WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Effect of sporadic E clouds on GPS radio occultation signals  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study the effects of sporadic E (Es) clouds on GPS radio occultation (RO) signals are investigated by modeling wave propagation and analyzing observational GPS RO data. It has been shown that when the Es clouds are aligned with the propagation direction, they cause defocusing of the GPS RO signal, accompanied by scintillation above and below the defocusing region (due to the interference of direct and refracted radio waves). These effects result in specific U-shape structures in the amplitude of the GPS RO signals. When Es clouds are tilted with respect to the propagation direction, the effects reduce and disappear with the increase of the tilt angle. The U-shape structures are clearly identified in the observed GPS RO signals mainly at tangent point (TP) heights 90-120 km, but also at much lower TP heights. The latter indicates that some Es clouds are tilted with respect to the local horizon (this has also been shown in other studies). The distributions of the observed U-shape structures in latitude, local time, tilt angle, and vertical thickness of the cloud are evaluated in this study based on one month of COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate) RO data in July 2009.

Zeng, Z.; Sokolovskiy, S. V.

2010-12-01

2

Effects of scattering on the partial transparency of sporadic-E layers, 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of the scattering of HF radio waves by wavelike irregularities on the partial transparency of sporadic-E layers are studied using the full wave method. Reflection and transmission coefficients and theoretical ionograms are calculated for some sporadic-E layer models including wavelike irregularities when the Earth's magnetic field is neglected. The main result obtained is that if the weak irregularities in a sporadic-E layer contain 'wavelike' electron density fluctuations with amplitudes of only a few percent of the background electron density and with wavelengths of 10-100 m, resonant scattering may take place, and the effects of scattering by these irregularities are significant enough to give satisfactory explanations for the partial transparency of sporadic-E layers. (author)

1989-01-01

3

Ionospheric-plasmaspheric interactions and the presunrise effect in the sporadic E layer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A model of ionospheric-plasmaspheric interactions is used to show that the presunrise burst in the parameters of the thin sporadic E layer can be explained by reference to coupling effects between conjugate hemispheres without recourse to an Alfven-wave mechanism. It is noted that a model of the midlatitude ionosphere with allowance for variations of the thin Es layer parameters including the presunrise effect can be used to calculate short-wave paths. 25 refs.

Kutimskaia, M.A.; Kulizhskii, A.V.; Leonovich, A.S. (Irkutskii Sel' skokhoziaistvennyi Inst., Irkutsk (Russian Federation))

1992-08-01

4

IMF effect on sporadic-E layers at two northern polar cap sites: Part II – Electric field  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper is the second in a series on a study of the link between IMF and sporadic-E layers within the polar cap. In Paper I (Voiculescu et al., 2006), an analysis of the sporadic-E data from Thule and Longyearbyen was presented. Here we concentrate on the electric field mechanism of sporadic-E generation. By means of model calculations we show that the mechanism is effective even at Thule, where the direction of the geomagnetic field departs from vertical only by 4. The model calculat...

Nygre?n, T.; Aikio, A. T.; Voiculescu, M.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.

2006-01-01

5

The relative effects of electric fields and neutral winds on the formation of the equatorial sporadic E layer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with an extension of the theory of mid-latitude blanketing sporadic E layer formation to the same phenomenon observed close to the geomagnetic equator. Generally the effect of the equatorial electrojet alone is considered for studying the sporadic E layer at the equator. The mid-latitude blanketing sporadic E, on the other hand, has been explained by the neutral wind shear theory. In the present study, a theory is developed to take account of both the electric field and the neutral wind effects. Models of the relevant parameters, both empirical and observational, have been used to solve the coupled equations of continuity and motion for a series of dip angles, ranging from 0.50 to 200. The effects of the electric field and the neutral wind are comparable within the range +-10. However, for angles greater than 10 the neutral wind effects become dominant and the effect of the electric field falls off rapidly

1977-01-01

6

IMF effect on sporadic-E layers at two northern polar cap sites: Part II – Electric field  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is the second in a series on a study of the link between IMF and sporadic-E layers within the polar cap. In Paper I (Voiculescu et al., 2006, an analysis of the sporadic-E data from Thule and Longyearbyen was presented. Here we concentrate on the electric field mechanism of sporadic-E generation. By means of model calculations we show that the mechanism is effective even at Thule, where the direction of the geomagnetic field departs from vertical only by 4. The model calculations also lead to a revision of the electric field theory. Previously, a thin layer was assumed to grow at a convergent null in the vertical ion velocity, which is formed when the electric field points in the NW sector. Our calculations indicate that in the dynamic process of vertical plasma compression, a layer is generated at altitudes of high vertical convergence rather than at a null. Consequently, the layer generation is less sensitive than previously assumed to fluctuations of the electric field direction within the NW sector. The observed diurnal variations of sporadic-E occurrence at Longyearbyen and Thule are compared with the diurnal variations of the electric field, calculated using a representative range of IMF values by means of the statistical APL model. The results indicate that the main features of Es occurrence can be explained by the convection pattern controlled by the IMF. Electric fields calculated from the IMF observations are also used for producing distributions of sporadic-E occurrence as a function of electric field direction at the two sites. A marked difference between the distributions at Thule and Longyearbyen is found. A model estimate of the occurrence probability as a function of electric field direction is developed and a reasonable agreement between the model and the experimental occurrence is found. The calculation explains the differences between the distributions at the two sites in terms of the polar cap convection pattern. The conclusion is that the electric field is the major cause for sporadic-E generation and, consequently, IMF has a clear control on the occurrence of sporadic E within the polar cap.

T. Nygrén

2006-05-01

7

Solar eclipse effects of 22 July 2009 on Sporadic-E  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The total solar eclipse of 22 July 2009, was visible from some regions of China and the intense sporadic-E (Es that broke out during the solar eclipse period over the eastern China provided a unique chance to study solar eclipse effects on the Es-layer. The ground based high-frequency (HF vertical-incidence and oblique-incidence backscatter radio systems in Wuhan and an HF oblique receivers located in Suzhou were operated to detect the Es-layer. The vertical, oblique and backscatter ionograms of 22 and 23 July were recorded, processed and analyzed. The analyzing results show that the critical frequency of Es, the hop number and power of the rays transmitted from Wuhan to Suzhou as well as the Doppler frequency shift of the one-hop oblique-incidence waves reflected by the Es-layer all increased during the solar eclipse period. These variations are displayed in the paper and explained to be induced by the wind-field, which is produced by the powerful meridional air flows from the sunshine region to the moon's shadow.

G. Chen

2010-02-01

8

Determination of an effective recombination coefficient and meteoric ion density in the middle latitude sporadic E  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methodology for determination of efficiency and concentration of the recombination coefficient at the Es-layer maximum is proposed within the frames of the notion on formation of the middle latitude sporadic layer E from long-lived metabolic ions of meteorite origin

1996-01-01

9

Effects of scattering on the partial transparency of sporadic-E layers, 1; Neglecting the earth's magnetic field  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of the scattering of HF radio waves by wavelike irregularities on the partial transparency of sporadic-E layers are studied using the full wave method. Reflection and transmission coefficients and theoretical ionograms are calculated for some sporadic-E layer models including wavelike irregularities when the Earth's magnetic field is neglected. The main result obtained is that if the weak irregularities in a sporadic-E layer contain 'wavelike' electron density fluctuations with amplitudes of only a few percent of the background electron density and with wavelengths of 10-100 m, resonant scattering may take place, and the effects of scattering by these irregularities are significant enough to give satisfactory explanations for the partial transparency of sporadic-E layers. (author).

Takefu, M. (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan))

1989-01-01

10

Investigation of the horizontal inhomogeneity of the sporadic E layer and its effect on the radio-wave field attenuation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The large-scale structure of the sporadic E layer with a horizontal scale of approximately 100 km is investigated on the basis of vertical-sounding data from the Moscow station for 1975 and 1976. The effect of the horizontal inhomogeneity on short-waves and ultrashort-waves reflected from the layer is examined. It is shown that defocusing is the dominant effect, reaching, on the average, a value of 5-7 dB; focusing reaches a value of 2-4 dB as compared with attenuation in free space.

Kerblai, T.S.; Kishcha, P.V.

1985-06-01

11

IMF effect on sporadic-E layers at two northern polar cap sites: Part I – Statistical study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the relationship between polar cap sporadic-E layers and the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF using a 2-year database from Longyearbyen (75.2 CGM Lat, Svalbard and Thule (85.4 CGM Lat, Greenland. It is found that the MLT distributions of sporadic-E occurrence are different at the two stations, but both are related to the IMF orientation. This relationship, however, changes from the centre of the polar cap to its border. Layers are more frequent during positive By at both stations. This effect is particularly strong in the central polar cap at Thule, where a weak effect associated with Bz is also observed, with positive Bz correlating with a higher occurrence of Es. Close to the polar cap boundary, at Longyearbyen, the By effect is weaker than at Thule. On the other hand, Bz plays there an equally important role as By, with negative Bz correlating with the Es occurrence. Since Es layers can be created by electric fields at high latitudes, a possible explanation for the observations is that the layers are produced by the polar cap electric field controlled by the IMF. Using electric field estimates calculated by means of the statistical APL convection model from IMF observations, we find that the diurnal distributions of sporadic-E occurrence can generally be explained in terms of the electric field mechanism. However, other factors must be considered to explain why more layers occur during positive than during negative By and why the Bz dependence of layer occurrence in the central polar cap is different from that at the polar cap boundary.

M. Voiculescu

2006-05-01

12

Disorganized vascular structures in sporadic venous malformations: a possible correlation with balancing effect between Tie2 and TGF-?  

Science.gov (United States)

Venous malformations (VMs) are among the most common slow-flow vascular malformations characterized by irregular venous channels, luminal thrombi, and phleboliths. To systematically manifest the disorganized vascular structures in sporadic VMs, we initially evaluated histopathological characteristics, perivascular cell coverage, adhesion molecules expression and vascular ultrastructures. Then, the expression of Tie2 and TGF-? in VMs was detected. Meanwhile, the in vitro studies were performed for mechanism investigation. Our data showed that the perivascular ?-SMA+ cell coverage and expression of adhesion molecules in VMs were significantly decreased compared with those in the normal skin tissues. We also found that the expression and phosphorylation levels of Tie2 were upregulated, whereas TGF-? was downregulated in VMs, and they were negatively correlated. Moreover, the in vitro results also revealed a possible balancing effect between Tie2 and TGF-?, as demonstrated by the findings that Ang-1 (agonist of Tie2) treatment significantly downregulated TGF-? expression, and treatment with recombinant TGF-? could also suppress Tie2 expression and phosphorylation. This study provided strong evidence supporting the disorganized vascular structures and dysregulation of related molecules in sporadic VMs, and demonstrated a possible balancing effect between Tie2 and TGF-?, which might help to develop novel therapeutics for vascular disorganization-related disorders.

Chen, Gang; Ren, Jian-Gang; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Yan-Fang; Wang, Feng-Qin; Li, Rui-Fang; Zhang, Jian; Zhao, Yi-Fang

2014-01-01

13

High Latitude Sporadic E.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research results on high latitude sporadic E are surveyed, and replotted and displayed in Corrected Geomagnetic Latitude (CGL) AND Corrected Geomagnetic Time (CGT) and related to current research results. Patterns of occurrence of sporadic E are ...

E. W. Pittenger G. J. Gassmann

1971-01-01

14

Auroral sporadic E  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some general features of auroral zone sporadic E layer are discussed and some examples are presented to show the relation between the frequency parameters of sporadic E layer and the auroral substorm. It seems that in relatively large longitude sector in the night time auroral zone the substorms are invariably followed by simultaneous increase in the blanketing frequency of sporadic E.

Turunen, T.

1981-01-01

15

Midlatitude sporadic-E layers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The partially transparent echo from midlatitude sporadic E layers was recorded by ionosondes between the blanketing frequency and the maximum frequency. The theory that the midlatitude sporadic E layers are not uniform in the horizontal plane but contain localized regions of high electron density was evaluated using data obtained by incoherent scatter radar and found to provide a satisfactory explanation. The main features of midlatitude sporadic E layers are consistent with the convergence of metallic ions as described by the wind shear theory applied to gravity waves and tides. The interference of gravity waves with other gravity waves and tides can be recognized in the altitudes of occurrence and the structure of the layers. Small scale horizontal irregularities are attributed in some cases to critical level effects and in others to fluid instabilities. The convergence of a meteor trail can, under some circumstances, account for localized enhancement of the electron density in the layer

1976-01-01

16

Midlatitude sporadic-E layers  

Science.gov (United States)

Rocket borne probes and incoherent scatter radar were demonstrated to be effective methods of studying the structure of midlatitude sporadic E layers. Layers are formed when metal ions are converged vertically in a wind shear to produce a local enhancement of electron density. Rocket and radar observations show that the layers may occassionally have complex structure produced by an unstable wind shear. The partial transparency to radio waves of sporadic E layers is shown to be due to localized regions of high electron density.

Smith, L. G.; Miller, K. L.

1981-01-01

17

Ionosphere-plasmasphere coupling and the pre-sunrise effect in the sporadic E layer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of the model of ionosphere-plasmasphere coupling it is shown, that the pre-sunrise 'splashing' in the parameters of Es thin layers can be explained using coupling effects between conjugated semispheres without using of Alfven wave mechanism. Estimation calculations allow to conclude, that direct effect of Alfven waves generated by such Es-layers during terminator passing in ionosphere one range, on magnetoconjugated ionosphere is not efficient

1992-07-01

18

IMF effect on sporadic-E layers at two northern polar cap sites: Part I – Statistical study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we investigate the relationship between polar cap sporadic-E layers and the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) using a 2-year database from Longyearbyen (75.2 CGM Lat, Svalbard) and Thule (85.4 CGM Lat, Greenland). It is found that the MLT distributions of sporadic-E occurrence are different at the two stations, but both are related to the IMF orientation. This relationship, however, changes from the centre of the polar cap to its border. Layers are more freque...

Voiculescu, M.; Aikio, A. T.; Nygre?n, T.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.

2006-01-01

19

Effects of scattering on the partial transparency of sporadic-E layers, 2; Including the earth's magnetic field  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present discussion concerns the study of the partial transparency of sporadic-E layers in terms of the scattering of HF radio waves by wavelike irregularities. The method used is basically the same as that of Part I of this study, but the Earth's magnetic field is included in this paper. The main effects of the Earth's magnetic field are the difference in the reflection frequencies of the o- and x-modes and the mode coupling between these two modes. Numerical results are compared with the results obtained by rocket and radio measurements. Finally, the partially transparent Es traces on ionograms are tentatively classified into 6 types on the basis of the physical processes involved. It is shown that weak 'wavelike' sporadic-E irregularities, if they exist, with amplitudes of only a few percent of the background electron density and with wavelengths of 10 - 100 m, are efficient enough to produce appreciable scattered echoes to give satisfactory explanations for the partial transparency of sporadic-E layers. (author).

Takefu, M. (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan))

1989-01-01

20

Midlatitude sporadic-E layers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The starting point of this investigation is the partially transparent echo from midlatitude sporadic-E layers as recorded by ionosondes; this is the range of frequencies between the blanketing frequency and the maximum frequency. One interpretation is that it is a partial reflection at the steep gradients of electron density which characterize the vertical profile of the layers as recorded in rocket flights. The theory of reflection at gradients is developed and evaluated in the case of five layers. It is found that this mechanism is not sufficient to explain the phenomenon. An alternative explanation is that the midlatitude sporadic-E layers are not uniform in the horizontal plane but contain localized regions of high electron density. This is investigated using data obtained by incoherent-scatter radar and is found to provide a satisfactory explanation. The main features of midlatitude sporadic-E layers are consistent with the convergence of metallic ions as described by the wind-shear theory applied to gravity waves and tides. The interference of gravity waves with other gravity waves and tides can be recognized in the altitudes of occurrence and the structure of the layers. The small-scale horizontal irregularities are attributed in some cases to critical level effects and in others to fluid instabilities. The convergence of a meteor trail can, under some circumstances, account for localized enhancement of the electron density in the layer

1977-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

The lunar tide in sporadic E  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It seems that the wind shear theory is accepted for the explanation of sporadic E at mid and low latitudes. Some examples from Arecibo are displayed to show this. The effect of lunar tides should then modify the wind-shear theory in a manner that yields the observed features of the lunar tide in the critical frequency foEs and the height h'Es of the sporadic E. This is shown to imply that the phase of the lunar tide in h'Es should be the same as the phase of the lunar tide in the eastw...

Stening, R. J.

1999-01-01

22

Evaporation of high speed sporadic meteors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent measurements conducted at the Arecibo Observatory report high-speed sporadic meteors having velocities near 50 km/s. The results seem to indicate a bimodal velocity distribution in the sporadic meteors (maxima at ~20 km/s and ~50 km/s). The particles have a maximum mass of ~1µg. This paper will present an analysis of the ablation of 1µg meteoroids having velocities of 20, 30, 50, and 70 km/s. The calculations show that there is fractionation even for the fast meteoroids, the effect b...

Murad, E.; Roth, C.

2004-01-01

23

Evaporation of high speed sporadic meteors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent measurements conducted at the Arecibo Observatory report high-speed sporadic meteors having velocities near 50 km/s. The results seem to indicate a bimodal velocity distribution in the sporadic meteors (maxima at ~20 km/s and ~50 km/s). The particles have a maximum mass of ~1 ?g. This paper will present an analysis of the ablation of 1 ?g meteoroids having velocities of 20, 30, 50, and 70 km/s. The calculations show that there is fractionation even for the fast meteoroids, the effect b...

Murad, E.; Roth, C.

2003-01-01

24

Investigation of the sporadic E layer using multifrequency measurements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The multifrequency sounding method was used to investigate the structure of the sporadic E layer at turbopause heights. Investigation of the fine structure of the echo region makes it possible to construct models of the sporadic E layer, evaluate inhomogeneity scales in the layer, and identify wave processes in the layer under the effect of acoustic gravity waves.

Sokolovskii, V.I.; Sushchii, S.M.; Cherkashin, Yu.N.

1979-11-01

25

Sporadic Ataxia and Multiple System Atrophy (MSA)  

Science.gov (United States)

What is sporadic ataxia? Sporadic ataxia is a term designating a group of diseases of the central nervous system that occur without evidence ... or ILOCD) What are the symptoms of sporadic ataxia? Difficulty with balance and incoordination of the legs ...

26

Congenital hyperekplexia: five sporadic cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report fives sporadic cases of hyperekplexia or startle disease characterized by a highly exaggerated startle reflex and tonic attacks. Affected neonates suffer from prolonged periods of stiffness and are at risk for sudden death from apnea. An early diagnosis is needed. Sudden loud sounds, unexpected tactile stimuli or percussion at the base of the nose can also elicit excessive jerking or tonic attack. The diagnosis of hyperekplexia is a purely clinical one. A defect of the alpha1 subunit of inhibitory glycine receptor (GLRA1) has been observed in the dominant form with a mutation in the chromosome 5. Clonazepam is effective and decreases the severity of the symptoms. The disease tends to improve after infancy and the psychomotor development is normal. The major form of "hyperekplexia" should be considered whenever one is confronted with neonatal hypertonicity associated with paroxysmal tonic manifestations (without electroencephalography anomalies). Conclusion: the diagnosis of hyperekplexia should be evaluated in any neonate with tonic attacks without evident cause. PMID:16211400

Rivera, Serge; Villega, Frédéric; de Saint-Martin, Anne; Matis, Jacqueline; Escande, Benoît; Chaigne, Denys; Astruc, Dominique

2006-02-01

27

Some Properties of High Latitude Sporadic E.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ionospheric data indicate that three different sporadic E phenomena occur in the auroral zone. In summertime, midlatitude types of sporadic E are seen. These occur in two waves of sequential sporadic E with the first wave in the morning and the second wav...

T. Turunen

1978-01-01

28

Uncovering the Rare Variants of DLC1 Isoform 1 and Their Functional Effects in a Chinese Sporadic Congenital Heart Disease Cohort  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect affecting the structure and function of fetal hearts. Despite decades of extensive studies, the genetic mechanism of sporadic CHD remains obscure. Deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1) gene, encoding a GTPase-activating protein, is highly expressed in heart and essential for heart development according to the knowledge of Dlc1-deficient mice. To determine whether DLC1 is a susceptibility gene for sporadic CHD, we sequenced the coding region of DLC1 isoform 1 in 151 sporadic CHD patients and identified 13 non-synonymous rare variants (including 6 private variants) in the case cohort. Importantly, these rare variants (8/13) were enriched in the N-terminal region of the DLC1 isoform 1 protein. Seven of eight amino acids at the N-terminal variant positions were conserved among the primates. Among the 9 rare variants that were predicted as “damaging”, five were located at the N-terminal region. Ensuing in vitro functional assays showed that three private variants (Met360Lys, Glu418Lys and Asp554Val) impaired the ability of DLC1 to inhibit cell migration or altered the subcellular location of the protein compared to wild-type DLC1 isoform 1. These data suggest that DLC1 might act as a CHD-associated gene in addition to its role as a tumor suppressor in cancer.

Wang, Zhen; Tan, Huilian; Kong, Xianghua; Shu, Yang; Zhang, Yuchao; Huang, Yun; Zhu, Yufei; Xu, Heng; Wang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Ping; Ning, Guang; Kong, Xiangyin; Hu, Guohong; Hu, Landian

2014-01-01

29

Effects of Chinese herbal medicine Yinsiwei compound on spatial learning and memory ability and the ultrastructure of hippocampal neurons in a rat model of sporadic Alzheimer disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To study the effects of Chinese herbal medicine Yinsiwei compound (YSW on spatial learning and memory ability in rats with sporadic Alzheimer disease (SAD and the ultrastructural basis of the hippocampal neurons. Methods: A rat model of SAD was established by intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin. The rats were divided into six groups: sham-operation group, model group, donepezil control group, and YSW low, medium and high dose groups. Drug interventions were started on the 21st day after modeling and each treatment group was given the corresponding drugs by gavage for two months. Meanwhile, the model group and the sham-operation group were given the same volume of distilled water by gavage once a day for two months. The Morris water maze was adopted to test spatial learning and memory ability of the rats. The place navigation test and the spatial probe test were conducted. The escape latency, total swimming distance and swimming time in the target quadrant of the rats were recorded. Also, the hippocampus tissues of rats were taken out and the ultrastructure of hippocampus neurons were observed by an electron microscope.Results: In the place navigation test, compared with the model group, the mean escape latency and the total swimming distance of the donepezil group and the YSW low, medium and high dose groups were significantly shortened (P<0.05 or P<0.01. In the space probe test, the swimming time of each treatment group in the target quadrant was significantly longer than that of the model group (P<0.05 or P<0.01. For most of the test period, the donepezil group had no significant change compared with the YSW low, medium and high dose groups, respectively. The ultrastructure of the hippocampus neurons under the electron microscope also confirmed the efficacy of the drug treatment.Conclusion: Chinese herbal medicine YSW compound can improve spatial learning and memory impairment of rats with SAD. The ultrastructural basis may be that it can protect the microtubule structures of hippocampal neurons and prevent nerve axons from being damaged.

Yong-chang Diwu

2011-02-01

30

Dynamical Model for the Toroidal Sporadic Meteors  

Science.gov (United States)

More than a decade of radar operations by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar have allowed both young and moderately old streams to be distinguished from the dispersed sporadic background component. The latter has been categorized according to broad radiant regions visible to Earth-based observers into three broad classes: the helion and anti-helion source, the north and south apex sources, and the north and south toroidal sources (and a related arc structure). The first two are populated mainly by dust released from Jupiter-family comets and new comets. Proper modeling of the toroidal sources has not to date been accomplished. Here, we develop a steady-state model for the toroidal source of the sporadic meteoroid complex, compare our model with the available radar measurements, and investigate a contribution of dust particles from our model to the whole population of sporadic meteoroids. We find that the long-term stable part of the toroidal particles is mainly fed by dust released by Halley type (long period) comets (HTCs). Our synthetic model reproduces most of the observed features of the toroidal particles, including the most troublesome low-eccentricity component, which is due to a combination of two effects: particles' ability to decouple from Jupiter and circularize by the Poynting-Robertson effect, and large collision probability for orbits similar to that of the Earth. Our calibrated model also allows us to estimate the total mass of the HTC-released dust in space and check the flux necessary to maintain the cloud in a steady state.

Pokorný, Petr; Vokrouhlický, David; Nesvorný, David; Campbell-Brown, Margaret; Brown, Peter

2014-07-01

31

Medullary thyroid carcinoma: Sporadic, hereditary  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is uncommon thyroid tumor with specific characteristics which undoubtedly divide this tumor from other thyroid malignances. Patients with sporadic or hereditary form of MTC differ in clinical presentation, recurrence of the disease and outcome. The aim of study was to establish surgical characteristics of MTC as well as clinical factors that influence surgical treatment. The study group consisted of 68 patients with MTC managed at the Center for Endocrine Surger...

2003-01-01

32

Tramadol Use in Premature Ejaculation: Daily Versus Sporadic Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim: Premature ejaculation (PME) is defined as ejaculation with the minimal sexual stimulation before, on or shortly after penetration and or before a person wishes it. It is a function of the time between intra-vaginal penetration and intra-vaginal ejaculation. Tramadol has shown efficacy in PME when used as sporadic basis. In this study, we compared the use of 100 mg of tramadol as sporadic treatment (administered 6-8 h before coitus) versus continued treatment with the objective of evaluating the therapeutic results of both modalities. We assumed our alternative hypothesis that they have similar effects. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out on 60 patients divided into two groups of 30 patients each. Intra-vaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and coital frequency were measured both prior to and after the treatment. Group A received tramadol 100 mg daily for 4 weeks and on request (sporadically) for 4 weeks more. Group B was given placebo in the same manner. Results were statistically analyzed using the Student t-test. Results: Mean IELT prior to treatment was 59.2 s in Group A and 58.7 s in Group B. Mean pre-treatment coital frequency was 2.44 times/week for Group A and 2.13 times/week for Group B. Mean IELT was 202.5 s after continued tramadol treatment and 238.2 s after sporadic treatment in Group A. Mean IELT with daily placebo was 94.8 s and with sporadic placebo was 96.6 s. Coital frequency increased to 4.32 times/week with daily tramadol treatment and 4.86 times with sporadic treatment. Coital frequency increased to 2.88 times/week with daily placebo treatment and 3.23 times with sporadic treatment. Conclusions: The results of PME treatment with tramadol are similar with both continued and sporadic administration. The sex life of patients improved and they reported greater satisfaction with the sporadic treatment.

Khan, Amil H.; Rasaily, Deepa

2013-01-01

33

Midlatitude Sporadic E. A Typical Paradigm of Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper provides a comprehensive update on sporadic E layers that is placed in the context of atmosphere-ionosphere coupling, exemplified here by the fundamental windshear theory processes that govern sporadic E layer formation and variability. Some basics of windshear theory are provided first, followed by a summary of key experimental results, their interpretation and physical understanding. The emphasis is placed on the wind shear control of the diurnal and sub-diurnal variability and altitude descent of sporadic E layers and the key role behind these properties of the diurnal and semidiurnal tides. Furthermore, the paper summarizes recent observations that establish a role also for the planetary waves in sporadic E layer occurrence and long-term variability. The possible mechanisms behind this interaction are examined and evidence is presented which shows that planetary waves affect sporadic E layers indirectly though the amplitude modulation of tides at lower altitudes in the MLT region. Only a brief mention is made about gravity wave effects on sporadic E, which apparently exist but cannot be as crucial in layer forming as thought in the past. There is now enough evidence to suggest that mid- and low-latitude sporadic E is not as "sporadic" as the name implies but a regularly occurring ionospheric phenomenon. This may suggest that the sporadic E layer physics can be incorporated in large-scale atmosphere-ionosphere coupling models.

Haldoupis, Christos

2012-06-01

34

Analysis of standing wave patterns in VLF transmitter signals: Effects of sporadic E layers and in situ measurements of low electron density  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis of standing waver patterns formed by the reflection of VLFtransmitter signals incident upon a sporadi E layer is presented. The patterns were detected by electric field sensors on a sounding rocket designed to study the upward propagation of lightning-induced electric fields. To model the measured standing wave patterns it was necessary to have an accurate electron density profile. However, it has always been difficult to make accurate measurements of the low electron densities in the nighttime D and E regions. They devise a unique method to determine the electron concentration from the measured vertical wavelength of the standing wave patterns. The data from this analysis are then used to calibrate Langmuir probe measurements which, in turn, give a reasonable (but not perfect) electron density profile to use for full-wave modeling of the transmitter signals. This analysis yields several interesting characteristics, including the possibility that some energy is trapped in the sporadic E layer. The amplitude-versus-frequency characteristics of upgoing electromagnetic waves are also modeled. It is discovered that a sporadic E layer can act as a half-wave window at appropriate frequencies. A method for using VLF signals to measure electron densities without the existence of a standing wave pattern is also derived. Such a method is ideally suited for measuring the low electron densities in the nighttime D and E regions

1991-10-01

35

Analysis of standing wave patterns in VLF transmitter signals: Effects of sporadic E layers and in situ measurements of low electron density  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analysis of standing waver patterns formed by the reflection of VLFtransmitter signals incident upon a sporadi E layer is presented. The patterns were detected by electric field sensors on a sounding rocket designed to study the upward propagation of lightning-induced electric fields. To model the measured standing wave patterns it was necessary to have an accurate electron density profile. However, it has always been difficult to make accurate measurements of the low electron densities in the nighttime D and E regions. They devise a unique method to determine the electron concentration from the measured vertical wavelength of the standing wave patterns. The data from this analysis are then used to calibrate Langmuir probe measurements which, in turn, give a reasonable (but not perfect) electron density profile to use for full-wave modeling of the transmitter signals. This analysis yields several interesting characteristics, including the possibility that some energy is trapped in the sporadic E layer. The amplitude-versus-frequency characteristics of upgoing electromagnetic waves are also modeled. It is discovered that a sporadic E layer can act as a half-wave window at appropriate frequencies. A method for using VLF signals to measure electron densities without the existence of a standing wave pattern is also derived. Such a method is ideally suited for measuring the low electron densities in the nighttime D and E regions.

Siefring, C.L. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)); Kelley, M.C. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

1991-10-01

36

Adult onset sporadic ataxias: a diagnostic challenge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with adult onset non-familial progressive ataxia are classified in sporadic ataxia group. There are several disease categories that may manifest with sporadic ataxia: toxic causes, immune-mediated ataxias, vitamin deficiency, infectious diseases, degenerative disorders and even genetic conditions. Considering heterogeneity in the clinical spectrum of sporadic ataxias, the correct diagnosis remains a clinical challenge. In this review, the different disease categories that lead to sporadic ataxia with adult onset are discussed with special emphasis on their clinical and neuroimaging features, and diagnostic criteria. PMID:24676442

Barsottini, Orlando Graziani Povoas; de Albuquerque, Marcus Vinicius Cristino; Braga-Neto, Pedro; Pedroso, José Luiz

2014-03-01

37

FUS mutations in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Science.gov (United States)

Mutations in the FUS gene have recently been described as a cause of familial ALS, but their role in the pathogenesis of sporadic ALS is unclear. We undertook mutational screening of all coding exons of FUS in 228 sporadic ALS cases, and, as previous reports suggest that exon 15 represents a mutational hotspot, we sequenced this exon in an additional 1,295 sporadic cases. Six variants in six different cases were found, indicating that FUS mutations can underlie apparently sporadic ALS, but account for less than 1% of this form of disease.

Lai, Shiao-Lin; Abramzon, Yevgeniya; Schymick, Jennifer C.; Stephan, Dietrich A.; Dunckley, Travis; Dillman, Allissa; Cookson, Mark; Calvo, Andrea; Battistini, Stefania; Giannini, Fabio; Caponnetto, Claudia; Mancardi, Giovanni Luigi; Spataro, Rossella; Monsurro, Maria Rosaria; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Marinou, Kalliopi; Sabatelli, Mario; Conte, Amelia; Mandrioli, Jessica; Sola, Patrizia; Salvi, Fabrizio; Bartolomei, Ilaria; Lombardo, Federica; Mora, Gabriele; Restagno, Gabriella; Chio, Adriano; Traynor, Bryan J.

2010-01-01

38

The lunar tide in sporadic E  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It seems that the wind shear theory is accepted for the explanation of sporadic E at mid and low latitudes. Some examples from Arecibo are displayed to show this. The effect of lunar tides should then modify the wind-shear theory in a manner that yields the observed features of the lunar tide in the critical frequency foEs and the height h'Es of the sporadic E. This is shown to imply that the phase of the lunar tide in h'Es should be the same as the phase of the lunar tide in the eastward wind and that the phase of the lunar tide in foEs is three hours later. Hourly values of foEs, f bEs (the blanketing critical frequency and h'Es from several observatories are analysed for the lunar semidiurnal tide. It is found that the phase of the tide in foEs is often about 3 hours later than for h'Es in agreement with the theory. Seasonal variations in the tide are also examined with the statistically most significant results (largest amplitudes usually occurring in summer. After reviewing the many difficulties associated with determining the lunar tide in Es, both experimentally and theoretically, the analysed phase results are compared with what might be expected from Hagan's global scale wave model. Agreement is only fair (a success rate of 69% among the cases examined but probably as good as might be expected.

Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere – atmosphere interactions – ionospheric irregularities, Meteorology and atmosphere dynamics (waves and tides

R. J. Stening

39

Some F_2 layer-sporadic-E relationships  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Specific events illustrating an association between sporadic-E and travelling ionospheric disturbances (including spread-F disturbances) in mid-latitude regions are presented and discussed. Also considered is the statistical significance of the association of sporadic-E occurrence with both spread-F and high-multiple occurrence. Superposed-epoch techniques are used. A high positive correlation is found between the occurrence of Esub(s) for a period of a day before to a day after particular dates when spread-F occurrence is high. For the high-multiple analyses high correlations are also found extending over a similar period of several days. However for high multiples the correlation with Esub(s) activity is negative. The results suggest that spread-F disturbances may be present during daylight hours with low amplitudes possibly resulting from high upper-atmosphere neutral-particle densities. Also, there is evidence that sporadic-E occurrence at Brisbane, Australia is related to spread-F occurrence at other stations in the same longitude zone but located over a range of latitudes in both hemispheres. The blanketing effects of sporadic-E may explain the negative correlation of this parameter with high-multiple occurrence

1986-01-01

40

Dynamics of ionosphere sporadic-E layer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sporadic E ionosphere of Ratcliff theory covering ionosphere model, cartesian coordinates, ionic motion equation are presented. Windshear theory covering motion equation, the dynamics and probabilities are also included. (SMN)

1979-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Polytopes derived from sporadic simple groups  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, certain of the sporadic simple groups are analysed, and the polytopes having these groups as automorphism groups are characterised. The sporadic groups considered include all with order less than 4030387201, that is, all up to and including the order of the Held group. Four of these simple groups yield no polytopes, and the highest ranked polytopes are four rank 5 polytopes each from the Higman-Sims group, and the Mathieu group $M_{24}$.

Michael Ian Hartley

2010-09-01

42

Absolute Alcohol Embolization of Sporadic Angiomyolipoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Angiomyolipoma is a benign hamartoma. Seventy percent of angiomyolipomas occur sporadically in the general population and the remainder are associated with a syndrome. Of patients with tuberous sclerosis, 60 to 80% have an angiomyolipoma. Sporadic angiomyolipomas tend to be single and occur in an older age group. In tuberous sclerosis, the lesions are usually bilateral and multiple. Therapy is indicated when there are symptoms or when the lesion is greater than 4 cm. Criteria for further embo...

Cantwell, Colin P.; Taubman, Kevin E.; Scorza, Leslie B.

2008-01-01

43

/ Sporadic oral angiomyolipoma: Case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish El angiomiolipoma (AML) es un tumor benigno infrecuente compuesto por una proporción variable de lipocitos, músculo liso y vasos de paredes gruesas. Forma parte de la familia de tumores originados en las células epitelioides perivasculares (PEComas), y muchos casos se asocian a esclerosis tuberosa, [...] siendo el riñón la localización más frecuente. Presentamos un caso de AML esporádico en el paladar duro de un varón de 52 años, una localización extremadamente rara para este tumor. El diagnóstico diferencial con otras lesiones mesenquimales tanto benignas como malignas de la zona se basa en la identificación histológica de los 3 componentes, siendo de ayuda las tinciones inmunohistoquímicas. Los AMLs localizados en cabeza y cuello no expresan HMB-45, un anticuerpo que identifica melanosomas inmaduros, mientras que los renales y hepáticos sí lo hacen, lo que sugiere que existen diferencias entre ambos AMLs. El tratamiento de elección es la exéresis quirúrgica completa, ya que estos tumores suelen tener un comportamiento benigno. Abstract in english Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a rare, benign tumour composed of a variable proportion of lipocytes, smooth muscle and thick-walled blood vessels. AML is part of a family of tumours arising from perivascular epithelioid cells (PEComas), and many cases are associated with tuberous sclerosis, with the kidney [...] being the most frequent site involved. We report a case of sporadic AML in the hard palate of a 52-year-old male, an extremely unusual location for this tumour. Differentiation from other benign and malignant oral mesenchymal lesions depends on recognition of the three histologic components, and immunohistochemical techniques may be helpful. AML occurring in the head and neck do not express HMB-45, an antibody that identifies immature melanosomes, conversely to the usual immunopositivity shown in AMLs from kidney and liver, suggesting that there are differences among them. A wide surgical excision is considered curative, as this tumour usually behaves in a benign fashion.

Carlos, Álvarez Alvarez; Jacinto, Fernández Sanromán; Manuel, Fernández Castilla; Iosu, Antón Badiola.

44

Paternal Age and Sporadic Schizophrenia: Evidence for De Novo Mutations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Schizophrenia is an etiologically heterogeneous syndrome. It has a strong genetic component and exists in clinically indistinguishable familial and nonfamilial (sporadic) forms. A significant role for de novo genetic mutations in genetic schizophrenia vulnerability is suggested by a strong monotonic increase in schizophrenia risk with advancing paternal age. However, an alternative explanation for the paternal age effect in schizophrenia is that childbearing is delayed in fathers who themselv...

Malaspina, Dolores; Corcoran, Cheryl; Fahim, Cherine; Berman, Ariela; Harkavy-friedman, Jill; Yale, Scott; Goetz, Deborah; Goetz, Raymond; Harlap, Susan; Gorman, Jack

2002-01-01

45

Antigliadin antibody in sporadic adult ataxia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The most common neurologic manifestationof gluten sensitivity is ataxia, which accounts for up to 40%of idiopathic sporadic ataxia. Timing of diagnosis of glutenataxia is vital as it is one of the very few treatable causes ofsporadic ataxia and causes irreversible loss of Purkinje cells.Antigliadin antibody (AGA of the IgG type is the bestmarker for neurological manifestations of gluten sensitivity.This study was conducted to measure the prevalence ofgluten ataxia in a group of Iranian patients with idiopathicataxia.Methods: For 30 patients with idiopathic cerebellar ataxia, aquestionnaire about clinical and demographic data wascompleted. Serum AGA (IgA and IgG and antiendomysialantibody (AEA were assessed. Gluten ataxic patientsunderwent duodenal biopsy. Magnetic resonanceimaging was done for all patients to see if cerebellaratrophy is present.Results: Only 2 patients had a positive IgG AGA (6.7%who both had a positive AEA while none of themshowed changes of celiac disease in their duodenalbiopsies. Only presence of gastrointestinal symptomsand pursuit eye movement disorders were higher inpatients with gluten ataxia.Conclusion: Prevalence of gluten ataxia in Iranianpatients with idiopathic ataxia seems to be lower thanmost of other regions. This could be explained by smallsample size, differences in genetics and nutritionalhabits and also effect of serologic tests in clinical versusresearch setting. Further researches with larger samplesize are recommended.

Mahdi Aloosh

2012-09-01

46

Strategy to control type I error increases power to identify genetic variation using the full biological trajectory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genome-wide association studies have been successful in identifying loci that underlie continuous traits measured at a single time point. To additionally consider continuous traits longitudinally, it is desirable to look at SNP effects at baseline and over time using linear-mixed effects models. Estimation and interpretation of two coefficients in the same model raises concern regarding the optimal control of type I error. To investigate this issue, we calculate type I error and power under an alternative for joint tests, including the two degree of freedom likelihood ratio test, and compare this to single degree of freedom tests for each effect separately at varying alpha levels. We show which joint tests are the optimal way to control the type I error and also illustrate that information can be gained by joint testing in situations where either or both SNP effects are underpowered. We also show that closed form power calculations can approximate simulated power for the case of balanced data, provide reasonable approximations for imbalanced data, but overestimate power for complicated residual error structures. We conclude that a two degree of freedom test is an attractive strategy in a hypothesis-free genome-wide setting and recommend its use for genome-wide studies employing linear-mixed effects models. PMID:23633177

Benke, K S; Wu, Y; Fallin, D M; Maher, B; Palmer, L J

2013-07-01

47

Bilateral sporadic aniridia: review of management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Caroline O Adeoti1, Adeyinka A Afolabi2, Adebimpe O Ashaye3, Adenike O Adeoye41Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Paediatrics, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 3University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria; 4Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile Ife, Osun, Osun State, NigeriaPurpose: To report a rare case of bilateral sporadic aniridia in an African child and review the management modalities.Presentation: We report a case of bilateral sporadic aniridia with horizontal nystagmus, axial cataract optic disc, and fovea hypoplasia in a 5-year-old female patient. She was managed conservatively. Various modalities of treatment are reviewed.Keywords: aniridia, sporadic, nystagmus, cataract, glaucoma, keratopathy, tattooing, syndrome, fovea hypoplasia and optic disc hypoplasia

Caroline O Adeoti

2010-09-01

48

Maternal transmission in sporadic Huntington's disease.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a (CAG)n repeat in the IT15 gene. Three per cent of cases are sporadic and in those in which family studies have been performed, the origin of the mutation was always paternal. The first sporadic case of Huntington's disease is presented in which a premutated maternal allele of 37 CAG repeats was transmitted expanded to the proband (43 CAG repeats). Molecular analysis of the IT15 gene is extrem...

Sa?nchez, A.; Mila?, M.; Castellvi?-bel, S.; Rosich, M.; Jime?nez, D.; Badenas, C.; Estivill, X.

1997-01-01

49

Evaporation of high speed sporadic meteors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent measurements conducted at the Arecibo Observatory report high-speed sporadic meteors having velocities near 50 km/s. The results seem to indicate a bimodal velocity distribution in the sporadic meteors (maxima at ~20 km/s and ~50 km/s). The particles have a maximum mass of ~1µg. This paper will present an analysis of the ablation of 1µg meteoroids having velocities of 20, 30, 50, and 70 km/s. The calculations show that there is fractionation even for the fast meteoroids, th...

Murad, E.; Roth, C.

2004-01-01

50

Models of sporadic meteor body distributions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution of orbital elements and flux density over the celestial sphere are the most common forms of representation of the meteor body distribution in the vicinity of the Earth's orbit. The determination of flux density distribution of sporadic meteor bodies was worked out. The method and its results are discussed

1987-08-01

51

Study of Sporadic E Layer Chemistry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sporadic E layers in the lower thermosphere play a very important role in radio communications. The lifetimes of these transient layers are largely controlled by the ion-molecule chemistry of metallic ions, particularly iron (Fe), that are produced by met...

J. M. Plane

2002-01-01

52

Atmosphere gravity waves and sporadic-E  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Observations of atmospheric gravity waves have identified several occasions when a wave-group propagating upwards can be associated first with a sporadic-E layer whose total electron content varies periodically, and later with a disturbance in the F-region varying with the same period. This paper reports four examples of such behaviour. (author)

1982-01-01

53

Variability of sporadic E layer in midlatitudes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. Present contribution deals with sporadic E layer variability based on measurement in the Observatory Pruhonice (Czech Republic, 49.9N, 14.5E) during campaigns of high sampling rate measurements (5 min and 15 minute repetition time). Special campaigns were performed during summer time when the sporadic E layer occurrence is highest (data were collected since 2004 till 2008). Variability in height and critical frequency of sporadic E layer over a wide period range of hours to several days, covering tidal and planetary oscillation domain, is analyzed using wavelet transform. Within time series of height and critical frequency of the sporadic E layer there are well developed tidal and planetary modes of oscillation. We confirm our previous finding (based on campaign 2004) that a central period of the diurnal tide is not exactly 24 hours but vary in the range 22 and 26 hours. Wavelet based analysis of the wave activity within Es layer is completed by the measurements and analysis of plasma motion in the height range 90 km - 150 km. Special measurement of plasma drift at two frequency windows. Together with a standard E measurement (2-2.6 MHz) we recorded plasma motion each 15 minutes also in a higher frequency window (3.2 - 4.7 MHz). Our results show significantly different behavior of plasma motion in the E and Es layers.

2009-08-23

54

Association of radiowave absorption with E(sporadic)-activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Noontime radiowave absorption data for frequencies which are reflected below the height of sporadic-E layers show a strong positive correlation with the sporadic-E layer activity. The possibilities of atmospheric waves affecting both the sporadic-E activity as well as mesospheric ionization are suggested to explain this association

1975-01-01

55

Lunar Influences on Sporadic E.  

Science.gov (United States)

Both the altitude and density of E(s) layers vary in lunar time. Possible sources of the lunar effect are motions of the E(s) layer produced by the electrostatic field associated with the lunar ionospheric current system, and wind shears in the lunar atmo...

J. D. Tarpley S. Matsushita

1971-01-01

56

Ionospheric sporadic-E parameters: long-term trends  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of observations over 3 1/2 solar-cycles of ionosonde parameters describing sporadic-E patches (E/sub s/) are given for two Southern Hemisphere stations. Analysis has revealed systematic changes in the occurrence probabilities of f/sub o/ E/sub s/ and f/sub b/ E/sub s/ changes that are independent of time of day or season. It is unlikely that observational effects can be entirely responsible for the trends, which suggest that major long-term changes may be occurring at E region heights.

Baggaley, W.J.

1984-08-24

57

Ionospheric sporadic-E parameters: long-term trends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of observations over 3 1/2 solar-cycles of ionosonde parameters describing sporadic-E patches (E/sub s/) are given for two Southern Hemisphere stations. Analysis has revealed systematic changes in the occurrence probabilities of f/sub o/ E/sub s/ and f/sub b/ E/sub s/ changes that are independent of time of day or season. It is unlikely that observational effects can be entirely responsible for the trends, which suggest that major long-term changes may be occurring at E region heights

1984-08-24

58

New results on sporadic ionization observed with the API technique  

Science.gov (United States)

We present new results of our studies of sporadic E-layers E s by means of the artificial periodic irregularities API technique Artificial periodic irregularities were generated in antinodes of the standing electromagnetic wave formed due to interference of HF radio waves transmitted vertically and reflected from the ionosphere The API are horizontally aligned with a vertical scale of one-half of the wavelength lambda of the transmitted wave for more details on the API method and its applications see Belikovich et al Ionospheric Research by Means of Artificial Periodic Irregularities - Katlenburg-Lindau Germany 2002 Copernicus GmbH ISBN 3-936586-03-9 160 pp Recently we have presented and experimentally realized a method to determine the sporadic E-layer ion composition the molecular masses of the predominant metallic ions and the total ion densities on the basis of the measurements of the amplitude and the decay time of the API signals To study the structure of sporadic ionization layers in the E region as well as a possibility and effectiveness of Es modification by high-power radiowave transmissions we designed and carried out another experiment at the SURA facility 56 1 r N 44 1 r E in August 10-15 2004 The ionosphere modification was done by O-mode waves using two SURA transmitters at the frequency 4 3 MHz with effective radiated power ERP of about 60 MW at the transmitting schedule of the 1-min on 2-min off so-called additional heating The third transmitter was used for API formation and

Bakhmetieva, N. V.; Belikovich, V. V.; Kagan, L. M.

59

Antigliadin antibody in sporadic adult ataxia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The most common neurologic manifestationof gluten sensitivity is ataxia, which accounts for up to 40%of idiopathic sporadic ataxia. Timing of diagnosis of glutenataxia is vital as it is one of the very few treatable causes ofsporadic ataxia and causes irreversible loss of Purkinje cells.Antigliadin antibody (AGA) of the IgG type is the bestmarker for neurological manifestations of gluten sensitivity.This study was conducted to measure the prevalence ofgluten ataxia in a group of I...

Yaser Hamidian; Mansoureh Togha; Shahriar Nafisi; Shahab Dowlatshahi; Soodeh Razeghi Jahromi; Nahid Beladi Moghadam; Navid Namazi; Parvin Tajik; Masoud Majed; Mahdi Aloosh

2012-01-01

60

Gyroecho and the sporadic E layer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Generation and properties of the ionospheric gyroechoes in the presence of a thin sporadic E layer were theoretically investigated. The intensification of the echo and the decrease of its virtual height occurring at the onset of an Es-layer are explained in terms of mode coupling. A mechanism was found capable of producing gyroechoes when an otherwise totally blanketing flat-type Es-layer was present.

Nygren, T.; Jalonen, L.; Turunen, T.

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

LKB1 Somatic Mutations in Sporadic Tumors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Germline mutations of LKB1/Peutz-Jeghers syndrome gene predispose carriers to hamartomatous polyposis of the gastrointestinal tract as well as to cancer of different organ systems. Although Peutz-Jeghers syndrome patients frequently present with neoplasms of the colon, stomach, small intestine, pancreas, breast, ovaries, and cervix, somatic mutations appear to be rare in the sporadic tumor types thus far studied (colorectal, gastric, testicular, and breast cancers). To evaluate whether somati...

Avizienyte, Egle; Loukola, Anu; Roth, Stina; Hemminki, Akseli; Tarkkanen, Maija; Salovaara, Reijo; Arola, Johanna; Bu?tzow, Ralf; Husgafvel-pursiainen, Kirsti; Kokkola, Arto; Ja?rvinen, Heikki; Aaltonen, Lauri A.

1999-01-01

62

[Effect of point substitutions in the MnSOD, GPX1, and GSTP1 genes on the risk of familial and sporadic breast cancers in residents of the Alta? region of the Russian Federation].  

Science.gov (United States)

The frequencies of the polymorphic gene variants MnSOD Ala9Val, GPX1 Pro198Leu, and GSTP1 Ile105 Val were estimated in female residents of Altai krai with breast cancer. The frequency distributions of the genotypes for all genes studied in both patients and control subjects fit the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The estimated frequencies of the genotypes for the studied genes in the control group did not differ from those earlier reported for Caucasoid women living in Europe. The T(rs1050450) allele of the GPX1 gene was demonstrated to protect against sporadic breast cancer (OR = 0.74 (95% CI = 0.58-0.94), p = 0.012). Carriers of the genotype combination MnSOD CC + GPX1 CC were found to have a 1.6 times higher risk of sporadic breast cancer compared to the control group (OR = 1.59 (1.05-2.41), p = 0.0258). The polymorphic loci GSTP1 (rs1695) and MnSOD (rs4880) were not found to be significantly associated with the risk of familial or sporadic breast cancer. PMID:21434422

Ermolenko, N A; Boiarskikh, U A; Sushko, A G; Voronina, E N; Selezneva, I A; Sinkina, T V; Lazarev, A F; Petrova, V D; Filipenko, M L

2010-12-01

63

On the influence of sunspot activity on sporadic radio meteors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of sunspot activity on sporadic meteor rates has been investigated. The data of Christchurch (lat., 43deg37'S) for the periods Feb.1960-Jan. 1961 and 1963-65; of Ottawa (lat., 45deg N) for the period 1958-62 and of Waltair (lat., 17deg53'N) by forward scatter of radio waves from Dehra Dun (lat., 30deg30'N) for the period Dec.1974-Nov.1975 have been considered. The lowest recorded mean hourly meteor rate on any day in a month is considered to be typical of sporadic meteor activity for that month, and the corresponding value of sunspot number on that day is considered for this correlation study. In no case the correlation has been found to be significant at P = 0.01 level. The data for Ottawa for five years have been divided into four seasons each year and an analysis similar to the above is carried out in respect of all echoes or only long duration ones. In all the cases the correlation has been found to be insignificant. Finally, the plots of N (the normalized percentage deviation) against sunspot activity also reveal no preferential alignment for the scatter of the points. Hence it is concluded that there is no correlation between sunspot activity and aporadic meteor rates. (auth.)

