primer spray process. Microwave (MW) plasma treatment represents an efficient, clean and economic alternative to activate polymeric surfaces. O2 plasma treatment at room temperature within 300 s in the power range of 300-1000 W were used to elevate hydrophilic property of the polyolefin surfaces, resulting in distinctive change of wettability and adhesion between painting layer and polymeric bumper substrates. The treated surfaces have been analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Wettability and adhesion properties were elevated by the measurement of the contact angle, adhesion test, impact test, cold resistant impact test and water resistant impact test. We confirmed that the O2 plasma treatment was a very reliable method for the synthesis of polyolefin substrates with high wettability and adhesion performance

133

Development of painting technology using plasma surface technology for automobile parts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the major areas in organic coatings for corrosion protection of automobile parts is the surface treatment of polyolefin (Polypropylene (RX-2000)) bumper substrates. In order to develop the painting technology, in this work, we directly tried to paint on the plastic bumper substrates without both wet washing process with VOC solvents and phosphate primer spray process. Microwave (MW) plasma treatment represents an efficient, clean and economic alternative to activate polymeric surfaces. O{sub 2} plasma treatment at room temperature within 300 s in the power range of 300-1000 W were used to elevate hydrophilic property of the polyolefin surfaces, resulting in distinctive change of wettability and adhesion between painting layer and polymeric bumper substrates. The treated surfaces have been analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Wettability and adhesion properties were elevated by the measurement of the contact angle, adhesion test, impact test, cold resistant impact test and water resistant impact test. We confirmed that the O{sub 2} plasma treatment was a very reliable method for the synthesis of polyolefin substrates with high wettability and adhesion performance.

Jung, C.-K. [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: ckjung7818@skku.edu; Bae, I.-S. [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.-B. [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, J.-H. [Woosin Cryovac Co., Ltd. Uiwang 437-820 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, E.-S. [Woosin Cryovac Co., Ltd. Uiwang 437-820 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.-C. [Plakor Co., Ltd, Seoul 152-050 (Korea, Republic of); Boo, J.-H. [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jhboo@chem.skku.ac.kr

2006-05-26

134

Toluene removal by oxidation reaction in spray wet scrubber: experimental, modeling and optimization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Toluene, an important volatile organic compound (VOC), is used in many kinds of industries, such as painting, printing, coating, and petrochemical industries. The emission of toluene causes serious air pollution, odor problem, flammability problem and affects human health. This paper proposes the removal of toluene from waste air using a spray wet scrubber combining the absorption and oxidation reaction. Aqueous sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution was used as the scrubbing liquid in the syst...

Roumporn Nikom; Juntima Chungsiriporn; Charun Bunyakan1

2006-01-01

135

‘Afro-Ghanaian influences in Ghanaian paintings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Easel painting is a foreign art form whose materials and techniques were introduced by the Europeans into the Gold Coast, now Ghana, in the first decades of the twentieth century during the period of European modern art. Since its introduction as an academic discipline, concepts identified as Ghanaian have been incorporated into it. Hence there is the need for scholarly debate on this subject to define a framework for a discourse on the histories and receptions of Ghanaian painting. This article discusses Ghanaian easel painting by examining some African and non-African voices in the discourse on modern and contemporary African art, its early teaching methods and philosophy, and their impact on modern and post-colonial painters. To what degree did early instructors succeed in their insistence on students incorporating Ghanaian aesthetics and principles in their studies, and what impact has this had on subsequent painters?

Kwame Amoah Labi

2013-12-01

136

Non-destructive XRF analysis of paintings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The preservation and conservation of our cultural heritage has become one of the main concerns today all over the world. In particular there is an increasing need for non-destructive investigations, as sampling from the unique and precious objects of art and archaeology. In addition to the conventional analytical procedures, techniques utilising nuclear instruments and methods play increasing role in this field. The small, portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometers using radioisotope excitation allow in situ analysis in museums, galleries, or even on field. This paper presents illustrative applications of our XRF devices with radioisotope excitation. The detection of the presence of titanium in white spots of a painting provided scientific basis to decide that the painting in question was a fake. The difficulties caused by the simultaneous presence of Ti and Ba (a very frequent component white paints) are also discussed

137

The sorption of iodine onto containment paints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Containment structures of nuclear power plants have many inner surfaces coated with nuclear grade paints. These may provide a valuable sink for radioiodine and hence may aid to minimize its release to the environment following a possible accident. The objective of this on-going work is to identify and evaluate significant parameters involved in the sorption of iodine on painted surfaces and thereby develop a kinetic model. To date two paints have been studied, an inorganic zinc primer and a vinyl paint. Experiments were performed by passing 131I2 gas in air through 0.25 inch glass tubing coated on the inner surfaces with paint. Tubing was used to produce well characterized and rapid gas phase mass transfer. The accumulation of iodine on the surface was monitored continuously using two parallel scintillation detectors coupled to a PC based multi-channel analyzer. Test parameters such as temperature, humidity, flow-rate, and iodine concentration could be adjusted independently. The zinc primer demonstrated a high affinity for iodine. The rate of adsorption was found to increase at lower temperatures and higher humidifies. The adsorption rate was directly proportional to the gas phase iodine concentration indicating a first order process. Desorption occurred at a relatively constant rate at surface coverages below 10-6 mol I2/cm2. Iodine that desorbed from these surfaces was mostly in the chemical form of elemental iodine (I2). The vinyl paint showed a much lower affinity for iodine. Steady state adsorption was found to increase with increased gas phase iodine concentrations. Humidity had no observable effect on the rate of adsorption. Desorption rates were found to increase with increased temperature and it is suggested that the desorption process is first order with respect to surface iodine loading. (author). 7 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

138

Droplets and sprays  

CERN Document Server

Providing a clear and systematic description of droplets and spray dynamic models, this book maximises reader insight into the underlying physics of the processes involved, outlines the development of new physical and mathematical models, and broadens understanding of interactions between the complex physical processes which take place in sprays. Complementing approaches based on the direct application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), Droplets and Sprays treats both theoretical and practical aspects of internal combustion engine process such as the direct injection of liquid fuel, subcritical heating and evaporation. Includes case studies that illustrate the approaches relevance to automotive applications,  it is also anticipated that the described models can find use in other areas such as in medicine and environmental science.

Sazhin, Sergei

2014-01-01

139

Establishment of Meaning of Ink Wash Painting in Modern Times: Evolution of Chinese Ink Wash Painting as a Formal Language of Oriental Figure Painting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As an ancient oriental type of figure painting, Chinese ink wash painting’s development and evolution is the most prominent part that most reflects the characteristics of contemporary era in Chinese artistic exploration in the 20th century. Present Chinese ink wash figure painting has already become one of the forms of creation among Chinese painting mainstream and the reform spirit it reflects has special aesthetic meaning to Chinese contemporary art in the multicultural background. This paper analyzes the language form transformation that Chinese ink wash figure painting has achieved by drawing on western modern artistic concepts for reference and other issues including artists’ individual and personalized representation styles; it also discusses the artistic spirit and contemporary cultural significance reflected by deconstruction of classical ink wash painting language and integration of modern works under the background of globalization.

Xiaoguang LI

2014-06-01

140

CHITOSAN-COPPER PAINT TYPES AS ANTIFOULING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A prototype of antifouling paints was prepared with a QS-Cu (I)-Fe (II) complex as a possible replacement for traditional antifouling paints, which contain a large concentration of copper, fnding them in an order of 10 - 30 % depending on the brand, and if it is water or solvent based. A Qs-Cu complex was prepared, with a solution at 3% with acetic acid, and then Fe2O3 was added to the solution. FT IR analysis was carried out, as well as analysis of the TGA at the Qs and the complex with Qs-C...

MARCIA HEUSER; CLAUDIA RIVERA; CHRISTIAN NUÑEZ; GALO CÁRDENAS

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Air-water spray analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analytic and numerical investigation of the aerodynamic behavior of a gas-liquid spray system is desribed. Detailed work is presented on spray droplet flow, and the key analysis momentum transfer between spray droplets and the surrounding medium is reported. Similarity solutions presented for the plant turbulent spray system and the numerical scheme proposed to solve the two-phase fluid dynamical equations are outlined

142

Spray cooling test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A steady separate effects test on BWR spray cooling was performed at relatively high system pressures using the ROSA-III test vessel. These tests were conducted in order to promote a better understanding of the thermal-hydraulic phenomena in LOCA experiments and to obtain information necessary for improvement of analytical codes. The fraction of entrainment or overflow for various spray conditions was obtained and the data of CCFL at the upper tie-plate were compared with correlations. It was shown that the occurrence of CCFL significantly diminished core cooling effects and that rod quench by fall back water was quite irregular and unstable. Reflood core cooling was also studied. (author)

143

Spray deposition - A summary  

Science.gov (United States)

Important findings are presented from six studies concerning the application of the Osprey metal spray-deposition process to (1) Cu-base alloys, (2) Cu-base case-hardening alloys, (3) preform formation, (4) 7075 and 8090 Al alloys, (5) superalloys, and (6) superalloy tubes. It is in the aggregate shown that while the details of the process are materials-specific, there are no technical barriers to scale-up and commercialization. Each of the alloy systems considered can be spray-formed into various near-net-shape products.

Lewis, Richard E.; Lawley, Alan

144

Laser paint removal on the outside walls of the Church Abbey Saint Adoeno in Bisceglie (BAT), Italy: a case study  

Science.gov (United States)

It is the oldest church in the city after the cathedral. It is among the purest examples of Romanesque. It was founded in 1074 and expenses for its construction helped the inhabitants of the agricultural hamlets of the Cirignano, Pacciano and Zappino. The church was dedicated to St. Adoeno Dado, bishop of Rouen, protector of Norman, because , according to tradition, the building also participated Norman soldiers. San Adoeno church has a façade at cusp with a truncated tympanum , crowned by an eagle. In the centre of the façade there is a rose ornament surrounded by four lions and a statue of St. Adoeno ( Figs. A to I ). On the outside walls of this Abbey many graffiti, produced by different coloured spray paints were found. After the usual photographical tests some Laser Paint Removal trials were executed to verify the damage threshold of the calcareous stony substrate as well as the possibility to ablate these paints by a Nd - YAG laser in Q-Switch mode. Even if all the classical four laser paint ablation techniques were employed some paints showed a great difficulty to be removed from the substrate. For these ones it was necessary to increase at maximum both the energy per pulse and the fluence value for obtaining some acceptable result but the substrate looked turned pale. It was decided to remove a small amount of these paints and subject to chemical analysis for determining whether they were acrylic based. At the same time it was investigated on the type of limestone substrate that appeared more porous and less hard on the surface than the common local limestone marble basin, that is, Trani or Bisceglie. So, on the light of these investigations, the possible solution for this hard laser ablation problem was carried out with an acceptable final result.

Daurelio, G.; Catalano, I. M.; Bassi, P.

2010-09-01

145

Assessment of the painting support based on irradiation Am-241  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is concerned with the noninvasive investigation of wooden backing of painting support. The article describes a method making use of weakened gamma irradiation (Am-241) to estimate the degree of damage of painting support. (author)

146

What You Should Know about Using Paint Strippers  

Science.gov (United States)

... you to dangerous chemicals through inhalation and dermal absorption. Proper handling of paint strippers will reduce your ... are solvent-based. Solvents dissolve the bond between wood and paint. Solvents also can dissolve other materials, ...

147

Can I Use Paint and Household Chemicals While Pregnant?  

Science.gov (United States)

... With Us Can I Use Paint and Household Chemicals While Pregnant? KidsHealth > Parents > Q&A > Pregnancy and Infants > Can I Use Paint and Household Chemicals While Pregnant? Print A A A Text Size ...

148

Preparation of Perfluorinated Surfactant Activates for Antifouling Paints  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Antifouling paints are the most reliable way to prevent biofouling of submerged surfaces. The high toxicity of organotin paints, prompted us to look for ideas to develop paints that do not present environmental risks. In this work, we prepare a painting by a modification of acrylic acid monomer containing a free carboxyl group. The biocide that is selected is the perfluorinated chain with eight carbons. Chemical modifications of the resins are made through a radical reaction. The magnitudes o...

Bacha, A.; Me?ghabar, R.

2012-01-01

149

Energy conservation in the painting process; Energieeinsparung im Lackierprozess  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new technology developed by Duerr enables energy savings of up to 30% in automobile painting, which is by far the most energy-intensive manufacturing process in the production of vehicles. The EcoDryScrubber system works with recirculation of the booth process air and dry separation of the surplus paint particles during paint application. This leads to considerable improvements in energy consumption and in CO{sub 2} and paint particle emissions.

Anon.

2008-07-01

150

Terahertz NDE for Under Paint Corrosion Detection and Evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

Corrosion under paint is not visible until it has caused paint to blister, crack, or chip. If corrosion is allowed to continue then structural problems may develop. Identifying corrosion before it becomes visible would minimize repairs and costs and potential structural problems. Terahertz NDE imaging under paint for corrosion is being examined as a method to inspect for corrosion by examining the terahertz response to paint thickness and to surface roughness.

Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.

2005-01-01

151

"Paint" with powdered cork with optimized acoustical behavior  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the analysis of a new product ("paint") with the incorporation of powdered cork to optimize its acoustic performance. Tests were performed in a reverberation room to measure the variation on the sound absorption coefficient values of an existing standard aqueous paint by the introduction of different amounts of powdered cork and also to compare these results with a named "acoustic paint" already available in the market. The "paint" tests were performed on two different bas...

Carvalho, Antonio P. O.; Maio, Daniela J. D.; Carvalho, Francisco J. C. X.

2011-01-01

152

A Spray Spree  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners explore water pressure by conducting an experiment with a garden hose. Learners build a testing apparatus and create PVC nozzles with different sized holes. During the experiment, learners compare how the diameter of the nozzles affect how far the water sprays. The activity webpage includes a fun how-to video for learners and educators.

Houston, Children'S M.

2010-01-01

153

Ocean Spray Lubricates Winds  

Science.gov (United States)

According to a new study by two University of California, Berkeley, mathematicians and their Russian colleague, the water droplets kicked up by rough seas serve to lubricate the swirling winds of hurricanes and cyclones, letting them build to speeds approaching 200 miles per hour. Without the lubricating effect of the spray, the mathematicians…

Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

2005-01-01

154

Sodium spray fires  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fundamental research on sodium spray fires is in progress at the Cadarache Nuclear Safety Department (DSN) to develop a computer code capable of predicting the thermodynamic effects of such fires on the containment. This paper discusses three types of phenomena which require further examination in order to obtain more realistic temperature and pressure results. (author)

155

The Fountain Paint Pot Online Tour  

Science.gov (United States)

This Yellowstone National Park website offers an online tour of the Fountain Paint Pots. Prominent geysers, fumaroles, and hot springs are highlighted with photos and information concerning their eruption patterns and relation to other geothermal features. Similar tours of the Old Faithful area, the Norris Geyser Basin, the Mammoth Hot Springs, and the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone are also available online.

Park, Yellowstone N.

156

Piezoelectric paint: characterization for further applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Piezoelectric paint is a very attractive piezoelectric composite in many fields, such as non-destructive testing, or structural health monitoring. However, there are still many obstacles which restrict the real application of it. One of the main problems is that piezoelectric paint lacks a standard fabrication procedure, thus characterization is needed before use. The work presented here explores the characterization of piezoelectric paint. It starts with fabrication of samples with certain piezoelectric powder weight percentages. The microstructures of the samples are investigated by a scanning electron microscope; the results indicate that the fabrication method can produce high quality samples. This is followed by measurements of Young’s modulus and sensitivity. The piezoelectric charge constant d31 is then deduced from the experimental data; the results agree well with a published result, which validates the effectiveness of the fabrication and characterization method. The characterized piezoelectric paint can expand its applications into different fields and therefore becomes a more promising and competitive smart material. (paper)

157

The Ancient Art of Silk Painting  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author describes a silk-painting project with a sea-creature theme for eighth-grade students. Other themes can be used such as geometric quilt designs, tropical rain forest, large flowers, Art Nouveau motifs, portraits and more. (Contains 2 resources.)

Yonker, Kim

2010-01-01

158

EIA paints bleak picture for nuclear industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Energy Information Administration paints a bleak picture of the nuclear power industry, both in the U.S. and worldwide, in a recent report. At best, EIA said, worldwide nuclear capacity will climb no faster than 1.5 percent annually through 2010, rising from 329.2 gigawatts at year-end 1992 to between 351 GW and 427 GW

159

24 CFR 35.135 - Use of paint containing lead.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Use of paint containing lead. 35.135 Section 35.135 Housing...Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and...

2010-04-01

160

Color alteration of the paint used for iris painting in ocular prostheses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to assess color alteration of the paints used for iris painting in artificial eyes. Five disks of heat cured acrylic resin were confectioned by microwave energy for each paint analyzed, in a total of 40 specimens. Each specimen consisted of a colorless acrylic resin dis [...] k and another of equal size, of scleral white colored acrylic resin, with the painting interposed between the two disks. The specimens were submitted to an accelerated aging process in a chamber under ultraviolet radiation for 1,008 hours. To assess color variation, a reflective spectrophotometer was used. The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and the Tukey test (p

Aline Úrsula Rocha, Fernandes; Marcelo Coelho, Goiato; Marcos Antônio Jacó, Batista; Daniela Micheline dos, Santos.

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

Report on Scientific Basis for Paint Stripping: Mechanism of Methylene Chloride Based Paint Removers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical paint strippers that include methylene chloride and phenol have been extensively used to remove coatings from metallic substrates. These strippers are inexpensive and remove polymeric organic coatings quickly and easily from a variety of metallic...

C. N. Young, C. R. Clayton, J. H. Wynne, J. P. Yesinowski, K. E. Watson

2011-01-01

162

Interim Report on Scientific Basis for Paint Stripping: Mechanism of Methylene Chloride Based Paint Removers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical paint stripper that include methylene chloride and phenol have been extensively used to remove polymer coatings from metallic substrates. These strippers are inexpensive and remove polymeric organic coatings quickly and easily from a variety of m...

C. N. Young, C. R. Clayton, J. H. Wynne, J. P. Yesinowski, K. E. Watson

2010-01-01

163

Paintings - high-energy protons detect pigments and paint-layers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High-energy PIXE was used to identify pigment composition, sequencing and the thickness of paint-layers. Before applying the technique to valuable masterpieces, mock-ups were examined in a collaboration with the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. The results of high-energy PIXE were compared to conventional cross-section analysis. In addition, the non-destructiveness of the technique was investigated thoroughly. After this preparative work, two ancient paintings have been examined and the results are presented in this paper

164

Spray cooling of heated cylinders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heat transfer from heated horizontal cylinders cooled by a water spray was determined to aid evaluation of a spray cooling system for emergency cooling of irradiated nuclear fuel discharged in air from a reactor. In steady state tests, a test cylinder was cooled with a known steady spray as the heat generation rate was increased in steps; metal temperatures were recorded when steady state was reached. From these measurements, overall heat transfer coefficients were determined as functions of cylinder surface temperature, spray water temperature, spray density, and cylinder diameter. In transient tests, a test section was heated at constant power to various initial surface temperatures before cooling by the water spray. The results indicate the Leidenfrost point is a reliable guide to the ability of the spray system to arrest the temperature rise. 5 references. (U.S.)

165

24 CFR 35.1320 - Lead-based paint inspections, paint testing, risk assessments, lead-hazard screens, and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for Lead-Paint Hazard Evaluation and Hazard Reduction Activities § 35.1320 Lead-based paint inspections, paint testing...mass-per-area concentration (loading) of lead, based on wipe samples, equal to or exceeding the applicable level in...

2010-04-01

166

Degradation of insecticides used for indoor spraying in malaria control and possible solutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The insecticide dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT is widely used in indoor residual spraying (IRS for malaria control owing to its longer residual efficacy in the field compared to other World Health Organization (WHO alternatives. Suitable stabilization to render these alternative insecticides longer lasting could provide a less controversial and more acceptable and effective alternative insecticide formulations than DDT. Methods This study sought to investigate the reasons behind the often reported longer lasting behaviour of DDT by exposing all the WHO approved insecticides to high temperature, high humidity and ultra-violet light. Interactions between the insecticides and some mineral powders in the presence of an aqueous medium were also tested. Simple insecticidal paints were made using slurries of these mineral powders whilst some insecticides were dispersed into a conventional acrylic paint binder. These formulations were then spray painted on neat and manure coated mud plaques, representative of the material typically used in rural mud houses, at twice the upper limit of the WHO recommended dosage range. DDT was applied directly onto mud plaques at four times the WHO recommended concentration and on manure plaques at twice WHO recommended concentration. All plaques were subjected to accelerated ageing conditions of 40°C and a relative humidity of 90%. Results The pyrethroids insecticides outperformed the carbamates and DDT in the accelerated ageing tests. Thus UV exposure, high temperature oxidation and high humidity per se were ruled out as the main causes of failure of the alternative insecticides. Gas chromatography (GC spectrograms showed that phosphogypsum stabilised the insecticides the most against alkaline degradation (i.e., hydrolysis. Bioassay testing showed that the period of efficacy of some of these formulations was comparable to that of DDT when sprayed on mud surfaces or cattle manure coated surfaces. Conclusions Bioassay experiments indicated that incorporating insecticides into a conventional paint binder or adsorbing them onto phosphogypsum can provide for extended effective life spans that compare favourably with DDT's performance under accelerated ageing conditions. Best results were obtained with propoxur in standard acrylic emulsion paint. Similarly, insecticides adsorbed on phosphogypsum and sprayed on cattle manure coated surfaces provided superior lifespans compared with DDT sprayed directly on a similar surface.

Massinga Pedro

2011-10-01

167

Optimisation of a vertical spray boom for greenhouse spraying applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

The European Crop Protection Association (ECPA) and CLO-DVL joined forces in a project to stimulate a safe use of pesticides in Southern European countries. CLO-DVL optimised a method with mineral chelates to evaluate deposition tests. This quantitative method to evaluate spray deposits and to check spray distributions is used to assess two novel spraying techniques. Deposition tests with water-sensitive paper and mainly with the manganese and molybdenum chelates as tracer elements were performed with a manually pulled trolley and a motorised vehicle both equipped with vertical spray booms. Filter papers were attached to the tomato and pepper plants at several heights to obtain an indication of the spray distribution in the crop. Particular attention was paid to the effect on the spray distribution of the vertical nozzle distance (35 cm vs. 50 cm) and the spray distance to the crop. The tests proved that a nozzle spacing of 35 cm delivers a much better spray distribution than one of 50 cm. The optimal spray distance for flat fan nozzles with a spray angle of 80 degrees and a nozzle spacing of 35 cm is about 30 cm. PMID:15151329

Nuyttens, D; Windey, S; Braekman, P; De Moor, A; Sonck, B

2003-01-01

168

Evaluation of Water Resistance and Diffusion Properties of Paint Materials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A simple method is presented for evaluating the water-proofness quality of paints on lining materials. The method is based on measuring the integral capillarity in dependence on time, and then comparing this value to the value determined for the basic lining material. Measurements of the effective water vapor permeability then provide information on the risk of condensation which may increase after applying the paint. A practical application of the method is performed with four Karlocolor paints on glass concrete substrates. All the Karlocolor paints are found to be very effective materials for driven rain protection. The diffusion properties of all the paints are found to be excellent.

J. Drchalová

2001-01-01

169

Numerical modelling of fuel sprays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The way the fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber is one of the most important parameters for the power output and the generation of emissions in the combustion of liquid fuels. The interaction between the turbulent gas flow field and the liquid fuel droplets, the vaporisation of them and the mixing of the gaseous fuel with the ambient air that are vital parameters in the combustion process. The use of numerical calculations is an important tool to better understand these complex interacting phenomena. This thesis reports on the numerical modelling of fuel sprays in non-reacting cases using an own developed spray module. The spray module uses the stochastic parcel method to represent the spray. The module was made in such manner that it could by coupled with different gas flow solver. Results obtained from four different gas flow solvers are presented in the thesis, including the use of two different kinds of turbulence models. In the first part the spray module is coupled with a k-{eta} based 2-D cylindrical gas flow solver. A thorough sensitivity analysis was performed on the spray and gas flow solver parameters, such as grid size dependence and sensitivity to initial values of k-{eta}. The results of the spray module were also compared to results from other spray codes, e.g. the well known KIVA code. In the second part of this thesis the spray was injected into a turbulent and fully developed crossflow studied. The spray module was attached to a LES (Large Eddy Simulation) based flow solvers enabling the study of the complex structures and time dependent phenomena involved in spray in crossflows. It was found that the spray performs an oscillatory motion and that the Strouhal number in the wake was about 0.1. Different spray breakup models were evaluated by comparing with experimental results 66 refs, 56 figs

Bergstroem, C.

1999-06-01

170

Flame spraying of polymers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Statistical design-of-experiment studies of the thermal spraying of polymer powders are presented. Studies of the subsonic combustion (i.e., Flame) process were conducted in order to determine the quality and economics of polyester and urethane coatings. Thermally sprayed polymer coatings are of interest to several industries for anticorrosion applications, including the chemical, automotive, and aircraft industries. In this study, the coating design has been optimized for a site-specific application using Taguchi-type fractional-factorial experiments. Optimized coating designs are presented for the two powder systems. A substantial range of thermal processing conditions and their effect on the resultant polymer coatings is presented. The coatings were characterized by optical metallography, hardness testing, tensile testing, and compositional analysis. Characterization of the coatings yielded the thickness, bond strength, Knoop microhardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and porosity. Confirmation testing was accomplished to verify the coating designs

171

Emulsions from Aerosol Sprays  

Science.gov (United States)

An electrostatic emulsification apparatus has been designed for the purpose of studying diffusion from oil droplets which have a mean size in the range of approximately 1.5-3.5 &mgr;m, with standard deviations of 40-50%. The emulsification technique involves the collection of a spray of electrically charged oil droplets onto a rotating water film which is sustained from a reservoir. In this way, emulsions with volume fractions of approximately 10(-3) are produced within several minutes at oil flow rates of around 10(-2) ml min-1. Phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA) was used to assess droplet size distributions for the sprays and emulsions. Results show that the mean emulsion droplet size was smaller than the mean spray droplet size by several orders of magnitude. At flow rates around 10(-2) ml min-1, the spray droplet size distribution was little affected by the applied potential between about -4.20 and -4.65 kV (mean droplet size between approximately 7.6 and 7.8 &mgr;m, with standard deviations of approximately 20%), whereas the mean droplet size of the corresponding emulsion decreased more rapidly with applied potential. Above an applied potential of approximately -4.30 kV, which corresponded to an emulsion droplet size below approximately 2 &mgr;m, the measured volume fraction of the emulsion decreased with respect to the volume fraction as calculated on the basis of total amount of injected oil. Copyright 1997 Academic Press. Copyright 1997Academic Press PMID:9441645

Hengelmolen; Vincent; Hassall

1997-12-01

172

Tissue Paper Spray Art  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners observe color mixing and absorbency using colored tissue paper and spray bottles. Learners create collages out of colored tissue paper shapes and then lightly mist the tissue paper with water. When the learners remove the colored tissue, a colorful print appears. Use this activity to illustrate how materials absorb water as well as how colors can mix to form new colors.

Museum, Kohl C.

2012-01-01

173

Spray boom for selectively spraying a herbicidal composition onto dicots  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There is provided a method and spray boom for discriminating cereal crop (monocot) and weeds (dicots). The spray boom includes means for digitally recording an image of a selected area to be treated by a nozzle on the spray boom, whereby a plant material is identified based on a segmentation procedure; and means for detecting the edges and estimating the angles of the edges of the leaves so as to discriminate between dicots and monocots; and means for activating one or more of the spray nozzles in response to detected dicots so as to selectively apply the herbicidal composition onto the sensed area containing the dicots.

Stigaard Laursen, Morten SDU,

174

Electron beam curing of paint films  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The production of precoated sheet steel by an electron beam curing process was recently commenced. It is now more than a decade since the idea of using an electron beam or ultraviolet radiation for curing a paint film was first put forward and in that time electron beam curing has made slow but steady progress as an applied technology. The technology is of interest for three reasons: firstly, since the film curing reactions are different from those of existing thermal curing or cold curing, it offers the possibility of obtaining paint films with new properties; secondly, since the curing reactions proceed at room temperature, it can be used for coating articles that cannot be exposed to heat, such as paper, timber and plastics; and thirdly, since the reaction energy need only be imparted to the film, it offers the prospect of greater energy efficiency. This article looks at the first and last points, drawing on experimental data from the authors' laboratory. (author)

175

Microanalysis of paint layers in polychrome sculptures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cross sections paint layers of polychromes sculpture of the 16 century, located at the City Museum of Havana and currently in the restoration process, have been analyzed by capillary based ?XRF , ?PIXE , SEM -EDX and light microscopy. Experimental parameters (geometry measurement time) of the capillary based ?XRF set up (nominal end diameter equal to 10 ?m) were optimized to achieve the resolution required for meaningful scintigraphic studies of the art and archaeological objects, Cumulative x-rays spectra for each layer were obtained in order to perform semi-quantitative analysis. The employed pigments were identified by the characteristics elements and the elemental maps precisely reproduced photographs obtained by means of light microscopy. In the case of nuclear microprobe, RBS for Stoichiometry analysis of paint layers was also performed. additional information on the organic materials was also obtained by chemical analysis. Complementary results obtained by using the analytical techniques are presented and discussed from the point of view of the restoration processes

176

Electrochemical assessment of magnetite anticorrosive paints  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the purpose of deepening in the understanding of the mechanisms of protection of anticorrosive pigments based on iron oxides, this work has been carried out on the production of pure magnetite, and copper and chromium doped magnetite, which were evaluated by different characterization techniques. The paints were prepared with a solvent less epoxy resin maintaining the Pigment Volume Content near the Practical Critical value (CPVC, established for each pigment. The paints were applied on polished steel and monitored with electrochemical techniques at total immersion conditions. Permeability and impedance measurements of free films were also done. Impedance data were simulated with the Boukamp software. Results show that the paints pigmented with doped magnetite present better behavior than a paint prepared with commercial hematite.

Con el propósito de profundizar en el entendimiento de los mecanismos de protección de los pigmentos anticorrosivos a base de óxidos de hierro, se sintetizaron y caracterizaron magnetitas puras y dopadas con cobre y cromo, con las cuales se prepararon pinturas anticorrosivas que fueron evaluadas en ensayos acelerados de campo y laboratorio. Las pinturas fueron especialmente preparadas con una resina libre de solvente manteniendo la Concentración Pigmentaria en Volumen cercana al valor Crítico (CPVC, establecida para cada pigmento. Las pinturas fueron aplicadas sobre acero pulido y evaluadas con técnicas electroquímicas en condiciones de inmersión total. Para complementar el estudio se realizaron medidas de permeabilidad e impedancia sobre las películas libres. Los datos de impedancia se simularon con el programa Boukamp. Los resultados muestran que las pinturas pigmentadas con magnetitas dopadas presentan mejor comportamiento que las preparadas con hematita comercial.