1979-01-01

64

Incoherent scatter radar observations of irregular structure in mid-latitude sporadic E layers  

Science.gov (United States)

The basic experiments used phase-coded pulses to record electron density profiles with a resolution of 600 m in range and 300 m in horizontal extent, while scanning in azimuth. Data from incoherent scatter radar were compared with simultaneous ionosonde observations. Observations of sporadic E layers by incoherent scatter radar were discussed in terms of the effects of the neutral wind system acting on metallic ions. Several features were noted in the data, which support the wind shear mechanism of layer formation. The sporadic E layers often contained a pronounced small-scale structure, especially at times when partially transparent echoes were observed by the ionosonde. Under specific conditions, the ions in a meteor trail can be converged by a shear in the neutral wind into a relatively small irregularity at the center of a sporadic E layer.

Miller, K. L.; Smith, L. G.

1978-01-01

65

The genetics of radiation-induced and sporadic osteosarcoma: a unifying theory?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cancer is a disease of the genome, with the neoplastic phenotype being passed from one cell generation to the other. Radiation-induced cancer has often been considered to represent a unique entity amongst neoplasia, with the energy deposition being held responsible for both direct (gene mutations) and indirect (bystander effects, induced instability etc) alterations to the cellular genome. However, radiogenic tumours in man and experimental animals appear to be physiologically and genetically indistinguishable from their sporadic counterparts, suggesting that the aetiologies of these two tumour types are in fact closely related. We have conducted a general screen of the genetic alterations in radiation-induced mouse osteosarcoma, a tumour that is histopathologically indistinguishable from human sporadic osteosarcoma. Comparison of the two tumour types indicates the existence of a common set of genetic changes, providing additional evidence to support the concept that the molecular pathology of radiation-induced malignancy is no different to that of sporadic cancers. (author)

2002-09-01

66

Fine structure in midlatitude sporadic E layers  

Science.gov (United States)

Fine structure in midlatitude sporadic E layer patches or "clouds" is apparent in incoherent scatter observations from the Arecibo Radio Telescope. The fine structure is wavelike with predominant horizontal wavelengths as large as about 2-3km. We attribute the structure to a drift wave instability operating in the collisional regime. A linear, local dispersion relation for the waves is described which predicts growth driven by polarization electric fields in the cloud. A numerical simulation produces wave growth and other features consistent with the dispersion relation, including finite parallel wavenumbers. The kilometric irregularities are thought to be the primary waves from which secondary, meter-scale waves in the layers can form.

Hysell, D. L.; Nossa, E.; Aveiro, H. C.; Larsen, M. F.; Munro, J.; Sulzer, M. P.; González, S. A.

2013-10-01

67

Sporadically Fractal Basin Boundaries of Chaotic Systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We demonstrate a new type of basin boundary for typical chaotic dynamical systems. For the case of a two dimensional map, this boundary has the character of the graph of a function that is smooth and differentiable except on a set of fractal dimensions less than one. In spite of the basin boundary being smooth open-quotes almost everywhere,close quotes its fractal dimension exceeds one (implying degradation of one close-quote s ability to predict the attractor an orbit approaches in the presence of small initial condition uncertainty). We call such a boundary sporadically fractal. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

1999-05-01

68

Sporadic variety of pallido-pyramidal syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A rare case of a 40-year-old lady with a sporadic variety of the pallido-pyramidal syndrome (PPS is reported. She had marked parkinsonian features on the left side. Her single photon emission computed tomography showed left frontoparietal and basal ganglia hypoperfusion. CT scan and central motor conduction time were normal. She responded partially to a combination of trihexyphenydil and L dopa/C dopa therapy. In view of the diversity in the genetic, clinical and laboratory features, it is possible that PPS may be a heterogeneous condition.

Kalita J

2003-07-01

69

Sporadic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy due to de novo myosin mutations.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy occurs as an autosomal dominant familial disorder or as a sporadic disease without familial involvement. While missense mutations in the beta cardiac myosin heavy chain (MHC) gene account for approximately half of all cases of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, the molecular causes of sporadic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are unknown. To determine whether beta cardiac MHC mutations are also associated with sporadic disease, we screened this gene in seven individu...

Watkins, H.; Thierfelder, L.; Hwang, D. S.; Mckenna, W.; Seidman, J. G.; Seidman, C. E.

1992-01-01

70

Sporadic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy due to de novo myosin mutations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy occurs as an autosomal dominant familial disorder or as a sporadic disease without familial involvement. While missense mutations in the beta cardiac myosin heavy chain (MHC) gene account for approximately half of all cases of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, the molecular causes of sporadic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are unknown. To determine whether beta cardiac MHC mutations are also associated with sporadic disease, we screened this gene in seven individu...

Watkins, H.; Thierfelder, L.; Hwang, D. S.; Mckenna, W.; Seidman, J. G.; Seidman, C. E.

1992-01-01

71

Genetic Overlap between Apparently Sporadic Motor Neuron Diseases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Progressive muscular atrophy (PMA) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are devastating motor neuron diseases (MNDs), which result in muscle weakness and/or spasticity. We compared mutation frequencies in genes known to be associated with MNDs between patients with apparently sporadic PMA and ALS. A total of 261 patients with adult-onset sporadic PMA, patients with sporadic ALS, and control subjects of Dutch descent were obtained at national referral centers for neuromuscular diseases in T...

Blitterswijk, Marka; Vlam, Lotte; Es, Michael A.; Pol, W-ludo; Hennekam, Eric A. M.; Dooijes, Dennis; Schelhaas, Helenius J.; Kooi, Anneke J.; Visser, Marianne; Veldink, Jan H.; Den Berg, Leonard H.

2012-01-01

72

Tumour suppressor genes in sporadic epithelial ovarian cancer  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ovarian cancer is the most frequent cause of death from gynaecological malignancies in the western world, and sporadic epithelial ovarian cancer is its most predominant form. The aetiology of sporadic ovarian cancer remains unknown. Genetic studies have enabled a better understanding of the evolution of tumour progression. A major focus of research has been to identify tumour suppressor genes implicated in sporadic ovarian cancer over the past decade. Several tumour suppressor genes have been identified by strategies such as positional cloning and differential expression display. Further research is warranted to understand fully their contribution to the pathogenesis of sporadic ovarian cancer.

Liu, Ying; Ganesan, Trivadi S

2002-01-01

73

Modifications of sporadic E-layers caused by seismic activity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Contents: 1 Introduction 2 Formation and destruction of sporadic E-layers 3 Temporal variations of parameters of sporadic E-layers during earthquake preparation 3.1 Temporal variations of fbEs with time-scales of a few hours 3.2 Study of fbEs variations with characteristic time-scales of 0.5-3 hours 3.3 Variations of the parameters of sporadic E-layers with characteristic time-scales of 15-45 minutes 3.4 Sporadic E-layer variations with characteristic time-...

Liperovsky, V. A.; Pochotelov, O. A.; Liperovskaya, E. V.; Parrot, M.; Meister, C. -v; Alimov, O. A.

1998-01-01

74

Sporadic formation of slope streaks on Mars  

Science.gov (United States)

Slope streaks are a form of gravity-driven mass-movements that frequently occur on Mars today. The cause of slope streak formation remains unclear; both, dry and wet processes have been suggested. Here, we observationally constrain the time of the year during which slope streaks form. Imagery from four Mars-orbiting cameras is mined to identify locations that have been imaged repeatedly, and the overlapping images are surveyed for streak activity. A search algorithm automatically finds the locations on the surface that have been imaged most often based on a graph representation. Dark slope streaks are found to form sporadically throughout the Mars year. At one study site in the Olympus Mons Aureole, observations constrain slope streak formation to at least five distinct time intervals within a single Mars year. New slope streaks form spatially isolated or in small groups within a few kilometers of one another. The observations suggest that slope streak triggering is unrelated to season and not caused by any large regional events. Most slope streaks are caused by sporadic events of small spatial extent.

Schorghofer, Norbert; King, Christina M.

2011-11-01

75

Clear-air turbulence and sporadic e activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pilots' reports of clear-air turbulence correlate inferentially with sporadic E activity observed by backscatter radar. A cursory survey was made of 19 reports of turbulence between 1 and 20 August 1964 over the western United States; all but three correlate with sporadic E patches. PMID:17779381

McKay, A R

1968-10-11

76

MRI of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The key MRI findings in five cases of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) are illustrated with four 'definite' and one 'probable' according to World Health Organization criteria. Close attention to fluid-attenuation inversion recovery and diffusion-weighted imaging sequences are important for diagnosis, noting especially restricted diffusion in cortical and deep grey matter. Our study and those of others show predominant cortical, caudate and thalamic involvement. This pattern is highly sensitive and specific for the diagnosis. Fluid-attenuation inversion recovery and diffusion-weighted imaging signal abnormality becomes progressively more extensive and bilateral as disease progresses, but may become less pronounced in end-stage disease because of atrophy.

2008-08-01

77

Complete genomic landscape of a recurring sporadic parathyroid carcinoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare endocrine malignancy with an estimated incidence of less than 1 per million population. Excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone, extremely high serum calcium level, and the deleterious effects of hypercalcaemia are the clinical manifestations of the disease. Up to 60% of patients develop multiple disease recurrences and although long-term survival is possible with palliative surgery, permanent remission is rarely achieved. Molecular drivers of sporadic parathyroid carcinoma have remained largely unknown. Previous studies, mostly based on familial cases of the disease, suggested potential roles for the tumour suppressor MEN1 and proto-oncogene RET in benign parathyroid tumourigenesis, while the tumour suppressor HRPT2 and proto-oncogene CCND1 may also act as drivers in parathyroid cancer. Here, we report the complete genomic analysis of a sporadic and recurring parathyroid carcinoma. Mutational landscapes of the primary and recurrent tumour specimens were analysed using high-throughput sequencing technologies. Such molecular profiling allowed for identification of somatic mutations never previously identified in this malignancy. These included single nucleotide point mutations in well-characterized cancer genes such as mTOR, MLL2, CDKN2C, and PIK3CA. Comparison of acquired mutations in patient-matched primary and recurrent tumours revealed loss of PIK3CA activating mutation during the evolution of the tumour from the primary to the recurrence. Structural variations leading to gene fusions and regions of copy loss and gain were identified at a single-base resolution. Loss of the short arm of chromosome 1, along with somatic missense and truncating mutations in CDKN2C and THRAP3, respectively, provides new evidence for the potential role of these genes as tumour suppressors in parathyroid cancer. The key somatic mutations identified in this study can serve as novel diagnostic markers as well as therapeutic targets. PMID:23616356

Kasaian, Katayoon; Wiseman, Sam M; Thiessen, Nina; Mungall, Karen L; Corbett, Richard D; Qian, Jenny Q; Nip, Ka Ming; He, Ann; Tse, Kane; Chuah, Eric; Varhol, Richard J; Pandoh, Pawan; McDonald, Helen; Zeng, Thomas; Tam, Angela; Schein, Jacquie; Birol, Inanc; Mungall, Andrew J; Moore, Richard A; Zhao, Yongjun; Hirst, Martin; Marra, Marco A; Walker, Blair A; Jones, Steven J M

2013-07-01

78

Genomic profiling distinguishes familial multiple and sporadic multiple meningiomas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Meningiomas may occur either as familial tumors in two distinct disorders, familial multiple meningioma and neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2, or sporadically, as either single or multiple tumors in individuals with no family history. Meningiomas in NF2 and approximately 60% of sporadic meningiomas involve inactivation of the NF2 locus, encoding the tumor suppressor merlin on chromosome 22q. This study was undertaken to establish whether genomic profiling could distinguish familial multiple meningiomas from sporadic solitary and sporadic multiple meningiomas. Methods We compared 73 meningiomas presenting as sporadic solitary (64, sporadic multiple (5 and familial multiple (4 tumors using genomic profiling by array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH. Results Sporadic solitary meningiomas revealed genomic rearrangements consistent with at least two mechanisms of tumor initiation, as unsupervised cluster analysis readily distinguished tumors with chromosome 22 deletion (associated with loss of the NF2 tumor suppressor from those without chromosome 22 deletion. Whereas sporadic meningiomas without chromosome 22 loss exhibited fewer chromosomal imbalance events overall, tumors with chromosome 22 deletion further clustered into two major groups that largely, though not perfectly, matched with their benign (WHO Grade I or advanced (WHO Grades II and III histological grade, with the latter exhibiting a significantly greater degree of genomic imbalance (P Conclusion Genomic profiling can provide an unbiased adjunct to traditional meningioma classification and provides a basis for exploring the different genetic underpinnings of tumor initiation and progression. Most importantly, the striking difference observed between sporadic and familial multiple meningiomas indicates that genomic profiling can provide valuable information for differential diagnosis of subjects with multiple meningiomas and for considering the risk for tumor occurrence in their family members.

Roy Jennifer

2009-07-01

79

Sporadic aurorae observed in East Asia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available All the accessible auroral observations recorded in Chinese and Japanese histories during the interval AD 1840–1911 are investigated in detail. Most of these auroral records have never been translated into a Western language before. The East Asian auroral reports provide information on the date and approximate location of each auroral observation, together with limited scientific information on the characteristics of the auroral luminosity such as colour, duration, extent, position in the sky and approximate time of occurrence. The full translations of the original Chinese and Japanese auroral records are presented in an appendix, which contains bibliographic details of the various historical sources. (There are no known reliable Korean observations during this interval. A second appendix discusses a few implausible "auroral" records, which have been rejected. The salient scientific properties of all exactly dated and reliable East Asian auroral observations in the interval AD 1840–1911 are summarised succinctly. By comparing the relevant scientific information on exactly dated auroral observations with the lists of great geomagnetic storms compiled by the Royal Greenwich Observatory, and also the tabulated values of the Ak (Helsinki and aa (Greenwich and Melbourne magnetic indices, it is found that 5 of the great geomagnetic storms (aa>150 or Ak>50 during either the second half of the nineteenth century or the first decade of the twentieth century are clearly identified by extensive auroral displays observed in China or Japan. Indeed, two of these great storms produced auroral displays observed in both countries on the same night. Conversely, at least 29 (69% of the 42 Chinese and Japanese auroral observations occurred at times of weak-to-moderate geomagnetic activity (aa or Ak?50. It is shown that these latter auroral displays are very similar to the more numerous (about 50 examples of sporadic aurorae observed in the United States during the interval AD 1880–1940. The localised nature and spatial structure of some sporadic aurorae observed in East Asia is indicated by the use of descriptive terms such as "lightning", "rainbow", "streak" and "grid".

D. M. Willis

2007-03-01

80

Mandibular osteomas in sporadic colorectal carcinoma. A genetic marker.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pantomography of the mandible was performed in 98 patients with sporadic colorectal adenocarcinoma. Twenty-eight patients (29%) had osteomas versus 5% in a control group (P < 0.001). Mandibular osteomas are found in most patients with the premalignant dominant syndrome familial adenomatous polyposis. Sporadic colorectal cancer examinations of married couples have shown that diet has only a moderate influence on the development of colorectal cancer, whereas pedigree studies indicate a genetic component. On this basis we conclude that mandibular osteomas are probably genetic markers of the development of sporadic colorectal carcinoma.

Søndergaard, J O; Rasmussen, M S

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Na lidar investigation of sporadic Na layer and its correlation with sporadic E layer detected by ionosonde  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been long speculated that there is a strong correlation between sporadic E layer and sporadic Na layer. Theoretical studies show the mid-latitude sporadic E layers in the lower ionosphere E region are mostly formed by large wind shear driven by solar thermal tides or gravity waves. The thin Na ion layer then interacts with the electrodynamics to form sporadic Na layer when this cluster of Na ions are push downwards into the mesopause region with the waves' downward phase progression. However, direct simultaneous observations of the sporadic metal layer and E layers are rare, not to mentioned the atmospheric background and tidal signatures measurements during such event. In this paper, a few of such daytime sporadic events in the summer of 2011 were observed by the Na lidar at Utah State University (42°N, 112°W) and CADI ionosonde at Bear Lake Observatory (40 miles away from the lidar location). Atmospheric background, including temperature, horizontal winds, as well as tidal modulations and wind shear will be calculated based on Na lidar results, while ionosonde data simultaneously monitor the sporadic E layer behavior.

Yuan, T.; Semejyan, V.; Rice, D.; Sojka, J. J.

2011-12-01

82

Sporadic hyperekplexia presenting with an ataxic gait.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe a 62-year-old man with a sporadic form of hyperekplexia who presented with an unsteady gait, present since the age of 47. His clinical examination revealed an insecure broad-based gait and difficulty with tandem walking but no other abnormalities. For nearly a decade the patient was misdiagnosed with an idiopathic ataxia. A video electroencephalogram combined with an electromyogram during sudden auditory stimulus demonstrated an excessive startle response. An extensive work-up ruled out all the known causes of symptomatic hyperekplexia including anti-glycine receptor antibodies. Treatment with clonazepam markedly reduced the threshold and intensity of the startle response, enabling him to recover independence. Hyperekplexia is frequently associated with an awkward and hesitating gait, but these gait abnormalities might be confused with other causes of gait disorders if one is not aware of this disease. We report this patient to highlight that a correct diagnosis of hyperekplexia is crucial, because its treatment may change quality of life. PMID:24054400

Rouco, Idoia; Bilbao, Iker; Losada, Jose; Maestro, Iratxe; Zarranz, Juan Jose

2014-02-01

83

Magnetic eta index and the ability to forecast sporadic E layer appearance  

Science.gov (United States)

We analysed the correlation of the changes of the magnetic vertical component with the ionospheric deviations from monthly median of the E layer characteristics. Promising results indicate that the eta parameter can be used to predict sporadic E layer during magnetically quiet days. Our previous work concern the data from only one year - 2004. During the descending phase of solar cycle in 2004 there was not numerous amount of quiet days. We extend our research to other years starting from 1996 and focusing on 2007 - 2009, years of the prolonged solar minimum. The analysis shows that under magnetically quiet circumstances the magnetic index eta indicates large magnetic disturbance, especially in vertical component when other magnetic indices inform about quiet magnetic conditions. The results indicate that the increase of the magnetic eta index (the ratio of the variations of vertical component of the external magnetic field to the horizontal component) is associated with the emergence of sporadic E layer or with increase of foEs critical frequency of sporadic E layer. The appearance of sporadic E layer followed 1-2 h after growth of magnetic index eta. An important conclusion is that the analysis of the hourly ionospheric data does not give 100% correlation between the increase of eta and the emergence of Es layer, however, studies of dense measurement data show that the correlation is almost 100%. An advantage of the eta index is the fact that after eliminating the effect of currents induced within the Earth, eta index bring independent and meaningful information on the system of current in the ionosphere. Hence, the eta index could be an important element of the ionosphere monitoring and can be used to predict such local phenomenon like the appearance of the sporadic E layer.

Dziak-Jankowska, Beata; Stanislawska, Iwona; Pozoga, Mariusz; Tomasik, Lukasz; Ernst, Tomasz

2012-07-01

84

Telomere Shortening in Familial and Sporadic Pulmonary Fibrosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rationale: Heterozygous mutations in the coding regions of the telomerase genes, TERT and TERC, have been found in familial and sporadic cases of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. All affected patients with mutations have short telomeres.

Cronkhite, Jennifer T.; Xing, Chao; Raghu, Ganesh; Chin, Kelly M.; Torres, Fernando; Rosenblatt, Randall L.; Garcia, Christine Kim

2008-01-01

85

Sporadic and genetic forms of paediatric somatotropinoma: a retrospective analysis of seven cases and a review of the literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatotropinoma, a pituitary adenoma characterised by excessive production of growth hormone (GH, is extremely rare in childhood. A genetic defect is evident in some cases; known genetic changes include: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1; Carney complex; McCune-Albright syndrome; and, more recently identified, aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP. We describe seven children with somatotropinoma with a special focus on the differences between genetic and sporadic forms. Methods Seven children who presented in our regional network between 1992 and 2008 were included in this retrospective analysis. First-type therapy was somatostatin (SMS analogues or transsphenoidal surgery. Control was defined as when insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 levels were within the normal range for the patient's age at 6 months after therapy, associated with decreasing tumour volume. Results Patients were aged 5-17 years and the majority (n = 6 were male. Four patients had an identified genetic mutation (McCune-Albright syndrome: n = 1; MEN1: n = 1; AIP: n = 2; the remaining three cases were sporadic. Accelerated growth rate was reported as the first clinical sign in four patients. Five patients presented with macroadenoma; invasion was noted in four of them (sporadic: n = 1; genetic: n = 3. Six patients were treated with SMS analogues; normalisation of IGF-1 occurred in one patient who had a sporadic intrasellar macroadenoma. Multiple types of therapy were necessary in all patients with an identified genetic mutation (4 types: n = 1; 3 types: n = 2; 2 types: n = 1, whereas two of the three patients with sporadic somatotropinoma required only one type of therapy. Conclusions This is the first series that analyzes the therapeutic response of somatotropinoma in paediatric patients with identified genetic defects. We found that, in children, genetic somatotropinomas are more invasive than sporadic somatotropinomas. Furthermore, SMS analogues appear to be less effective for treating genetic somatotropinoma than sporadic somatotropinoma.

Nozières Cécile

2011-10-01

86

Updated clinical diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several molecular subtypes of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease have been identified and electroencephalogram and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers have been reported to support clinical diagnosis but with variable utility according to subtype. In recent years, a series of publications have demonstrated a potentially important role for magnetic resonance imaging in the pre-mortem diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Magnetic resonance imaging signal alterations correlate with distin...

Zerr, I.; Kallenberg, K.; Summers, D. M.; Romero, C.; Taratuto, A.; Heinemann, U.; Breithaupt, M.; Varges, D.; Meissner, B.; Ladogana, A.; Schuur, M.; Haik, S.; Collins, S. J.; Jansen, G. H.; Stokin, G. B.

2009-01-01

87

INTUSSUSCEPTION IN A CHILD WITH SPORADIC BURKITT LYMPHOMA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction. Burkitt Lymphoma is a high grade lymphoma and it represents 8-10 % of all tumors in children less than 15 years old. There are two forms of Burkitt Lymphoma (BL): endemic and sporadic, that are indistinguishable by histology, but they have got a different geographical distribution. The sporadic form more commonly has an abdominal presentation. About eighty percent of these patients has predominantly intussusceptions. Materials and methods. We report a 5 years old girl with spasm...

Angotti, R.; Ferrara, F.; Burgio, A.; Garzi, A.; Di Maggio, G.; Meucci, D.

2009-01-01

88

Sporadic Hemangioblastoma of the Kidney: a rare renal tumor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Hemangioblastoma is a benign and morphologically distinctive tumor that can occur sporadically or in association with von Hippel-Lindau disease in approximately 25% of the cases, and which involves the central nervous system in the majority of the cases. Rare occurrences of hemangioblastoma in peripheral nerves and extraneural tissues have been reported. This report describes one case of sporadic renal hemangioblastoma happened in a 16-year-old Chinese female patient, prese...

Liu Yang; Qiu Xue-shan; Wang En-Hua

2012-01-01

89

Cell Culture of Sporadic Hepatitis E Virus in China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The isolation and identification of the 87A strain of epidemic hepatitis E virus (HEV) by means of cell culturing have been described previously. This paper reports the successful isolation of a sporadic HEV strain (G93-2) in human lung carcinoma cell (A549) cultures. The etiology, molecular and biological properties, and serological relationship of this new strain to other, epidemic HEV strains are described. The propagation of both sporadic and epidemic HEV strains i...

Huang, Rutong; Li, Derong; Wei, Shaojing; Li, Qinghong; Yuan, Xitong; Geng, Liqing; Li, Xiaoyu; Liu, Minxia

1999-01-01

90

Inhibitor of prostacyclin production in sporadic haemolytic uraemic syndrome.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Prostacyclin (PGI2) production was diminished when rat aortic rings were incubated with plasma from 5 of 6 patients with the sporadic form of haemolytic uraemic syndrome but was normal in the presence of plasma from 7 patients with the epidemic form of haemolytic uraemic syndrome or from patients with other renal diseases. The reduced PGI2 production was caused by an unstable inhibitor, extractable into polar lipid solvents, in sporadic haemolytic uraemic plasma. These results suggest that th...

Levin, M.; Elkon, K. B.; Nokes, T. J.; Buckle, A. M.; Dillon, M. J.; Hardisty, R. M.; Barratt, T. M.

1983-01-01

91

VCP mutations in familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mutations in the valosin-containing protein (VCP) gene were recently reported to be the cause of 1%-2% of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases. VCP mutations are known to cause inclusion body myopathy (IBM) with Paget's disease (PDB) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The presence of VCP mutations in patients with sporadic ALS, sporadic ALS-FTD, and progressive muscular atrophy (PMA), a known clinical mimic of inclusion body myopathy, is not known. To determine the identity...

Koppers, Max; Blitterswijk, Marka M.; Vlam, Lotte; Rowicka, Paulina A.; Vught, Paul W. J.; Groen, Ewout J. N.; Spliet, Wim G. M.; Engelen-lee, Jooyeon; Schelhaas, Helenius J.; Visser, Marianne; Kooi, Anneke J.; Pol, W-ludo; Pasterkamp, R. Jeroen; Veldink, Jan H.; Den Berg, Leonard H.

2012-01-01

92

HF-induced plasma waves in ionospheric sporadic E  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 430 MHz backscatter radar at Arecibo, Puerto Rico is used to diagnose the interaction of a powerful HF radio wave in a sporadic-E plasma. Resonant enhancements in the plasma line spectrum are observed to peak at the purely growing mode, that is, at 430 MHz +- f/sub HF/, where f/sub HF/ is the HF frequency. Altitude profile measurements of the scattered radar signal reveal sporadic-E enhancements at the ion line as well as at the two plasma lines. On the few occasions when plasma line excitation is observed outside of sporadic E in the upper E region between 130 km and 140 km altitude, only decay mode enhancements are evident. The sporadic-E plasma line enhancements along with the accompanying ion line enhancements are attributed to an HF-induced oscillating two-stream instability, which is parametrically driven near minimum threshold. Possible saturation mechanisms are examined. The dominance of the oscillating two-stream instability in sporadic E is consistent with theoretical predictions for parametric excitation in a collisionally dominated plasma containing steep electron density gradients in the vertical direction. The development of the oscillating two-stream instability is, however, most simply understood if the sporadic-E plasma exhibits horizontal patchiness over spatial scales much less than 300 m

1979-01-01

93

Sporadic-E associated with the Leonid meteor shower event of November 1998 over low and equatorial latitudes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rapid radio soundings were made over Ahmedabad, a low latitude station during the period 16–20 November 1998 to study the sporadic-E layer associated with the Leonid shower activity using the KEL Aerospace digital ionosonde. Hourly ionograms for the period 11 November to 24 November were also examined during the years from 1994 to 1998. A distinct increase in sporadic-E layer occurrence is noticed on 17, 18 and 19 November from 1996 to 1998. The diurnal variations 
of  f0Es and fbEs also show significantly enhanced values for the morning hours of 18 and 19 November 1998. The ionograms clearly show strong sporadic-E reflections at times of peak shower activity with multiple traces in the altitude range of 100–140 km in few ionograms. Sporadic-E layers with multiple structures in altitude are also seen in some of the ionograms (quarter hourly at Thumba, situated near the magnetic equator. Few of ionograms recorded at Kodaikanal, another equatorial station, also show sporadic- E reflections in spite of the transmitter power being significantly lower. These new results highlighting the effect of intense meteor showers in the equatorial and low latitude E-region are presented.

Key words. Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere – Radio science (ionospheric physics

H. Chandra

94

Exome sequencing in sporadic autism spectrum disorders identifies severe de novo mutations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Evidence for the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has consistently pointed to a strong genetic component complicated by substantial locus heterogeneity1,2. We sequenced the exomes of 20 sporadic cases of ASD and their parents, reasoning that these families would be enriched for de novo mutations of major effect. We identified 21 de novo mutations, of which 11 were protein-altering. Protein-altering mutations were significantly enriched for changes at highly conserved residues. We i...

2011-01-01

95

Ion Layer Separation and Equilibrium Zonal Winds in Midlatitude Sporadic E  

Science.gov (United States)

In-situ observations of a moderately strong mid-latitude sporadic-E layer show a separation in altitude between distinct sublayers composed of Fe(+), Mg(+), and NO(+). From these observations it is possible to estimate the zonal wind field consistent with diffusive equilibrium near the altitude of the layer. The amplitude of the zonal wind necessary to sustain the layer against diffusive effects is less than 10 meters per second, and the vertical wavelength is less than 10 km.

Earle, G. D.; Kane, T. J.; Pfaff, R. F.; Bounds, S. R.

2000-01-01

96

Stream and sporadic meteoroids associated with Near Earth Objects  

CERN Multimedia

NEOs come close to the Earth's orbit so that any dust ejected from them, might be seen as a meteor shower. Orbits evolve rapidly, so that a similarity of orbits at one given time is not suffcient to prove a relationship, orbital evolution over a long time interval also has to be similar. Sporadic meteoroids can not be associated with a single parent body, they can only be classified as cometary or asteroidal. However, by considering one parameter criteria, many sporadics are not classified properly therefore two parameter approach was proposed.

Jopek, Tadeusz J

2014-01-01

97

The excitation of plasma lines in blanketing sporadic E  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Enhanced plasma lines in blanketing sporadic E have been excited by a powerful HF radio wave illuminating the E region over the Arecibo Observatory. The plasma lines are observed by the incoherent scatter radar at the observatory. They originate in the sporadic E layer when the blanketing frequency exceeds the exciting frequency, a result which confirms that the plasma is overdense for the exciting frequency. Around the time when the blanketing frequency falls through the exciting frequency, large fluctuations in the plasma line intensities are observed, and thus the possibility of overdense patches drifting through the sampled volume is suggested

1976-08-01

98

The excitation of plasma lines in blanketing sporadic E  

Science.gov (United States)

Enhanced plasma lines in blanketing sporadic E have been excited by a powerful HF radio wave illuminating the E region over the Arecibo Observatory. The plasma lines are observed by the incoherent scatter radar at the observatory. They originate in the sporadic E layer when the blanketing frequency exceeds the exciting frequency, a result which confirms that the plasma is overdense for the exciting frequency. Around the time when the blanketing frequency falls through the exciting frequency, large fluctuations in the plasma line intensities are observed, and thus the possibility of overdense patches drifting through the sampled volume is suggested.

Gordon, W. E.; Carlson, H. C.

1976-01-01

99

Sector structure of the interplanetary magnetic field and the midlatitude sporadic-E-layer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analysis is presented of the effect of the IMF sector structure on the probability of occurrence of the midlatitude sporadic-E-layer during isolated geomagnetic storms. Attention is given to the latitude distribution of the probability of occurrence of the midlatitude Es layer in types f, l, c, h during a number of isolated storms. It is shown that the IMF has a significant effect on the occurrence of the midlatitude Es layer in magnetically disturbed periods, the mechanism of the effect being the global current system convected from polar latitudes to low latitudes.

Ovezgeldyev, O.G.; Kulieva, R.N.

1983-01-01

100

Tidal signatures in sporadic E occurrence rates at low latitudes  

Science.gov (United States)

GPS radio occultation (RO) measurements performed by the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellites are used to analyse tidal signatures in global sporadic E (Es) occurrence rates. Our RO data set comprises more than four millions of profiles collected between 2006 and 2012. The GPS RO data are used to obtain a global picture of sporadic E occurrence and its spatial and temporal variability. In this study we focus on the equatorial region (20°N - 20°S) where a four-peaked longitudinal structure of sporadic E occurrence was detected. According to theory, Es layers form when the vertical shear of the thermospheric zonal wind is negative. Strongest wind shears are mainly produced by solar tides which have periods that equal or are multiples of a solar day. Since ionised constituents of the E region interact with the lower thermospheric neutral wind field, we expect that the identified longitudinal wave-4 structure in equatorial sporadic E occurrence can be attributed to tidal activity, in particular to the nonmigrating tides. To investigate the correlation between Es occurrence and tidal activity, we compare Es rates with tidal information received from the lower thermospheric temperature field that was measured by the SABER instrument on the TIMED satellite. Initial investigations reveal a good correlation between both parameters.

Arras, Christina; Mukhtarov, Plamen; Pancheva, Dora; Jacobi, Christoph; Wickert, Jens

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
101

Sporadic hemiplegic migraine: A rare presentation in children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report a 12 year old girl with a history of migraine presenting with recurrent episodes of hemiparesis preceded by headache, which fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for sporadic hemiplegic migraine in ICHD – 2 [international classification of headache disorders 2].

Sangavi Santhan, Jehangir HM, Mugunthan

2014-04-01

102

Upregulated Genes In Sporadic, Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background To elucidate further the pathogenesis of sporadic, idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) and identify potential therapeutic avenues, differential gene expression in IPAH was examined by suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH). Methods Peripheral lung samples were obtained immediately after removal from patients undergoing lung transplant for IPAH without familial disease, and control tissues consisted of similarly sampled piec...

Edgar Alasdair J; Chacón Matilde R; Bishop Anne E; Yacoub Magdi H; Polak Julia M

2006-01-01

103

VHL inactivation is an important pathway for the development of malignant sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A small subset of familial pancreatic endocrine tumors (PET) arises in patients with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome and these tumors may have an adverse outcome compared to other familial PET. Sporadic PET rarely harbors somatic VHL mutations, but the chromosomal location of the VHL gene is frequently deleted in sporadic PET. A subset of sporadic PET shows active hypoxia signals on mRNA and protein level. To identify the frequency of functionally relevant VHL inactivation in sporadic PET and to e...

Schmitt, A. M.; Schmid, S.; Rudolph, T.; Anlauf, M.; Prinz, C.; Klo?ppel, G.; Moch, H.; Heitz, P. U.; Komminoth, P.; Perren, A.

2009-01-01

104

A Pilot Genome-Scale Profiling of DNA Methylation in Sporadic Pituitary Macroadenomas: Association with Tumor Invasion and Histopathological Subtype  

Science.gov (United States)

Pituitary adenomas (PAs) are neoplasms that may cause a variety of neurological and endocrine effects. Although known causal contributors include heredity, hormonal influence and somatic mutations, the pathophysiologic mechanisms driving tumorigenesis and invasion of sporadic PAs remain unknown. We hypothesized that alterations in DNA methylation are associated with PA invasion and histopathology subtype, and that genome-scale methylation analysis may complement current classification methods for sporadic PAs. Twenty-four surgically-resected sporadic PAs with varying histopathological subtypes were assigned dichotomized Knosp invasion scores and examined using genome-wide DNA methylation profiling and RNA sequencing. PA samples clustered into subgroups according to functional status. Compared with hormonally-active PAs, nonfunctional PAs exhibited global DNA hypermethylation (mean beta-value 0.47 versus 0.42, P?=?0.005); the most significant site of differential DNA methylation was within the promoter region of the potassium voltage-gated channel KCNAB2 (FDR?=?5.11×10?10). Pathway analysis of promoter-associated CpGs showed that nonfunctional PAs are potentially associated with the ion-channel activity signal pathway. DNA hypermethylation tended to be negatively correlated with gene expression. DNA methylation analysis may be used to identify candidate genes involved in PA function and may potentially complement current standard immunostaining classification in sporadic PAs. DNA hypermethylation of KCNAB2 and downstream ion-channel activity signal pathways may contribute to the endocrine-inactive status of nonfunctional PAs.

Ling, Chao; Pease, Matthew; Shi, Lingling; Punj, Vasu; Shiroishi, Mark S.; Commins, Deborah; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Wang, Kai; Zada, Gabriel

2014-01-01

105

Polymorphisms in ACVRL1 and Endoglin genes are not associated with sporadic and HHT related brain AVMs in Dutch patients  

Science.gov (United States)

We aimed to replicate the association of the IVS3-35A>G polymorphism in the activin receptor-like kinase (ACVRL) 1 gene and the 207G>A polymorphism in the endoglin (ENG) gene with sporadic brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVM) in Dutch BAVM patients. In addition, we assessed whether these polymorphisms contribute to the risk of BAVM in patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia type 1 (HHT1). We genotyped 143 Dutch sporadic BAVM patients and 360 healthy volunteers for four variants in the ACVRL1 gene including IVS3-35A>G and two variants in the ENG gene including 207G>A. Differences in allele and genotype frequencies between sporadic BAVM patients and controls and their combined effect were analysed with a likelihood ratio test. Furthermore, we compared the allele and genotype frequencies between 24 HHT1 patients with a BAVM with those of a relative with HHT1 without a BAVM in a matched pair analysis using Wilcoxon signed rank test. No significant differences in allele frequency were found between sporadic BAVM cases and controls or between HHT1 patients with and without BAVM for any of the polymorphisms or the combination of ACVRL1 and ENG polymorphisms. Meta-analysis of the current and the two previous studies for the ACVRL1 IVS3-35A polymorphism showed a persisting association between the ACVRL1 IVS3-35A polymorphism and risk of sporadic BAVM (OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.32–2.61, pG and BAVM in Dutch patients. However, meta-analysis did not rule out a possible effect.

de Kovel, Carolien G.F.; Letteboer, Tom G.; Rinkel, Gabriel J.E.; Westermann, Cornelis J.J.; Kim, Helen; Pawlikowska, Ludmila; Koeleman, Bobby P.C.; Klijn, Catharina J.M.

2014-01-01

106

Electric field measurements of DC and long wavelength structures associated with sporadic-E layers and QP radar echoes  

Science.gov (United States)

Electric field and plasma density data gathered on a sounding rocket launched from Uchinoura Space Center, Japan, reveal a complex electrodynamics associated with sporadic-E layers and simultaneous observations of quasiperiodic radar echoes. The electrodynamics are characterized by spatial and temporal variations that differed considerably between the rocket's up-leg and down-leg traversals of the lower ionosphere. Within the main sporadic-E layer (95- 110 km) on the up-leg, the electric fields were variable, with amplitudes of 2 4 mV1m that changed considerably within altitude intervals of 1-3 km. The identification of polarization electric fields coinciding with plasma density enhancements and/or depletions is not readily apparent. Within this region on the down-leg, however, the direction of the electric field revealed a marked change that coincided precisely with the peak of a single, narrow sporadic-E plasma density layer near 102.5 km. This shear was presumably associated with the neutral wind shear responsible for the layer formation. The electric field data above the sporadic-E layer on the upleg, from 110 km to the rocket apogee of 152 km, revealed a continuous train of distinct, large scale, quasi-periodic structures with wavelengths of 10-15 km and wavevectors oriented between the NE-SW quadrants. The electric field structures had typical amplitudes of 3-5 mV/m with one excursion to 9mV/m, and in a very general sense, were associated with perturbations in the plasma density. The electric field waveforms showed evidence for steepening and/or convergence effects and presumably had mapped upwards along the magnetic field from the sporadic-E region below.

Pfaff, R.; Freudenreich, H.; Yokoyama, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Fukao, S.; Mori, H.; Ohtsuki, S.; Iwagami, N.

2005-01-01

107

Novel Tau Polymorphisms, Tau Haplotypes, and Splicing in Familial and Sporadic Frontotemporal Dementia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background A subset of familial cases (FTDP-17) of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are caused by mutations in the tau gene. The role of tau gene mutations and haplotypes in sporadic FTD and the functional consequences of tau polymorphisms are unknown. Objectives To investigate (1) the frequency of known FTDP-17 mutations in familial and sporadic FTD and compare these results with previous studies; (2) whether the tau H1 haplotype is associated with FTD; and (3) the functional effect of intronic tau sequence variations. Patients and Methods Patients with familial and sporadic FTD were screened for mutations in the microtubule-binding region of tau. The frequencies of tau haplotypes and genotypes were compared between patients with FTD and control subjects. We analyzed the splicing effect of novel intronic polymorphisms associated with FTD. Results The P301L mutation was detected in 11% of familial FTD cases. The H1 haplotype was not overrepresented in patients with FTD, but the P301L mutation appeared on the background of the H2 tau haplotype. We identified 4 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in intron 9 and a 9–base pair deletion in intron 4A. A C-to-T transition 177 base pairs upstream from exon 10 was significantly increased in patients with FTD compared with controls. Direct analysis of brain tissue from a patient with this variant showed an increase in exon 10–containing tau transcripts. Conclusions Sequence variations in intronic or regulatory regions of tau may have previously unrecognized consequences leading to tau dysfunction and neurodegeneration.

Sobrido, Maria-Jesus; Miller, Bruce L.; Havlioglu, Necat; Zhukareva, Victoria; Jiang, Zhihong; Nasreddine, Ziad S.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Chow, Tiffany W.; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C.; Cummings, Jeffrey L.; Wu, Jane Y.; Geschwind, Daniel H.

2007-01-01

108

Gradient drift irregularities in mid-latitude sporadic E  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three-meter E region irregularities observed by a portable 50-MHz radar on the island of Guadeloupe in June 1977 are shown to have the same properties as 3-m irregularities generated by the gradient drift instability at the equator and in the auroral zones. The irregularities occur when intense sporadic E patches are know to occur, suggesting that they are generated by the gradient drift instability acting on the large vertical gradients in sporadic E patches. Large, rapid E region drift variations observed on two occasions suggest either that the E region electric fields are structured and less than 450 km in horizontal extent, or that E and F region fields couple and decouple intermittently during ionospheric sunset

1981-02-01

109

Gradient drift irregularities in mid-latitude sporadic E  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three-meter E region irregularities observed by a portable 50-MHz radar on the island of Guadeloupe in June 1977 are shown to have the same properties as 3-m irregularities generated by the gradient drift instability at the equator and in the auroral zones. The irregularities occur when intense sporadic E patches are know to occur, suggesting that they are generated by the gradient drift instability acting on the large vertical gradients in sporadic E patches. Large, rapid E region drift variations observed on two occasions suggest either that the E region electric fields are structured and less than 450 km in horizontal extent, or that E and F region fields couple and decouple intermittently during ionospheric sunset.

Ecklund, W.L.; Carter, D.A.; Balsley, B.B.