Escobar, D. M.

2003-12-01

177

'Weightless' acrylic painting by Jack Kroehnke  

Science.gov (United States)

'Weightless' acrylic painting by Jack Kroehnke depicts STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers participating in extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation in JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. In the payload bay (PLB) mockup, Hilmers, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), holds onto the mission-peculiar equipment support structure in foreground while SCUBA-equipped diver monitors activity overhead and camera operator records EVA procedures. Copyrighted art work for use by NASA.

1987-01-01

178

Atmospheric degradation of an intumescent paint coating  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The influence exerted by temperature on the resistant capacity of structural steel is well known. A highly efficient and increasingly widely used protection system for steel consists of the application of intumescent paints, which in the case of fire retard its destructive action. Their effectiveness is based on the property that when they come into contact with flames they react by swelling to form an insulating layer, referred to as intumescence, which impedes the propagation of heat. Thoug...

Chico, B.; Lo?pez-delgado, A.; Lobo, M. A.; La Fuente, D.; Castan?o, J. G.; Lo?pez, F. A.; Morcillo, M.

2004-01-01

179

Pressure and Temperature Sensitive Paint Field System  

Science.gov (United States)

This report documents the Pressure and Temperature Sensitive Paint Field System that is used to provide global surface pressure and temperature measurements on models tested in Langley wind tunnels. The system was developed and is maintained by Global Surface Measurements Team personnel of the Data Acquisition and Information Management Branch in the Research Facilities Services Competency. Descriptions of the system hardware and software are presented and operational procedures are detailed.

Sprinkle, Danny R.; Obara, Clifford J.; Amer, Tahani R.; Faulcon, Nettie D.; Carmine, Michael T.; Burkett, Cecil G.; Pritchard, Daniel W.; Oglesby, Donald M.

2004-01-01

180

Postural tremor induced by paint sniffing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Volatile substance abuse is the intentional inhalation of volatile solvents, aerosols, gases or nitrates for the purpose of intoxication. This practice is more common among young people, due, in part, to the low cost and ready availability of these inhalants. In this report, we present the case of a 22-year-old male with a seven-year history of chronic paint sniffing. The patient presented with vigorous postural and kinetic tremor in both hands. A neurological examination revealed a bilateral...

Gautschi Oliver; Cadosch Dieter; Zellweger Rene

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Structure of evaporating diesel sprays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance of compression ignition engine is known to be spray characteristics related. Precise experimental information on fuel sprays is of utmost importance to model the fuel spray formation and its development in the engine combustion chamber. The previous experimental work of the present author on non-evaporating sprays produced by using a FIAT single-hole orifice type nozzle and a distribution type commercial fuel injection pump forms the basis to derive correlations for penetration rates, break up times and lengths of diesel sprays. The results are compared with the existing published work and the agreement is found ideal. The correlations derived can be useful to do CFD modeling of sprays under variable conditions of injector nozzle hole diameter, fuel injection pressure, combustion chamber pressure and temperature or air density. (author)

182

Fundamental studies of spray combustion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our research on spray combustion involves both experiment and theory and addresses the characteristics of individual droplets and of sprays in a variety of flows: laminar and turbulent, opposed and impinging. Currently our focus concerns water and fuel sprays in two stage laminar flames, i.e., flames arising, for example from a stream of fuel and oxidizer flowing opposite to an air stream carrying a water spray. Our interest in these flames is motivated by the goals of reducing pollutant emissions and extending the range of stable spray combustion. There remains considerable research to be carried out in order to achieve these goals. Thus far our research on the characteristics of sprays in turbulent flows has been limited to nonreacting jets impinging on a plate but this work will be extended to opposed flows with and without a flame. In the following we discuss details of these studies and our plans for future work.

Li, S.C.; Libby, P.A.; Williams, F.A. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

1997-12-31

183

External beam PIXE analysis of painting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The preservation and conservation of mankind cultural heritage has become an important issue worldwide. Non-destructive analytical techniques are suitable, for example, to analyze precious and unique objects of art and archaeology. Among those techniques Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) has good advantage to identify elemental composition present in these kinds of objects. The Laboratorio de Analise de Materiais por Feixes Ionicos-LAMFI of the Institute of Physics of the University of Sao Paulo has been installed an external beam facility for PIXE analysis. This new setup is being used for the analysis of archaeological pottery artifacts, paintings and biological tissues (teeth and bones), which are not compatible with the high vacuum of the regular PIXE target chamber. In addition most art and archaeological objects are too large for the evacuated analysis chamber. Applications of this facility will be presented in the analysis of one painting of the beginning of the last century. The chemical elements identified in the painting were Ca, Ti, Cr, Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb and Ba. The PIXE measurements were done non-destructively and no visible damage was observed on the irradiated object. (author)

184

Smart paint sensor for monitoring structural vibrations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A class of smart paint sensors is proposed for monitoring the structural vibration of beams. The sensor is manufactured from an epoxy resin which is mixed with carbon black nano-particles to make it electrically conducting and sensitive to mechanical vibrations. A comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation is presented to understand the underlying phenomena governing the operation of this class of paint sensors and evaluate its performance characteristics. A theoretical model is presented to model the electromechanical behavior of the sensor system using molecular theory. The model is integrated with an amplifier circuit in order to predict the current and voltage developed by the paint sensor when subjected to loading. Furthermore, the sensor/amplifier circuit models are coupled with a finite element model of a base beam to which the sensor is bonded. The resulting multi-field model is utilized to predict the behavior of both the sensor and the beam when subjected to a wide variety of vibration excitations. The predictions of the multi-field finite element model are validated experimentally and the behavior of the sensor is evaluated both in the time and the frequency domains. The performance of the sensor is compared with the performance of conventional strain gages to emphasize its potential and merits. The presented techniques are currently being extended to sensors that can monitor the vibration and structural power flow of two-dimensional structures. (paper)

185

External beam applications to painting materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The characterisation of painting materials has to overcome specific problems due to the special and precious characteristics of paintings. Sampling is hardly possible and is seldom so where it is most desirable. One has to be content with opportunities such as the presence of cracks or to limit the sampling near the edge of the frame. Nondestructive techniques must then be developed and external PIXE is one of the powerful available analytical tools; it may also be associated with complementary techniques such as X-ray fluorescence and external PIGME. Another major problem is related to the great heterogeneity of painting materials which are always a mixture of several components at the micrometric scale. The analysis has then to be complemented with other techniques (scanning electron microprobe, nuclear microbeam etc.) for a more accurate interpretation of the results given by the PIXE direct examination. Yet, the major difficulty lies in finding the way to build a real and constructive dialogue between the art historian and the physicist. (orig.)

186

[Deafness and mentality in Francisco Goya's paintings].  

Science.gov (United States)

The famous painter Francisco Goya y Lucientes (1746-1828) suffered during his life one or several diseases, the nature of which has not been determined with certainty. At age of 46, Goya suffered from severe illness that lasted a few months. It caused loss of vision and hearing, tinnitus, dizziness, a right-sides paralysis, weakness and general malaise. Although he recovered from a cerebral stroke which accompanied it, the deafness remained unaltered. The illness divides Goya's artistic life into two great different periods. After in the painter produces his greatest works. The visual experience after the illness was heightened by the exclusion of acoustics stimuli and the artist's talent rose to the highest level. His character became more withdrawn and introspective and his entire vitality was direscted to his painting. Goya's painting became progressively more gloom and satirical during his long convalescence. The artist suffered a stroke at age 73 that again rendered him paralysed on the right side. The precise cause of his illness has long been debated. Ome medical writers have favored the diagnosis of syphilis, some consider the possibility of an exogenous psychosis, and other suggests that the symptoms of the illness are more congruent with heavy metal poisoning, particulary lead. It is interesting to speculate how the Goya's deafness influenced the artist's mentality and the changes of his painting. Interesting is also the problem of the sensory compensation in fact of disturbance of physiological function of one of the senses. PMID:19681494

Betlejewski, Stanis?aw; Ossowski, Roman

2009-01-01

187

Generalized Sprays and Nonlinear Connections  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main purposes of this article are to extend our previous results on homogeneous sprays to arbitrary (generalized) sprays, to show that locally diffeomorphic exponential maps can be defined for any (generalized) spray, and to give a (possibly nonlinear) covariant derivative for any (possibly nonlinear) connection. In the process, we introduce vertically homogeneous connections. Unlike homogeneous connections, these allow us to include Finsler spaces among the applications...

Del Riego, L.; Parker, Phillip E.

2003-01-01

188

Neurotoxicity of solvent mixtures in spray painters. I. Study design, workplace exposure, and questionnaire.  

Science.gov (United States)

A multidisciplinary cross-sectional study was carried out in 105 spray painters with long-term solvent exposure (10-44 years) and in 58 control subjects not exposed to solvents. By means of air monitoring the solvent concentrations in the ambient air during spray painting were determined using charcoal and silicagel tubes with pumps and passive samplers. In general, the air concentrations of the individual compounds did not exceed the current limit values (MAK values). Aromatic hydrocarbons like toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, trimethylbenzene, aliphatic hydrocarbons (e.g., heptane) and acetates (ethylacetate, butylacetate) were determined to be important components of paint solvents. However, in unfavorable work conditions the "exposure index" could exceed the permissible limits two or three times. To assess the body solvent load at the time of examination, biological monitoring (BM) was performed. The main finding was that there was no evidence of neurotoxicologically relevant solvent exposure. Only in the case of methyl hippuric acid in urine spot samples did the spray painters show a higher mean value (80 mg/l) than control subjects (below 20 mg/l), indicating recent xylene exposure. Elevated urinary chromium concentrations (maximum value 29 micrograms/l) were found in 28 spray painters as a result of using zinc chromate-containing wash primers without taking protective measures. To assess the degree of past solvent exposure a special questionnaire was used. This included variables like duration and amount of solvent exposure, the presence of a technical ventilation system, health complaints during painting, etc. Additionally, three "solvent exposure indices'' (SEI) were calculated and used for evaluation of "dose-effect relationships.''(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1487333

Triebig, G; Schaller, K H; Weltle, D

1992-01-01

189

Vacuum Plasma Spraying Replaces Electrodeposition  

Science.gov (United States)

Vacuum plasma spraying used to fabricate large parts with complicated contours and inner structures, without uninspectable welds. Reduces time, and expense of fabrication. Wall of combustion chamber built up inside of outer nickel-alloy jacket by plasma spraying. Particles of metal sprayed partially melted in plasma gun and thrown at supersonic speed toward deposition surface. Vacuum plasma-spray produces stronger bond between the grooves and covering layer completing channels and wall of combustion chamber. In tests, bond withstood pressure of 20 kpsi, three times allowable limit by old method.

Holmes, Richard R.; Power, Chris; Burns, David H.; Daniel, Ron; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

1992-01-01

190

21 CFR 524.2482 - Triamcinolone spray.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-04-01 false Triamcinolone spray. 524.2482 Section 524.2482 Food...ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.2482 Triamcinolone spray. (a) Specifications . Each milliliter...1) Amount . Apply sufficient pump sprays to uniformly and thoroughly wet...

2010-04-01

191

THERMAL SPRAY REMOVAL OF LEAD-CONTAINING PAINT ON STEEL STRUCTURES  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past, red lead primer has been used on many steel structures to control corrosion. Commonly used structures in the Department of Defense (DoD) include bridges, aircraft hangars, water storage tanks, metal buildings, fire hydrants, and structural steel. When the lead-based ...

192

Recent developments in the spray forming of metals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concept and principles involved in the spray forming process are presented with particular reference to operating conditions, resulting structures and properties. Some specific modes of spray forming are discussed, namely spray rolling, spray rolling of composites, spray forging, centrifugal spray deposition, spray coating and simultaneous spray peening. Technical and economic advantages of this new technology are discussed. 13 references

193

Control of spray spot shape in cold spray technology. Part 2. Spraying process  

Science.gov (United States)

The present paper studies high-velocity heterogeneous flows produced with nozzle designs unconventional for cold spray; the process of coating deposition was studied under these conditions. The possibility of using unconventional gas dynamic tools (swirling of main flow, nozzles with permeable profiles and with slots in the supersonic part of nozzle) for control of particle distribution in the supersonic jet is investigated: this might be useful for obtaining a proper shape of the spray spot. These experiments offered a method of gas-dynamic design for the spray spot shape, which extends the possibilities of cold spray technique.

Zaikovskii, V. N.; Klinkov, S. V.; Kosarev, V. F.; Melamed, B. M.; Trubacheev, G. V.

2014-04-01

194

Performance study of the paints for use in nuclear installations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The performance of some Brazilian commercial paints under physical, chemical and radiation conditions typical of nuclear installations is studied. Resistance to gama rays in the range of 104 - 109 rad as well as the susceptibility to contamination, ease of decontamination and chemical resistance in 9 different types of paints are studied. Finally, suggestions are provided for the best choice of commercial paints according to their specific uses

195

Influence of adding painted recyclated on polypropylene properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available These days just because of still increasing price of oil and its products there is tendency about using recycled plastics at full blast. That´s mainly in automotive industry where is produced great amount of plastic scrap added by painted layers. This article deals with examination influence of such painted layer on mechanical and rheological polymer properties which are necessary to know because of further possible using such painted recycled.

Ji?í Habr

2012-01-01

196

Study of decontamination and radiation resistance properties of Indian paints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief introduction to the study of contamination and radiation resistance properties of Indian paints used as coating for structural materials in the nuclear industry is given. The general composition of paints such as epoxy, vinyl, alkyd, phenolic, chlesimated rubber, etc. is given. Method of sample preparation, processing and actual evaluation of decontaminability are described. The results have been discussed in terms of decontamination factors. Some recommendations based on the performance of the paints studied are also included. (K.B.)

197

Effects of post-LOCA conditions on a protective coating (paint) for the Nuclear Power Industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When corrosion protection of steel cannot be achieved by galvanizing due to size, use, or other restrictions, the steel is frequently protected by the application of a suitable corrosion-inhibiting paint. A widely accepted corrosion inhibiting coating is one in which finely powdered zinc metal is dispersed in an organic polymer matrix and applied to steel as a paint. This system is often used with a non-zinc bearing topcoat for enhanced protection. We have studied the oxidation of zinc in a zinc-rich coating used in the nuclear power industry and have measured the rates of hydrogen generation from these coatings due to zinc oxidation at temperatures of up to 1750C. The results suggest that the real-time rates of hydrogen generation are considerably higher than previously believed. A second concern involves the generation of debris or solid reaction products which could cause plugging or fouling of the recirculation pumps, spray nozzles, and/or heat exchangers. Coatings are observed to fail at post-LOCA conditions which are well within the limits predicted by Design Basis Accident analysis. The failures involve cracking and/or delamination of the topcoat and production of solid corrosion products involving the zinc-rich primer. 22 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

198

Spray rolling aluminum alloy strip  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spray rolling combines spray forming with twin-roll casting to process metal flat products. It consists of atomizing molten metal with a high velocity inert gas, cooling the resultant droplets in flight and directing the spray between mill rolls. In-flight convection heat transfer from atomized droplets teams with conductive cooling at the rolls to rapidly remove the alloy's latent heat. Hot deformation of the semi-solid material in the rolls results in fully consolidated, rapidly solidified product. While similar in some ways to twin-roll casting, spray rolling has the advantage of being able to process alloys with broad freezing ranges at high production rates. This paper describes the process and summarizes microstructure and tensile properties of spray-rolled 2124 and 7050 aluminum alloy strips. A Lagrangian/Eulerian poly-dispersed spray flight and deposition model is described that provides some insight into the development of the spray rolling process. This spray model follows droplets during flight toward the rolls, through impact and spreading, and includes oxide film formation and breakup when relevant.

McHugh, Kevin M.; Delplanque, J.-P.; Johnson, S.B.; Lavernia, E.J.; Zhou, Y.; Lin, Y

2004-10-10

199

Spray algorithm without interface construction  

Science.gov (United States)

This research is aimed to create a new and robust family of convective schemes to capture the interface between the dispersed and the carrier phases in a spray without the need to build up the interface boundary. The selection of the Weighted Average Flux (WAF) scheme is due to this scheme being designed to deal with random flux scheme which is second-order accurate in space and time. The convective flux in each cell face utilizes the WAF scheme blended with Switching Technique for Advection and Capturing of Surfaces (STACS) scheme for high resolution flux limiters. In the next step, the high resolution scheme is blended with the WAF scheme to provide the sharpness and boundedness of the interface by using switching strategy. In this work, the Eulerian-Eulerian framework of non-reactive turbulent spray is set in terms of theoretical proposed methodology namely spray moments of drop size distribution, presented by Beck and Watkins [1]. The computational spray model avoids the need to segregate the local droplet number distribution into parcels of identical droplets. The proposed scheme is tested on capturing the spray edges in modelling hollow cone sprays without need to reconstruct two-phase interface. A test is made on simple comparison between TVD scheme and WAF scheme using the same flux limiter on convective flow hollow cone spray. Results show the WAF scheme gives a better prediction than TVD scheme. The only way to check the accuracy of the presented models is by evaluating the spray sheet thickness.

Al-Kadhem Majhool, Ahmed Abed; Watkins, A. P.

2012-05-01

200

Pseudoconvex and Disprisoning Homogeneous Sprays  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The pseudoconvex and disprisoning conditions for geodesics of linear connections are extended to the solution curves of general homogeneous sprays. The main result is that pseudoconvexity and disprisonment are jointly stable in the fine topology on the space of all homogeneous sprays of any degree of homogeneity.

Del Riego, L.; Parker, P. E.

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Evaluation of metal texture effect on paint appearance  

Science.gov (United States)

With the increasing improvement on painting techniques in automotive industry, high quality paint appearance with high gloss, clear image and low orange peel can be achieved on car bodies. In this case, another defect called `metal texture effect' is becoming more significant to paint appearance. In this paper, image texture analysis method, gray-tone spatial-dependence matrices have been employed to evaluate metal texture effect on paint appearance. The preliminary experimental result showed that this method could effectively evaluated metal texture effect as perceived with human eye.

Kang, Haizhuang; Butler, Clive; Yang, Qingping

1999-11-01

202

Evaluation of decontamination and radiation resistance properties of Indian paints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decontamination and radiation resistance properties of paints based on epoxies, vinyls, alkyds, acrylic emulsion, chlorinated rubber and cellulose have been investigated with a view to their use for surface treatment in nuclear facilities. All the paint samples on mild steel and concrete substrate were given a total gamma dose of 1600 Mrads from 60Co. For decontamination of radioactive spills, water, teepol (10%), 3M HNO3 and EDTA 5% in 10% teepol were used. Epoxies and cellulose based paints show good decontaminability and radiation resistance, as compared to others. Vinyl based paints show both poor decontaminability and radiation resistance. (M.G.B.)

203

The certification of a new paint reference material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of paint as a coating for toys intended for sale on the European market is controlled by a European Standard (EN 71-3: 1994 - European Commission to produce a new paint reference material which can be used to validate the test methods given in the European Standard. The migration of elements from painted panels and comminuted paint produced by the Laboratory of the Government Chemist, (U.K.) was studied. Several methods were used in this certification exercise and this work reports the results of neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine the migration of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Se and Sb into a simulated stomach environment. Replicate extracts obtained from paint samples gave a precision of within 10% for most elements by both analytical techniques for the paint panels and for the comminuted paint sample. This preliminary study has shown that the standard method can provide reproducible results for each of the paint materials studied and indicates that the study should be continued to produce a fully certified paint reference material. (author)

204

Radioiodine recovery by spray systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Physicochemical aspects of iodine removal by means of spraying systems under conditions of disrupting a reactor cooling circuit are discussed. On the base of the experimental data the spraying efficiency has been estimated. The estimation of iodine conduct in the Nord nuclear power plant pressurizing system was carried out by the folloving preconditions: spraying flow - boron-containing water, 800 t/h; spraying flow is sufficient for pressure decrease; the coefficient of liquid - gas distribution H = 100 (single liberation of iodine from a coolant); iodine in a gaseous phase is in an elementary and inorganic form. According to the estimation half washout of elementary and inorganically coupled iodine is about 4 min. Approximate estimation of reagent addition effeciency, as sodium hydroxide and hydrazine to a sprayed solution, permit to expect at the Nord 1, P nuclear power plant the iodine half-washout of order from 0.5 to 1 min

205

Substrate system for spray forming  

Science.gov (United States)

A substrate system for receiving a deposit of sprayed metal droplets including a movable outer substrate on which the sprayed metal droplets are deposited. The substrate system also includes an inner substrate disposed adjacent the outer substrate where the sprayed metal droplets are deposited on the outer substrate. The inner substrate includes zones of differing thermal conductivity to resist substrate layer porosity and to resist formation of large grains and coarse constituent particles in a bulk layer of the metal droplets which have accumulated on the outer substrate. A spray forming apparatus and associated method of spray forming a molten metal to form a metal product using the substrate system of the invention is also provided.

Chu, Men G. (Export, PA); Chernicoff, William P. (Harrisburg, PA)

2000-01-01

206

Idea Bank: The Paint Chip Lab  

Science.gov (United States)

Early on in the study of physical science, students must grasp concepts associated with the periodic table. A perfect way to introduce periodicity and periodic groups is by using paint chip color samples. The color progression (red-orange-yellow-green-blue-purple) resembles the periodic properties on the table, and the color shade (light to dark) resembles the trends within the groups. This inquiry-based, hands-on lesson is sure to help students learn about one of the key concepts of basic chemistry.

Wallingford, Lisa

2006-07-01

207

Nanorestore® for the consolidation of wall paintings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cet article présente les résultats d’un projet de recherches sur l’effet de l’application du produit Nanorestore®, dispersion de nanoparticules de chaux dans l’alcool isopropylique, pour la consolidation des peintures murales ; il évalue l’influence des conditions environnementales externes (UR et présence des sels en particulier sur le processus de carbonatation.This paper presents the results of an investigation project on the use of Nanorestore®, a dispersion of nanolime in isopropyl alcohol, used for the consolidation of wall paintings. The influence of environmental conditions outside the wall (high humidity environments and high presence of hygroscopic salts on carbonation process was considered.

Sara Di Gregorio

2010-11-01

208

Confocal ?-XRF depth analysis of paint layers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Focused narrow-band beam of the synchrotron radiation was used for in-depth analysis of historic and modern paint layers. The fluorescent radiation induced by 21 keV impact radiation was detected by a Si(Li) detector equipped with a polycapillary X-ray lens in con-focal geometry. Scanning of the sample was performed by a motorized x-y-z stage. Space resolution of 30 ?m was achieved. The procedure of evaluation of concentrations was based on the independent parameter method and included absorption of radiation in the outer layers and secondary fluorescence enhancement induced by hard X-rays of the same and neighboring layers

209

Self Cleaning Paint: Introduction of Photocatalytic Particles into a Paint System  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The current industrial PhD work was aimed at synthesising a photocatalytic composite material which could be used to give organic wood paint films self-cleaning and anti-microbial properties. The current PhD work was done in collaboration between Dyrup A/S and Technical University of Denmark. The paint industry constantly faces updated restriction on toxic chemicals as for instance biocides which has prompted the search for alternative strategies for increasing the durability of their products. Photocatalysts are generally known to have adverse effects on organic coatings due to the highly reactive chemical species created by the photocatalytic reaction, which can damage the coating itself. The novel strategy for integrating the photocatalyst into the coating proposed in this work however offers most of the benefits of such self-cleaning coatings without the disadvantages. The thesis consists of an introduction to relevant concepts and literature followed byresults, presented as research papers, and a patent application. Four research papers are introduced as individual chapters. Chapter 4 discusses the synthesis and optimisation of anatase TiO2 coated microspheres, chapter 5 discusses the self-cleaning properties and degradation mechanisms of photocatalytic organic coatings containing TiO2 coated microspheres, chapter 6 discusses the rheological and mechanical properties of such coatings and chapter 7 discusses the durability and weather stability of photocatalytic self-cleaning coatings containing TiO2 coated microspheres. The results show that introducing a photocatalyst into an organic paint system as a coating on inert carrier particles results in durable and weather stable paint films. The paint films exhibit selfcleaning properties and are able to resist the attack of micro-organisms. The effect of the photocatalytic reaction on the organic binder is found to be minimal and the films are found to be more durable during outdoor exposure than conventional paint systems. The microspheres only influence the paint viscosity to a small degree and although the mech anical properties are generally degraded by the rigid filler the actual performance is improved by an altered mechanism for crack propagation in the films. The project was funded by Dyrup A/S and the Danish Agency for Science and Innovation.

Gunnarsson, Sverrir Grimur

2012-01-01

210

Investigating shoulder muscle loading and exerted forces during wall painting tasks: influence of gender, work height and paint tool design.  

Science.gov (United States)

The task of wall painting produces considerable risk to the workers, both male and female, primarily in the development of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders. Insufficient information is currently available regarding the potential benefits of using different paint roller designs or the possible adverse effects of painting at different work heights. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender, work height, and paint tool design on shoulder muscle activity and exerted forces during wall painting. Ten young adults, five male and five female, were recruited to perform simulated wall painting at three different work heights with three different paint roller designs while upper extremity muscle activity and horizontal push force were recorded. Results demonstrated that for female participants, significantly greater total average (p = 0.007) and integrated (p = 0.047) muscle activity was present while using the conventional and curly flex paint roller designs compared to the proposed design in which the load was distributed between both hands. Additionally, for both genders, the high working height imposed greater muscular demands compared to middle and low heights. These findings suggest that, if possible, avoid painting at extreme heights (low or high) and that for female painters, consider a roller that requires the use of two hands; this will reduce fatigue onset and subsequently mitigate potential musculoskeletal shoulder injury risks. PMID:24636728

Rosati, Patricia M; Chopp, Jaclyn N; Dickerson, Clark R

2014-07-01

211

Characterization of chemical agent transport in paints.  

Science.gov (United States)

A combination of vacuum-based vapor emission measurements with a mass transport model was employed to determine the interaction of chemical warfare agents with various materials, including transport parameters of agents in paints. Accurate determination of mass transport parameters enables the simulation of the chemical agent distribution in a material for decontaminant performance modeling. The evaluation was performed with the chemical warfare agents bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide (distilled mustard, known as the chemical warfare blister agent HD) and O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX), an organophosphate nerve agent, deposited on to two different types of polyurethane paint coatings. The results demonstrated alignment between the experimentally measured vapor emission flux and the predicted vapor flux. Mass transport modeling demonstrated rapid transport of VX into the coatings; VX penetrated through the aliphatic polyurethane-based coating (100 ?m) within approximately 107 min. By comparison, while HD was more soluble in the coatings, the penetration depth in the coatings was approximately 2× lower than VX. Applications of mass transport parameters include the ability to predict agent uptake, and subsequent long-term vapor emission or contact transfer where the agent could present exposure risks. Additionally, these parameters and model enable the ability to perform decontamination modeling to predict how decontaminants remove agent from these materials. PMID:23872337

Willis, Matthew P; Gordon, Wesley; Lalain, Teri; Mantooth, Brent

2013-09-15

212

Biological dosimetry by interphase chromosome painting  

Science.gov (United States)

Both fluorescence in situ hybridization of metaphase spreads with whole-chromosome probes and premature chromosome condensation in interphase nuclei have been used in the past to estimate the radiation dose to lymphocytes. We combined these techniques to evaluate the feasibility of using painted interphase chromosomes for biodosimetry. Human peripheral lymphocytes were exposed to gamma rays and fused to mitotic Chinese hamster cells either immediately after irradiation or after 8 h incubation at 37 degrees C. Interphase or metaphase human chromosomes were hybridized with a composite probe specific for human chromosomes 3 and 4. The dose-response curve for fragment induction immediately after irradiation was linear; these results reflected breakage frequency in the total genome in terms of DNA content per chromosome. At 8 h after irradiation, the dose-response curve for chromosome interchanges, the prevalent aberration in interphase chromosomes, was linear-quadratic and similar to that observed for metaphase chromosomes. These results suggest that painting prematurely condensed chromosomes can be useful for biological dosimetry when blood samples are available shortly after the exposure, or when interphase cells are to be scored instead of mitotic cells.

Durante, M.; George, K.; Yang, T. C.

1996-01-01

213

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section 965.701 ...PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The requirements of the...

2010-04-01

214

77 FR 76996 - Lead; Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program for Public and Commercial Buildings; Request for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2070-AJ56 Lead; Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program for Public and Commercial Buildings...concerning renovation, repair, and painting activities on and in public and commercial...you perform renovations, repairs, or painting activities on the exterior or...

2012-12-31

215

78 FR 27906 - Lead; Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program for Public and Commercial Buildings; Notice of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2070-AJ56 Lead; Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program for Public and Commercial Buildings...concerning renovation, repair, and painting activities in public and commercial buildings...or perform renovations, repairs, or painting activities on the exterior or...

2013-05-13

216

A method of using commercial virtual satellite image to check the pattern painting spot effect  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of using commercial virtual satellite image to check the pattern painting spot effect contrast with the satellite images before painting and after painting have been discussed. Using a housetop as the testing platform analyses and discusses the factors' influence such as resolution of satellite image, spot size and color of pattern painting spot and pattern painting camouflage method choosing to the plan implement. The pattern painting design and spot size used in the testing has been ensured, and housetop pattern painting has been painted. Finally, the small spot pattern painting camouflage effect of engineering using upon painting pattern size, color and texture have been checked, contrasting with the satellite image before painting and after painting.

Wang, Zheng-gang; Kang, Qing; Shen, Zhi-qiang; Cui, Chang-bin

2014-02-01

217

24 CFR 35.935 - Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities. 35.935...Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities. In the...ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities in regular building operations, in...

2010-04-01

218

24 CFR 35.825 - Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance and reevaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance and reevaluation. 35...Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance and reevaluation. HUD...ongoing lead-based paint maintenance and reevaluation, in accordance...35.1355, into regular building operations if HUD...

2010-04-01

219

24 CFR 35.1220 - Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities. 35.1220...Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities. Notwithstanding...ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities into regular building operations in...

2010-04-01

220

INEL Spray-forming Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Spray forming is a near-net-shape fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is deposited onto a suitably shaped substrate or mold to produce a coherent solid. The technology offers unique opportunities for simplifying materials processing without sacrificing, and oftentimes substantially improving, product quality. Spray forming can be performed with a wide range of metals and nonmetals, and offers property improvements resulting from rapid solidification (e.g., refined microstructures, extended solid solubilities and reduced segregation). Economic benefits result from process simplification and the elimination of unit operations. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials. Results from several spray forming programs are presented to illustrate the range of capabilities of the technique as well as the accompanying technical and economic benefits. Low-carbon steel strip greater than 0.75 mm thick and polymer membranes for gas/gas and liquid/liquid separations that were spray formed are discussed; recent advances in spray forming molds, dies, and other tooling using low-melting-point metals are described.

Mchugh, Kevin M.; Key, James F.

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

INEL spray-forming research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spray forming is a near-net-shape fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is deposited onto a suitably shaped substrate or mold to produce a coherent solid. The technology offers unique opportunities for simplifying materials processing without sacrificing, and oftentimes substantially improving, product quality. Spray forming can be performed with a wide range of metals and nonmetals, and offers property improvements resulting from rapid solidification (e.g. refined microstructures, extended solid solubilities and reduced segregation). Economic benefits result from process simplification and the elimination of unit operations. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials. Results from several spray-forming programs are presented to illustrate the range of capabilities of the technique as well as the accompanying technical and economic benefits. Low-carbon steel strip >0.75 mm thick and polymer membranes for gas/gas and liquid/liquid separations that were spray formed are discussed; recent advances in spray forming molds, dies, and other tooling using low-melting-point metals are described.

McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

1992-01-01

222

INEL spray-forming research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spray forming is a near-net-shape fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is deposited onto a suitably shaped substrate or mold to produce a coherent solid. The technology offers unique opportunities for simplifying materials processing without sacrificing, and oftentimes substantially improving, product quality. Spray forming can be performed with a wide range of metals and nonmetals, and offers property improvements resulting from rapid solidification (e.g. refined microstructures, extended solid solubilities and reduced segregation). Economic benefits result from process simplification and the elimination of unit operations. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials. Results from several spray-forming programs are presented to illustrate the range of capabilities of the technique as well as the accompanying technical and economic benefits. Low-carbon steel strip >0.75 mm thick and polymer membranes for gas/gas and liquid/liquid separations that were spray formed are discussed; recent advances in spray forming molds, dies, and other tooling using low-melting-point metals are described.

McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

1992-12-31

223

Code of Practice (Paint) (118.36 KB)  

This Code of Practice applies to any member selling paint which does not comply \\... minimum of two years, by way of a record which can be checked by the \\regulatory ... wishes to buy enough of a commonly-used paint in order to hold \\small.

224

Sanding dust from nanoparticle-containing paints: Physical characterisation  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing use of nanoparticles in different industrial applications has raised a new potential health risk to the workers as well as to the consumers. This study investigates the particle size distributions of sanding dust released from paints produced with and without engineered nanoparticles. Dust emissions from sanding painted plates were found to consist of five size modes; three modes under 1 ?m and two modes around 1 and 2 ?m. We observed that the sander was the only source of particles smaller than 50 nm and they dominated the number concentration spectra. Mass and surface area spectra were dominated by the 1 and 2 ?m modes. Addition of nanoparticles caused only minor changes in the geometric mean diameters of the particle modes generated during sanding of two paints doped with 17 nm TiO2 and 95 nm Carbon Black nanoparticles as compared to the size modes generated during sanding a conventional reference paint. However, the number concentrations in the different size modes varied considerably in between the two NP-doped paints and the reference paint. Therefore, from a physical point of view, there may be a difference in the exposure risk during sanding surfaces covered with nanoparticle-based paints as compared to sanding conventional paints.

Koponen, I. K.; Jensen, K. A.; Schneider, T.

2009-02-01

225

Dissolution of organic solvents from painted surfaces into water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The presence of volatile iodine in containment buildings is one of the major safety concerns in the potential event of nuclear reactor accidents. Organic impurities in containment water, originating from various painted structural surfaces and organic materials, could have a significant impact on iodine volatility following an accident. To determine the source and magnitude of organic impurities and their effects on time-dependent iodine volatility, the dissolution for organic constituents from paints used in reactor buildings has been studied under postulated accident conditions. The studies of the organic dissolution from carbon steel coupons coated with zinc-primed vinyl, epoxy-primed polyurethane or epoxy paints over the temperature range 25-90 deg C are reported. Relatively large activation energies were measured for the release of the principal organic compounds from painted surfaces, suggesting it is the release of the solvents from the paint matrix rather than their diffusion through the solution that is the rate determining step for the dissolution mechanism. The similarities in the values of activation energies for the dissolution of different organic compounds from the paints suggest the release rate is independent of the nature of the painted surface or the type of organic being released from the surface. These two observations indicate that it may be possible to write a generalized rate expression for the release of organic compounds from painted surfaces in containment following an accident. The possible implications of these results for predicting iodine volatility in containment are also discussed. (author)

Wren, J.C. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Jobe, D.J. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Sanipelli, G.G.; Ball, J.M

2000-07-01

226

Rediscovering Ruth Faison Shaw and Her Finger-Painting Method  

Science.gov (United States)

Ruth Faison Shaw was an art educator who developed a nontraditional educational perspective of teaching and a different vision about children's art. As such, she is considered by some to be the initiator of finger-painting in America (The History of Art Education Timeline 1930-1939, 2002.) Shaw developed the technique of finger-painting and a…

Mayer, Veronica

2005-01-01

227

Sanding dust from nanoparticle-containing paints: Physical characterisation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Increasing use of nanoparticles in different industrial applications has raised a new potential health risk to the workers as well as to the consumers. This study investigates the particle size distributions of sanding dust released from paints produced with and without engineered nanoparticles. Dust emissions from sanding painted plates were found to consist of five size modes; three modes under 1 ?m and two modes around 1 and 2 ?m. We observed that the sander was the only source of particles smaller than 50 nm and they dominated the number concentration spectra. Mass and surface area spectra were dominated by the 1 and 2 ?m modes. Addition of nanoparticles caused only minor changes in the geometric mean diameters of the particle modes generated during sanding of two paints doped with 17 nm TiO2 and 95 nm Carbon Black nanoparticles as compared to the size modes generated during sanding a conventional reference paint. However, the number concentrations in the different size modes varied considerably in between the two NP-doped paints and the reference paint. Therefore, from a physical point of view, there may be a difference in the exposure risk during sanding surfaces covered with nanoparticle-based paints as compared to sanding conventional paints.

228

Sanding dust from nanoparticle-containing paints: Physical characterisation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increasing use of nanoparticles in different industrial applications has raised a new potential health risk to the workers as well as to the consumers. This study investigates the particle size distributions of sanding dust released from paints produced with and without engineered nanoparticles. Dust emissions from sanding painted plates were found to consist of five size modes; three modes under 1 mum and two modes around 1 and 2 mum. We observed that the sander was the only source of particles smaller than 50 nm and they dominated the number concentration spectra. Mass and surface area spectra were dominated by the 1 and 2 mum modes. Addition of nanoparticles caused only minor changes in the geometric mean diameters of the particle modes generated during sanding of two paints doped with 17 nm TiO2 and 95 nm Carbon Black nanoparticles as compared to the size modes generated during sanding a conventional reference paint. However, the number concentrations in the different size modes varied considerably in between the two NP-doped paints and the reference paint. Therefore, from a physical point of view, there may be a difference in the exposure risk during sanding surfaces covered with nanoparticle-based paints as compared to sanding conventional paints.

Koponen, I K; Jensen, K A; Schneider, T, E-mail: ikk@nrcwe.d [National Reseach Centre for Working Environment (NRCWE), Lersoe Park Alle 105, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

2009-02-01

229

Experimental evaluation of a mathematical model for predicting transfer efficiency of a high volume-low pressure air spray gun.  

Science.gov (United States)

The transfer efficiency of a spray-painting gun is defined as the amount of coating applied to the workpiece divided by the amount sprayed. Characterizing this transfer process allows for accurate estimation of the overspray generation rate, which is important for determining a spray painter's exposure to airborne contaminants. This study presents an experimental evaluation of a mathematical model for predicting the transfer efficiency of a high volume-low pressure spray gun. The effects of gun-to-surface distance and nozzle pressure on the agreement between the transfer efficiency measurement and prediction were examined. Wind tunnel studies and non-volatile vacuum pump oil in place of commercial paint were used to determine transfer efficiency at nine gun-to-surface distances and four nozzle pressure levels. The mathematical model successfully predicts transfer efficiency within the uncertainty limits. The least squares regression between measured and predicted transfer efficiency has a slope of 0.83 and an intercept of 0.12 (R2 = 0.98). Two correction factors were determined to improve the mathematical model. At higher nozzle pressure settings, 6.5 psig and 5.5 psig, the correction factor is a function of both gun-to-surface distance and nozzle pressure level. At lower nozzle pressures, 4 psig and 2.75 psig, gun-to-surface distance slightly influences the correction factor, while nozzle pressure has no discernible effect. PMID:11036729

Tan, Y M; Flynn, M R

2000-10-01

230

Preparation of Perfluorinated Surfactant Activates for Antifouling Paints  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antifouling paints are the most reliable way to prevent biofouling of submerged surfaces. The high toxicity of organotin paints, prompted us to look for ideas to develop paints that do not present environmental risks. In this work, we prepare a painting by a modification of acrylic acid monomer containing a free carboxyl group. The biocide that is selected is the perfluorinated chain with eight carbons. Chemical modifications of the resins are made through a radical reaction. The magnitudes of changes are monitored by proton nuclear magnetic resonance NMR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC and the light scattering (LS at a fixed angle 90?. The glass transition temperature of the surfactant is obtained by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The antifouling properties of the paint are followed by exposure of panels to the marine environment by visual observation.

A. Bacha

2012-10-01

231

Leaky insulating paint for preventing discharge anomalies on circuit boards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on a semi-insulating paint formulated and tested for preventing pulse discharges from causing damage to circuits on heavily irradiated circuit boards. The paint is tin oxide filled phenoxy resin with a bulk resistivity of 108 ohm-cm. A typical coating is then 1010 ohms per square. It is applied over the finished, conformally coated circuit board and connected to ground where possible on the board. It works by minimizing the stored electric field energy prior to the discharge. With such high resistivity it can not load down most circuits. Tests were performed on circuit boards with and without the paint using energetic electron beams to simulate very high space exposure levels. Many potentially damaging pulses were seen without the paint, but application of the paint removed all large pulses and only a few small pulses were seen

232

Target Practice: Painting Under Attack, 1949-78  

Science.gov (United States)

This exhibition from the Seattle Art Museum explores artists' urge to "shoot, rip, tear, burn, erase, nail, unzip and deconstruct painting in order to usher in a new way of thinking." An animated feature at the site showcases works, curator's commentary, and quotes from five artists: Jasper Johns, Niki De Saint-Phalle, Ushio Shinohara, Lucio Fontana, and Yoko Ono. Ono's piece, Painting to Hammer a Nail, 1961/2009 consists of a wooden panel with a hammer chained to it near a container of small nails. Visitors are invited to hammer a nail into the piece, often attaching small objects, illustrating Yoko's quote, "Everybody's an artist. Everybody's God. It's just that they're inhibited." There is also a 5-minute video of Richard Jackson working on a wall painting for the exhibition, pouring paint onto canvases, smearing them against the wall, and nailing several of the canvases to the wall, backwards, to become part of the painting.

233

Automotive Painting Technology A Monozukuri-Hitozukuri Perspective  

CERN Document Server

This book offers unique and valuable contributions to the field. It offers breadth and inclusiveness. Most existing works on automotive painting cover only a single aspect of this complex topic, such as the chemistry of paint or paint booth technology. Monozukuri and Hitozukuri are Japanese terms that can be translated as “making things” and “developing people” but their implications in Japanese are richer and more complex than this minimal translation would indicate. The Monozukuri-Hitozukuri perspective is drawn from essential principles on which the Toyota approach to problem-solving and continuous improvement is based. From this perspective, neither painting technology R&D nor painting technology use in manufacturing can be done successfully without integrating technological and human concerns involved with making and learning in the broadest sense, as the hyphen is meant to indicate. The editors provide case studies and examples -- drawn from Mr. Toda’s 33 years of experience with automotiv...

Salazar, Abraham; Saito, Kozo

2013-01-01

234

CHARACTERIZATION OF LOW-VOC LATEX PAINTS: VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND CONTENT, VOC AND ALDEHYDE EMISSIONS, AND PAINT PERFORMANCE  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of laboratory tests to evaluate commercially available latex paints advertised as "low-odor," "low-VOC (volatile organic compound)," or "no-VOC." Measurements were performed to quantify the total content of VOCs in the paints...

235

CAPSTONE REPORT ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF A STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR VOC EMISSIONS FROM INTERIOR LATEX PAINT AND ALKYD PAINTS  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives details of a small-chamber test method developed by the EPA for characterizing volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from interior latex and alkyd paints. Current knowledge about VOC, including hazardous air pollutant, emissions from interior paints generated...

236

Constrained Response Surface Optimisation and Taguchi Methods for Precisely Atomising Spraying Process  

Science.gov (United States)

This research presents a development of a design of experiment technique for quality improvement in automotive manufacturing industrial. The quality of interest is the colour shade, one of the key feature and exterior appearance for the vehicles. With low percentage of first time quality, the manufacturer has spent a lot of cost for repaired works as well as the longer production time. To permanently dissolve such problem, the precisely spraying condition should be optimized. Therefore, this work will apply the full factorial design, the multiple regression, the constrained response surface optimization methods or CRSOM, and Taguchi's method to investigate the significant factors and to determine the optimum factor level in order to improve the quality of paint shop. Firstly, 2? full factorial was employed to study the effect of five factors including the paint flow rate at robot setting, the paint levelling agent, the paint pigment, the additive slow solvent, and non volatile solid at spraying of atomizing spraying machine. The response values of colour shade at 15 and 45 degrees were measured using spectrophotometer. Then the regression models of colour shade at both degrees were developed from the significant factors affecting each response. Consequently, both regression models were placed into the form of linear programming to maximize the colour shade subjected to 3 main factors including the pigment, the additive solvent and the flow rate. Finally, Taguchi's method was applied to determine the proper level of key variable factors to achieve the mean value target of colour shade. The factor of non volatile solid was found to be one more additional factor at this stage. Consequently, the proper level of all factors from both experiment design methods were used to set a confirmation experiment. It was found that the colour shades, both visual at 15 and 45 angel of measurement degrees of spectrophotometer, were nearly closed to the target and the defective at quality gate was also reduced from 0.35 WDPV to 0.10 WDPV. This reveals that the objective of this research is met and this procedure can be used as quality improvement guidance for paint shop of automotive vehicle.

Luangpaiboon, P.; Suwankham, Y.; Homrossukon, S.

2010-10-01

237

Suspension and solution plasma spraying  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Suspension and solution plasma spraying makes it possible to achieve coatings with fine microstructural features and is becoming a common route in laboratories to elaborate coatings a few tenths to a few hundreds of micrometres thick. This paper presents the recent developments in direct current plasma spraying of suspensions or solutions. It begins with a short description of the main plasma torches used for liquid feedstock spraying as well as the techniques used to experimentally observe droplets and particles in the plasma jet and characterize the void network of nanostructured plasma-sprayed coatings. The paper then turns to the momentum and heat transfers between fine particles and the plasma jet and the interactions between the plasma jet and a liquid in the form of a jet or drops. It concludes by linking some characteristic features of coating microstructures with the liquid processing in the plasma jet. (paper)

238

Multiplexed 3D Cellular Super-Resolution Imaging with DNA-PAINT and Exchange-PAINT  

Science.gov (United States)

While super-resolution fluorescence microscopy is a powerful tool for biological research, obtaining multiplexed images for a large number of distinct target species remains challenging. Here we use the transient binding of short fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides (DNA-PAINT, point accumulation for imaging in nanoscale topography) for simple and easy-to-implement multiplexed 3D super-resolution imaging inside fixed cells and achieve sub-10 nm spatial resolution in vitro using synthetic DNA structures. We also report a novel approach for multiplexing (Exchange-PAINT) that allows sequential imaging of multiple targets using only a single dye and a single laser source. We experimentally demonstrate ten-“color” super-resolution imaging in vitro on synthetic DNA structures and four-“color” imaging of proteins in a fixed cell. PMID:24487583

Jungmann, R.; Avendano, M.S.; Woehrstein, J.B.; Dai, M.; Shih, W.M.; Yin, P.

2014-01-01

239

Plasma-sprayed zirconia coatings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Particle trajectories in the plasma jet and gas-particle heat transfer were studied. Correlation between spraying parameters and crystallographic, microstructural, and mechanical properties of zirconia-sprayed coatings were carried out on zirconia-calcia and zirconia-ytrria materials. The annealed states were studied, chiefly for zirconia-yttria. The annealing temperatures were 5500, 9000, and 14000C. The crystallographic phases were determined. The mechanical properties of the coatings (hardness, thermal expansion, Young's modulus, strength, and thermal shock resistance) were evaluated

240

Plasma spraying theory and applications  

CERN Document Server

The recent advances in plasma spraying are discussed in this book which divides into two sections - theory and application. The book presents sophisticated experimental techniques, diagnostics, theoretical models and computer simulations which not only improve the understanding and uses of the spraying process but also help to increase the reliability factor of the manufacturing components. Applications that are metallurgical, aeronautical, automobile, chemical, etc. are also shown. More importantly, applications that include silicon for solar cells, magnets and superconductors are also discus

Suryanarayanan, R

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Palaeolithic paintings. Evolution of prehistoric cave art.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sophisticated examples of European palaeolithic parietal art can be seen in the caves of Altamira, Lascaux and Niaux near the Pyrenees, which date to the Magdalenian period (12,000-17,000 years ago), but paintings of comparable skill and complexity were created much earlier, some possibly more than 30,000 years ago. We have derived new radiocarbon dates for the drawings that decorate the Chauvet cave in Vallon-Pont-d'Arc, Ardèche, France, which confirm that even 30,000 years ago Aurignacian artists, already known as accomplished carvers, could create masterpieces comparable to the best Magdalenian art. Prehistorians, who have traditionally interpreted the evolution of prehistoric art as a steady progression from simple to more complex representations, may have to reconsider existing theories of the origins of art. PMID:11586348

Valladas, H; Clottes, J; Geneste, J M; Garcia, M A; Arnold, M; Cachier, H; Tisnérat-Laborde, N

2001-10-01

242

Decommissioning of a luminous dial painting facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A luminous dial painting plant operated in Georgia from 1954 until 1978 with a clean bill of health until 1976, when a routine inspection cited the company for questionable measurement techniques for tritium surface contamination, possible environment tritium releases and detectable tritium body burdens in the employees. The company chose to discontinue operations in June 1978, due to the above problems. Radium had been used from 1954 until 1966-67, with tritium use begun in 1966-67. A three phase plan for decommissioning the facility, was submitted to the Georgia Department of Human Resources. Phase 1 - Pre-decontamination Survey - entailed cursory environmental analyses for 226Ra and tritium, building and equipment surveys with portable instruments and wipe samples, bioassays, air samples/and soil/vegetation/water samples. Phase 2 - Decontamination, and Disposal. Phase 3 - Post-decontamination Survey. This paper deals with Phase 1 - methodology, instrumentation, problems, pitfalls and the results obtained. (author)

243

Laser cleaning of steel for paint removal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Paint removal is an important part of steel processing for marine and offshore engineering. For centuries, a blasting techniques have been widely used for this surface preparation purpose. But conventional blasting always has intrinsic problems, such as noise, explosion risk, contaminant particles, vibration, and dust. In addition, processing wastes often cause environmental problems. In recent years, laser cleaning has attracted much research effort for its significant advantages, such as precise treatment, and high selectivity and flexibility in comparison with conventional cleaning techniques. In the present study, we use this environmentally friendly technique to overcome the problems of conventional blasting. Processed samples are examined with optical microscopes and other surface characterization tools. Experimental results show that laser cleaning can be a good alternative candidate to conventional blasting. (orig.)

Chen, G.X.; Kwee, T.J.; Tan, K.P. [Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Center of Innovation (Marine and Offshore Technology), Singapore (Singapore); Choo, Y.S.; Hong, M.H. [National University of Singapore, Faculty of Engineering, Singapore (Singapore)

2010-11-15

244

'Amarna blue' painted on ancient Egyptian pottery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Amarna blue' pigments (18 Dynasty, c. 1400 BC) painted on pottery fragments were investigated using the PIXE, XRF and XRD methods in laboratories and also using a portable type of X-ray spectrometer at the sites of excavation. On the blue-colored part enrichment of Na, Al, S, Cl, Ca, Mn, Co, Ni and Zn was found using X-ray spectroscopy, and CaSO4, NaCl and Co(M)Al2O4, M denoting Mn, Fe, Ni and Zn, were found by the help of X-ray diffraction. This means that Amarna blue is a mixture of CaSO4 and Co(M)Al2O4, at least in part

245

Paint compositions for indicating irradiation dose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paint compositions for indicating irradiation dose are prepared from chlorine-combined polyester, 5 to 30 percent by weight of a reductive discoloring substance or a mixture of said substances, and/or 0.005 to 2.0 percent by weight of a reducing dyestuff or a mixture of said dyestuffs, in which said chlorine-combined polyester is obtained by a chlorinated dibasic acid or its anhydride as an acid component or a part of an acid component selected from a group consisting of 3-chlorophthalic acid, 4-chlorophthalic acid, dichlorinated phthalic acid, tetrachlorophthalic acid, 1,4,5,6,7,7-hexachlorobicyclo-(2,2,1)-5-heptene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, 4-chloro-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboxylic acid and the anhydrides corresponding to said acids. (auth)

246

The ‘Philosophical paintings’ of the Republic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article I examine Plato’s appropriation of poetic language in the Republic and argue that, despite his criticism of poetry in Books 3 and 10, poetic language is justifiably weaved into the philosophical fabric to depict the corrupt, the ugly and the base. In specific terms, Plato’s adaptation of several poetic motifs and images in the Republic becomes more meaningful if we choose to pay attention to Socrates as a quasi painter in the dialogue and interpret his philosophical images as philosophy’s response to the deceptive dramatic representations of poetry. Thus the art of painting, which is also criticised in Republic Book 10, in Plato’s hands becomes a philosophical tool which helps him investigate the relation of our mundane sense-perceptive world to the metaphysical realm of the Ideas and humans’ place in it.

Zacharoula A. Petraki

2013-12-01

247

Phylogenomic study of the subfamily Caprinae by cross-species chromosome painting with Chinese muntjac paints.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chromosomal homologies have been established between the Chinese muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi, MRE, 2n = 46) and five ovine species: wild goat (Capra aegagrus, CAE, 2n = 60), argali (Ovis ammon, OAM, 2n = 56), snow sheep (Ovis nivicola, ONI, 2n = 52), red goral (Naemorhedus cranbrooki, NCR, 2n = 56) and Sumatra serow (Capricornis sumatraensis, CSU, 2n = 48) by chromosome painting with a set of chromosome-specific probes of the Chinese muntjac. In total, twenty-two Chinese muntjac autosomal painting probes detected thirty-five homologous segments in the genome of each species. The chromosome X probe hybridized to the whole X chromosomes of all ovine species while the chromosome Y probe gave no signal. Our results demonstrate that almost all homologous segments defined by comparative painting show a high degree of conservation in G-banding patterns and that each speciation event is accompanied by specific chromosomal rearrangements. The combined analysis of our results and previous cytogenetic and molecular systematic results enables us to map the chromosomal rearrangements onto a phylogenetic tree, thus providing new insights into the karyotypic evolution of these species. PMID:15973503

Huang, Ling; Nie, Wenhui; Wang, Jinhuan; Su, Weiting; Yang, Fengtang

2005-01-01

248

Spray Lakes reclamation project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When the level of the Spray Lakes (Alberta) reservoir was lowered by four metres, 208 ha of shoreline was exposed offering little to no wildlife benefit and only limited recreation potential. A reclamation plan for 128 ha of shoreline was therefore developed. A wild life-palatable, self-sustaining vegetation cover was established. Approximately 90 ha was scarified, and/or had tree stumps removed prior to seeding, while approximately 40 ha was seeded and fertilized only. The remaining 80 ha of shoreline was not revegetated due to limited access; these areas will be allowed to re-establish naturally from the forested edge. The species were selected based on their adaptation to alkaline soils, drought tolerance, persistence in a stand and rooting characteristics, as well as palatability to wildlife. Alfalfa, white clover and fall rye were seeded. In general, all areas of the reclamation plan are successfully revegetated. Areas which were recontoured are stable and non-eroding. Success was most significant in areas which had been scarified, then seeded and trackpacked. Areas that were seeded and fertilized only were less well established at the end of the first year, but showed improvement in the second and third years. The area will be monitored to ensure the reclaimed vegetation is self-sustaining

249

Sprays in containment: Final results of the SARNET spray benchmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Modelling of nuclear reactor containment sprays is assessed through codes benchmarking. ? This benchmark is proposed in the frame of the European network of excellence, SARNET. ? Spray thermodynamics as well as gas entrainment and atmosphere mixing is studied here. ? Four types of experiments are proposed on the TOSQAN and MISTRA facilities. ? The code level of validation of is encouraging for the use of spray modelling for risk analysis. - Abstract: The influence of containment sprays on atmosphere behaviour, a sub-task of the Work Package WP12-2 CAM (Containment Atmosphere Mixing), has been investigated through benchmark exercises based on TOSQAN (IRSN) and MISTRA (CEA) experiments. These tests are being simulated with lumped-parameter (LP) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. Both atmosphere depressurization and mixing are being studied in two phases: a 'thermalhydraulic part', which deals with depressurization by sprays (TOSQAN 101 and MISTRA MASPn), and a 'dynamic part', dealing with light gas stratification break-up by spray (TOSQAN 113 and MISTRA MARC2b). In the thermalhydraulic part of the benchmark, participants have found the appropriate modelling to obtain good global results in terms of experimental pressure and mean gas temperature, for both TOSQAN and MISTRA tests. It can thus be considered that code users have a good knowledge of their spray modelling parameters. On a local level, for the TOSQAN test, single droplet behaviour is found to be well estimated by some calculations, but the global modelling of multiple droplets, i.e. of the spray, specifically for the spray dilution, is questionable in some CFD calculations. It can lead to some discrepancies localized in the spray region and can thus have a high impact on the global results, since most of the heat and mass transfers occur inside this region. In the MISTRA tests, wall condensation mass flow rates and local temperatures were used for code-experiment comparison and show that improvement of the local modelling, including initial conditions determination, is needed. In this dynamic part, a general result, in both tests, is that calculations do not recover the same kinetics of the mixing. Furthermore, concerning global mixing, LP contributions seem not suitable here. For the TOSQAN benchmark, the one-phase CFD calculations recover partially the phenomena involved during the mixing, whereas the two-phase flow CFD contributions generally recover the phenomena. Moreover, one important result is also that none of the contributions finds the exact amount of helium remaining in the dome above the spray nozzle in the TOSQAN 113. Discrepancies are rather high (above 5%vol of helium). Results are thus encouraging, but the level of validation should be improved. The same kind of conclusions can be drawn for the MISTRA MARC2B tests. As a conclusion of this SARNET spray benchmark, the level of validation obtained here is encouraging for the use of spray modelling for risk analysis. However, some more detailed investigations are needed to improve model parameters and decrease the uncertainty for containment applications as well as to increase the predictability of the phenomena within the containment analyses. Further activities are well encouraged on this topic, such as numerical benchmarks on analytical separate-effect experiments.

250

Recognition and inference of crevice processing on digitized paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is designed to detect and removal of cracks on digitized paintings. The cracks are detected by threshold. Afterwards, the thin dark brush strokes which have been misidentified as cracks are removed using Median radial basis function neural network on hue and saturation data, Semi-automatic procedure based on region growing. Finally, crack is filled using wiener filter. The paper is well designed in such a way that most of the cracks on digitized paintings have identified and removed. The paper % of betterment is 90%. This paper helps us to perform not only on digitized paintings but also the medical images and bmp images. This paper is implemented by Mat Lab.

Karuppiah, S. P.; Srivatsa, S. K.

2013-03-01

251

Logic Analysis of Painting Modeling Rules and Avoiding Narrative Viewing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Painting modeling rules are constructed based on objective representing with material substances as the main body and the construction methods and orders are mostly limited to narrative viewing and expression, which, obviously, is not the best method. Logistic thinking in virtue of modeling art could gender a more “painting-like” cognitive order. The modeling elements extracted from dots, lines and planes lead us to the door for painting context and by way of personalized organization with explicit aims, we could be able to obtain “selective”, “comparative”, “holistic” and “sole” (creative modeling and viewing principles.

Feng Zhu

2009-07-01

252

Reverse painting on glass as seen by the proton beam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The combination of PIXE, RBS and PIGE proves ideal for non-destructive overall analysis of reverse paintings on glass. Simultaneous PIXE-RBS studies assist to clarify the thin-layered pigment arrangements of details painted on the reverse of the glass pane. In a second measurement, the spectra of both PIGE-PIXE taken from the pure glass front side inform on the individual glass type. This complete perception of corresponding unique objects is important and valuable regarding the knowledge of special painting techniques and the necessity of preventive conservation

253

21 CFR 740.12 - Feminine deodorant sprays.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Feminine deodorant sprays. 740.12 Section 740.12 Food...Statements § 740.12 Feminine deodorant sprays. (a) For the purpose of this section, the term “feminine deodorant spray” means any spray deodorant...

2010-04-01

254

Aerial vehicle with paint for detection of radiological and chemical warfare agents  

Science.gov (United States)

A paint that warns of radiological or chemical substances comprising a paint operatively connected to the surface, an indicator material carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances, and a thermo-activation material carried by the paint. In one embodiment, a method of warning of radiological or chemical substances comprising the steps of painting a surface with an indicator material, and monitoring the surface for indications of the radiological or chemical substances. In another embodiment, a paint is operatively connected to a vehicle and an indicator material is carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances.

Farmer, Joseph C.; Brunk, James L.; Day, S. Daniel

2013-04-02

255

Influence of Nozzle geometry on spray shape, particle size, spray velocity and Air entrainment of high pressure Diesel spray  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Air/fuel mixing process in the combustion chamber of Diesel engines plays an important role on the combustion efficiency. This mixing depends on the particle size distribution in the spray, on the local velocity of fuel droplets in the spray and on the air entrainment. Nozzle geometry as well as nozzle internal flow conditions influence many of these spray properties. An experimental study of the influence of the nozzle geometry on these properties has been conducted. The spray structure and ...