1981-02-01

110

<span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> oral angiomyolipoma: Case report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a rare, benign tumour composed of a variable proportion of lipocytes, smooth muscle and thick-walled blood vessels. AML is part of a family of tumours arising from perivascular epithelioid cells (PEComas), and many cases are associated with tuberous sclerosis, with the kidney being the most frequent site involved. We report a case of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> AML in the hard palate of a 52-year-old male, an extremely unusual location for this tumour. Differentiation from other benign a...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carlos Álvarez Alvarez; Jacinto Fernández Sanromán; Manuel Fernández Castilla; Iosu Antón Badiola</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">111</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=doajarticles::0c50a2130b8e18e97a23916e68d317d0"> <span id="translatedtitle">A case of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> intestinal cryptosporidiosis diagnosed by endoscopic biopsy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> intestinal cryptosporidiosis is not easily diagnosed and might be overlooked. We present here a case of this disease in a 23-year-old Japanese military man with 3 days of abdominal pain, watery diarrhea, and nausea. The frequency of his diarrhea was more than 10 times per day. After his diarrheal bowel symptoms subsided, a colonoscopy was performed because inflammatory bowel disease was suspected. Although the endoscopic findings indicated non-specific ileitis, intestinal cryptosp...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ogata, Sho; Suganuma, Toshiyuki; Okada, Chizuko; Inoue, Kimitoshi; Kinoshita, Akio; Sato, Kimiya</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">112</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______518::5cd0edaed14ade4a9673a0e2a2c9b38f"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Inclusion Body Myositis: Inflammatory and Degenerative Disease Mechanisms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> inclusion body myositis (sIBM) is an enigmatic disease resistant to immunomodulatory treatment and featuring autoimmune and degenerative aspects: clonally expanded CD8+ T cells focally infiltrate uniformly HLA-I+ myofibers that harbor beta-amyloid deposits. In a non-hypothesis-driven approach, CD8+ T cell-attacked and non-attacked myofibers were compared on the transcriptional level. To this end, cytosol of such attacked and non-attacked myofibers was isolated independently using las...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ivanidze, Jana</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">113</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760056166&hterms=sporadic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2522sporadic%2Be%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electron temperature measurements in mid-latitude <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">By using rocket-borne Langmuir probes, electron temperature profiles have been obtained in five mid-latitude <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers. The data show the electron temperature within the layers to be lower than the electron temperature at the adjacent altitudes. This is consistent with the layers' being maintained by a vertical redistribution of ionization. The magnitude of the observed electron temperature variation is, however, larger than expected.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schutz, S. R.; Smith, L. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">114</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:7262840"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the sudden disappearance of equatorial <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The sudden disappearance of equatorial <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E at Trivandrum (dip--0.60S) is investigated. It is found that the phenomenon does not exhibit a clear lunar time dependence. The sudden disappearance occurs mainly in the afternoon period and during magnetically quiet as well as disturbed periods. Its association with the changes in the range of horizontal magnetic field is studied and the results are presented. (auth.)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">115</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:8286672"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electron temperature measurements in mid-latitude <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">By using rocket-borne Langmuir probes, electron temperature profiles have been obtained in five mid-latitude <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers. The data show the electron temperature within the layers to be lower than the electron temperature at the adjacent altitudes. This is consistent with the layers' being maintained by a vertical redistribution of ionization. The magnitude of the observed electron temperature variation is, however, larger than expected</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">116</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:14736885"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of dopplionograms to an understanding of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The dopplionogram can be used to infer the vertical motion of plasma contours under some circumstances. In a <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E sequence, motions downward from above, and upward from below, are observed as the layer peak plasma density increases: this is interpreted as consistent with plasma convergence resulting from an east-west wind shear. When divergent motions occur, the layer is observed to dissipate and recede rapidly</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">117</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=6805452"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of dopplionograms to an understanding of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The dopplionogram can be used to infer the vertical motion of plasma contours under some circumstances. In a <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E sequence, motions downward from above, and upward from below, are observed as the layer peak plasma density increases: this is interpreted as consistent with plasma convergence resulting from an east-west wind shear. When divergent motions occur, the layer is observed to dissipate and recede rapidly.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wright, J.W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">118</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:11547497"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measurements of the ionization heights of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> radio-meteors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The echo heights and echo point ionization densities of 4587 <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> radio-meteors have been determined using a calibrated interferometric height-finding system. Over the height interval 92 to 96 km no association was found between height and ionization but, for radio-meteors ablating above and below this region, significant and opposite trends exist in the data. It is suggested that this could be evidence for the influx of two distinct meteoroid populations. (author)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">119</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24373676"> <span id="translatedtitle">Genetic and neuroanatomic associations in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> frontotemporal lobar degeneration.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Genome-wide association studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are sensitive for tau or TDP-43 pathology in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Neuroimaging analyses have revealed distinct distributions of disease in FTLD patients with genetic mutations. However, genetic influences on neuroanatomic structure in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> FTLD have not been assessed. In this report, we use novel multivariate tools, Eigenanatomy, and sparse canonical correlation analysis to identify associations between SNPs and neuroanatomic structure in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> FTLD. Magnetic resonance imaging analyses revealed that rs8070723 (MAPT) was associated with gray matter variance in the temporal cortex. Diffusion tensor imaging analyses revealed that rs1768208 (MOBP), rs646776 (near SORT1), and rs5848 (PGRN) were associated with white matter variance in the midbrain and superior longitudinal fasciculus. In an independent autopsy series, we observed that rs8070723 and rs1768208 conferred significant risk of tau pathology relative to TDP-43, and rs646776 conferred increased risk of TDP-43 pathology relative to tau. Identified brain regions and SNPs may help provide an in vivo screen for underlying pathology in FTLD and contribute to our understanding of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> FTLD. PMID:24373676</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McMillan, Corey T; Toledo, Jon B; Avants, Brian B; Cook, Philip A; Wood, Elisabeth M; Suh, Eunran; Irwin, David J; Powers, John; Olm, Christopher; Elman, Lauren; McCluskey, Leo; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Trojanowski, John Q; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M; Grossman, Murray</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">120</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15944700"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lightning-induced intensification of the ionospheric <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A connection between thunderstorms and the ionosphere has been hypothesized since the mid-1920s. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this connection, and evidence from modelling as well as various types of measurements demonstrate that lightning can interact with the lower ionosphere. It has been proposed, on the basis of a few observed events, that the ionospheric '<span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E' layer--transient, localized patches of relatively high electron density in the mid-ionosphere E layer, which significantly affect radio-wave propagation--can be modulated by thunderstorms, but a more formal statistical analysis is still needed. Here we identify a statistically significant intensification and descent in altitude of the mid-latitude <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer directly above thunderstorms. Because no ionospheric response to low-pressure systems without lightning is detected, we conclude that this localized intensification of the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer can be attributed to lightning. We suggest that the co-location of lightning and ionospheric enhancement can be explained by either vertically propagating gravity waves that transfer energy from the site of lightning into the ionosphere, or vertical electrical discharge, or by a combination of these two mechanisms. PMID:15944700</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Davis, C J; Johnson, C G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="sporadic error-increasing effects" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> </div><!-- page_6 div --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="sporadic error-increasing effects" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">121</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:7228125"> <span id="translatedtitle">Numerical modelling of a metallic ion <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A one-dimensional time-dependent model of the ionosphere has been developed and applied to the study of a metallic ion <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layer observed in the Aladdin 1 experiment carried out at Eglin AFB, Florida, 20 November 1970. The model develops the molecular ion background ionosphere using a dynamic photochemical calculation from noon to a time near model sunset. A representative metallic ion altitude profile is then introduced, the divergence terms included in the continuity equations, and the integration carried forward. Introducing an ad hoc constant electric field of 2 mv m-1 directed to the south, the model metallic ion <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layer forms at the proper altitude and reaches the measured peak density in about a half hour. Changing the initial metallic ion profile changes the time to reach peak density and the degree of asymmetry of the layer, but the layer altitude is determined asymptotically by the location of the convergent node of the vertical ion velocity profile. The background ionospheric density calculated with the model agrees within experimental error with the experimental profile. The calculations support the hypothesis that midlatitude <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layers are caused by neutral-wind-induced compression of metallic ions resulting from meteoric ablation in the lower E region. (auth)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1970-11-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">122</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24035866"> <span id="translatedtitle">Genetic and epigenetic changes in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> endocrine tumors: parathyroid tumors.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Parathyroid neoplasia is most commonly due to benign parathyroid adenoma but rarely can be caused by malignant parathyroid carcinoma. Evidence suggests that parathyroid carcinomas rarely, if ever, evolve through an identifiable benign intermediate, with the notable exception of carcinomas associated with the familial hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome. Several genes have been directly implicated in the pathogenesis of typical <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> parathyroid adenoma; somatic mutations in the MEN1 tumor suppressor gene are the most frequent finding, and alterations in the cyclin D1/PRAD1 oncogene are also firmly established molecular drivers of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> adenomas. In addition, good evidence supports mutation in the CDKN1B/p27 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) gene, and in other CDKI genes as contributing to disease pathogenesis in this context. Somatic defects in additional genes, including ?-catenin, POT1 and EZH2 may contribute to parathyroid adenoma formation but, for most, their ability to drive parathyroid tumorigenesis remains to be demonstrated experimentally. Further, genetic predisposition to <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> presentations of parathyroid adenoma appears be conferred by rare, and probably low-penetrance, germline variants in CDKI genes and, perhaps, in other genes such as CASR and AIP. The HRPT2 tumor suppressor gene is commonly mutated in parathyroid carcinoma. PMID:24035866</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Costa-Guda, Jessica; Arnold, Andrew</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">123</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://stke.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/2/74/pe36"> <span id="translatedtitle">Insulin Signaling in <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Alzheimer's Disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Excessive production of ?-amyloid (A?) peptides from proteolytic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein is believed to play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In particular, accumulated intracellular A? is found in vulnerable neurons, and the soluble oligomers of A? peptides [also termed A?-derived diffusible ligands (ADDLs)] are highly toxic to neurons. Evidence shows that both extracellular and intracellular ADDLs can compromise insulin signaling. Extracellular ADDLs can bind to synapses and decrease membrane insulin receptors (IRs) through an insulin signaling–dependent mechanism. Intracellular A? inhibits IR signaling in neurons by interfering with the association between phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 and Akt1 to preclude Akt1 activation. Together, these findings suggest that agents that stimulate insulin signaling may have neuroprotective <span class="hlt">effects</span>. Indeed, insulin and insulin sensitizers have been shown to improve cognitive and memory functions in animal models of AD, as well as in AD patients.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Francesca-Fang Liao (University of Tennessee Health Science Center;Department of Pharmacology REV); Huaxi Xu (Burnham Institute for Medical Research;Neurodegenerative Disease Research Program REV)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-06-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">124</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mrcindia.org/journal/issues/484197.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multiple filarial species microfilaraemia: a comparative study of areas with endemic and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> onchocerciasis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Background & objectives: The study was aimed at determining the pattern of co-occurrence of species ofmicrofilaraemia between onchocerciasis endemic and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> populations.Methods: From every consenting person of one year and above, 50 ?l of day and night blood samples werecollected and processed respectively with Haemotoxylin and Giemsa as vital stains. Two skin snips (one eachfrom the waist and the shoulder were also taken from these individuals and processed.Results: Results showed single species microfilaraemia (86.4 and 82.3%, double species microfilaraemia (12.2and 16.9% and triple species microfilaraemia (1.4 and 0.7% for endemic and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> populations respectively.All the species had single species microfilaraemia mostly, but Mansonella perstans and Loa loa showed greatestt endency towa rds doubl e and t r ipl e spe c i e s mi c rof i l a r a emi a . The pr eva l enc e of Wuche re r ia banc rof t imicrofilaraemia among those positive for Onchocerca volvulus was significantly lower than the overall prevalenceof Wuchereria bancrofti. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaraemia was most common among those who had L. loamicrofilaraemia. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial intensity was higher among those with M. perstansmicrofilaraemia than among those positive for any of the other filarial species. Similarly, the intensity of M.perstans microfilaraemia among those positive for W. bancrofti exceeded the overall intensity of M. perstans.Conclusion: It is concluded that there was no definite pattern in mf densities discernible from co-occurrenceinfections either in the onchocerciasis endemic or <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> population. There could be varied outcomes ofonchocerciasis infection attributable to positive or negative regulatory <span class="hlt">effects</span> of other pathogens harbored bythe victims.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Emmanuel Uttah & Dominic C. Ibeh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">125</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/full/v15/i20/2526.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Risk factors for <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> colorectal cancer in southern Chinese</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the role of smoking, alcohol drinking, family history of cancer, and body mass index (BMI in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> colorectal cancer in southern Chinese.METHODS: A hospital-based case-control study was conducted from July 2002 to December 2008. There were 706 cases and 723 controls with their sex and age (within 5 years matched. An unconditional logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between smoking, alcohol drinking, family history of cancer, BMI and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> colorectal cancer.RESULTS: No positive association was observed between smoking status and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> colorectal cancer risk. Compared with the non alcohol drinkers, the current and former alcohol drinkers had an increased risk of developing <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> colorectal cancer (CRC (adjusted OR = 8.61 and 95% CI = 6.15-12.05; adjusted OR = 2.30, 95% CI = 1.27-4.17. Moreover, the increased risk of developing <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> CRC was significant in those with a positive family history of cancer (adjusted OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.12-3.34 and in those with their BMI ? 24.0 kg/m2 (adjusted OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.10-1.75. Stratification analysis showed that the risk of developing both colon and rectal cancers was increased in current alcohol drinkers (adjusted OR = 7.60 and 95% CI = 5.13-11.25; adjusted OR = 7.52 and 95% CI = 5.13-11.01 and in those with their BMI ? 24.0 kg/m2 (adjusted OR = 1.38 and 95% CI = 1.04-1.83; adjusted OR = 1.35 and 95% CI = 1.02-1.79. The risk of developing colon cancer, but not rectal cancer, was found in former alcohol drinkers and in those with a positive family history of cancer (adjusted OR = 2.51 and 95% CI = 1.24-5.07; adjusted OR = 1.82 and 95% CI = 1.17-2.82.CONCLUSION: Alcohol drinking, high BMI (? 24.0 kg/m2 and positive family history of cancer are the independent risk factors for colorectal cancer in southern Chinese.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yi-Sheng Wei, Jia-Chun Lu, Lei Wang, Ping Lan, Hong-Jun Zhao, Zhi-Zhong Pan, Jun Huang, Jian-Ping Wang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">126</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB255875"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Occurrence of <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> E and Accuracy of Predictions of <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span>-E Critical Frequencies for Temperate Latitude Northern Hemisphere Stations.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A study was conducted to determine: (a) percentage of time that <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E was observed at fifteen locations during four years (1965, 1967, 1969, and 1971), and (b) the accuracy of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E predictions based on the ITS numerical coefficients. Results in...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Gosnell M. Leftin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">127</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18403054"> <span id="translatedtitle">PSEN1 polymorphisms alter the rate of cognitive decline in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Alzheimer's disease patients.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin (PSEN) genes are known to cause familial early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD), which account for around 5% of AD cases. Genetic associations for the remaining "<span class="hlt">sporadic</span>" cases, other than the risks associated with the apolipoprotein (APOE) epsilon4 allele are currently not fully established. The aim of this study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PSEN1 are associated with a modified risk for <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> AD or a modified disease phenotype. Eight tag SNPs were identified using linkage disequilibrium (LD) data from the International HapMap project providing coverage of the entire PSEN1 gene. These SNPs were investigated for AD susceptibility in a case-control haplotype association study (N=714) and for genotype-specific <span class="hlt">effects</span> on cognitive performance in AD patients (N=169) using non-linear mixed <span class="hlt">effects</span> modelling. Replication of a mild associated-risk of an intronic PSEN1 polymorphism with AD was achieved (P=0.03). No other single SNPs or haplotypes were associated with AD risk. However, 3 SNPs were associated with an altered rate of cognitive decline underlining their role as genetic modifiers of disease. PMID:18403054</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Belbin, Olivia; Beaumont, Helen; Warden, Donald; Smith, A David; Kalsheker, Noor; Morgan, Kevin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">128</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ann-geophys.net/19/47/2001/angeo-19-47-2001.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Ca and Ca+ layers at mid-latitudes: Simultaneous observations and implications for their formation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available We report on the observations of 188 <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> layers of either Ca atoms and/or Ca ions that we have observed during 112 nights of lidar soundings of Ca, and 58 nights of Ca+ soundings, at Kühlungsborn, Germany (54° N, 12° E. The Ca+ soundings have been performed simultaneously and in a common volume with the Ca soundings by two separate lidars. Correlations between <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> neutral and ionized metal layers are demonstrated through four case studies. A systematic study of the variations of occurrence of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Ca and Ca+ layers reveals that neutral and ionized Ca layers are not as closely correlated as expected earlier: (a The altitude distribution shows the simultaneous occurrence of both <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Ca and Ca+ layers to be most likely only in the narrow altitude range between 90 and 95 km. Above that region, in the lower thermosphere, the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ion layers are much more frequent than atom layers. Below 90 km only very few <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> layers have been observed; (b The seasonal variation of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Ca layers exhibits a minimum of occurrence in summer, while <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Ca+ layers do not show a significant seasonal variation (only the dense Ca+ layers appear to have a maximum in summer. At mid-latitudes <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Ca layers are more frequent than <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> layers of other atmospheric metals like Na or K. For the explanation of our observations new formation mechanisms are discussed.Key words. Ionosphere (ion chemistry and composition; ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; mid-latitude ionosphere</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Höffner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">129</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006epsc.conf..341T"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> impact flashes on the Moon and their implications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The systematic impact flash survey that we carried out between 2001 and 2004 resulted in the first unambiguous detection of lunar <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> impact flashes (Ortiz et al., 2006) and already allowed us to estimate the impact rate of objects on Earth as a function of their incoming energy under the assumption of a certain range of luminous efficiencies of the impact processes. Some present unknown parameters can be constrained in the future by monitoring impact flashes associated with meteoroid streams exhibiting a wide range of impact angles and energies. Here we further investigate some implications of the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> impact flashes detected so far and in particular we focus on whether the SMART-1 impact flash can give additional constraints on the luminous efficiency applicable to <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> impacts, in order to derive more accurate impact rates on Earth. We have compared our derived impact fluxes with those obtained by Ceplecha (2001) and Brown et al. (2002) and we conclude that the present flux in the observed energy range would be underestimated. Finally, we conclude that the large lunar surface coverage and increasing sensitivity of modern video cameras makes this a powerful method to estimate terrestrial impact rates of large bodies that are statistically difficult to be detected from more limited atmospheric coverages characteristic of terrestrial networks. REFERENCES Brown, P., Spalding, R. E., Revelle, D. O., Tagliaferri, E., Worden, S. P. 2002. The flux of small near-Earth objects colliding with the Earth. Nature 420, 294-296. Ceplecha Z. (2001) in Collisional processes in the solar system, eds. Mikhail Ya. Marov and Hans Rickman, Astrophysics and Space Science library, Vol. 261, Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 35 - 50. Ortiz J.L., F.J. Aceituno, J.A. Quesada, J. Aceituno, M. Fernández, P. Santos-Sanz, J.M. Trigo-Rodríguez, J. Llorca, F.J. Martín-Torres, P. Montañés-Rodríguez, E. Pallé (2006) Icarus, in press.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Trigo-Rodriguez, J. M.; Ortiz, J. L.; Llorca, J.; Santos-Sanz, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">130</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.urosario.edu.co/medicina/CienciasSalud/documentos/vol6n3/04_Creutzfeldt_vol6n3.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: Clinical, pathological and molecular study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available phalopathiesare neurodegenerative diseasescaused by abnormal accumulation of pathogenicisoform the prion protein, which induces theformation of conglomerates protein resistantto degradation. They are also responsible forsynaptic dysfunction, neuronal damage and theclassic symptoms of disease. This membraneprotein is encoded by exon 2 of the gene PRNP,located on the short arm of chromosome 20 andappears to be involved in synaptic transmission,signal transduction, the antioxidant activity ofthe superoxid dismutasa, neuroplasticity andcell survival. One polymorphism at codon 129is associated with differential susceptibility todisease <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.Aim: Clinical, pathological and molecularreport on an 58 year-old woman with pathologicaldiagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob sporadicdisease.Methods and results. The clinic courseappears with a behavior depressive disorder withprogressive dementia and symptoms. At theend of the disease, the scenario progressed to aneurological deficit focused on the visual area.The MRI showed nonspecific hyperintensity incortiço-subcortical nucleus in the striatum, theEEG showed patterns of recurrent generalizeddischarges and complex three-phase, the brainbiopsy post-morten showed severe loss of theneuronal population in all the layers, vacuolesin the neuropil, in the neuronal soma and theglial. The analysis of sequence of the gene PRNPidentified homozygotes for methionine atcodon 129. The patient died at 3 months of theonset of symptoms.Conclusions: Epidemiology, clinical courseand paraclinical examinations confirmed thediagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>.The genotyping for polymorphisms of riskbecomes useful tool to complement throughmolecular diagnosis and to deepen the understandingof the pathophysiology of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, both for <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> forms and forthe new variant.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Victoria Eugenia Villegas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">131</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23900742"> <span id="translatedtitle">Does restraining nitric oxide biosynthesis rescue from toxins-induced parkinsonism and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Parkinson's disease?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nitric oxide (NO) is an important inorganic molecule of the biological system owing to diverse physiological implications. NO is synthesised from a semi-essential amino acid L-arginine. NO biosynthesis is catalysed by a family of enzymes referred to as nitric oxide synthases (NOSs). NO is accused in many acute and chronic illnesses, which include central nervous system disorders, inflammatory diseases, reproductive impairments, cancer and cardiovascular anomalies. Owing to very unstable nature, NO gets converted into nitrite, peroxynitrite and other reactive nitrogen species that could lead to nitrosative stress in the nigrostriatal system. Nitrosative stress is widely implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD), and its beneficial and harmful <span class="hlt">effects</span> are demonstrated in in vitro, rodent and primate models of toxins-induced parkinsonism and in the blood, cerebrospinal fluid and nigrostriatal tissues of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> PD patients. The current article updates the roles of NO and NOSs in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> PD and toxins-induced parkinsonism in rodents along with the scrutiny of how inhibitors of NOSs could open a new line of approach to moderately rescue from PD pathogenesis based on the existing literature. The article also provides a perspective concerning the lack of ample admiration to such an approach and how to minimise the underlying lacunae. PMID:23900742</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gupta, Satya Prakash; Yadav, Sharawan; Singhal, Naveen Kumar; Tiwari, Manindra Nath; Mishra, Sarad Kumar; Singh, Mahendra Pratap</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">132</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:29032466"> <span id="translatedtitle">The monster <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> group and a theory underlying superstring models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The pattern of duality symmetries acting on the states of compactified superstring models reinforces an earlier suggestion that the Monster <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> group is a hidden symmetry for superstring models. This in turn points to a supersymmetric theory of self-dual and anti-self-dual K3 manifolds joined by Dirac strings and evolving in a 13 dimensional spacetime as the fundamental theory. In addition to the usual graviton and dilaton this theory contains matter-like degrees of freedom resembling the massless states of the heterotic string, thus providing a completely geometric interpretation for ordinary matter. 25 refs</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-07-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">133</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1789613"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Diagnostic and surgical strategy in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> primary hyperparathyroidism].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The generalized use of phosphocalcic biological assays makes the discovery of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> primary hyperparathyroidism increasingly common. In 1989-1990, first-intention surgery was performed in 26 female patients. In all cases, an exploratory cervicotomy under cervical peridural anesthesia allowed discovering and treating a parathyroid lesion: adenoma, asymmetric or symmetric hyperplasia, cancer. We discuss: the circumstances of the clinical diagnosis and the biological criteria, the timeliness of preoperative radiological assessment, the surgical strategy advocated. In more than 90% of all cases, a cervicotomy for the exploration of all areas of parathyroid migration should allow curing primary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:1789613</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Prades, J M; Pallot-Prades, B; Estour, B; Billard, F; Mayaud, R; Martin, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">134</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=doajarticles::071c9ca02da54135280e35319cf32b82"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> medullary thyroid carcinoma: clinical data from a university hospital</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">INTRODUCTION: Medullary thyroid carcinoma may occur in a <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> (s-medullary thyroid carcinoma, 75%) or in a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 form (MEN2, 25%). These clinical forms differ in many ways, as s-medullary thyroid carcinoma cases are RET-negative in the germline and are typically diagnosed later than medullary thyroid carcinoma in MEN2 patients. In this study, a set of cases with s-medullary thyroid carcinoma are documented and explored. PURPOSE: To document the phenotypes obs...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Correia-deur, Joya Emilie M.; Toledo, Rodrigo A.; Imazawa, Alice T.; Lourenc?o Jr, Delmar M.; Ezabella, Marilza C. L.; Tavares, Marcos R.; Toledo, Sergio P. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">135</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.scopemed.org/fulltextpdf.php?mno=152941"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diffusion MR imaging in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD is a rare dementing disease and is thought to caused by a prion. It is characterized by rapidly progressive dementia, ataxia, myoclonus, akinetic mutism and eventual death. Brain biopsy or autopsy is required for a definitive diagnosis of CJD. Diffusion-weighted imaging became an important tool for early diagnosis of CJD because of the high sensitivity. We present 59-year-old female patient diagnosed as <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> CJD with typical MR imagings. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 880-883</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burcak Cakir Pekoz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">136</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:7228073"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radar evidence for Fe+ in a <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Incoherent scatter results are presented using compressed-pulse techniques to study a <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layer at Arecibo. Multiple Barker-coded pulses were used to obtain the autocorrelation function of the E/sub s/ layer. A 13-bit code with a baud length of 4 ?sec was employed, resulting in 600-m height resolution. The observations are examined for the presence of Fe+ by least-square fitting the measured autocorrelation functions to a library of theoretical ones. The analysis indicates that Fe+ dominates in the E/sub s/ layer, usually providing about 70 percent of the ionization. (auth)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">137</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od________18::f9e3e20f8115340ded2ced2fc2dc8a37"> <span id="translatedtitle">On generators and representations of the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> simple groups</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper we determine the irreducible projective representations of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> simple groups over an arbitrary algebraically closed field F, whose image contains an almost cyclic matrix of prime-power order. A matrix M is called cyclic if its characteristic and minimum polynomials coincide, and we call M almost cyclic if, for a suitable a in F, M is similar to diag(a Id_h, M_1), where M_1 is cyclic and 0 <= h <= n. The paper also contains results on the generation of spor...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Di Martino, L.; Pellegrini, M. A.; Zalesski, A. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">138</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::4a7ba1c3440c60c704ae754a13254bb4"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recurrence risks and prognosis in severe <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> osteogenesis imperfecta.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A study was carried out in the United Kingdom of patients with severe osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), born with fractures to normal parents, in order to determine recurrence risks. A total of 105 cases from 98 families survived the perinatal period and 60 cases from 57 families were stillborn or died during the first week of life. The majority of the perinatal survivors correspond to the overlapping group of Sillence type III and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> type IV OI. In 40 of these, the radiograph at birth was ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thompson, E. M.; Young, I. D.; Hall, C. M.; Pembrey, M. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">139</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od______1318::ebb39b0e37f900b4e5d3fb2db4acf25e"> <span id="translatedtitle">Somatic MEN1 gene mutation does not contribute significantly to <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> pituitary tumorigenesis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pituitary adenomas are a common manifestation of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) but most of them occur <span class="hlt">sporadically</span>. There are only a few well defined genetic abnormalities known to occur in these <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> tumours. The MEN1 gene located on 11q13 has recently been cloned and allelic deletion and mutation analysis studies have implicated the MEN1 gene in a significant fraction of the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> counterparts of typical MEN1 neoplasms (parathyroid tumours, insulinomas and gastrinomas). ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Poncin, Jacques; Stevenaert, Achille; Beckers, Albert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">140</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=doajarticles::3d1ee2755be7fafd3c14e21a3433b8e3"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coincident extremely large <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> sodium and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers observed in the lower thermosphere over Colorado and Utah</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">On the night of 2 June 2002, the sodium lidar in Fort Collins, CO (40.6 N, 105 W) measured an extremely strong <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> sodium layer lasting from 03:30 to 05:00 UT with several weaker layers later in the night at 06:00 and 09:00 UT. There is a double layer structure with peaks at 101 and 104 km. The peak sodium density was 21 000 atoms/cm<sup>3</sup> with a column abundance of up to twice that of the normal sodium layer. The peak density was 500 times greater than the typical dens...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Williams, B. P.; Berkey, F. T.; Sherman, J.; She, C. Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="sporadic error-increasing effects" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> </div><!-- page_7 div --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="sporadic error-increasing effects" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">141</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.diagnosticpathology.org/content/7/1/49"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Hemangioblastoma of the Kidney: a rare renal tumor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Abstract Hemangioblastoma is a benign and morphologically distinctive tumor that can occur <span class="hlt">sporadically</span> or in association with von Hippel-Lindau disease in approximately 25% of the cases, and which involves the central nervous system in the majority of the cases. Rare occurrences of hemangioblastoma in peripheral nerves and extraneural tissues have been reported. This report describes one case of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> renal hemangioblastoma happened in a 16-year-old Chinese female patient, presenting with hematuria, and low back pain. Histologically, the tumors were circumscribed, and composed of sheets of large polygonal cells traversed by arborizing thin-walled blood vessels. The diagnosis of hemangioblastoma was confirmed by negative immunostaining for cytokeratin, and positive staining for ?-inhibin, S100 and neuron-specific enolase (NSE. This benign neoplasm which can be mistaken for various malignancies such as renal cell carcinoma, epithelioid hemangiopericytoma and epithelioid angiomyolipoma, deserves wider recognition for its occurrence as a primary renal tumor. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/5445834246942699</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu Yang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">142</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ann-geophys.net/14/1060/1996/angeo-14-1060-1996.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Study of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E clouds by backscatter radar</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available It is shown that swept-frequency backscatter ionograms covering a range of azimuths can be used to study the dynamics of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E clouds. A simple technique based on analytic ray tracing can be used to simulate the observed narrow traces associated with E<i><sub>s</sub></i> patches. This enables the location and extent of the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E clouds to be determined. The motion of clouds can then be determined from a time sequence of records. In order to demonstrate the method, results are presented from an initial study of 5 days of backscatter ionograms from the Jindalee Stage B data base obtained during March-April 1990. Usually 2–3 clouds were observed each day, mainly during the evening and up to midnight. The clouds lasted from 1–4 h and extended between 30°–80° in azimuth and 150-800 km in range. The clouds were mostly stationary or drifted generally westward with velocities of up to 80 m s<sup>–1</sup>. Only one cloud was observed moving eastward.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Z. Houminer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">143</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=5565733"> <span id="translatedtitle">Horizontal structures in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> sodium layers at 23 degree S</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During 1979 and 1980 the INPE lidar located at Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil was operated in a steerable mode, measuring the sodium profiles sequentially at three points in the sky. Twelve <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> sodium layer events (SSLs) which occurred in this period are studied in the present work. The evolution of the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> peaks at the three positions shows short time structures generally separated by consistent time lags in almost all events. On some occasions, the time evolution at one position is very different than at the other two. These data indicate that short duration SSLs have cloud-like structures which are advected over the measuring station by the horizontal winds, and the long duration layers show a patchy and wave-like structure. In no case did the authors observe rapid growth in the sodium density to occur simultaneously at all 3 measuring points. On this basis they believe that there is no evidence for fast production of sodium, and consequently that there is no need for theories for the formation of SSLs to be consistent with such fast production.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Batista, P.P.; Clemesha, B.R.; Simonich, D.M. (Inst. de Pesquisas Espaciais, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo (Brazil))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">144</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=508236"> <span id="translatedtitle">A specific superoxide dismutase mutation is on the same genetic background in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> and familial cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative disease of motor neurons, causing progressive muscular atrophy, weakness, and death from respiratory failure, often within 2-3 years. Although most cases are <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>, some 5%-10% are inherited as autosomal dominants with age-dependent penetrance. An ALS locus has been mapped to chromosome 21q, and causative mutations identified in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene. A majority of SOD1 mutations have been found in cases with a clear family history of ALS. However, we and others have also described SOD1 mutations in patients where the disease appears to be <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>. This is especially true for the missense mutation in codon 113 of the SOD1 gene, which substitutes threonine for isoleucine (I113T). One explanation for this finding is that this codon is a mutational hot spot with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> cases representing new mutations. Another is that the inherited nature of the cases is disguised by the reduced penetrance of this specific mutation. We have now shown that each of six unrelated cases of I113T mutation that we have collected in the Scottish population occurs on the same genetic background. Association analysis of multiple flanking loci on chromosome 21q supports the conclusion of a founder <span class="hlt">effect</span>, with the original mutational event occurring {ge}10 generations ago. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hayward, C.; Brock, D.J.H. [Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Swingler, R.J. [Dundee Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom)] [and others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">145</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24948216"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> inclusion body myositis: the genetic contributions to the pathogenesis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> inclusion body myositis (sIBM) is the commonest idiopathic inflammatory muscle disease in people over 50 years old. It is characterized by slowly progressive muscle weakness and atrophy, with typical pathological changes of inflammation, degeneration and mitochondrial abnormality in affected muscle fibres. The cause(s) of sIBM are still unknown, but are considered complex, with the contribution of multiple factors such as environmental triggers, ageing and genetic susceptibility. This review summarizes the current understanding of the genetic contributions to sIBM and provides some insights for future research in this mysterious disease with the advantage of the rapid development of advanced genetic technology. An international sIBM genetic study is ongoing and whole-exome sequencing will be applied in a large cohort of sIBM patients with the aim of unravelling important genetic risk factors for sIBM. PMID:24948216</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gang, Qiang; Bettencourt, Conceição; Machado, Pedro; Hanna, Michael G; Houlden, Henry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">146</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdRS...11..333F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Terdiurnal signatures in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers at midlatitudes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Global Positioning System radio occultation measurements by the FORMOsa SATellite mission-3/Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate satellites were used to analyse the behaviour of the signature of the terdiurnal tide in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E (ES) layers at midlatitudes (43-63° N). According to theory, the occurrence of ES is expected when the vertical zonal wind shear, which is mainly owing to solar tides, is negative. 4 yr means, based on 3-monthly running mean zonal means from December 2006-November 2010, were constructed for the terdiurnal oscillation in the occurrence frequency of ES. Comparison of the results with VHF meteor radar observations of the terdiurnal tide and the 8 h oscillation in the vertical zonal wind shear at Collm, Germany (51.3° N, 13° E) shows a clear correspondence between the 8 h in ES and in wind shear signature.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fytterer, T.; Arras, C.; Jacobi, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">147</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:12621476"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> faults in regular growth of eutectic composites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Structural imperfection of Sn-Pb, Cd-Sn, Cd-Pb, Cd-Zn, Zn-Sn, Cd-Bi, Zn-Bi eutectic compositions are investigated. The method of local X-ray spectrum analysis has been used to determine compositions of normal Csub(eutec)sup(n.c.) colonies corresponding to equal development rates of conjugate phases. For many alloys a deviation from the diagram eutectic concentration Csub(eutec)sup(d) is found. It is shown that <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> violations of the regular growth of eutectic compositions are caused by the alterations in the composition of a liquid at the front of a two-phase packet. Local violations of eutectic compositions are nodes of branching eutectic phases, which follows from the data of stereometric metallography. The dependence of imperfections density on the crystallization conditions is determined</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">148</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22753302"> <span id="translatedtitle">An unusual case of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 49-year-old healthy white British female, not previously known to psychiatric services, presented with an acute onset of florid psychotic symptoms. Her symptoms included visual, auditory and tactile hallucinations as well as persecutory delusions. She was started on antipsychotic medication; however, her psychotic symptoms did not improve significantly in the first 3 months. Her blood tests were normal. Lumbar puncture was performed which was positive for protein 14-3-3. A computed tomography scan of the brain showed generalised atrophic changes. The history of early visual hallucinations, rapid cognitive decline and positive 14-3-3 result was in keeping with the Heidenhain variant of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). Despite a short life expectancy as reported in literature, our patient, who was diagnosed with sCJD more than two-and-a-half years ago, is still alive. We therefore believe this is an important finding to report. PMID:22753302</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Javed, Qaiser; Alam, Faouzi; Krishna, Sowmya; Jaganathan, Geetha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">149</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.neurologyindia.com/article.asp?issn=0028-3886;year=2006;volume=54;issue=4;spage=418;epage=420;aulast=Praveen"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> onset Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease: Interesting MRI observations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available We describe a 60-year-old woman with "probable" <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD who manifested with two months history of rapidly progressive dementia and abnormal behavior, speech and gait abnormality, excessive sleepiness and myoclonic jerks. Scalp EEG showed diffuse slowing of background activity to delta range and triphasic sharp wave complexes occurring periodically twice in one-second interval. Magnetic resonance Imaging (MRI of brain revealed high signal intensity on T2 weighted image (T2WI and fluid attenuated inversion recovery sequences in the caudate and putamen bilaterally. Diffusion weighted images showed bilateral symmetric hyperintense signals in the caudate and putamen. The role of MRI in the diagnosis of CJD is discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Praveen K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">150</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23087880"> <span id="translatedtitle">A rare cause for primary amenorrhea: <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> perrault syndrome.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Gonadal (ovarian) dysgenesis with normal chromosomes (46, XX), XX female gonadal dysgenesis (XX-GD) is a rare genetically heterogeneous disorder. In 1951, Perrault reported the association of gonadal dysgenesis and deafness, now referred to as Perrault syndrome. Perrault syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive condition affecting both females and males, only females have gonadal dysgenesis associated with sensorineural deafness which is present in both sexes. We present a case of <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Perrault syndrome in a 35-year-old female with primary amenorrhea, sensorineural deafness, marfanoid features, and normal karyotype. There are very few case reports describing the condition, even lesser reports of association with marfanoid habitus. We report this case for its rarity and add to the spectrum of the disease that remains undetermined. PMID:23087880</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ameen, K H Noorul; Pinninti, Rakesh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">151</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=6451270"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonlocal theory of long-wavelength plasma waves associated with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper we calculate the nonlocal growth rate of gradient drift plasma waves under conditions where the electron density gradient scale length changes with altitude. The results are compared with the local growth rate and discussed in the context of the kilometer-scale waves which have been observed in the vicinity of mid-latitude <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers. These large-scale waves drastically violate the local approximation, kL/sub m/>>1, where k is the irregularity wave number and L/sub m/ is the minimum gradient scale length on the edge of a layer. The first step in the analysis is to derive a general eigenmode equation, starting with the same assumptions usually used in the derivation of the local dispersion relation for long wavelength waves. Modeling a <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer as a slab, the nonlocal growth rate spectrum is found by solving the eigenmode equation for this profile. The solution is an algebraic dispersion relation with a growth rate spectrum which is roughly proportional to k, rather than the k/sup 2/ dependence predicted by conventional local theory at long wavelengths. At short wavelengths the nonlocal growth rate determined with the slab is unbounded, in disagreement with local theory. The slab is an inadequate model for short wavelength waves and a bound on the growth rate is instead derived from a theory which can be applied to any realistic profile with nonzero L/sub m/. At short wavelengths this bound is identical to the local growth rate expression, while at long wavelengths the bound remains proportional to k and thus is consistent with the dispersion relation for a slab. Nonlocal <span class="hlt">effects</span> alone do not explain the dominance of kilometer scales, but they do tend to favor the excitation of long wavelengths.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Riggin, D.; Kadish, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:20048483"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonlocal theory of long-wavelength plasma waves associated with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper we calculate the nonlocal growth rate of gradient drift plasma waves under conditions where the electron density gradient scale length changes with altitude. The results are compared with the local growth rate and discussed in the context of the kilometer-scale waves which have been observed in the vicinity of mid-latitude <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers. These large-scale waves drastically violate the local approximation, kL/sub m/>>1, where k is the irregularity wave number and L/sub m/ is the minimum gradient scale length on the edge of a layer. The first step in the analysis is to derive a general eigenmode equation, starting with the same assumptions usually used in the derivation of the local dispersion relation for long wavelength waves. Modeling a <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer as a slab, the nonlocal growth rate spectrum is found by solving the eigenmode equation for this profile. The solution is an algebraic dispersion relation with a growth rate spectrum which is roughly proportional to k, rather than the k2 dependence predicted by conventional local theory at long wavelengths. At short wavelengths the nonlocal growth rate determined with the slab is unbounded, in disagreement with local theory. The slab is an inadequate model for short wavelength waves and a bound on the growth rate is instead derived from a theory which can be applied to any realistic profile with nonzero L/sub m/. At short wavelengths this bound is identical to the local growth rate expression, while at long wavelengths the bound remains proportional to k and thus is consistent with the dispersion relation for a slab. Nonlocal <span class="hlt">effects</span> alone do not explain the dominance of kilometer scales, but they do tend to favor the excitation of long wavelengths</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=6281380"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nature of the interrelationship between layer heights of auroral irregularities and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The relationship of the layer heights of a diffuse radio aurora (RA) and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers with the rigidity parameter of the accompanying auroral precipitations is investigated. The characteristic energy of precipitating fluxes was determined from observations of spectra of diffuse auroral glow in three emissions (3914, 5577, and 6300 A). It is shown that the layer heights of RA and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E are uniquely defined by the precipitation rigidity parameter. Differences in the interrelationship between RA and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer heights in the regions of the western and eastern electrojets are clarified. 13 references.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Timofeev, E.E.; Shulgina, N.V.; Fedorova, N.I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=102612"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Fe and E layers at polar, middle, and low latitudes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors report on the observation of iron Fe layers at low and middle latitudes in mesopause regions. These observations are correlated with other observations of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Fe layers at northern latitudes, as well as with observations of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer events. The Fe layers are also compared with Na layers which have been observed for some time. The iron <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> layers are found to be more common and more dynamic than the sodium layers. There appears to be only a weak correlation of Fe layers with E layers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alpers, M.; Zahn, U. von [Institut fuer Atmosphaerenphysik, Kuehlungsborn (Germany); Hoeffner, J. [Universitaet Bonn (Germany)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AdRS....8..225A"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> E signatures revealed from multi-satellite radio occultation measurements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Radio occultation measurements performed by the satellites CHAMP, GRACE and FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC provide a huge data set for atmospheric and ionospheric investigations on a global scale. The data sets are used to extract information on <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers appearing in the lower ionospheric E region. This is done by analyzing signal amplitude variations of the GPS L1 signal. <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> E altitudes in northern midlatitudes found from radio occultation measurements are compared with ground-based ionosonde soundings. A large correlation of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E altitudes from these two techniques is found.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arras, C.; Jacobi, C.; Wickert, J.; Heise, S.; Schmidt, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:42106095"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radiosurgical treatment of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> vestibular schwannomas: A prospective cohort study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective: To analyze the preliminary experience of radiosurgery for Vestibular Schwannomas at the Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile. Material and methods: The first 17 patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Vestibular Schwannomas treated by radiosurgery at our institution are reported. The marginal dose used was 12 to 12.5 Gy. prescribed at the 70 or 80 isodose fine. Patients were controlled at 6, 12 and 24 months with magnetic resonance, audiometric study and clinical examination. Results: In all of the 17 patients treated a decrease tumor enhancement on MR was demonstrated. In 16 patients (94%) a pattern of central tumor necrosis was observed during the firs year Actuarial useful hearing was maintained in 62.5% at 2 year after treatment. Facial nerve function was maintained in all of the 15 patients with normal function at treatment (100%). Trigeminal function was maintained in ah of the 14 patients (100%) with previous normal trigeminal function. The mean time to return to work or normal activities was 11.5 days after treatment. Conclusions: These preliminary results are comparable with results published in the literature and reinforce the demonstrate role of radiosurgery in the management of vestibular schwannomas</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ousar.lib.okayama-u.ac.jp/file/31839/fulltext.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A case of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> intestinal cryptosporidiosis diagnosed by endoscopic biopsy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> intestinal cryptosporidiosis is not easily diagnosed and might be overlooked. We present here a case of this disease in a 23-year-old Japanese military man with 3 days of abdominal pain, watery diarrhea, and nausea. The frequency of his diarrhea was more than 10 times per day. After his diarrheal bowel symptoms subsided, a colonoscopy was performed because inflammatory bowel disease was suspected. Although the endoscopic findings indicated non-specific ileitis, intestinal cryptosporidiosis was suspected from the histology of ileal biopsy specimens, and this was confirmed ultrastructurally. At that time, however, the patient was on active duty, and thus it was not possible to confirm this as a definitive diagnosis by an adequate stool examination for cryptosporidium. Routine practitioners should be encouraged to carefully inspect patients for this disease, supported by detailed knowledge of it and its diagnosis. If stool-examination results are negative or are not obtained at first, histological diagnosis by endoscopic biopsy could be a useful way to screen for intestinal cryptosporidiosis. Furthermore, stool or histological examination should be performed in recovered patients because the oocysts may continue to be shed for 1 to 4 weeks after the symptoms disappear. Therefore, endoscopic and histological examinations may be useful tools for the early diagnosis of intestinal cryptosporidiosis, although admittedly they are invasive procedures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kinoshita,Akio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci-discuss.net/1/6659/2013/nhessd-1-6659-2013.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Facing and managing natural disasters in the <span class="hlt">Sporades</span> Islands, Greece</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available The region of the <span class="hlt">Sporades</span> Islands located in central Greece is at the mercy of many natural phenomena, such as earthquakes, due to the marine volcano "Psathoura", and the rift of Anatolia, forest fires, floods, landslides, storms, hail, snowfall and frost. The present work aims at studying the perceptions and attitudes of the residents regarding how they face and manage natural disasters. A positive public response during a hazard crisis depends not only upon the availability and good management of a civil defence plan but also on the knowledge and perception of the possible hazards by the local population. It is important for the stakeholders to know what the citizens expect from each of the separate stakeholders so that the necessary structures can be developed in the phase of preparation and organization. The residents were asked about their opinion about what they think should be done by the stakeholders after a catastrophic natural disaster, particularly the immediate response of stakeholders and their involvement and responsibilities at different, subsequent intervals of time following the disaster. The residents were also asked about the most common disasters that happen in their region and about the preparation activities of the stakeholders.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Karanikola</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.annalsofgeophysics.eu/index.php/annals/article/view/5227"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span>-E ionization observed by the backscatter technique</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Tlie examination of tlie results of tlie ionosplieric sounding<br />by ground backscatter carried out at Torrecliiaruccia (S. Marinella, Rome<br />since 1957, as to tlie occurrence of tlie propagation via <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-ZJ ionization,<br />is referred.<br />Tlie seasonal and diurnal occurrence, as well as tlie azimutlial distribution<br />of tlio Es eelioes are diseussed.<br />Tliere was a good correlation between tlie time occurrence of Es eelioes<br />and the occurrence of Es ionization, the top frequency of which exceeds a<br />criticai value related to the frequency of the sounding radio waves. To<br />account for a lack of correlation between the azimutlial distribution of the<br />eelioes and tlie azimutlial distribution of foEs, it is suggested that the latter<br />one depends even 011 an azimutlial variation in the vertical radiation diagrain<br />of the antenna, due to some characteristics of the ground.<br />A statistics of Es "clouds" was performed; about 60% of the observed<br />clouds were " moving clouds ", their main movement occurring towards<br />South-West; the mean dimension of these clouds was about 250 km.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. DOMINICI</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1963-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NHESS..14..995K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Facing and managing natural disasters in the <span class="hlt">Sporades</span> islands, Greece</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The region of the <span class="hlt">Sporades</span> islands located in central Greece is at the mercy of many natural phenomena, such as earthquakes due to the marine volcano Psathoura and the rift of Anatolia, forest fires, floods, landslides, storms, hail, snowfall and frost. The present work aims at studying the perceptions and attitudes of the residents regarding how they face and manage natural disasters. A positive public response during a hazard crisis depends not only upon the availability and good management of a civil defense plan but also on the knowledge and perception of the possible hazards by the local population. It is important for the stakeholders to know what the citizens expect so that the necessary structures can be developed in the phase of preparation and organization. The residents were asked their opinion about what they think should be done by the stakeholders after a catastrophic natural disaster, particularly about the immediate response of stakeholders and their involvement and responsibilities at different, subsequent intervals of time following the disaster. The residents were also asked about the most common disasters that happen in their region and about the preparation activities of the stakeholders.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Karanikola, P.; Panagopoulos, T.; Tampakis, S.; Karantoni, M. I.; Tsantopoulos, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="sporadic error-increasing effects" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> </div><!-- page_8 div --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="sporadic error-increasing effects" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">161</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:23021988"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonhomologous chromatid exchange in hereditary and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> renal cell carcinomas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For the development of renal cell carcinomas, it has been suggested that a germ-line or somatic mutation occurs on one of the homologous chromosomes 3p, and subsequently the other 3p segment is lost. The authors have examined the karyotype and/or the allelic combination on chromosomes 3 and 5 by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in normal kidney and tumor samples from 28 renal cell carcinomas that developed in two patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease. They then compared the results to those of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> tumors. An unbalanced translocation between chromosome 3p and 5q or other chromosomes was found to be the most common aberration. They developed a model of nonhomologous chromatid exchange involving breakpoint clusters at chromosomes 3p13, 3p11.2, 5q22, and 8q11.2. Subsequent chromatid segregation may result in net loss of the 3p segment either (1) in one step or (2) after a nondisjunctional loss of the derivative chromosome carrying the 3p segment. This general mechanism could also be implicated to expalin genetic changes occurring in other types of solid tumors</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/0704.3491.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">SuprimeCam Observation of <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Meteors during Perseids 2004</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report the serendipitous findings of 13 faint meteors and 44 artificial space objects by Subaru SuprimeCam imaging observations during 11-16 August 2004. The meteors, at about 100km altitude, and artificial satellites/debris in orbit, at 500km altitude or higher, were clearly discriminated by their apparent defocused image sizes. CCD photometry of the 13 meteors, including 1 Perseid, 1 Aquarid, and 11 <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> meteors, was performed. We defined a peak video-rate magnitude by comparing the integrated photon counts from the brightest portion of the track traversed within 33ms to those from a 0-mag star during the same time duration. This definition gives magnitudes in the range 4.0< V_{vr} <6.4 and 4.1< I_{vr}<5.9 for these 13 meteors. The corresponding magnitude for virtual naked-eye observers could be somewhat fainter especially for the V-band observation, in which the [OI] 5577 line lasting about 1 sec as an afterglow could contribute to the integrated flux of the present 5-10 min CCD exposure...