Hespel, Camille; Blaisot, Jean-bernard; Margot, Xandra; Patouna, S.; Cessou, Armelle; Lecordier, Bertrand

2010-01-01

256

A STUDY OF PARTIAL REPAIR PAINTING FOR WEATHERING STEEL BRIDGE  

Science.gov (United States)

Many weathering steel bridges has been constructed due to its advantage in Life Cycle Cost. With the expansion of number of weathering steel bridges, occurrence of corrosive rust on weathering steel has been reported in recent years. However, repair technique of corroded weathering steel is not established yet. At the time of repair painting, ablation of the adherence rust and the adherent salt on surface of weathering steel will become major problem. This paper propose a flow of repair painting for weathering steel bridges based on Rc-I painting method that was established to painting bridges. By the results of aplication of this flow to on site repair, availability of proposed method was confirmed.

Imai, Atsumi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Aso, Toshihiko

257

A new tool for painting diagnostics: Optical coherence tomography  

Science.gov (United States)

Nondestructive techniques have seen successful growth in the last few years, and, among them, optical ones are widespread and extremely well received in the field of painting diagnostics because of their effectiveness and safety. At present, many techniques for nondestructive investigations of paintings are available; nevertheless, none of them is suitable for a quantitative characterization of varnish. However, varnish removal, either partial or complete, is a fundamental part of the cleaning process, which is an essential step in painting conservation. This critical process has been carried out, up to now, without the possibility of any non-destructive measurement for assessing the actual varnish thickness, but with microscopic observation of a detached microfragment. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive technique that is well established for biomedical applications. In this work, we present a novel application of OCT to measure the varnish film thickness for painting diagnostics.

Arecchi, T.; Bellini, M.; Corsi, C.; Fontana, R.; Materazzi, M.; Pezzati, L.; Tortora, A.

2006-07-01

258

Guidance on Implementing the Paint Products Regulations in the UK  

Jun 11, 2009 ... Decorative paint and varnishes are sold by UK manufacturers either direct to the \\.... applied directly to bare metal surfaces to provide corrosion resistance ... \\designed to stabilise loose substrate particles or impart hydrophobic.

259

Opportunities application of cleaner production practices in paint industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are releases of volatile organic compounds VOC from paint manufacturing process steps and from cleaning operations in El Mohandas Paint Factory. These emission can cause health, safety and productivity problems in the work area. Hence cleaner production application is necessary in this case. Some of the manufacturing processes and equipment used to accomplish these manufacturing are analyzed and generate cleaner production opportunities, implement some of cleaner production solutions of VOC emission control by some of the methods used by paint facilities in reducing emissions. It was found that there is no control available for emissions factors in paints manufacturing process, so that VOC emission based on raw material consumption rather than calculation emission from processes or equipment by alternative method. (Author)

260

Spiritual Space Making in Persian Painting (Geometry, Proportion and Composition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Concept of space and its use is the basic and main topic in imagery arts works which takes shape proportion with artist view, because Persian painting space is imagination and subjective space thus passes place and time limits of material world and goes around spiritual space imagination called as archetype space, and in it depth feeling is due to surfaces adjustment with each other, although they have differences but their common point is proportion and move due to special geometrical system on shapes, by placing painting motifs in a shape under title geometry of shapes and then its spread a set of regularity and proportion with geometrical forms is created like circle and its divisions in a painting which constitutes composition base of Persian painting works.

Mehrdad Ahmad Amiraghaei

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
261

A dry ice jet system for decontamination of painted metal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, decontamination of painting on metal surface by dry ice jet was carried out. The influence of jet parameters on decontamination efficiency was examined. The results showed that the painting weight loss decreased with increasing speed of jet movement. The optimized parameters were target distance of 25 mm, jet angle of 63 degree, and the pressure of 0.6 -0.7 MPa, with a filtration efficiency of over 99% and 5.8-9.0 ?m particle sizes of the aerosol. For the painted samples polluted by 137Cs and 235U, the decontamination effect is excellent. For the polluted plumbum kettles,this method is effective. Therefore, the dry ice jet is an excellent technology for painting on metal surface. (authors)

262

Masterpieces of European Painting from Dulwich Picture Gallery  

Science.gov (United States)

The Frick Collection in New York City recently mounted an exhibition of painted European masterpieces on loan from the Dulwich Picture Gallery in London. Many of the paintings available to view here on their website haven't been in the United States recently, and some of them have never been shown in New York City. Visitors might want to listen to a podcast of the curators of the Frick interviewing the curators of the Dulwich. They discuss the history of the Dulwich Gallery, along with the basis for the exhibition at the Frick. Also, visitors can view the signature masterpieces by clicking on the highlighted titles of the paintings within the main text under the "Special Exhibition" title or in the menu on the right side of the page. The "Featured Works and Podcasts" link offers MP3s with a brief interpretation of six of the paintings in the exhibit, including a piece by Watteau that is also in video form.

263

Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy stratigraphic characterization of multilayered painted surfaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laser spectroscopy techniques are modern and competitive methods for elemental analysis. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), due to its advantages as minimally invasive method that provides real time monitoring and selectivity, is a suitable tool to analyze sample composition. Based on the known emission spectra of heavy metals such as Pb, Zn, Au, Ca, a stratigraphic study regarding the identification of the painting layers content of different mock-up samples was performed. LIBS was used to monitor the laser induced stepwise selective removal of the painting layers and to analyze their composition. The obtained LIBS spectra were correlated with profilometric measurements. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LIBS was used to analyze heavy metals in mock-up painting samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LIBS data are correlated with profilometric and optical microscopy measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Appropriate analysis parameters are provided for some materials used in painting.

Staicu, A., E-mail: angela.staicu@inflpr.ro; Apostol, I., E-mail: ileana.apostol@inflpr.ro; Pascu, A.; Iordache, I.; Damian, V.; Pascu, M.L.

2012-08-15

264

Discrimination of paint emission using an electronic nose  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several paints of two types were chosen to assess an air quality monitoring tool based on an electronic nose. We are trying to improve the discrimination capability of the system by means of pattern recognition techniques. The electronic nose we use is based on conducting polymer sensors. The paint samples were acquired using an acquisition protocol that was previously defined and a data base was constituted.

Ramalho, Olivier; Regoui, Chaouki; Kirchner, Se?verine

1997-01-01

265

Paint systems with varying brilliance gradations for nuclear installations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years paint systems on an epoxy-resin base have been adopted and found satisfactory for surface protection in nuclear installations. Decontamination tests have been made with two different hardeners in epoxy-resin paint systems. The required brilliance gradation was adjusted with commercial deadening materials. The tests showed that the decontamination of all samples in spite of brilliance gradation up to 40% (on the Boller scale) is very satisfactory. (orig./GSC)

266

Respiratory effects of exposure of shipyard workers to epoxy paints.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Epoxy resin systems have been associated with occupational asthma in several case reports, but medical publications contain little on the potential adverse respiratory effects of these chemicals in exposed worker populations. To further evaluate the association of workplace exposure to epoxy paints and respiratory dysfunction, the cross workshift changes in pulmonary function and symptoms of 32 shipyard painters exposed to epoxy paints were compared with 28 shipyard painters not exposed to ep...

Rempel, D.; Jones, J.; Atterbury, M.; Balmes, J.

1991-01-01

267

Empathic Painting: Interactive stylization using observed emotional state  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present the "empathie painting" - an interactive painterly rendering whose appearance adapts in real time to reflect the perceived emotional state of the viewer. The empathie painting is an experiment into the feasibility of using high level control parameters (namely, emotional state) to replace the plethora of low-level constraints users must typically set to affect the output of artistic rendering algorithms. We describe a suite of Computer Vision algorithms capable of recognising users...

Shugrina, M.; Betke, M.; Collomosse, J.

2006-01-01

268

Effect of paint on vapour resistivity in plaster  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The vapour resistivity of plaster coatings such as paint and their effectiveness as water repellents were studied in several types of plaster. To this end, painted, unpainted and pigmented specimens were tested. Experimental values were collected on diffusion and vapour permeability, or its inverse, water vapour resistivity.The data obtained were very useful for evaluating moisture exchange between plaster and the surrounding air, both during initial drying and throughout the life...

Villanueva, L.

2008-01-01

269

An advanced analytical study on linseed oil paint binder  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Drying oils, and in particular linseed oil, were the most common binding media employed in painting between XVI and XIX centuries. Artists usually operated some pre-treatments on the oils to obtain binders with modified properties, such as different handling qualities or colour. Oil processing has a key role on the subsequent ageing of and degradation of linseed oil paints. In this thesis a multi-analytical approach was adopted to investigate the drying, polymerization and oxidative degra...

Selleri, Paola

2011-01-01

270

ATTAINING THE ROOM COMFORT BY SOLAR REFLECTIVE PAINT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this research was to provide the Room comfort by means of Solar Reflective Paint (SRP) on the roof and thereby reducing the consumption of electrical energy. Solar heat diffuses through roof into the room resulting in human discomfort. Human discomfort leads to the usage of electrical energy. Valuable energy has to be conserved. Three different samples of solar reflective paint were collected and their properties were studied. The sample suitable for the research was selected...

Sekar, M.; Sakthivel, M.; Satheesh Kumar, S.; Ramesh, C.

2012-01-01

271

Quality grading of painted slates using texture analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper details the development of an automated vision-based solution for identi?cation of paint and substrate defects on painted slates. The developed vision system consists of two major components. The ?rst component of the system addresses issues including the mechanical implementation and interfacing the inspection system with the sensing and optical equipment. The second component involves the development of an image processing algorithm that is able to identify the visual defects...

Ghita, Ovidiu; Whelan, Paul F.; Carew, Tim; Nammalwar, Padmapriya

2005-01-01

272

Pediatric diseases in Juan Carreño de Miranda's paintings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pediatric obesity has become a widespread problem of health in developed countries. Overweight in the pediatric population obeys to a variety of causes. A few of Carreño de Miranda's paintings show pathological conditions occurring in children of his epoch. We briefly illustrate the significance of Carreño's paintings that portray some of these diseases. Two of his best-known works constitute an artistic representation of childhood obesity. PMID:22205535

Martínez-Lage, Juan F; Pérez-Espejo, Miguel A; Galarza, Marcelo

2012-02-01

273

Modelling Organic Iodide release from Painted Containment Surfaces under Severe Accident Conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The potential radiological impact of iodine in case of a postulated severe accident makes iodine volatility become one of the most important concerns in these scenarios. Both inorganic (I2) and organic OrgI volatile iodine species can be formed within the containment. Some of the PHEBUS-FP experiments indicated that in the long run in containment gaseous iodine concentration might be dominated by OrgI (Girault et al., 2006). Relevance of OrgI lies in the extraordinary volatility of some of these compounds (greater even than that of I2) and the fact that containment safeguards systems, such as sprays, have been shown not to be effective as effective removing OrgI as they are with I2. Therefore, in case of a postulated severe accident if a steady OrgI concentration was achieved at any time within containment, it would behave like an iodine reservoir from which iodine might leak to the environment. There are a few potential sources of these compounds (Clement et al., 2007): in-bulk sump and in-atmosphere reactions, and iodine interactions with painted surfaces contacting either the containment sump or the gas atmosphere. In the recent years two international experimental projects have investigated the origin of OrgI: the International Source Term Project (ISTP) through the EPICUR experimental campaign (Guilbert et al., 2008) and the Behavior of Iodine Project, framed under the OECD auspices (NEA, 2010). In particular, the OECD-BIP project has been exploring the potential OrgI source of painted surfaces contacting the containment atmosphere and more than 20 bench scale experiments have been conducted. A second phase of the project is foreseen to be launched in the near future (OECD-BIP2).

274

Modelling Organic Iodide release from Painted Containment Surfaces under Severe Accident Conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential radiological impact of iodine in case of a postulated severe accident makes iodine volatility become one of the most important concerns in these scenarios. Both inorganic (I{sub 2}) and organic (OrgI) volatile iodine species can be formed within the containment. Some of the PHEBUS-FP experiments indicated that in the long run in containment gaseous iodine concentration might be dominated by OrgI (Girault et al., 2006). Relevance of OrgI lies in the extraordinary volatility of some of these compounds (greater even than that of I{sub 2}) and the fact that containment safeguards systems, such as sprays, have been shown not to be effective as effective removing OrgI as they are with I{sub 2}. Therefore, in case of a postulated severe accident if a steady OrgI concentration was achieved at any time within containment, it would behave like an iodine reservoir from which iodine might leak to the environment. There are a few potential sources of these compounds (Clement et al., 2007): in-bulk sump and in-atmosphere reactions, and iodine interactions with painted surfaces contacting either the containment sump or the gas atmosphere. In the recent years two international experimental projects have investigated the origin of OrgI: the International Source Term Project (ISTP) through the EPICUR experimental campaign (Guilbert et al., 2008) and the Behavior of Iodine Project, framed under the OECD auspices (NEA, 2010). In particular, the OECD-BIP project has been exploring the potential OrgI source of painted surfaces contacting the containment atmosphere and more than 20 bench scale experiments have been conducted. A second phase of the project is foreseen to be launched in the near future (OECD-BIP2).

Herranz, L. E.; Rodriguez, M.

2010-07-01

275

Degradation of lime wood painting supports  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Degradation of wood, being a natural process, leads to destruction of wooden objects of historic and cultural value, resulting in loss of cultural heritage. Wood can survive centuries or even thousands of years, if kept in an environment, which limits microbial activity. In an unfavourable environment physical, chemical and morphological modifications of wood also take place as a result of biodegradation. It is important to know the type of degradation and how the processes influence material properties if wooden items are to be properly preserved. The objective of this study is to present new knowledge on non-invasive techniques useful to assess the preservation status of lime wood in art objects. The methods of investigation were optical and electronic microscopy, wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS, and FT-IR spectroscopy. Following a deconvolution process of the diffraction patterns, crystalline index, apparent lateral crystallite size, proportion of crystallite interior chains, orientation index, mesomorphism, cellulose fraction have been determined and shown to change with increasing age of painting supports. Structural modifications were assessed by FT-IR spectrometry and 2D correlation FT-IR spectroscopy, while morphological modification were characterised using SEM. The principal hetero-elements of the lime wood samples were detected by EDX. It can be concluded that only a multi-analytical approach can provide the information needed on wood degradation processes.

Cristina Maria Popescu

2005-09-01

276

Coagulation for treatment of paint industry wastewater.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, the coagulation of paint industry wastewater was examined. Ferrous and aluminum sulphate and polyaluminum chloride (PACl) were used as coagulation agents and the influence of the coagulant dose and effective pH on the quality of treated wastewater was investigated. Optimum pH for FeSO4 addition was near 9.7, the required coagulant dose was about 2 g/L and average process efficiency varied between 30 and 80% in COD and between 70 and 99% in turbidity terms, for a wide spectrum of wastewater batches. In the case of Al2(SO4)3, no pH adjustment was needed and process efficiency varied between 70 and 95% in COD and between 90 and 99% in turbidity terms, for an effective dose of 2.5 g/L. Further improvement of process efficiency was possible by raising the pH of the supernatant liquid after alum-sludge sedimentation to 10. In the case of PACl optimum pH was around 7 and process efficiency was about 98% based on both quality parameters, for an effective dose of 4 g/L. Cationic polyelectrolytes were proved to have a higher potential vs. coagulation than anionic ones when acting as primary coagulants. Combination of Al2(SO4)3 or PACl with polyelectrolytes resulted in high process efficiencies, while maintaining liquid pH values at acceptable limits. PMID:15328698

Dovletoglou, Olga; Philippopoulos, Constantine; Grigoropoulou, Helen

2002-08-01

277

[Antibacterial effect of Ankerplast Spray].  

Science.gov (United States)

The diffusion test yielded no satisfactory results. In the tube test, both the spray and the solvent (in a dilution of 1:4 and 1:8, respectively) proved to be bacteriostatically active against enterococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Escheria coli, Proteus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These germs were killed within 30 minutes in the test for bactericidal activity, whereas the reference substance (1% phenol) required 1--2 hours, except against the last-named germ. Even the copolymer exerted a bactericidal effect, it is true, but only within 8 or 24 hours. The following results were obtained from the spray test with agar plate cultures: Streptococcus viridans species, streptococci, Diplococcus pneumoniae, Escheria coli, and Proteus were killed, whereas others survived under the plastic film for up to 9 days. Klebsiella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa had grown through the film within 7 days. In vivo experiments demonstrated a very potent antibacterial activity on the skin under the spray film. PMID:377580

Oehring, H; Karl, P; Döring, K; Herrberger, U

1979-04-01

278

Spray thermometry using thermographic phosphors  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study a novel technique for 2D spray temperature measurement is presented. For this purpose the thermographic phosphor (TP) Mg4GeO5.5F:Mn was dispersed in n-dodecane and atomised using a conventional semi solid-cone nozzle. The thermographic phosphor was excited electronically by a frequency tripled Nd:YAG laser (355 nm). An ICCD-camera in combination with an image doubler detected the subsequently emitted phosphorescence at both peak emission wavelengths located at 633 nm and 659 nm, respectively. Utilising suitable calibration measurements, the local spray temperature was determined by evaluating the intensity ratio of both emission wavelengths. To the knowledge of the authors this is the first approach of spray temperature measurement exploiting the temperature dependent intensity ratio of thermographic phosphors.

Brübach, J.; Patt, A.; Dreizler, A.

2006-06-01

279

Honeybees can discriminate between Monet and Picasso paintings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Honeybees (Apis mellifera) have remarkable visual learning and discrimination abilities that extend beyond learning simple colours, shapes or patterns. They can discriminate landscape scenes, types of flowers, and even human faces. This suggests that in spite of their small brain, honeybees have a highly developed capacity for processing complex visual information, comparable in many respects to vertebrates. Here, we investigated whether this capacity extends to complex images that humans distinguish on the basis of artistic style: Impressionist paintings by Monet and Cubist paintings by Picasso. We show that honeybees learned to simultaneously discriminate between five different Monet and Picasso paintings, and that they do not rely on luminance, colour, or spatial frequency information for discrimination. When presented with novel paintings of the same style, the bees even demonstrated some ability to generalize. This suggests that honeybees are able to discriminate Monet paintings from Picasso ones by extracting and learning the characteristic visual information inherent in each painting style. Our study further suggests that discrimination of artistic styles is not a higher cognitive function that is unique to humans, but simply due to the capacity of animals-from insects to humans-to extract and categorize the visual characteristics of complex images. PMID:23076444

Wu, Wen; Moreno, Antonio M; Tangen, Jason M; Reinhard, Judith

2013-01-01

280

The influence of painting composition on human perception.  

Science.gov (United States)

Artists have long explored the way in which we see the world, and they have developed their own tools to portray their vision. The present study investigated whether the compositional information in paintings, an artistic device invented by artists, is utilized when people view paintings. In Experiment 1, we categorized paintings depending on their compositions through experts' ratings. Using the stimuli from Experiment 1, Experiment 2 tested if the compositional information interferes with a target detection task. We found that the false alarms increased when the targets and distracters had the same composition compared to when they were different. Finally, Experiments 3A and 3B examined whether composition information influences the perceptual similarity of paintings. Through a multi-dimensional scaling analysis, we first showed that paintings with the same composition were proximately located in the mental space (Experiment 3A). Using this distance from the MDS analysis, we found that performance on the target detection task decreased as this distance became close (Experiment 3B). These results suggest that people make use of compositions in paintings, thus providing a possible link between artworks and the human visual system. PMID:23550363

Park, Woon Ju; Chong, Sang Chul

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Emission of Isothiazolinones from Water-Based Paints  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The isothiazolinone preservatives methylisothiazolinone (MI), methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI), and benzisothiazolinone (BIT) are used in a wide variety of products including paint and cosmetics, and they are known to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Among painters they are one of the most common causes of contact dermatitis. Furthermore, they are all volatile, and severe reactions caused by emissions of especially MI from paint have been reported recently. In this study the concentrations of MI, BIT, and MCI in water-based paint were analyzed by LC-MS-MS, and the emissions from the paints were measured in climate chambers and in an apartment. Nineteen paints were analyzed for the content of MI, MCI, and BIT. All 19 paints contained MI, 16 contained BIT, and 4 contained MCI. In the chamber experiment emission of MI peaked within hours of application but then continued at a slow rate for more than 42 days. MCI was emitted more slowly and peaked after several days. BIT emissions were all around the limit of detection. In the apartment we were able to detect emission of MI several days after application. Long lasting evaporation and thus chronic exposure give credibility to the clinical observations that MI can be an important cause of airborne contact dermatitis among painters and consumers.

Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Kolarik, Barbara

2014-01-01

282

Spray casting project final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step.

Churnetski, S.R.; Thompson, J.E.

1996-08-01

283

Spray casting project final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step

284

Diesel spray characterization; Dieselmoottorin polttoainesuihkujen ominaisuudet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fuel injection of diesel engines will be studied using large-scale models of fuel injectors. The advantage of large-scale models is that the measurement of large-scale diesel sprays will be easier than the measurement of actual sprays. The objective is to study the break-up mechanism of diesel sprays and to measure drop size distributions in the inner part of the spray. The results will be used in the development of diesel engines and diesel fuels. (orig.)

Pitkaenen, J.; Turunen, R.; Paloposki, T.; Rantanen, P.; Virolainen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Internal Combustion Engine Lab.

1997-10-01

285

Hollow Cone Spray Characterization and Integral Modeling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thesis presents a computationally efficient spray model for hollow cone sprays suitable for engine system simulation of direct injecting gasoline internal combustion engines. The model describes the transient evolution of the spray as a two-phase jet. Spatial gradients are resolved along the main injection direction. Momentum exchange, droplet heat-up, and fuel evaporation are accounted for. Diffusive transport of momentum, energy, and fuel species mass between the dense spray zone an...

Bollweg, Peter

2013-01-01

286

Spray-type cooling pools  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spray-type cooling pools consist of a tank in which is placed the system of distribution pipes with a great number of nozzles. Warm water is fed to the pipe system and sprayed from the nozzles into the space above the tanks where it is cooled when it comes into contact with ambient air. After it has cooled it drops back to the tank from where it is pumped back. The principle is described of rotating, slot-type and tangential nozzles and the calculation is described of heat transfer in the pool. The measured and calculated values show that a very good cooling effect may be achieved. (J.B.)

287

41 CFR 101-42.1102-7 - Lead-containing paint and items bearing lead-containing paint.  

Science.gov (United States)

...similar surface coating materials for consumer use which...including traffic and safety marking coatings. (C) Graphic...application on billboards, road signs, and similar uses and for identification marking in industrial buildings...paints and related materials. (C) Metal...

2010-07-01

288

Transfer of tritium in concrete coated with hydrophobic paints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Rates of tritium migration in porous concrete materials coated with or without hydrophobic paints for the safety of fusion reactor rooms are correlated in terms of diffusivity or linear sorption. - Abstract: An experimental study on tritium (T) transfer in porous concrete for the tertiary T safety containment is performed to investigate (i) how fast HTO penetrates through concrete walls, (ii) how well concrete walls contaminated with water-soluble T are decontaminated by a solution-in-water technique, and (iii) how well hydrophobic paint coating works as a protecting film against HTO migrating through concrete walls. The experiment is comparatively carried out using disks of cement paste which W(water)/C(cement) weight ratio is 0.6:1 with or without hydrophobic paints, and mortar disks which W/C/sand ratio is 0.6:1:2 with or without the paints. The hydrophobic paints tested in the present study are an epoxy polymer resin paint and an acrylic-silicon polymer resin one. After T exposure during specified time under a constant HTO vapor pressure in an acrylic box, the amount of water-soluble HTO on/in the disks is determined using a technique of H2O dissolution during specified time. The results obtained here are summarized as follows: (1) HTO penetration in porous concrete can be correlated in terms of the effective diffusivity. (2) Its value in porous cement without coating is 1.2 × 10?11 m2/s at 25 °C. (3) HTO penetrp>2/s at 25 °C. (3) HTO penetrates only through pores in cement, and there is no path for HTO transfer in non-porous sand. (4) Rates of sorption and dissolution of HTO in disks of cement and mortar coated with the epoxy resin paint are correlated in terms of the effective diffusivity through the paint film which value is DT = 1.0 × 10?16 m2/s. The rate-determining step is diffusion through the paint. (5) The epoxy resin paint works more effectively as an anti-HTO diffusion coating. (6) Another acrylic-silicon resin paint does not work well as anti-HTO diffusion coating. This may be because the hydrophobic property of the silicon resin paint is deteriorated with elongating the contact time with H2O vapor or liquid. (7) The HTO uptake inside the epoxy paint is greater than that of the silicon one. (8) The permeation reduction factor (PRF) of HTO for the epoxy paint at steady-state is expected large, if HTO vapor only contributes to diffusion. However, when concrete surfaces coated with the epoxy paint are under wet conditions, the PRF value becomes smaller. All those results can be used to estimate the effect of HTO soaking in concrete walls in case of accidental T release in a fusion reactor room and to decontaminate wastes of tritiated concrete.

289

Transfer of tritium in concrete coated with hydrophobic paints  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rates of tritium migration in porous concrete materials coated with or without hydrophobic paints for the safety of fusion reactor rooms are correlated in terms of diffusivity or linear sorption. - Abstract: An experimental study on tritium (T) transfer in porous concrete for the tertiary T safety containment is performed to investigate (i) how fast HTO penetrates through concrete walls, (ii) how well concrete walls contaminated with water-soluble T are decontaminated by a solution-in-water technique, and (iii) how well hydrophobic paint coating works as a protecting film against HTO migrating through concrete walls. The experiment is comparatively carried out using disks of cement paste which W(water)/C(cement) weight ratio is 0.6:1 with or without hydrophobic paints, and mortar disks which W/C/sand ratio is 0.6:1:2 with or without the paints. The hydrophobic paints tested in the present study are an epoxy polymer resin paint and an acrylic-silicon polymer resin one. After T exposure during specified time under a constant HTO vapor pressure in an acrylic box, the amount of water-soluble HTO on/in the disks is determined using a technique of H{sub 2}O dissolution during specified time. The results obtained here are summarized as follows: (1) HTO penetration in porous concrete can be correlated in terms of the effective diffusivity. (2) Its value in porous cement without coating is 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} m{sup 2}/s at 25 Degree-Sign C. (3) HTO penetrates only through pores in cement, and there is no path for HTO transfer in non-porous sand. (4) Rates of sorption and dissolution of HTO in disks of cement and mortar coated with the epoxy resin paint are correlated in terms of the effective diffusivity through the paint film which value is D{sub T} = 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -16} m{sup 2}/s. The rate-determining step is diffusion through the paint. (5) The epoxy resin paint works more effectively as an anti-HTO diffusion coating. (6) Another acrylic-silicon resin paint does not work well as anti-HTO diffusion coating. This may be because the hydrophobic property of the silicon resin paint is deteriorated with elongating the contact time with H{sub 2}O vapor or liquid. (7) The HTO uptake inside the epoxy paint is greater than that of the silicon one. (8) The permeation reduction factor (PRF) of HTO for the epoxy paint at steady-state is expected large, if HTO vapor only contributes to diffusion. However, when concrete surfaces coated with the epoxy paint are under wet conditions, the PRF value becomes smaller. All those results can be used to estimate the effect of HTO soaking in concrete walls in case of accidental T release in a fusion reactor room and to decontaminate wastes of tritiated concrete.

Fukada, S., E-mail: sfukada@nucl.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Edao, Y.; Sato, K.; Takeishi, T.; Katayama, K. [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Kobayashi, K.; Hayashi, T.; Yamanishi, T. [Tritium Process Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hatano, Y.; Taguchi, A.; Akamaru, S. [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)

2012-01-15

290

Effect of hydrophobic paints coating for tritium reduction in concrete materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Effects of hydrophobic paint coating in tritium transport are investigated. ? Two kinds of paints, acrylic-silicon resin and epoxy resin are used. ? The hydrophobic paints are effective to reduce tritium permeation. ? The effect of tritium reduction of epoxy paint is higher than that of silicon. - Abstract: The effects of hydrophobic paint coating on a concrete material of cement paste on the tritium transport are investigated. The cement paste is coated with two kinds of paints, acrylic-silicon resin paint and epoxy resin paint. We investigated the amount of tritium trapped in the samples exposed to tritiated water vapor by means of sorption and release. It was found that both the hydrophobic paints could reduce effectively tritium permeation during 50 days exposure of tritiated water vapor. The effect of tritium reduction of the epoxy paint was higher than that of silicon while the amount of tritium trapped in the epoxy paint was larger than that of silicon due to difference of the structure. Based on an analysis of a diffusion model, the rate-determining step of tritium migration through cement paste coated with the paints is diffusion through the paints respectively. It was found that tritium was easy to penetrate through silicon because there were many pores or voids in the silicon comparatively. In the case of tritium released from the epoxy paint, it is considered that tritium diffusion in epoxy is slow due to retardation by isotope exchane to retardation by isotope exchange reaction to water included in epoxy paint.

291

/ The 'Philosophical paintings' of the Republic  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el presente artículo examino la apropiación platónica del lenguaje poético en República y sostengo que, a pesar de sus críticas a la poesía en los libros 3 y 10, el lenguaje poético está correctamente entrelazado dentro del tejido filosófico para pintar lo corrupto, lo feo y lo inmoral. En términ [...] os específicos, la adaptación platónica de diversos motivos poéticos e imágenes en República se vuelve más significativa si prestamos atención a Sócrates como un quasi-pintor en el diálogo e interpretamos sus imágenes filosóficas como una respuesta de la filosofía a las engañosas representaciones dramáticas de la poesía. De este modo, el arte de la pintura que, incluso es criticado en el libro 10 de República, en manos de Platón resulta una herramienta filosófica que le permite investigar la relación de nuestro mundo senso-perceptivo ordinario con el campo metafísico de las Ideas y el lugar de lo humano en él. Abstract in english In this article I examine Plato's appropriation of poetic language in the Republic and argue that, despite his criticism of poetry in Books 3 and 10, poetic language is justifiably weaved into the philosophical fabric to depict the corrupt, the ugly and the base. In specific terms, Plato's adaptatio [...] n of several poetic motifs and images in the Republic becomes more meaningful if we choose to pay attention to Socrates as a quasi painter in the dialogue and interpret his philosophical images as philosophy's response to the deceptive dramatic representations of poetry. Thus the art of painting, which is also criticised in Republic Book 10, in Plato's hands becomes a philosophical tool which helps him investigate the relation of our mundane sense-perceptive world to the metaphysical realm of the Ideas and humans' place in it.

Zacharoula A., Petraki.