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Iye, M; Yanagisawa, M; Ebizuka, N; Ohnishi, K; Hirose, C; Asami, N; Komiyama, Yu; Furusawa, H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=5077951"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonhomologous chromatid exchange in hereditary and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> renal cell carcinomas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For the development of renal cell carcinomas, it has been suggested that a germ-line or somatic mutation occurs on one of the homologous chromosomes 3p, and subsequently the other 3p segment is lost. The authors have examined the karyotype and/or the allelic combination on chromosomes 3 and 5 by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in normal kidney and tumor samples from 28 renal cell carcinomas that developed in two patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease. They then compared the results to those of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> tumors. An unbalanced translocation between chromosome 3p and 5q or other chromosomes was found to be the most common aberration. They developed a model of nonhomologous chromatid exchange involving breakpoint clusters at chromosomes 3p13, 3p11.2, 5q22, and 8q11.2. Subsequent chromatid segregation may result in net loss of the 3p segment either (1) in one step or (2) after a nondisjunctional loss of the derivative chromosome carrying the 3p segment. This general mechanism could also be implicated to expalin genetic changes occurring in other types of solid tumors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kovacs, G.; Kung, Hsiangfu (National Cancer Inst., Frederick, MD (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22524199"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inflammasome polymorphisms confer susceptibility to <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> malignant melanoma.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Genetic variants of NLRP3 and NLRP1 are known to modulate levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1?. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of NLRP3/NLRP1 polymorphisms with susceptibility and clinical features of malignant melanoma in a Swedish case-control study. Common variants in NLRP3/NLRP1 were investigated in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> malignant melanoma patients and healthy controls followed by analysis using logistic regression. NLRP3 variant (rs35829419) was significantly more common in male patients than in controls (OR, 2.22; CI, 1.27-3.86). Upon stratification, significant association with nodular melanoma was observed (OR, 2.89; CI, 1.33-6.30), which intensified in male patients (OR 4.03, CI 1.40-11.59). The NLRP1 variant (rs12150220) was significantly more common in fair-skinned female patients (OR, 1.85; CI, 1.04-3.33) and showed strong associations with nodular melanoma (OR, 6.03; CI, 1.33-25). Our data suggest that NLRP3/NLRP1 polymorphisms are associated with melanoma susceptibility; these findings warrant validation in other independent populations. PMID:22524199</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Verma, Deepti; Bivik, Cecilia; Farahani, Ensieh; Synnerstad, Ingrid; Fredrikson, Mats; Enerbäck, Charlotta; Rosdahl, Inger; Söderkvist, Peter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=134747"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of GLRA 1 in familial and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> hyperekplexia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hyperekplexia or familial startle syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition, causing an exaggerated startle response to unexpected stimuli. Infants have variable hypertonia in the neonatal period, with a startle response causing sustained muscular contraction. The gene was localized to chromosome 5q in 1992 and subsequently mutations were detected in the alpha{sub 1} subunit of the glycine receptor in four large pedigrees with hyperekplexia. Eight probands with hyperekplexia have been ascertained, including three <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> and four familial cases. In one pedigree, hyperekplexia appears to be associated with spastic paraparesis, and the hyperekplexia/spastic paraparesis is linked to marker loci on chromosome 5q. Genomic DNA was extracted from white cells. GLRA1 exons were amplified from genomic DNA by PCR using specific oligonucleotide primers. Amplified exon 6 fragments are being screened for the previously described mutations by restriction enzyme analysis using Bfa1 and Xho1. In addition, all exons have been screened by single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) and are currently being screened by heteroduplex analysis. No sequence changes have been detected to date. Products displaying aberrant bands on screening will be analyzed further by di-deoxy sequencing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Elmslie, F.V.; Rees, M. [UCL Medical School, London (United Kingdom); Covanis, A. [Aghia Sofia Hospital, Athens (Greece)] [and others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ann-geophys.net/25/3/2007/angeo-25-3-2007.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coincident extremely large <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> sodium and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers observed in the lower thermosphere over Colorado and Utah</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available On the night of 2 June 2002, the sodium lidar in Fort Collins, CO (40.6 N, 105 W measured an extremely strong <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> sodium layer lasting from 03:30 to 05:00 UT with several weaker layers later in the night at 06:00 and 09:00 UT. There is a double layer structure with peaks at 101 and 104 km. The peak sodium density was 21 000 atoms/cm<sup>3</sup> with a column abundance of up to twice that of the normal sodium layer. The peak density was 500 times greater than the typical density at that altitude. The <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> layer abundance and strength factor were higher than any reported in the literature. The two lidar beams, separated by 70 km at this altitude, both measured 0.6 h periodicities in the abundance, but out of phase with each other by 0.3 h. There is also evidence for strong wave activity in the lidar temperatures and winds. The NOAA ionosonde in Boulder, CO (40.0 N, 105 W measured a critical frequency (f<I><sub>o</sub></I>E<i></sub>s</sub></i> of 14.3 MHz at 03:00 UT on this night, the highest value anytime during 2002. The high values of total ion density inferred means that Na<sup>+</sup> fraction must have been only a few percent to explain the neutral Na layer abundances. The Bear Lake, Utah (41.9 N, 111.4 W dynasonde also measured intense E<i><sub>s</sub></i> between 02:00 and 05:00 UT and again from 06:00 to 08:00 UT about 700 km west of the lidar, with most of the ionograms during these intervals measuring E<i><sub>s</sub></i> up to 12 MHz, the limit of the ionosonde sweep. Other ionosondes around North America on the NGDC database measured normal f<i><sub>o</sub></i>E<i><sub>s</sub></i> values that night, so it was a localized event within North America. The peak of E<i><sub>s</sub></i> activity observed in Europe during the summer of 2002 occurred on 4 June. The observations are consistent with the current theories where a combination of wind shears and long period waves form and push downward a concentrated layer of ions, which then chemically react and form a narrow layer of sodium atoms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. P. Williams</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:41112920"> <span id="translatedtitle">Double atmospheric gravity wave frequency oscillations of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E formed in a horizontal shear flow</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The new theory of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E density oscillation with double atmospheric gravity wave (AGW) frequency in two-dimensional case taking into account ions ambipolar diffusion is presented. It is found that densities of multi-layered <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E, formed under the influence of atmospheric vortical perturbation (with vertical wavelength ?z?0) evolving in the horizontal shear flow (shear wave), can oscillate with up to double Brunt-Vaeisaelae frequency under the action of short-period AGW, in which shear wave is transformed. The formation of multi-layered <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E (inside regions with vertical thickness about ?z/2) and its density changes in every half AGW period close to ions convergence region occur by combined action of ion-neutral collision and Lorentz forcing and can cause additional accumulation of ions responsible for <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E density oscillation with double AGW frequency.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=21384829"> <span id="translatedtitle">Double atmospheric gravity wave frequency oscillations of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E formed in a horizontal shear flow</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The new theory of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E density oscillation with double atmospheric gravity wave (AGW) frequency in two-dimensional case taking into account ions ambipolar diffusion is presented. It is found that densities of multi-layered <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E, formed under the influence of atmospheric vortical perturbation (with vertical wavelength lambda{sub z}not =0) evolving in the horizontal shear flow (shear wave), can oscillate with up to double Brunt-Vaeisaelae frequency under the action of short-period AGW, in which shear wave is transformed. The formation of multi-layered <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E (inside regions with vertical thickness about lambda{sub z}/2) and its density changes in every half AGW period close to ions convergence region occur by combined action of ion-neutral collision and Lorentz forcing and can cause additional accumulation of ions responsible for <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E density oscillation with double AGW frequency.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Didebulidze, G.G., E-mail: didebulidze@iliauni.edu.g [Georgian National Astrophysical Observatory, Ilia Chavchavadze State University, A. Kazbegi Ave. 2a, Tbilisi 0160 (Georgia); Lomidze, L.N. [Georgian National Astrophysical Observatory, Ilia Chavchavadze State University, A. Kazbegi Ave. 2a, Tbilisi 0160 (Georgia)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::a5c9d37b6c27392ba616e5f04e8eb2d8"> <span id="translatedtitle">Methylation is less abundant in BRCA1-associated compared with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> breast cancer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Promoter methylation is a common epigenetic mechanism to silence tumor suppressor genes during breast cancer development. We investigated whether BRCA1-associated breast tumors show cancer-predictive methylation patterns similar to those found in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> tumors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Suijkerbuijk, K. P. M.; Fackler, M. J.; Sukumar, S.; Gils, C. H.; Laar, T.; Wall, E.; Vooijs, M.; Diest, P. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD688271"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intraneuronal Conglomerates in <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Motor Neuron Disease. A Light and Electron Microscopic Study.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report represents an unusual <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> case of motor neuron disease characterized by large, irregular hyaline conglomerates in most of the remaining anterior horn cells and in some motor neurons of the brain stem. Rarely, an acidophilic spheroid was a...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. S. Schochet J. M. Hardman P. P. Ladewig K. M. Earle</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1968-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA483244"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mutagen Sensitivity and DNA Repair Gene Polymorphisms in Hereditary and <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Breast Cancer.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Genetic susceptibilities for breast cancer can be elucidated by studying genotype-phenotype correlates. This study investigated women from high risk breast cancer families, a <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> breast cancer case-control study and associations for specific BRCA1 SN...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. Santi-Ruiz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2350/10/86"> <span id="translatedtitle">Genome-wide association reveals three SNPs associated with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> amyotrophic lateral sclerosis through a two-locus analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal, degenerative neuromuscular disease characterized by a progressive loss of voluntary motor activity. About 95% of ALS patients are in "<span class="hlt">sporadic</span> form"-meaning their disease is not associated with a family history of the disease. To date, the genetic factors of the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> form of ALS are poorly understood. Methods We proposed a two-stage approach based on seventeen biological plausible models to search for two-locus combinations that have significant joint <span class="hlt">effects</span> to the disease in a genome-wide association study (GWAS. We used a two-stage strategy to reduce the computational burden associated with performing an exhaustive two-locus search across the genome. In the first stage, all SNPs were screened using a single-marker test. In the second stage, all pairs made from the 1000 SNPs with the lowest p-values from the first stage were evaluated under each of the 17 two-locus models. Results we performed the two-stage approach on a GWAS data set of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS from the SNP Database at the NINDS Human Genetics Resource Center DNA and Cell Line Repository http://ccr.coriell.org/ninds/. Our two-locus analysis showed that two two-locus combinations--rs4363506 (SNP1 and rs3733242 (SNP2, and rs4363506 and rs16984239 (SNP3 -- were significantly associated with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS. After adjusting for multiple tests and multiple models, the combination of SNP1 and SNP2 had a p-value of 0.032 under the Dom?Dom epistatic model; SNP1 and SNP3 had a p-value of 0.042 under the Dom × Dom multiplicative model. Conclusion The proposed two-stage analytical method can be used to search for joint <span class="hlt">effects</span> of genes in GWAS. The two-stage strategy decreased the computational time and the multiple testing burdens associated with GWAS. We have also observed that the loci identified by our two-stage strategy can not be detected by single-locus tests.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schymick Jennifer C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::e712f6cc17831dd38ef9bbd3395cc11c"> <span id="translatedtitle">Absence of RET Gene Point Mutations in <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Thyroid C-Cell Hyperplasia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Progression from C-cell hyperplasia (CCH) to medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) has been demonstrated to date only in familial forms, whereas in nonfamilial MTC, such hypothesis is suggested by the rare concurrence of both lesions, although no epidemiological and molecular data are available to prove or disprove this event. Therefore, the clinical management of patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> CCH is controversial. To evaluate the malignant potential of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> CCHs, pure laser-microdissected C-cell po...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Saggiorato, Enrico; Rapa, Ida; Garino, Francesca; Bussolati, Gianni; Orlandi, Fabio; Papotti, Mauro; Volante, Marco</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______970::79003ac27b8f5a87fa5a700d1e6956ef"> <span id="translatedtitle">C9ORF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansions in the Italian <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS population</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It has been recently reported that a large proportion of patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are associated with a hexanucleotide (GGGGCC) repeat expansion in the first intron of C9ORF72. We have assessed 1757 Italian <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS cases, 133 from Sardinia, 101 from Sicily, and 1523 from mainland Italy. Sixty (3.7%) of 1624 mainland Italians and Sicilians and 9 (6.8%) of the 133 Sardinian <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS cases carried the pathogenic repeat ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______104::427a35c237d12e29f0558ee831a6658c"> <span id="translatedtitle">Molecular Mechanisms Associated with Chromosomal and Microsatellite Instability in <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Glioblastoma multiforme</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective: Two chromosomal instability (CIN) pathways are described in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), type 1 and type 2, which can be observed in up to 70% of the cases. Microsatellite instability (MSI) plays a pathogenic role in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> cancers such as colon, gastric and endometrial carcinomas with deficient mismatch repair (MMR). We aimed to perform a comprehensive analysis of the relationship between CIN and MSI mechanisms in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> glioblastomas. </p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martinez, Ramon; Schackert, Hans-k; Plaschke, Jens; Baretton, Gustavo; Appelt, Hella; Schackert, Gabriele</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______970::ae385c33c9cf433e1fb1487656606a62"> <span id="translatedtitle">A comparison of familial and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> migraine in a headache clinic population</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We compared the clinical, psychological and pharmacological characteristics of patients with familial migraine and patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> migraine. Five hundred and thirty consecutive new patients attending our Headache Center over a two-year period were involved in the study. The patients were divided into two groups: A. Familial migraine (famM)--at least one first-degree relative affected; B. <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> migraine (spoM)--no first-degree relative affected. Four hundred and twenty-four patients ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pinessi, Lorenzo; Rainero, Innocenzo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::425d54ec9cb5c18a43ad45786e61d0c2"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clinical and pathological significance of microsatellite instability in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> endometrial carcinoma.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Defective DNA mismatch repair in neoplasia is manifested by extra, aberrant bands within multiple microsatellite markers. The replication error (RER) phenotype is present in most colorectal and endometrial carcinomas in patients with the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma syndrome. In addition, a minority of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> colorectal and endometrial carcinomas are RER positive. RER in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> colorectal carcinomas has been associated with improved prognosis, but its clinical significance...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Caduff, R. F.; Johnston, C. M.; Svoboda-newman, S. M.; Poy, E. L.; Merajver, S. D.; Frank, T. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=doajarticles::e7dd8c87a2cbdc7f17aa13e3b5990e86"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clinical characteristics and risk factors of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Hepatitis E in central China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract Background Epidemiological investigations, detections and vaccines of hepatitis E (HE) have been paid a focus of attention in prior studies, while studies on clinical features and risk factors with a large number of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> HE patients are scarce. Results <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> HE can occur throughout the year, with the highest incidence rate in the first quarter of a year, in central of China. Of the 210 patients, 85.2% were male, and the most common clinical sympt...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang Shujun; Wang Jingjing; Yuan Quan; Ge Shengxiang; Zhang Jun; Xia Ningshao; Tian Deying</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od________18::a52cabb405e67e18b7cf68a45046590f"> <span id="translatedtitle">On fixed point sets and Lefschetz modules for <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> simple groups</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We consider 2-local geometries and other subgroup complexes for <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> simple groups. For six groups, the fixed point set of a noncentral involution is shown to be equivariantly homotopy equivalent to a standard geometry for the component of the centralizer. For odd primes, fixed point sets are computed for <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> groups having an extraspecial Sylow p-subgroup of order p^3, acting on the complex of those p-radical subgroups containing a p-central element in their centers...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maginnis, John; Onofrei, Silvia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::34dcc1207fb8b26d8123f5cdf09b84c2"> <span id="translatedtitle">Identification of somatic mutations of the MEN1 gene in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> endocrine tumours</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Endocrine tumours of the pancreas, anterior pituitary or parathyroids arise either <span class="hlt">sporadically</span> in the general population, or as a part of inherited syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1). The mechanisms responsible for the development of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> endocrine lesions are not well understood, although loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the MEN1 locus on chromosome 11q13 and somatic mutation of the MEN1 gene have been frequently associated with the development of MEN 1-type sp...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bergman, L.; Boothroyd, C.; Palmer, J.; Grimmond, S.; Walters, M.; Teh, B.; Shepherd, J.; Hartley, L.; Hayward, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="sporadic error-increasing effects" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> </div><!-- page_9 div --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="sporadic error-increasing effects" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=doajarticles::dbede285ff1c5e67d2cb4c76c201d58f"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal variability and descent of mid-latitude <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers at Arecibo</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> E layers (<I>E<sub>s</sub></I>) follow regular daily patterns in variability and altitude descent, which are determined primarily by the vertical tidal wind shears in the lower thermosphere. In the present study a large set of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer incoherent scatter radar (ISR) measurements are analyzed. These were made at Arecibo (Geog. Lat. ~18° N; Magnetic Dip ~50°) over many years with ISR runs lasting from several hours to several days, covering evenl...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christakis, N.; Haldoupis, C.; Zhou, Q.; Meek, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ann-geophys.net/26/1071/2008/angeo-26-1071-2008.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A case study of a <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> sodium layer observed by the ALOMAR Weber Na lidar</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Several possible mechanisms for the production of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> sodium layers have been discussed in the literature, but none of them seem to explain all the accumulated observations. The hypotheses range from direct meteoric input, to energetic electron bombardment on meteoric smoke particles, to ion neutralization, to temperature dependent chemistry. The varied instrumentation located on Andøya and near Tromsø in Norway gives us an opportunity to test the different theories applied to high latitude <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> sodium layers. We use the ALOMAR Weber sodium lidar to monitor the appearance and characteristics of a <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> sodium layer that was observed on 5 November 2005. We also monitor the temperature to test the hypotheses regarding a temperature dependent mechanism. The EISCAT Tromsø Dynasonde, the ALOMAR/UiO All-sky camera and the SKiYMET meteor radar on Andøya are used to test the suggested relationships of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> sodium layers and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E-layers, electron precipitation, and meteor deposition during this event. We find that more than one candidate is eligible to explain our observation of the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> sodium layer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. Nesse</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:7272891"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span>-E and spread-F in high latitude region</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The heretofore made morphological studies of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E and spread-F as the typical irregularities of electron density are reviewed. These phenomena have close correlation with other geophysical phenomena which occur in the atmosphere of superhigh altitude in high latitude region. Many of these phenomena occur from same causes. Although the quantitative data are insufficient, the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E and spread-F in high latitude region are supposed to be caused by the precipitating charged particles falling from magnetosphere. A system, which can observe such phenomena simultaneously using the measuring instruments carried by satellites in the atmosphere of high altitude over high latitude region, is desirable to solve such problems. In detail, the morphological study on <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E obtained from the observation of vertically projected ionosphere and the morphological study on <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E from the observation of forward scattering and slanting entrance are reviewed. The correlation of the occurrence frequency of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E with solar activity, geomagnetic activity and other phenomena was studied. The morphological study on spread-F occurrence is reviewed. The observation of the spread-F in high latitude region by the application of top side sounding is reviewed. The correlation of the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E and spread-F in high latitude region with other geophysical phenomena is discussed. Finally, the discrete phenomenon and the diffuse phenomenon are discussed too. (Iwakiri, K.)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Imaging+movement-related+activity+in+medicated+Parkin-associated+and+sporadic+Parkinson%27s+disease"> <span id="translatedtitle">Imaging movement-related activity in medicated Parkin-associated and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Parkinson's disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Treatment-related motor complications such as dyskinesias are a major problem in the long-term management of Parkinsonâ??s disease (PD). In <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> PD, a relatively early onset of the disease is known to be associated with an early development of dyskinesias. Although linked with early onset, patients with Parkin-associated PD often show a stable long-term response to dopaminergic therapy without developing treatment-induced motor complications. Therefore, we reasoned that this difference in vulnerability to develop dyskinesias under long-term dopaminergic therapy may be associated with differences in movement-related activation patterns in Parkin-associated compared to <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> PD. To test this hypothesis, medicated non-dyskinetic patients with either Parkin-associated or <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> PD underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing externally specified or internally selected movements. Patients with Parkin-associated and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> PD showed no difference in movement-related activation patterns. Moreover, the covariates â??ageâ?? and â??disease durationâ?? similarly influenced brain activation in both patient groups. The present finding suggests that a stable long-term motor response in some patients with Parkin-associated PD may not be related to differences in cortical recruitment. In conclusion, our findings corroborate a substantial pathophysiologic overlap between Parkin-associated and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> PD and lend further support to the notion that Parkin-associated PD is a suitable genetic model for <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> PD.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">van Eimeren, Thilo; Binkofski, Ferdinand</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24241947"> <span id="translatedtitle">Duration of viraemia in Chinese acute <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> hepatitis E.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Acute <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> hepatitis E (ASHE) cases induced by hepatitis E virus genotype 4 (HEV-4) are increasing in China. Our study aimed to estimate the duration of HEV-4 viraemia in Chinese ASHE. A total of 619 serum specimens from 499 ASHE patients were examined for the presence of HEV RNA. The association between viraemia detection and serum sampling time was compared between subtypes. The cumulative probability of HEV viraemia detection was determined using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and the viraemia duration was estimated. A total of 42.7 % of serum specimens were positive for HEV RNA and all the isolated strains were identified as genotype 4 and subsequently assigned to five subtypes. Among the patients infected with subtypes 4d and 4i, the time interval from the initiation of clinical symptoms to serum specimen sampling was shorter than that among the patients with subtypes 4a, 4b and 4h. Kaplan-Meier analysis was conducted with 101 sequential specimens as well as with both 101 sequential specimens and 236 single negative specimens. The cumulative probability of HEV-4 viraemia detection was estimated to decline quickly to approximately 10 % within 32 days after the initiation of clinical symptoms and then to decline very slowly to 5 % by the 41st day and to zero by the 131st day. The majority of ASHE cases maintain detectable HEV-4 viraemia within one month after onset, whereas a small portion of cases maintain long-term viraemia and may act as a reservoir for further transmission. PMID:24241947</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lu, Y-H; Qian, H-Z; Hu, A-Q; Ren, H; Qin, X; Jiang, Q-W; Zheng, Y-J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ij-healthgeographics.com/content/1/1/5"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geographical and seasonal correlation of multiple sclerosis to <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> schizophrenia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Abstract Background Clusters by season and locality reveal a striking epidemiological overlap between <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis (MS. As the birth excesses of those individuals who later in life develop schizophrenia mirror the seasonal distribution of Ixodid ticks, a meta analysis has been performed between all neuropsychiatric birth excesses including MS and the epidemiology of spirochaetal infectious diseases. Results The prevalence of MS and schizophrenic birth excesses entirely spares the tropical belt where human treponematoses are endemic, whereas in more temperate climates infection rates of Borrelia garinii in ticks collected from seabirds match the global geographic distribution of MS. If the seasonal fluctuations of Lyme borreliosis in Europe are taken into account, the birth excesses of MS and those of schizophrenia are nine months apart, reflecting the activity of Ixodes ricinus at the time of embryonic implantation and birth. In America, this nine months' shift between MS and schizophrenic births is also reflected by the periodicity of Borrelia burgdorferi transmitting Ixodes pacificus ticks along the West Coast and the periodicity of Ixodes scapularis along the East Coast. With respect to Ixodid tick activity, amongst the neuropsychiatric birth excesses only amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS shows a similar seasonal trend. Conclusion It cannot be excluded at present that maternal infection by Borrelia burgdorferi poses a risk to the unborn. The seasonal and geographical overlap between schizophrenia, MS and neuroborreliosis rather emphasises a causal relation that derives from exposure to a flagellar virulence factor at conception and delivery. It is hoped that the pathogenic correlation of spirochaetal virulence to temperature and heat shock proteins (HSP might encourage a new direction of research in molecular epidemiology.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fritzsche Markus</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMSA14A..07H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intermediate and transisitonal scale structure in midlaitude <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Irregular midlatitude <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E (Es) layers exhibit irregularities at large (~100 km), intermediate (~10 km), transitional (~1 km), and small (<< 1 lm) scales. This paper focuses on the causes of intermediate- and transitional-scale irregularities using analysis and observations from the Arecibo incoherent scatter radar and a 30 MHz coherent scatter radar imager located on St. Croix, USVI. We attribute the intermediate-scale structure we observe to shear instability in the neutral flow. Estimates of the time-varying vector neutral wind profiles in which the Es layers are embedded are analyzed and shown to be shear unstable in the Richardson number sense. In addition to the calculation of the Richardson number values, we present an eigenvalue analysis for the wind profiles. The calculated eigenmodes have dominant Kelvin-Helmholtz modes for the estimated flow that are propagating to the southwest with phase speeds near 50 m/s and horizontal wavelengths between 10--15 km. The growth times for the waves would have been as little as about 1 min. Transitional-scale fine structure is also apparent in incoherent scatter observations of Es layers from Arecibo. The fine structure is wavelike with predominant horizontal wavelengths as large as about 2--3 km. We attribute this structure to a drift wave instability operating in the collisional regime. A linear, local dispersion relation for the waves is described which predicts growth driven by polarization electric fields in the layers, a consequence of the intermediate-scale irregularities. A numerical simulation produces wave growth and other features consistent with the dispersion relation, including finite parallel wavenumbers. The kilometric irregularities are thought to be the primary waves from which secondary, small-scale waves in the layers can form.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hysell, D. L.; Nossa, E.; Larsen, M.; Sulzer, M. P.; Gonzalez, S. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=22185522"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> meningioangiomatosis: imaging findings with histopathologic correlations in seven patients</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Meningioangiomatosis (MA) is a rare benign cerebral lesion. We aimed to evaluate the CT and MR features of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> MA, with a focus on the correlation between imaging and histopathologic findings. CT (n = 7) and MR (n = 8) images of eight patients (6 men and 2 women; mean age, 12.8 years; range, 4-22 years) with pathologically proven MA were retrospectively reviewed. After dividing the MA lesions according to their distribution into cortical and subcortical white matter components, the morphologic characteristics were analyzed and correlated with histopathologic findings in seven patients. CT and MR images showed cortical (n = 4, 50 %) and subcortical white matter (n = 7, 88 %) components of MA. All four cortical components revealed hyperattenuation on CT scan and T1 isointensity/T2 hypointensity on MR images, whereas subcortical white matter components showed hypoattenuation on CT scan and T1 hypointensity/T2 hyperintensity on MR images. Two cortical components (25 %) demonstrated enhancement and one subcortical white matter component demonstrated cystic change. Seven cases were available for imaging-histopathologic correlation. In all seven cases, the cortex was involved by MA and six patients (86 %) showed subcortical white matter involvement by MA. There were excellent correlations between the imaging and histopathologic findings in subcortical white matter components, and the accuracy was 100 % (seven of seven); whereas there were poor correlations in cortical components, and the accuracy was 43 % (three of seven). The cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter were concomitantly involved by MA. Subcortical white matter components of MA were more apparent than cortical components on CT and MR imaging. (orig.)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jeon, Tae Yeon; Kim, Ji Hye; Yoo, So-Young; Eo, Hong [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Yeon-Lim; Ahn, Soomin [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4090167&rendertype=abstract"> <span id="translatedtitle">MicroRNAs Discriminate Familial from <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Non-BRCA1/2 Breast Carcinoma Arising in Patients <=35 Years</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The influence of genetic factors may contribute to the poor prognosis of breast cancer (BC) at a very young age. However BRCA1/2 mutations could not explain the majority of cases arising in these patients. MicroRNAs (miRs) have been implicated in biological processes associated with BC. Therefore, we investigated differences in miRs expression between tumors from young patients (?35 years) with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> or familial history and non-carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations. Thirty-six young Brazilian patients were divided into 2 groups: <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> (NF-BC) or familial breast cancer (F-BC). Most of the samples were classified as luminal A and B and the frequency of subtypes did not differ between familial or <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> cases. Using real time qPCR and discriminant function analysis, we identified 9 miRs whose expression levels rather than miR identity can discriminate between both patient groups. Candidate predicted targets were determined by combining results from miRWalk algorithms with mRNA expression profiles (n?=?91 differently expressed genes). MiR/mRNA integrated analysis identified 91 candidate genes showing positive or negative correlation to at least 1 of the 9 miRs. Co-expression analysis of these genes with 9 miRs indicated that 49 differentially co-expressed miR-gene interactions changes in F-BC tumors as compared to those of NF-BC tumors. Out of 49, 17 (34.6%) of predicted miR-gene interactions showed an inverse correlation suggesting that miRs act as post-transcriptional regulators, whereas 14 (28.6%) miR-gene pairs tended to be co-expressed in the same direction indicating that the <span class="hlt">effects</span> exerted by these miRs pointed to a complex level of target regulation. The remaining 18 pairs were not predicted by our criteria suggesting involvement of other regulators. MiR–mRNA co-expression analysis allowed us to identify changes in the miR-mRNA regulation that were able to distinguish tumors from familial and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> young BC patients non-carriers of BRCA mutations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bastos, Elen Pereira; Brentani, Helena; Pasini, Fatima Solange; Silva, Aderbal Ruy T.; Torres, Cesar Henrique; Puga, Renato David; Olivieri, Eloisa Helena Ribeiro; Piovezani, Amanda Rusiska; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Braganca; Machado-Lima, Ariane; Carraro, Dirce Maria; Brentani, Maria Mitzi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::955724342bf6ea4cd1820bb97ee3bd8e"> <span id="translatedtitle">The neurotensin receptor-1 promotes tumor development in a <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> but not an inflammation-associated mouse model of colon cancer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Neurotensin receptor-1 (NTR-1) is overexpressed in colon cancers and colon cancer cell lines, Signaling through this receptor stimulates proliferation of colonocyte-derived cell lines and promotes inflammation and mucosal healing in animal models of colitis. Given the causal role of this signaling pathway in mediating colitis and the importance of inflammation in cancer development we tested the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of NTR-1 in mouse models of inflammation-associated and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> colon cancer using NTR-1 ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bugni, James M.; Al-rabadi, Leina; Jubbal, Kevin; Karagiannides, Iordanis; Lawson, Gregory; Pothoulakis, Charalabos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22425014"> <span id="translatedtitle">Study of the HFE gene common polymorphisms in French patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Our objective was to investigate whether the C282Y (p.Cys 282 Tyr) and H63D (p. His 63 Asp) HFE polymorphisms were associated with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS) in the French population. We searched for a relation of HFE polymorphisms with the clinical characteristics of the disease. The HFE polymorphisms were studied in 824 patients with SALS and 583 controls. We compared the frequency of the polymorphisms between SALS and controls groups by univariate and multivariate statistics, taking into account gender, site, age-at-onset and survival. We did not observe significant difference in the frequency of H63D polymorphism between SALS and control group. We observed a significant difference for C282Y between patients and controls with a low frequency of the Y allele in patients (3.2%) compared to our control group (5.9%). Disease duration, distribution of gender, site-of-onset, age-at-onset did not differ between groups taking into account genotypes of each polymorphism. Our results in this large cohort of ALS patients indicate that H63D polymorphism is not associated with SALS in the French population. This conclusion does not exclude a weak <span class="hlt">effect</span> of the HFE gene polymorphisms in certain ALS populations, or an <span class="hlt">effect</span> of other rare HFE gene variants. PMID:22425014</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Praline, Julien; Blasco, Hélène; Vourc'h, Patrick; Rat, Valérian; Gendrot, Chantal; Camu, William; Andres, Christian R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19682988"> <span id="translatedtitle">Natural lipophilic inhibitors of mitochondrial complex I are candidate toxins for <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> neurodegenerative tau pathologies.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Annonacin, a natural lipophilic inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I has been implicated in the etiology of a <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> neurodegenerative tauopathy in Guadeloupe. We therefore studied further compounds representing the broad biochemical spectrum of complex I inhibitors to which humans are potentially exposed. We determined their lipophilicity, their <span class="hlt">effect</span> on complex I activity in submitochondrial particles, and their <span class="hlt">effect</span> on cellular ATP levels, neuronal cell death and somatodendritic redistribution of phosphorylated tau protein (AD2 antibody against pS396/pS404-tau) in primary cultures of fetal rat striatum. The 24 compounds tested were lipophilic (logP range 0.9-8.5; exception: MPP(+) logP=-1.35) and potent complex I inhibitors (IC(50) range 0.9 nM-2.6 mM). They all decreased ATP levels (EC(50) range 1.9 nM-54.2 microM), induced neuronal cell death (EC(50) range 1.1 nM-54.5 microM) and caused the redistribution of AD2(+) tau from axons to the cell body (EC(5) range 0.6 nM-33.3 microM). The potency of the compounds to inhibit complex I correlated with their potency to induce tau redistribution (r=0.80, p<0.001). In conclusion, we propose that the widely distributed lipophilic complex I inhibitors studied here might be implicated in the induction of tauopathies with global prevalence. PMID:19682988</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Höllerhage, Matthias; Matusch, Andreas; Champy, Pierre; Lombès, Anne; Ruberg, Merle; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Höglinger, Günter U</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012cosp...39.2234Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Features of the amplitude-height-frequency characteristics of midlatitude <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">At early investigation of an ionosphere the vertical pulse sounding was without separation magnetoionic components and such conditions allowed to observe interferential beatings or polarized fading over frequencies where traces of various magnetoionic component was crossing (overlapping). The beatings in F layer traces are often observed and their origin easily are explain by an interference o - and x-mode whereas in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layer traces even observability of beatings of o- and x-modes is in doubt. Absence of experimental evidences of beatings is explain that measurements did not manage to be performed over the necessary time moment because of randomness and a rarity of occurrence high-intensity <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layers (without properties of scattering on small scale irregularities) and because of high labour input at recording and processing of amplitude-frequency characteristics. The direct observation of interferential beatings became problematic when ionosondes with separations of magnetoionic components appeared. Moreover because of relative vicinity of gyro and background plasma frequencies and also the steep electron profile gradient the beatings in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E traces should occur between two o-modes because in typical diurnal low-intensity <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layers (foEsionogram. Besides the specified approximation of width of interference fringes it is necessary to determine also frequency dependences of the virtual height of reflection of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layers for o- and x-modes accurate within 300 m. First of all it concerns to cusp in the beginning of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E traces. For approximation of this dependence the modernized model of a parabolic layer for o- and x-modes with various half-thickness of layer has been used. Comparison with experimental data gives half-thickness are approximately equal 5 and 25 km accordingly. All three approximations of interference fringe widths and of reflection heights will be used for determination of height electron density profile with improved precision below maximum of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yusupov, Kamil; Akchurin, Adel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070023934&hterms=sporadic&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2522sporadic%2Be%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> E Morphology from GPS-CHAMP Radio Occultation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The scintillations of phase and amplitude in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the GPS radio occultation signal are caused by thin ionization layers. These thin irregular electron density layers in the E region ionosphere are often called <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E (Es). For a monthly retrieval of Es morphology we use the variances of the phase and SNR fluctuations of worldwide 6000 GPS/CHAMP occultations in the E region. The Es climatology is studied globally with the SNR and phase variances in terms of monthly zonal means, seasonal maps, and diurnal and long-term variations. The zonal mean variances reveal strong, extended Es activities at summertime midlatitudes but weak, confined activities in wintertime high latitudes, peaking at 105 km. Global maps at 105-km altitude show clear dependence of Es activities on the geomagnetic dip angle, where the summertime midlatitude Es occurs mostly at dip angles of 30 deg. - 60 deg. and the wintertime high-latitude enhancement occurs mostly at dip angles greater than 80 deg. The midlatitude Es variances exhibit a strong semidiurnal variation with peak hours near 0800 1000 and 2000 local solar time, respectively. The peak hours are delayed slightly with decreasing height, suggesting influences from the semidiurnal tide. To provide more insights on the observed SNR and phase variances, we model radio wave propagation for the CHAMP observing geometry under several perturbed cases in the E region ionosphere. The model simulations indicate that the SNR variance has the maximum response to Es perturbations at vertical wavelengths of 1.2 km, whereas the phase response maximizes at 2 km (for the 1-s variance analysis). The characteristic scale depends little on the truncation time used in the SNR variance analysis, but it increases with the truncation time for the phase variances. Initial studies show that reasonable global Es morphology can be produced on a monthly and seasonal basis with the CHAMP one-antenna occultations. Better results from other existing and upcoming GPS occultation missions are anticipated in future studies, and they will significantly improve our understanding of this important phenomenon.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wu, Dong L.; Ao, Chi O.; Hajj, George A.; de la Torre Juarez, Manuel; Mannucci, Anthony J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322009000500002"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> medullary thyroid carcinoma: clinical data from a university hospital</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Medullary thyroid carcinoma may occur in a <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> (s-medullary thyroid carcinoma, 75% or in a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 form (MEN2, 25%. These clinical forms differ in many ways, as s-medullary thyroid carcinoma cases are RET-negative in the germline and are typically diagnosed later than medullary thyroid carcinoma in MEN2 patients. In this study, a set of cases with s-medullary thyroid carcinoma are documented and explored. PURPOSE: To document the phenotypes observed in s-medullary thyroid carcinoma cases from a university group and to attempt to improve earlier diagnosis of s-medullary thyroid carcinoma. Some procedures for diagnostics are also recommended. METHOD: Patients (n=26 with apparent s-medullary thyroid carcinoma were studied. Their clinical data were reviewed and peripheral blood was collected and screened for RET germline mutations. RESULTS: The average age at diagnosis was 43.9 years (± 10.82 SD and did not differ between males and females. Calcitonin levels were increased in all cases. Three patients presented values that were 100-fold greater than the normal upper limit. Most (61.54% had values that were 20-fold below this limit. Carcinoembryonic antigen levels were high in 70.6% of cases. There was no significant association between age at diagnosis, basal calcitonin levels or time of disease onset with thyroid tumor size (0.6-15 cm. Routine thyroid cytology yielded disappointing diagnostic accuracy (46.7% in this set of cases. After total thyroidectomy associated with extensive cervical lymph node resection, calcitonin values remained lower than 5 pg/mL for at least 12 months in eight of the cases (30.8%. Immunocyto- and histochemistry for calcitonin were positive in all analyzed cases. None of the 26 cases presented germline mutations in the classical hotspots of the RET proto-oncogene. CONCLUSION: Our cases were identified late. The basal calcitonin measurements and immunostaining for calcitonin were highly useful for diagnosing s-medullary thyroid carcinoma. The rate of complete patient recovery was low, and none of the parameters analyzed were useful predictors of the thyroid tumor size. Our findings support previous recommendations for routine serum calcitonin evaluation and immunostaining analysis involving single thyroid nodules.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Joya Emilie M. Correia-Deur</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:7228110"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of Arecibo E-region data and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E theory: a measurement of the diffusion coefficient</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Incoherent scatter measurements using multiple-pulse techniques were performed at Arecibo to study the E region with a height resolution of 2.4 km. These simultaneous measurements of ion temperature, ion-neutral collision frequency, and electron density, as well as horizontal and vertical components of ion drift velocity, have allowed comparison between theories of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E and experiment. <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span>-E layers were consistently observed to descend along the curve where the vertical ion drift velocity (V/sub z) was zero and its gradient delta V/sub z//delta Z was negative, as predicted by redistribution theory. Assuming no diffusion, the calculated <span class="hlt">effective</span> recombination coefficient at the layer peak is more than an order of magnitude too small for NO+ or O2+, and varies with height in a manner which is unacceptable for a recombination coefficient. This indicates that the layer is composed of long-lived ions (probably metallic), and that the peak layer density is controlled by diffusion rather than recombination. By ignoring recombination, the diffusion coefficient was estimated from the layer thickness and the vertical gradient in the vertical ion velocity. The results were co</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______370::5f278c302bd85e2e59cf2f1927d3a968"> <span id="translatedtitle">Meat consumption and meat preparation in relation to colorectal adenomas among <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> and HNPCC family patients in The Netherlands</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Meat consumption and meat preparation methods are thought to be associated with the risk of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> colorectal cancer, and possibly adenomas. As the same somatic mutations occur in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> adenomas and hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC)-related adenomas, similar exogenous factors may play a role in the development of both types of adenoma. In a case control study among 57 <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> colorectal adenoma cases and 62 adenoma cases from HNPCC families (and 148 adenoma-free control...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Voskuil, D. W.; Kampman, E.; Grubben, M. J. A. L.; Kok, F. J.; Nagengast, F. M.; Vasen, H. F. A.; Veer, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21745715"> <span id="translatedtitle">An explanation for the changes in collagen in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is evidence showing abnormalities in collagen from the skin of patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (sALS) both from Guam and elsewhere. The non-proteinogenic amino acid beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) was first associated with the high incidence of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/Parkinsonism Dementia Complex (ALS/PDC) in Guam, and has been implicated as a potential environmental factor in ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases. BMAA has a number of toxic <span class="hlt">effects</span> on motor neurons including direct agonist action on NMDA and AMPA receptors, induction of oxidative stress, and depletion of glutathione. As a non-proteinogenic amino acid, there is also the strong possibility that BMAA could cause intraneuronal protein misfolding, the hallmark of neurodegeneration. While an animal model for BMAA-induced ALS is lacking, there is substantial evidence to support a link between this toxin and ALS. We hypothesize that the abnormalities seen in sALS collagen may result from the misincorporation of BMAA and subsequent misfolding of the collagen protein. PMID:21745715</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Field, Nicholas C; Caller, Tracie A; Stommel, Elijah W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSA11B1926L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observation of Electron Biteout Regions Below Twin <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> E layers at Arctic Latitude</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In February 2009, four sounding rockets were launched from Poker Flat, Alaska to study the small scale dynamics of the turbopause region. A 10-km vertical wavelength long-period gravity wave dominantly modulated wind and temperature profiles. Here we focus on the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of this wave on the electron density structure, specifically, two narrow Es layers near 94 and 102 km observed in situ and by incoherent scatter radar. The layers were visible in several radar beams and the lower one showed clear downward phase progression. They were located about 1 km above the maximum wind shear and at the zero zonal wind crossing. These data will allow the construction and evolution of the layers as modified by the background conditions. Below both layers, the in situ measurements indicated regions of electron biteout or depletion by an order of magnitude. The lower depletions coincide with the local temperature minima. The sodium lidar did not observe <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> sodium layers during that time, and electron densities were below the threshold of the radar. We discuss the possibilities of neutral metal or dust layers that may have either caused real electron depletions or may have shifted the payload potential so that electron collection was less efficient. Temperature, electron density, and zonal wind speed from two consecutive rocket flights</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lehmacher, G. A.; Larsen, M. F.; Croskey, C. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AdSpR..47.1585Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">An attempt to study long-term variation of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers using neural networks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Strong positive correlation between <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers and the solar activity and the long-term declining trend of Es were found in this paper. Then the feed-forward back propagation neural networks (NNs) were used to simulate the long-term variation of Es at four stations and predict foEs yearly average values. The inputs used for NNs are the yearly mean values of foEs in the daytime of the past ten years and the yearly averaged data of solar 10.7 cm radio flux (F107) of the present year, and the output is the present yearly mean value of daytime foEs. The outputs of trained NNs have high correlation with the desired values and the foEs yearly mean values predicted by NNs have good agreement with the observed data. The results indicate that NNs can make full use of the observed data to simulate the long variation rule of Es. Also, the results confirm the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of solar activity on Es.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zuo, Xiaomin; Wan, Weixing; Xia, Chunliang; Zheng, Anshou</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="sporadic error-increasing effects" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> </div><!-- page_10 div --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="sporadic error-increasing effects" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdRS...11..313J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Enhanced <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E occurrence rates during the Geminid meteor showers 2006-2010</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Northern Hemisphere midlatitude <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E (Es) layer occurrence rates derived from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC GPS radio occultation (RO) measurements during the Geminid meteor showers 2006-2010 are compared with meteor rates obtained with the Collm (51.3° N, 13.0° E) VHF meteor radar. In most years, Es rates increase after the shower, with a short delay of few days. This indicates a possible link between meteor influx and the production of metallic ions that may form Es. There is an indication that the increase propagates downward, probably partly caused by tidal wind shear. However, the correlation between Es rates and meteor flux varies from year to year. A strong correlation is found especially in 2009, while in 2010 Es rates even decrease during the shower. This indicates that additional processes significantly influence Es occurrence also during meteor showers. A possible <span class="hlt">effect</span> of the semidiurnal tide is found. During years with weaker tidal wind shear, the correlation between Es and meteor rates is even weaker.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jacobi, C.; Arras, C.; Wickert, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ihy..workE.123P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ionospheric Scintillations Induced by <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span>-E Irregularities Over Low Latitude (P31)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">kalpanaa20@rediffmail.com The observations of daytime ionospheric scintillation are attributed to E- region irregularities at high and equatorial latitudes. In this paper, VHF amplitude scintillations recorded during the daytime period from 1991 to 1993 at low latitude station Varanasi (geomag. lat. 140 55/ N, long. 1540 E) are analyzed to study the behavior of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E irregularities during the active solar and magnetic periods. The amplitude scintillations of 250 MHz signal transmitted from geostationary satellite FLEETSAT situated at 730E longitude is monitored using a VHF receiver and chart recorder. In addition to the normal chart recording, data were also recorded digitally at a sampling rate of 10Hz on a few days. The daytime digital scintillation data have been analyzed to study some important parameters of scintillation producing <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E irregularities like auto-correlation function, power spectral densities, signal de-correlation time etc. We report the behavior of these parameters under weak and strong scintillation conditions. Results of these studies yield information about the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E irregularity structures, its shape and size. Derived spectral index ranges between 2 and 10 and the characteristics length of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E irregularities varies from 150m to 3000 m. The estimated characteristic of these irregularities depends on the velocity and hence we estimate the minimum and maximum range of scale length of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E irregularities, observed in the ionosphere of Varanasi. These results are also discussed in the light of recent works.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Patel, K.; Singh, A. K.; Patel, R. P.; Singh, R. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10991198"> <span id="translatedtitle">The structure of electromagnetic wave-induced 557.7-nm emission associated with a <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>- E event over arecibo</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report observations of electromagnetic wave-induced 557.7-nm emission in correspondence with a <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> low-altitude plasma layer (the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>- E layer, E(s)). We show that the structure of 557. 7-nm emission seen for some events results from a transformation of transmitted energy by ionization clouds, compiling the patchy type E(s), and presents a projection of the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>- E layer structure on the emission altitude. This allows us to propose the first method for visualizing a horizontal structure of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>- E layers. PMID:10991198</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kagan; Kelley; Garcia; Bernhardt; Djuth; Sulzer; Tepley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/10.3389/fonc.2014.00019/full"> <span id="translatedtitle">BRCA 1/2-mutation related and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> breast and ovarian cancers: More alike than different</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available No longer is histology solely predictive of cancer treatment and outcome. There is an increasing influence of tumor genomic characteristics on therapeutic options. Both breast and ovarian cancers are at higher risk of development in patients with BRCA 1/2-germline mutations. Recent data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA and others have shown a number of genomic similarities between triple negative breast cancers and ovarian cancers. Recently, poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors have shown promising activity in hereditary BRCA 1/2-mutated and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> breast and ovarian cancers. In this review, we will summarize the current literature regarding the genomic and phenotypic similarities between BRCA 1/2-mutation related cancers, <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> triple negative breast cancers, and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ovarian cancers. We will also review phase I, II, and III data using PARP inhibitors for these malignancies and compare and contrast the results with respect to histology.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">MelissaA.Burgess</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:34030013"> <span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic resonance spectroscopic abnormalities in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">AIM: To study the proton MR spectroscopic findings in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) (<span class="hlt">sporadic</span> and variant). MATERIALS AND METHODS: MR imaging and proton MR spectra were acquired in two patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> CJD (biopsy proven) and one patient with variant CJD. RESULTS: The two patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> CJD demonstrated MR signal change within the basal ganglia and thalami and reduced N-acetylaspartate (NAA):creatine ratios. The patient with variant CJD showed characteristic signal change within the pulvinar of the thalami and a markedly reduced N-acetylaspartate:creatine ratio. CONCLUSION: All three patients with CJD demonstrated evidence of reduced N-acetylaspartate: creatine ratios on MR spectroscopy. These changes imply that neuronal loss and/or dysfunction is a consistent finding in established CJD. Pandya H. G., et al (2003) Clinical Radiology58, 148--153</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3936197&rendertype=abstract"> <span id="translatedtitle">BRCA 1/2-Mutation Related and <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Breast and Ovarian Cancers: More Alike than Different</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">No longer is histology solely predictive of cancer treatment and outcome. There is an increasing influence of tumor genomic characteristics on therapeutic options. Both breast and ovarian cancers are at higher risk of development in patients with BRCA 1/2-germline mutations. Recent data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and others have shown a number of genomic similarities between triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) and ovarian cancers. Recently, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have shown promising activity in hereditary BRCA 1/2-mutated and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> breast and ovarian cancers. In this review, we will summarize the current literature regarding the genomic and phenotypic similarities between BRCA 1/2-mutation related cancers, <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> TNBCs, and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ovarian cancers. We will also review Phase I, II, and III data using PARP inhibitors for these malignancies and compare and contrast the results with respect to histology.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burgess, Melissa; Puhalla, Shannon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23660330"> <span id="translatedtitle">Linking ?-methylamino-L-alanine exposure to <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Annapolis, MD.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases occur <span class="hlt">sporadically</span>. Some environmental triggers have been implicated, including beta-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a cyanobacteria produced neurotoxin. This study aimed to identify environmental risk factors common to three <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS patients who lived in Annapolis, Maryland, USA and developed the disease within a relatively short time and within close proximity to each other. A questionnaire was used to identify potential risk factors for ALS among the cohort of patients. One common factor among the ALS patients was the frequent consumption of blue crab. Samples of blue crab from the patients' local fish market were tested for BMAA using LC-MS/MS. BMAA was identified in these Chesapeake Bay blue crabs. We conclude that the presence of BMAA in the Chesapeake Bay food web and the lifetime consumption of blue crab contaminated with BMAA may be a common risk factor for <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS in all three patients. PMID:23660330</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Field, Nicholas C; Metcalf, James S; Caller, Tracie A; Banack, Sandra A; Cox, Paul A; Stommel, Elijah W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510617B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thunderstorm related variations of the ionospheric <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer over Rome</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Meteorological events in the lower atmosphere can affect the ionosphere by electromagnetic and mechanical processes. One type of the latter ones is the internal atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs) which can often be generated by thunderstorms. According to a Superposed Epoch Analyses (SEA) using the time series of the critical frequency (foEs) and virtual height (h'Es) of the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer and WWLLN (World Wide Lightning Location Network) lightning data over the ionospheric station of Rome (41.9° 12.5°) there is a statistically significant decrease in the foEs of the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer after the time of the lightnings. This may indicate a sudden decrease in the electron density of the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer associated to lightnings. In order to understand the physical explanation for this phenomenon further studies are performed as follows: a SEA for different seasons and for daytime - nightime lightnings separately. Direction of arrival of thunderstorms is also taken into account.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barta, Veronika; Scotto, Carlo; Pietrella, Marco</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720033793&hterms=sporadic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3D%2522sporadic%2Be%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rocket-based vector magnetic measurements of Sq ionospheric currents near <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A rocket-borne vector magnetometer has been used to infer the current magnitude, direction, and distribution of midlatitude ionospheric currents near <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E. Complete vector information returned throughout the flight indicates that a southward equivalent surface current (vertically integrated current) of 0.15 amp/m was encountered between the altitudes of 104 and 118 km in both ascending and descending portions of the flight. Vertical distribution of the current within the layer was approximately uniform, and the layer was found to be horizontal within the accuracy of the experiment. The data are consistent with the assumption that a <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layer observed by Wallops Island ionosondes significantly altered the usual Sq current flow pattern by concentrating the current into a narrow altitude range, and by horizontally focusing the current flow into the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E region with attendant reduction of current density outside the region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cloutier, P. A.; Sandel, B. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24396618"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Hemiplegic Migraine with ATP1A2 and Prothrombin Gene Mutations.