292

/ The 'Philosophical paintings' of the Republic  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el presente artículo examino la apropiación platónica del lenguaje poético en República y sostengo que, a pesar de sus críticas a la poesía en los libros 3 y 10, el lenguaje poético está correctamente entrelazado dentro del tejido filosófico para pintar lo corrupto, lo feo y lo inmoral. En términ [...] os específicos, la adaptación platónica de diversos motivos poéticos e imágenes en República se vuelve más significativa si prestamos atención a Sócrates como un quasi-pintor en el diálogo e interpretamos sus imágenes filosóficas como una respuesta de la filosofía a las engañosas representaciones dramáticas de la poesía. De este modo, el arte de la pintura que, incluso es criticado en el libro 10 de República, en manos de Platón resulta una herramienta filosófica que le permite investigar la relación de nuestro mundo senso-perceptivo ordinario con el campo metafísico de las Ideas y el lugar de lo humano en él. Abstract in english In this article I examine Plato's appropriation of poetic language in the Republic and argue that, despite his criticism of poetry in Books 3 and 10, poetic language is justifiably weaved into the philosophical fabric to depict the corrupt, the ugly and the base. In specific terms, Plato's adaptatio [...] n of several poetic motifs and images in the Republic becomes more meaningful if we choose to pay attention to Socrates as a quasi painter in the dialogue and interpret his philosophical images as philosophy's response to the deceptive dramatic representations of poetry. Thus the art of painting, which is also criticised in Republic Book 10, in Plato's hands becomes a philosophical tool which helps him investigate the relation of our mundane sense-perceptive world to the metaphysical realm of the Ideas and humans' place in it.

Zacharoula A., Petraki.

2013-12-01

293

Failure-probability driven dose painting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To demonstrate a data-driven dose-painting strategy based on the spatial distribution of recurrences in previously treated patients. The result is a quantitative way to define a dose prescription function, optimizing the predicted local control at constant treatment intensity. A dose planning study using the optimized dose prescription in 20 patients is performed.Methods: Patients treated at our center have five tumor subvolumes from the center of the tumor (PET positive volume) and out delineated. The spatial distribution of 48 failures in patients with complete clinical response after (chemo)radiation is used to derive a model for tumor control probability (TCP). The total TCP is fixed to the clinically observed 70% actuarial TCP at five years. Additionally, the authors match the distribution of failures between the five subvolumes to the observed distribution. The steepness of the dose–response is extracted from the literature and the authors assume 30% and 20% risk of subclinical involvement in the elective volumes. The result is a five-compartment dose response model matching the observed distribution of failures. The model is used to optimize the distribution of dose in individual patients, while keeping the treatment intensity constant and the maximum prescribed dose below 85 Gy.Results: The vast majority of failures occur centrally despite the small volumes of the central regions. Thus, optimizing the dose prescription yields higher doses to the central target volumes and lower doses to the elective volumes. The dose planning study shows that the modified prescription is clinically feasible. The optimized TCP is 89% (range: 82%–91%) as compared to the observed TCP of 70%.Conclusions: The observed distribution of locoregional failures was used to derive an objective, data-driven dose prescription function. The optimized dose is predicted to result in a substantial increase in local control without increasing the predicted risk of toxicity

294

Spray solidification of nuclear waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spray calciner is a relatively simple machine. Operation is simple and is easily automated. Startup and shutdown can be performed in less than an hour. A wide variety of waste compositions and concentrations can be calcined under easily maintainable conditions. Spray calcination of high-level and mixed high- and intermediate-level liquid wastes has been demonstrated. Waste concentrations of from near infinite dilution to less than 225 liters per tonne of fuel are calcinable. Wastes have been calcined containing over 2M sodium. Feed concentration, composition, and flowrate can vary rapidly by over a factor of two without requiring operator action. Wastes containing mainly sodium cations can be spray calcined by addition of finely divided silica to the feedstock. A remotely replaceable atomizing nozzle has been developed for use in plant-scale equipment. Calciner capacity of over 75 l/h has been demonstrated in pilot-scale equipment. Sintered stainless steel filters are effective in deentraining over 99.9 percent of the solids that result from calcining the feedstock. The volume of recycle required from the effluent treatment system is very small. Vibrator action maintains the calcine holdup in the calciner at less than 1 kg. Successful remote operation and maintenance of a heated-wall spray calciner have been demonstrated while processing high-level waste. Radionuclide volatilization was acceptably low

295

Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays  

Science.gov (United States)

An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Schoeniger, Luke (Pittsford, NY)

2002-01-01

296

Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays  

Science.gov (United States)

An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Schoeniger, Luke (Pittsford, NY)

2005-11-01

297

Nanostructures in thermal spray coatings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nature of the nanograins formed by high velocity oxy-fuel thermal spraying of (FeAl) milled powder has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy on cross-sectional thin foils. Equiaxed 3D nanometer crystallites are formed by recrystallization in the unmelted powder particles while 2D nanometer columnar grains are produced by rapid solidification within the fully molten splats

298

A new XRF method for measuring lead in paint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The traditional field testing method for lead paint is the use of x-ray fluorescence, where the K shell fluorescence x-rays of lead (at 73 and 75 MeV) are measured. Although the K shell method can suffer from substrate effects and hence low sensitivity around the action level of 1 mg/cm{sup 2} of lead, it has been the industry choice because the effects of the overlying paint matrix on the K-shell x-rays are negligible. L shell x-rays of lead, at L{sub {alpha}} = 10.5 keV and L{sub {beta}} = 12.6 keV, provide much greater sensitivity and are free of substrate effects, but corrections for the absorption of the L-shell x-rays by the overlying non-lead paint matrix must be made. Such corrections were thought to be impossible without knowledge of the composition and thickness of the overlying paint matrix. NITON has developed a new method that makes it possible to use L-shell x-rays to accurately and quickly determine the absolute concentration of lead in buried lead paint (in mg/cm{sup 2}) without knowledge of the composition or thickness of the layers overlying the lead. The invention makes use of the fact that the ratio of the mass attenuation coefficients for the L{sub {alpha}} at 10.5 keV to the L{sub {beta}} at 12.6 keV is effectively independent of the elemental composition of paint layers. The new method also gives a measure of the depth of the lead beneath the surface. Theory and confirming experimental data will be presented. The authors will describe the NITON XL, a portable XRF device which uses the invention to give the lead concentration and its depth beneath the surface of paint.

Grodzins, L.; Parsons, C.; Sackett, D.; Shefsky, S.; Tannian, B. [NITON Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)

1995-12-31

299

REACH exposure assessment of anticorrosive paint products--determination of exposure from application and service life to the aquatic environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The European Community Regulation on the registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals (REACH) introduced exposure scenarios describing safe use quantitatively, and enhancing the importance of scientific based exposure assessments. This paper presents methods to determine exposure from the airless spray application of anti-corrosive paint and leaching of painted articles submerged in seawater, to establish whether it is possible to test these exposures in a reproducible and feasible way. The paper also presents results from using the methods in order to assess how well the default values recommended under REACH coincide with the tested values and corresponding values available in literature. The methods used were feasible under laboratory conditions. The reproducibility of the application study was shown to be good and all analyses of the leaching showed concentrations below detection limit. More replicates will be required to validate the reproducibility of the growth inhibition tests. Measured values for the present overspray scenario were between, and the leaching values below, values from REACH guidelines and emission scenario documents. Further development of the methods is recommended. PMID:21964505

Gade, Anne Lill; Heiaas, Harald; Thomas, Kevin; Hylland, Ketil

2011-12-01

300

Leaching of copper and zinc from spent antifouling paint particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Leaching of Cu and Zn from a composite of spent antifouling paint particles, containing about 300 mg g-1 and 110 mg g-1 of the respective metals, was studied in batch experiments. For a given set of simulated environmental conditions, release of Cu was independent of paint particle concentration due to attainment of pseudo-saturation, but Zn was less constrained by solubility effects and release increased with increasing particle concentration. Leaching of Cu increased but Zn decreased with increasing salinity, consistent with mechanisms governing the dissolution of Cu2O in the presence of chloride and Zn acrylates in the presence of seawater cations. Because of complex reaction kinetics and the presence of calcium carbonate in the paint matrix, metal leaching appeared to be greater at 4 deg. C than 19 deg. C under many conditions. These findings have important environmental and biological implications regarding the deliberate or inadvertent disposal of antifouling paint residues. - Copper and zinc are readily leached from particles of spent antifouling paint under a range of environmental conditions

 
 
 
 
301

Leaching of copper and zinc from spent antifouling paint particles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Leaching of Cu and Zn from a composite of spent antifouling paint particles, containing about 300 mg g{sup -1} and 110 mg g{sup -1} of the respective metals, was studied in batch experiments. For a given set of simulated environmental conditions, release of Cu was independent of paint particle concentration due to attainment of pseudo-saturation, but Zn was less constrained by solubility effects and release increased with increasing particle concentration. Leaching of Cu increased but Zn decreased with increasing salinity, consistent with mechanisms governing the dissolution of Cu{sub 2}O in the presence of chloride and Zn acrylates in the presence of seawater cations. Because of complex reaction kinetics and the presence of calcium carbonate in the paint matrix, metal leaching appeared to be greater at 4 deg. C than 19 deg. C under many conditions. These findings have important environmental and biological implications regarding the deliberate or inadvertent disposal of antifouling paint residues. - Copper and zinc are readily leached from particles of spent antifouling paint under a range of environmental conditions.

Singh, Nimisha [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk

2009-02-15

302

A Telescope Inventor's Spyglass Possibly Reproduced in a Brueghel's Painting  

Science.gov (United States)

Jan Brueghel the Elder depicted spyglasses belonging to the Archduke Albert VII of Habsburg in at least five paintings in the period between 1608 and 1625. Albert VII was fascinated by art and science and he obtained spyglasses directly from Lipperhey and Sacharias Janssen approximately at the time when the telescope was first shown at The Hague at the end of 1608. In the Extensive Landscape with View of the Castle of Mariemont, dated 1608-1612, the Archduke is looking at his Mariemont castle through an optical tube and this is the first time a spyglass was painted whatsoever. It is quite possible that the painting reproduces one of the first telescopes ever made. Two other Albert VII's telescopes are prominently reproduced in two Allegories of Sight painted a few years later (1617-1618). They are sophisticated instruments and their structure, in particular the shape of the eyepiece, suggests that they are composed by two convex lenses in a Keplerian optical configuration which became of common use only more than two decades later. If this is the case, these paintings are the first available record of a Keplerian telescope.

Molaro, P.; Selvelli, P.

2011-06-01

303

Canvas Supports in Paintings by Nicolai Abildgaard: Fabrics and Formats  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An investigation of the technique and materials in paintings by the Danish artist Nicolai Abildgaard (1743 – 1809) included examination of the canvas supports in a large number of his works. Thread count and weave density were studied by automated weave-mapping computer software, designed for working with digital X-radiographs. This was also used for the comparison of weave patterns in order to establish matches between the canvases of various paintings and thereby verify that different canvases originated from the same bolt. The canvas supports in paintings executed by Abildgaard in Rome 1772-77 appeared to be typical only in some ways for Italian canvas production of the era. In comparison, the supports of his Danish paintings were found to have features in common that to a large degree were determined by practical and economic factors such as Danish eighteenth-century fiscal policy, market conditions and manufacture circumstances. This applied to the quality of the fabric, i.e. the type of fibre, thread count and tightness of weave, as well as the scale and the formats within which the majority of the paintings fall.

Filtenborg, Troels Folke

2015-01-01

304

Example of using strippable paint for nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the prevention of salt damage to stainless steel surface or the temporary rust prevention for carbon steel welded parts, the strippable paint of synthetic rubber shows excellent performance. Based on this fact, the strippable paint was applied to actual plants, and the expected results were obtained. The strippable paint forms the coating on surfaces to protect against corrosion or mechanical damage, and at the time of using things, the coating is peeled easily. As for the kinds of strippable paint, there are organic solution type, water dispersion type, organo-sol type, aqueous solution type and so on. The strippable paint supplied by Daito Kogyo K.K. is especially excellent in the limitation of harmful substance to stainless steel, the resistance to ultraviolet deterioration, the application of thick coating and the strength of dried films. Moreover, the low temperature hardening is slight, and below 80 deg C, it withstands the use for a fairly long period. The examples of use for atomic energy equipment and other field are reported, and the matters to which attention must be paid in its use are shown. (Kako, I.)

305

In situ investigations of vault paintings in the Antwerp cathedral.  

Science.gov (United States)

X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and Raman spectroscopy have been used to examine 15th century mediaeval and 16th century renaissance vault paintings in the Our Lady's Cathedral (Antwerp, Belgium) in view of their restoration. The use of mobile instruments made it possible to work totally non-destructively. This complementary approach yields information on the elemental (XRF) and on the molecular composition (Raman) of the pigments. For the 15th century vault painting the pigments lead-tin yellow (Pb(2)SnO(4)), lead white (2PbCO(3)xPb(OH)(2)), vermilion (HgS), massicot (PbO) and azurite (2CuCO(3).Cu(OH)(2)) could be identified. The pigments used for the 16th century vault painting could be identified as red lead (Pb(3)O(4)), hematite (Fe(2)O(3)), lead white (2PbCO(3)xPb(OH)(2)) and azurite (2CuCO(3)xCu(OH)(2)). For both paintings the presence of the strong Raman scatterer calcite (CaCO(3)) resulted in a difficult identification of the pigments by Raman spectroscopy. The presence of gypsum (CaSO(4)x2H(2)O) on the mediaeval vault painting probably indicates that degradation took place. PMID:20036616

Deneckere, Annelien; Schudel, Walter; Van Bos, Marina; Wouters, Helena; Bergmans, Anna; Vandenabeele, Peter; Moens, Luc

2010-02-01

306

Cyclic voltammetry and RBS study of paint components  

Science.gov (United States)

Heavy metals and metalloid ions are found in environmental matrices. The most toxic are lead, cadmium and mercury. These three heavy metals have no biological function and are toxic at all concentrations. Lead is one of the most insidious heavy metals and is introduced into the environment by many different means. It persists in both urban and rural settings, being found in paint chips, pottery, crystal and pharmaceutical and nutritional products. The analysis of heavy elements such as lead in soil is of particular importance [W.T. Sturges, R.M. Harrison, Sci. Total Environ. 44 (3) (1985) 225; M.L. Lepow, L. Bruckman, M. Gillette, S. Markowitz, R. Robino, J. Kapish, Environ. Res. 10 (3) (1975) 415; A.E. Daniels, J.R. Kominsky, P.J. Clark, J. Hazard. Mater. B 87 (2001) 117; G. Hutter, D. Moshman, J. Hazard. Mater. 40 (1995) 1]. In preparing the methods for lead detection in paint, we have used Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) in order to study the type and amount of heavy metal content in paint samples collected at various sites in the historic campus at A&M University (AAMU). We will show the results of our study with emphasis on comparison of what we learned about presence of lead in paints using our ion beam methods compared with the analysis of lead in paints using cyclic voltammetry.

Bowman, Lynn; Spencer, Dirk; Muntele, Claudiu; Muntele, Iulia; Ila, D.

2007-08-01

307

Cyclic voltammetry and RBS study of paint components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heavy metals and metalloid ions are found in environmental matrices. The most toxic are lead, cadmium and mercury. These three heavy metals have no biological function and are toxic at all concentrations. Lead is one of the most insidious heavy metals and is introduced into the environment by many different means. It persists in both urban and rural settings, being found in paint chips, pottery, crystal and pharmaceutical and nutritional products. The analysis of heavy elements such as lead in soil is of particular importance [W.T. Sturges, R.M. Harrison, Sci. Total Environ. 44 (3) (1985) 225; M.L. Lepow, L. Bruckman, M. Gillette, S. Markowitz, R. Robino, J. Kapish, Environ. Res. 10 (3) (1975) 415; A.E. Daniels, J.R. Kominsky, P.J. Clark, J. Hazard. Mater. B 87 (2001) 117; G. Hutter, D. Moshman, J. Hazard. Mater. 40 (1995) 1]. In preparing the methods for lead detection in paint, we have used Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) in order to study the type and amount of heavy metal content in paint samples collected at various sites in the historic campus at A and M University (AAMU). We will show the results of our study with emphasis on comparison of what we learned about presence of lead in paints using our ion beam methods compared with the analysis of lead in paints using cyclic voltammetry.

Bowman, Lynn [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, 4900 Meridian Street, P.O. Box 1447, Normal, AL 35762 (United States); Spencer, Dirk [Plant and Soil Science Department, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL 35762-1447 (United States); Muntele, Claudiu [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, 4900 Meridian Street, P.O. Box 1447, Normal, AL 35762 (United States)]. E-mail: claudiu@cim.aamu.edu; Muntele, Iulia [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, 4900 Meridian Street, P.O. Box 1447, Normal, AL 35762 (United States); Ila, D. [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, 4900 Meridian Street, P.O. Box 1447, Normal, AL 35762 (United States)

2007-08-15

308

Paint coating characterization for thermoelastic stress analysis of metallic materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) it is normal practice to coat metallic specimens with black paint to enhance and standardize the surface emissivity. It is assumed that the paint coating has no effect on the thermal emission from the specimen, but it is well known that the response is sensitive to paint coating thickness, particularly at higher frequencies. In this paper the effects of loading frequency and paint coating thickness on the thermoelastic response are investigated. The thermoelastic response is compared to theory, and optimum test conditions and coating characteristics are suggested. The motivation for the work is to develop a TSA-based means of residual stress assessment, where the measurement of much smaller temperature changes than those that are resolved in standard TSA is required; therefore the analysis is much more sensitive to the effects of the paint coating. However, the work presented in this paper is relevant to a wide range of TSA investigations and presents data that will be of interest to all practitioners of TSA

309

In situ investigations of vault paintings in the Antwerp cathedral  

Science.gov (United States)

X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and Raman spectroscopy have been used to examine 15th century mediaeval and 16th century renaissance vault paintings in the Our Lady's Cathedral (Antwerp, Belgium) in view of their restoration. The use of mobile instruments made it possible to work totally non-destructively. This complementary approach yields information on the elemental (XRF) and on the molecular composition (Raman) of the pigments. For the 15th century vault painting the pigments lead-tin yellow (Pb 2SnO 4), lead white (2PbCO 3·Pb(OH) 2), vermilion (HgS), massicot (PbO) and azurite (2CuCO 3·Cu(OH) 2) could be identified. The pigments used for the 16th century vault painting could be identified as red lead (Pb 3O 4), hematite (Fe 2O 3), lead white (2PbCO 3·Pb(OH) 2) and azurite (2CuCO 3·Cu(OH) 2). For both paintings the presence of the strong Raman scatterer calcite (CaCO 3) resulted in a difficult identification of the pigments by Raman spectroscopy. The presence of gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O) on the mediaeval vault painting probably indicates that degradation took place.

Deneckere, Annelien; Schudel, Walter; Van Bos, Marina; Wouters, Helena; Bergmans, Anna; Vandenabeele, Peter; Moens, Luc

2010-02-01

310

Experiments on moisture form of concrete and adhesion of paints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is necessary for radiation-resisting paints to adhere tightly to concrete in order to exhibit superior effects. As adhesion of paints to concrete is greatly affected by moisture content of concrete, this content is checked severely in the field. However, it may be considered that adhesion will be affected by the form of the moisture in the concrete also. Therefore, experiments were conducted with mortar to investigate the interrelations between pF-moisture content, moisture form and adhesion of paint. The following results were obtained: 1) Adhesion of paint becomes stronger as moisture content falls. 2) Adhesion strength of paint rises sharply until moisture content falls to a pF-value of 5.5 after which the strength is increased gradually until moisture content reaches pF of 7.0. 3) The pF-moisture content of 5.5 varies greatly depending on the mix proportions of mortar, but the form of moisture in such cases remains fixed and unchanged. (auth.)

311

Production and use of DDT containing antifouling paint resulted in high DDTs residue in three paint factory sites and two shipyard sites, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study provides the first intensive investigation of Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDT) distribution in typical paint factories and shipyards in China where DDT containing antifouling paint were mass produced and used respectively. DDTs were analyzed in soil, sludge and sediment samples collected from three major paint factories and two shipyards. The results showed that the total DDTs concentrations detected in paint factory and shipyard sites ranged from 0.06 to 8387.24 mg kg(-1). In comparison with paint factory sites, the shipyard sites were much more seriously contaminated. However, for both kinds of sites, the DDTs level was found to be largely affected by history and capacity of production and use of DDT containing antifouling paint. (DDE+DDD)/DDT ratios indicated that DDT containing antifouling paint could serve as important fresh input sources for DDTs. It can be seen that most samples in shipyards were in ranges where heavy contamination and potential ecological risk were identified. PMID:21550629

Xin, Jia; Liu, Xiang; Liu, Wei; Jiang, Lu; Wang, Jihua; Niu, Jia

2011-06-01

312

Contamination of aluminum and painted surfaces exposed to tritium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To study the problem of outgassing of contaminated room surfaces following a significant tritium (T) room release, painted metal strips were exposed to tritium (T/sub 2/ or HTO) and the outgassing rates measured. This was followed by exposures in a 1-m/sup 3/ chamber, whose walls were coated with the material to be studied. The results show that the differences in the contamination of, and subsequent outgassing by, several epoxy and latex paints may be significant. The greatest differences, however, were the much higher contamination following exposure to HTO compared to T/sub 2/, and the lower contamination of exposed bare aluminium foil compared to painted surfaces, for both HTO and T/sub 2/

313

Evaluation of paint industry effluents for irrigation purposes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effluent samples collected from a paints factory for a period of seven months were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), soluble cations and anions, nitrogen, phosphorus, and trace elements (Cd, B, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb). Compared with the natural groundwater used for washing paint wastes, the paint industry effluents were found to contain elevated concentrations of cations with the exception of Ca and moderately high concentrations of trace elements. Evaluation of the effluents was made, based on the integration of EC and both the sodium absorption ratio (SAR) and soluble sodium percent (SSP), BOD and COD values, and maximum permissible limits of heavy metals in the irrigation water. From the overall assessment, the effluents were considered suitable for use as supplement irrigation water. However, it is essential that the heavy metals in the effluents, as well as their accumulation in plants and soils, are monitored regularly. (author)

314

Perception and Painting in Merleau-Ponty’s Thought  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Maintaining that “the perceived world is the always presupposed foundation of all rationality, all value and all existence” (1964/1964: 13, Maurice Merleau-Ponty sought to develop a descriptive philosophy of perception, our kinaesthetic, prescientific, lived-bodily experience and cognition of the world—the unification of our affective, motor and sensory capacities. For Merleau-Ponty, ‘perception’ is an expressive and creative instance intimately linked with artistic practice, and although he wrote about all kinds of art, painting was the art form he considered in most depth. This paper seeks to elaborate upon the links between perception and painting in his thought, examining his three main essays on the topic of painting. We begin with the descriptive phenomenology of “Cézanne’s Doubt” under the influence of Edmund Husserl (1945, to structuralism in “Indirect Language and the Voices of Silence” (1952, and finally to his formulation of an original ontology in “Eye and Mind” (1961.

Carolyne Quinn

2009-01-01

315

Pioneering Modern Painting: Cézanne and Pissarro 1865 - 1885  

Science.gov (United States)

It's always satisfying when the Web version nicely does what the analog used to do, and even more so when there are added features. This interactive Web site from the Museum of Modern Art displays pairs of paintings by Paul Cézanne and Camille Pissaro so that viewers can compare them, in the traditional manner of art history lectures. Some pairs are similar, such as Cézanne's _Still Life with Flask, Glass and Jug_, side-by-side with Pissaro's _Still Life with Pitcher_, or two paintings of L'Hermitage in winter, a neighborhood in the town of Pontoise familiar to both painters. Other pairs are disparate, contrasting still lifes and portraits, that have similarities of technique or color. In addition, thanks to the dynamic nature of the Web site, paintings can be grouped by themes, such as houses and village streets, or techniques (all defined in a glossary): impasto, parallel brush strokes, pallette knife and brush.

316

uv radiation curable paints. Topical report on material identification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The program for the development of ultraviolet radiation curing of paints for application on preformed structures is discussed. The starting point of this program was the matching of resins, photoinitiators, and pigments which will result in coatings that can be cured by ultraviolet radiation. The initial work was the identification of reactive diluents and base resins that are sensitive to the uv curing process. The reactive monomeric diluents tested included multifunctional acrylates, monofunctional acrylates, and non-acrylic unsaturated esters. The end point will be the application of these coatings to prefabricated metal structures to demonstrate the viability of this technique in producing commercially acceptable painted products. These uv curable paints should produce films that are hard, adherent, and opaque at a nominal thickness of one mil (0.001 inch).

1981-01-13

317

Effect Of Zen Regulation On The Sohrab Sepahri's Paintings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, at first we tried to introduce the sects separated from Buddhism and also introduce “Maha- Yana” who were among the well known sects of the Buddhism and the introduction of “Confucius” regulation and moral principles and the “Lao-tse” and “Shinto” faiths and their place among Chinese and Japanese and their relation with ZEN sect and Zen philosophy, method of its formation and Zen conduct and initial introduction of Zenga and the effect of Zen philosophy on paintings and Calligraphy of far east. In next sections the effect of Zen philosophy on Sohrab Sepehri's paintings will be mentioned with a short introduction of Sepehri and a fast veiw into his advancement in painting and finally his recognition in east and the effect of Zen philosophy on spirit of Sohrab Seperi.

Mohammad Maamari

2012-09-01

318

Irradiation effects on canvas oil painting: Spectroscopic observations  

Science.gov (United States)

"Winter" oil painting, by Romanian contemporary artist George Alexandrescu was used as experimental model for the substantiation of gamma radiation treatment, as the best choice to stop the biological attack of paintings. In this purpose, spectroscopic and colorimetric methods were used to analyse in situ, non-destructively and non-contact, the experimental model before and after 60Co gamma irradiation. Chemical structure and colour changes were monitored by FTIR, FT-Raman and Vis reflectance spectroscopy. Negligible Infrared spectral transformations have been observed after irradiation. Furthermore, it was found that gamma irradiation did not induce any significant colour alterations. Insignificant structural and colour changes observed, recommend the use of gamma irradiation in the disinfection of oil paintings.

Manea, Mihaela Maria; Negut, C. D.; Stanculescu, Ioana Rodica; Ponta, C. C.

2012-10-01

319

Cold Spray Forming of Inconel 718  

Science.gov (United States)

Inconel 718 was cold spray formed to a 6-mm thickness on an 8-cm diameter aluminum alloy tube using Sulzer Amdry 1718 powder and the Plasma Giken PCS-1000 cold spray system. The effects of spray particle velocity and post-spray heat treatment were studied. Post-spray annealing was performed from 950 to 1250 °C for 1-2 h. The resulting microstructures as well as the corresponding mechanical properties were characterized. As-sprayed coatings exhibited very low ductility. The tensile strength and ductility of the heat-treated coatings were improved to varying levels depending on the heat-treatment and spray conditions. For coatings sprayed at higher particle velocity and heat treated at 1250 °C for 1 h, an elongation of 24% was obtained. SEM micrographs showed a higher fraction of interparticle metallurgical bonds due to some sintering effect. Corresponding fracture surfaces also revealed a higher fraction of dimple features, typically associated with ductile fracture, in the annealed coatings. The results demonstrate that cold spray forming of Inconel 718 is feasible, and with appropriate heat treatment, metallurgical bonding can be increased. The ductility of the spray-formed samples was comparable to that of the bulk material.

Wong, W.; Irissou, E.; Vo, P.; Sone, M.; Bernier, F.; Legoux, J.-G.; Fukanuma, H.; Yue, S.

2013-03-01

320

Identification of proteins in renaissance paintings by proteomics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presented work proposes a new methodology based on proteomics techniques to identify proteins in old art paintings. The main challenging tasks of this work were (i) to find appropriate conditions for extracting proteins from the binding media without protein hydrolysis in amino acids and (ii) to develop analytical methods adapted to the small sample quantity available. Starting from microsamples of painting models (ovalbumin-based, which is the major egg white protein, and egg-based paintings), multiple extraction solutions (HCl, HCOOH, NH3, NaOH) and conditions (ultrasonic bath, mortar and pestle, grinding resin) were evaluated. The best results were obtained using a commercial kit including a synthetic resin, mortar and pestle to grind the sample in an aqueous solution acidified with trifluoroacetic acid at 1% with additional multiple steps of ultrasonic baths. The resulting supernatant was analyzed by MALDI-TOF in linear mode to verify the efficiency of the extraction solution. An enzymatic hydrolysis step was also performed for protein identification; the peptide mixture was analyzed by nanoLC/nanoESI/Q-q-TOF MS/MS with an adapted chromatographic run for the low sample quantity. Finally, the developed methodology was successfully applied to Renaissance art painting microsamples of approximately 10 microg from Benedetto Bonfigli's triptych, The Virgin and Child, St. John the Baptist, St. Sebastian (XVth century), and Niccolo di Pietro Gerini's painting, The Virgin and Child (XIVth century), identifying, for the first time and without ambiguity, the presence of whole egg proteins (egg yolk and egg white) in a painting binder. PMID:16503599

Tokarski, Caroline; Martin, Elisabeth; Rolando, Christian; Cren-Olivé, Cécile

2006-03-01

 
 
 
 
321

LET-painting increases tumour control probability in hypoxic tumours  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Introduction: LET-painting was suggested as a method to overcome tumour hypoxia. In vitro experiments have demonstrated a well established relationship between the Oxygen Enhancement Ratio (OER) and linear energy transfer (LET), where OER approaches unity for high-LET values. However, high-LET radiation also increases the risk for side effects in normal tissue. LET-painting attempts to restrict high-LET radiation to compartments that are found to be hypoxic, while applying lower LET radiation to norm-oxic tissues. Methods: Carbon-12 and oxygen-16 treatment plans with four fields and with homogeneous dose in the target volume, are applied on an oropharyngeal cancer case with an identified hypoxic entity within the tumour. The target dose is optimized to achieve a tumour control probability (TCP) of 95% when assuming a fully normoxic tissue. Using the same primary particle energy fluence needed for this plan, TCP is recalculated for three cases assuming hypoxia: first, redistributing LET to match the hypoxicstructure (LET-painting). Second, plans are recalculated for varying hypoxic tumour volume in order to investigate the threshold volume where TCP can be established. Finally, a slight dose boost (5-20%) is additionally allowed in the hypoxic subvolume to assess its impact on TCP. Results: LET-painting with carbon-12 ions can only achieve tumor control for hypoxic subvolumes smaller than 0.5 cm3. Using oxygen-16 ions, tumour control can be achieved for tumours with hypoxic subvolumes of up to 1 or 2 cm3. Tumour control can be achieved for tumours with even larger hypoxic subvolumes, if a slight dose boost is allowed in combination with LET-painting. Conclusion: Our findings clearly indicate that a substantial increase in tumour control can be achieved when applying the LET-painting concept using oxygen-16 ions on hypoxic tumours, ideally with a slight dose boost.

Bassler, Niels; Toftegaard, Jakob

2014-01-01

322

40 CFR 745.227 - Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: target housing and child...  

Science.gov (United States)

...following manner: (i) The analysis of paint to determine the presence of...sampling procedure employed for paint analysis, including quality control data...method and sampling procedure for paint analysis employed. (xi)...

2010-07-01

323

Spray shield for oil wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A spray shield assembly was designed for use in conjunction with oil wells that require artificial lift apparatus. The shield assembly includes a split hollow bonnet member which carries a seal assembly with the seal assembly being supported in overlying relationship relative to a stuffing box on the oil well. The bonnet member is removably affixed to structure of the oil well in a position to admit a polished rod to be sealingly and reciprocatingly received within the bonnet member and axially through the seal assembly. The spray shield assembly is made of component parts which are joined together in a manner that enables its assembly to the wellhead without the necessity of dismantling any portion of the pumpjack and wellhead apparatus. (auth)

Edge, B.J.; Collins, L.O.

1975-09-02

324

Spray shield for oil wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A spray shield is provided which prevents well fluids from contaminating the atmosphere or surrounding areas of an oil well. The shield assembly includes a hollow bonnet member and a seal assembly wherein the seal assembly is supported in overlying relationship relative to a stuffing box on an oil well. The bonnet member is affixed to oil well structure by resilient biasing means. A polished rod is sealingly and reciprocatingly received axially of the bonnet member and the seal assembly. The spray shield is made in component parts which are joined together in a manner which enables its assembly to the wellhead without the necessity of dismantling any portion of the pumpjack. (5 claims)

Edge, B.J.; Collins, L.O.

1974-01-08

325

Spraying device for reactor container  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To contrive to alleviate an operator's load and to prevent erroneous operation or the like in an emergency by automatically or manually operating a reactor container spraying mode optimally while securing operation of the low pressure water pouring mode of a residual heat removing system. Constitution: Parameters such as pressure, temperature of a reactor container and water level in a reactor representing the state of an accident, flow rates at the respective parts of an emergency reactor core cooler representing the operation of an emergency reactor core cooling system and the number of operation pumps and so forth are input to a control device. A necessary number of reactor residual heat removing systems are switched from a low pressure water pouring mode operation to a reactor containers spraying mode operation according to the detected value of the control device. (Aizawa, K.)

326

through spray pyrolisis-nitriding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thin films of zirconium oxynitride were deposited on stainless steel 316L and characterized through ultrasonic spray pyrolysis-nitriding (UPS-N. Initially, thin films of ZrO2 are deposited using ultrasonic spray pyrolysis, and later ZrO2 films were nitrided in a NH3 atmosphere. We analyzed the effect of some variables, such as substrate temperature, flow ratio, and time of the production of coatings and their influence on the structure of the films. The characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron (XPS, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Films that were grown using the UPS method exhibited a tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline structure with preferential orientation in plane (101. These films, after being nitrided in an atmosphere of anhydrous ammonia at 1023 K, go through two processes: a phase transition from tetragonal to monoclinic, and later the formation of zirconium oxynitride rhombohedral ZrOx Ny .

G. I. Cubillos

2014-01-01

327

PaintShop Pro X4 for photographers  

CERN Document Server

Great for those new to PaintShop Pro or digital imaging in general, this book is packed with inspirational, full-color images and easy to follow, step-by-step projects that will have you producing great images in PaintShop Pro in no time! Everything you need to turn your photos into stunning works of art is right here in this Corel-reviewed guide. In this new edition, Ken covers new features including how to make the most of the newly organized workspaces, use the redesigned HDR tool, and instantly publish photos on Flickr and Facebook. Squeeze every ounce of detail out of RAW files using the

McMahon, Ken

2012-01-01

328

Differential PIXE for investigating the layer structure of paintings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports an example of how the differential PIXE technique can be successfully applied to the investigation of wood or canvas paintings. The work analysed is a famous wood painting by Leonardo da Vinci, the 'Madonna dei fusi' (ex-Reford version, 1501), chosen for a pilot study in a wide international project aimed at analysing Leonardo's works of art by means of non-destructive techniques. While illustrating the results obtained concerning the identification of pigments and the discrimination of the stratigraphy of layers, the merits and limits of differential PIXE in general are pointed out

329

Differential PIXE for investigating the layer structure of paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports an example of how the differential PIXE technique can be successfully applied to the investigation of wood or canvas paintings. The work analysed is a famous wood painting by Leonardo da Vinci, the "Madonna dei fusi" (ex-Reford version, 1501), chosen for a pilot study in a wide international project aimed at analysing Leonardo's works of art by means of non-destructive techniques. While illustrating the results obtained concerning the identification of pigments and the discrimination of the stratigraphy of layers, the merits and limits of differential PIXE in general are pointed out.

Mandò, P. A.; Fedi, M. E.; Grassi, N.; Migliori, A.

2005-09-01

330

PaintShop Pro x6 for photographers  

CERN Document Server

Written for photographers of all levels, PaintShop Pro X6 for Photographers is packed with inspirational, full-color images and easy-to-follow step-by-step projects that will have you producing great images in PaintShop Pro in no time! Everything you need to enhance and improve your digital photography is right here in this Corel® endorsed guide.In this new edition, Ken McMahon looks at the pros and cons of the new, faster 64-bit version of the software and covers new features, including working with the Instant Effects palette, using the Smart selection brush, mapping photos, automatically ta

McMahon, Ken

2014-01-01

331

Study of colour multilayers in a painting by PIXE technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new procedure for the investigation of acrylic paint layers superposed on an aluminium foil has been recently suggested. The experimental technique consisted in a series of PIXE analyses at various incident proton energies. The sequence of colours and the thicknesses of the layers were established very satisfactorily. Here, we apply this technique to a painting made with six acrylic colours from Liquitex Inc. Analyses at various points yield a good agreement with the information given by the painter. In this article we report on the results obtained for one of the points and we present and discuss the ingredients required by the computation. (author)

332

Hydraulic analysis, Paint Creek at State Route 772, Chillicothe, Ohio  

Science.gov (United States)

The Ohio Department of Transportation, Division of Highways, proposes to replace a three-span arch, bridge across Paint Creek on South Paint Street in Chillicothe, Ohio with a new deck-type structure resting on four sets of piles and four piers. Profiles of the 10-, 25-, 50- and 100-year floods under present conditions and under conditions modified by constructions of the new bridge are presented in this report. The results indicate that the construction of the new bridge will not cause significant changes in the flood profiles or the areas inundated.

Mayo, R.I.; Bartlett, W.P., Jr.

1981-01-01

333

Determining the Carbon Dioxide Permeability of Paint Films  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An in-house set-up was developed for determining the permeability of paint films towards carbon dioxide. The system implemented the so-called Wicke-Kallenback method, described in EN 1062-6. This method consists of a two-chamber permeation cell divided by a supported paint film. A carbon dioxide/nitrogen mixture stream (15% CO2/85% N-2) is fed to the retentate chamber and a nitrogen carrier stream is fed to the permeate chamber. Carbon dioxide permeates from the retentate to the permeate cham...

Carneiro, C.; Oliveira, F.; Nogueira, J.; Mendes, A.

2006-01-01

334

24 CFR 35.1015 - Visual assessment, paint stabilization, and maintenance.  

Science.gov (United States)

...paint stabilization, and maintenance. If a dwelling unit...exterior surfaces of the building in which the dwelling unit...ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities into regular building operations, in...

2010-04-01

335

Paint for detection of corrosion and warning of chemical and radiological attack  

Science.gov (United States)

A system for warning of corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances. The system comprises painting a surface with a paint or coating that includes an indicator material and monitoring the surface for indications of the corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances.

Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA)

2010-08-24

336

Method for warning of radiological and chemical substances using detection paints on a vehicle surface  

Science.gov (United States)

A system for warning of corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances. The system comprises painting a surface with a paint or coating that includes an indicator material and monitoring the surface for indications of the corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances.

Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA)

2012-03-13

337

Health Assessment for Fletcher's Paint Works and Storage Facility Hazardous Waste Material, Milford, Hillsborough County, New Hampshire, Region 1. CERCLIS No. NHD981067614.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fletcher's Paint Works and Storage Facility Hazardous Waste Site (Fletcher's Paint Site) in Milford, New Hampshire, consists of three distinct entities: Fletcher's Paint Works at 21 Elm Street, Fletcher's Paint Storage Facility on Mill Street, and a drain...

1990-01-01

338

Multiphysics modelling of the spray forming process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An integrated, multiphysics numerical model has been developed through the joint efforts of the University of Oxford (UK), University of Bremen (Germany) and Inasmet (Spain) to simulate the spray forming process. The integrated model consisted of four sub-models: (1) an atomization model simulating the fragmentation of a continuous liquid metal stream into droplet spray during gas atomization; (2) a droplet spray model simulating the droplet spray mass and enthalpy evolution in the gas flow field prior to deposition; (3) a droplet deposition model simulating droplet deposition, splashing and re-deposition behavior and the resulting preform shape and heat flow; and (4) a porosity model simulating the porosity distribution inside a spray formed ring preform. The model has been validated against experiments of the spray forming of large diameter IN718 Ni superalloy rings. The modelled preform shape, surface temperature and final porosity distribution showed good agreement with experimental measurements

339

Effectiveness of containment sprays in containment management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A limited study has been performed assessing the effectiveness of containment sprays-to mitigate particular challenges which may occur during a severe accident. Certain aspects of three specific topics related to using sprays under severe accident conditions were investigated. The first was the effectiveness of sprays connected to an alternate water supple and pumping source because the actual containment spray pumps are inoperable. This situation could occur during a station blackout. The second topic concerned the adverse as well as beneficial effects of using containment sprays during severe accident scenario where the containment atmosphere contains substantial quantities of hydrogen along with steam. The third topic was the feasibility of using containment sprays to moderate the consequences of DCH

340

Effect of thermal spray processes on microstructures and properties of Ni-20%Cr coatings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ni-20%Cr coatings were produced using different thermal spray techniques, which were spray and fuse, flame spray and arc spray. The Ni-20%Cr powder was sprayed onto a mild steel substrate using the spray and fuse and the flame spray systems, while the Ni-20%Cr wire was sprayed using the arc spray system. SEM microstructures of the coatings suggested the spraying conditions used were able to produce dense microstructures. However, the microstructure of the arc sprayed coatings showed fine lame...

Pittaya Kuntasudjai; Nuchjira Dejang; Sukanda Jiansirisomboon

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Liquid spray cooling of a heated surface  

Science.gov (United States)

The lowest surface temperature possible for the existance of spray evaporative cooling is determined experimentally to be a linear function of the impinging spray mass flux. A conduction-controlled analytical model of droplet evaporation gives fairly good agreement with experimental measurements at atmospheric pressure. At reduced pressures droplet evaporation rates are decreased significantly such that an optimum operating pressure exists for each desired surface heat flux. The initiation of the 'Leidenfrost state' provides the upper surface temperature bound for spray evaporative cooling.

Grissom, W. M.; Wierum, F. A.

1981-01-01

342

Droplet motion in an electrohydrodynamic fine spray  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of a combined experimental and numerical study on droplet behavior within an electrohydrodynamic fine spray are presented. The fine spray exists in the transition region between the multiple cone-jet and rim emission spray modes. Experiments were conducted specifically to characterize the motion of droplets within the spray. Light-sheet visualizations and measurements of droplet speed and velocity using laser-based, single-particle counters were obtained. Additionally, a numerical simulation of the droplet motion within the spray was made and compared to the experimental results. The electrohydrodynamic fine spray of ethanol droplets (˜ 1 to 40 ?m diameter) was generated using a typical capillary-plate configuration, with a capillary tip electric field intensity of ˜ 106 V/m and a spray charge density of ˜70 C/m3. Acquired images of the spray revealed a zone of rapid expansion near the capillary followed by a more gradual expansion farther from the capillary. In situ laser-diagnostic measurements confirmed these observations. Measured droplet speeds decreased rapidly with increasing axial distance from the capillary, but then increased beyond the spray's axial mid-plane as a result of a change in the sign of the axial internal electric field. Droplet axial velocity components behaved similarly. The radial velocity components exhibited a maximum value off of the spray's centerline in the near-capillary region. Farther away from the capillary, they increased monotonically with increasing radial position. These trends identified the significant role that the radial internal electric field plays in spray expansion. The numerical simulation of the normal spray verified the inferred change in sign of the axial internal field and underscored the dominant contribution of the external electric field in the near-capillary region and of the internal electric field farther away.

Grace, J. M.; Dunn, P. F.

1996-01-01

343

Plasma arc spraying: processes and applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the aid of the plasma arc spraying technique, the processing of a wide range of materials is possible for many areas of industry. Due to the development of filling wires, apart from metals and alloys, heard materials such as carbides or borides can be processed. Further, vacuum arc spraying opens up the possibility of spraying reactive materials, such as titanium and tantalum, for example. (orig.)

344

Flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) for synthesis of nanoparticles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bismuth oxide is used as additive in paints and in cataphoresis, and as substitute for lead oxide in glass or porcelain. The presence of a small amount of Bi2O3 in calcined ZnO ceramics promotes non-linear current voltage characteristics that are used in varistor production. Also tin oxide based gas sensors for carbon monoxide, exhibit improved sensitivity and selectivity when doped with Bi2O3. Furthermore, the total oxidation of isobutene is enhanced on bismuth containing tin oxide catalysts. Bismuth oxide itself serves also as catalyst for conversion of propylene to 1,5 hexadiene and can be regenerated when supported on ?-Al2O3. In electrolyte, varistor, sensor and catalyst applications high purity and small Bi2O3 particles with controlled morphology are required. Especially in catalysts the available surface area (below 17 m2/g) of Bi2O3 limits applications at the moment. Typically, Bi2O3 is prepared by oxidation of bismuth metal at 750-800 deg C or by thermal decomposition of carbonates or by addition of alkali-metal hydroxides to a bismuth salt solution. High temperature synthesis of Bi2O3 from precursor gases was proposed by Liu and Kleinschmit using the established Aerosil route of reacting chloride precursors in a hydrogen / air (or oxygen) flame, but the volatility of the starting materials posesolatility of the starting materials poses the most severe limitation. Suzuki et al. prepared spherical bismuth oxide particles of about 26 nm in diameter by the ICP-method. Spraying an aqueous bismuth nitrate solution into a hot wall reactor resulted in Bi2O3 particles of about 100 nm in diameter. Here, synthesis of bismuth oxide nanoparticles is investigated by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) as flame technology is used for manufacture of oxide commodities and as such FSP has high potential for manufacture of oxide nanoparticles. The FSP process, in particular, has the ability to synthesize metal oxides and mixed metal oxides of high purity at high production rates and under controlled conditions. Here bismuth nitrate is used as raw material since it is widely used in wet chemical processing of bismuth oxide and it is one of the cheapest precursors available. However, in conventional spray pyrolysis this precursor has resulted in hollow particles. Therefore special emphasis is placed on the control of morphology and primary particle size of the product bismuth oxide nanoparticles

345

Evaluation of the Eulerian-Lagrangian spray atomisation (ELSA) in spray simulations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many approaches have been used to simulate the spray structure especially in modelling fuel sprays, i.e., Eulerian, Lagrangian, Lagrangian- Eulerian, Eulerian-Eulerian and Eulerian-Lagrangian approaches. The present study uses an Eulerian-Lagrangian spray atomisation (ELSA) method which is an integrated model for capturing the whole spray evolution starting directly from injector nozzle still the end. Our goal in this study is to evaluate the ELSA model which is implementing into the commerci...

Hoyas, S.; Pastor Engui?danos, Jose? Manuel; Khuong, Anh Dung; Mompo? Laborda, Juan Manuel; Ravet, Frederic

2011-01-01

346

Evolution and Prospect of Thermal Spraying Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, current state development and process evolution ofthermal spray technology during last century (1910―2010) were reviewed. An "three―step evolution trend" (heat energy dominance, kineticenergy dominance, innovative idea and composite performance dominance) wasadvanced in order to get comprehensive understanding on this technology and dobetter in promoting its future development. Low pressure plasma spraying―thinfilm (LPPS―TF), cold spray (CS) and suspension orsolution srecursor plasma spray (SPS/SPPS) were selected among emerging novelspray processes to be briefly introduced from two aspects (process characteristics and potential applications). Comparison of spray output valueand detail contribution ratio distribution of various industry or process through world and Asia spray industry market were made to probe into what canbe improved as for China thermal spray industry in future. It was suggested that increasing plasma spray and HVOF contribution to applications, take activesteps to explore R&D of some novel spray technology like above mentioned and their possible applications especially in high―tech industrial such aselectrics, semiconductor and new energy.

YIN Zhi-Jian, , WANG Shu-Bao, FU-Wei,TAN Xin-Hai, TAO Shun-Yan, DING Chuan-Xian

2011-03-01

347

Dynamic characteristics of pulsed supersonic fuel sprays  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the dynamic characteristics of pulsed, supersonic liquid fuel sprays or jets injected into ambient air. Simple, single hole nozzles were employed with the nozzle sac geometries being varied. Different fuel types, diesel fuel, bio-diesel, kerosene, and gasoline were used to determine the effects of fuel properties on the spray characteristics. A vertical two-stage light gas gun was employed as a projectile launcher to provide a high velocity impact to produce the liquid jet. The injection pressure was around 0.88-1.24 GPa in all cases. The pulsed, supersonic fuel sprays were visualized by using a high-speed video camera and shadowgraph method. The spray tip penetration and velocity attenuation and other characteristics were examined and are described here. An instantaneous spray tip velocity of 1,542 m/s (Mach number 4.52) was obtained. However, this spray tip velocity can be sustained for only a very short period (a few microseconds). It then attenuates very quickly. The phenomenon of multiple high frequency spray pulses generated by a single shot impact and the changed in the angle of the shock structure during the spray flight, which had already been observed in previous studies, is again noted. Multiple shock waves from the conical nozzle spray were also clearly captured.

Pianthong, K.; Matthujak, A.; Takayama, K.; Milton, B. E.; Behnia, M.

2008-06-01

348

Metaphor as a basic mechanism of art (painting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article describes research on visual semantics, diff erent forms of metaphorused in rhetoric and philology (tropes: metonymy, hyperbole, litotes, oxymoron,and others, and images, which are metaphorical also. The research was carried outusing paintings. The authors state that the function of metaphor is to transformthe sense of the image from a psychological point of view.

Evgeniya A. Korotchenko

2012-01-01

349

A Brush with History: Paintings from the National Portrait Gallery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focuses on an exhibition called, "A Brush with History: Paintings from the National Portrait Gallery," that provides a history of art and the United States. Offers background information on the National Portrait Gallery (Washington, DC) and discusses the purpose of portraits. Includes examples of the portraits. (CMK)

Johnson, Mark M.

2002-01-01

350

Troubled traces: painting and displaying intercultural traumas of Aboriginality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Behind the pointillism of dot paintings or ‘nai?ve’ techniques, Aboriginal artists stridently critique histories of injustice, incarceration, racism, colonialism and dispossession. This personal testimony from Heather Kamarra Shearer, one of the ‘stolen generation’ of Aboriginal Australians, reflects on her life story and her present vocation in the field of legal rights and as an artist.

Heather Kamarra Shearer

2014-10-01

351

Beauty in abstract paintings: Perceptual contrast and statistical properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we combined the behavioral and objective approach in the field of empirical aesthetics. First, we studied the perception of beauty by investigating shifts in evaluation on perceived beauty of abstract artworks (Experiment 1. Because the participants showed heterogeneous individual preferences for the paintings, we divided them into seven clusters for the test. The experiment revealed a clear pattern of perceptual contrast. The perceived beauty of abstract paintings increased after exposure to paintings that were rated as less beautiful, and it decreased after exposure to paintings that were rated as more beautiful. Next, we searched for correlations of beauty ratings and perceptual contrast with statistical properties of abstract artworks (Experiment 2. The participants showed significant preferences for certain image properties. These preferences differed between the clusters of participants. Strikingly, next to color measures like hue, saturation, value and lightness, the recently described PHOG self-similarity value seems to be a predictor for aesthetic appreciation of abstract artworks. We speculate that the shift in evaluation in Experiment 1 was, at least in part, based on low-level adaptation to some of the statistical image properties analyzed in Experiment 2. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the perception of beauty in abstract artworks is altered after exposure to beautiful or non-beautiful images and correlates with particular image properties, especially color measures and self-similarity.

Christoph Redies

2014-03-01

352

Beauty in abstract paintings: perceptual contrast and statistical properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we combined the behavioral and objective approach in the field of empirical aesthetics. First, we studied the perception of beauty by investigating shifts in evaluation on perceived beauty of abstract artworks (Experiment 1). Because the participants showed heterogeneous individual preferences for the paintings, we divided them into seven clusters for the test. The experiment revealed a clear pattern of perceptual contrast. The perceived beauty of abstract paintings increased after exposure to paintings that were rated as less beautiful, and it decreased after exposure to paintings that were rated as more beautiful. Next, we searched for correlations of beauty ratings and perceptual contrast with statistical properties of abstract artworks (Experiment 2). The participants showed significant preferences for particular image properties. These preferences differed between the clusters of participants. Strikingly, next to color measures like hue, saturation, value and lightness, the recently described Pyramid of Histograms of Orientation Gradients (PHOG) self-similarity value seems to be a predictor for aesthetic appreciation of abstract artworks. We speculate that the shift in evaluation in Experiment 1 was, at least in part, based on low-level adaptation to some of the statistical image properties analyzed in Experiment 2. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the perception of beauty in abstract artworks is altered after exposure to beautiful or non-beautiful images and correlates with particular image properties, especially color measures and self-similarity. PMID:24711791

Mallon, Birgit; Redies, Christoph; Hayn-Leichsenring, Gregor U

2014-01-01

353

Silver-nanoparticle-embedded antimicrobial paints based on vegetable oil  

Science.gov (United States)

Developing bactericidal coatings using simple green chemical methods could be a promising route to potential environmentally friendly applications. Here, we describe an environmentally friendly chemistry approach to synthesize metal-nanoparticle (MNP)-embedded paint, in a single step, from common household paint. The naturally occurring oxidative drying process in oils, involving free-radical exchange, was used as the fundamental mechanism for reducing metal salts and dispersing MNPs in the oil media, without the use of any external reducing or stabilizing agents. These well-dispersed MNP-in-oil dispersions can be used directly, akin to commercially available paints, on nearly all kinds of surface such as wood, glass, steel and different polymers. The surfaces coated with silver-nanoparticle paint showed excellent antimicrobial properties by killing both Gram-positive human pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli). The process we have developed here is quite general and can be applied in the synthesis of a variety of MNP-in-oil systems.

Kumar, Ashavani; Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; John, George

2008-03-01

354

Classical Chinese Landscape Painting and the Aesthetic Appreciation of Nature  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent theories of the aesthetic appreciation of nature or natural environments have done much to clarify what might be essential to such appreciation. Such accounts are incomplete, however, as they depend on a strict separation between works of art and nature itself. This paper shows how classical Chinese landscape painting offers a way to…

Turner, Matthew

2009-01-01

355

Children's Emotion and Behavior In Painting Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

This study adopted various methods such as qualitative research, observation, interviews, and document collection to examine the emotional responses, behavior changes, and counseling effects on a single-parent child in a skipped-generation family before or after a series of painting activities. The participant was asked to take part in 50-minute…

Chen, I-Ju

2013-01-01

356

Emissions of odorous aldehydes from an alkyd paint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Odorous aldehyde emissions from a commonly used alkyd paint were measured and characterized. Initial formulation analysis indicated no measurable aldehydes in the liquid paint. However, small environmental chamber tests showed that, for each gram of the alkyd paint applied, more than 2 mg of aldehydes (mainly hexanal) were emitted during the curing (drying) period. The emission profiles of Aldehydes were very different from those of other volatile organic compounds such as alkanes and aromatics. Since no measurable aldehydes were found in the original point, it is suspected that the aldehydes emitted were produced by autoxidation of the unsaturated fatty acid esters in the alkyd resins. It was found that the hexanal emission rate can be simulated by a mathematical model assuming that the autoxidation process was controlled by a consecutive first-order reaction mechanism. The mathematical model was used to predict the indoor air hexanal concentrations for a typical application of the alkyd paint tested. The result indicated that the aldehyde emissions can result in prolonged (several days) exposure risk to occupants.

Chang, J.C.S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Guo, Z. [Acurex Environmental Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1998-12-31

357

Characteristics of Pressure Sensitive Paint Intrusiveness Effects on Aerodynamic Data  

Science.gov (United States)

One effect of using pressure sensitive paint (PSP) is the potential intrusiveness to the aerodynamic characteristics of the model. The paint thickness and roughness may affect the pressure distribution, and therefore, the forces and moments on the wind tunnel model. A study of these potential intrusive effects was carried out at NASA Langley Research Center where a series of wind tunnel tests were conducted using the Modem Design of Experiments (MDOE) test approach. The PSP effects on the integrated forces were measured on two different models at different test conditions in both the Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT) and the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) at Langley. The paint effect was found to be very small over a range of Reynolds numbers, Mach numbers and angles of attack. This is due to the very low surface roughness of the painted surface. The surface roughness, after applying the NASA Langley developed PSP, was lower than that of the clean wing. However, the PSP coating had a localized effects on the pressure taps, which leads to an appreciable decrease in the pressure tap reading.

Amer, Tahani R.; Liu, Tianshu; Oglesby, Donald M.

2001-01-01

358

Characterization of Pressure Sensitive Paint Intrusiveness Effects on Aerodynamic Data  

Science.gov (United States)

One effect of using pressure sensitive paint (PSP) is the potential intrusiveness to the aerodynamic characteristics of the model. The paint thickness and roughness may affect the pressure distribution. and therefore, the forces and moments on the wind tunnel model. A study of these potential intrusive effects was carried out at NASA Langley Research Center where a series of wind tunnel tests were conducted using the Modem Design of Experiments (MDOE) test approach. The PSP effects on the integrated forces were measured on two different models at different test conditions in both the Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT) and the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) at Langley. The paint effect was found to be very small over a range of Reynolds numbers, Mach numbers and angles of attack. This is due to the very low surface roughness of the painted surface. The surface roughness, after applying the NASA Langley developed PSP, was lower than that of the clean wing. However, the PSP coating had a localized effects on the pressure taps, which leads to an appreciable decrease in the pressure tap reading.

Amer, Tahani R.; Liu, Tianshu; Oglesby, Donald M.

2001-01-01

359

Experiments on an Exhaust Hood for the Paint Industry  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There is a great variation of production machinery and pollution sources in the paint industry. This paper shows the examination of a process where wood preservation is filled into cans in a process which releases organic solvents to the surrounding air.

Nielsen, Peter V.; Madsen, Ulla

1991-01-01

360

Birds of a Feather... and Clay, Wire, Tissue and Paint!  

Science.gov (United States)

What began as a review lesson in clay construction quickly became a fun learning experience filled with inspiring conversations and creatively painted birds. This lesson was successful from beginning to end, with a final reward when the artwork was displayed. The author describes the process of working on this project and shares how the students…

Feiner, Lois

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Survey of crowbar and household paints in burglary cases-population studies, transfer and interpretation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experimental data useful for the interpretation of paint evidence recovered during burglary cases were obtained. A population study was carried out on 41 blue crowbars seized on suspects in Switzerland and 37 blue paints traces found at burglary scenes. Paint traces were also searched on the blades of 207 crowbars seized by the police in Switzerland and 24 white traces were analysed: these paints were analysed using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in order to estimate relative frequencies of each paint type. Simulated contacts were carried out between crowbars and painted wood in order to study the phenomenon of transfer and to evaluate the amount of paint transferred: a total of 198 simulations were carried out including individual, successive and cross transfer. The paint properties such as the chemical composition and its age influenced the amount of paint transferred. Cross transfer from the tool paint to the wood and vice versa was regularly observed. Moreover, secondary transfer of paint coming from the preceding wooden surfaces was also systematically observed: this could establish links between several burglary scenes and a suspected tool. A scenario of a burglary case involving the cross transfer between tool and household paints is proposed as a numerical example: the evaluation of such case was formalised using likelihood ratios based on the experimental data obtained. PMID:15978349

Buzzini, Patrick; Massonnet, Geneviève; Birrer, Stéphane; Egli, Nicole M; Mazzella, Williams; Fortini, Annarita

2005-09-10

362

Measurements of tritium for radiological protection purposes in dial painting industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tritium is used as the active component in self-luminous paint. During dial painting process luminous paints releases tritium in air, causing air contamination. In the present paper results of a preliminary study on air monitoring and estimation of air samples in a local watch industry are given. (author). 5 refs., 2 t abs

363

Radiation exposure to dial painters from 3H luminous paint industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tritium is used as the active component in self-luminous paint. The paper describes in-vitro solubilisation study of luminous paint in blood serum. Besides urine samples of luminous paint workers and air samples of two watch factories were analysed for 3H. The results of these analysis are also presented. (author). 8 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

364

Measurement of the thickness of paint coat on concrete by ?-reflection method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The measurement of the thickness of paint coating on concrete by isotope method is discussed. The influence of pigment in paints and lacquers on the measurement results is considered. The review of pigments used in paints and lacquers is presented. Pigments atomic numbers are also given. (A.S.)

365

Taking the 40/40 Challenge: Sixteen Painters Working Daily to Develop a Painting Discipline  

Science.gov (United States)

As a young art teacher, this author was inspired by the advice of Faith Ringgold, who emphasized the importance of creating time during each day to create art. This advice led the author to develop a painting discipline by creating "The 40/40 Challenge" for her students in Painting I and Painting II classes. The 40/40 Challenge is a voluntary…

McComb, Camilla

2006-01-01

366

CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM INTERIOR ALKYD PAINT  

Science.gov (United States)

Alkyd paint continues to be used indoors for application to wood trim, cabinet surfaces, and some kitchen and bathroom walls. Paint may represent a significant source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) indoors depending on the frequency of use and amount of surface paint. The U...

367

Analysis of painted steel by a hand-held X-ray fluorescence spectrometer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Steel with a paint layer was analyzed with a hand-held X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. When the 0.5 mm thick paint layer was composed mainly of light elements, alloying elements in steel such as Fe, Cr, Ni, W, and Mo were easily detected. 0.2% Mo in steel was detectable even if the paint contained Ti or Fe as a main element. The signal intensity of each element in steel decreased exponentially when the paint thickness increased, and the degree of decrease depended on the X-ray energy. Therefore the peak intensity for non-painted steel could be calculated from the paint thickness. The paint thickness was estimated from the intensity ratio Fe K?/K? or W L?/L?. When a paint of Ti (0.07-0.49 mm thick) was used, the peak intensities of the Fe K?, Cr K?, Ni K?, and Mo K? lines for non-painted steel were estimated by using the intensity ratio Fe K?/K?, with errors of less than 30%. The content of each element in steel is estimated when the fluorescent X-rays are detectable by analysis of painted steel without removing the paint layer. On-site screening of painted steel can be performed on the basis of the alloy composition estimated by analysis with a hand-held XRF spectrometer

368

Children's Liking of Landscape Paintings as a Function of Their Perceptions of Prospect, Refuge, and Hazard  

Science.gov (United States)

Prospect-refuge theory was used to study children's aesthetic responses to landscape paintings. Sixty-seven children between the ages of 8 and 15 years reported their liking for 28 landscape paintings and their perceptions of the degree of prospect, refuge, and hazard in those paintings. Consistent with expectations, children were able to express…

Fischer, Mary Ann; Shrout, Patrick E.