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background. Hemiplegic migraine is a rare type of migraine that may present in children and adolescents. Both familial and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> hemiplegic migraines have similar prevalence and clinical characteristics. Patient. We report an adolescent with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> hemiplegic migraine who previously had a similar attack in the past and who was initially evaluated for a possible acute ischemic event. Results. Magnetic resonance angiography showed dilatation of the left middle cerebral artery that resolved in a follow-up study. She was also found to have a ATP1A2 (c.2273 G>C) mutation and a heterozygous prothrombin mutation. Conclusions. We suggest that patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> hemiplegic migraine be tested for both ATP1A2 mutations which in some cases may be pathogenic, and prothrombin mutations which increase the stroke risk for this patient population. PMID:24396618</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aceves, Jose; Mungall, Diana; Kirmani, Batool F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3616004&rendertype=abstract"> <span id="translatedtitle">Kras Gene Mutation and RASSF1A, FHIT and MGMT Gene Promoter Hypermethylation: Indicators of Tumor Staging and Metastasis in Adenocarcinomatous <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Colorectal Cancer in Indian Population</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective Colorectal cancer (CRC) development involves underlying modifications at genetic/epigenetic level. This study evaluated the role of Kras gene mutation and RASSF1A, FHIT and MGMT gene promoter hypermethylation together/independently in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> CRC in Indian population and correlation with clinicopathological variables of the disease. Methods One hundred and twenty four consecutive surgically resected tissues (62 tumor and equal number of normal adjacent controls) of primary <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> CRC were included and patient details including demographic characteristics, lifestyle/food or drinking habits, clinical and histopathological profiles were recorded. Polymerase chain reaction - Restriction fragment length polymorphism and direct sequencing for Kras gene mutation and Methylation Specific-PCR for RASSF1A, FHIT and MGMT genes was performed. Results Kras gene mutation at codon 12 & 13 and methylated RASSF1A, FHIT and MGMT gene was observed in 47%, 19%, 47%, 37% and 47% cases, respectively. Alcohol intake and smoking were significantly associated with presence of Kras mutation (codon 12) and MGMT methylation (p-value RASSF1A (p-values 0.034, 0.044), FHIT (p-values 0.001, 0.047) and MGMT (p-values 0.018, 0.044) genes. Combinatorial <span class="hlt">effect</span> of gene mutation/methylation was also observed (p-value RASSF1A, FHIT and MGMT genes. Conclusion Synergistic interrelationship between these genes in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> CRC may be used as diagnostic/prognostic markers in assessing the overall pathological status of CRC.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mehrotra, Ravi; Kumar, R. Suresh; Kumar, Kapil; Pande, Pankaj; Doval, Dinesh Chandra; Basir, Seemi Farhat; Bharadwaj, Mausumi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/10.3389/fncel.2013.00253/full"> <span id="translatedtitle">An emerging role for misfolded wild-type SOD1 in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS pathogenesis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that targets motor neurons, leading to paralysis and death within a few years of disease onset. While several genes have been linked to the inheritable, or familial, form of ALS, much less is known about the cause(s of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS, which accounts for approximately 90% of ALS cases. Due to the clinical similarities between familial and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS, it is plausible that both forms of the disease converge on a common pathway and, therefore, involve common factors. Recent evidence suggests the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1 protein to be one such factor that is common to both <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> and familial ALS. In 1993, mutations were uncovered in SOD1 that represent the first known genetic cause of familial ALS. While the exact mechanism of mutant-SOD1 toxicity is still not known today, most evidence points to a gain of toxic function that stems, at least in part, from the propensity of this protein to misfold. In the wild-type SOD1 protein, non-genetic perturbations such as metal depletion, disruption of the quaternary structure, and oxidation, can also induce SOD1 to misfold. In fact, these aforementioned post-translational modifications cause wild-type SOD1 to adopt a “toxic conformation” that is similar to familial ALS-linked SOD1 variants. These observations, together with the detection of misfolded wild-type SOD1 within human post-mortem <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS samples, have been used to support the controversial hypothesis that misfolded forms of wild-type SOD1 contribute to <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS pathogenesis. In this review, we present data from the literature that both support and contradict this hypothesis. We also discuss SOD1 as a potential therapeutic target for both familial and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">DarylABosco</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24467372"> <span id="translatedtitle">GSTM1-null genotype as a risk factor for <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> colorectal cancer in a Romanian population. Association with the NAT2-rapid-acetylator phenotype and exposure to environmental factors.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We evaluated the association between the presence of the GSTM1-null genotype and the combined presence of the GSTM1-null genotype/NAT2 rapid acetylator phenotype and the risk of developing <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> colorectal cancer (CRC), as well as their interaction with environmental risk factors. One hundred and fifty patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> CRC and 162 controls were genotyped using PCR-RFLP analysis. For testing and quantification of the simple <span class="hlt">effect</span> (main <span class="hlt">effect</span>) and of the gene-gene and gene-environment interaction (modification <span class="hlt">effect</span>), univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used. In the multiplicative model, from the genetic factors, GSTM1-null and NAT2*6B had a statistically significant influence on the risk for CRC, while from the environmental factors, smoking and diet had similar <span class="hlt">effects</span>. The combination of GSTM1-null/NAT2 rapid acetylator phenotype/smoking behavior or GSTM1-null/NAT2 rapid acetylator phenotype/diet rich in fried red meat was not found to influence the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> CRC risk in Romanians, but the GSTM1-null genotype, NAT2 rapid acetylator phenotype influenced the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> CRC risk differently depending on the gender of the patient. PMID:24467372</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Procopciuc, Lucia Maria; Osian, Gelu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::70c49e24236f99d335230c937d6a9565"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> autism exomes reveal a highly interconnected protein network of de novo mutations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is well established that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have a strong genetic component. However, for at least 70% of cases, the underlying genetic cause is unknown1. Under the hypothesis that de novo mutations underlie a substantial fraction of the risk for developing ASD in families with no previous history of ASD or related phenotypes—so-called <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> or simplex families2,3, we sequenced all coding regions of the genome, i.e. the exome, for parent-child trios exhibiting <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> AS...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">O’roak, Brian J.; Vives, Laura; Girirajan, Santhosh; Karakoc, Emre; Krumm, Nik; Coe, Bradley P.; Levy, Roie; Ko, Arthur; Lee, Choli; Smith, Joshua D.; Turner, Emily H.; Stanaway, Ian B.; Vernot, Benjamin; Malig, Maika; Baker, Carl</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::d1f8647dd5371ae5656ddac1e5d06f22"> <span id="translatedtitle">De Novo Truncating FUS Gene Mutation as a Cause of <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mutations in the gene encoding fused in sarcoma (FUS) were recently identified as a novel cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), emphasizing the genetic heterogeneity of ALS. We sequenced the genes encoding superoxide dismutase (SOD1), TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TARDBP) and FUS in 99 <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> and 17 familial ALS patients ascertained at Mayo Clinic. We identified two novel mutations in FUS in two out of 99 (2.0%) <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS patients and established the de novo occurrence of one FUS m...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dejesus-hernandez, Mariely; Kocerha, Jannet; Finch, Nicole; Crook, Richard; Baker, Matt; Desaro, Pamela; Johnston, Amelia; Rutherford, Nicola; Wojtas, Aleksandra; Kennelly, Kathleen; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Graff-radford, Neill; Boylan, Kevin; Rademakers, Rosa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=1011576"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cortical restricted diffusion as the predominant MRI finding in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare and fatal neurodegenerative disorder with MR findings predominantly limited to the grey matter of the cortex and the basal ganglia. <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease can produce a spectrum of MR imaging findings of the brain, most notably on DWI and FLAIR sequences. Involvement of the basal ganglia and neocortex is the most common finding, but isolated involvement of the cortex can also be seen. We describe the clinical history and MRI findings of three patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease confirmed by brain biopsy or autopsy and review the literature of imaging manifestations of this disease</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Talbott, Sabrina D.; Sattenberg, Ronald J.; Heidenreich, Jens O. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Louisville, Louisville (United States)), e-mail: sdtalb02@gwise.louisville.edu; Plato, Brian M (Dept. of Neurology, Univ. of Louisville, Louisville (United States)); Parker, John (Dept. of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Univ. of Louisville, Louisville (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=5515350"> <span id="translatedtitle">Turbulence around the turbopause deduced from ionospheric <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E for MAP</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The turbulent diffusivity around the turbopause is deduced from the parameters of ionospheric <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E /Es/ and atmospheric models assuming the validity of the wind-shear theory of midlatitude <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E. It has been found that during circulation disturbances in the lower thermosphere connected with stratospheric warmings the turbulent diffusivity appears to decrease. The results obtained so far indicate that the characteristic events of the winter months are shown not only by the large scale dynamics in the lower thermosphere, but also by the small scale phenomena and thus the turbulent diffusivity could contribute to the development of the winter anomaly. 15 references.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bencze, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=doajarticles::d0d938c621440d7de222a2ade87f0fd0"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electron temperature in nighttime <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer at mid-latitude</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Electron temperature in the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer was measured with a glass-sealed Langmuir probe at a mid-latitude station in Japan in the framework of the SEEK (<span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> E Experiment over Kyushu)-2 campaign which was conducted in August 2002. Important findings are two fold: (1) electron temperature and electron density vary in the opposite sense in the height range of 100–108 km, and electron temperature in the <I>E<sub>s</sub></I> layer is lower than that of ambie...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">-i Oyama, K.; Abe, T.; Mori, H.; Liu, J. Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=doajarticles::ef2e44978f48b3bb63a90c65cc1ee94c"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous observation of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E with a rapid-run ionosonde and VHF coherent backscatter radar</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the SEEK 2 rocket campaign, ionograms were recorded every minute at the Yamagawa Radio Observatory at about 90km west of the region monitored by a VHF (very high frequency) coherent backscatter radar. <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> E-layer parameters, which include the critical (foEs) and blanketing (fbEs) frequencies, the layer height (h'Es), and the width of the range spread of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E-traces, were compared with RTI (range-time-intensity) plots of VHF quasi-periodic (QP) and continuous cohere...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maruyama, T.; Saito, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Fukao, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:17016266"> <span id="translatedtitle">Turbulence around the turbopause deduced from ionospheric <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E for MAP</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The turbulent diffusivity around the turbopause is deduced from the parameters of ionospheric <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E /Es/ and atmospheric models assuming the validity of the wind-shear theory of midlatitude <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E. It has been found that during circulation disturbances in the lower thermosphere connected with stratospheric warmings the turbulent diffusivity appears to decrease. The results obtained so far indicate that the characteristic events of the winter months are shown not only by the large scale dynamics in the lower thermosphere, but also by the small scale phenomena and thus the turbulent diffusivity could contribute to the development of the winter anomaly. 15 references</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-07-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="sporadic error-increasing effects" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> </div><!-- page_11 div --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="sporadic error-increasing effects" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od______1064::572b21a3e9bddcaf1cf807bb4628222e"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mutations within Wnt pathway genes in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> colorectal cancers and cell lines.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wnt signaling pathway activation via mutation of genetic components, commonly adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), has a major role in colorectal cancer (CRC). Most components have not been assessed for mutation in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> CRC. We have analyzed AXIN2, CK1alpha, DKK1, GSK-3beta, SOX17, LRP6 and PPP2R1B, beta-catenin and APC in a collection of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> CRCs (n = 47) and CRC cell lines (CLs; n = 26). The CRC set was enriched for microsatellite unstable cancers (MSI+, 30%, 14/47). Somatic mutation ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Suraweera, N.; Robinson, J.; Volikos, E.; Guenther, T.; Talbot, I.; Tomlinson, I.; Silver, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::d4ff42198663fd7b44e5f1dd216ca9b4"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sequence analysis and transcript expression of the MEN1 gene in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> pituitary tumours</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The majority of pituitary tumours are monoclonal in origin and arise <span class="hlt">sporadically</span> or occasionally as part of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). Whilst a multi-step aetiology involving both oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes has been proposed for their development, the target(s) of these changes are less clearly defined. Both familial and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> pituitary tumours have been shown to harbour allelic deletion on 11q13, which is the location of the recently cloned MEN1 gene. We inves...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Farrell, W. E.; Simpson, D. J.; Bicknell, J.; Magnay, J. L.; Kyrodimou, E.; Thakker, R. V.; Clayton, R. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:42031357"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cortical restricted diffusion as the predominant MRI finding in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare and fatal neurodegenerative disorder with MR findings predominantly limited to the grey matter of the cortex and the basal ganglia. <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease can produce a spectrum of MR imaging findings of the brain, most notably on DWI and FLAIR sequences. Involvement of the basal ganglia and neocortex is the most common finding, but isolated involvement of the cortex can also be seen. We describe the clinical history and MRI findings of three patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease confirmed by brain biopsy or autopsy and review the literature of imaging manifestations of this disease</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SpWea...912001R"> <span id="translatedtitle">First results of mapping <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E with a passive observing network</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> E (Es) can have dramatic <span class="hlt">effects</span> on communications in the HF and low VHF range, producing over-the-horizon propagation for signals normally restricted to line-of-sight, and sometimes blocking F region propagation of signals in the lower HF range. Measuring the E region winds believed to produce Es is difficult, and no practical means of predicting Es occurrence currently exists other than statistical models. We describe a low-cost observing network based on software-controlled receivers that continuously watches for Es in near-real time using oblique HF propagation from existing transmitters. Results from an 11-day pilot campaign in July 2008 demonstrated that even a limited number of receivers in the network can readily determine the presence and extent of Es patches. These observations indicate that Es often develops quickly over regions of several hundred kilometers rather than gradually drifting across an area. These widespread Es “blooms” have been observed near winter solstice and occasionally at other times of the year; their lifetime depends on the season but can be several hours during the summer. The current network allows the extent of Es in portions of North America to be evaluated: the geographical distribution of Es and bounds on the density of the layer are inferred from its <span class="hlt">effects</span> on the ionospheric maximum usable frequency (MUF). This study demonstrates quantitatively that Es mapping can provide information about Es layer geographical growth and decay. The observed sudden widespread Es blooms are space weather events that can have significant impact on HF/lower VHF communications and propagation model predictions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rice, D. D.; Sojka, J. J.; Eccles, J. V.; Raitt, J. W.; Brady, J. J.; Hunsucker, R. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.annalsofgeophysics.eu/index.php/annals/article/view/5267"> <span id="translatedtitle">Midnight variations of spreading of ionospheric <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E-layers before earthquakes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available <p>In the present study, ionospheric phenomena caused by earthquakes of magnitudes M >4.0 were investigated. Night-time observations of the spreading of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E-layers (Es-spread performed every 15 min by the Dushanbe and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (middle Asia vertical sounding stations were studied. The mean relative occurrence frequency of Esspread at different values of the blanketing frequency fbEs was considered, and the dependence of Es-spread on the season as well as on the year through an 11-yr solar activity cycle were studied. The fbEs characterizes the maximum plasma density of the Es-layer. The analysis shows that 1- 3 days before seismic shocks in the Earth crust at depths of h <80 km, the occurrence frequency of the Es-spread increases a few hours before midnight. This <span class="hlt">effect</span> is characteristic of a strengthening of the turbulization of the E-layer plasma. On the basis that the radius of the earthquake preparation region (RD is estimated by the Dobrovolsky formula RD ? exp(M km, it was found that Es-spread is observed more often when the distance between the epicenter and the radar station is not greater than RD + 150 km. In cases of earthquakes at greater distances and depths, no midnight <span class="hlt">effect</span> was found. The authors act on the assumption that the Es-spread might be caused by acoustic waves with periods of 20 s to 5 min. When such acoustic disturbances propagate from the Earth surface they will have maximum amplitudes if they move nearly vertically to greater altitudes.</p><br /></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dieter H.H. Hoffmann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::8991ae9685700659a9b5eceb9b749318"> <span id="translatedtitle">Role and Treatment of Mitochondrial DNA-Related Mitochondrial Dysfunction in <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Neurodegenerative Diseases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> neurodegenerative diseases display phenomena that directly or indirectly relate to mitochondrial function. Data suggesting altered mitochondrial function in these diseases could arise from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are reviewed. Approaches for manipulating mitochondrial function and minimizing the downstream consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Swerdlow, Russell H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::309b2a88bbf7e9a1345e471fde3bdb53"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Human Cryptosporidiosis Caused by Cryptosporidium cuniculus, United Kingdom, 2007–2008</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To investigate <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> human cryptosporidiosis trends in the United Kingdom, we tested 3,030 Cryptosporidium spp.–positive fecal samples, submitted for routine typing in 2007–2008, for C. cuniculus. C. cuniculus prevalence was 1.2%; cases were mostly indigenous and occurred across all age groups. Most occurred during August–October and may be linked to exposure opportunities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chalmers, Rachel M.; Elwin, Kristin; Hadfield, Stephen J.; Robinson, Guy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/full/v14/i42/6593.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Giant <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> fundic gland polyp: Endoscopic and endosonographic features and management</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Fundic gland polyps are the most common gastric polyps. They are usually small in size, <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> and asymptomatic. We present a case of giant fundic gland polyp. Our case is particular because of the clinical presentation, the endoscopic and endosonographic documented findings, and the treatment options followed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ihab I El Hajj, Mohamad Hawchar, Assaad Soweid, Karim Maasri, Ayman Tawil, Kassem A Barada</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:41034894"> <span id="translatedtitle">Variation of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> meteor activity during the 23. cycle of solar activity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Analyses of the influence of solar activity on <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> meteor counts based on visual and radar meteor observations present rather contradictory results, indicating a possible variation of the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> meteor counts with a solar activity, with the maximum in observed meteor rates occurring from zero up to about five years after the solar activity maximum. With this perspective, in the present paper observations of the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> meteor background, obtained by a forward-scatter radio system for meteor observation operating along the Bologna (Italy)-Modra (Slovakia) baseline in 1996-2007, are analysed and discussed. The activity curves of all echoes and their variations indicate a correlation with solar activity in the 23. solar cycle represented by the solar relative number R (corr. coef. 0.71), as well as with the solar coronal index C1 (corr. coef. 0.73). The mass distribution exponent s and its variations (with corr. coef. against R and C1, 0.12 and 0.25, respectively) does not show a correlation consistent with solar activity and, from the viewpoint of s, suggest the existence of a relatively stable population of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> background meteoroids in the surroundings of the Earth's orbit during the investigated period.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/0902.2280.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Kimmerle conjecture for the Held and O'Nan <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> simple groups</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using the Luthar--Passi method, we investigate the Zassenhaus and Kimmerle conjectures for normalized unit groups of integral group rings of the Held and O'Nan <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> simple groups. We confirm the Kimmerle conjecture for the Held simple group and also derive for both groups some extra information relevant to the classical Zassenhaus conjecture.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bovdi, V; Konovalov, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43076374"> <span id="translatedtitle">A transcriptome signature distinguished <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> from post-radiotherapy radiation-induced sarcomas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Exposure to ionizing radiation is a known risk factor for cancer. However, up to now, rigorously defined scientific criteria that could establish case-by-case the radiation-induced (RI) origin of a tumour have been lacking. To identify genes that could constitute a RI signature, we compared the transcriptome of 12 sarcomas arising in the irradiation field of a primary tumour following radiotherapy with the transcriptome of 12 <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> sarcomas. This learning/training set contained four leiomyosarcomas, four osteosarcomas and four angiosarcomas in each subgroup. We identified a signature of 135 genes discriminating RI from <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> sarcomas. The robustness of this signature was tested by the blind case-by-case classification of an independent set of 36 sarcomas of various histologies. Thirty-one sarcomas were classified as RI or <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>; it was not possible to propose an aetiology for the five others. After the code break, it was found that one <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> sarcoma was mis-classified as RI. Thus, the signature is robust with a sensitivity of 96%, a positive and a negative predictive value of 96 and 100%, respectively and a specificity of 62%. The functions of the genes of the signature suggest that RI sarcomas were subject to chronic oxidative stress probably due to mitochondrial dysfunction. (authors)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/1/17"> <span id="translatedtitle">COL11A1 in FAP polyps and in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> colorectal tumors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously reported that the ?-1 chain of type 11 collagen (COL11A1, not normally expressed in the colon, was up-regulated in stromal fibroblasts in most <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> colorectal carcinomas. Patients with germline mutations in the APC gene show, besides colonic polyposis, symptoms of stromal fibroblast involvement, which could be related to COL11A1 expression. Most colorectal carcinomas are suggested to be a result of an activated Wnt- pathway, most often involving an inactivation of the APC gene or activation of ?-catenin. Methods We used normal and polyp tissue samples from one FAP patient and a set of 37 <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> colorectal carcinomas to find out if the up-regulation of COL11A1 was associated with an active APC/?-catenin pathway. Results In this study we found a statistically significant difference in COL11A1 expression between normal tissue and adenomas from one FAP patient, and all adenomas gave evidence for an active APC/?-catenin pathway. An active Wnt pathway has been suggested to involve stromal expression of WISP-1. We found a strong correlation between WISP-1 and COL11A1 expression in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> carcinomas. Conclusions Our results suggest that expression of COL11A1 in colorectal tumors could be associated with the APC/?-catenin pathway in FAP and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> colorectal cancer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Iselius Lennart</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od________18::3c20c70ba1b025b663fa57b5ed0e6498"> <span id="translatedtitle">Brou\\'e's abelian defect group conjecture for the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> simple Janko group J_4 revisited</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We show that the 3-block of the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> simple Janko group J_4 with defect group C_3 x C_3, and the principal 3-block of the alternating group A_8 are Puig equivalent, answering a question posed in earlier work of Koshitani-Kunugi-Waki. To accomplish this, we apply computational techniques, in particular an explicit version of the Brauer construction.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koshitani, Shigeo; Mu?ller, Ju?rgen; Noeske, Felix</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=5832988"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characteristics of the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> sodium layers observed at 23 degree S</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The mesospheric sodium data, obtained between 1975 and 1987 at Sao Jose dos Campos (23{degree}S,46{degree}W) with a laser radar, have been analyzed in order to identify the appearance of thin <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> sodium layers. In this search, a total of 65 events were identified. The average height of the peaks is 95.0 km. The ratio of the maximum peak density to the average layer density is normally 2.5 to 3.0, but values as high as 7 have been observed in the most outstanding cases. The events last from a few minutes to several hours, although durations of 1-2 hours are more typical. The events occur more often during periods of large meteor showers, especially in August. The diurnal variation shows an increasing number of observed peaks from 1500 LT to midnight and remains almost constant from midnight to 0600 LT. In 52 out of 54 days for which sodium and ionsonde data are available there was an <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer nearly coincident with the sodium cloud. The coincidence is good for short-lived <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> layers, but a substantial increase in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E critical and blanketing frequencies normally precedes the long-lasting and broader ones. These results are compatible with the suggestion that the enhanced layers are produced by the wind shear distortion of sodium clouds originating in meteor deposition, but the authors cannot rule out the possibility of an ion conversion mechanism.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Batista, P.P.; Clemesha, B.R.; Batista, I.S.; Simonieh, D.M. (Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais, Sao Paulo (Brazil))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMSA53B..02H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radar and optical observations of irregular midlatitude <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers and MSTIDs (Invited)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Irregular <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers have been observed by the Arecibo incoherent scatter radar and a coherent scatter radar imager located on St. Croix during the passage of MSTIDs also seen by the Boston University all-sky imager. Radar imagery shows that coherent scatter from small-scale irregularities in the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers often arrives from wavelike bands that are frequently, but not always, aligned in the northwest-to-southeast direction. The intensity of the coherent scatter appears to be modulated by the MSTIDs. The coherent scatter Doppler shifts are meanwhile highly correlated with altitude displacements in the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers, with the sign of the correlation being controlled by the sign of the background zonal electric field. The MSTIDs do not generally appear to modulate the morphology of the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers themselves, which most often take the form of convective rolls drifting with the ambient neutral wind. The lower thermospheric neutral winds inferred from the incoherent scatter data are typically dynamically unstable in the Richardson number sense, offering a partial explanation for the mechanism that initiates irregularity formation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hysell, D. L.; Nossa, E.; Larsen, M. F.; Munro, J.; Smith, S. J.; Sulzer, M. P.; Gonzalez, S. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ann-geophys.net/23/2357/2005/angeo-23-2357-2005.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radio tomographic imaging of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layers during SEEK-2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available During the SEEK-2 Rocket Campaign in August 2002, a Dual Band Beacon (DBB transmitting to Ground Receivers provided unique data on E-Region electron densities. Information from two rocket beacons and four ground receivers yielded multiple samples of E-region horizontal and vertical variations. The radio beacon measurements were made at four sites (Uchinoura, Tarumizu, Tanegashima, Takazaki in Japan for two rockets (S310-31 and S310-32 launched by the Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science (ISAS. Analysis was completed for four sets of beacon data to provide electron density images of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layers. Signals from the two-frequency beacons on the SEEK-2 rockets were processed to yield total electron content (TEC data that was converted into electron density measurements. Wide variations in layer structures were detected. These included horizontal <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E variations, vertical profiles of double, single, and weak layers. The radio beacon measurements were shown to be in agreement with the in-situ SEEK-2 sensors. The first tomographic image of a <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layer was produced from the data. The rocket beacon technique was shown to be an excellent tool to study <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layers because absolute TEC accuracy of 0.01 TEC Units can be easily obtained and, with proper receiver placement, electron density images can be produced using computerized ionospheric tomography with better than 1km horizontal and vertical resolution. Keywords. Ionospheric irregularities – Instruments and techniques – Mid-latitude ionosphere</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Fukao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:7228132"> <span id="translatedtitle">Horizontal structure of midlatitude <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layers observed by incorherent scatter radar</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An investigation of the horizontal structure of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layers has been made using the incoherent scatter radar at the Arecibo Observatory. Data are presented for two observations, one with the radar beam held in a vertical position, and another with the beam scanning in azimuth across the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layer. The first observation was made at sunset and shows the passage of a large region of ionization, about 150 km in extent, having little small-scale horizontal structure. The second, at midday, shows considerable variation in the value of the maximum electron density in the vertical cross section of an intense <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layer. The horizontal dimensions of the features range in size down to the resolution of the radar (300 m). By considering the data statistically it is shown that small patches, 300 m or less in horizontal extent, exist in the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layer with densities great enough to account for the maximum frequency of the echo recorded on the ionosonde located at the observatory. (auth)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:22050436"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characteristics of the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> sodium layers observed at 23 degree S</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The mesospheric sodium data, obtained between 1975 and 1987 at Sao Jose dos Campos (23 degree S,46 degree W) with a laser radar, have been analyzed in order to identify the appearance of thin <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> sodium layers. In this search, a total of 65 events were identified. The average height of the peaks is 95.0 km. The ratio of the maximum peak density to the average layer density is normally 2.5 to 3.0, but values as high as 7 have been observed in the most outstanding cases. The events last from a few minutes to several hours, although durations of 1-2 hours are more typical. The events occur more often during periods of large meteor showers, especially in August. The diurnal variation shows an increasing number of observed peaks from 1500 LT to midnight and remains almost constant from midnight to 0600 LT. In 52 out of 54 days for which sodium and ionsonde data are available there was an <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer nearly coincident with the sodium cloud. The coincidence is good for short-lived <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> layers, but a substantial increase in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E critical and blanketing frequencies normally precedes the long-lasting and broader ones. These results are compatible with the suggestion that the enhanced layers are produced by the wind shear distortion of sodium clouds originating in meteor deposition, but the authors cannot rule out the possibility of an ion conversion mechanism</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=5798218"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mechanism for the formation of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layers in the high-latitude ionosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A model of the collective interaction of precipitating electrons and the ionospheric plasma is used to explain the formation of short-duration <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layers in the high-latitude ionosphere. The changes produced in electron density by this collective interaction mechanism are considered.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vlasov, M.N.; Mishin, E.V.; Telegin, V.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17211152"> <span id="translatedtitle">NPHS1 and NPHS2 gene mutations in Chinese children with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> nephrotic syndrome.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent discoveries indicate that the molecules in glomerular podocytes and slit diaphragms may play an important role in the development of proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome. Mutational analyses of NPHS1 and NPHS2 were performed to verify this hypothesis in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> nephrotic syndrome (NS) patients. Clinical characteristics and DNA samples were collected from 38 Chinese children with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> steroid-sensitive NS, 22 with steroid-resistant NS and 30 controls. Direct sequencing was performed after PCR amplification of all 29 and 8 exons of the NPHS1 and NPHS2 genes, respectively. In NPHS1, 4 patients had heterozygous missense mutations leading to amino acid substitutions (R800C, Q453R). Furthermore, 3 known single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) were found (T741T, V763V, S1105S). In NPHS2, 3 patients had novel heterozygous allelic variants leading to amino acid substitutions (S206I, E188D), while 1 patient was found to carry a novel nonsense mutation leading to a truncated protein product (Glu237STOP). Two known polymorphisms were also found (A318A, L346L). The results demonstrate that NPHS1 and NPHS2 mutations are also present in Chinese <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> NS patients, suggesting that genetic changes of nephrin and podocin may play pathogenetic roles in some patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> steroid resistant NS. PMID:17211152</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mao, Jianhua; Zhang, Yang; Du, Lizhong; Dai, Yuwen; Gu, Weizhong; Liu, Ai'min; Shang, Shiqiang; Liang, Li</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="sporadic error-increasing effects" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> </div><!-- page_12 div --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="sporadic error-increasing effects" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24625416"> <span id="translatedtitle">Immunohistochemistry for annexin A10 can distinguish <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> from Lynch syndrome-associated microsatellite-unstable colorectal carcinoma.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Differentiating <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> microsatellite-unstable colorectal carcinoma due to MLH1 promoter hypermethylation from Lynch syndrome (LS)-associated tumors due to mutations in mismatch-repair proteins is time consuming, cost intensive, and requires advanced laboratory testing. A mutation in BRAF has been shown to be highly specific for <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> tumors; however, a significant proportion of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> microsatellite-unstable tumors lack BRAF mutations. MLH1 promoter methylation analysis is subsequently used to differentiate LS and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> tumors, but both tests require specialized laboratories and are costly. Through previous gene expression profiling of serrated polyps, we identified annexin A10 as a protein highly expressed in sessile serrated adenomas/polyps. As these polyps give rise to the majority of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> microsatellite-unstable tumors, we evaluated the ability of annexin A10 expression to discriminate between LS and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> tumors. A marked increase in annexin A10 mRNA was observed in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> microsatellite-unstable tumors compared with LS tumors (378-fold increase, P<0.001). Using immunohistochemistry, annexin A10 was expressed in 23/53 (43%) BRAF-mutated and 9/22 (41%) BRAF wild-type <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> tumors. In contrast, only 3/56 (5%) LS tumors were positive for annexin A10 (P<0.0001). One patient had a deleterious MSH2 mutation, and another had a variant of uncertain significance in MSH6. These 2 tumors could be easily distinguished from <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> tumors using mismatch-repair protein immunohistochemistry. Only 1/28 (4%) LS tumors with loss of MLH1 was positive for annexin A10. This patient did not have a deleterious MLH1 mutation but rather germline promoter hypermethylation of MLH1. On the basis of these results, immunohistochemistry for annexin A10 may be a useful marker to distinguish <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> from LS-associated microsatellite-unstable colon cancer. PMID:24625416</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pai, Reetesh K; Shadrach, Bonnie L; Carver, Paula; Heald, Brandie; Moline, Jessica; Church, James; Kalady, Matthew F; Burke, Carol A; Plesec, Thomas P; Lai, Keith K; Gonzalo, David H; Pai, Rish K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......176D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observations and Modeling of <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Metal Layers over the Arecibo Observatory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nighttime observations of the atmospheric potassium and iron layers were performed using lidar, between September 2001 and December 2005, to determine the frequency and characteristics of potassium (Ks) and iron (Fes) <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> metal layers over the Arecibo Observatory. Ks and Fes were observed to occur once every six hours of measurements, lasting about 90 minutes. Occurrence probability, peak height and full width half maxima (FWHM), strength factor and duration were determined from 1312 and 299 hours of observations for potassium and iron, respectively. Ab initio and density functional calculations were carried out to calculate the geometry and vibrational frequencies of the neutral and ionic form of KN2 and KCO2 to study the binding energy, the adiabatic ionization energy (AIE), and the vertical ionization energy (VIE). KCO 2+ and KN2+ have a significant role in Ks, acting as sinks and reservoirs in the ligand-switching recombination reactions used to describe the mesospheric potassium ion-chemistry. Finally, we present an analysis of two separate and distinct <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> layer events in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere region above the Arecibo Observatory. One <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> event was a high altitude layer, in which both atomic and ion <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> layers were positioned above 100 km altitude. This represents a rather typical <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> layer visible in both ions and neutrals at Arecibo. The other observation was less typical, with a lower altitude and more diffuse <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer, extending from below 90 km to above 95 km, which dissipated coincident with growth of a <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> neutral K layer. We analyze these separate events using a temperature-dependent chemical model. First, we find that the high altitude layer of 12--13 June 2002 has a distinct and important temperature dependence, and that the neutral layer would not have formed had the temperature profile matched the MSIS-90 model. Second, the temperature dependent chemistry model reproduced K+ in close agreement with electron densities on 14--15 June 2002, but the neutrals do not agree well with model above 90 km and it likely requires inclusion of dynamical forcing and advection. The model, using commonly accepted chemical processes, successfully reproduces results on 12--13 June 2002. We speculate that the deficiency of the model is primarily due to the lack of realistic gravity wave parameterization.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Delgado Gilewski, Ruben</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:15061250"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observations and theory of irregularities of middle latitude <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An experimental and theoretical study is presented of irregularities of the order of 6 meters in wavelength which are revealed by radar observation to be present in the E-region of the middle latitude ionosphere. Systematic observations of the irregularities were carried out by the author at lioka (360N), Japan by using a 25 MHz radar and a multifrequency (4.64 MHz) radar during the years 1973-1977. The irregularities are observed to be field-aligned structures to within the observational errors. They are closely associated with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E (Es) layers and occur mostly in the lower E-region near 100 km. The occurrence of irregularities is predominantly in the nighttime with a maximum at pre-midnight (approx. 75% in summer). Seasonal occurrence of these irregularities shows a summer maximum, minima in equinoxes and a secondary peak in winter. The irregularities move predominantly in the westward direction with speeds of the order of 60 m/s. For the purpose of understanding the observed behavior of the irregularities, it is necessary, as a first step, to determine the characteristics of middle latitude Es-layers in which these irregularities are spawned. In the absence of observations, these characteristics had to be deduced by suitably generalizing the well-known linear windshear theory of Es-layer formation by including the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of neutral air vertical motion and ionospheric electric fields. The next step is to develop the gradient-drift instability theory of the irregularities applicable to the middle latitude field geometry. Numerical calculations have been performed to illustrate the conclusions of both the Es-layer theory and the instability theory of the irregularities</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=5015645"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observations and theory of irregularities of middle latitude <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An experimental and theoretical study is presented of irregularities of the order of 6 meters in wavelength which are revealed by radar observation to be present in the E-region of the middle latitude ionosphere. Systematic observations of the irregularities were carried out by the author at lioka (36/sup 0/N), Japan by using a 25 MHz radar and a multifrequency (4.64 MHz) radar during the years 1973-1977. The irregularities are observed to be field-aligned structures to within the observational errors. They are closely associated with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E (Es) layers and occur mostly in the lower E-region near 100 km. The occurrence of irregularities is predominantly in the nighttime with a maximum at pre-midnight (approx. 75% in summer). Seasonal occurrence of these irregularities shows a summer maximum, minima in equinoxes and a secondary peak in winter. The irregularities move predominantly in the westward direction with speeds of the order of 60 m/s. For the purpose of understanding the observed behavior of the irregularities, it is necessary, as a first step, to determine the characteristics of middle latitude Es-layers in which these irregularities are spawned. In the absence of observations, these characteristics had to be deduced by suitably generalizing the well-known linear windshear theory of Es-layer formation by including the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of neutral air vertical motion and ionospheric electric fields. The next step is to develop the gradient-drift instability theory of the irregularities applicable to the middle latitude field geometry. Numerical calculations have been performed to illustrate the conclusions of both the Es-layer theory and the instability theory of the irregularities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tanaki, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.lenus.ie/hse/handle/10147/207016"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> adult onset primary torsion dystonia is a genetic disorder by the temporal discrimination test.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.lenus.ie/hse/">LENUS (Irish Health Repository)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is an autosomal dominant disorder with markedly reduced penetrance; patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> adult-onset primary torsion dystonia are much more prevalent than familial. The temporal discrimination threshold is the shortest time interval at which two stimuli are detected to be asynchronous and has been shown to be abnormal in adult-onset primary torsion dystonia. The aim was to determine the frequency of abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> adult-onset primary torsion dystonia and their first-degree relatives. We hypothesized that abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in first relatives would be compatible with an autosomal dominant endophenotype. Temporal discrimination thresholds were examined in 61 control subjects (39 subjects <50 years of age; 22 subjects >50 years of age), 32 patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> adult-onset primary torsion dystonia (cervical dystonia n = 30, spasmodic dysphonia n = 1 and Meige\\'s syndrome n = 1) and 73 unaffected first-degree relatives (36 siblings, 36 offspring and one parent) using visual and tactile stimuli. Z-scores were calculated for all subjects; a Z > 2.5 was considered abnormal. Abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds were found in 1\\/61 (2%) control subjects, 27\\/32 (84%) patients with adult-onset primary torsion dystonia and 32\\/73 (44%) unaffected relatives [siblings (20\\/36; 56%), offspring (11\\/36; 31%) and one parent]. When two or more relatives were tested in any one family, 22 of 24 families had at least one first-degree relative with an abnormal temporal discrimination threshold. The frequency of abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in first-degree relatives of patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is compatible with an autosomal dominant disorder and supports the hypothesis that apparently <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is genetic in origin.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kimmich, Okka</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRA..118.4628M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Field-aligned current loop model on formation of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> metal layers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper proposes a new mechanism for the formation of the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> layers by metallic ions as well as metallic atoms in the lower thermosphere and upper mesosphere. The mechanism is based on <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> occurrence of an electric current loop consisting of the magnetic field-aligned current (FAC) and horizontal Pedersen current in the ionosphere connected with the FAC. The essential point of the present mechanism is the existence of the horizontal electric field convergence at the foot of the upward FAC region in the current loop, where the positive ions including the metallic ions may converge by the horizontal Pedersen flow. The accumulated metallic ions are reacted to the clustered metallic ions, which are transferred to the metallic atoms through the dissociative recombination with electrons. The density profile of the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> layer for metallic ions has been obtained in the analytical form by solving the continuity equation. The density profile of the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> layer for metallic atoms has been obtained also in the analytical form by assuming that 100% of the loss of the metallic ions is converted to metallic atoms. The simulation based on the present mechanism has been examined with respect to three species of metallic components: sodium, iron, and calcium. The <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> sodium layer (SSL) derived from the present model is compared with the SSL observed by the sodium lidar installed at the European Incoherent Scatter radar site in Tromsø (69.6°N, 19.2°E), Norway, and reasonable agreement has been attained with respect to the density profile of the SSL.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Matuura, Nobuo; Tsuda, Takuo; Nozawa, Satonori</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21840890"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> adult onset primary torsion dystonia is a genetic disorder by the temporal discrimination test.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is an autosomal dominant disorder with markedly reduced penetrance; patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> adult-onset primary torsion dystonia are much more prevalent than familial. The temporal discrimination threshold is the shortest time interval at which two stimuli are detected to be asynchronous and has been shown to be abnormal in adult-onset primary torsion dystonia. The aim was to determine the frequency of abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> adult-onset primary torsion dystonia and their first-degree relatives. We hypothesized that abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in first relatives would be compatible with an autosomal dominant endophenotype. Temporal discrimination thresholds were examined in 61 control subjects (39 subjects 50 years of age), 32 patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> adult-onset primary torsion dystonia (cervical dystonia n?=?30, spasmodic dysphonia n?=?1 and Meige's syndrome n?=?1) and 73 unaffected first-degree relatives (36 siblings, 36 offspring and one parent) using visual and tactile stimuli. Z-scores were calculated for all subjects; a Z?>?2.5 was considered abnormal. Abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds were found in 1/61 (2%) control subjects, 27/32 (84%) patients with adult-onset primary torsion dystonia and 32/73 (44%) unaffected relatives [siblings (20/36; 56%), offspring (11/36; 31%) and one parent]. When two or more relatives were tested in any one family, 22 of 24 families had at least one first-degree relative with an abnormal temporal discrimination threshold. The frequency of abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in first-degree relatives of patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is compatible with an autosomal dominant disorder and supports the hypothesis that apparently <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is genetic in origin. PMID:21840890</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kimmich, Okka; Bradley, David; Whelan, Robert; Mulrooney, Nicola; Reilly, Richard B; Hutchinson, Siobhan; O'Riordan, Sean; Hutchinson, Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23860775"> <span id="translatedtitle">MYC overexpression and poor prognosis in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> breast cancer with BRCA1 deficiency.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Breast cancer is a complex disease; the molecular mechanisms involved in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> breast carcinogenesis remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to explore the deficiency of breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1), including protein loss expression, promoter hypermethylation and gene copy deletion, its correlationship with other tumor markers expression (TP53, MYC, etc.), and clinical significance in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> breast cancer. BRCA1 protein expression was negative in 226 of 374 (60.4%) cases of this study. Cases negative for BRCA1 protein were more often with pathological tumor-node-metastasis stage III, positive for lymph node metastasis and MYC overexpression than BRCA1-positive tumors. BRCA1 hypermethylation was detected in 16.4% (31 of 189) breast cancers, which correlated with BRCA1 negative, ER negative, MYC overexpression, and triple-negative phenotype. In addition, the percentage of cells with BRCA1 gene copy deletion was significantly increased in BRCA1-methylated tumors. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients with BRCA1-negative expression showed a worse overall survival (OS) than those with BRCA1-positive expression, and patients with BRCA1-methylated tumors had a significantly worse disease-free survival than did patients with unmethylated tumors. Furthermore, BRCA1 hypermethylation showed an inverse association with OS in LN-positive or p53-negative subgroup patients. Importantly, uni- and multivariate Cox regression analyses revealed that BRCA1 was an independent prognostic indicator of OS in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> breast cancer. Thus, we found MYC overexpression and poor prognosis in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> breast cancer with BRCA1 deficiency. The targeting of BRCA1 deficiency in combination with MYC-pathways inhibitors may provide a promising strategy for <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> breast cancer care, the triple-negative subtype in particular. PMID:23860775</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ren, Jie; Jin, Feng; Yu, Zhaojin; Zhao, Lin; Wang, Lin; Bai, Xuefeng; Zhao, Haishan; Yao, Weifan; Mi, Xiaoyi; Wang, Enhua; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Wei, Minjie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=133523"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mutation analysis of the RET gene in individuals with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> and familial pheochromocytoma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pheochromocytoma is common to many familial cancer syndromes including multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A), von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) and neurofibromatosis (NF). Although <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> cases of pheochromocytoma have been examined for mutations in exons 10, 11 and 16 of the RET gene, only one case with a mutation in exon 16 has been reported thus far. We are performing systematic examination of exons of the RET gene, which has previously been associated with mutation in both MEN2 A and B, to determine the role RET may play in the etiology of pheochromocytoma. Seventeen cases of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> pheochromocytoma and 3 cases of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> medullary thyroid carcinoma were obtained from the pathology archives. Histopathology of all specimens was confirmed to be either pheochromocytoma or medullary thyroid carcinoma before DNA was extracted from 0.5{mu} thin sections of paraffin-embedded tissue. DNA from familial pheochromocytoma patients was also available for analysis. All <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> and familial cases were amplified for exons 2, 6 and 16 of the RET gene. Single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was performed for exons 2 and 6. On finding a variation in the SSCP pattern in the pheochromocytoma kindred we sequenced all the samples for exon 2. A single base pair variation was found, which did not segregate with pheochromocytoma in the family. No variant SSCP patterns have been observed with the exon 6 PCR products thus far. Exon 16 PCR products were subjected to DNA restriction analysis with Fok I. This enzyme detects a single base pair change associated with MEN2 B. With the exception of one sample with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> medullary thyroid carcinoma, all samples showed the normal pattern on DNA restriction analysis. Thus we can exclude exons 2 and 6 of the RET gene in the pathogenesis of pheochromocytoma. SSCP analyses with other exons in the RET gene are underway.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Iyengar, S.; Sirugo, G.; Bale, A.E. [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)] [and others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ojs.easyapps.es/index.php/rsa/article/view/279"> <span id="translatedtitle">Legionelosis esporádica: un problema sin resolver <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> legionellosis: an unsolved problem egionelose esporádica: um problema não resolvido</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Objetivo: Resumir los hallazgos más relevantes obtenidos en diferentes estudios dirigidos a investigar el origen de la legionelosis esporádica. Métodos: Se ha realizado una búsqueda bibliográfica en revistas nacionales e internacionales (1990-junio 2012 y se han seleccionado los artículos que se ajustan al objetivo del estudio. Los artículos se han clasificado en tres grupos: (i estudios dirigidos a identificar factores ambientales de riesgo; (ii estudios basados en hipótesis de transmisión a partir de fuentes concretas; y (iii estudios basados en la variabilidad espacio-temporal de la legionelosis. Resultados: De los 27 artículos seleccionados, la mitad (13 se han realizado en Reino Unido o EEUU y 2 en España. Los factores de riesgo ambiental identificados con más frecuencia han sido el historial de viaje durante el período de incubación y ser conductor de profesión. Fuentes de infección relacionadas históricamente con brotes, como las torres de refrigeración y el agua de consumo, también se han asociado con los casos esporádicos. Diferentes autores señalan de forma consistente la influencia de los factores meteorológicos en la incidencia y están adquiriendo importancia los estudios dirigidos a analizar el patrón espacial de presentación de casos. Conclusiones: A pesar de las diferentes hipótesis sobre el origen de la legionelosis esporádica no existe una evidencia epidemiológica clara sobre las fuentes de infección. Se pone en cuestión si las medidas de control y vigilancia realizadas actualmente están siendo suficientemente eficaces para prevenir la aparición de casos esporádicos y se destaca la necesidad de seguir investigando.Objective: To summarize the major findings obtained in different studies focusing on the origin of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> legionellosis.Methods: A literature search was conducted in national and international journals (1990-June 2012, and those articles that fell within the scope of the study were selected. The articles have been classified into three groups: (i studies designed to identify environmental risk factors, (ii studies based on the transmission hypothesis from specific sources, and (iii studies based on the spatial-temporal pattern of legionellosis.Results: Of the 27 articles selected, half (13 were conducted in the UK or the USA and 2 in Spain. Having a travel history during the incubation period and being a professional driver were the two most frequently identified environmental risk factors. Sources of infection historically related with outbreaks, such as cooling towers and drinking water systems, have also been associated with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> cases. The influence of meteorological factors on incidence of the disease has been indicated in a consistent way by various authors, while studies based on spatial analysis methods are gaining in importance.Conclusions: Despite the different hypotheses proposed about the origin of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> legionellosis, there is no clear epidemiological evidence regarding the sources of infection. This calls into question if the current monitoring and surveillance measures are sufficiently <span class="hlt">effective</span> to prevent the occurrence of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> cases, and also highlights the need for further research.Objetivo: Resumir as descobertas mais relevantes obtidas em diversos estudos cujo objetivo é investigar a origem da legionelose esporádica.Métodos: Realizou-se uma pesquisa bibliográfica em revistas nacionais e internacionais (1990-jun 2012 e foram selecionados os artigos que se ajustam ao objetivo do estudo. Os artigos foram classificados em três grupos: (i estudos que visam identificar fatores ambientais de risco; (ii estudos baseados na hipótese de transmissão a partir de fontes concretas; e (iii estudos baseados na variabilidade espaço-tempo da legionelose. Resultados: Dos 27 artigos selecionados, a metade (13 foi realizada no Reino Unido ou nos EUA, e 2 em Espanha. Os fatores de risco ambiental identificados com mais frequência foi o historial de viagem durante o período de incubação e ser motorista de profissão. Fon</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mikel Etxeberria Agirresarobe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.biodatamining.org/content/5/1/9"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gene ontology analysis of pairwise genetic associations in two genome-wide studies of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Abstract Background It is increasingly clear that common human diseases have a complex genetic architecture characterized by both additive and nonadditive genetic <span class="hlt">effects</span>. The goal of the present study was to determine whether patterns of both additive and nonadditive genetic associations aggregate in specific functional groups as defined by the Gene Ontology (GO. Results We first estimated all pairwise additive and nonadditive genetic <span class="hlt">effects</span> using the multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR method that makes few assumptions about the underlying genetic model. Statistical significance was evaluated using permutation testing in two genome-wide association studies of ALS. The detection data consisted of 276 subjects with ALS and 271 healthy controls while the replication data consisted of 221 subjects with ALS and 211 healthy controls. Both studies included genotypes from approximately 550,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Each SNP was mapped to a gene if it was within 500?kb of the start or end. Each SNP was assigned a p-value based on its strongest joint <span class="hlt">effect</span> with the other SNPs. We then used the Exploratory Visual Analysis (EVA method and software to assign a p-value to each gene based on the overabundance of significant SNPs at the ??=?0.05 level in the gene. We also used EVA to assign p-values to each GO group based on the overabundance of significant genes at the ??=?0.05 level. A GO category was determined to replicate if that category was significant at the ??=?0.05 level in both studies. We found two GO categories that replicated in both studies. The first, ‘Regulation of Cellular Component Organization and Biogenesis’, a GO Biological Process, had p-values of 0.010 and 0.014 in the detection and replication studies, respectively. The second, ‘Actin Cytoskeleton’, a GO Cellular Component, had p-values of 0.040 and 0.046 in the detection and replication studies, respectively. Conclusions Pathway analysis of pairwise genetic associations in two GWAS of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS revealed a set of genes involved in cellular component organization and actin cytoskeleton, more specifically, that were not reported by prior GWAS. However, prior biological studies have implicated actin cytoskeleton in ALS and other motor neuron diseases. This study supports the idea that pathway-level analysis of GWAS data may discover important associations not revealed using conventional one-SNP-at-a-time approaches.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim Nora</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11023476"> <span id="translatedtitle">Human caliciviruses are a significant pathogen of acute <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> diarrhea in children of Santiago, Chile.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Human caliciviruses (HuCVs) are increasingly recognized as common pathogens that cause acute <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> diarrhea in children; however, regional antigenic and genetic diversity complicate detection techniques. Stool samples from children seeking medical attention in 2 outpatient clinics, a large emergency department, and 2 hospital wards were evaluated for HuCVs by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, using primers based on a conserved sequence of the polymerase region of a previously sequenced Chilean strain. HuCVs were detected in 53 (8%) of 684 children 1 month to 5 years of age (mean, 13 months). Detection occurred year-round without a clear seasonal peak, and detection frequency declined from 16% in 1997 to 2% in 1999. The decline may have been due to a change in virus genotype. HuCVs are a significant pathogen of acute <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> diarrhea in Chilean children, and continuous characterization of genetic diversity will be crucial for appropriate detection. PMID:11023476</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">O'Ryan, M L; Mamani, N; Gaggero, A; Avendaño, L F; Prieto, S; Peña, A; Jiang, X; Matson, D O</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=5254398"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gravity wave modulation of gradient drift instabilities in mid-latitude <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E irregularities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent E region VHF backscatter echoes observed by the MU radar at mid-latitudes show quasi-periodic striations with a fairly constant range vs. time tilt in a RTI display. These features are explained in terms of gravity waves with frequencies close to the Brunt-Vaisala frequency which modulate the shape of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers. The conditions of instability, when the magnetic field has a significant dip angle, is revised. Differing from previous work, the authors argue that conditions of local gradient drift instability are not sufficient and one has to consider the integrated properties of each magnetic filed tube. Stratified <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers are stable using this new criteria, unless they are distorted to produce unstable integrated gradients. Gravity waves with phase fronts parallel to the magnetic dip angle are capable of producing such distortion, imposing its own temporal and spatial periodicity on the echoes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Woodman, R.F. (Instituto Geofisico del Peru, Lima (Peru)); Yamamoto, M.; Fukao, S. (Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:23007671"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gravity wave modulation of gradient drift instabilities in mid-latitude <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E irregularities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent E region VHF backscatter echoes observed by the MU radar at mid-latitudes show quasi-periodic striations with a fairly constant range vs. time tilt in a RTI display. These features are explained in terms of gravity waves with frequencies close to the Brunt-Vaisala frequency which modulate the shape of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers. The conditions of instability, when the magnetic field has a significant dip angle, is revised. Differing from previous work, the authors argue that conditions of local gradient drift instability are not sufficient and one has to consider the integrated properties of each magnetic filed tube. Stratified <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers are stable using this new criteria, unless they are distorted to produce unstable integrated gradients. Gravity waves with phase fronts parallel to the magnetic dip angle are capable of producing such distortion, imposing its own temporal and spatial periodicity on the echoes</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ann-geophys.net/26/533/2008/angeo-26-533-2008.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electron temperature in nighttime <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer at mid-latitude</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Electron temperature in the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer was measured with a glass-sealed Langmuir probe at a mid-latitude station in Japan in the framework of the SEEK (<span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> E Experiment over Kyushu-2 campaign which was conducted in August 2002. Important findings are two fold: (1 electron temperature and electron density vary in the opposite sense in the height range of 100–108 km, and electron temperature in the <I>E<sub>s</sub></I> layer is lower than that of ambient plasma, (2 electron temperature in these height ranges is higher than the possible range of neutral temperature. <br><br> These findings strongly suggest that the heat source that elevates electron temperature much higher than possible neutral temperature exists at around 100 km, and/or that the physical parameter values, which are used in the present theory to calculate electron temperature, are not proper.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K.-I. Oyama</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22732678"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease presenting as progressive nonfluent aphasia with speech apraxia.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA) is typically associated with pathological changes consistent with frontotemporal lobar degeneration. A 65-year-old male presented with effortful speech, markedly impaired naming and features of speech apraxia, consistent with PNFA. Perceptuospatial function, calculation and executive function were intact. Brain SPECT showed left perisylvian hypoperfusion. He deteriorated profoundly over the subsequent eight months, with appearances on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging typical of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, which was confirmed pathologically at postmortem examination. While the presence of PNFA with speech apraxia is thought to predict underlying tauopathy, <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease may mimic this presentation and present in a highly circumscribed form not previously described. PMID:22732678</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kobylecki, Christopher; Thompson, Jennifer C; Jones, Matthew; Mills, Samantha J; Shaunak, Sandip; Ironside, James W; Snowden, Julie S; Richardson, Anna M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::0f81e73d4cacafb9c2aa6b177d7e58b9"> <span id="translatedtitle">Homozygous somatic Wt1 point mutations in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> unilateral Wilms tumor.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wilms tumor may be caused by loss of function of genes at different loci. A Wilms tumor suppressor gene, WT1, at chromosome 11 band p13, has recently been cloned and characterized. WT1 has been implicated in the development of Wilms tumor by virtue of mutations in patients with genitourinary anomalies and susceptibility to Wilms tumor. Homozygous intragenic mutations have been reported in Wilms tumors, but usually not in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> unilateral Wilms tumors, which constitute the majority of Wilms...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Coppes, M. J.; Liefers, G. J.; Paul, P.; Yeger, H.; Williams, B. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::47714b4be027ce8cda1f982bcdf160b0"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phenotypic characterization of epidemic versus <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Forty strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were divided on the basis of their epidemiologic behavior into two subgroups, <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> MRSA (SMRSA) and epidemic MRSA (EMRSA) strains. The strains were examined for binding of 125I-labelled fibronectin, vitronectin, collagen, Fc fragments of immunoglobulin G, and fibrinogen. A significant difference between EMRSA and SMRSA strains was found for binding of 125I-labelled fibrinogen and for Fc fragments of immunoglobulin G, (P <...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______165::3f259741578409b41fc072a0840af08d"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ionogram height–time–intensity observations of descending <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers at mid-latitude</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new methodology of ionosonde height–time–intensity (HTI) analysis is introduced which allows the investigation of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer (Es) vertical motion and variability. This technique, which is useful in measuring descent rates and tidal periodicities of Es, is applied on ionogram recordings made during a summer period from solstice to equinox on the island of Milos (36.71N; 24.51E). On the average, the ionogram HTI analysis revealed a pronounced semidiurnal periodicity in layer descent...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::c53be1cee67eeb4abc785d234109686e"> <span id="translatedtitle">Up-regulation of specific NF 1 gene transcripts in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> pilocytic astrocytomas.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pilocytic astrocytomas of the optic nerve (optic nerve gliomas) are closely associated with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), and allelic losses of the NF1 gene region on chromosome 17q occur in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> pilocytic astrocytomas. We therefore hypothesized that the NF1 gene acts as a tumor suppressor gene in pilocytic astrocytomas, and that NF1 gene expression would be reduced or absent in these tumors. To evaluate this possibility, we examined quantitative and qualitative aspects of NF1 gene expressio...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Platten, M.; Giordano, M. J.; Dirven, C. M.; Gutmann, D. H.; Louis, D. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="sporadic error-increasing effects" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> </div><!-- page_13 div --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="sporadic error-increasing effects" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=nora_uio__no::a98d69c41bf91a5e0fa972050335b0d8"> <span id="translatedtitle">A case study of a <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> sodium layer observed by the ALOMAR Weber Na lidar</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several possible mechanisms for the production of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> sodium layers have been discussed in the literature, but none of them seem to explain all the accumulated observations. The hypotheses range from direct meteoric input, to energetic electron bombardment on meteoric smoke particles, to ion neutralization, to temperature dependent chemistry. The varied instrumentation located on Andøya and near Tromsø in Norway gives us an opportunity to test the different theories applied to high lat...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nesse, H.; Rietveld, Michael T.; Heinrich, D.; Williams, B.; Hoppe, U. -p; Stadsnes, J.; Singer, W.; Blum, U.; Sandanger, M. I.; Trondsen, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFMSA32A0688S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Density measurements above and within a <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layer using Impedance Probes and Langmuir Probes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A Black Brant sounding rocket (NASA 21.125) was launched on June 29th, 2001 at 04:44~UTC (00:44~EST) from Wallops Flight Facility (WFF), Virginia, to study the relation of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layers and quasi-periodic (Q-P) radar echoes and their electrodynamical properties. The launch was accompanied by VHF radar measurements from Fort Macon, NC, provided by the University of Illinois and ionosonde measurements at WFF. The rocket consisted of a main- and a sub-payload, each equipped with E-field sensors, a fixed-bias Langmuir probe in ion saturation mode, and a magnetometer. The main payload employed an additional Langmuir probe in electron saturation mode, a mutual impedance probe, and an ionization gauge. The rocket was launched during the presence of strong Q-P echos and a well-developed <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layer as measured by radar and ionosonde. Good data has been received from all instruments. The apogee of 122 km was reached after 179 seconds flight-time. Enhanced electron densities were encountered during the upleg and during the downleg at altitudes between 102 km and 107 km. At the same altitudes indications of resonances are visible in the impedance probe data. The Langmuir probes also revealed plasma density structures including quasi-periodic oscillations with ~0.8 sec periodicity, corresponding to ~400 m for horizontal structures aligned with the rocket velocity. These structures appear both above and within the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layer and do not appear to be gradient-drift driven. In this paper, we concentrate on the density measurements gathered by the different techniques and use them to advance our current understanding of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layer formation and structure.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steigies, C. T.; Pfaff, R. F.; Acuna, M. H.; Kudeki, E.; Clemmons, J. H.; Bounds, S. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::dd3100195828def3e194efcc252bf86d"> <span id="translatedtitle">Renal Angiomyolipomas from Patients with <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Lymphangiomyomatosis Contain Both Neoplastic and Non-Neoplastic Vascular Structures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Renal angiomyolipomas are highly vascular tumors that occur <span class="hlt">sporadically</span>, in women with pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis (LAM), and in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). The goal of this study was to determine whether the distinctive vessels of angiomyolipomas are neoplastic or reactive. We studied angiomyolipomas with loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the TSC2 region of chromosome 16p13 from patients with LAM. We found that angiomyolipomas contain five morphologically distinct vessel types: cellu...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=doajarticles::31042eb0286090972444fe46d6214d04"> <span id="translatedtitle">New application of intelligent agents in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> amyotrophic lateral sclerosis identifies unexpected specific genetic background</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract Background Few genetic factors predisposing to the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been identified, but the pathology itself seems to be a true multifactorial disease in which complex interactions between environmental and genetic susceptibility factors take place. The purpose of this study was to approach genetic data with an innovative statistical method such as artificial neural networks to identify a possible genetic background predispos...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Penco Silvana; Buscema Massimo; Patrosso Maria; Marocchi Alessandro; Grossi Enzo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=doajarticles::c379635aa097192b3a0a8d78201d4366"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with focal findings: caveats to current diagnostic criteria</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The clinical diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is largely based on the 1998 World Health Organization diagnostic criteria. Unfortunately, rigid compliance with these criteria may result in failure to recognize <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> CJD (sCJD), especially early in its course when focal findings predominate and traditional red flags are not yet present. A 61-year-old man presented with a 3-week history of <em>epilepsia partialis continua</em> (jerking of the left upper extremity) and ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::dfec95dfea57cb6032248b396d918956"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with focal findings: caveats to current diagnostic criteria</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The clinical diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is largely based on the 1998 World Health Organization diagnostic criteria. Unfortunately, rigid compliance with these criteria may result in failure to recognize <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> CJD (sCJD), especially early in its course when focal findings predominate and traditional red flags are not yet present. A 61-year-old man presented with a 3-week history of epilepsia partialis continua (jerking of the left upper extremity) and a 2-week history of f...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::dae7de42ddce9f979988fa10d4859422"> <span id="translatedtitle">Distinct patterns of APP processing in the CNS in autosomal-dominant and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Alzheimer disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Autosomal-dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) or Presenilin (PSEN) genes. Studies from families with ADAD have been critical to support the amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer disease (AD), the basis for the current development of amyloid-based disease-modifying therapies in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> AD (SAD). However, whether the pathological changes in APP processing in the CNS in ADAD are similar to those obser...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pera, Marta; Alcolea, Daniel; Sa?nchez-valle, Raquel; Guardia-laguarta, Cristina; Colom-cadena, Marti?; Badiola, Nahuai; Sua?rez-calvet, Marc; Llado?, Albert; Barrera-ocampo, Alvaro A.; Sepulveda-falla, Diego; Blesa, Rafael; Molinuevo, Jose? L.; Clarimo?n, Jordi; Ferrer, Isidre; Gelpi, Ellen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::f46d5ba7b6a6cb3d1a03f7656f41f8a4"> <span id="translatedtitle">Progressive Stroke-Like Symptoms in a Patient with <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder in which accumulation of a pathogenic isoform of prion protein (PrPSc) induces neuronal damage with distinct pathologic features. The prognosis of sCJD is devastating: rapid clinical decline is followed by death generally within months after onset of symptoms. The classic clinical manifestations of sCJD are rapidly progressing dementia, myoclonus, and ataxia. However, the spectrum of clinical features can vary cons...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lyytinen, Jukka; Sairanen, Tiina; Valanne, Leena; Salmi, Tapani; Paetau, Anders; Pekkonen, Eero</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::5a2fd598c89879b0edddab9233b1617b"> <span id="translatedtitle">Novel Cryptosporidium Genotypes in <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Cryptosporidiosis Cases: First Report of Human Infections with a Cervine Genotype</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, we genotyped parasites from the fecal specimens of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> cryptosporidiosis cases in British Columbia from 1995 to 1999. Genotyping was conducted by polymerase chain amplification of the internal transcribed spacer region, a hypervariable region in the 18S rRNA gene and the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein gene. Subsequent analysis was by restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing. We identified two new Cryptosporidium genotypes in humans. One of these gen...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ong, Corinne S. L.; Eisler, Diane L.; Alikhani, Alireza; Fung, Vicki W. K.; Tomblin, Joan; Bowie, William R.; Isaac-renton, Judith L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::071466a271cc1dba56365154f5c0690c"> <span id="translatedtitle">Molecular Epidemiology of Caliciviruses Causing Outbreaks and <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Cases of Acute Gastroenteritis in Spain</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The molecular epidemiology of human caliciviruses (HuCVs) causing <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> cases and outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis around eastern Spain (Catalonia and the Valencian Community) was studied by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and by sequencing part of the RNA polymerase gene in open reading frame 1. HuCVs were detected in 44 of 310 stool specimens (14.19%) negative for other enteric pathogens obtained from children with acute gastroenteritis. Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs) were the most com...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Buesa, J.; Collado, B.; Lo?pez-andu?jar, P.; Abu-mallouh, R.; Rodri?guez Di?az, J.; Garci?a Di?az, A.; Prat, J.; Guix, S.; Llovet, T.; Prats, G.; Bosch, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::03db09ccefd185e56dc09bb84418b8a0"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> hemiplegic migraine: report of a case with clinical and radiological features</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A case of visual hallucination, headache and left hemiparesis is reported. The patient had a history of recurrent attacks of similar semiology for the previous 15 years. MRI brain revealed a cortical hyperintensity on T2W, FLAIR and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in the right cerebral hemisphere with a normal ADC (apparent diffusion coefficient) map and MR angiogram. Detailed workup for MELAS was negative. A diagnosis of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> hemiplegic migraine was made and he was managed conservative...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______970::cc8be2b124b48fd216efeaa9438099b5"> <span id="translatedtitle">TDP-43 Redistribution Is an Early Event in <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder consisting of progressive loss of motor neurons. TDP-43 has been identified as a component of ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions of motor neurons in ALS. We focused on the diffuse cytoplasmic TDP-43 immunoreactivity in ALS neurons, and quantitatively assessed it in comparison with skein/round TDP-43 and ubiquitin immunostaining in motor neurons of 30 <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS cases. The percentage of spinal motor neurons with cy...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Giordana, Maria Teresa; Magistrello, Michela; Buccinna, Barbara; Piccinini, Marco; Grifoni, Silvia; Lupino, Elisa; Rinaudo, Maria Teresa; Vercellino, Marco</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::cc66acfc0f0745497dbb848911f10423"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prion proteins in subpopulations of white blood cells from patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent cases of prion transmission in humans following transfusions using blood donated by asymptomatic variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) patients implicate the presence of prion infectivity in peripheral blood. In this study, we examined the levels of the normal, cellular prion protein (PrPC) and the disease-causing isoform (PrPSc) in subpopulations of circulating white blood cells (WBC) from <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> (s) CJD patients, age-matched neurological controls and healthy donors. Though widely...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Choi, Ed M.; Geschwind, Michael D.; Deering, Camille; Pomeroy, Kristen; Kuo, Amy; Miller, Bruce L.; Safar, Jiri G.; Prusiner, Stanley B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od______1559::f536426c7d1d4dea788853defcabf55a"> <span id="translatedtitle">Risk factors for <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Yersinia enterocolitica infections, Germany 2009–2010</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Yersinia enterocolitica is an important cause of acute gastrointestinal disease and post-infectious complications. In Germany, incidence of reported yersiniosis is relatively high compared with other countries of the European Union. Children aged <5 years are most frequently affected. The aim of our study was to identify risk factors for <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> yersiniosis in Germany. A population-based case-control study was conducted in five federal states of Germany from April 2009 to June 2010. Cases ex...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rosner, Bettina; Stark, Klaus; Ho?hle, Michael; Werber, Dirk</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::86dbfd9f28465cae5905da5a000b40c9"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sources of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Yersinia enterocolitica infections in Norway: a prospective case-control study.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Yersinia enterocolitica is a recognized cause of gastroenteritis in northern Europe. During October 1988-January 1990, a prospective case-control study was performed to address risk factors associated with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Y. enterocolitica infections in southeastern Norway. Sixty-seven case-patients (mean age 23.4 years, range 8 months-88 years) and 132 age-, sex- and geographically-matched controls were enrolled in the study. Multivariate analysis of the data showed that persons with Y. enterocolit...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ostroff, S. M.; Kapperud, G.; Hutwagner, L. C.; Nesbakken, T.; Bean, N. H.; Lassen, J.; Tauxe, R. V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=doajarticles::4334f3e07c7b1a282545b69bffb5e60f"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> hemiplegic migraine in children: A report of two new cases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two cases of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> hemiplegic migraine, which fulfilled the diagnostic criteria as laid down in International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-2, are reported in children. In the first case, two unusual features were noted, namely, the occurrence of dysphsia in association with a left hemiparesis and the spread of sensory symptoms to the contralateral side during attacks. The second case is perhaps the youngest patient reported with this disorder.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chakravarty A; Sen A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRA..117.4313K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Planetary and tidal wave-type oscillations in the ionospheric <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers over Tehran region</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is believed that in the lower ionosphere, particularly in the ionospheric <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E (Es) layers (90-130 km), the planetary and tidal wave-type oscillations in the ionized component indicate the planetary and tidal waves in the neutral atmosphere. In the present work, the presence of wave-type oscillations, including planetary and tidal waves in the ionospheric <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers over Tehran region is examined. Data measured by a digital ionosonde at the ionospheric station of the Institute of Geophysics, University of Tehran, from July 2006 to June 2007 are used to investigate seasonal variations of planetary and tidal waves activities. For the purpose of accurate comparison between different seasons, wavelet transform is applied to time series of foEs and h?Es, namely, the critical frequency and virtual height of Es layers, respectively. The results show that the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers over Tehran region are strongly under the influence of upward propagation of waves from below. More specifically, among diverse range of periodicities in the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers, we found that diurnal (24 hours) and semidiurnal (12 hours) oscillations in all seasons for both parameters. Moreover, terdiurnal (8 hours) tide-like variation is observed during spring and summer for foEs parameter and summer and winter for h?Es. Furthermore, the results show that diurnal tidal waves obtain their maximum activities during autumn and winter seasons, and their activities decrease during the late spring and summer. In addition, periods of about 2, 4, 6, 10, 14, and 16 days in our observation verifies the hypothesis of upward propagation of planetary waves from lower atmosphere to the ionosphere. Moreover, planetary waves have their maximum activities during equinox.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Karami, K.; Ghader, S.; Bidokhti, A. A.; Joghataei, M.; Neyestani, A.; Mohammadabadi, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::c3b74db460a0f57b682350e8769a8913"> <span id="translatedtitle">Presenilin 1 intronic polymorphism is not associated with Alzheimer type neuropathological changes or <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Alzheimer's disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND—A genetic association between the presenilin 1 (PS-1) intronic polymorphism and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Alzheimer's disease has been a matter of controversy. Recent findings have suggested that the PS-1 polymorphism is not associated with Alzheimer's disease or amyloid ?-protein (A?) deposition in brains from patients with Alzheimer's disease.?OBJECTIVES—To elucidate the influence of the PS-1 polymorphism on Alzheimer type neuropathological changes and the develop...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sodeyama, N.; Itoh, Y.; Suematsu, N.; Matsushita, M.; Otomo, E.; Mizusawa, H.; Yamada, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::acdcbddc4142eea2ef32d407e5886def"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Common Haplotype within the PON1 Promoter Region is Associated with <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> ALS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder of upper and lower motor neurons. Genetic variants in the paraoxonase gene cluster have been associated with susceptibility to <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS. Because these studies have yielded conflicting results, we have further investigated this association in a larger data set. Twenty SNPs spanning the paraoxonase gene cluster were genotyped on a panel of 835 case and 924 control samples and tested for association with risk of...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Landers, John E.; Shi, Lijia; Cho, Ting-jan; Glass, Jonathan D.; Shaw, Christopher E.; Leigh, P. Nigel; Diekstra, Frank; Polak, Meraida; Rodriguez-leyza, Ildefonso; Niemann, Stephan; Traynor, Bryan J.; Mckenna-yasek, Diane; Sapp, Peter C.; Al-chalabi, Ammar; Wills, Anne-marie A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=245162"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long term trends in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers and electric field over Fortaleza, Brazil</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper reports a study of long term trends in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E observations from an equatorial site, collected from ionosoned data. The secular drift of the magnetic equator, and changes in the equatorial electrojet have manifested substantial long term changes at this site. The authors present trend studies of the different types of Es events and correlate these with electric field and wind variations in the ionosphere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abdu, M.A.; Batista, I.S.; Muralikrishna, P.; Sobral, J.H.A. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="sporadic error-increasing effects" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> </div><!-- page_14 div --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="sporadic error-increasing effects" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=webcrawl____::7d58d929a6b4b8683f821d7f7061b6e6"> <span id="translatedtitle">Blocking ADAM10 synaptic trafficking generates a model of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Alzheimer's disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We describe here an innovative, non-transgenic animal model of Alzheimer's disease. This model mimics early stages of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> disease, which represents the vast majority of cases. The model was obtained by interfering with the complex between a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain containing protein 10 (ADAM10), the main alpha-secretase candidate, and its partner, synapse-associated protein 97, a protein of the postsynaptic density-membrane associated guanylate kinase family. Associ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Epis, Roberta; Marcello, Elena; Gardoni, Fabrizio; Vastagh, Csaba; Malinverno, Matteo; Balducci, Claudia; Colombo, Alessio; Borroni, Barbara; Vara, Hugo; Apos Agli, Mario; Cattabeni, Flamino; Giustetto, Maurizio; Borsello, Tiziana; Forloni, Gianluigi; Padovani, Alessandro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::63968da358e483c2c845bac51e65a955"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aggregation of Copper–Zinc Superoxide Dismutase in Familial and <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> ALS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective death of motor neurons. While the most common form of ALS is <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> and has no known cause, a small subset of cases is familial because of underlying genetic mutations. The best-studies example of familial ALS is that caused by mutations in the protein copper–zinc superoxide dismutase. The formation of SOD1-rich inclusions in the spinal cord is an early and prominent featur...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chattopadhyay, Madhuri; Valentine, Joan Selverstone</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::453c08001b604af637560b327991e016"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gene Expression Profiles of <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Canine Hemangiosarcoma Are Uniquely Associated with Breed</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The role an individual's genetic background plays on phenotype and biological behavior of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> tumors remains incompletely understood. We showed previously that lymphomas from Golden Retrievers harbor defined, recurrent chromosomal aberrations that occur less frequently in lymphomas from other dog breeds, suggesting spontaneous canine tumors provide suitable models to define how heritable traits influence cancer genotypes. Here, we report a complementary approach using gene expression pro...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tamburini, Beth A.; Trapp, Susan; Phang, Tzu Lip; Schappa, Jill T.; Hunter, Lawrence E.; Modiano, Jaime F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:20047407"> <span id="translatedtitle">Earth's influx of different populations of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> meteoroids from photographic and television data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Precise photographic and television double- and multi-station data on 3624 <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> meteors in the mass range from 2 x 10-5 grams to 2 x 107 grams form the basis of this paper. The applied classification criteria and procedures are defined and described. A survey of 7 different populations of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> meteoroids known so far is presented. The total numbers and masses of meteoroids as a function of mass are given for individual groups and for all <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> meteors. The absolute calibration of the influx to the Earth was carried out by comparison with the results of Halliday et al. (1984). The comparison with the visual and cratering data revealed good agreement in the narrow ''visual'' interval of masses, and disagreement in the extrapolated parts of the visual and cratering flux curves. The slope of the cumulative number curve for the meteorite-dropping fireballs (type I) with masses larger than 1 kg was found as -0.69 in perfect agreement with the results of Halliday et al. (1984). The final mass scale derived in this paper is situated between the scale of McCrosky and the scale of Halliday. The relative significance of the different groups of meteoroids changes with the mass quite dramatically. The total influx of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> meteoroids in the mass interval of 12 orders from 2 x 107 to 2 x 10-5 grams resulted in 5 x 109 grams per year for the entire Earth's surface. Most of this mass comes in the form of larger meteoroids. Bulk densities and ablation coefficient are presented for the individual meteor groups depending on different ablation models of several authors and some extreme concepts of this problem are discussed. (author). 3 figs., 6 tabs., 38 refs</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17334350"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sox2: a possible driver of the basal-like phenotype in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> breast cancer.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tumours arising in BRCA1 mutation carriers and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> basal-like breast carcinomas have similar phenotypic, immunohistochemical and clinical characteristics. SOX2 is an embryonic transcription factor located at chromosome 3q, a region frequently gained in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> basal-like and BRCA1 germline mutated tumours. The aim of the study was to establish whether sox2 expression was related to basal-like <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> breast tumours. Two hundred and twenty-six <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> node-negative invasive breast carcinomas were immunohistochemically analysed for oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), CK5/6, EGFR, vimentin, HER2, ki67, p53 and sox2 using tissue microarrays. Tumours were considered to have basal-like phenotype if they were ER/HER2-negative and CK5/6 and/or EGFR-positive. Thirty cases of this series (13.7%) displayed a basal-like phenotype. Sox2 expression was observed in 16.7% of cases and was significantly more frequently expressed in basal-like breast carcinomas (43.3% in basal-like, 10.6% in luminal and 13.3% in HER2+ tumours, P<0.001). Moreover, Sox2 showed a statistically significant inverse association with ER and PR (P=0.001 and 0.017, respectively) and direct association with CK5/6, EGFR and vimentin (P=0.022, 0.005 and <0.001, respectively). Sox2 is preferentially expressed in tumours with basal-like phenotype and may play a role in defining their less differentiated/'stem cell' phenotypic characteristics. PMID:17334350</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rodriguez-Pinilla, Socorro M; Sarrio, David; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Rodriguez-Gil, Yolanda; Martinez, Miguel A; Hernandez, Lucia; Hardisson, David; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Palacios, Jose</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=doajarticles::b253ed09af04d4fee756c184fab7236d"> <span id="translatedtitle">Risk of colorectal polyps in patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> gastric polyps: A case-control study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">AIM: To assess the risk of colonic polyps, adenomas and advanced neoplastic lesions (ANL) in patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> gastric polyps, especially those with fundic gland polyps (FGP). METHODS: Clinical records of patients who had performed an upper and a lower digestive endoscopy between September 2007 and August 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. A case-control study was carried out, calling patients with gastric polyps as “cases” and patients without gastric polyps as “co...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::706e8a8b625279aaa5ef456d04240580"> <span id="translatedtitle">Alterations of MEN1 and E-cadherin/?-catenin complex in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> pulmonary carcinoids</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pulmonary carcinoids, distinct in typical and atypical, represent 2–5% of all primary lung tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular alterations correlated with the development of this form of neoplasms. A collection of 38 paraffin-embedded apparently <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> carcinoids was investigated, through a combined study, for protein expression/localization of menin, p53, ?-catenin and E-cadherin and for mutational analysis of the MEN1, TP53 and CTNNB1 genes. Menin was express...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Veschi, Serena; Lattanzio, Rossano; Aceto, Gitana Maria; Curia, Maria Cristina; Magnasco, Salvatore; Angelucci, Domenico; Cama, Alessandro; Piantelli, Mauro; Battista, Pasquale</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______361::3630d82e80550b72f7c95ca4d1f852b1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Molecular Genetic Studies of <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> and MEN1-Associated Endocrine Pancreatic Tumors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) may cause typical syndromes of hormone excess, or appear clinically non-functioning without hormonal symptoms. PETs occur <span class="hlt">sporadically</span>, in association with the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome, or rarely the von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. Molecular genetic investigations may reveal pathways important for tumor development, and be of clinical use. The aim of this thesis was to investigate regulation of different genes involved in cell prolifer...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lindberg, Daniel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=5646967"> <span id="translatedtitle">Incoherent scatter radar measurement of the average ion mass and temperature of a nighttime <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> layer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report the results of incoherent scatter radar, total power, and ion line observations of a nighttime <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> layer centered at 92-km altitude. The height variation of the absolute widths of the ion line yields a layer temperature of 210/sup 0/ +- 5 /sup 0/K and a mean ion mass of 50 +- 10 amu. This ion mass, when compared with average meteor composition, indicates that the layer is composed totally of metallic ions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tepley, C.A.; Mathews, J.D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::055e5b93a1af32a1f5b6984fb93b234c"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multilocus Analysis of Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum Isolates from <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> and Outbreak-Related Human Cases and C. parvum Isolates from <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Livestock Cases in the United Kingdom? ‡</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis isolates from <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>, drinking water-associated, and intrafamilial human cases together with C. parvum isolates from <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> cases in livestock were collected in the United Kingdom between 1995 and 1999. The isolates were characterized by analysis of three microsatellite markers (ML1, GP15, and MS5) using PCR amplification. Within C. hominis, four alleles were detected within the GP15 and MS5 loci, and a single type was detected with ML1. ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leoni, Francesca; Mallon, Marianne E.; Smith, Huw V.; Tait, Andy; Mclauchlin, Jim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=50057"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microsatellite D21D210 (GT-12) allele frequencies in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Alzheimer`s disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Four disease-causing mutations have so far been described in the amyloid precursor protein gene on chromosome 21 in familial early-onset Alzheimer`s disease. Linkage analysis with a fourteen-allele microsatellite at D21S210 named GT-12 has proven useful in the elucidation of amyloid presursor protein gene involvement in Alzheimer`s disease families, as it is closely linked to the gene. Most cases of Alzheimer`s disease are thought to be <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> and not familial. However, evidence from earlier studies suggests an important genetic contribution also in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> cases, where gene-environment interaction may contribute to the disease. We have determined frequencies of the GT-12 alleles in 78 Swedish and 49 British <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Alzheimer`s disease cases and 104 healthy elderly control subjects, to investigate if the disease associates with a particular genotype in GT-12. However, no differences in allele frequencies were observed between any of the groups. (au) (26 refs.).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lannfelt, L.; Lilius, L.; Viitanen, M.; Winblad, B.; Basun, H. [Huddinge Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Dept. of Geriatric Medicine, (Sweden); Houlden, H.; Rossor, M. [St. Mary`s Hospital, Dept. of Neurology, Medical School, London (United Kingdom); Hardy, J. [University of South Florida, Suncoast Alzheimer`s Disease Research Labs, Department of Psychiatry, Tampa (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1226090&rendertype=abstract"> <span id="translatedtitle">MECP2 Mutations in <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Cases of Rett Syndrome Are Almost Exclusively of Paternal Origin</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder that apparently is lethal in male embryos. RTT almost exclusively affects female offspring and, in 99.5% of all cases, is <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> and due to de novo mutations in the MECP2 gene. Familial cases of RTT are rare and are due to X-chromosomal inheritance from a carrier mother. We analyzed the parental origin of MECP2 mutations in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> cases of RTT, by analysis of linkage between the mutation in the MECP2 gene and intronic polymorphisms in 27 families with 15 different mutations, and we found a high predominance of mutations of paternal origin in 26 of 27 cases (P<.001). The paternal origin was independent of type of mutation and was found for single-base exchanges as well as for deletions. Parents were not of especially advanced age. We conclude that de novo mutations in RTT occur almost exclusively on the paternally derived X chromosome and that this is most probably the cause for the high female:male ratio observed in patients with RTT. Affected males recently have been described in a few cases of familial inheritance. Identification of the parental origin may be useful to distinguish between the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> form of RTT and a potentially familial form. This distinction will allow geneticists to offer more-specific counseling and discriminate between higher (maternal origin) and lower (paternal origin) recurrence risk.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Trappe, R.; Laccone, F.; Cobilanschi, J.; Meins, M.; Huppke, P.; Hanefeld, F.; Engel, W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22418734"> <span id="translatedtitle">C9ORF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansions in the Italian <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS population.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It has been recently reported that a large proportion of patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are associated with a hexanucleotide (GGGGCC) repeat expansion in the first intron of C9ORF72. We have assessed 1757 Italian <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS cases, 133 from Sardinia, 101 from Sicily, and 1523 from mainland Italy. Sixty (3.7%) of 1624 mainland Italians and Sicilians and 9 (6.8%) of the 133 Sardinian <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS cases carried the pathogenic repeat expansion. None of the 619 regionally matched control samples (1238 chromosomes) carried the expansion. Twenty-five cases (36.2%) had behavioral FTD in addition to ALS. FTD or unspecified dementia was also detected in 19 pedigrees (27.5%) in first-degree relatives of ALS patients. Cases carrying the C9ORF72 hexanucleotide expansion survived 1 year less than cases who did not carry this mutation. In conclusion, we found that C9ORF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansions represents a sizeable proportion of apparent <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS in the Italian and Sardinian population, representing by far the most common mutation in Italy and the second most common in Sardinia. PMID:22418734</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sabatelli, Mario; Conforti, Francesca Luisa; Zollino, Marcella; Mora, Gabriele; Monsurrò, Maria Rosaria; Volanti, Paolo; Marinou, Kalliopi; Salvi, Fabrizio; Corbo, Massimo; Giannini, Fabio; Battistini, Stefania; Penco, Silvana; Lunetta, Christian; Quattrone, Aldo; Gambardella, Antonio; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Simone, Isabella; Bartolomei, Ilaria; Pisano, Fabrizio; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Conte, Amelia; Spataro, Rossella; La Bella, Vincenzo; Caponnetto, Claudia; Mancardi, Gianluigi; Mandich, Paola; Sola, Patrizia; Mandrioli, Jessica; Renton, Alan E; Majounie, Elisa; Abramzon, Yevgeniya; Marrosu, Francesco; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Murru, Maria Rita; Sotgiu, Maria Alessandra; Pugliatti, Maura; Rodolico, Carmelo; Moglia, Cristina; Calvo, Andrea; Ossola, Irene; Brunetti, Maura; Traynor, Bryan J; Borghero, Giuseppe; Restagno, Gabriella; Chiò, Adriano</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.celljournal.org/library/upload/article/af_24472466634222742432487425368523624654323-Hasanpour-1.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Unique Profile of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Gene Mutations in Iranian Patients Suffering <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Colorectal Cancer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Objective: Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the most common and aggressive cancers worldwide. The majority of CRC cases are <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> that caused by somatic mutations. The Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC; OMIM 611731 is a tumor suppressor gene of Wnt pathway and is frequently mutated in CRC cases. This study was designed to investigate the spectrum of APC gene mutations in Iranian patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> colorectal cancer. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, Tumor and normal tissue samples were obtained from thirty randomly selected and unrelated <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> CRC patients. We examined the hotspot region of the APC gene in all patients. Our mutation detection method was direct DNA sequencing. Results: We found a total of 8 different APC mutations, including two nonsense mutations (c.4099C>T and c.4348C>T, two missense mutations (c.3236C>G and c.3527C>T and four frame shift mutations (c.2804dupA, c.4317delT, c.4464_4471delATTACATT and c.4468_4469dupCA. The c.3236C>G and c.4468_4469dupCA are novel mutations. The overall frequency of APC mutation was 26.7% (8 of 30 patients. Conclusion: This mutation rate is lower in comparison with previous studies from other countries. The findings of present study demonstrate a different APC mutation spectrum in CRC patients of Iranian origin compared with other populations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mojtaba Hasanpour</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:19021913"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigations on the plasma irregularities associated with midlatitude <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Cornell University Portable Radar Interferometer (CUPRI), a 50 MHz Doppler radar system, was operated during May and August/September, 1983 on the island of St. Croix (17.70N, 64.80W) to study the plasma instabilities associated with nighttime <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layers. The CURPI beam was directed over Arecibo, Puerto Rico, during these experiments, and on several nights concurrent F region plasma drifts and electron density profiles were measured by the Arecibo observatory's 430 MHz radar. CUPRI was stationed at Ft. Macon, North Carolina, in August 1984 for another collaborative experiment involving the launch of a sounding rocket from Wallops Island, Virginia. The usual E region linear plasma fluid theory is adequate to explain many features of the 3-m waves probed by the radar. Measurements at St. Croix determined that the 3-m <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E irregularities are highly field-aligned (to within 0.30) as the theory predicts. Some of the radar spectra obtained from St. Croix are narrow, similar to equatorial type 1. Linear theory reveals that the type 1 3-m waves could be generated at midlatitudes with drift velocities well below the sound speed because of the very sharp gradients associated with metallic ion <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layers. Two events during the St. Croix campaign show evidence of large scale plasma waves, with horizontal wavelengths of 6-10 km and periods of 2-5 minutes</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=5928619"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigations on the plasma irregularities associated with midlatitude <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Cornell University Portable Radar Interferometer (CUPRI), a 50 MHz Doppler radar system, was operated during May and August/September, 1983 on the island of St. Croix (17.7/sup 0/N, 64.8/sup 0/W) to study the plasma instabilities associated with nighttime <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layers. The CURPI beam was directed over Arecibo, Puerto Rico, during these experiments, and on several nights concurrent F region plasma drifts and electron density profiles were measured by the Arecibo observatory's 430 MHz radar. CUPRI was stationed at Ft. Macon, North Carolina, in August 1984 for another collaborative experiment involving the launch of a sounding rocket from Wallops Island, Virginia. The usual E region linear plasma fluid theory is adequate to explain many features of the 3-m waves probed by the radar. Measurements at St. Croix determined that the 3-m <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E irregularities are highly field-aligned (to within 0.3/sup 0/) as the theory predicts. Some of the radar spectra obtained from St. Croix are narrow, similar to equatorial type 1. Linear theory reveals that the type 1 3-m waves could be generated at midlatitudes with drift velocities well below the sound speed because of the very sharp gradients associated with metallic ion <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layers. Two events during the St. Croix campaign show evidence of large scale plasma waves, with horizontal wavelengths of 6-10 km and periods of 2-5 minutes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Riggin, D.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3372681&rendertype=abstract"> <span id="translatedtitle">C9ORF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansions in the Italian <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS population</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It has been recently reported that a large proportion of patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (familial ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are associated with a hexanucleotide (GGGGCC) repeat expansion in the first intron of C9ORF72. We have assessed 1,757 Italian <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS cases, 133 from Sardinia, 101 from Sicily, and 1,523 from mainland Italy. Sixty (3.7%) of 1,624 mainland Italians and Sicilians and 9 (6.8%) of the 133 Sardinian <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS cases carried the pathogenic repeat expansion. None of the 619 regionally-matched control samples (1,238 chromosomes) carried the expansion. Twenty-five cases (36.2%) had behavioral FTD in addition to ALS. FTD or unspecified dementia was also detected in 19 pedigrees (27.5%) in first-degree relatives of ALS patients. Cases carrying the C9ORF72 hexanucleotide expansion survived one year less than cases who did not carry this mutation. In conclusion, we found that C9ORF72 hexanucloetide repeat expansions represents a sizeable proportion of apparent <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS in the Italian and Sardinian population, representing by far the commonest mutation in Italy and the second more common in Sardinia.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sabatelli, Mario; Conforti, Francesca Luisa; Zollino, Marcella; Mora, Gabriele; Monsurro, Maria Rosaria; Volanti, Paolo; Marinou, Kalliopi; Salvi, Fabrizio; Corbo, Massimo; Giannini, Fabio; Battistini, Stefania; Penco, Silvana; Lunetta, Christian; Quattrone, Aldo; Gambardella, Antonio; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Simone, Isabella; Bartolomei, Ilaria; Pisano, Fabrizio; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Conte, Amelia; Spataro, Rossella; La Bella, Vincenzo; Caponnetto, Claudia; Mancardi, Gianluigi; Mandich, Paola; Sola, Patrizia; Mandrioli, Jessica; Renton, Alan E.; Majounie, Elisa; Abramzon, Yevgeniya; Marrosu, Francesco; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Murru, Maria Rita; Sotgiu, Maria Alessandra; Pugliatti, Maura; Rodolico, Carmelo; Moglia, Cristina; Calvo, Andrea; Ossola, Irene; Brunetti, Maura; Traynor, Bryan J.; Borghero, Giuseppe; Restagno, Gabriella; Chio, Adriano</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::db11a00d8beecb6f7e5e2e5721f6817f"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mutations in fibroblast growth-factor receptor 3 in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> cases of achondroplasia occur exclusively on the paternally derived chromosome.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">More than 97% of achondroplasia cases are caused by one of two mutations (G1138A and G1138C) in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene, which results in a specific amino acid substitution, G380R. <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> cases of achondroplasia have been associated with advanced paternal age, suggesting that these mutations occur preferentially during spermatogenesis. We have determined the parental origin of the achondroplasia mutation in 40 <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> cases. Three distinct 1-bp polymorphisms we...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wilkin, D. J.; Szabo, J. K.; Cameron, R.; Henderson, S.; Bellus, G. A.; Mack, M. L.; Kaitila, I.; Loughlin, J.; Munnich, A.; Sykes, B.; Bonaventure, J.; Francomano, C. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______970::7ea55319cf29dd5a7d69ada7b5b36a39"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rb and TP53 pathway alterations in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> and NF1-related malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">SUMMARY: Karyotypic complexities associated with frequent loss or rearrangement of a number of chromosome arms, deletions, and mutations affecting the TP53 region, and molecular alterations of the INK4A gene have been reported in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> and/or neurofibromatosis type I (NF1)-related malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). However, no investigations addressing possible different pathogenetic pathways in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> and NF1-associated MPNSTs have been reported. This lack is unexpected ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pasini, Barbara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::703791793aceee84574f3dbbc81da053"> <span id="translatedtitle">Etiology of <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Cases of Pediatric Acute Gastroenteritis in Asturias, Spain, and Genotyping and Characterization of Norovirus Strains Involved</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">From November 2000 to October 2001, a reverse transcription-PCR using primers directed to the norovirus RNA polymerase coding region was included in a viral and bacterial routine screening to diagnose <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> cases of acute gastroenteritis among children in Asturias, Spain. The role of noroviruses (8.6% of the positively diagnosed cases) as the cause of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> pediatric gastroenteritis was evaluated with respect to the detection rates of other gastroenteritis-associated viruses and bacteri...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boga, Jose? Antonio; Melo?n, Santiago; Nicieza, Ine?s; Diego, Isabel; Villar, Mercedes; Parra, Francisco; On?a, Mari?a</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="sporadic error-increasing effects" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> </div><!-- page_15 div --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="sporadic error-increasing effects" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=doajarticles::7d4d82fa752250a6bcf411942dce560c"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observations of neutral winds, wind shears, and wave structure during a <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-<i>E</i>/QP event</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The second <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> E Experiment over Kyushu (SEEK-2) was carried out on 3 August 2002, during an active <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E event that also showed quasi-periodic (QP) echoes. Two rockets were launched into the event from Kagoshima Space Center in southern Japan 15 min apart. Both carried a suite of instruments, but the second rocket also released a trimethyl aluminum (TMA) trail to measure the neutral winds and turbulence structure. In a number of earlier measurements in similar conditions, la...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Larsen, M. F.; Yamamoto, M.; Fukao, S.; Tsunoda, R. T.; Saito, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::5797ab42dc0150f24fafe20773a0f4e7"> <span id="translatedtitle">Case-control study of presenilin-1 intronic polymorphism in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> early and late onset Alzheimer's disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">OBJECTIVE—Presenilin-1 is a major causative gene for early onset familial Alzheimer's disease, and the apolipoprotein E ?4 allele is a major genetic risk factor known to influence late onset and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> early onset Alzheimer's disease. The presenilin-1 1/1 genotype has recently been reported to be associated with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Alzheimer's disease. The purpose of this study is to determine whether Alzheimer's disease is associated with presenilin-1 gene polymorphism and the...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yasuda, M.; Hirono, N.; Maeda, K.; Imamura, T.; Mori, E.; Tanaka, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::2a55bb0b3dc5f1267baa64a4313fc66f"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span>—but Not Variant—Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Is Associated with Polymorphisms Upstream of PRNP Exon 1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Human prion diseases have inherited, <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>, and acquired etiologies. The appearance of the novel acquired prion disease, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), and the demonstration that it is caused by the same prion strain as that causing bovine spongiform encephalopathy, has led to fears of a major human epidemic. The etiology of classical (<span class="hlt">sporadic</span>) CJD, which has a worldwide incidence, remains obscure. A common human prion-protein–gene (PRNP) polymorphism (encoding either methion...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mead, Simon; Mahal, Sukhvir P.; Beck, John; Campbell, Tracy; Farrall, Martin; Fisher, Elizabeth; Collinge, John</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=doajarticles::73a03c3a79fd4514a48f291cb0b1410e"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wave-associated <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> neutral layers in the upper atmosphere Camadas neutras esporádicas na alta atmosfera associadas com ondas atmosféricas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> neutral layers, with thicknesses between a few hundred meters and several kilometers, are observed by lidar in the same height range as ionospheric <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E. Ns layers were first observed in sodium, 20 years ago, and more recently have also been seen in potassium, iron and calcium. As in the case of Es there is a strong link with atmospheric waves, and a number of studies have shown evidence for a possible connection with tidal oscillations in the lower thermosphere. Recent observa...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clemesha, B. R.; Batista, P. P.; Simonich, D. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=doajarticles::64e8c77a72e4775ba85c04166d974942"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lack of mutations of exon 2 of the MEN1 gene in endocrine and nonendocrine <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> tumors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In addition to the mutations that underlie most cases of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome, somatic mutations of the MEN1 gene have also been described in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> tumors like gastrinomas, insulinomas and bronchial carcinoid neoplasm. We examined exon 2 of this gene, where most of the mutations have been described, in 148 endocrine and nonendocrine <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> tumors. DNA was obtained by phenol/chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation from 92 formalin-fixed, paraffin...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Costa, S. C.; Nascimento, L. S.; Ferreira, F. J.; Mattos, P. S.; Camara-lopes, L. H.; Ward, L. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990067828&hterms=Tortuguero&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2522Tortuguero%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rocket/Radar <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span>-E Experiment Conducted during the El Coqui 2 Campaign</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to investigate the complex electrodynamics and neutral-plasma coupling inherent to <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layers in the earth's mid-latitude ionosphere, a series of rocket/radar experiments were planned as part of the NASA El Coqui H Campaign from Tortuguero Launch Range, Puerto Rico, in March-April, 1998. The rocket experiments consisted of two pairs of "mother-daughter" payloads with limited apogees so that the payloads "hovered" in the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E region (95-125 km). Each payload pair included vector DC and AC electric field detectors, a highly accurate flux-gate DC magnetometer, an ion mass spectrometer, an ionization gauge, and spaced-electric field receivers to measure the wavelength and phase velocity of the unstable plasma waves. Separate rockets were included to simultaneously carry aloft TMA trails to measure the neutral wind and its velocity shear, believed responsible for the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layer formation. In addition to the rocket experiments, incoherent scatter radar measurements of plasma density and drift velocity were gathered almost every night during the 3 week campaign. Continuous VHF backscatter radar operations were carried out from a site near Salinas, Puerto Rico, where 3-m backscatter echoes were observed associated with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E and other types of low altitude ionospheric layers. Other radars that operated during the campaign included an HF backscatter system near Ponce, Puerto Rico, and a second VHF backscatter radar set up near Aguadila Puerto Rico. On 24 March 1998, one of the instrumented rockets was launched, attaining an apogee of 129 km. The payloads successfully pierced an intense <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layer observed by both the Arecibo radar and the in-situ density and ion mass spectrometer probes. In-situ DC electric fields revealed very low (about 1-2 mV/m) ambient fields with small amplitude structures of the same order. No high frequency (short scale) waves were observed, consistent with the VHF backscatter observations at the time of the launch. An overview of the observations will be presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pfaff, R.F.; Acuna, M.; Bounds, S.; Freudenreich, H.; Clemmons, J.; Earle, G.; Heelis, R.; Kudeki, E.; Franke, S.; Larsen, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24573614"> <span id="translatedtitle">Somatic GATA5 mutations in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> tetralogy of Fallot.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most common form of cyanotic congenital heart disease, with high morbidity and mortality rates. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that genetic defects play an important role in the pathogenesis of TOF. However, the molecular basis of TOF in the majority of patients remains to be determined. In the present study, sequence analysis of the coding exons and exon-intron boundaries of GATA5, a gene encoding a zinc finger?containing transcriptional factor crucial for cardiogenesis, was performed on genomic DNA isolated from resected cardiac tissue and matched blood samples of 85 unrelated patients who underwent surgical repair of TOF. Genotyping was performed on the cardiac tissue and matched blood samples from 63 unrelated patients who underwent cardiac valve replacement due to rheumatic heart disease as well as the blood samples obtained from 200 unrelated healthy individuals. The functional <span class="hlt">effect</span> of the mutations was evaluated by using a luciferase reporter assay system. As a result, the novel heterozygous GATA5 mutations, p.D203E and p.Y208X, were found in the cardiac tissues of two TOF patients, respectively. There were no mutations in the cardiac tissues obtained from 63 patients with rheumatic heart disease nor in the blood samples obtained from the 348 subjects. Functional analysis revealed that the GATA5 mutants were consistently associated with significantly decreased transcriptional activity compared with their wild-type counterpart. Thus, results of this study showed an association of somatic GATA5 mutations with TOF, providing further insight into the underlying molecular mechanism of TOF. PMID:24573614</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huang, Ri-Tai; Xue, Song; Xu, Ying-Jia; Zhou, Min; Yang, Yi-Qing</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18353002"> <span id="translatedtitle">PAX9 polymorphisms and susceptibility to <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> tooth agenesis: a case-control study in southeast China.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tooth agenesis is one of the most common developmental disorders in humans. The PAX9 gene, which plays an important role in odontogenesis, is associated with familial and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> tooth agenesis. A case-control study was performed in 102 subjects with tooth agenesis (cases) and 116 healthy controls. We genotyped four PAX9 gene polymorphisms using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. The allele and genotype frequencies of the four polymorphisms were not significantly different between the controls and the subjects with tooth agenesis. Similar results were observed in a subgroup analysis of test subjects only with mandibular incisor agenesis. Further analysis showed no significant difference in the haplotype distribution between the controls and the subjects with tooth agenesis or mandibular incisor agenesis. However, we found that the AGGC haplotype was associated with a decreased risk of tooth agenesis, compared with the most common haplotype, AGCC (odds ratio, 0.14; 95% confidence interval: 0.00-0.95). These results suggest that the four PAX9 polymorphisms alone have a non-significant main <span class="hlt">effect</span> on the risk of tooth agenesis but that the AGGC haplotype may have a protective <span class="hlt">effect</span> associated with a decreased risk of tooth agenesis. PMID:18353002</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pan, Yongchu; Wang, Lin; Ma, Junqing; Zhang, Weibing; Wang, Meilin; Zhong, Weijie; Huang, You</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22939634"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of global rare copy-number variants to the risk of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> congenital heart disease.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Previous studies have shown that copy-number variants (CNVs) contribute to the risk of complex developmental phenotypes. However, the contribution of global CNV burden to the risk of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> congenital heart disease (CHD) remains incompletely defined. We generated genome-wide CNV data by using Illumina 660W-Quad SNP arrays in 2,256 individuals with CHD, 283 trio CHD-affected families, and 1,538 controls. We found association of rare genic deletions with CHD risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.8, p = 0.0008). Rare deletions in study participants with CHD had higher gene content (p = 0.001) with higher haploinsufficiency scores (p = 0.03) than they did in controls, and they were enriched with Wnt-signaling genes (p = 1 × 10(-5)). Recurrent 15q11.2 deletions were associated with CHD risk (OR = 8.2, p = 0.02). Rare de novo CNVs were observed in ~5% of CHD trios; 10 out of 11 occurred on the paternally transmitted chromosome (p = 0.01). Some of the rare de novo CNVs spanned genes known to be involved in heart development (e.g., HAND2 and GJA5). Rare genic deletions contribute ~4% of the population-attributable risk of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> CHD. Second to previously described CNVs at 1q21.1, deletions at 15q11.2 and those implicating Wnt signaling are the most significant contributors to the risk of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> CHD. Rare de novo CNVs identified in CHD trios exhibit paternal origin bias. PMID:22939634</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Soemedi, Rachel; Wilson, Ian J; Bentham, Jamie; Darlay, Rebecca; Töpf, Ana; Zelenika, Diana; Cosgrove, Catherine; Setchfield, Kerry; Thornborough, Chris; Granados-Riveron, Javier; Blue, Gillian M; Breckpot, Jeroen; Hellens, Stephen; Zwolinkski, Simon; Glen, Elise; Mamasoula, Chrysovalanto; Rahman, Thahira J; Hall, Darroch; Rauch, Anita; Devriendt, Koenraad; Gewillig, Marc; O' Sullivan, John; Winlaw, David S; Bu'Lock, Frances; Brook, J David; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Lathrop, Mark; Santibanez-Koref, Mauro; Cordell, Heather J; Goodship, Judith A; Keavney, Bernard D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ann-geophys.net/27/923/2009/angeo-27-923-2009.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal variability and descent of mid-latitude <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers at Arecibo</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> E layers (<I>E<sub>s</sub></I> follow regular daily patterns in variability and altitude descent, which are determined primarily by the vertical tidal wind shears in the lower thermosphere. In the present study a large set of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer incoherent scatter radar (ISR measurements are analyzed. These were made at Arecibo (Geog. Lat. ~18° N; Magnetic Dip ~50° over many years with ISR runs lasting from several hours to several days, covering evenly all seasons. A new methodology is applied, in which both weak and strong layers are clearly traced by using the vertical electron density gradient as a function of altitude and time. Taking a time base equal to the 24-h local day, statistics were obtained on the seasonal behavior of the diurnal and semidiurnal tidal variability and altitude descent patterns of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E at Arecibo. The diurnal tide, most likely the S(1,1 tide with a vertical wavelength around 25 km, controls fully the formation and descent of the metallic <I>E<sub>s</sub></I> layers at low altitudes below 110 km. At higher altitudes, there are two prevailing layers formed presumably by vertical wind shears associated mainly with semidiurnal tides. These include: 1 a daytime layer starting at ~130 km around midday and descending down to 105 km by local midnight, and 2 a less frequent and weaker nighttime layer which starts prior to midnight at ~130 km, descending downwards at somewhat faster rate to reach 110 km by sunrise. The diurnal and semidiurnal-like pattern prevails, with some differences, in all seasons. The differences in occurrence, strength and descending speeds between the daytime and nighttime upper layers are not well understood from the present data alone and require further study.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">N. Christakis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://celljournal.org/library/upload/article/4%20Nikhbakht.