2006-01-01

369

21 CFR 524.1044f - Gentamicin and betamethasone spray.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Gentamicin and betamethasone spray. 524.1044f Section 524.1044f Food...524.1044f Gentamicin and betamethasone spray. (a) Specifications . Each milliliter of spray contains gentamicin sulfate...

2010-04-01

370

Spray forming lead strip. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A cooperative research project was conducted between the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Johnson Controls, Inc. (JCI) to adapt the INEL spray forming process to produce near-net-shape lead alloy strip. The emphasis of the work was to spray form lead strip samples at INEL, using a variety of spray conditions, for characterization at JCI. An existing glove box apparatus was modified at INEL to spray form lead. The main spray forming components were housed inside the glove box. They included a spray nozzle, tundish (crucible), substrate assembly, gas heater and furnaces to heat the nozzle and tundish. To spray form metal strip, liquid metal was pressure-fed at a controlled rate through a series of circular orifices that span the width of the nozzle. There the metal contacted high velocity, high temperature inert gas (nitrogen) which atomized the molten material into fine droplets, entrained the droplets in a directed flow, and deposited them onto glass plates that were swept through the spray plume to form strip samples. In-flight convection cooling of the droplets followed by conduction and convection cooling at the substrate resulted in rapid solidification of the deposit. During operation, the inside of the glove box was purged with an inert gas to limit the effects of in-flight oxidation of the particles and spray-formed strips, as well as to protect personnel from exposure to airborne lead particulate. Remote controls were used to start/stop the spray and control the speed and position of the substrate. In addition, substrate samples were loaded into the substrate translator manually using the gloved side ports of the box. In this way, the glove box remained closed during a series of spray trials, and was opened only when loading the crucible with a lead charge or when removing lead strip samples for shipment to JCI.

McHugh, K.

1996-04-10

371

Effect of hydrophobic paints coating for tritium reduction in concrete materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of hydrophobic paint coating in tritium transport are investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two kinds of paints, acrylic-silicon resin and epoxy resin are used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hydrophobic paints are effective to reduce tritium permeation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of tritium reduction of epoxy paint is higher than that of silicon. - Abstract: The effects of hydrophobic paint coating on a concrete material of cement paste on the tritium transport are investigated. The cement paste is coated with two kinds of paints, acrylic-silicon resin paint and epoxy resin paint. We investigated the amount of tritium trapped in the samples exposed to tritiated water vapor by means of sorption and release. It was found that both the hydrophobic paints could reduce effectively tritium permeation during 50 days exposure of tritiated water vapor. The effect of tritium reduction of the epoxy paint was higher than that of silicon while the amount of tritium trapped in the epoxy paint was larger than that of silicon due to difference of the structure. Based on an analysis of a diffusion model, the rate-determining step of tritium migration through cement paste coated with the paints is diffusion through the paints respectively. It was found that tritium was easy to penetrate through silicon because there were many pores or voids in the silicon comparatively. In the case of tritium released from the epoxy paint, it is considered that tritium diffusion in epoxy is slow due to retardation by isotope exchange reaction to water included in epoxy paint.

Edao, Y., E-mail: edao@aees.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Fukada, S.; Nishimura, Y.; Katayama, K.; Takeishi, T. [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Hatano, Y.; Taguchi, A. [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)

2012-08-15

372

An experimental study to investigate the feasibility to classify paints according to neurotoxicological risks: occupational air requirement (OAR) and indoor use of alkyd paints.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concept of occupational air requirement (OAR), representing the quantity of air required to dilute the vapor concentration in the work environment resulting from 1 l product to a concentration below the occupational exposure limit (OEL), was considered to have potential to discriminate between paints that can and cannot be used safely. The OAR is a simple algorithm with the concentration of volatile organic compound (VOC) in the paint, a discrete evaporation factor and the neurotoxicological effects-based OEL. Conceptually, OAR categories of paints for construction and maintenance applications could be identified that can be applied manually without exceeding OELs with no appreciable room ventilation. Five painters volunteered in an exposure study aimed at testing the OAR approach in practice. Total exposure to VOC was assessed in 30 experiments during the application of 0.5 l of paint in a defined 'standard indoor paint job'. Fifteen paints were prepared, reflecting differences in solvents (percentage, volatility, toxicity) with a range of OAR levels from 43 to 819 m(3)/l. Exposure was assessed by personal air sampling (PAS). In addition, real-time air monitoring was performed. All tests were conducted at minimum ventilation rate (< or=0.33 h(-1)). PAS results were expressed as percentage of the nominal OEL and ranged from 8 to 93% for high solids and from 38 to 168% for conventional paints. In general, higher VOC contents resulted in higher exposure. High volatile paints showed a statistically significant faster increase of VOC concentration with time compared with paints containing low volatile solvents. A significant relationship between OAR value and exposure was observed (R(2) = 0.73). The experiments indicate that OAR-based classification of paints predicts and discriminates risk levels for exposure to neurotoxic paint-solvents in indoor painting fairly well. PMID:15790614

Brouwer, Derk H; de Pater, Nettie A J; Zomer, Christian; Lurvink, Marc W M; van Hemmen, Joop J

2005-07-01

373

Throat spray, sedation or anaesthetic?  

Science.gov (United States)

Digestive endoscopy covers a wide variety of procedures; the need for sedation is governed by the invasiveness and length of the procedure, the wishes of the patient, the desire of the operator for a compliant patient, and safety. Many patients are prepared to undergo upper digestive endoscopy using throat spray without sedation, while fewer accept unsedated colonoscopy. There are clinical advantages as well as disadvantages in employing sedation and sometimes general anaesthesia is the preferred option. This paper provides an introduction to the choices available and the approaches that are employed in endoscopic sedation practice. PMID:20407248

Axon, Anthony T R

2010-01-01

374

Toluene removal by oxidation reaction in spray wet scrubber: experimental, modeling and optimization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Toluene, an important volatile organic compound (VOC, is used in many kinds of industries, such as painting, printing, coating, and petrochemical industries. The emission of toluene causes serious air pollution, odor problem, flammability problem and affects human health. This paper proposes the removal of toluene from waste air using a spray wet scrubber combining the absorption and oxidation reaction. Aqueous sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl solution was used as the scrubbing liquid in the system. NaOCl, the strongest oxidative agent, presents an effective toluene removal. As the scrubbed toluene is reacted, recirculation of the scrubbing liquid could be operated with a constant removal efficiency throughout the operting time. The investigated variables affecting the removal efficiency were air flow rate, inlet toluene concentration, NaOCl concentration, scrubbing liquid flow rate and size of spray nozzle. Influence of the scrubbing parameters was experimentally studied to develop a mathematical model of the toluene removal efficiency. The removal model reveals that the increase of scrubbing liquid flow rate, toluene concentration, and NaOCl concentration together with the decrease of air flow rate and size of spray nozzle can increase the toluene removal efficiency. Optimization problem with an objective function and constraints was set to provide the maximum toluene removal efficiency and solved by Matlab optimization toolbox. The optimization constraints were formed from the mathematical model and process limitation. The solution of the optimization was an air flow rate of 100 m3/h, toluene concentration of 1500 ppm, NaOCl concentration of 0.02 mol/l, NaOCl solution feed rate of 0.8 m3/h, and spray nozzle size of 0.5 mm. Solution of the optimization gave the highest toluene removal efficiency of 91.7%.

Roumporn Nikom

2006-11-01

375

Lined canvas paintings : Mechanical properties and structural response to fluctuating relative humidity, exemplified by the collection of Danish Golden Age paintings at Statens Museum for Kunst (SMK)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This work evaluates the lining history of the Danish Golden Age collection of canvas paintings from the nineteenths century at SMK, The National Gallery of Denmark, and seeks to understand the moisture sensitivity of the paintings before and after lining. This is done by chemical analysis and tensile testing samples from the tacking edges as well as lined mock-up samples. The ability of the different lining techniques to support canvas paintings is evaluated in terms of their initial stretching and during fluctuations of relative humidity. Six different combinations of lining adhesives and textiles were examined. These included the adhesives Beva 371, Plextol D360, wax-resin, and glue-paste. The lining textiles were linen and polyester sailcloth. A naturally aged canvas painting and a modern painting were lined using these materials and methods. Testing of the lined paintings included uni-axial load-strain tests to assess the stiffness of the lined paintings. This was done to investigate what happens in the painting structure when a lined painting is re-tensioned or keyed out after stretching. Restrained tests demonstrate how the lined and re-stretched painting responds to changes in relative humidity. Contrary to the usual assumptions it was found that wax-resin linings on linen canvas responded to high relative humidity (RH) with higher contraction forces than was the case before lining. The contraction was evident at RH levels as low as 65%. Because the adhesive fills the voids in the linen canvas (both the original and the lining canvas), the contraction due to fiber swelling was immediate. There is some evidence that the same observation applies for liquid Beva in linen canvas. The results showed further, that glue-paste lining on a linen canvas offered significant support to a painting at 50% RH but increased the stress level severely in dry conditions and offered no support to the painting at 70-80 % RH. This means that the traditional glue-paste lining techniques and the wax-resin technique in high RH seem to limit the advisable RH fluctuation in a cultural institution. Conversely paintings lined with the polyester sailcloth showed a somewhat increased resistance to RH fluctuations. Lining on canvas does not provide an efficient alternative to RH control because a tensioned canvas cannot go into compression and therefore cannot protect the paint and ground layers against contraction forces. Stiffness in a lining at relevant moisture levels is decisive for how much the structure can contract. In many cases linings will actually necessitate tighter climate control than that needed for unlined paintings and this has been found to be true for the collection of Danish Golden Age paintings as well.

Krarup Andersen, Cecil

2013-01-01

376

Metal stearate distributions in modern artists' oil paints: surface and cross-sectional investigation of reference paint films using conventional and synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zinc oxide is a prevalent industrial-age pigment that readily reacts with fatty acids in oil-based paints to form zinc carboxylates. Zinc stearate aggregates are associated with deterioration in late nineteenth and twentieth century paintings. The current study uses both conventional and synchrotron Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to investigate metal carboxylate composition in a range of naturally aged artists' oil paints and reference paint film draw-downs. The paints contain zinc oxide alone or in combination with lead white, titanium white, and aluminum stearate and are prepared with linseed and safflower oils. Attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-FT-IR using the conventional source identifies marked differences in carboxylate profiles between exposed and protected surfaces in a large number of samples. Synchrotron FT-IR microspectroscopy of thin paint cross-sections maps metal carboxylate distributions at high spatial resolution and resolves broad concentration gradients and micrometer-scale phase separation of carboxylate species. Aluminum stearate, a common paint additive, is found to influence the distribution of zinc carboxylates more strongly than pigment composition or oil type. The presence of aluminum stearate results in higher concentrations and more pronounced separation of saturated C16 and C18 chain zinc carboxylates in the margin of paint nearest the polyester substrate. The presence of aluminum stearate in association with zinc oxide has a clear influence on zinc carboxylate formation and distribution, with potential implications for long term stability of vulnerable paintings. PMID:23031696

Osmond, Gillian; Boon, Jaap J; Puskar, Ljiljana; Drennan, John

2012-10-01

377

A Review on Design & Development of Semi-Automated Colour Painting Machine.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, colour or other medium to a surface (support base. The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush but other objects can be used. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action. However, painting is also used outside of art as a common trade among craftsmen and builders. Paintings may have for their support such surface as walls, paper, canvas, wood, glass, lacquer, clay, leaf, copper or concrete, and may incorporate multiple other materials including sand, clay, paper, gold leaf as well as objects.

Dhaval Thakar

2014-04-01

378

Modification of optoelectronic properties of sprayed CZTS thin films through spray rate variation  

Science.gov (United States)

Effect of spray rate on structural, optical and electrical properties of spray pyrolysed Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films was investigated. We deposited films by varying spray rate from 2 ml/min to 10 ml/min in steps of 2 ml/min. For very low and high spray rates presence of secondary phases could be observed while for the films prepared at a spray rate of 6 ml/min were devoid of secondary phases. As spray rate increases band gap decreased. Samples prepared at 6 ml/min had optimum band gap of 1.5 eV. All the samples were observed to be p-type. Resistivity values increased steadily up to 6 ml/min and then slightly decreased. From the present work, CZTS films prepared at a spray rate of 6 ml/min is found to be ideal for absorber layer in solar cell.

Rajeshmon, V. G.; Kartha, C. Sudha; Vijayakumar, K. P.

2014-04-01

379

Spray Deflector For Water-Jet Machining  

Science.gov (United States)

Disk on water-jet-machining nozzle protects nozzle and parts behind it from erosion by deflected spray. Consists of stainless-steel backing with neoprene facing deflecting spray so it does not reach nut or other vital parts of water-jet apparatus.

Cawthon, Michael A.

1989-01-01

380

Spray attemperators. Potential problems and solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spray attemperation is one of the most efficient and commonly used methods for controlling superheater and reheater temperature in power boilers. In this paper, results of experiences gained about spray attemperators and their potential problems are discussed and two case studies have also been presented. At the end of the paper recommendations about inspections have been made. (orig.)

Boroumandi, B. [Neka Power Generation Management Co., Shahid Salimi Power Station (Iran)

2006-07-01

 
 
 
 
381

Automatic Video Inspection Of A Diesel Spray  

Science.gov (United States)

The subject of the inspection is a diesel spray jet nozzle ( fig 1. ). The jet is manufactured to spray diesel fuel in 8 precisely controlled directions inside a diesel engine. The angle of elevation of the jet as it leaves the nozzle and the angle between neighbouring jets about the nozzle are of particular importance.

Cheung, V. K.; Judge, Thomas R.; Bryanston-Cross, Peter J.

1989-11-01

382

Spray characteristics and spray cooling heat transfer in the non-boiling regime  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spray cooling is an effective method for dissipating high heat fluxes in the field of electronics thermal control. In this study, experiments were performed with distilled water as a test liquid to study the spray cooling heat transfer in non-boiling regime. A Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) was used to study the spray characteristics. The effects of spray flow rate, spray height, and inlet temperature on spray cooling heat transfer were investigated. It was found that the parameters affect heat transfer of spray cooling in non-boiling regime by the spray characteristics and working fluid thermophysical properties. Then the corresponding droplet axial velocity and Sauter mean diameter (SMD) were successfully correlated with mean absolute error of 15%, which were based upon the orifice diameter, the Weber and Reynolds numbers of the orifice flow prior to liquid breakup, dimensionless spray height and spray cross-section radius. The heat transfer in non-boiling regime was correlated with a mean absolute error of 7%, which was mainly associated with the working fluid thermophysical properties, the Weber and Reynolds numbers hitting the heating surface, dimensionless heating surface temperature and diameter. -- Highlights: ? The spray flow rate, spray height, and inlet temperature affect heat transfer of spray cooling in non-boiling regime by the spray characteristics and the working fluid thermophysical properties. ? Then the corresponding droplet axial velocity and Sauer mean diameter (SMD) were successfully correlated with mean absolute error of 15%. ? The heat transfer in non-boiling regime was correlated with a mean absolute error of 7%.

383

EVALUATION AND QUALITY CONTROL OF NASAL SPRAY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nasal drug delivery has now been recognized as a very promising route for delivery of therapeutic compounds including biopharmaceuticals. This route is also advisable for drugs undergoing extensive first pass effect. The present article highlights the evaluation parameters of nasal spray, suspension, and solutions. While formulating the nasal drug delivery formulations various parameters are to be consider such as Appearance, Color, and Clarity, Identification, Drug content (Assay, Impurities and Degradation Products, Preservative(s and Stabilizing Excipient(s Assay, Pump Delivery, Spray content uniformity, Spray Content Uniformity (SCU through Container Life, Spray Pattern and Plume Geometry, Droplet Size Distribution, Particle size distribution (suspension,  Microscopic Evaluation (Suspensions, Foreign Particulates,  Microbial limit,  Preservative Effectiveness, Net Content and Weight Loss (Stability, Leachables (Stability, PH, Osmolality.   Key words: Nasal spray, Evaluation, Quality control, Drug delivery system.

Ramesh Shankarrao Kalkotwar

2012-07-01

384

Visualization of pigment distributions in paintings using synchrotron K-edge imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

X-ray radiography plays an important role in the study of artworks and archaeological artifacts. The internal structure of objects provides information on genesis, authenticity, painting technique, material condition and conservation history. Transmission radiography, however, does not provide information on the exact elemental composition of objects and heavy metal layers can shadow or obscure the ones including lighter elements. This paper presents the first application of synchrotron-based K-edge absorption imaging applied to paintings. Using highly monochromatic radiation, K-edge imaging is used to obtain elemental distribution images over large areas. Such elemental maps visualize the distribution of an individual pigment throughout the paint stratigraphy. This provides color information on hidden paint layers, which is of great relevance to art historians and painting conservators. The main advantage is the quick data acquisition time and the sensitivity to elements throughout the entire paint stratigraphy. The examination of a test painting is shown and further instrumental developments are discussed. (orig.)

385

Experimental investigation of drag reduction effect of Si-Polyurea paint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel Silicone-Polyurea paint has been newly developed and introduced for the antifouling marine paint. This paint is featured with such advantages as the shock-proofness and the scratch-proofness. In addition, the roughness of the resulting paint film is found to be much less than the conventional SPC AF paints. Ultra fast drying ability enables the formation of very thick paint film, e. g., 500{mu}m. The Silicone-Polyurea resin exhibits similar material behavior as that of silicone rubber in terms of hardness and elongation. This material is regarded as a potent candidate to substantiate the compliant coating for the skin friction reduction. This study aims at the assessment of the drag reducing efficiency of the silicone-polyurea paint.

Lee, In Won; Jang, Ho Yun; Chun, Ho Hwan [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sang Hoon [Durachemie Company, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

2008-07-01

386

Flower Men: The Australian Canon and Flower Painting 1910-1935  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Historical studies of Hans Heysen, George Lambert, Tom Roberts and Arthur Streeton concentrate on paintings of landscape and people. Less well known are their paintings of flowers, which take the form of still-life painting or adjuncts to figure painting, such as portraits. While these artists are famous for the masculine way they approached masculine themes, and flower painting represents a stereotypically feminine subject, I argue that by making flowers their object of study, they intended to define and differentiate femininity from masculinity in an era of the ‘New Woman’. Sex and gender are central to the subject of flower painting and are important for discussions about the work produced by all four men, although sex is often camouflaged behind the innocence of naturalistically painted flowers.

Ann Elias

2008-12-01

387

Novel Process for Laser Stain Removal from Archaeological Oil Paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

Some samples of oil paintings (5 × 5 cm) were prepared on wooden panel with four types of fungi commonly encountered on oil paintings were selected for this study. Each of the fungi is associated with different colored stains. Fungus Alternaria tenuis is associated by a dense black stain, Chetomium globosum by a brownish gray stain, Aspergillus flavus by a yellowish stain, and Fusaruim oxysporum by a pinkish stain. Fungi growing on oil paintings affect the surface characteristics by forming a variety of colored patches typically composed of many complex chemical substances that are produced during metabolic processes. These colored stains may be encrusted in spores, present in mycelium or secreted to a substance such as oil paintings surfaces. While the fungal stains can sometimes be extracted with appropriate solvents, there are some stains that resist solvent extraction entirely. Developing new solvent system that might attack the paint structure, and is time consuming and requires a great deal of trial and error. Mechanical stain removal is also problematic in that it often produces abrasion of the surface, markedly deteriorating the artwork, and is extra ordinarily fine and tedious. For these reasons, we decided to examine an alternative physical technique as a new approach to deal with stain removal. Since the stains are due to the existence of fungi, we thought it a good idea to remove them by singlet oxygen. We applied the photo dynamic process through which the fungi stains were covered with organic dye derivatives in solution under controlled illumination in the lab. The samples were then irradiated by low power Laser light from a He-Ne laser, the dye will be photodecomposed and produce singlet oxygen. We report in this work the results obtained as a function of: - The concentration and types of the organic dye in solution, - The presence of certain amounts of liquids added to the solution, - The scanning speed of the laser beam on the sample surface, - The irradiation time. For each case fresh samples were used and photographed before and after the treatment. The results obtained will be speculated and discussed. This procedure was applied to the cleaning of archaeological oil paintings for the first time to our knowledge. The method could well be considered as a new field of combined science and technology applied to laser stain removal and represents a significant addition to the techniques available to art conservation.

El-Nadi, Lotfia; El-Feky, Osama; Abdellatif, Galila; Darwish, Sawsan

2013-03-01

388

Large Eddy Simulation of the spray formation in confinements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Process stability of confined spray processes is affected by the geometric design of the spray confinement. • LES simulations of confined spray flow have been performed successfully. • Clustering processes of droplets is predicted in simulations and validated with experiments. • Criteria for specific coherent gas flow patterns and droplet clustering behaviour are found. -- Abstract: The particle and powder properties produced within spray drying processes are influenced by various unsteady transport phenomena in the dispersed multiphase spray flow in a confined spray chamber. In this context differently scaled spray structures in a confined spray environment have been analyzed in experiments and numerical simulations. The experimental investigations have been carried out with Particle-Image-Velocimetry to determine the velocity of the gas and the discrete phase. Large-Eddy-Simulations have been set up to predict the transient behaviour of the spray process and have given more insight into the sensitivity of the spray flow structures in dependency from the spray chamber design

389

Fundamento e desenho do teste randomizado PAINT / Rationale and design for the PAINT randomized trial / Fundamento y diseño del test randomizado PAINT  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTO: Descrevemos as bases teóricas e o formato do "Estudo PAINT - Intervenção percutânea com stents com eluição de paclitaxel ou sirolimus em polímero biodegradável comparados com stents sem recobrimento no tratamento de lesões coronárias de novo". OBJETIVO: Avaliar duas novas formulações de [...] stents com eluição de paclitaxel ou sirolimus em comparação com um stent de estrutura metálica idêntica, porém sem recobrimento polimérico ou eluição de droga. MÉTODOS: O PAINT é um estudo randomizado, multicêntrico, de 3 braços, conduzido em centros terciários brasileiros, que incluiu 275 pacientes alocados para tratamento com os stents InfinniumR (paclitaxel), the SupralimusR (sirolimus) ou Milennium MatrixR (sem recobrimento) na proporção 2:2:1 ratio. Os pacientes apresentavam lesões coronarianas de novo em vasos nativos com um diâmetro entre 2,5 e 3,5 mm, passíveis de tratamento com um único stent com comprimento de 29 mm ou menos. O objetivo primário era comparar a perda tardia aos nove meses de ambos stents com paclitaxel- ou sirolimus versus a perda luminal dos stents convencionais de controle. Objetivos secundários importantes incluíam a comparação angiográfica entre os dois tipos de stents farmacológicos, bem como a análise da ocorrência de eventos clínicos adversos. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: O estudo PAINT apresenta um formato peculiar e único que permitiu a avaliação da segurança e eficácia de duas novas formulações de stents farmacológicos, com carreador polimérico biodegradável, e liberação de paclitaxel ou sirolimus, os quais foram comparados contra um stent metálico convencional (objetivo primário). Uma vez que os stents farmacológicos diferiram entre sí somente pela droga, mas eram idênticos nas suas outras características, os estudo também permitiu a comparação do efeito anti-restenótico entre sirolimus e paclitaxel (objetivo secundário). Abstract in spanish FUNDAMENTO: Describimos las bases teóricas y el formato del "Estudio PAINT - Intervención percutánea con stents recubiertos de paclitaxel o sirolimus en polímero biodegradable comparados con stents no recubiertos en el tratamiento de lesiones coronarias de novo". OBJETIVO: Evaluar dos nuevas formula [...] ciones de stents con liberación de paclitaxel o sirolimus en comparación con un stent de estructura metálica idéntica, pero sin recubierto polimérico o liberación de droga. MÉTODOS: El PAINT es un estudio randomizado, multicéntrico, de 3 brazos, llevado a cabo en centros terciaros brasileños, que incluyó a 275 pacientes destinados a tratamiento con los stents InfinniumR (paclitaxel), the SupralimusR (sirolimus) o Milennium MatrixR (no recubierto) en la proporción 2:2:1. Los pacientes presentaban lesiones coronarias de novo en vasos nativos con un diámetro entre 2,5 y 3,5 mm, pasibles de tratamiento con un único stent de hasta 29 mm de longitud. El objetivo primario era comparar la pérdida luminal tardía a los nueve meses de ambos stents con paclitaxel- o sirolimus versus la pérdida luminal de los stents convencionales de control. Los objetivos secundarios importantes incluían la comparación angiográfica entre los dos tipos de stents farmacológicos, así como el análisis de la ocurrencia de eventos clínicos adversos. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: El estudio PAINT presenta un formato peculiar y único que permitió la evaluación de la seguridad y eficacia de dos nuevas formulaciones de stents farmacológicos, con transportador polimérico biodegradable, y liberación de paclitaxel o sirolimus, los que fueron comparados con un stent metálico convencional (objetivo primario). Dado que los stents farmacológicos diferían entre sí solamente por la droga, pero eran idénticos en sus otras características, el estudio también permitió la comparación del efecto antireestenótico entre sirolimus y paclitaxel (objetivo secundario). Abstract in english BACKGROUND: We describe the rational

Pedro A., Lemos; Bruno, Moulin; Marco A., Perin; Ludmilla A.R.R., Oliveira; J. Airton, Arruda; Valter C., Lima; Antonio A.G., Lima; Paulo R.A., Caramori; Cesar R., Medeiros; Mauricio R., Barbosa; Fabio S., Brito Jr; Expedito E., Ribeiro; Eulógio E., Martinez.

2009-12-01

390

Antimicrobial pre-painted steel sheet; Kokin bokabi precoat koban  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Described herein is an antimicrobial, antifungal pre-painted steel sheet, which is basically a pre-painted sheet coated with 2 layers and baked twice, with an overcoat layer of polyester resin containing an inorganic antimicrobial agent and organic antifungal agent. The inorganic antimicrobial agents generally contain a heavy metal, such as silver, copper or zinc supported by zeolite, silica gel or the like, while keeping the heavy metal ionic. The antimicrobial tests with E. coli and S. aureus confirm its excellent antimicrobial effect; 10{sub 5} bacteria initially placed on the sheet are exterminated to 10 or less in 24h. The antifungal tests also confirm its excellent effect; no growth of fungi is observed on the sheet, while fungi evolve on the sheet containing no antimicrobial or antifungal agent and the one containing an antimicrobial agent only. 4 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

Yano, H.; Udagawa, Y.; Sakai, T.; Entani, H. [Nisshin Steel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

1998-09-30

391

Concentration profiles in paint layers studied by differential PIXE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Differential PIXE measurements varying the proton energy were used to probe the concentration profiles of metal-based pigments in paint layers. The algorithms developed earlier for metal targets were improved and enhanced to include light elements; the necessary information on chemical compounds has to be provided by complimentary methods. The de-convolution method employs slicing the target into layers characterized by mean production depths; the matrix inversion is replaced by a min ?2 problem. Two different methods of normalization are used: setting the sum of weight fractions of particular compounds to unity, and direct measurements of the projectile number, in our case through the argon line excited in the air. The efficiency of the two methods was compared for paint layers in frescoes, showing that smother concentration profiles are obtained using the measured proton numbers. Conversion of the layer areal densities into geometrical thicknesses is discussed

392

Captured Emotions: Baroque Painting in Bologna, 1575-1725  

Science.gov (United States)

This web exhibition from the Getty Museum traces the influences of the Carracci family of Bologna, Italy, thought by some art historians to have revitalized painting in the late 16th century, after the passing of the great Renaissance artists. The Explore tool provided by the Museum allows visitors to see and read about all 43 paintings in the exhibition, including works by the Carracci themselves, brothers Annibale and Agostino, and their cousin Ludovico, as well as some of their followers and students, Guido Reni, Domenichino, and Francesco Albani. Works can be sorted by theme, artist, or lending museum using the tool. For example, sorting by portraiture creates a set of portraits: a young boy, possibly Antonio Carracci, who was Agostino Carracci's illegitimate son, shown with cherries and a lute; Giulio Mascheroni, a lute player; and two important religious leaders: Pope Gregory XV and Cardinal Roberto Ubaldino.

393

Radiation-chemical hardening of varnish-and-paint coatings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of home and foregn papers dealing with chemical-radiation hardening of varnish-and-paint coatings (PC) is given. To prepare radiation hardened PCs mainly composites based on unsaturatd polyesters, epoxy-, wrethan- and acryl oligomers are used. The PC compositions and conditions of hardening using accelerated electrons, on different substrates are given. The compositions, including pigment and filler amount, affect the PC gelatination at different dose rates. Some aspects of oxygen inhibition of polymerization in a surface layer are considered. Taking into account a negative effect of oxygen during the PC radiation hardening and a hard oxygen removal from the irradiation zone, some varnish-and-paint composite materials hardened in air are being developed at present

394

Detection of lead in paint using x-ray fluorescence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lead is now recognized as a toxic substance that can cause adverse health effects, particularly in children. One of the leading causes of lead poisoning in children is the ingestion of lead-based paint. A popular, commercially viable method of detecting lead in paint is through the use of x-ray fluorescence (XRF). Several companies now produce hand-held devices that use an x-ray source to excite either the K-shell (n=1) or L-shell (n=2) fluorescence lines in lead atoms and determine the concentration of lead based on the number of characteristic lead x-rays detected. Typical sensitivities are in the region of 0.1 mg of lead/cm2. This paper discusses the physics of lead detection using XRF and the features necessary for a commercially viable instrument. The advantages and disadvantages of techniques using K-shell or L-shell XRF are examined

395

Radiation-chemical hardening of varnish-and-paint coatings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A review of home and foreign papers dealing with chemical-radiation hardening of varnish-and-paint coatings (PC) is given. To prepare radiation hardened PCs, mainly composites based on unsaturatd polyesters, epoxy-, wrethan- and acryl oligomers are used. The PC compositions and conditions of hardening using accelerated electrons, on different substrates are given. The compositions, including pigment and filler amount, affect the PC gelatination at different dose rates. Some aspects of oxygen inhibition of polymerization in a surface layer are considered. Taking into account a negative effect of oxygen during the PC radiation hardening and a hard oxygen removal from the irradiation zone, some varnish-and-paint composite materials hardened in air are being developed at present.

Sakar, A.G.

1983-01-01

396

Studies on Transverse Painting for H- Injection into the PSB  

CERN Document Server

Linac4 will inject 160 MeV H- ions into the CERN PS Booster (PSB). This will allow to reduce space charge effects and increase beam intensity but will require a substantial upgrade of the injection region. The PSB has to provide beam to several users with different requirements in terms of beam intensity and emittance. Four kicker magnets (KSW) will be used to accomplish painting in the horizontal phase space to match the injected beams to the required emittances. Multiple linear functions, with varying slopes for each user, have been defined for the KSW generators waveforms according to detailed beam dynamic studies for all target intensities and emittances. Preliminary studies have been carried out to evaluate how to obtain the required vertical emittance and the option of a transverse painting, also in the vertical plane, is explored.

Bracco, C; Fowler, T; Goddard, B; Grawer, G; Lallement, J B; Martini, M; Weterings, W

2011-01-01

397

Diffusion Time-Scale of Porous Pressure-Sensitive Paint  

Science.gov (United States)

Pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) is an optical pressure sensor that utilizes the oxygen quenching of luminescence. PSP measurements in unsteady aerodynamic flows require fast time response of the paint. There are two characteristic time-scales that are related to the time response of PSP. One is the luminescent lifetime representing an intrinsic physical limit for the achievable temporal resolution of PSP. Another is the time-scale of oxygen diffusion across the PSP layer. When the time-scale of oxygen diffusion is much larger than the luminescent lifetime, the time response of PSP is controlled by oxygen diffusion. In a thin homogenous polymer layer where diffusion is Fickian, the oxygen concentration 1021 can be described by the diffusion equation in one-dimension.

Liu, Tianshu; Teduka, Norikazu; Kameda, Masaharu; Asai, Keisuke

2001-01-01

398

Spectroscopic characterization of a contemporary Indian miniature painting.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case study on a contemporary Indian miniature was carried out through the application of different spectroscopic techniques. Painting support, pigments, and dyes were largely characterized by means of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence and Raman microspectroscopy directly on the artwork. Regarding golden motifs and silvered areas, for which these techniques have not provided enough information, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy was used as a complementary technique. The painting support was identified as the Bombyx mori silk. Among the colorant matters, several pigments were identified such as chrome yellow, lithopone, hematite, lamp black, mica-titania pearlescent pigment, and tin-based metallic silver, and dyes such as phthalocyanine blue and the recent synthetic pigment red PR9 naphthol AS. All this materials will provide evidence in the support of the contemporary production of the artwork for future studies. PMID:24359650

Cardeira, Ana Mafalda; Longelin, Stéphane; Le Gac, Agnès; Nogueira, Isabel; Carvalho, Maria Luísa; Manso, Marta

2013-12-01

399

Direct 14C dating of megalithic paints from NW Iberia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we present 5 AMS dates obtained from the paintings found on the uprights of 4 Galician megalithic graves. The results have shown that this art belongs roughly to the first half of the 4th millennium BC and pose the question of the contemporaneity of the building of the chambers and the execution of the paintings and also the occurrence of more than one episode of decoration in them.

En este trabajo damos a conocer cinco dataciones radiocarbónicas AMS obtenidas a partir de muestras de pintura de cuatro monumentos megalíticos gallegos. Los resultados obtenidos confirman la utilidad de este tipo de análisis a la hora de trazar la cronología de estas manifestaciones artísticas (en torno a la primera mitad del IV milenio AC y plantean además nuevas cuestiones acerca de la simultaneidad entre la pintura y la construcción de las cámaras, así como la existencia de dos o más episodios pictóricos.

Carrera Ramírez, Fernando

2002-06-01

400

Noise resistance applied to the study of zinc rich paints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrochemical Noise has been one of the more useful analysis methods to the study the corrosion processes due to the fact that it is simple and cheap. The objective of this work is to check the efficiency of this technique when it is applied to the study of Rich Zinc Paints and specifically the Noise Resistance parameter which is very efficiency to study metal-electrolyte systems. Then this technique was applied to Rich Zinc Paints systems of which we have already information by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The outcomes of this paper show the efficiency of applying Noise Resistance technique to explain the behavior of this kind of systems. (Author) 18 refs

 
 
 
 
401

Can children's paintings of their doctors be interpreted?  

Science.gov (United States)

There is increased emphasis nowadays on the role of the general practitioner in preventive care for children. Accordingly, an analysis of the child's perception of the doctor and of the factors which influence and mould that perception are important. In New Zealand children's paintings have been used for such analyses. The present study looked at children's paintings of their family doctors in a Devonshire village. The findings show that boys are more likely than girls to depict their doctors as a gruesome or threatening character, and suggest that medical contact has little, if any, influence on character portrayal of doctors. Other factors that might influence character portrayal and are now thought worthy of detailed study, include television viewing patterns, personality, age, home background and artistic ability. PMID:3735216

Philipp, R; Philipp, E; Pendered, L; Barnard, C; Hall, M

1986-07-01

402

Mapping of egg yolk and animal skin glue paint binders in Early Renaissance paintings using near infrared reflectance imaging spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

In situ chemical imaging techniques are being developed to provide information on the spatial distribution of artists' pigments used in polychrome works of art such as paintings. The new methods include reflectance imaging spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence mapping. Results from these new methods have extended the knowledge obtained from site-specific chemical analyses widely in use. While these mapping methods have aided in determining the distribution of pigments, there is a growing interest to develop methods capable of identifying and mapping organic paint binders as well. Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy has been extensively used in the remote sensing field as well as in the chemical industry to detect organic compounds. NIR spectroscopy provides a rapid method to assay organics by utilizing vibrational overtones and combination bands of fundamental absorptions that occur in the mid-IR. Here we explore the utility of NIR reflectance imaging spectroscopy to map organic binders in situ by examining a series of panel paintings known to have been painted using distemper (animal skin glue) and tempera (egg yolk) binders as determined by amino acid analysis of samples taken from multiple sites on the panels. In this report we demonstrate the success in identifying and mapping these binders by NIR reflectance imaging spectroscopy in situ. Three of the four panel paintings from Cosimo Tura's The Annunciation with Saint Francis and Saint Louis of Toulouse (ca. 1475) are imaged using a highly sensitive, line-scanning hyperspectral imaging camera. The results show an animal skin glue binder was used for the blue skies and blue robe of the Virgin Mary, and egg yolk tempera was used for the red robes and brown landscape. The mapping results show evidence for the use of both egg yolk and animal skin glue in the faces of the figures. The strongest absorption associated with lipidic egg yolk features visually correlates with areas that appear to have white highlights. The results are in agreement with prior site-specific amino acid analysis, underscoring the synergy of both methods. The work here demonstrates that NIR reflectance imaging spectroscopy is a useful technique that can identify and map paint binding media based on differences in chemical composition. PMID:23799233

Dooley, Kathryn A; Lomax, Suzanne; Zeibel, Jason G; Miliani, Costanza; Ricciardi, Paola; Hoenigswald, Ann; Loew, Murray; Delaney, John K

2013-09-01

403

Breve História das Tintas Antivegetativas / Brief History of Antifouling Paints  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, os autores apresentam uma panorâmica geral sobre as tintas antivegetativas. Após a conveniente localização destas tintas no esquema de protecção anticorrosiva das obras vivas dos navios e / ou outras estruturas móveis, fazem uma síntese dos principais tipos de produtos antivegetativo [...] s usados ao longo dos tempos, até aos nossos dias. Complementarmente, sistematizam as principais tipologias dos organismos vivos que se fixam nas obras vivas das embarcações e referem alguns tipos de fauna e flora predominantes em duas regiões da Ibero-América. Abordam também, ainda que sumariamente, os principais mecanismos básicos de funcionamento dos diferentes tipos de tintas antivegetativas. Finalmente, referem algumas das principais linhas de investigação actualmente em curso, no domínio da luta contra a fixação dos organismos marinhos nos cascos dos navios. Abstract in english In this work the authors present a general overview of maritime paints, paying particular attention to the case of antifouling paints. After locating these paints in the anticorrosive protection systems used on the underwater parts of ships and/or other moving structures, a summary is made of the ma [...] in types of antifouling products used through history up to the present time. This is complemented by an assessment of the main types of living organisms that fix themselves to the underwater parts of ships, mentioning a number of families of fouling predominant in two regions of Ibero-America. Consideration is also briefly made of the main basic mechanisms by which the different types of antifouling paints work. Finally, a number of actual research lines on antifouling technologies are mentioned.

Elisabete, Almeida; Teresa, Diamantino; Orlando de, Sousa.

404

Wall paintings in churches with a limited Christological cycle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with twelve small Cretan and Peloponnesian churches, painted in the 13tn, 14tn and 15th centuries. The iconographical program in these churches includes very limited Christological cycles. On the contrary, the lives the patron saints of the churches are illustrated extensively. This phenomenon is related to the growing importance of hagiology from the end of the 13th century onwards.

Koukiaris Silas, Archimandrite

2004-01-01

405

When Van Gogh meets Mandelbrot: Multifractal Classification of Painting's Texture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a recent past, there has been a growing interest for examining the po- tential of Image Processing tools to assist Art Investigation. Simultaneously, several research works showed the interest of using multifractal analysis for the description of homogeneous textures in images. In this context, the goal of the present contribution is to study the benefits of using the wavelet leader based multifractal formalism to characterize paintings. To that end, after a brief review of the key theoret...

Abry, Patrice; Wendt, Herwig; Jaffard, Ste?phane

2013-01-01

406

Altered spatial frequency content in paintings by artists with schizophrenia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While it is difficult to imagine the way someone with mental illness perceives the world, paintings produced by mental illness sufferers with artistic talents offer a hint of this experience. Here we analyze these images in terms of statistics related to low-level visual processing. It is known that art in general possesses regular spatial frequency amplitude spectra, probably due to factors including luminance compression, approximation of natural scene spatial statistics, media, and aesthet...

Graham, Daniel; Meng, Ming

2011-01-01

407

Colloids in Paints Colloids and Interface Science, Volume 6  

CERN Document Server

The first modern approach to relate fundamental research to the applied science of colloids, this series bridges academic research and practical applications, thus providing the information vital to both. Written by the very best scientists in their respective disciplines, this volume describes the role of colloids in paints, highlighting the importance of fundamental research in industrial applications.For surface, polymer and physicochemists, materials scientists, and chemical engineers.

Tadros, Tharwat F

2011-01-01

408

‘James Cahill and the Study of Chinese Painting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available James Cahill was a leading scholar in the field of Chinese painting studies through his influential teaching and most original and prolific writings. From a global, verbal, and visual perspective, this essay examines how significantly he has challenged and thereby enriched the extant art scholarships in China and the West, and what an enduring legacy he has left behind him in the art historiography.

Zaixin Hong

2014-06-01

409

Historical Origins of Landscape Painting and Chinese Gardens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ancient Chinese landscape painting and landscape garden have very close historical ties. Knowing the relationship helps us to further understand the development process of the two. By analyzing relatively independent dynasties, this text expounds in detail the process of their birth, growth, prosperity and mutual influence, which helps to clarify the context of their development and understand the inevitable occurrence of some relevant historical trends.

Chuan Wang

2009-09-01

410

Imagery Scenery – Innovative Expression of Washing Landscape Painting Photography  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

The rich and colorful aesthetic sentiment in Chinese traditional landscape culture is the foundation and resource of the current innovation of landscape photography. This paper tries to combine modern photography skills and technologies with traditional landscape aesthetic theory so that to investigate an innovative expression of transforming the realistic characteristic of photography into creative form of imagery scenery.

Key words: Imagery scenery; Washing landscape painting; Creative photography

Wei KONG

2012-08-01

411

Behaviour of painted aluminium in Ibero-American atmospheres  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aluminium generally presents good corrosion resistance to the atmosphere. However, unprotected aluminium and aluminium alloys weather outdoors to an ugly grey colour, which deepens to black in industrial atmospheres, and undergo superficial pitting in marine atmospheres, etc. Finishing technologies are applied for their protection and decoration in a wide range of applications. These technologies basically consist of two protection processes: anodizing and painting; the latter going from conv...

Morcillo, M.; Simancas, J.; Corvo, F.; Rosales, B.; Fragata, F.; Pen?a, J.; Sa?nchez, M.; Flores, S.; Almeida, E.; Rivero, S.; Rinco?n, O. T.

2003-01-01

412

American Painting and the Systems of World Ornament  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation examines the work of nineteenth-century American painters Frederic Edwin Church, William Michael Harnett and Albert Pinkham Ryder, and focuses on the relationship between their work in painting and their work in the decorative arts. Through their decorative work, all three artists explored "systems of world ornament" that introduced them to an international range of ornamental form by compiling, cataloguing, and comparing ornament from nearly all cultures and eras. Combining...

Pfohl, Katie A.

2014-01-01

413

Behaviour of painted aluminium in Ibero-American atmospheres  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aluminium generally presents good corrosion resistance to the atmosphere. However, unprotected aluminium and aluminium alloys weather outdoors to an ugly grey colour, which deepens to black in industrial atmospheres, and undergo superficial pitting in marine atmospheres, etc. Finishing technologies are applied for their protection and decoration in a wide range of applications. These technologies basically consist of two protection processes: anodizing and painting; the latter going from conventional solvent base paints to modem water-borne, high solids and powder coatings. This paper considers the weathering performance of three paint systems: alkyd, polyurethane and polyester, after more than three years of exposure in a wide spectra of Ibero-American atmospheric conditions. The information reported includes resistance to undercutting corrosion at the scribe, filiform corrosion, fungal attack and change in the physical-chemical properties of the paint surface (loss of gloss, colour changes, chalking, etc..

El aluminio, en general, presenta una buena resistencia a la corrosión en la atmósfera. Sin embargo, el aluminio sin ninguna protección y las aleaciones de aluminio expuestas a la intemperie envejecen mostrando un color gris, negro en el caso de atmósferas industriales, sufren la formación de picaduras en atmósferas marinas, etc. Para su protección, o a efectos decorativos, se le aplican diferentes procesos de acabado en un amplio rango de aplicaciones. Estos procesos de acabado, básicamente consisten en dos métodos de protección: anodizado y pintado; este último abarca desde pinturas convencionales de base disolvente hasta modernos sistemas base agua, de alto contenido en sólidos o pinturas en polvo. Este trabajo considera el comportamiento de tres sistemas de pinturas: alquídico, poliuretano y poliéster, tras más de tres años de exposición en un amplio espectro de condiciones atmosféricas de Iberoamérica. La información presentada incluye la resistencia a la deslaminación en la incisión, corrosión filiforme, ataque por hongos y cambios en las propiedades físico-químicas de la superficie de la pintura (pérdida de brillo, color, entizado, etc.

Morcillo, M.

2003-12-01

414

Processing of antifouling paint particles by Mytilus edulis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Particles of spent antifouling paint collected from a marine boatyard were ground and subsequently administered to the filter-feeding bivalve, Mytilus edulis, maintained in static aquaria. Concentrations of Cu and Zn were measured in seawater throughout a 16 h feeding phase and a 24 h depuration phase, in rejected and egested particles collected during the respective phases, and in the organisms themselves at the end of the experiments. Concentrations and distributions of Cu and Zn in processed particles indicated that M. edulis was able to ingest paint particles, regardless of whether nutritionally viable silt was present, and no mechanism of particle discrimination was evident. Enrichment of Cu and Zn in the visceral mass of individuals and in the aqueous phase during depuration supported these assertions, although elevated concentrations in other compartments of the organism (e.g. shell, gill) suggested that biotic and abiotic uptake of aqueous metal was also important. - Particles of antifouling paint enriched in Cu and Zn are ingested and digested by the marine bivalve M. edulis.

Turner, Andrew [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk; Barrett, Mark [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Brown, Murray T. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

2009-01-15

415

Processing of antifouling paint particles by Mytilus edulis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Particles of spent antifouling paint collected from a marine boatyard were ground and subsequently administered to the filter-feeding bivalve, Mytilus edulis, maintained in static aquaria. Concentrations of Cu and Zn were measured in seawater throughout a 16 h feeding phase and a 24 h depuration phase, in rejected and egested particles collected during the respective phases, and in the organisms themselves at the end of the experiments. Concentrations and distributions of Cu and Zn in processed particles indicated that M. edulis was able to ingest paint particles, regardless of whether nutritionally viable silt was present, and no mechanism of particle discrimination was evident. Enrichment of Cu and Zn in the visceral mass of individuals and in the aqueous phase during depuration supported these assertions, although elevated concentrations in other compartments of the organism (e.g. shell, gill) suggested that biotic and abiotic uptake of aqueous metal was also important. - Particles of antifouling paint enriched in Cu and Zn are ingested and digested by the marine bivalve M. edulis

416

A heat exchanger analogy of automotive paint ovens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computational prediction of vehicle temperatures in an automotive paint oven is essential to predict paint quality and manufacturability. The complex geometry of vehicles, varying scales in the flow, transient nature of the process, and the tightly coupled conjugate heat transfer render the numerical models computationally very expensive. Here, a novel, simplified model of the oven is developed using an analogy to a three-stream cross flow heat exchanger that transfers heat from air to a series of moving bodies and supporting carriers. The analogous heat exchanger equations are developed and solved numerically. Steady state Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are carried out to model the flow field and to extract the heat transfer coefficients around the body and carriers. The air temperature distribution from the CFD models is used as a boundary condition in the analogous model. Correction coefficients are used in the analogy to take care of various assumptions. These are determined from existing test data. The same corrections are used to predict air temperatures for a modified configuration of the oven and a different vehicle. The method can be used to conduct control volume analysis of ovens to determine energy efficiency, and to study new vehicle or oven designs. -- Highlights: • Analogy of an automotive paint oven as a three stream cross flow heat exchanger. • The three streams are vehicle bodies, carriers and hot air. • Convection coefficients and inlet air stream temperatures from steady CFD simulations. • Analogy useful for overall energy efficiency analysis of conveyor ovens in general

417

Structural analysis of paintings based on brush strokes  

Science.gov (United States)

The origin of works of art can often not be attributed to a certain artist. Likewise it is difficult to say whether paintings or drawings are originals or forgeries. In various fields of art new technical methods are used to examine the age, the state of preservation and the origin of the materials used. For the examination of paintings, radiological methods like X-ray and infra-red diagnosis, digital radiography, computer-tomography, etc. and color analyzes are employed to authenticate art. But all these methods do not relate certain characteristics in art work to a specific artist -- the artist's personal style. In order to study this personal style of a painter, experts in art history and image processing try to examine the 'structural signature' based on brush strokes within paintings, in particular in portrait miniatures. A computer-aided classification and recognition system for portrait miniatures is developed, which enables a semi- automatic classification and forgery detection based on content, color, and brush strokes. A hierarchically structured classification scheme is introduced which separates the classification into three different levels of information: color, shape of region, and structure of brush strokes.

Sablatnig, Robert; Kammerer, Paul; Zolda, Ernestine

1998-05-01

418

Sensación y pintura en Deleuze / Sensation and Painting in Deleuze  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente ensayo comenta los alcances de la teoría de la pintura desarrollada por Gilles Deleuze en Francis Bacon. Lógica de la sensación. Se abordan, específicamente, aquellos fundamentos que sostienen la comprensión del medio pictórico como campo de acción para el arte contemporáneo, no así, la [...] obra de Bacon en particular. Desde esta perspectiva, se relevan las siguientes claves de la teoría deleuziana: primero, la pintura concebida como un lenguaje dirigido al cuerpo con el poder de configurar sensaciones determinadas; y segundo, la noción de cuadro como manifestación material-objetiva de dichas sensaciones. Abstract in english This essay is a comment on the theory of painting developed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze Francis Bacon. Logics of sensation. This text revise the foundations that support the understanding of pictorial medium as (well as the) action field for contemporary art, nor Bacon's work in particular. [...] From this pant of view, the keys of deleuzian theory are revealed as: first, painting conceived as a language oriented to the body wich has the power to configurated fixed or determínate sensations and, second, painting thinked as an objective-material manifestation of those sensations.

Paula, Honorato Crespo.

419

Alkyd paints in art: characterization using integrated mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alkyd resins have been commonly used as binders in artist paints since the 1940s. The characterization of alkyds in samples from artworks can help to solve attribution and dating issues, investigate decay processes, and contribute to the planning of conservation strategies. Being able to assess the components of industrially formulated paint materials and to differentiate between different trademarks and producers is extremely interesting and requires multi-analytical approaches. In this paper we describe the characterization of commercial alkyd paint materials using a multi-analytical approach based on the integration of three different mass spectrometric techniques: gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with a tandem quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI-Q-ToF), and flow injection analysis (FIA) in the ESI-Q-ToF mass spectrometer. GC/MS was successful in determining the fatty acid and aromatic fractions of the resins after hydrolysis; HPLC-ESI-Q-ToF analysis enabled us to identify the triglycerides (TAGs) and diglycerides (DAGs) profile of each resin, and FIA analysis was used as a rapid method to evaluate the presence of possible additives such as synthetic polymers. PMID:24050671

La Nasa, Jacopo; Degano, Ilaria; Modugno, Francesca; Colombini, Maria Perla

2013-10-01

420

Sensación y pintura en Deleuze Sensation and Painting in Deleuze  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El presente ensayo comenta los alcances de la teoría de la pintura desarrollada por Gilles Deleuze en Francis Bacon. Lógica de la sensación. Se abordan, específicamente, aquellos fundamentos que sostienen la comprensión del medio pictórico como campo de acción para el arte contemporáneo, no así, la obra de Bacon en particular. Desde esta perspectiva, se relevan las siguientes claves de la teoría deleuziana: primero, la pintura concebida como un lenguaje dirigido al cuerpo con el poder de configurar sensaciones determinadas; y segundo, la noción de cuadro como manifestación material-objetiva de dichas sensaciones.This essay is a comment on the theory of painting developed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze Francis Bacon. Logics of sensation. This text revise the foundations that support the understanding of pictorial medium as (well as the action field for contemporary art, nor Bacon's work in particular. From this pant of view, the keys of deleuzian theory are revealed as: first, painting conceived as a language oriented to the body wich has the power to configurated fixed or determínate sensations and, second, painting thinked as an objective-material manifestation of those sensations.

Paula Honorato Crespo

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
421

2D and 3D chromosome painting in malaria mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) of whole arm chromosome probes is a robust technique for mapping genomic regions of interest, detecting chromosomal rearrangements, and studying three-dimensional (3D) organization of chromosomes in the cell nucleus. The advent of laser capture microdissection (LCM) and whole genome amplification (WGA) allows obtaining large quantities of DNA from single cells. The increased sensitivity of WGA kits prompted us to develop chromosome paints and to use them for exploring chromosome organization and evolution in non-model organisms. Here, we present a simple method for isolating and amplifying the euchromatic segments of single polytene chromosome arms from ovarian nurse cells of the African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. This procedure provides an efficient platform for obtaining chromosome paints, while reducing the overall risk of introducing foreign DNA to the sample. The use of WGA allows for several rounds of re-amplification, resulting in high quantities of DNA that can be utilized for multiple experiments, including 2D and 3D FISH. We demonstrated that the developed chromosome paints can be successfully used to establish the correspondence between euchromatic portions of polytene and mitotic chromosome arms in An. gambiae. Overall, the union of LCM and single-chromosome WGA provides an efficient tool for creating significant amounts of target DNA for future cytogenetic and genomic studies. PMID:24429496

George, Phillip; Sharma, Atashi; Sharakhov, Igor V

2014-01-01

422

Sensación y pintura en Deleuze / Sensation and Painting in Deleuze  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente ensayo comenta los alcances de la teoría de la pintura desarrollada por Gilles Deleuze en Francis Bacon. Lógica de la sensación. Se abordan, específicamente, aquellos fundamentos que sostienen la comprensión del medio pictórico como campo de acción para el arte contemporáneo, no así, la [...] obra de Bacon en particular. Desde esta perspectiva, se relevan las siguientes claves de la teoría deleuziana: primero, la pintura concebida como un lenguaje dirigido al cuerpo con el poder de configurar sensaciones determinadas; y segundo, la noción de cuadro como manifestación material-objetiva de dichas sensaciones. Abstract in english This essay is a comment on the theory of painting developed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze Francis Bacon. Logics of sensation. This text revise the foundations that support the understanding of pictorial medium as (well as the) action field for contemporary art, nor Bacon's work in particular. [...] From this pant of view, the keys of deleuzian theory are revealed as: first, painting conceived as a language oriented to the body wich has the power to configurated fixed or determínate sensations and, second, painting thinked as an objective-material manifestation of those sensations.

Paula, Honorato Crespo.

2010-07-01

423

Peceptual rendering of HDR in painting and photography  

Science.gov (United States)

Pictures can be drawn by hand, or imaged by optical means. Over time, pictures have changed from being rare and unique to ubiquitous and common. They have changed from treasures to transients. This paper summarizes many picture technologies, and discusses their dynamic range, their color and tone-scale rendering and their spatial image processing. High Dynamic Range (HDR) image capture and display has long been an interest for artists and photographers. The discipline of reproducing scenes with a high range of luminances has a 5-century history that includes painting, photography, electronic imaging and image processing. HDR images render high-range scene information into lowrange reproductions. This paper studies the artistic techniques and scientific issues that control HDR image capture and reproduction. Both the artist and the scientist synthesize HDR reproductions with spatial image processing. The artists paints, or dodges and burns, the image he visualizes based on his human visual processing. The scientist, using algorithms that mimic vision, calculates perceptually correct renditions with inaccurate reproductions of scene radiances. The paper will discuss artists' techniques used in both painting and photography for HDR compression. It will also describe how optical veiling glare severely limits the range of luminance that can be captured and seen. The improvement in quality in digital HDR reproductions, as in HDR in art, depends on the spatial rendering of details in the highlights and shadows.

McCann, John J.

2008-02-01

424

LWR containment spray iodine removal calculation code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the reactor containment vessel of LWR, there are containment sprays and air-cleaning filters to prevent the release of radioiodine from the reactor building to the atmosphere in LOCA. The computer code MIRA-PB for predicting iodine removal by containment spray is made on the basis of MIRAP/MIRAB code developed in Battelle's Columbus Laboratories. MIRA-PB considers behavior of elemental iodine, organic iodide, and iodic aerosol in natural deposition, liquid-film absorption, spray washout, filteration, and leakage to atmosphere. Information is obtained on the contributions of sprays to iodine removal under LOCA conditions which depends on partition coefficient of elemental iodine and organic iodide, pH, temperature, concentrations in gaseous and liquid phases, physical properties of spray, motion of spray droplets in the containment vessel, and mass-transfer rate from gaseous to liquid phase. Iodine removal by sprays in PWR, BWR, Battelle's CSE and JAERI-model containment is calculated by MIRA-PB under LOCA simulated condition. (auth.)

425

Evaluation of safeguards reliability - containment spray  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An example of a safety system which has been evaluated in terms of quantitative reliability is the containment spray system for a typical pressurized water reactor. The system is designed to deliver, through spray nozzles, spray containing chemical additives to remove radioactivity and provide the proper pH solutions when combined with refueling water and spilled reactor coolant water after the accident. A fault tree analysis of a typical containment spray system has been performed by Westinghouse and is presented in the paper. The fault tree analysis combines the random component failures of the system in the correct logical manner to arrive at system failure. The various component failure probabilities taken in the necessary combination, result in a system failure probability which then may be judged as a characteristic of system performance. A two-fold analysis of the system is presented: the first analysis determines the probability of the containment spray system failing to spray the containment atmosphere following a LOCA; the second analysis determines the probability of the spray system being inadvertently actuated

426

Proceedings SPRAY 2010, 3.-5. Mai 2010, Heidelberg  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

SPRAY 20109. Workshop über Sprays, Techniken der Fluidzerstäubung und Untersuchungen von SprühvorgängenHeidelberg, 3. - 5. Mai 2010Die Spray-Workshops sollen Ingenieuren und Wissenschaftlern aus Forschung und Industrie Gelegenheit bieten, sich mit aktuellen Problemen und Lösungsansätzen der Fluidzerstäubung, den entsprechenden Messtechniken sowie der physikalischen Modellbildung von Sprayprozessen und deren numerischer Behandlung auseinander zu setzen. Der Workshop Spray 2010 in Heidel...

Udo Fritsching

2010-01-01

427

Predicting the transverse volume distribution under an agricultural spray boom  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The volume distribution of spray below individual agricultural flat-fan spray nozzles was fitted to a truncated normal distribution. This expresses the parameters as a function of the spray liquid pressure, the boom height and the nozzle orifice size. This model was used to predict the transverse distribution below an agricultural spray boom.

Leunda, P.; Debouche, Charles; Caussin, R.

1990-01-01

428

On the modeling of fuel sprays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report concerns on the modelling of fuel sprays in a non-combustible case using an own developed fuel spray code module. The spray code is made as an independent module to simplify the use of different gas flow solvers together with the spray module. This enables the possibility to use different turbulence models. In the report two turbulence models has been used, the standard k-{epsilon} and the LES (Large Eddy Simulation) model. The report presents results obtained from a sensitivity study of both numerical and physical parameters on an evaporating spray under diesel like conditions (light duty diesel engine) with the spray code module attached to a cylindrical gas phase flow solver. The results from the sensitivity analysis showed that these effects were not so pronounced as has been reported. It was suggested that this was due to the `easy` nature of the investigated case, where the flow field could be sufficiently resolved without violating the droplet void fraction criteria and break-up, collision and combustion that may increase the grid spacing sensitivity were not modelled. An investigation was performed to valuate the feasibility of using LES as turbulence model. Calculations of the initial phase of a developing jet were made and it was found that in the initial phase of the spray and the flow structure were similar to that of a spatially developing jet flow, which is in agreement with experimental observations. Results from LES calculations on a developing spray jet was also compared with k-{epsilon} based ones. This result showed that the spray-LES approach captured the transition from a laminar to a turbulent flow field with an increase in turbulent kinetic energy k along the injection direction 45 refs, 37 figs, 2 tabs

Bergstroem, Christer

1997-12-01

429

Reactor Containment Spray Technology Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design basis accident in water moderated power reactors is a loss-of-coolant accident in which water sprays are generally employed to control the containment pressure transient by condensing the released steam-air mixture. Additives to the spray have been proposed as a way to increase their usefulness by enhancing the removal of various forms of radioiodine from the containment atmosphere. A program to investigate the gas-liquid systems involved is co-ordinated by ORNL for the US Atomic Energy Commission. A basic part of the program is the search for various chemical additives that will increase the spray affinity for molecular iodine and methyl iodide. A method for evaluating additives was developed that measures equilibrium distribution coefficients for iodine between air and aqueous solutions. Additives selected are used in single drop-wind tunnel experiments where the circulating gas contains iodine or CH3I. Mass transfer coefficients and transient distribution coefficients have been determined as a function o