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">TP53 Codon 72 Heterozygosity May Promote MicrosatelliteInstability in <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Colorectal Cancer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Objective: The polymorphic variants at codon 72 of the p53 gene, encoding prolineor arginine at residue 72, produce marked changes in the p53 structure. From theevidence that the DNA mismatch repair system and p53 interact to maintain genomicintegrity, we hypothesized that codon 72 variations may influence the prevalence ofmicrosatellite instability (MSI, a feature of malignancies associated with mismatchrepair deficiency in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> colorectal cancer.Materials and Methods: We investigated the frequency of MSI in three P53 codon72 genotypes using genomic DNAs from 144 paraffin blocks of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> colorectaladenocarcinomas by testing the BAT-26 poly(A marker. We used PCR-SSCP analysisto detect tumor sample MSI for the nonisotopic detection of deletions in the BAT-26 poly (A mononucleotide repeat. Associations between qualitative variables wereevaluated using the ?2-test. Statistical significance level was set to p ? 0.05.Results: MSI analysis revealed that 24.3% of the tumors (n=35 were MSI-positiveand 75.7% (n=109 were MSI-negative. The frequency of microsatellite instability inthe arginine/arginine, arginine/proline and proline/proline genotypes were 11 (16.9%,22 (36.1% and 2 (11.1% respectively. A significant difference in distribution of MSIwas found for the arginine/proline genotype compared with the grouped arginine/arginineand proline/proline genotypes (p=0.05.Conclusion: Our findings suggested that colorectal adenocarcinomas arising in individualswith the p53 codon 72 arginine/proline heterozygosity are more prone tomicrosatellite instability than those with other p53 genotypes. In our study, MSI wasimportant in the carcinogenesis of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> colorectal cancer arising in pro/arg heterozygotes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mehdi Nikbahkt Dastjerdi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24828033"> <span id="translatedtitle">High-throughput mutation profiling improves diagnostic stratification of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> medullary thyroid carcinomas.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) harbors RET gene somatic mutations in up to 50 % of cases, and RAS family gene mutations occur in about 10 %. A timely and comprehensive characterization of molecular alterations is needed to improve MTC diagnostic stratification and design-tailored therapeutic approaches. Twenty surgically resected <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> MTCs, previously analyzed for RET mutations by Sanger sequencing using DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, were investigated for intragenic mutations in 50 cancer-associated genes applying a multigene Ion AmpliSeq next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Thirteen (65 %) MTCs harbored a RET mutation; 10 were detected at both Sanger and NGS sequencing, while 3 undetected by Sanger were revealed by NGS. One of the 13 RET-mutated cases also showed an F354L germline mutation in STK11. Of the seven RET wild-type MTCs, four cases (57.1 %) harbored a RAS mutation: three in HRAS (all Q61R) and one in KRAS (G12R). The three remaining MTCs (15 %) resulted as wild-type for all the 50 cancer-related genes. Follow-up was available in all but one RET-mutated case. At the end of follow-up, 7 of 12 (58 %) RET-mutated patients had relapsed, while the 4 RAS-mutated MTC patients were disease-free. Two of the three patients with MTC wild-type for all 50 genes relapsed during the follow-up period. Detection of mutations by NGS has the potential to improve the diagnostic stratification of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> MTC. PMID:24828033</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Simbolo, Michele; Mian, Caterina; Barollo, Susi; Fassan, Matteo; Mafficini, Andrea; Neves, Diogo; Scardoni, Maria; Pennelli, Gianmaria; Rugge, Massimo; Pelizzo, Maria Rosa; Cavedon, Elisabetta; Fugazzola, Laura; Scarpa, Aldo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17597182"> <span id="translatedtitle">PTCH mutations are not mainly involved in the pathogenesis of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> trichoblastomas.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Trichoblastomas are rare, benign tumors of the appendix in human skin. The histopathology comprises elements of basal cell carcinoma and trichoepithelioma with a variable degree of follicular differentiation. Both basal cell carcinoma and trichoepithelioma reveal alterations of PTCH, the human homolog of the Drosophila segment polarity patched gene. Furthermore, heterozygous PTCH knockout mice develop trichoblastoma-like tumors. This suggests an involvement of the PTCH gene in the pathogenesis of human trichoblastomas. However, trichoblastomas arising in nevus sebaceus did not show loss of heterozygosity at the PTCH locus (9q22.3) in a previous study. Sequencing of the PTCH gene and analysis of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> human trichoblastomas have not been performed yet. We therefore screened 10 <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> trichoblastomas and 1 trichoblastoma arising within a nevus sebaceus for PTCH mutations. After microdissection of the tumors, single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP)/heteroduplex analysis of exons 2 to 23 of PTCH was performed, and polymerase chain reaction products with aberrant band patterns were sequenced. One trichoblastoma revealed a silent mutation at codon 562 in exon 12. Another trichoblastoma showed a somatic C > T single nucleotide substitution at codon 1,315 (exon 23), which was not present in corresponding normal epidermis. This mutation at codon 1,315 represents an already described PTCH germline polymorphism and results in a heterozygous Pro to Leu substitution in the tumor. The Pro/Leu polymorphism in germline is associated with a higher risk for breast cancer, but a potential contribution to the tumorigenesis of trichoblastoma is unknown. We detected no classical PTCH mutations in the investigated trichoblastomas. Our results indicate that PTCH mutations are not mainly involved in the pathogenesis of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> trichoblastomas, in contrast to basal cell carcinomas and trichoepitheliomas. The genetic basis of this rare appendageal tumor remains elusive. PMID:17597182</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hafner, Christian; Schmiemann, Viola; Ruetten, Arno; Coras, Brigitte; Landthaler, Michael; Reifenberger, Julia; Vogt, Thomas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.neurologyindia.com/article.asp?issn=0028-3886;year=2006;volume=54;issue=2;spage=186;epage=189;aulast=Motamedi"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of valporic acid efficacy in familial versus <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> cases of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Background: Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is a heterogeneous syndrome, both in genetic and clinical aspects. Aims: This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of valproic acid in familial versus <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> cases of this syndrome. Settings and Design: Seventy patients with JME were identified; 24 patients (34.3% had positive history of JME in their first degree relatives (group I and 46 patients (65.7% were <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> (group II. Materials and Methods: Valproic acid was started for the patients with upward titration. The cases were followed for one year after final titration of the drug with regular blood monitoring. Patients, who had no myoclonic, absence and grand mal seizures within one year, were considered excellent responders. Statistical Analysis: We used Student T-test and Fisher?s exact test for quantitative and qualitative variables respectively. Logistic Regression test was used to evaluate the predictive factors for final treatment outcomes. Results: Mean dosage of valproic acid was 800 mg/d in both groups (13 mg/kg and 12.4 mg/kg respectively. Mean therapeutic levels of the drug in group I and II were 74 µg/ml and 78.4 µg/ml respectively. Excellent responders? rate was 66.7% in group I and 76.1% in group II. History of absences and older age at the onset of grand mal seizures decreased excellent responders? rate in both groups. Conclusions: Considering response to valproic acid, there is no significant difference in familial versus <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> cases of JME, whereas history of absences and older age at the onset of grandmal seizures, decrease the probability of being excellent responders in this syndrome.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Motamedi Mahmoud</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.wjgnet.com/1948-5190/full/v5/i5/240.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Risk of colorectal polyps in patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> gastric polyps: A case-control study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available AIM: To assess the risk of colonic polyps, adenomas and advanced neoplastic lesions (ANL in patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> gastric polyps, especially those with fundic gland polyps (FGP. METHODS: Clinical records of patients who had performed an upper and a lower digestive endoscopy between September 2007 and August 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. A case-control study was carried out, calling patients with gastric polyps as “cases” and patients without gastric polyps as “controls”. The risk of colonic polyps, adenomas and ANL (villous component ? 25%, size ? 10 mm, or high grade dysplasia was assessed [odds ratio (OR and its corresponding 95%CI]. RESULTS: Two hundred and forty seven patients were analyzed: 78 with gastric polyps (cases and 169 without gastric polyps (controls. Among the cases, the majority of gastric polyps were FGP (80%, CI: 69-88 and hyperplastic (20%, CI: 12-31; 25% had colonic polyps (25% hyperplastic and 68% adenomas, from which 45% were ANL. Among the controls, 20% had colonic polyps (31% hyperplastic and 63% adenomas, from which 41% were ANL. The patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> FGP had an OR of 1.56 (CI: 0.80-3.04 for colonic polyps, an OR of 1.78 (CI: 0.82-3.84 for colonic adenomas, and an OR of 0.80 (CI: 0.21-2.98 for ANL. Similar results were found in patients with gastric polyps in general. CONCLUSION: The results of this study did not show more risk of colorectal adenomas or ANL neither in patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> gastric polyps nor in those with FGP.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daniel Gustavo Cimmino</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EP%26S...64..345R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Equatorial <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E-layer abnormal density enhancement during the recovery phase of the December 2006 magnetic storm: A case study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> layers appear in the equatorial region (Esq) between 90 and 130 km mainly due to irregularities in the electrojet equatorial (EEJ) current. In the present work, we have analyzed the behavior of the frequency parameters associated with these <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> layers, covering the days before, during, and subsequent to, the intense magnetic storm that occurred on December 14, 2006. The parameters used in our analyses are the top frequency (ftEs) and blanketing frequency (fbEs) of the Es layer as measured over São Luís, Brazil (2.33°S, 44.2°W, dip: -4.5°) by digital ionosonde. A tentative association between these parameters and X-ray data measured by sensors on board the GOES satellite was carried out. Also, we investigated the <span class="hlt">effects</span> on the dynamics of the equatorial electrojet using magnetometer data related to the presence of these Es layers. Our analyses show that there are notable changes in the fbEs, which are characterized by the occurrence of peaks that exceed the ambient background values.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Resende, L. C. A.; Denardini, C. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::f5f50758edc6a0778d7a382cceb306ea"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of Global Rare Copy-Number Variants to the Risk of <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Congenital Heart Disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Previous studies have shown that copy-number variants (CNVs) contribute to the risk of complex developmental phenotypes. However, the contribution of global CNV burden to the risk of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> congenital heart disease (CHD) remains incompletely defined. We generated genome-wide CNV data by using Illumina 660W-Quad SNP arrays in 2,256 individuals with CHD, 283 trio CHD-affected families, and 1,538 controls. We found association of rare genic deletions with CHD risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.8, p = 0...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Soemedi, Rachel; Wilson, Ian j; Bentham, Jamie; Darlay, Rebecca; To?pf, Ana; Zelenika, Diana; Cosgrove, Catherine; Setchfield, Kerry; Thornborough, Chris; Granados-riveron, Javier; Blue, Gillian m; Breckpot, Jeroen; Hellens, Stephen; Zwolinkski, Simon; Glen, Elise</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:41084282"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal tidal variability and descent of midlatitude <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> layers at Arecibo</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Complete text of publication follows. Contrary to what the name implies, <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers (Es) follow regular daily patterns in variability and altitude descent, determined primarily by vertical wind shears in the lower thermosphere. Here, a novel method is used to analyze a large data set of high-resolution <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer incoherent scatter radar (ISR) measurements. These were made at Arecibo (Geog. Lat. ?18 deg N; Magnetic Dip ? 50 deg) over many years with ISR runs lasting from several hours to several days, covering all seasons. A new methodology is applied, in which both weak and strong layers are clearly traced by using the vertical electron density gradient as a function of altitude and time. By taking a time base equal to the 24-hour local day, statistics were obtained on the seasonal behavior of the diurnal and semidiurnal tidal variability and altitude descent patterns of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E. It turns out that, the diurnal tide is the key agent responsible for the formation of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E at lower altitude for all seasons. Presumably, the layers form at tidal convergence nodes near 108 km at ?06 h local time (LT) and move with the vertical tidal phase speed down to altitudes below 90 km in about 24 hours. In addition, a weaker diurnal trace is also seen at higher altitudes only during summer, starting at ?125 km near 06 LT and moving downwards at about the same speed as the dominant Es trace at lower heights. At higher altitudes, there are two prevailing layers formed by vertical wind shears associated mainly with semidiurnal tides. These include: 1) a daytime layer starting at ?130 km around midday and descending down to 105 km by local midnight, and 2) a less frequent and weaker nighttime layer which starts prior to midnight at ?130 km, descending downwards at somewhat faster rate to reach 110 km by sunrise. The diurnal and semidiurnal-like pattern prevails, with some differences, in all seasons. These results can be useful in the study of the diurnal and semidiurnal tidal characteristics in the lower thermosphere between 90 and 130 km.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-08-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______970::b394410bbadbeaa3b8e1d05927058dab"> <span id="translatedtitle">A de novo missense mutation of the FUS gene in a "true" <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS case</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mutations in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), transactive response (TAR)-DNA binding protein (TARDBP) and fused in sarcoma (FUS) genes account for approximately 1 third of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases. Mutations in these genes have been found in 1% to 2% of apparently <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> cases. We present the first case of an ALS patient carrying a de novo missense mutation of the FUS gene (c.1561CT, p.R521C). This report highlights the importance of screening ALS patients, b...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moglia, Cristina; Chio, Adriano; Calvo, Andrea; Brunetti, Maura</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::0149ff77bd37717b8b28ccaaaa0b1bd3"> <span id="translatedtitle">A de novo missense mutation of the FUS gene in a ‘true’ <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS case</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mutations in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), transactive response (TAR)-DNA binding protein (TARDBP) and fused in sarcoma (FUS) genes account for approximately one third of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases. Mutations in these genes have been found in 1 to 2% of apparently <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> cases. We present the first case of an ALS patient carrying a de novo missense mutation of the FUS gene (c.1561C>T, p.R521C). This report highlights the importance of screening ALS patients,...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chio?, Adriano; Calvo, Andrea; Moglia, Cristina; Ossola, Irene; Brunetti, Maura; Sbaiz, Luca; Lai, Shiao-lin; Abramzon, Yevgeniya; Traynor, Bryan J.; Restagno, Gabriella</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="sporadic error-increasing effects" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> </div><!-- page_16 div --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="sporadic error-increasing effects" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od______1593::dc81dccdd2c18d2931febeb5060f7bfe"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> human Yersinia enterocolitica infections caused by serotype 4/O:3 originate mainly from pigs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Yersinia enterocolitica 4/O : 3 is the most frequent cause of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> human yersiniosis in Finland and Germany. To investigate the possible link between pigs and humans, 282 human and 534 porcine strains from Finland and Germany were characterized with PFGE using NotI, ApaI and XhoI enzymes. Most of the human strains (>80 %) were indistinguishable from the porcine strains in both countries and most of the genotypes (178/182) were different in Finland and Germany. The indistinguishable genoty...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fredriksson-ahomaa, M.; Stolle, A.; Siitonen, A.; Korkeala, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=5775151"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for a dopaminergic deficit in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> amyotrophic lateral sclerosis on positron emission scanning</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although rare, the chronic neurodegenerative disorders amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and idiopathic parkinsonism coexist to a greater degree than expected by chance. This suggests that patients with ALS may have subclinical lesions of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. To study this hypothesis, the authors did positron emission tomography with 6-fluorodopa on 16 patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS and without extrapyramidal disease, and compared the results with age-matched controls. They found a significant progressive fall in 6-fluorodopa uptake with time since diagnosis, and reduced dopaminergic function in 3 patients with ALS of long duration. This supports the hypothesis that ALS and IP may share pathogenesis, and, perhaps, etiology.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Takahashi, Hirohide; Snow, B.J.; Bhatt, M.H.; Peppard, R.; Eisen, A.; Calne, D.B. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-10-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2105/9/254"> <span id="translatedtitle">New application of intelligent agents in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> amyotrophic lateral sclerosis identifies unexpected specific genetic background</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Abstract Background Few genetic factors predisposing to the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS have been identified, but the pathology itself seems to be a true multifactorial disease in which complex interactions between environmental and genetic susceptibility factors take place. The purpose of this study was to approach genetic data with an innovative statistical method such as artificial neural networks to identify a possible genetic background predisposing to the disease. A DNA multiarray panel was applied to genotype more than 60 polymorphisms within 35 genes selected from pathways of lipid and homocysteine metabolism, regulation of blood pressure, coagulation, inflammation, cellular adhesion and matrix integrity, in 54 <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS patients and 208 controls. Advanced intelligent systems based on novel coupling of artificial neural networks and evolutionary algorithms have been applied. The results obtained have been compared with those derived from the use of standard neural networks and classical statistical analysis Results Advanced intelligent systems based on novel coupling of artificial neural networks and evolutionary algorithms have been applied. The results obtained have been compared with those derived from the use of standard neural networks and classical statistical analysis. An unexpected discovery of a strong genetic background in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS using a DNA multiarray panel and analytical processing of the data with advanced artificial neural networks was found. The predictive accuracy obtained with Linear Discriminant Analysis and Standard Artificial Neural Networks ranged from 70% to 79% (average 75.31% and from 69.1 to 86.2% (average 76.6% respectively. The corresponding value obtained with Advanced Intelligent Systems reached an average of 96.0% (range 94.4 to 97.6%. This latter approach allowed the identification of seven genetic variants essential to differentiate cases from controls: apolipoprotein E arg158cys; hepatic lipase -480 C/T; endothelial nitric oxide synthase 690 C/T and glu298asp; vitamin K-dependent coagulation factor seven arg353glu, glycoprotein Ia/IIa 873 G/A and E-selectin ser128arg. Conclusion This study provides an alternative and reliable method to approach complex diseases. Indeed, the application of a novel artificial intelligence-based method offers a new insight into genetic markers of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS pointing out the existence of a strong genetic background.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marocchi Alessandro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2443147&rendertype=abstract"> <span id="translatedtitle">New application of intelligent agents in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> amyotrophic lateral sclerosis identifies unexpected specific genetic background</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Few genetic factors predisposing to the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been identified, but the pathology itself seems to be a true multifactorial disease in which complex interactions between environmental and genetic susceptibility factors take place. The purpose of this study was to approach genetic data with an innovative statistical method such as artificial neural networks to identify a possible genetic background predisposing to the disease. A DNA multiarray panel was applied to genotype more than 60 polymorphisms within 35 genes selected from pathways of lipid and homocysteine metabolism, regulation of blood pressure, coagulation, inflammation, cellular adhesion and matrix integrity, in 54 <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS patients and 208 controls. Advanced intelligent systems based on novel coupling of artificial neural networks and evolutionary algorithms have been applied. The results obtained have been compared with those derived from the use of standard neural networks and classical statistical analysis Results Advanced intelligent systems based on novel coupling of artificial neural networks and evolutionary algorithms have been applied. The results obtained have been compared with those derived from the use of standard neural networks and classical statistical analysis. An unexpected discovery of a strong genetic background in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS using a DNA multiarray panel and analytical processing of the data with advanced artificial neural networks was found. The predictive accuracy obtained with Linear Discriminant Analysis and Standard Artificial Neural Networks ranged from 70% to 79% (average 75.31%) and from 69.1 to 86.2% (average 76.6%) respectively. The corresponding value obtained with Advanced Intelligent Systems reached an average of 96.0% (range 94.4 to 97.6%). This latter approach allowed the identification of seven genetic variants essential to differentiate cases from controls: apolipoprotein E arg158cys; hepatic lipase -480 C/T; endothelial nitric oxide synthase 690 C/T and glu298asp; vitamin K-dependent coagulation factor seven arg353glu, glycoprotein Ia/IIa 873 G/A and E-selectin ser128arg. Conclusion This study provides an alternative and reliable method to approach complex diseases. Indeed, the application of a novel artificial intelligence-based method offers a new insight into genetic markers of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS pointing out the existence of a strong genetic background.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Penco, Silvana; Buscema, Massimo; Patrosso, Maria Cristina; Marocchi, Alessandro; Grossi, Enzo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22366795"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neuroimaging signatures of frontotemporal dementia genetics: C9ORF72, tau, progranulin and <span class="hlt">sporadics</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A major recent discovery was the identification of an expansion of a non-coding GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat in the C9ORF72 gene in patients with frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Mutations in two other genes are known to account for familial frontotemporal dementia: microtubule-associated protein tau and progranulin. Although imaging features have been previously reported in subjects with mutations in tau and progranulin, no imaging features have been published in C9ORF72. Furthermore, it remains unknown whether there are differences in atrophy patterns across these mutations, and whether regional differences could help differentiate C9ORF72 from the other two mutations at the single-subject level. We aimed to determine the regional pattern of brain atrophy associated with the C9ORF72 gene mutation, and to determine which regions best differentiate C9ORF72 from subjects with mutations in tau and progranulin, and from <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> frontotemporal dementia. A total of 76 subjects, including 56 with a clinical diagnosis of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and a mutation in one of these genes (19 with C9ORF72 mutations, 25 with tau mutations and 12 with progranulin mutations) and 20 <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> subjects with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (including 50% with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), with magnetic resonance imaging were included in this study. Voxel-based morphometry was used to assess and compare patterns of grey matter atrophy. Atlas-based parcellation was performed utilizing the automated anatomical labelling atlas and Statistical Parametric Mapping software to compute volumes of 37 regions of interest. Hemispheric asymmetry was calculated. Penalized multinomial logistic regression was utilized to create a prediction model to discriminate among groups using regional volumes and asymmetry score. Principal component analysis assessed for variance within groups. C9ORF72 was associated with symmetric atrophy predominantly involving dorsolateral, medial and orbitofrontal lobes, with additional loss in anterior temporal lobes, parietal lobes, occipital lobes and cerebellum. In contrast, striking anteromedial temporal atrophy was associated with tau mutations and temporoparietal atrophy was associated with progranulin mutations. The <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> group was associated with frontal and anterior temporal atrophy. A conservative penalized multinomial logistic regression model identified 14 variables that could accurately classify subjects, including frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital and cerebellum volume. The principal component analysis revealed similar degrees of heterogeneity within all disease groups. Patterns of atrophy therefore differed across subjects with C9ORF72, tau and progranulin mutations and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> frontotemporal dementia. Our analysis suggested that imaging has the potential to be useful to help differentiate C9ORF72 from these other groups at the single-subject level. PMID:22366795</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Whitwell, Jennifer L; Weigand, Stephen D; Boeve, Bradley F; Senjem, Matthew L; Gunter, Jeffrey L; DeJesus-Hernandez, Mariely; Rutherford, Nicola J; Baker, Matthew; Knopman, David S; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Parisi, Joseph E; Dickson, Dennis W; Petersen, Ronald C; Rademakers, Rosa; Jack, Clifford R; Josephs, Keith A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9354360"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> case of listeriosis associated with the consumption of a Listeria monocytogenes-contaminated 'Camembert' cheese.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular gram-positive organism responsible for severe infections in both humans and animals. Whereas the food-borne transmission of listeriosis was demonstrated in several outbreaks, most cases of listeriosis occur <span class="hlt">sporadically</span> and are rarely linked with consumption of contaminated foods. In this paper a case of septicaemia with L. monocytogenes in a 73-year-old immunocompromised man is described. Evidence for the association of this case of listeriosis with the consumption of a contaminated 'Camembert' cheese is provided by serotyping, esterase typing, DNA macrorestriction patterns analysis and level of virulence of the isolated strains for mice. PMID:9354360</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gilot, P; Hermans, C; Yde, M; Gigi, J; Janssens, M; Genicot, A; André, P; Wauters, G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::7380a97e937e9d1262a54b0b997cb380"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of the TSC1and TSC2genes in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> renal cell carcinomas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The genetic events involved in the aetiology of non-clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and a proportion of clear cell RCC remain to be defined. Germline mutations of the TSC1and TSC2genes cause tuberous sclerosis (TSC), a multi-system hamartoma syndrome that is also associated with RCC. We assessed 17 <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> clear cell RCCs with a previously identified VHLmutation, 15 clear-cell RCCs without an identified VHLmutation and 15 non-clear-cell RCCs for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at chromoso...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Parry, L.; Maynard, J. H.; Patel, A.; Clifford, S. C.; Morrissey, C.; Maher, E. R.; Cheadle, J. P.; Sampson, J. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47571999000100004"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bleomycin sensitivity in patients with familial and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> polyposis: a pilot study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Human peripheral blood lymphocytes from 10 patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP showed a significantly higher incidence of chromatid breaks when compared to cells from 10 normal individuals, after exposure to bleomycin (BLM during the G2 phase. However, no significant increase in bleomycin sensitivity was observed in lymphocytes from 10 patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> adenomatous polyps (AP vs. 10 normal individuals (P = 0.67. Individuals that exhibited an average number of chromatid breaks per cell higher than 0.80 were considered sensitive to the drug. No control showed susceptibility to BLM, as compared to 3 out of 20 patients.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sales Magaly M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::d9d3117bbfd7d6240ba7b36d4eaca7f6"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oxidative Damage of DJ-1 Is Linked to <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Parkinson and Alzheimer Diseases*</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mutations in DJ-1 cause an autosomal recessive, early onset familial form of Parkinson disease (PD). However, little is presently known about the role of DJ-1 in the more common <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> form of PD and in other age-related neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease (AD). Here we report that DJ-1 is oxidatively damaged in the brains of patients with idiopathic PD and AD. By using a combination of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we have identified 10 differ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Choi, Joungil; Sullards, M. Cameron; Olzmann, James A.; Rees, Howard D.; Weintraub, Susan T.; Bostwick, David E.; Gearing, Marla; Levey, Allan I.; Chin, Lih-shen; Li, Lian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:25022113"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for a dopaminergic deficit in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> amyotrophic lateral sclerosis on positron emission scanning</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although rare, the chronic neurodegenerative disorders amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and idiopathic parkinsonism coexist to a greater degree than expected by chance. This suggests that patients with ALS may have subclinical lesions of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. To study this hypothesis, the authors did positron emission tomography with 6-fluorodopa on 16 patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS and without extrapyramidal disease, and compared the results with age-matched controls. They found a significant progressive fall in 6-fluorodopa uptake with time since diagnosis, and reduced dopaminergic function in 3 patients with ALS of long duration. This supports the hypothesis that ALS and IP may share pathogenesis, and, perhaps, etiology</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-10-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24622886"> <span id="translatedtitle">Expression of RUNX3 and ?-catenin in the carcinogenesis of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> colorectal tubular adenoma.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this study is to investigate the possible roles of runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) and ?-catenin in the carcinogenesis of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> colorectal tubular adenomas. The expression of the RUNX3 and ?-catenin proteins was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 23 normal colorectal mucosa (NCM), 81 <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> colorectal tubular adenomas with different dysplasias (SCTA-D) (mild n=33, moderate n=23, and severe n=25 dysplasia), and 48 <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> colorectal tubular adenomas with cancerous changes (SCTA-Ca). RUNX3 methylation was assessed by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP), combined with laser capture microdissection (LCM), in 17 NCM, 41 SCTA-D (mild n=15, moderate n=12, and severe n=14 dysplasia), and 17 SCTA-Ca tissues. Compared to NCM (82.6 %), RUNX3 in SCTA-D (54.3 %) and SCTA-Ca (27.1 %) was significantly downregulated (P<0.05). In NCM, SCTA-D, and SCTA-Ca, the incidence of positive expression for ?-catenin was 13.0, 60.5, and 79.2 %, respectively. A statistically significant difference was observed (P<0.05). RUNX3 levels were markedly higher in adenoma with mild dysplasia (75.8 %) and moderate dysplasia (60.9 %) than in adenoma with severe dysplasia (20.0 %) (both with P<0.05). Likewise, the expression of ?-catenin in severe dysplasia adenoma was 84.0 %, which was significantly higher than that in mild dysplasia adenoma (39.4 %). An inverse correlation was found between the protein expression of RUNX3 and ?-catenin in SCTA-D and SCTA-Ca (P<0.05). MSP results showed that RUNX3 methylation in NCM, SCTA-D, and SCTA-Ca was 5.9, 17.1, and 41.2 %, respectively, with a statistically significant difference between NCM and SCTA-Ca (P<0.05). However, no significant difference of RUNX3 methylation was observed among different dysplasia groups. RUNX3 and ?-catenin play important roles in the carcinogenesis of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> colorectal tubular adenomas. In addition, hypermethylation of RUNX3 can downregulate its expression. PMID:24622886</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Linna; Li, Dan; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yuan; Cui, Jinfeng; Cui, Airong; Wu, Wenxin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::e2313aa89e60fa6415a2d1385dc64609"> <span id="translatedtitle">Defining <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease strains and their transmission properties</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The biological determinants of the phenotypic variation in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) are unknown. To categorize sCJD cases, the prion protein (PrP) codon 129 genotype and the biochemical characteristics of the disease-associated form of PrP (PrPSc) can be combined to form six subgroups (MM1, MM2, MV1, MV2, VV1, and VV2). This classification largely correlates with the known variation in the clinical and pathological features of sCJD, with the MM1 and MV1 cases representing the...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bishop, Matthew T.; Will, Robert G.; Manson, Jean C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=doajarticles::cb0e78a8f5aae814111f2a669dfbfcf0"> <span id="translatedtitle">Energetics and structure of the lower E region associated with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The electron temperature (<I>T<sub>e</sub></I>), electron density (<I>N<sub>e</sub></I>), and two components of the electric field were measured from the height of 90 km to 150 km by one of the sounding rockets launched during the SEEK-2 campaign. The rocket went through <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer (<I>E<sub>s</sub></I>) at the height of 102 km–109 km during ascent and 99 km–108 km during decent, respectively. The energy density...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">-i Oyama, K.; Hibino, K.; Abe, T.; Pfaff, R.; Yokoyama, T.; Liu, J. Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850012172&hterms=sporadic&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2522sporadic%2Be%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of aeronomic processes on the basis of ionospheric <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method by means of which the characteristics of atmospheric turbulence can be determined is discussed. Turbulent diffusivity deduced from ionospheric <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E in different altitudes above the ionospheric stations at Bekescsaba and Juliusrah are given. Seasonal variations in different altitudes above Bekescsaba are shown. An attempt was made to determine the variation of the turbulent diffusivity during and after geomagnetic disturbances by computing the horizontal wind velocity from the thermal wind equation. It is argued that the change of the turbulent diffusivity below the turbopause is opposed to that above the turbopause.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bencze, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=6988377"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radio wave diffraction during the passage of an acoustic shock through a <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bistatic HF Doppler measurements of the ionospheric disturbance arising from a large ground-level chemical explosion have revealed a peculiar HF return which begins at large positive Doppler (greater than +5 Hz) and linearly evolves to large negative Doppler (less than -5 Hz). Various pieces of evidence in the data suggest that an HF wave which is diffracted from the intersection of the acoustic shock and an extensive plane of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E ionization at 110 km was observed. From these measurements the horizontal trace velocity of the locus of intersection is estimated. 16 references.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jacobson, A.R.; Carlos, R.C.; Argo, P.E.; Rickel, D.G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=doajarticles::867cce9104b62353baa80e7aa547acf8"> <span id="translatedtitle">HF Doppler radar observations of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E at an Indian low latitude station, Visakhapatnam</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">5.5 MHz HF Doppler radar observations of <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> E over an Indian low latitude station, Visakhapatnam (17.7° N, 83.3° E and Dip 20°) with 10 s resolution showed quasi-periodic variations of the echo strength and Doppler velocity variations with periods of a few minutes to a few tens of minutes. The echo strength and Doppler velocity variations with time in different range bins of the <I>E<sub>S</sub></I> echo showed variations which are some times similar ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sarma, M. S. S. R. K. N.; Raghava Reddy, C.; Niranjan, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:9367442"> <span id="translatedtitle">Directional dispersion of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E modes between 9 and 14 MHz</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Visibility function analysis of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E mode fine structure was performed on an 830 km path between 10 and 14 MHz. Angular spectra derived show resolved doublet magnetoionic components with angular separation of 4.5 to 60. Individual singlet components appear with 1 to 20 angular width. Compared to other mode fine structure data, these results indicate increased azimuth spread and multiple lines predominate on paths less than 1000 km, while longer paths more nearly conform to 1 to 20 core and halo distributions</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:18031325"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radio wave diffraction during the passage of an acoustic shock through a <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bistatic HF Doppler measurements of the ionospheric disturbance arising from a large ground-level chemical explosion have revealed a peculiar HF return which begins at large positive Doppler (greater than +5 Hz) and linearly evolves to large negative Doppler (less than -5 Hz). Various pieces of evidence in the data suggest that an HF wave which is diffracted from the intersection of the acoustic shock and an extensive plane of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E ionization at 110 km was observed. From these measurements the horizontal trace velocity of the locus of intersection is estimated. 16 references</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=5274934"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gradient-drift instability in the mid-latitude ionospheric <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Beginning with quasihydrodynamic equations for electrons and ions, expressions are derived for the tensor components of the complex permittivity for a weakly inhomogeneous collisional plasma with current. These equations are used for considering gradient-drift instability in the mid-latitude ionospheric <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer, which leads to small-scale inhomogeneities oriented along the geomagnetic field. The role of rotational corrections is discussed, which are insignificant for instability with the propagation of small perturbations in a direction transverse to the geomagnetic field.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gershman, B.N.; Ponyatov, A.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011RaSc...46.2002S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nighttime <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E measurements on an oblique path along the midlatitude trough</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Observations of nighttime <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E (Es) made within the HF band on a 1400 km path that lies approximately along the midlatitude trough are presented. Although the probability of occurrence of Es (PEs) is generally below that predicted by the ITU-R model, a significant increase in PEs is found when Kp ? 6. The signal parameters (azimuth, elevation, and Doppler spreads) also increase for high values of Kp. This behavior is consistent with the character of the propagation changing from midlatitude to auroral as the polar cap expands and the trough moves equatorward with increasing Kp.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stocker, A. J.; Warrington, E. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="sporadic error-increasing effects" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> </div><!-- page_17 div --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="sporadic error-increasing effects" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMSA31B1964N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neutral Winds, the Cause of Some Irregularities on the <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> E Layer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An analytical analysis of the stratified shear flow theory under the conditions of the midlatitude Es is presented. Description of the analytical solution and its dependence of the winds and neutral density scale height is shown, as well as the predictions of the morphology for the irregularities according to the measured neutral winds for the E layer over Arecibo. We conclude that characteristics of the neutral winds and the properties of the neutral density profile are the clue to understanding the properties of the irregularities of the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer. Examples of variability of this irregularities under different conditions is shown in the Figure 1.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nossa, E.; Hysell, D. L.; Larsen, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.geofisica.unam.mx/unid_apoyo/editorial/publicaciones/investigacion/geofisica_internacional/anteriores/2008/03/flores.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inter-decadal variability of <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span>-E layer at Argentine Islands, Antarctica?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available The diurnal variations of <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span>-E layer (Es occurrence and of various Es characteristics over Argentine Islands (65.3oS; 64.3oW have been determined for autumn, winter, spring and summer during both low and high solar activity level for solar cycles 21, 22 and 23. Although identical equipments were used only for cycles 22 and 23, an attempt is made to identify possible inter-decadal variations, which seem to have been documented for other locations. There seems to be true inter-cycle differences at least for some Es types during winter.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. J. Foppiano</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=5146216"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of aeronomic processes on the basis of ionospheric <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method by means of which the characteristics of atmospheric turbulence can be determined is discussed. Turbulent diffusivity deduced from ionospheric <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E in different altitudes above the ionospheric stations at Bekescsaba and Juliusrah are given. Seasonal variations in different altitudes above Bekescsaba are shown. An attempt was made to determine the variation of the turbulent diffusivity during and after geomagnetic disturbances by computing the horizontal wind velocity from the thermal wind equation. It is argued that the change of the turbulent diffusivity below the turbopause is opposed to that above the turbopause.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bencze, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:29031142"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interaction of periods of spring reconstruction of the stratospheric circulations and E <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> layer intensity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">On the basis of 33-year time series, of ionospheric data the interrelation between intensity of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> layer E in summer period with the date of spring seasonal reconstruction of zonal circulation in stratosphere has been studied. The data obtained suggest that inter year variations of intensity of summer Es layer depend on the date of the spring reconstruction beginning in stratosphere. In the years with early dates of reconstruction the mean summer values of Es layer intensity are higher compared with years of late date of reconstruction</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:17006226"> <span id="translatedtitle">The nature of relation between layer heigts of auroral irregularities and layers of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ionization</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The relationship between the heights of diffuse radioaurora (RA) and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ionization layers (Esub(s)-layers) with rigidity parameter of concomitant auroral precipitations has been studied. Characteristic Uenergy of intruding fluxes is determined from the data of observations of auroral diffuse luminescence spectra in three emissions. It is shown, that the heights of RA and Esub(s)-layers are unambiguously determined by the rigidity parametes of the auroral precipitations. Reasons of the difference in the character of relationship between the RA- and Esub(s)-layers in the region of the Western and Eastern electrojets are discussed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:19082608"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gradient-drift instability in the mid-latitude ionospheric <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Beginning with quasihydrodynamic equations for electrons and ions, expressions are derived for the tensor components of the complex permittivity for a weakly inhomogeneous collisional plasma with current. These equations are used for considering gradient-drift instability in the mid-latitude ionospheric <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer, which leads to small-scale inhomogeneities oriented along the geomagnetic field. The role of rotational corrections is discussed, which are insignificant for instability with the propagation of small perturbations in a direction transverse to the geomagnetic field</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=doajarticles::add3d786e98ae6ac6f61edeaa684fdb1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Midnight variations of spreading of ionospheric <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E-layers before earthquakes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><p>In the present study, ionospheric phenomena caused by earthquakes of magnitudes M >4.0 were investigated. Night-time observations of the spreading of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E-layers (Es-spread) performed every 15 min by the Dushanbe and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (middle Asia) vertical sounding stations were studied. The mean relative occurrence frequency of Esspread at different values of the blanketing frequency fbEs was considered, and the dependence of Es-spread on the season as well as on th...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liperovskaya, Elena V.; Silina, Alexandra S.; Liperovsky, Victor A.; Claudia-Veronika Meister; Hoffmann, Dieter H. H.; Pier Francesco Biagi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::d6c380ffb403ff0ac4fce73e3e76890e"> <span id="translatedtitle">Current Status of Molecular Markers for Early Detection of <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Pancreatic Cancer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly lethal malignancy with near 100% mortality. This is in part due to the fact that most patients present with metastatic or locally advanced disease at the time of diagnosis. Significantly, in nearly 95% of PC patients there is neither an associated family history of PC nor of diseases known to be associated with an increased risk of PC. These groups of patients who comprise the bulk of PC cases are termed as “<span class="hlt">sporadic</span> PC” in contrast to the familial PC ca...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chakraborty, Subhankar; Baine, Michael J.; Sasson, Aaron R.; Batra, Surinder K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://respiratory-research.com/content/13/1/64"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Newfoundland cohort of familial and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients: clinical and genetic features</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is an adult-onset Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia (IIP usually diagnosed between age 50 to 70?years. Individuals with Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis (FPF have at least one affected first or second-degree relative and account for 0.5-20% of cases. Methods We ascertained and collected DNA samples from a large population-based cohort of IPF patients from Newfoundland, Canada. For each proband, a family history was documented and medical records were reviewed. Each proband was classified as familial (28 patients or <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> (50 patients and all 78 probands were screened for variants in four highly penetrant, adult-onset PF genes (SFTPC, SFTPA2, TERT,TERC. Results Seventy-eight IPF probands were enrolled of whom 28 (35.9% had a positive family history. These 28 familial patients led to the recruitment of an additional 49 affected relatives (total of 77 FPF patients. By age 60?years, 42% of the familial cohort had been diagnosed with PF compared with only 16% of the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> patient collection (?2?=?8.77, p?=?0.003. Mean age of diagnosis in the familial group was significantly younger than the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> group (61.4?years vs. 66.6?yrs, p?=?0.012 with a wider age range of diagnosis (19–92?years compared with 47–82?years. Thirty-three of 77 (42.8% FPF patients had a tissue diagnosis and all but five had usual interstitial pneumonia histology. Compared with other published case series, the familial IIP histologies were more homogeneous. Three of 28 familial probands (10.7% and none of the 50 <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> probands had pathogenic variants in the four genes tested. All three familial probands had mutations in TERT. Other phenotypes associated with telomerase deficiency were present in these families including cirrhosis, bone marrow hypoplasia and premature graying. Telomere length assays were performed on mutation carriers from two families and confirmed telomere-related deficiency. Conclusion The proportion of familial cases in our cohort is higher than any previously reported estimate and we suggest that this is due to the fact that Newfoundland cohort is ethnically homogeneous and drawn from a founder population. In our patient collection, diagnosis with IPF prior to age 45?years predicted familial disease. In two of the three TERT mutation families, the pedigree appearance is consistent with genetic anticipation. In the other 25 FPF families negative for mutations in known PF genes, we did not identify other telomerase associated medical problems (bone marrow dysfunction, cirrhosis and we hypothesize that there are novel PF genes segregating in our population.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fernandez Bridget A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930009926&hterms=meteors&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2522meteors%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">About distribution and origin of the peculiar group of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> meteors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A particular group of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> meteors are picked out from analysis of meteor catalogs derived from results of radar observations in Mogadisho and Kharkov. The semi-major axes are equal or more than 1.73 AU and inclinations of orbits are equal or more than 90 degrees for these meteors. The distributions of radiants, velocities, and elements of orbits were derived. The probable source of meteor bodies of this peculiar group is the long-period comets, in particular, the comets of the Kreutz's group.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andreev, V. V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:20024576"> <span id="translatedtitle">Numbers and masses of different populations of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> meteoroids from photographic and television records</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Double and multistation data on meteors from photographic and television records are used, to derive relative and absolute numbers of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> meteoroids coming to the Earth's vicinity and their mass accession. Seven different meteoroid populations are dealt with separately inside a mass interval of 2x107 g to 2x10-5 g and their cumulative numbers with decreasing mass determined. The paper is an abstract of a more extensive paper, which will be published in Bull. Astron. Inst. Czechosl. in 1988. (author). 2 figs., 3 tabs., 20 refs</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-08-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900037880&hterms=Urbana&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2522Urbana%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lidar observations of mesospheric Fe and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Fe layers at Urbana, Illinois</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Lidar measurements of mesospheric Fe at Urbana, Illinois were conducted during 4 nights in October, 1989. The average Fe abundances were in the range (1.0-2.0) X 10 to the 10/sq cm. The layer centroid heights range between 89.0 and 90.5 km and the rms widths vary between 3.2 and 4.1 km. Considerable gravity wave and tidal activity are observed in the Fe profiles. The observations are compared with previous measurements of mesospheric Fe and with observations of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Na (Na/S/) layers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bills, Richard E.; Gardner, Chester S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::7931067bae36cada46fd5f64684c3ab1"> <span id="translatedtitle">An over-oxidized form of superoxide dismutase found in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with bulbar onset shares a toxic mechanism with mutant SOD1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent studies suggest that Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) could be pathogenic in both familial and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) through either inheritable or nonheritable modifications. The presence of a misfolded WT SOD1 in patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS, along with the recently reported evidence that reducing SOD1 levels in astrocytes derived from <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> patients inhibits astrocyte-mediated toxicity on motor neurons, suggest that WT SOD1 may acquire toxic properties simila...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guareschi, Stefania; Cova, Emanuela; Cereda, Cristina; Ceroni, Mauro; Donetti, Elena; Bosco, Daryl A.; Trotti, Davide; Pasinelli, Piera</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3694501&rendertype=abstract"> <span id="translatedtitle">INVERTED FORMIN 2 MUTATIONS WITH VARIABLE EXPRESION IN PATIENTS WITH <span class="hlt">SPORADIC</span> AND HEREDITARY FOCAL AND SEGMENTAL GLOMERULOSCLEROSIS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a major cause of end-stage kidney disease. Recent advances in molecular genetics show that defects in the podocyte play a major role in its pathogenesis and mutations in inverted formin 2 (INF2) cause autosomal dominant FSGS. In order to delineate the role of INF2 mutations in familial and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> FSGS, we sought to identify variants in a large cohort of patients with FSGS. A secondary objective was to define an approach for genetic screening in families with autosomal dominant disease. A total of 248 individuals were identified with FSGS, of whom 31 had idiopathic disease. The remaining patients clustered into 64 families encompassing 15 from autosomal recessive and 49 from autosomal dominant kindreds. There were missense mutations in 8 of the 49 families with autosomal dominant disease. Three of the detected variants were novel and all mutations were confined to exon 4 of INF2, a regulatory region responsible for 90% of all changes reported in FSGS due to INF2 mutations. Thus, in our series, INF2 mutations were responsible for 16% of all cases of autosomal dominant FSGS, with these mutations clustered in exon 4. Hence, screening for these mutations may represent a rapid, non-invasive and cost-<span class="hlt">effective</span> method for the diagnosis of autosomal dominant FSGS.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gbadegesin, Rasheed; Lavin, Peter J.; Hall, Gentzon; Bartkowiak, B; Homstad, A; Jiang, R; Wu, G; Byrd, A; Lynn, Kelvin; Wolfish, Norman; Ottati, Carolina; Stevens, Paul; Howell, David; Conlon, Peter; Winn, Michelle P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21866090"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inverted formin 2 mutations with variable expression in patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> and hereditary focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a major cause of end-stage kidney disease. Recent advances in molecular genetics show that defects in the podocyte play a major role in its pathogenesis and mutations in inverted formin 2 (INF2) cause autosomal dominant FSGS. In order to delineate the role of INF2 mutations in familial and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> FSGS, we sought to identify variants in a large cohort of patients with FSGS. A secondary objective was to define an approach for genetic screening in families with autosomal dominant disease. A total of 248 individuals were identified with FSGS, of whom 31 had idiopathic disease. The remaining patients clustered into 64 families encompassing 15 from autosomal recessive and 49 from autosomal dominant kindreds. There were missense mutations in 8 of the 49 families with autosomal dominant disease. Three of the detected variants were novel and all mutations were confined to exon 4 of INF2, a regulatory region responsible for 90% of all changes reported in FSGS due to INF2 mutations. Thus, in our series, INF2 mutations were responsible for 16% of all cases of autosomal dominant FSGS, with these mutations clustered in exon 4. Hence, screening for these mutations may represent a rapid, non-invasive and cost-<span class="hlt">effective</span> method for the diagnosis of autosomal dominant FSGS. PMID:21866090</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gbadegesin, Rasheed A; Lavin, Peter J; Hall, Gentzon; Bartkowiak, Bartlomiej; Homstad, Alison; Jiang, Ruiji; Wu, Guanghong; Byrd, Alison; Lynn, Kelvin; Wolfish, Norman; Ottati, Carolina; Stevens, Paul; Howell, David; Conlon, Peter; Winn, Michelle P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRA..115.9325C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Enhancement and HF Doppler observations of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E during the solar eclipse of 22 July 2009</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E (Es) frequently emerging in midlatitude during summer is a very special layer in the ionosphere, and its formation mechanism is different to from that of other layers. The total solar eclipse of 22 July 2009 provided a very unique opportunity to study the relationship of Es and solar radiation. During the solar eclipse day and the days before and after, the vertical incidence ionosonde was located in Wuhan to record the ionograms for this event. Two oblique incidence high-frequency radio systems were used to record the waves from Wuhan to Suzhou and from Wuhan to Huaian. The enhancement of Es during the eclipse period was observed in the vertical and oblique incidence ionograms. The quasi-periodic fluctuations in the critical frequency and Doppler frequency shift curves indicated the possible existence of the gravity waves, which may be responsible for the Es enhancement. However, we find that the enhancement occurred earlier than the appearance of gravity waves and consider that there may be other mechanisms which contribute to the observed enhancement in the ionosphere. A hypothesis is put forward that the cooling <span class="hlt">effect</span> of the lunar shadow induced powerful airflow from the northern and southern limits of the shadow toward its center, which accelerated the irregularities in Es to produce the large-scale Doppler shift in the reflected waves and form the meridional windshear. Both the windshear and the gravity waves may affect the Es layer and increase the electron concentration. Many observed phenomena are in accordance with this.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Gang; Zhao, Zhengyu; Yang, Guobin; Zhou, Chen; Yao, Ming; Li, Ting; Huang, Shou; Li, Ning</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.lenus.ie/hse/handle/10147/230473"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inverted formin 2 mutations with variable expression in patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> and hereditary focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.lenus.ie/hse/">LENUS (Irish Health Repository)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a major cause of end-stage kidney disease. Recent advances in molecular genetics show that defects in the podocyte play a major role in its pathogenesis and mutations in inverted formin 2 (INF2) cause autosomal dominant FSGS. In order to delineate the role of INF2 mutations in familial and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> FSGS, we sought to identify variants in a large cohort of patients with FSGS. A secondary objective was to define an approach for genetic screening in families with autosomal dominant disease. A total of 248 individuals were identified with FSGS, of whom 31 had idiopathic disease. The remaining patients clustered into 64 families encompassing 15 from autosomal recessive and 49 from autosomal dominant kindreds. There were missense mutations in 8 of the 49 families with autosomal dominant disease. Three of the detected variants were novel and all mutations were confined to exon 4 of INF2, a regulatory region responsible for 90% of all changes reported in FSGS due to INF2 mutations. Thus, in our series, INF2 mutations were responsible for 16% of all cases of autosomal dominant FSGS, with these mutations clustered in exon 4. Hence, screening for these mutations may represent a rapid, non-invasive and cost-<span class="hlt">effective</span> method for the diagnosis of autosomal dominant FSGS.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gbadegesin, Rasheed A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSA51A2041Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of dynamic behind the seasonal variations of Es and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Na layer near the turbopause of aurora free zone</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The dearth of experimental observations, as well as dynamics study, near the turbopause (100-120 km) is the culprit for the mystery of this critical layer in the lower thermosphere. The <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer (Es) and the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Na layer, occurring within this region, provide unique tracers for such topic. It is believed that the downward transporting of Es, which is full with metal ions (such as Na+), enriches the Na reservoir in the lower E region that causes the occurrence of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Na layer within. In this paper, a statistic study show strong positive correlation between Es and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Na layer above 100 km, measured by Utah State University Na lidar at Logan, Utah and CADI (ionosonde) at Bear Lake Observatory nearby. Both of these two turbopause features indicate strong seasonal variation with peak occurrence rate in the summer and minimum during the winter. To explain the dynamics behind the variations in the aurora free zone, HAMMONIA model produced monthly zonal wind climatology and Climatological Tidal Model of the Thermospehre (CTMT) are joining together to reproduce the hourly zonal wind variation within the turbopause, along with the temperature prediction from the two models. Using the well accepted wind shear theory of the Es formation, we conclude that such seasonal behaviors of Es and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Na layer are due to large negative zonal wind shear driven by tidal wave peaking near the turbopause during summer time in the early evening.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yuan, T.; Sojka, J. J.; Criddle, N.; Cai, X.; Rice, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120009032&hterms=urbina&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2522urbina%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of Observations of <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span>-E Layers in the Nighttime and Daytime Mid-Latitude Ionosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A comparison of numerous rocket experiments to investigate mid-latitude <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layers is presented. Electric field and plasma density data gathered on sounding rockets launched in the presence of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layers and QP radar echoes reveal a complex electrodynamics including both DC parameters and plasma waves detected over a large range of scales. We show both DC and wave electric fields and discuss their relationship to intense <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layers in both nighttime and daytime conditions. Where available, neutral wind observations provide the complete electrodynamic picture revealing an essential source of free energy that both sets up the layers and drives them unstable. Electric field data from the nighttime experiments reveal the presence of km-scale waves as well as well-defined packets of broadband (10's of meters to meters) irregularities. What is surprising is that in both the nighttime and daytime experiments, neither the large scale nor short scale waves appear to be distinctly organized by the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E density layer itself. The observations are discussed in the context of current theories regarding <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E layer generation and quasi-periodic echoes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pfaff, R.; Freudenreich, H.; Rowland, D.; Klenzing, J.; Clemmons, J.; Larsen, M.; Kudeki, E.; Franke, S.; Urbina, J.; Bullett, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/15/4/5323"> <span id="translatedtitle">Role of VEGF-A and Its Receptors in <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> and MEN2-Associated Pheochromocytoma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Pheochromocytoma (PHEO, a rare catecholamine producing tumor arising from the chromaffin cells, may occurs <span class="hlt">sporadically</span> (76%–80% or as part of inherited syndromes (20%–24%. Angiogenesis is a fundamental step in tumor proliferation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A is the most well-characterized angiogenic factor. The role of angiogenic markers in PHEO is not fully understood; investigations were therefore made to evaluate the expression of VEGF-A and its receptors in PHEO and correlate to clinical parameters. Twenty-nine samples of PHEO were evaluated for VEGF-A, VEGF receptor-1 (VEGFR-1 VEGFR-2 expression and microvessel density (MVD by immunohistochemistry. Clinical data were reviewed in medical records. The mean age of patients was 38 ± 14 years, and 69% were woman. VEGF-A, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 staining were detected in nearly all PHEO samples. No significant correlation was observed between VEGF-A, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 expression or MVD and age at diagnosis, tumor size or <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> and hereditary PHEO. However, the levels of expression of these molecules were significantly higher in malignant PHEO samples (p = 0.027, p = 0.003 and p = 0.026, respectively.VEGF-A and its receptors were shown to be up-regulated in malignant PHEO, suggesting that these molecules might be considered as therapeutic targets for unresectable or metastatic tumors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carla Vaz Ferreira</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="sporadic error-increasing effects" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> </div><!-- page_18 div --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="sporadic error-increasing effects" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ann-geophys.net/23/2369/2005/angeo-23-2369-2005.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observations of neutral winds, wind shears, and wave structure during a <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E/QP event</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available The second <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> E Experiment over Kyushu (SEEK-2 was carried out on 3 August 2002, during an active <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E event that also showed quasi-periodic (QP echoes. Two rockets were launched into the event from Kagoshima Space Center in southern Japan 15 min apart. Both carried a suite of instruments, but the second rocket also released a trimethyl aluminum (TMA trail to measure the neutral winds and turbulence structure. In a number of earlier measurements in similar conditions, large winds and shears that were either unstable or close to instability were observed in the altitude range where the ionization layer occurred. The SEEK-2 wind measurements showed similar vertical structure, but unlike earlier experiments, there was a significant difference between the up-leg and down-leg wind profiles. In addition, wave or billow-like fluctuations were evident in the up-leg portion of the trail, while the lower portion of the down-leg trail was found to have extremely strong turbulence that led to a rapid break-up of the trail. The large east-west gradient in the winds and the strong turbulence have not been observed before. The wind profiles and shears, as well as the qualitative characteristics of the strong turbulence are presented, along with a discussion of the implications of the dynamical features. Keywords. Ionosphere (Mid-latitude ionosphere; Ionospheric irregularities; Electric field and currents</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. T. Tsunoda</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24674965"> <span id="translatedtitle">Altered Basal Ganglia echogenicity early in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> creutzfeldt-jakob disease.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by conformational alteration of the ubiquitous prion protein. <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> CJD appears to progress faster if the basal ganglia are shown to be affected on magnetic resonance imaging. Transcranial B-mode sonography (TCS) enables visualization of differences in tissue echogenicity, which can be associated with changes in the cerebral metabolism of various metals. These metabolic changes are considered 1 of the potential mechanisms of the brain damage in CJD; TCS hyperechogenicity may reflect changes in metal homeostasis in CJD. We report a 63-year-old woman who presented with typical <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> CJD. One month after she fell ill, a magnetic resonance imaging scan of her brain showed diffuse cortical but no obvious basal ganglia involvement. However, TCS revealed moderate hyperechogenicity of both lentiform nuclei. The patient's disease progressed quickly and she died 2 months later. TCS may show basal ganglia alteration early in the disease course of patients with quickly progressing CJD, thus aiding in premortem diagnosis. PMID:24674965</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Veselinovic, Nikola; Pavlovic, Aleksandra M; Petrovic, Boris; Ristic, Aleksandar; Novakovic, Ivana; Svabic Medjedovic, Tamara; Pavlovic, Dragan; Sternic, Nada</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRA..117.8305H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic instability in the lower thermosphere inferred from irregular <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Simultaneous observations of an irregular <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Elayer from the Arecibo incoherent scatter radar and a coherent scatter radar located on St. Croix are presented. The layers exhibit periodic structuring which is attributed to shear instability in the neutral flow. Estimates of the time-varying vector neutral wind profiles in which the layer was embedded are analyzed and shown to be shear unstable in the Richardson number sense. In addition to the calculation of the Richardson number values, we present an eigenvalue analysis of the model of Miles (1961) and Howard (1961) for the observed wind profiles. The calculated eigenmodes have dominant Kelvin-Helmholtz modes for the estimated flow that are propagating to the southwest with phase speeds near 50 m/s and horizontal wavelengths between 10-15 km. The growth times for the waves would have been as little as about 1 min. These features are in reasonable agreement with the observed of Es-layer structure. The Miles-Howard model has been analyzed extensively in the past using both analytic and numerical techniques, but calculations of eigenmodes for the equations in a case with background winds that have turning and speed shear have not been carried out previously, as far as we know. The difficulties associated with the calculation are related to identifying the fastest growing modes among the large number of modes that satisfy the equations. The technique and the relationship of the solutions to the observed <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>E layer wave structure are described.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hysell, D. L.; Nossa, E.; Larsen, M. F.; Munro, J.; Smith, S.; Sulzer, M. P.; GonzáLez, S. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24035864"> <span id="translatedtitle">Genetic and epigenetic mutations of tumor suppressive genes in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> pituitary adenoma.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Human pituitary adenomas are the most common intracranial neoplasms. Approximately 5% of them are familial adenomas. Patients with familial tumors carry germline mutations in predisposition genes, including AIP, MEN1 and PRKAR1A. These mutations are extremely rare in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> pituitary adenomas, which therefore are caused by different mechanisms. Multiple tumor suppressive genes linked to <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> tumors have been identified. Their inactivation is caused by epigenetic mechanisms, mainly promoter hypermethylation, and can be placed into two groups based on their functional interaction with tumor suppressors RB or p53. The RB group includes CDKN2A, CDKN2B, CDKN2C, RB1, BMP4, CDH1, CDH13, GADD45B and GADD45G; AIP and MEN1 genes also belong to this group. The p53 group includes MEG3, MGMT, PLAGL1, RASSF1, RASSF3 and SOCS1. We propose that the tumor suppression function of these genes is mainly mediated by the RB and p53 pathways. We also discuss possible tumor suppression mechanisms for individual genes. PMID:24035864</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhou, Yunli; Zhang, Xun; Klibanski, Anne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=6092405"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal evolution of the HF-enhanced plasma line in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The high-power, high-frequency (HF) facility at Arecibo, Puerto Rico, has been used to study the excitation of Langmuir waves in mid-latitude <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E. Measurements of the temporal evolution of so-called HF-enhanced plasma line (HFPL) were made using the Arecibo 430-MHz radar. After HF turn-on in the plasma the HFPL exhibits a rapid growth phase followed by a quick overshoot. During periods of strong HFPL excitation the e-folding growth time of the HFPL power is typically {approx lt}20 {mu}s, and the total overshoot period is {approximately}1 ms. On the basis of the current observations, mode conversion of the HF wave into Langmuir waves near HF reflection appears to be a promising mechanism for the production of Langmuir waves in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E. Caviton formation at the critical layer is expected to accompany this process, and there is some evidence that the 430-MHz radar is probing the plasma in a region where density cavities of this nature form. While no specific explanation is offered for the HFPL overshoot, it appears that this phenomenon is fundamental to the Langmuir wave excitation process.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Djuth, F.T. (Aerospace Corp., Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Gonzales, C.A. (Arecibo Observatory (Puerto Rico))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:23018944"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal evolution of the HF-enhanced plasma line in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The high-power, high-frequency (HF) facility at Arecibo, Puerto Rico, has been used to study the excitation of Langmuir waves in mid-latitude <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E. Measurements of the temporal evolution of so-called HF-enhanced plasma line (HFPL) were made using the Arecibo 430-MHz radar. After HF turn-on in the plasma the HFPL exhibits a rapid growth phase followed by a quick overshoot. During periods of strong HFPL excitation the e-folding growth time of the HFPL power is typically approx-lt 20 ?s, and the total overshoot period is ?1 ms. On the basis of the current observations, mode conversion of the HF wave into Langmuir waves near HF reflection appears to be a promising mechanism for the production of Langmuir waves in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E. Caviton formation at the critical layer is expected to accompany this process, and there is some evidence that the 430-MHz radar is probing the plasma in a region where density cavities of this nature form. While no specific explanation is offered for the HFPL overshoot, it appears that this phenomenon is fundamental to the Langmuir wave excitation process</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ann-geophys.net/25/1759/2007/angeo-25-1759-2007.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lidar observations of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Na layers over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available We studied the characteristics of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> sodium layers (SSLs observed with the sodium (Na resonance scattering lidar at Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E. The SSLs were observed on a total of 63 occasions during 464 h of Na lidar observations from January 2005 to February 2006. The observations showed that one SSL event occurred, on average, every 7 h. The most prominent <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> layer, which formed on 12 February 2005, exhibited a peak density of 60 722 Na atoms/cm³ around 92 km and it was nearly twice the peak density reported from elsewhere using ground-based observations. In general, the SSLs exhibited the following characteristics: (1 they developed at heights between 88 and 98 km with an average height around 94 km; (2 maximum density occurred during the early morning hours between 02:00 and 05:00 IST; (3 the ratio of the maximum peak Na density to the average density was normally around 3 to 5 and it exceeded even 10 in some cases; (4 the events lasted from a few minutes to several hours. The formation period of the SSLs was longer compared to the decay period of the SSLs. Most of the SSL events showed downward motions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. Narayana Rao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25031893"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Novel PHEX Gene Mutation in a Patient with <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Hypophosphatemic Rickets.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Phosphate regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X-chromosome (PHEX) is a common cause of X-linked hypophosphatemic (XLH) rickets. Diverse PHEX gene mutations have been reported; however, gene mutations in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> rickets are less common than in XLH rickets. Herein, we describe a 50-year-old female patient with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> hypophosphatemic rickets harboring a novel splicing-site mutation in the PHEX gene (c.663+1G>A) at the exon 5-intron 5 boundary. The patient had recently suffered from right thigh pain and an aggravated waddling gait. She also presented with very short stature, generalized bone pain, and muscle weakness. Despite low serum phosphate levels, her phosphate reabsorption rate was lower than normal. Additionally, her 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 concentration was lower than normal, although FGF23 level was normal. After treatment with alfacalcidol and elemental phosphate, her rachitic symptoms subsided, and callus formation was observed in the fracture site on the right femur. PMID:25031893</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kang, Yea Eun; Hong, Jun Hwa; Kim, Jimin; Joung, Kyong Hye; Kim, Hyun Jin; Ku, Bon Jeong; Kim, Koon Soon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23387519"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative vascular pathology and phenotyping familial and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> cerebral small vessel diseases.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We quantified vascular changes in the frontal lobe and basal ganglia of four inherited small vessel diseases (SVDs) including cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), pontine autosomal dominant microangiopathy and leukoencephalopathy (PADMAL), hereditary multi-infarct dementia of Swedish type (Swedish hMID), and hereditary endotheliopathy with retinopathy, nephropathy, and stroke (HERNS). Vascular pathology was most severe in CADASIL, and varied with marginally greater severity in the basal ganglia compared to the frontal lobe. The overall sclerotic index values in frontal lobe were in the order CADASIL???HERNS?>?PADMAL?>?Swedish hMID?>?<span class="hlt">sporadic</span> SVD, and in basal ganglia CADASIL?>?HERNS?>?Swedish hMID?>?PADMAL> <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> SVD. The subcortical white matter was almost always more affected than any gray matter. We observed glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) protein immunoreactivities were most affected in the white matter indicating capillary degeneration whereas collagen IV (COL4) immunostaining was increased in PADMAL cases in all regions and tissue types. Overall, GLUT-1?:?COL4 ratios were higher in the basal ganglia indicating modifications in capillary density compared to the frontal lobe. Our study shows that the extent of microvascular degeneration varies in these genetic disorders exhibiting common end-stage pathologies but is the most aggressive in CADASIL. PMID:23387519</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Craggs, Lucinda J L; Hagel, Christian; Kuhlenbaeumer, Gregor; Borjesson-Hanson, Anne; Andersen, Oluf; Viitanen, Matti; Kalimo, Hannu; McLean, Catriona A; Slade, Janet Y; Hall, Roslyn A; Oakley, Arthur E; Yamamoto, Yumi; Deramecourt, Vincent; Kalaria, Rajesh N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22274719"> <span id="translatedtitle">The prevalence of familial hyperaldosteronism in apparently <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> primary aldosteronism in Germany: a single center experience.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most frequent cause of secondary arterial hypertension. To date 3 forms of familial hyperaldosteronism (FH) have been described accounting for a small percentage of all PA cases. In Germany, the prevalence of FH is currently unknown. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of familiarity in a large cohort of patients with PA. A total of 166 patients with apparently <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> PA in Munich were investigated. FH types I, II, and III were identified using established clinical, biochemical, and molecular criteria. Among the 166 patients with PA, 2 patients (1.2%) reported a family history suggestive of FH. None of the 166 patients showed clinical, endocrine, or genetic evidence of FH type I. The 2 families had characteristic features of FH type II. Family A had 3 subjects affected out of 11 evaluated family members. Family B had 3 out of 4. Bilateral adrenal hyperplasia and unilateral adrenal adenoma were found within the same family. FH type I and FH type III are rare in Germany. With a prevalence of 1.2%, FH type II seems to be more common in apparently <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> PA than had been assumed so far. PMID:22274719</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pallauf, A; Schirpenbach, C; Zwermann, O; Fischer, E; Morak, M; Holinski-Feder, E; Hofbauer, L; Beuschlein, F; Reincke, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ghrnet.org/index.php/joghr/article/view/166"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Visceral Myopathy: Full Thickness Rectal Biopsy to Clinch the Diagnosis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO may result fromdysfunctional intestinal nerves or muscles. Primary causesare uncommon and include familial and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> visceralmyopathies. Visceral myopathy may be characterized by CIPO,ureterohydronephrosis, and hepatobiliary dilation. The diagnosis ismade by the clinical history and characteristic findings of fibrousreplacement of the muscularis externa, vacuolar degeneration, andcytoplasmic inclusions in myocytes on a full thickness specimen ofaffected viscera. Few case reports highlight <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> hollow visceralmyopathy (SHVM in an adult involving the entire GI, biliary, andurinary tract, We present a unique case of abrupt onset of CIPO,biliary and urinary tract dilation in a 35-year-old Mexican woman,initially presumed to have lupus enterocolitis, and after failure torespond to immune modulating therapy, diagnosed by full thicknessrectal biopsy with SHVM, Early full thickness biopsy of affectedviscera in patients presenting with CIPO with associated biliary andurinary tract dilation should be considered. Our case demonstratesthe safety and adequacy of a full thickness rectal biopsy in making adiagnosis of SHVM.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Swapna B Reddy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/13/9/11584"> <span id="translatedtitle">Possible Alterations in ?-Synuclein, the Non-Amyloidogenic Homologue of ?-Synuclein, during Progression of <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> ?-Synucleinopathies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available ?-Synucleinopathies are neurodegenerative disorders that are characterized by progressive decline of motor and non-motor dysfunctions. ?-Synuclein (?S has been shown to play a causative role in neurodegeneration, but the pathogenic mechanisms are still unclear. Thus, there are no radical therapies that can halt or reverse the disease’s progression. ?-Synuclein (?S, the non-amyloidogenic homologue of ?S, ameliorates the neurodegeneration phenotype of ?S in transgenic (tg mouse models, as well as in cell free and cell culture systems, which suggests that ?S might be a negative regulator of neurodegeneration caused by ?S, and that “loss of function” of ?S might be involved in progression of ?-synucleinopathies. Alternatively, it is possible that “toxic gain of function” of wild type ?S occurs during the pathogenesis of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ?-synucleinopathies, since tg mice expressing dementia with Lewy bodies-linked P123H ?S develop progressive neurodegeneration phenotypes, such as axonal pathology and dementia. In this short review, we emphasize the aspects of “toxic gain of function” of wild type ?S during the pathogenesis of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ?-synucleinopathies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Makoto Hashimoto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24390670"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear expression of ?-catenin predicts the efficacy of meloxicam treatment for patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> desmoid tumors.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study aimed to determine the prevalence of ?-catenin nuclear positivity as a prognostic factor in patients with desmoid tumors (DTs) treated with meloxicam, a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective inhibitor. Between 2003 and 2012, consecutive 31 patients with extraabdominal, <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> DTs were prospectively treated with meloxicam as a systemic medical therapy. Immunohistochemistry was performed on formalin-fixed material to quantify the nuclear expression of ?-catenin and Ki-67, and cytoplasmic expression of COX-2. All clinicopathological characteristics including the intensity of immunohistochemical staining were analyzed with respect to their prognostic value for meloxicam treatment. Of the 31 patients with meloxicam treatment, there was 1 with complete remission (CR), 7 with partial remission (PR), 12 with stable disease (SD), and 11 with progressive disease (PD). Higher nuclear expression of ?-catenin was significantly associated with a poor response (PD/SD) (p?=?0.017). The positivity of COX-2 and Ki-67 and none of the other clinical variables were associated with prognosis. The nuclear expression of ?-catenin can predict the efficacy of meloxicam treatment for patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> DTs. PMID:24390670</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hamada, Shunsuke; Urakawa, Hiroshi; Kozawa, Eiji; Futamura, Naohisa; Ikuta, Kunihiro; Shimoyama, Yoshie; Nakamura, Shigeo; Ishiguro, Naoki; Nishida, Yoshihiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.hccpjournal.com/content/4/1/39"> <span id="translatedtitle">HER2 Amplification Has no Prognostic Value in <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> and Hereditary Ovarian Tumours</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Abstract Whereas HER2 amplification is a well-known phenomenon in breast tumours, its frequency and clinical importance in ovarian cancer have not been established. The aim of the study was to compare the frequency of HER2 amplification in hereditary (BRCA-positive and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> (BRCA-negative ovarian tumours and to estimate the association of this gene alteration on clinical outcome in ovarian cancer patients. We analysed HER2 amplification in 53 ovarian tumours: 20 from mutation carriers (18 in BRCA1 and 2 in BRCA2 gene and 33 from non-carriers. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for HER2 was performed on 'touch' slides from frozen tumour samples or formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. Our results indicate that high amplification (HER2: centromere ratio>5 is an infrequent phenomenon in ovarian tumours (6/53 cases. It occurs in both hereditary (4/20 and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> (2/33 tumours and no difference in the frequency of HER2 amplification exists between these groups. There is no significant difference in the clinical outcome of patients with HER2 amplified and non-amplified tumours (p = 0.3. Our results suggest a different biological role of HER2 amplification in ovarian and breast cancer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bro?ek Izabela</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3969149&rendertype=abstract"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dysregulation of glucose metabolism is an early event in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Parkinson's disease?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Unlike most other cell types, neurons preferentially metabolize glucose via the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) to maintain their antioxidant status. Inhibiting the PPP in neuronal cell models causes cell death. In rodents, inhibition of this pathway causes selective dopaminergic cell death leading to motor deficits resembling parkinsonism. Using postmortem human brain tissue, we characterized glucose metabolism via the PPP in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and controls. AD brains showed increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) production in areas affected by disease. In PD however, increased NADPH production was only seen in the affected areas of late-stage cases. Quantifying PPP NADPH-producing enzymes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, showed a reduction in the putamen of early-stage PD and interestingly in the cerebellum of early and late-stage PD. Importantly, there was no decrease in enzyme levels in the cortex, putamen, or cerebellum of AD. Our results suggest that down-regulation of PPP enzymes and a failure to increase antioxidant reserve is an early event in the pathogenesis of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> PD.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dunn, Laura; Allen, George FG.; Mamais, Adamantios; Ling, Helen; Li, Abi; Duberley, Kate E.; Hargreaves, Iain P.; Pope, Simon; Holton, Janice L.; Lees, Andrew; Heales, Simon J.; Bandopadhyay, Rina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24300239"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dysregulation of glucose metabolism is an early event in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Parkinson's disease.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Unlike most other cell types, neurons preferentially metabolize glucose via the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) to maintain their antioxidant status. Inhibiting the PPP in neuronal cell models causes cell death. In rodents, inhibition of this pathway causes selective dopaminergic cell death leading to motor deficits resembling parkinsonism. Using postmortem human brain tissue, we characterized glucose metabolism via the PPP in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and controls. AD brains showed increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) production in areas affected by disease. In PD however, increased NADPH production was only seen in the affected areas of late-stage cases. Quantifying PPP NADPH-producing enzymes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, showed a reduction in the putamen of early-stage PD and interestingly in the cerebellum of early and late-stage PD. Importantly, there was no decrease in enzyme levels in the cortex, putamen, or cerebellum of AD. Our results suggest that down-regulation of PPP enzymes and a failure to increase antioxidant reserve is an early event in the pathogenesis of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> PD. PMID:24300239</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dunn, Laura; Allen, George Fg; Mamais, Adamantios; Ling, Helen; Li, Abi; Duberley, Kate E; Hargreaves, Iain P; Pope, Simon; Holton, Janice L; Lees, Andrew; Heales, Simon J; Bandopadhyay, Rina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JASTP..74...11D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> metal atom and ion layers and their connection to chemistry and thermal structure in the mesopause region at Arecibo</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present an analysis of two separate and distinct <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> layer events in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere region above the Arecibo Observatory. These layers were observed in both neutral K and ionic Ca+ with lidars, and in electron density with incoherent scatter radar. Temperature profiles were determined from the K lidar. One <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> event was a high altitude layer, in which both atomic and ion <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> layers were positioned above 100 km altitude. This represents a relatively common <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> layer visible in both ions and neutrals at Arecibo. The other observation was less typical, with a lower altitude and more diffuse <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer, extending from below 90 km to above 95 km, which dissipated coincident with growth of a <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> neutral K layer. We analyze these separate events using a temperature-dependent chemical model, which employs commonly accepted chemical processes. We find that the model successfully reproduces the high altitude layer of June 12-13, 2002. The result shows a temperature dependence related to the chemical lifetimes of the metallic constituents, and that the neutral layer would not have formed had the temperature profile matched that of the MSIS-90 model. Second, the temperature dependent chemistry model also reproduced K+ in close agreement with electron densities on June 14-15, 2002. However, the modeled neutrals do not agree well with the observation above 90 km, and it likely requires inclusion of dynamical forcing and advection. We speculate that model and observational deficiencies, primarily exclusion of dynamics such as advection and wave interactions, are the likely shortcomings in the failure to reproduce the observations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Delgado, Rubén; Friedman, Jonathan S.; Fentzke, Jonathan T.; Raizada, Shikha; Tepley, Craig A.; Zhou, Qihou</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=doajarticles::01e56d375693f73fce1894ea1da95d76"> <span id="translatedtitle">Common volume coherent and incoherent scatter radar observations of mid-latitude <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E-layers and QP echoes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Common-volume observations of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E-layers made on 14-15 June 2002 with the Arecibo incoherent scatter radar and a 30MHz coherent scatter radar imager located on St. Croix are described. Operating in dual-beam mode, the Arecibo radar detected a slowly descending <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E-layer accompanied by a series of dense E-region plasma clouds at a time when the coherent scatter radar was detecting quasi-periodic (QP) echoes. Using coherent radar imaging, we collocate the sources of the coherent s...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::f9f02bd0e16eec6eff6057c0438c99a6"> <span id="translatedtitle">High frequency of the expanded C9ORF72 hexanucleotide repeat in familial and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Greek ALS patients</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An intronic expansion of a hexanucleotide GGGGCC repeat in the C9ORF72 gene has recently been shown to be an important cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in familial and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> cases. The frequency has only been defined in a small number of populations where the highest <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> rate was identified in Finland (21.1%) and the lowest in mainland Italy (4.1%). We examined the C9ORF72 expansion in a series of 146 Greek ALS cases, 10.95% (n = 16) of ca...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______322::404808af65e9e8f77c89e6f002c30876"> <span id="translatedtitle">High frequency of the expanded C9ORF72 hexanucleotide repeat in familial and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Greek ALS patients.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An intronic expansion of a hexanucleotide GGGGCC repeat in the C9ORF72 gene has recently been shown to be an important cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in familial and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> cases. The frequency has only been defined in a small number of populations where the highest <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> rate was identified in Finland (21.1%) and the lowest in mainland Italy (4.1%). We examined the C9ORF72 expansion in a series of 146 Greek ALS cases, 10.95% (n = 16) of ca...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="sporadic error-increasing effects" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> </div><!-- page_19 div --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="sporadic error-increasing effects" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1615110"> <span id="translatedtitle">Environmental risk factors for Alzheimer's disease: their relationship to age of onset and to familial or <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> types.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Data from a case-control study of Alzheimer's disease (AD) were analysed in relation to age of onset and familial/<span class="hlt">sporadic</span> status. The analyses were restricted to environmental exposures which might injure the brain. Later-onset AD was found to be positively associated with starvation/malnutrition and with nose-picking and negatively with analgesics, while earlier-onset was associated with physical underactivity and nervous breakdown more than 10 years before. <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> AD was associated with starvation/malnutrition and with head injury. These analyses merit replication in other large case-control studies of AD. PMID:1615110</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Henderson, A S; Jorm, A F; Korten, A E; Creasey, H; McCusker, E; Broe, G A; Longley, W; Anthony, J C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Identification+of+chromosome+aberrations+in%26Acirc%3B%26nbsp%3Bsporadic+microsatellite+stable+and+unstable+colorectal+cancers+using+array+comparative+genomic+hybridization"> <span id="translatedtitle">Identification of chromosome aberrations in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> microsatellite stable and unstable colorectal cancers using array comparative genomic hybridization</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in Denmark and in the western world in general, and the prognosis is generally poor. According to the traditional molecular classification of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> colorectal cancer, microsatellite stable (MSS)/chromosome unstable (CIN) colorectal cancers constitute approximately 85% of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> cases, whereas microsatellite unstable (MSI) cases constitute the remaining 15%. In this study, we used array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to identify genomic hotspot regions that harbor recurrent copy number changes. The study material comprised fresh samples from 40 MSS tumors and 20 MSI tumors obtained from 60 Danish CRC patients. We identified five small genomic regions (</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jensen, Thomas Dyrsø; Li, Jian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Identification+of+chromosome+aberrations+in+sporadic+microsatellite+stable+and+unstable+colorectal+cancers+using+array+comparative+genomic+hybridization"> <span id="translatedtitle">Identification of chromosome aberrations in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> microsatellite stable and unstable colorectal cancers using array comparative genomic hybridization</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in Denmark and in the western world in general, and the prognosis is generally poor. According to the traditional molecular classification of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> colorectal cancer, microsatellite stable (MSS)/chromosome unstable (CIN) colorectal cancers constitute approximately 85% of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> cases, whereas microsatellite unstable (MSI) cases constitute the remaining 15%. In this study, we used array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to identify genomic hotspot regions that harbor recurrent copy number changes. The study material comprised fresh samples from 40 MSS tumors and 20 MSI tumors obtained from 60 Danish CRC patients. We identified five small genomic regions (</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Jian; Lindebjerg, Jan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:44098743"> <span id="translatedtitle">Expression and localization of BRCA1 protein by immunofluorescence technique in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> breast cancer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full text: Introduction. BRCA1 protein is a tumor suppressor subjected to a nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttle, involved in the tumorigenesis of breast cancer. Controversy exists regarding the meaning of the expression and subcellular localization in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> breast cancer, particularly the one with triple-negative phenotype. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pattern of expression and subcellular localization of BRCA1 in a well- characterized breast tumors <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>, and compared with adjacent normal breast. Methods. We analyzed, by immunofluorescence, the expression / localization of BRCA1 in cuts of tumor and adjacent normal tissue fixed in formaldehyde and embedded in paraffin, of 22 cases, majority being triple negative phenotype. 3 sections were studied tumor and normal tissue per patient (03.05 fields / section) using con focal microscopy and evaluated the percentage of cells with BRCA1 nuclear foci. For statistical analysis of differences in expression / BRCA1 localization between tumor and normal tissue was used Mann Whitney U test, and to determine the associations with the content and status of estrogen receptor (E R) and progesterone (P R), fraction of activated A kt and clinico pathologic characteristics test was used of Spea rman rank correlation was considered significant when p < 0.05. Results. We observed cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of BRCA1 in all sections of normal and tumor tissue analyzed, although the latter showed a significantly larger cell with BRCA1 nuclear foci (53%)compared with the corresponding adjacent normal tissue (33 %, p = 0.004, n = 12). Furthermore, a positive correlation was obtained between the percentage of cells with nuclear foci and content (p = 0.003)and status (p = 0.002)of R E in the total cases studied. No correlation was found between the percentage of cells with nuclear foci and the contents of R P (p = 0.996), activated Ak t fraction (p = 0.753), age (p = 0.695)and lymph node involvement (p = 0.730). Conclusions. BRCA1 is a cytoplasmic and nuclear protein in normal and tumor breast tissue, and the latter has a higher percentage of BRCA1 nuclear foci, possibly in response to increase genetic aberrations characteristic of malignant cells. the association found between the nuclear localization of BRCA1 and R E content level could be explained tumor up regulation by R E on DNA repair mediated by BRCA1. Considering these results, it seems useful to conduct a study with a larger population and elucidate the mechanisms involved in intracellular trafficking of BRCA1 in breast cancer esporádico.Expresión and location of the BRCA1 -1 protein by immunofluorescence technique in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> breast cancer</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3516034&rendertype=abstract"> <span id="translatedtitle">Molecular epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae causing outbreaks & <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> cholera in northern India</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background & objectives: Several outbreaks of cholera have been reported in Chandigarh region during a span of seven years from 2002-2008. The genetic characteristics of Vibrio cholerae isolates obtained during these outbreaks have not been adequately studied. The aim of this study was to do molecular typing of V. cholerae isolated from the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> and outbreak cases by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), Rep-PCR and ribotyping. Methods: Fifty representative isolates of V. cholerae from outbreak as well as <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> cases were subjected to molecular typing by PFGE, 173 isolates (163 clinical and 10 environmental) were typed by rep-PCR and ribotyping. Ribotyping was done by determination of rRNA restriction pattern of BglI restriction digestion and hybridization with 7.2 kb rRNA probe of pKK3535 plasmid using DIG DNA labelling and detection kit. Universal VC1 primer was used for rep-PCR. Results: PFGE generated 15 pulsotypes, of which four matched the published pulsotypes and there were 11 new pulsotypes. PFGE was the most discriminatory method that could differentiate between isolates belonging to single ribotype. Pulsotype P1 corresponding to known pulsotype H1 was the major pulsotype till 2003. Pulsotype P3 corresponding to known pulsotype L emerged in 2004. The 2007 outbreaks in Punjab and Haryana were caused by P5 though P1 and P3 were isolated from the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> cases from the same region. The 2008 outbreak was caused by pulsotypes P6 and P7. Ribotype IV was the most predominant followed by RIII. This ribotype was not isolated after 2003 and ribotype IV became the most predominant 2004 onwards. Of the two unknown ribotypes (UNI and UN2), UNI was more common (27 isolates). Rep-PCR was the least discriminatory and divided all clinical isolates into four major profiles. The dendrogram analysis of PFGE revealed similarity of some clinical isolates with environmental isolates indicating the genetic relatedness. Interpretation & conclusion: Our findings showed that Rep-PCR was least discriminatory method. Ribotyping was a reliable and reproducible method. Ribotype IV was predominant ribotype followed by RIII. A total of 15 pulsotypes were generated and 11 of these were not reported earlier. Genetic relatedness was shown by clinical and environmental isolates which needs to be confirmed in future studies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Taneja, Neelam; Sangar, Garima; Chowdhury, Goutam; Ramamurthy, T.; Mishra, Arti; Singh, Meenakshi; Sharma, Meera</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://docsdrive.com/pdfs/ansinet/jms/2008/310-315.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Genetic Characterization of Giardia intestinalis Strains from Patients Having <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Giardiasis by Using PCR Assay</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available In this study, 325 stool samples from <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> cases giardiasis were examined by conventional techniques for parasite diagnosis. A simple and rapid procedure for the extraction of DNA from fecal samples was developed. Triose phosphate isomerase (tim based PCR assay was applied for definitive identification and genetic characterization of Giardia intestinalis strains collected from Tabriz Reference Laboratory and pediatric Hospital in Tabriz. Among 34 DNA samples extracted, the tim gene was amplified from 31 (91.1%. Of these, 13 (41.9% samples contained assemblage B, 17 (54.8% contained assemblage A and one (3.2% contained a mixture of assemblage A and assemblage B. Of these, three samples (8.8% were negative. The results indicated that PCR technique provides an applicable and feasible method for detection and identification of Giardia cysts in stool samples. The results of furthermore, demonstrated that Giardia intestinalis assemblage A and B exist in East Azerbaijan province of Iran.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Esmaeel Fallah</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4031972&rendertype=abstract"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> case of unilateral acrokeratoelastoidosis in Saudi Arabia: a case report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction Acrokeratoelastoidosis is a rare condition characterized by bilateral multiple hyperkeratotic papules on the palms, soles, and dorsum of the hands and feet. To the best of our knowledge, only around 40 cases of acrokeratoelastoidosis have been reported worldwide, which are mostly familial. Case presentation We report the first case from Saudi Arabia in a 5-year-old Saudi girl of Arabian origin, who presented symptoms of acrokeratoelastoidosis with unilateral <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> keratosis on her left hand and left foot. We also review the clinical and histopathologic features, etiology, differential diagnosis and its treatment. Conclusions Given the rarity of acrokeratoelastoidosis, little is known about the disease. Further studies are required to understand the pathogenesis of the disease for better treatment options. Additional case reports of acrokeratoelastoidosis will help in recognizing risk factors, patient characteristics, environmental influences and possibly new etiological factors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRA..11512318K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Horizontal structure of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer observed with a rocket-borne magnesium ion imager</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To study the spatial structure of midlatitude <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E (Es) layers, the ultraviolet resonant scattering by magnesium ions (Mg+) in an Es layer was observed during the evening twilight with the Magnesium Ion Imager (MII) on the sounding rocket launched from the Uchinoura Space Center in Kagoshima, Japan. The in situ electron density measured by an onboard impedance probe showed that the Es layer was located at an altitude of 100 km during both the ascent and descent of the flight. Simultaneous observation with a ground-based ionosonde at Yamagawa identified the signature of horizontally "patchy" structures in the Es layer. The MII successfully scanned the horizontal Mg+ density perturbations in the Es layer and found that they had patchy and frontal structures. The horizontal scale and alignment of the observed frontal structure is generally consistent with a proposed theory. To our knowledge, this is the first observation of the two-dimensional horizontal structure of Mg+ in an Es layer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kurihara, J.; Koizumi-Kurihara, Y.; Iwagami, N.; Suzuki, T.; Kumamoto, A.; Ono, T.; Nakamura, M.; Ishii, M.; Matsuoka, A.; Ishisaka, K.; Abe, T.; Nozawa, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:16053671"> <span id="translatedtitle">Studies of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E (Es) associated with the main ionospheric trough</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> E, or E(s) events under the main F region trough have been confirmed on the basis of ionograms from a vertical incidence ionosonde at Halley Bay, Antarctica. Analyses indicate that E(s) is frequently observable under both the equatorward and the poleward edges of the trough, as well as poleward of it. Before magnetic midnight, E(s) layers whose semithickness resembles those of the normal E layer are common, in contrast to layers seen after magnetic midnight which show the characteristics of thin E(s) layers. A possible explanation of the observed change in the E(s) layer characteristics at magnetic midnight is related to differences in the type and spectra of the precipitating particles. It is shown that the redistribution of ionization by the convection electric field may be important. 40 references</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770062893&hterms=sporadic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2522sporadic%2Be%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Metal ions and isotopes in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E-layers during the Perseid meteor shower</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The electron density and positive-ion composition above Wallops Island were measured on August 12, 1976, about 12 hours after the maximum of the Perseid shower. At launch time, 4.5 MHz was recorded for fbEs, corresponding to an electron density of 2.4 x 10 to the 5th power per cu cm. Electron profile and ion composition measurements confirmed the presence of a <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E-layer with two maxima at 101.3 and 105.4 km. The electron density was measured with a pair of boom-mounted probes at fixed potential. The positive ion composition above 77 km was measured with a magnetic mass spectrometer employing a liquid He cryopump. Some of the salient results of the (still incomplete) analysis are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Herrmann, U.; Eberhardt, P.; Hidalgo, M. A.; Kopp, E.; Smith, L. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=6587285"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spectral characteristics of different types of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E-layers and its low-frequency spectra</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An analysis is presented of the spectral structure of f0Es variations and of the coherence of frequency parameters for the semitransparent and screening types of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>-E-layers. It is shown that turbulence plays an important role in the formation of the semitransparent type of layer, and that this type of layer is therefore an indicator of turbulence processes at heights of about 100 km. An analysis of the spectrum of the dynamic structure of the turbopause at periods from 6 min to 4 hours shows that this spectrum is discrete, and that the mean values of the period of its characteristic maxima are 10, 42, 72, and 160 min. The occurrence of a second spectral maximum and the decorrelation of frequency parameters for the semitransparent layer indicate that this type of layer provides information about the turbulence state of the turbopause.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Karadzhaev, Iu.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=6590675"> <span id="translatedtitle">Studies of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E (Es) associated with the main ionospheric trough</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> E, or E(s) events under the main F region trough have been confirmed on the basis of ionograms from a vertical incidence ionosonde at Halley Bay, Antarctica. Analyses indicate that E(s) is frequently observable under both the equatorward and the poleward edges of the trough, as well as poleward of it. Before magnetic midnight, E(s) layers whose semithickness resembles those of the normal E layer are common, in contrast to layers seen after magnetic midnight which show the characteristics of thin E(s) layers. A possible explanation of the observed change in the E(s) layer characteristics at magnetic midnight is related to differences in the type and spectra of the precipitating particles. It is shown that the redistribution of ionization by the convection electric field may be important. 40 references.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rodger, A.S.; Morrell, C.; Dudeney, J.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/full/v14/i1/90.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Are there tumor suppressor genes on chromosome 4p in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> colorectal carcinoma?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available AIM: To study the candidate tumor suppressor genes (TSG on chromosome 4p by detecting the high frequency of loss of heterozygosity (LOH in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> colorectal carcinoma in Chinese patients.METHODS: Seven fluorescent labeled polymorphic microsatellite markers were analyzed in 83 cases of colorectal carcinoma and matched normal tissue DNA by PCR. PCR products were eletrophoresed on an ABI 377 DNA sequencer. Genescan 3.7 and Genotype 3.7 software were used for LOH scanning and analysis. The same procedure was performed by the other six microsatellite markers spanning D4S3013 locus to make further detailed deletion mapping. Comparison between LOH frequency and clinicopathological factors was performed by ?2 test.RESULTS: Data were collected from all informative loci. The average LOH frequency on 4p was 24.25%, and 42.3% and 35.62% on D4S405 and D4S3013 locus, respectively. Adjacent markers of D4S3013 displayed a low LOH frequency (< 30% by detailed deletion mapping. Significant opposite difference was observed between LOH frequency and tumor diameter on D4S412 and D4S1546 locus (0% vs 16.67%, P = 0.041; 54.55% vs 11.11%, P = 0.034, respectively. On D4S403 locus, LOH was significantly associated with tumor gross pattern (11.11%, 0, 33.33%, P = 0.030. No relationship was detected on other loci compared with clinicopathological features.CONCLUSION: By deletion mapping, two obvious high frequency LOH regions spanning D4S3013 (4p15.2 and D4S405 (4p14 locus are detected. Candidate TSG, which is involved in carcinogenesis and progression of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> colorectal carcinoma on chromosome 4p, may be located between D4S3017 and D4S2933 (about 1.7 cm.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hai-Tao Zheng, Li-Xin Jiang, Zhong-Chuan Lv, Da-Peng Li, Chong-Zhi Zhou, Jian-Jun Gao, Lin He, Zhi-Hai Peng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22371259"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> congenital nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism caused by P639S mutation in thyrotropin receptor gene.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Germline mutations of thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) gene determining a constitutive activation of the receptor were identified as a molecular cause of familial or <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> congenital nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism (OMIM: 609152) (Nat Genet 7:396-401, 1994; N Engl J Med 332:150-154, 1995; Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 100:512-518, 1982). We report the case of an Italian child subjected to the first clinical investigation at 24 months for an increased growth velocity; biochemical investigation showed high FT4 and FT3 serum values and undetectable thyrotropin in the absence of anti-thyroid antibodies; the thyroid gland was normal at ultrasound examination. Treatment with methimazole was started at the age of 30 months when her growth velocity was high and the bone age was advanced. DNA was extracted from her parents', brother's, and the patient's blood. Exons 9 and 10 of the TSHR gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and subjected to direct sequencing. In proband, a heterozygous substitution of cytosine to thymine determining a proline to serine change at position 639 (P639S) of the TSHR was detected while the parents and brothers of the propositus, all euthyroid, showed only the wild-type sequence of the TSHR gene. This mutation was previously described as somatic in patients affected by hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules and as germline in a single Chinese family affected by thyrotoxicosis and mitral valve prolapse. This constitutively activating mutation is able to activate both the cyclic AMP and the inositol phosphate metabolic pathways when expressed in a heterologous system. In conclusion, we describe the first case of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> congenital nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism caused by de novo germinal P639S mutation of TSHR. PMID:22371259</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Agretti, Patrizia; De Marco, Giuseppina; Biagioni, Martina; Iannilli, Antonio; Marigliano, Marco; Pinchera, Aldo; Vitti, Paolo; Cherubini, Valentino; Tonacchera, Massimo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperDownload.aspx?DOI=10.4236/oju.2012.22008"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clinico-Pathological Characterization of Hereditary, Familial and <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> Prostate Cancer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Aim: To characterize familial prostate cancer including hereditary prostate cancer and assess the disease-free survival following radical prostatectomy. Methods: A self-administered written questionnaire was forwarded to 709 prostatectomized patients from the Aarhus Prostate Cancer Study containing questions about cases of prostate cancer (PC, age at diagnosis, vital status, and age at death for all first-degree relatives. Patients were then divided into groups according to their family history: hereditary prostate cancer (HPC, familial prostate cancer (FPC, and <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> prostate cancer (SPC groups. The information from a subset of both FPC (n = 17 and SPC (n = 17 groups were validated in the Danish Cancer Register and the Civil Registration System. Between groups, we described the association of age, prostatespecific antigen (PSA, postoperative Gleason score and T Stage. A Kaplan-Meier curve demonstrated postoperative disease-free survival in each group. Results: The response rate was 81% (574/709. About 21% of the patients were categorized in the FPC group, of which 7% were identified as having HPC. The median follow-up time was 63 months for HPC, 65 months for FPC and 88 months for SPC. Overall, there was no significant difference between groups in clinical features and disease-free survival except that patients with HPC were significantly associated with younger age than <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> cases (p = 0.02. The proportion of self-reported PC diagnoses confirmed in the cancer register was 27.8%. The index persons with SPC reported no PC in first-degree relatives and none was found the cancer register. Conclusion: Overall, we found no difference in clinical characteristics and survival, following radical prostatectomy except that patients with HPC were younger at diagnosis. These results are in line with previously reported data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael Borre</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-84842008000400021"> <span id="translatedtitle">Síndrome hemolítico-urêmica esporádica pós-parto <span class="hlt">Sporadic</span> postpartum hemolytic uremic syndrome</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Anemia hemolítica microangiopática associado à trombocitopenia participa de um grupo de doenças que freqüentemente apresentam suas características clínicas muito semelhantes, sendo difícil distingui-las. A síndrome hemolítico-urêmica é dividida em duas apresentações: a forma não esporádica, que acomete comumente crianças após infecção bacteriana causando diarréia sanguinolenta, possui bom prognóstico; e a forma esporádica, que acomete adultos, sendo bem descritos casos em mulheres pósparto, é a forma sistêmica de trombocitopenia microangiopática de pior prognóstico com alta morbidade e mortalidade, cuja falência renal é o distúrbio predominante. Relatamos um caso de síndrome hemolítico-urêmica pós-parto em paciente previamente sadia, que apresentou quadro de insuficiência renal, anemia hemolítica e trombocitopenia. Instituída a terapêutica de suporte adequada e precocemente, a paciente evoluiu satisfatoriamente com normalização dos níveis pressóricos e recuperação da função renal.Microangiopathic hemolytic associated with thrombocytopenia is part of a disease group that frequently show likeness and that's why become difficult to separate them. There are two types of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS; the non <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> type and the epidemic or "typical" type that is common on childreen that is associated with diarrhea and infection caused by verotoxinaproducing E. coli with a good prognostic; and the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> postpartum period. It is the systemic type of mocroangiophatic thrombocytopenia of poor prognostic with high morbidity and mortality which renal failure is the main disturb. We reported a case of HUS occuring in postpartum previously healthy, that showed abrupt renal failure, hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. After proper therapy the patient developed a normal blood pressure and recovery renal function.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Elza M. Moreira</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22717173"> <span id="translatedtitle">Risk factors associated with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> salmonellosis in adults: a case-control study.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to identify and assess recent risk factors for <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> human infections with Salmonella enterica, we conducted a case-control study in Lower Saxony, Germany. The data collection was based on standardized telephone interviews with 1017 cases and 346 controls aged >14 years. Odds ratios were calculated in single-factor and multi-factor analyses for Salmonella cases and two different control groups, i.e. population controls and controls with rotavirus infection. Multi-factor analysis revealed associations between <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Salmonella infections for two exposures by both sets of controls: consumption of raw ground pork [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2·38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·27-4·44] and foreign travel (aOR 2·12, 95% CI 1·00-4·52). Other exposures included consumption of food items containing eggs (aOR 1·43, 95% CI 0·80-2·54), consumption of chicken meat (aOR 1·77, 95% CI 1·26-2·50), outdoor meals/barbecues (aOR 3·96, 95% CI 1·41-11·12) and taking gastric acidity inhibitors (aOR 2·42, 95% CI 1·19-4·92), all were significantly associated with respect to one of the two control groups. The impact of consuming food items containing eggs or chicken meat was lower than expected from the literature. This might be a consequence of Salmonella control programmes as well as increased public awareness of eggs and chicken products being a risk factor for salmonellosis. Efforts to reduce Salmonella infections due to raw pork products should be intensified. PMID:22717173</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ziehm, D; Dreesman, J; Campe, A; Kreienbrock, L; Pulz, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16175355"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neuropathologic characteristics of spinal cord lesions in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated the neuropathologic features of spinal cord lesions in 23 patients with <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), paying particular attention to neuronal loss and gliosis, pyramidal tract degeneration and prion protein (PrP) deposition. The study included 9 cases of subacute spongiform encephalopathy, 13 cases of panencephalopathic-type sCJD and 1 case of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> fatal insomnia (sFI). In the spinal gray matter, although gliosis was present in some patients with disease of relatively long duration, the number of neurons, including large motor neurons, was well preserved regardless of disease duration. Pyramidal tract degeneration was observed in some patients with disease lasting more than 14 months but not in the patient with sFI. PrP deposition was present in the spinal cord of all sCJD patients, and was identified predominantly in the posterior horn, particularly in the substantia gelatinosa, regardless of disease duration or disease classification based on cerebral pathology. Relatively prominent PrP deposition was also observed in Clarke's column. The density of PrP deposition in the sCJD spinal cord was not associated with disease duration or neuronal degeneration. Our results indicate that PrP deposition in the spinal cord is an early pathologic event in sCJD and may remain to the end stage. Although no VV1, VV2 or MV2 cases were included in our study, we suggest that stereotypic accumulation of PrP is a consistent pathologic feature of sCJD and that the spinal cord remains relatively resistant to the pathologic process of sCJD, at least in patients with MM1 sCJD. PMID:16175355</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Iwasaki, Yasushi; Yoshida, Mari; Hashizume, Yoshio; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Sobue, Gen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JASTP..90..172M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of wave-like oscillations in parameters of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer and neutral atmosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present study mainly concerns the wave-like activity in the ionospheric <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer (Es) and in the lower lying stratosphere. The proposed analysis involves parameters describing the state of plasma in the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer. Critical frequencies foEs and layer heights hEs were measured at the Pruhonice station (50°N, 14.5°E) during summer campaigns 2004, 2006 and 2008. Further, we use neutral atmosphere (temperature data at 10 hPa) data from the same time interval. The analysis concentrates on vertically propagating wave-like structures within distant atmospheric regions. By means of continuous wavelet transform (CWT) we have detected significant wave-like oscillation at periods covering tidal and planetary oscillation domains both in the Es layer parameters (some of them were reported earlier, for instance in works of Abdu et al., 2003; Pancheva and Mitchel, 2004; Pancheva et al., 2003; Šauli and Bourdillon, 2008) and in stratospheric temperature variations. Further analyses using cross wavelet transform (XWT) and wavelet coherence analysis (WTC) show that despite high wave-like activity in a wide period range, there are only limited coherent wave-like bursts present in both spectra. Such common coherent wave bursts occur on periods close to eigen-periods of the terrestrial atmosphere. We suppose that vertical coupling between atmospheric regions realized by vertically propagating planetary waves occurs predominantly on periods close to those of Rossby modes. Analysis of the phase shift between data from distant atmospheric regions reveals high variability and very likely supports the non-linear scenario of the vertical coupling provided by planetary waves.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mošna, Z.; Koucká Knížová, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2664150&rendertype=abstract"> <span id="translatedtitle">A two-stage genome-wide association study of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> amyotrophic lateral sclerosis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The cause of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is largely unknown, but genetic factors are thought to play a significant role in determining susceptibility to motor neuron degeneration. To identify genetic variants altering risk of ALS, we undertook a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS): we followed our initial GWAS of 545 066 SNPs in 553 individuals with ALS and 2338 controls by testing the 7600 most associated SNPs from the first stage in three independent cohorts consisting of 2160 cases and 3008 controls. None of the SNPs selected for replication exceeded the Bonferroni threshold for significance. The two most significantly associated SNPs, rs2708909 and rs2708851 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.17 and 1.18, and P-values = 6.98 × 10?7 and 1.16 × 10?6], were located on chromosome 7p13.3 within a 175 kb linkage disequilibrium block containing the SUNC1, HUS1 and C7orf57 genes. These associations did not achieve genome-wide significance in the original cohort and failed to replicate in an additional independent cohort of 989 US cases and 327 controls (OR = 1.18 and 1.19, P-values = 0.08 and 0.06, respectively). Thus, we chose to cautiously interpret our data as hypothesis-generating requiring additional confirmation, especially as all previously reported loci for ALS have failed to replicate successfully. Indeed, the three loci (FGGY, ITPR2 and DPP6) identified in previous GWAS of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS were not significantly associated with disease in our study. Our findings suggest that ALS is more genetically and clinically heterogeneous than previously recognized. Genotype data from our study have been made available online to facilitate such future endeavors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chio, Adriano; Schymick, Jennifer C.; Restagno, Gabriella; Scholz, Sonja W.; Lombardo, Federica; Lai, Shiao-Lin; Mora, Gabriele; Fung, Hon-Chung; Britton, Angela; Arepalli, Sampath; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Nalls, Michael; Berger, Stephen; Kwee, Lydia Coulter; Oddone, Eugene Z.; Ding, Jinhui; Crews, Cynthia; Rafferty, Ian; Washecka, Nicole; Hernandez, Dena; Ferrucci, Luigi; Bandinelli, Stefania; Guralnik, Jack; Macciardi, Fabio; Torri, Federica; Lupoli, Sara; Chanock, Stephen J.; Thomas, Gilles; Hunter, David J.; Gieger, Christian; Wichmann, H. Erich; Calvo, Andrea; Mutani, Roberto; Battistini, Stefania; Giannini, Fabio; Caponnetto, Claudia; Mancardi, Giovanni Luigi; La Bella, Vincenzo; Valentino, Francesca; Monsurro, Maria Rosaria; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Marinou, Kalliopi; Sabatelli, Mario; Conte, Amelia; Mandrioli, Jessica; Sola, Patrizia; Salvi, Fabrizio; Bartolomei, Ilaria; Siciliano, Gabriele; Carlesi, Cecilia; Orrell, Richard W.; Talbot, Kevin; Simmons, Zachary; Connor, James; Pioro, Erik P.; Dunkley, Travis; Stephan, Dietrich A.; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Fisher, Elizabeth M.; Jabonka, Sibylle; Sendtner, Michael; Beck, Marcus; Bruijn, Lucie; Rothstein, Jeffrey; Schmidt, Silke; Singleton, Andrew; Hardy, John; Traynor, Bryan J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="sporadic error-increasing effects" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> </div><!-- page_20 div --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="sporadic error-increasing effects" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/index.php?option=com_openaire&view=article&Itemid=114&articleId=od_______908::b1d2321e59cbf71bb7d06fbcd5c34f5e"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microsatellite instability and mutational analysis of transforming growth factor ? receptor type II gene (TGFBR2) in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ovarian cancer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aims—To investigate the possible role of mutations in the transforming growth factor ? receptor type II gene (TGFBRII) in ovarian cancer and its relation to microsatellite instability (MSI), 43 <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ovarian tumours were analysed for mutations over the entire coding region of the TGFBRII gene.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alvi, A. J.; Rader, J. S.; Broggini, M.; Latif, F.; Maher, E. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:28061170"> <span id="translatedtitle">Height-time variations of the <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer in the eastern Siberia at solar activity decay phase</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Per month tabulated data of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> E layer of ionosphere (Es) over 1980-1985 year period were analyzed. Intra-month day and intra-year variations of probability of P(Es) layer occurrence at each height are described satisfactorily by the sum of harmonics. 4 refs., 4 figs</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=133600"> <span id="translatedtitle">Germline mutations in the VHL tumor suppresssor gene are similar to somatic VHL aberrations in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> renal cell carcinoma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A candidate gene for von Hippel Lindau disease was recently identified that led to the isolation of a partial cDNA clone with extended open reading frame without significant homology to known genes or obvious functional motifs, except for an acidic pentamer repeat domain. To further characterize the functional domains of the VHL gene and assess its involvement in hereditary and non-hereditary tumors, we performed mutation analyses and studied its expresssion in normal and tumor tissue. We identified germline mutations in 39% of VHL disease families. Moreover, 33% of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> RCCs, and all (6/6) <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> RCC cell lines analyzed, showed mutations within the VHL gene. Both germline and somatic mutations included deletions, insertions, splice site mutations, missense and nonsense mutations, all of which clustered at the 3{prime} end of the corresponding partial VHL cDNA open reading frame including an alternatively-spliced exon of 123 nucleotides in length, suggesting functionally important domains encoded by the VHL gene in this region. Over 180 <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> tumors of other types have shown no detectable base changes within the presumed coding sequence of the VHL gene to date. We conclude that the gene causing VHL has an important and specific role in the etiology of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> renal cell carcinomas, acts as a recessive tumor suppressor gene, and appears to encode important functional domains within the 3{prime} end of the known open reading frame.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Whaley, J.M.; Naglich, J.; Gelbert, L. [Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Princeton, NJ (United States)] [and others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/10.3389/fnmol.2011.00033/full"> <span id="translatedtitle">When does ALS start? ADAR2-GluA2 hypothesis for the etiology of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is the most common adult-onset motor neuron disease. More than 90% of ALS cases are <span class="hlt">sporadic</span>, and the majority of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS patients do not carry mutations in genes causative of familial ALS; therefore, investigation specifically targeting <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS is needed to discover the pathogenesis. The motor neurons of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS patients express unedited GluA2 mRNA at the Q/R site in a disease-specific and motor neuron-selective manner. GluA2 is a subunit of the AMPA receptor, and it has a regulatory role in the Ca2+-permeability of the AMPA receptor after the genomic Q codon is replaced with the R codon in mRNA by adenosine-inosine conversion, which is mediated by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2. Therefore, ADAR2 activity may not be sufficient to edit all GluA2 mRNA expressed in the motor neurons of ALS patients. To investigate whether deficient ADAR2 activity plays pathogenic roles in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS, we generated genetically modified mice (AR2 in which the ADAR2 gene was conditionally knocked out in the motor neurons. AR2 mice showed an ALS-like phenotype with the death of ADAR2-lacking motor neurons. Notably, the motor neurons deficient in ADAR2 survived when they expressed only edited GluA2 in AR2/GluR-BR/R (AR2res mice, in which the endogenous GluA2 alleles were replaced by the GluR-BR allele that encoded edited GluA2. In heterozygous AR2 mice with only one ADAR2 allele, approximately 20% of the spinal motor neurons expressed unedited GluA2 and underwent degeneration, indicating that half-normal ADAR2 activity is not sufficient to edit all GluA2 expressed in motor neurons. It is likely therefore that the expression of unedited GluA2 causes the death of motor neurons in <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS. We hypothesize that a progressive downregulation of ADAR2 activity plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of <span class="hlt">sporadic</span> ALS and that the pathological process commences when motor neurons express unedited GluA2.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">TakutoHideyama</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <